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Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Watermelons in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003045/00001
 Material Information
Title: Watermelons in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 37 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Parris, G. K ( George Keith ), 1908-
Haynie, John D
University of Florida -- College of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1950
 Subjects
Subject: Watermelons -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 37).
General Note: "August, 1950".
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "Prepared and published in co-operation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00003045
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3498
oclc - 44529562
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Table I. Florida watermelons crop value 1942-49
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
Full Text


Bulletin No. 10


WATERMELONS


IN FLORIDA


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
TALLAHASSEE

'Prcpared and Published in Co-operation with the College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville.
X. i.::...:. ..:r.. ...


ft .- . . . .......... .... .. ... .... I .- i


New Series


Augu'st, 1950








TABLE OF




8
9
10
12
14


CONTENTS


Loading

Marketing
Effect of Honey Bees on
Set of Melons
Control of Mice
Summary


Soils
Fertilizer
Varieties
Planting
Cultivation
Diseases


FRUIT

Definition for Fruit:

"In its widest sense any product of plant growth
useful to man or animals...

"The tomato, melon and rhubarb are variously
regarded."

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

There are fruits of trees, shrubs, vines and
vegetables.

Root crops, such as turnips and peanuts are
classed as the roots of herbs.





Table 1


FLORIDA WATERMELONS
CROP VALUE 1942-49


z I I II1 OS 11 | L , ""


- huB 111111. 111111111 111111 111111 111111e
N I


1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949

Source: Florida State Marketing Bureau, Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report,
19.18-49 Season.






Watermelons in Florida


Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, Gainesville.



D UING the past 10 years the watermelon acreage in the
United States has averaged about 249,668 acres per year.
The largest was in 1946 when 316,3S0 acres were planted,
while the smallest acreage was in 194:3 with 142.600.
Of this figure. the State of Florida varied from as little as
12.5(X) acres in the spring of 19.43 to 59,000 in the spring of 1949,
with a ten year average of :34,600. On the average this is equal
to about 14% of the total watermelon acreage throughout the
United States.
Preliminary U. S. Department of Agriculture figures for 1950
season indicate Florida leading the nation in watermelon pro-
duction with 14.640.000 melons on 61.000 acres.
Watermelons are grown commercially in nearly every county
with the hulk centering, however, in a comparatively small
number of them. The planting dates will vary in different sec-
tions. with the southern-most counties starting first. This means
that the melons are not all ready for the market at the same
time. Melons from extreme southern Florida generally go to
market in May although some may be ready to ship in April.
Melons from the central part of the State go to market ten days
to two weeks later than those from southern Florida, and those
from North Florida follow the Central Florida melons by a week
or so.
To put it another way, Florida's watermelon crop in the
1948-49 season was about 13,700 carlots. The height of the ship-
ping season was during June when 60%' of the melons moved
to market. Thirty-eight percent of the crop was moved in May,
with only about 1"i moving in April and Y1 in July.






Table II

ACREAGE OF WATERMELONS, COMMERCIAL CROP BY STATES AND SECTIONS


State and Section
1, Southwestern Slates
Arizona .
California
Total, Sec. I
2. Southern Stats
Albanma
Arkansas
Florida
Georgia
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahonla ....
South Carolina
Texas ....
Virginia ..........
Total, Sec. 2
3. Nortl Central Stats
Illinois
Indiana ..............
M issouri ......
Iowa ...
Total, Sec, 3
4, Miscellaneous Stats
Grand Total


Average Percent o
1945 19116 1947 19148 1919 1945-49 Total


2,2)00
..... 10,800
...... 13,000

..... 6,900
......... 3,000
................ 9,000
................ 43,000
...... .......... 3,800
.............. 5,600
................... 4,500
.. ............. 9,500
.......... ............ 10,5(00
................ ...... 26,000
... ......... 75,000
......... 1,800
................... 228,600

... . .... 3,500
. ............. 6,400
............. 4,00
................... 500
.......... 15,200)
... ............... 6,080(
.. ........................ 262,880


4,000 3,500(
16,900 15,100
20,W00 18,600

7,900 6,700
4,000 4,000
47,000 47,00(1
56,000 56,000
4,100 8,100
5,300 5,000
4,500 3,600
11,000 9,900
13,000 11,000
32,000 80,000
85,000 74,000
1,500 1,050
271,800 251,850

3,500 3,100
7,401 7200
6,700 4,700
550 520
18,150 15,520
6,080 5,900
316,380 291,370


4,400
15,700
20,11)0

6,400
4,10)(
45,00(1
40,000
2,500
4,9(00
3,200
10,000
18,000
22,000
65,000
850
216,950

2,700
6,800
8,800
440
13,740
4,700
255,490


3,81)1)
16,600)
20,400

6,9001
4,200
59,000
46,000
2,300
4,9500
4,200)
10,700(
14,000
28,000
64,000
1,300
245,500

2,700
5,800
3,00
500
12,200
4,605
282,750


35 0
15,020
1860(1

6,960
3,860
47,400
48,200
3,160
5,140
4,000
10,220
12,300
27,600
72,600
1,300
242,740

3,100
6,720
4,640
502
14,962
5,472
281,774


Source: U1 S, Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics,


5,13
6.6
>


16,8
17,1 Z



3.,6 !
4,6 ,
9,8
25,8

C
86.1 H





5,3
1.5
100.





\NVATEHRlEIONS IN FLORIDA


SOILS

Most of the watermelons in Florida are grown on high. sandy
soils. Watermelons require a soil that is well drained, as on
low. poorly drained land it is difficult to get a good stand due
to frost damage, greater possibility of disease. etc. A well
drained. sandy soil that will retain sufficient moisture to insure
the growth of the vines produces the best quality melons. Then.
too. sand\ soils warm up earlier in the spring. enabling the vines
to make a quicker growth. Melons thus mature earlier than
whlen planted on the low. moist soils that are more subject to
late spring frosts.

\atermelons asa a rule are inot grow(\n on the same piece of
land year after year. Experience has shown that it is best to
grow melons in a rotation. The rotation should he planned so
that watermelons will not be grow\\ o(n tlie same land more often
than l oce in sex e to ten years. (See section on crcp disease.)

In Central Florida watermelons are freqi'uen tly the first crop
grown onI new land that is to he Ised for citrus production
afterwards.

Table III

ACREAGE PRINCIPAL PRODUCING COUNTIES
Past Three Seasons

County 1946-47 1947-4S 1948-49

..\chua 5,1000 1700 5. 100
Gilchrist 5.80() (.200 -.10oo
Jetferson 3.200 2.400( 2.800
I ake 8500 6.200 6.500
Lecv 2.10(0 2.2(( 3.,650
Madison 1.I800 1,500 2,900
Marion 1,550 6 5(1() 6.800
Pasco 750( 1.200 1,85(
Sumiter 3 200 3 5(00 3; (00
SiIuannec . 3 011 2.100 5 '01

Source: Florida State Marketing Bureau, Annual Fruit a;d Vegetable
Report, 1948-49 Season.





8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

SOIL PREPARATION
The land is usually prepared six to eight weeks in advance
of the planting date so that the soil will be in the best condition
possible for planting. The land is plowed broadcast, just deep
enough to cover all grass and weeds that may be on the ground.
After the land is plowed, it should be harrowed thoroughly in
order to get a well pulverized, smooth surface for a good seed
bed. About ten days or two weeks before planting time, the
rows should be laid off and fertilizer applied. In fact it would
be advisable to lay the rows off both ways. This will be an
advantage at planting time.

FERTILIZER
Every successful watermelon grower in Florida is a firm
believer in liberal use of fertilizers for producing watermelons.
Production cost figures show an average of almost 20% of the
per acre cost going into fertilizers and side dressing. Growers
in different sections may not agree as to the amount of fertilizer
to use per acre, but this is natural because soils differ in various
sections of the State.
Neither have all growers agreed as to the best analysis of
the fertilizer. Practically all growers in the southern part of the
State now use a fertilizer analyzing four per cent nitrogen, seven
percent available phosphoric acid, and five percent potash, while
the melon growers in the northern and western parts of the
State use a fertilizer analyzing four percent ammonia, 8 percent
available phosphoric acid, and 4 percent potash. It is desirable
to have about 40% of the nitrogen from organic sources and
the rest from inorganic sources, while the source of potash
should be sulphate of potash. The amount of fertilizer applied
will vary from 500 to 1000 pounds per acre.
One half of the fertilizer is generally applied a week or ten
days before the seed are planted, and the other half is applied
when the vines begin to make runners. The fertilizer is applied
broadcast around where the seed are to be planted.
In a great many instances the melons are given side dress-





WVATEIRIMELONS IN FLORII)A


ings of nitrate of soda or some other quick-acting nitrogenous
fertilizer. These are usually applied at thinning time, when run-
ners are about two feet long, and when melons weigh 10-12
pounds.
VARIETIES
Many varieties of melon are grown in Florida. ,but a few
dominate the commercial field from \ear to \ear.
There are three major varieties beinii shipped mostly today-
the Congo. Black Diamond (Florida (;iant or Caunonl Ball) and
thle Garrison. Othcr popular varieties include the Tom Watson.
Dixie Queen. Blacklee and Duke (Creek.
The Conto is the first shipping \arietv to I.) resistant to thle
scourge of all watermelon planters, anthracnose. C(ongo is a
fine quality melon. with \erv red flesh, extraordinary tounh rind,
and whitish seed. A \ery prolific grower. it brought a premium
on the market over all other varieties in 1950. (Cono's rind is a
dark green color with irregular stripes. It is an elongated melon
and resembles the Garrison except is much darker and has more
rounded ends. It is a cross between ( garrison and an anthracnose
resistant \arietv brought into this country some 20 years ago
from the Belgian Conigo.
Black Diamond is and has been thle most popular watermelon
to be planted for several years. It is also known as Florida
(iant. Clara Lee. Texas (;iant. etc. It is a romnd to long rmund
dark green watermelon of reasonably good sugar content and
quality. Its seed are black, it ships well, is early and reasonably
prolific. At this time, although it is not resistant to any disease.
it is a very satisfactory variety for the shipping market.
Garrison is a e ry fine quality watermelon ranking with
Congo in fineness of flavor. It is well received on the Northern
markets and is popular with the trucking trade. It is a large.
long. light green watermelon with irregular black stripinmis:
reaches 60 pound size occasionally. This variety will probablY
be popular for several years vet. The variety has no resistance
to disease and has two glaring weaknesses; the rind is thin and





10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

tender, and it is affected by blossom end rot in the field. Probably
not more than 50% of the melons that set on the vines in the
field reach maturity.
The Tom Watson is an excellent shipping melon. It is a
very large, long cylindrical melon with thin, tough, elastic dark
green rind with fine veining of darker green. The flesh is dark
red, firm and moderately coarse grained. The seed are large
and brown in color.
Dixie Queen is a prolific variety used extensively in the
South as a good shipper. It has a striking appearance which
attracts consumers. Its rind is thin yet tough and is light green
with darker green stripes. The melon is round oval and square
ends. The flesh is bright red, tender, crisp, well flavored and
free from fibre. The seed are small and white.
The Blacklee is one of the most important varieties that is
resistant to Fusarium wilt. It is a good shipper and keeper, and
is outstanding popular with the local trucking trade. The fruits
are medium large, blocky and cylindrical. The rind is dark blue
green, thin and tough. The flesh is deep red, firm, fine grained,
tender and very sweet. This melon has medium size black seed.
The Duke Creek is popular for shipping and also for home
gardens in Florida. The fruit is large long, cylindrical and has
blunt ends. The rind is hard, thin, white with dark green irregular
stripes. The flesh is bright red, fine textured, with a fine sweet
flavor.

PLANTING DATES
In order to get the melons to market in May, June and July
it is necessary to make plantings in South Florida from January
15 to February 1; in Central Florida from January 20 to Feb-
ruary 15; and in North Florida from February 20 to March 15.
The dates of planting in any one section may vary from
one to two weeks. Most growers plant every ten days until
all frost danger is past to insure a uniform crop of an even
stand. When frost danger is past the plants are thinned in hills.
In protected areas where there is little or no danger from


















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12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

frost, plantings are made earlier than on the surrounding terri-
tory. If the grower is prepared to protect from frost by covering
with cups, boards or other devices, plantings may be made some-
what earlier than otherwise.

PLANTING DISTANCE
The planting distance varies, depending upon the type of
soil and other local conditions. Some planters prefer planting
in 12 foot rows, plants spaced eight feet apart in the row. Other
popular planting distances are 10 feet by 10 feet and eight feet
by 10 feet. On the fertile soils, it is generally advisable to plant
at the greater distances since the plants will produce very
prolific vines, while on poorer soils closer plantings may be
practiced.
PLANTING
The seeds are planted in hills, usually four to six seeds in
each hill. Two or more plantings are generally made each
spring. The first planting is made at the usual time, and then a
week or ten (lays later a second planting is made and so on.
The subsequent plantings are for the purpose of insuring an
early crop even though the first plantings are injured by frost.
They will thus he coming along and may miss the frost injury
so that the crop may be delayed only a few days.
Growers ordinarily purchase one pound of seed for each
acre of land to be planted to watermelons. This is more seed than
necessary for one planting, but when two or three plantings
are to be made-which is almost always advisable-one pound
of seed to the acre will not be too much.
After the plants have made a good start, they are thinned
to a stand of one or two plants in each hill.

CULTIVATION

The cultivation of the watermelon is quite simple; in fact,
it is very similar to that of other crops. Almost any implement
may be used that will destroy the weeds and grass. Care should


























''1
I -P
















Io ( I I UH l i
It4 r ii





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


be taken, however, that the cultivation be shallow and not close
enough to the plants to do any root-pruning.
When the vines begin to run, they must not be disturbed
by cultivation. Any cultivation done after the vines have begun
to run should be done between the rows and far enough away
from the vines so that they will not be disturbed.
It is always desirable to avoid working the vines when they
are wet in order to keep the spread of fungus diseases at a
minimum.

DISEASES AND INSECTS
It is impossible to give a correct estimate of the financial
loss due to watermelon diseases, but they are often an important
factor in determining the success or failure of the crop. Certain
of the diseases under conditions favorable for their development
may destroy the crop entirely, and few are the melon fields in
which one or more diseases of watermelons are not doing some
damage.
Anthracnose, the worst disease of melons in the United
States, is especially severe in Florida where it causes more loss
than all of the other diseases of watermelons combined. Seldom
a season passes without it being a controlling factor in produc-
tion, especially near the end of the season when high tempera-
tures and heavy rainfall make it difficult to control. Anthracnose
can cause defoliation of the plants which is a direct cause of
melons failing to mature. Infected melons may be refused by
inspectors at loading time or may rot while in transit.
The fungus can attack all parts of the watermelon above
ground in all stages of development, but usually is first noticed
on the oldest leaves that have attained some size. The leaves
show small black spots which may enlarge until the whole leaf
becomes black and shriveled. During periods of weather favor-
able to the disease, an entire field may show these blackened
leaves in a few days and is described by the growers as having
been "burned over."





WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA


The fungus is carried through the winter as spores on the
surface of melon seeds and other plants. Spores are easily
spread by wind, rain, cultural implements, animals and laborer.
They develop fastest in wet, warm weather.
SAthracnose is best controlled by pre-planting seed treat-
inent with semesan, spergon or arasan (0.3 by weight), by staying
out of melon fields while the foliage is wet with rain or dew,
and by timely application of a fungicide.


'lhe time of the first fungicide
To sa\e money and at the same time


application is IunIcertaiin.
protect nmelol vilnes from


M.1ONTICELLO-Putting melons into the field harcester.


defoliation and melon fruits from spotting. the plants should be
carefully watched and the fungicide applied as soon as the
disease makes its first appearance. Subsequent applications,
at seven to ten day intervals, may be needed. but their applica-
tion is determined lv the weather and by disease conditions in
the field.






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WATElRMELONS IN FLORIDA 17

In recent years several new fungicides have been placed
on the market, but there is no comprehensive information that
shows which onet is most effective for controlling w\aterimelon
diseases in Florida.
Almost equal in rank with anthracnose is dlowVn mildew. The
disease is usually not serious until after the middle of the grow'-
ing season. Tlh first symptom is the appearance of a slightly
yellowish spot )on the blade of thle leaf. Iw miihlew can
produce the same effect inl a tield of almost mature waterimelons
as can authracnose. except that it takes place ill late April or
early May.
This disease is ctntrollet d with tlhe s.ulie iiiaitri.tls re ion-
mI'ndt(ed to control ;anthraciost. latest iniftrmation c(;n l)e
obtained from the Florida Agricultural 'Axlperilent Station.
Stein-eind rot is anlotlher disease that has causetl (cosiderable
loss in tlie past. Howe cr, in Florida it is primarily a transporta-
tion problem. Melons loaded iln apparently health\ and sotind
condition have arrived at destination hleat ily d(ecav\edl-a; r-
agiing 10(. T'Ie disease can cause serious loss as itnslectitons at
destination ha\e slown as llih as -*(Y' steinm-rot. In e\er\ iin-
stance where more than 1 -12'-; slowed lup. stems had not been
treated.
The disease can le controlled \\ith little difficult\ y by proper
clipping and disinftectiiig off tlhe stems of the harvested Imtelous.
First. the melons should lie handled with great care from start
to finish. Then the stem should be clipped close to the tmeloni
at time of loading and the Ireshl clipped area treated with a
copper sulfate paste at timet of loading,. Improper Isa;l e of
proen,, methods and materials is all too often tilhe cause of
uinnlecessary losses from this disease.
luisarium wilt is a serious soil-bor ne disease of w\at'erimelonls.
It cannot be controlled ill the field. The best \\wa\ to aoid losses
froin fusariml wilt is to plant wilt resistant varieties ont land
that has been out of melons for two or three years. A number
of wilt-resistant \arieties ar.e I ineit dtel\cselod blit iha e not





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


generally been accepted by Florida growers. Commercial
growers have little loss from this wilt, as their rotation policies
control it.
In the absence of desirable wilt-resistant varieties, an eight
to ten year interval between watermelon crops is a necessary
rotation; even so, wilt may be serious enough to reduce yields,
and a 15 year rotation would be less risky.
The principal insect that attacks melons is the melon aphid.
This insect can be controlled by the use of any one of several
aphicides which are compatible with most fungicides and may
be applied as sprays or dusts. Directions of the manufacturers
should be followed when using aphicides.
The watermelon is also subject to weather conditions which
often result in conditions which are mistaken for disease. During
the early part of the season, the young plants are often exposed
to temperatures below optimum for growth and development
of the crop. When not killed outright, the plants turn yellow
and this leads to a disease confusion. Strong winds, particularly
in March, often tear and whip leaves severely, leaving them
more susceptible to fungi. The most serious type of wind injury
is by whipping off blossoms and young melons.

LOADING
Melons should be handled at all times to avoid abrasions,
bruises, cuts and cracks as any blemish opens the way for
organisms causing rot in transit.
In loading into rail cars or trucks, they should be swept
out, cleaned and all trash and rubbish removed. Particular
care should be taken to see that the floor is not covered with
commercial fertilizer.
After the car has been thoroughly cleaned, it should be well
bedded with excelsior. It has been found from experience that
excelsior is one of the cheapest and most satisfactory materials
for bedding melon cars. About a six-inch covering of excelsior


18












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iirjirili \iriia'iiir lkrirl aln a'hi(ir i I a iwi /ali~fi irr~ir r~ rpa tI / iCriiI





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


on the floor is best. The sides and ends of the car as high up
as the melons are stacked should be lined with building paper.
In loading, it is necessary to place the melons so that they
will lie even and pack close together. When packed loose in a
car or truck, the movement in transit will cause the melons to
shuffle about and get bruised or broken. This will mean a heavy
loss when they reach the market.
Melons are graded according to size. The usual sizes are
24, 28, 32, and 36 pound melons. The majority of the melons
shipped are 28 to 32 pounds, this size loading 1000 melons to
the carload. Thirty-four to 36 pound melons load from 900 to
950 to the carload, when shipped in four tiers.
MARKETING
The Florida watermelon is marketed by several routes. In
many cases the melons are sold f.o.b. the railroad track to local
buyers who are generally on hand for that purpose. There are
also local melon growers' associations to handle the marketing
of the crop, while a few growers prefer to consign their ship-
ments to brokers or receivers at the central markets. In recent
years the practice of selling melons to truckers who in turn
dispose of them in a number of ways has grown so that now a
good portion of the crop goes out by truck. Still other growers
follow the practice of raising watermelons under contract, with
the contractor furnishing the seed and fertilizer.
Another phase of watermelon activity is that of raising
melons for seed purposes. Some farmers let areas over-ripen
and save their own seed which they either use themselves or sell
to other farmers. Most seed, however, are purchased from
nursery and seed growing companies, whose more scientific and
systematic operations make their seed far more satisfactory than
those saved by the farmer.
Throughout the United States about a million pounds of
watermelon seed are grown per year with a retail price averaging
about $2.50 a pound-making it a two and a half million dollar
industry. Florida is the largest producer, turning out about
600,000 pounds a year.





WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA 21


The Florida seed producers have developed their own har-
vesting equipment in cooperation with the Engineering & Indus-
trial Experiment Station at the University of Florida. Harvesters
used by several of the larger producers are capable of harvesting
from 20 to 30 acres of melons a day for seed purposes.
One of the major techniques used particularly by the
nurserymen to obtain clear strains of melon seed is that of
rogueing-a term used for the practice of doing away with
undesirable vines or melon types as they develop in the field
and before they can contaminate the strain.
Watermelon seed fields should be rogued from the time the
fourth leaf appears. In all the Southeast, there are volunteer
citrons and these must he rogued out by hand when they show
up volunteer in the seed row. It takes an experienced crew to
recognize the citron vine with only three or four leaves on it.
Nevertheless, rogueing of citron plants must be done before the
citron blooms or the labor of rogueing will be lost, for the
mixture will already have occurred.
Since citron and watermelon cross very readily and to the
complete detriment of the watermelon variety, this rogueing for
citron plants is of utmost importance.
Then, as the watermelon crop sets, it is necessary, if quality
seed are produced, to rogue the fields at least twice for off types
and off shape as well as off color melons.






22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Table IV

COMPARISON OF SELECTED FLORIDA PRODUCE

Four Year Period




Carlot Shipments

Product 1948-49 1947-48 1946-47 1945-46

Watermelons -- 13,752 12,750 11,241 10,008
Beans and Limas --- 9,773 7,663 7,116 7,667
Cabbage ............-.... ------.... 9,000 8,917 5,462 6,846
Celery -..--......-...... ...---........-. 11,690 10,347 9,867 13,055
Cucumbers ...- 3,616 3,499 2,037 2,290
Peppers -.-------------. 4,347 3,486 2,330 3,136
Potatoes ----- 9,290 6,085 4,866 10,350
Tomatoes -.....................-------. 13,690 7,608 5,775 8,818



Monetary Crop Value


Product 1948-49 1947-48 1946-47 1945-46


Watermelons ...
Tomatoes ..
Celery -........
Beans -......
Cabbage ............
Cucumbers ..-...-
Peppers --...........
Potatoes ...


$ 6,372,000
32,666,000
16,021,000
16,884,000
5,530,000
5,558,000
7,569,000
12,316,000


$ 6,862,000
22,936,000
9,778,000
14,484,000
6,500,000
6,203,000
5,886,000
10,073,000


$ 5,419,000
19,098,000
17,535,000
16,389,000
3,069,000
4,984,000
9,086,000
5,475,000


$ 5,552,000
22,405,000
14,260,000
18,359,000
5,571,000
5,377,000
6,545,000
11,744,000


Source: Florida State Marketing Bureau, Annual Fruit and Vegetable
Report, 1948-49 Season.





WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA 23

THE EFFECT OF HONEY BEES IN WATERMELON
FIELDS ON SET OF MELONS: A PRELIMINARY
REPORT

Bv G. K. PAHRIS AND JOHNI D. IIAYNIE
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Leeslbrg, and U. S.
Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, Florida
Before the specific subject mentioned in the title is discussed,
may we take a short time to familiarize you with the background
of our problem. The watermelon plant is a monoecious one,
which means that it bears male and female flowers on the same
plant. However, the male and female parts, the stamens on the
one hand, and the stigmas and ovary on the other, are borne in
separate flowers. Even though a female flower is formed and
pollinated, it may not produce a marketable fruit. It may fall
off a poorly nourished vine, or it may be imperfectly pollinated.
Rainy weather can produce a poor set of melons. This may be
due to absence of pollination, or to imperfect pollination as
pollen is washed off the stigmas before it fertilizes the ovary.
For pollination to take place, the pollen must be transported
to the stigmas. Wind does a very slight amount of this. Insects
do it almost exclusively, and bees are the most important group
of pollinating insects.
\Many years ago watermelons were grown in Florida on land
that was freshly cleared, often surrounded by, or near, stands of
timber. The Florida melon grower has been forced to seek new
land each year because of Fusarium wilt, a fungus disease, in the
soil. His program goes something like this: clear the land, plant
one watermelon crop. then move off the land for 8 to 10 years.
Then plant melons on it again, move off, and so on. As the
timber is cut and burned, the woods available to wild bees for
homes have been destroyed; the bees leave the area or are
exterminated.
We are approaching a situation therefore, if we are not
already in it, in which pollinizers of the Florida watermelon crop
are becoming scarce. Many growers neither know this, nor will
they believe us when we bring the matter to their attention. For,






24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

their fields produce melons. But, if you walk through these
fields during the melon season, honey bees are either scarce or
absent.
What insects are doing the pollinating? Goff (1) fifteen
years ago reported 8 different kinds of bees capable of polli-
nating watermelons. The honey bee was the most numerous
and, incidentally the largest species. He mentions three kinds
of green bees as pollinizers, the largest of which was somewhat
smaller than the honey bee. The other species were black and
yellow bees. Unfortunately, Mr. Goff did not record the species
by their Latin names, and his detailed data are lost. I have
observed the green bees of which Goff speaks, and also Skipper
butterflies, visiting melon flowers. I do not know if the mere
visit by an insect to a flower guarantees that the insect is effect-
ing fertilization. That is, we do not know if visiting, which might
be called pollination, always means fertilization. Research alone
will reveal what is happening.
An important consideration in Florida is the producing of
an early crop of watermelons. Prices are usually highest during
the first week or two of the shipping season. Insurance that the
earliest blooms set marketable fruits is worth while considering.
"A lack of wild bees in melon fields can be overcome by placing
hives in or near the fields," says Goff. But he does not tell us
how many hives per acre are needed. He continues "On small
or moderate sized fields the bees may be placed near the field,
far enough from it so that laborers, and animals, will not be
attacked. In large fields it would be advisable to have the bees
near the center of the field." There are approximately 500 water-
melon plants to an acre. A good yield is one carload per acre, or
roughly 900 melons from 500 plants. Many fields yield only a
carload to 3 acres, or roughly one melon per 2 plants. If other
factors operate to reduce the yield, such as missing hills caused
by wilt, mice, or just bad luck, you can understand why pollina-
tion and fertilization is important.
This spring your speaker was approached by John Haynie,
who all of you know as your secretary, and also as the U. S. Agri-





WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA 25


MELONS

300


375


360

400

370


415

.355


.310



4.55

250

.440
.250
.485

j


C.















- -- - .




cr v
.i


&, o '%'.. *

/. -- *- 0 *," <-" ; /. ..K
s* *.. ...* .. *














I)ia;rammaiti rIlepr.est.ntation of two w aterineilon fields. separated by scrTib barrier,
in ocie of which 10 hives of honey beer w on set of early melons. Distanels 1on It-t a;Ir iln trft froln hive; figures il center of
c-hart are of nmelons picked per acre at different distances from hives. The field sloped
iupiwards from hives, with apex of hill approximately 660 feet distant from hee hives.
Melon plants are indicated by small dots; only one-third of plants are shown.


FEET


420 *

360

300

240

180

120

60
30
o:





26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

cultural Extension Service apiculturist. John wanted to know if
I could find him some melon fields, preferably not near to woods.
In these fields he wanted to place hives of honey bees, to try to
learn more of the value of these insects in producing melons, pre-
ferably early ones. Between us we talked the problem over, and
discussed the various angles involved. Soon we came to the con-
clusion that we could not hope to accomplish a great deal in the
first season. Neither of us could spend much time taking data,
and we were not sure of the activities of honey bees. We present
this paper as a preliminary report only; we thought that you
would like to know of the start made and our findings.
Ten hives of honey bees were placed at the edge of a 50-acre
melon field. To the rear of the bee hives was a strip of shrub,
one hundred feet or so in width. This consisted of palmettos,
small-sized pines, oaks, etc. Beyond this "barrier" was a second
field of watermelons. This is shown diagrammatically on the
chart. The watermelon plants had no female bloom present
when the hives were placed in the field. Soon after the bees
were located, several visits were paid to the field. This was to
determine how far the bees were ranging, and at what time of
day, and on what kind of day were they most active. Bees do
not visit melon flowers in the early morning until the air has
"warmed-up." Again, bees do not start work until melon flowers
open. Several hives were opened and talcum powder sprinkled
over the bees, but we were unable to detect the white material
on any of the insects working the melon flowers. In general,
bees were found fairly evenly distributed over much of the
50-acre field. As expected, on cloudy, cool days the bees were
not as active or as widespread, as on clear, warmer days. The
melon field sloped downwards from one side toward the bee
hives, at roughly a 300 angle. The top of the hill was 660 feet
from the hives.
When the first melons were picked we were present to take
records, on the number of mature melons and their geographical
relation to the bee hives. Fusarium wilt had killed plants in
certain areas. This reduced the melon set per unit area. We





WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA 27

tried to correct for this, but at best our corrections are only
approximations. The chart shows the number of melons per
acre (calculated), produced at different distances from the bee
hives. As we move farther away the count gradually diminishes,
until at approximately 600 feet from the hives the number of
melons starts to drop sharply. This is about the point where the
top of the hill was located. We cannot explain the extremely
low counts, relatively speaking at least, of melons shown at cer-
tain distances from the hives. Do bees avoid certain spots? In
the state regulations for production of certified watermelon seed,
a distance of one-quarter of a mile between fields of different
varieties is considered adequate to a\ oid mixture of pollens. This
meais that a bee is not considered capable of doing much flying
beyond 1300 feet from its hive. We did not make counts in the
second melon field. one hundred feet to the rear of the bee hives.
But, in a brief walk through this field, it was agreed that the
melon sets was markedly less than in the first field. This seems
to mean that our bees did not "penetrate" the shrub barrier.
Several progressive growers in Lake County placed bees in
their melon fields in 1949. They did this at our suggestion.
These farmers state that they consider the cost of the bees, at
five dollars per hive, more than paid for themselves in increased
sets of melons.
To sum up. we believe that work of this type should be con-
tinued in 1950. Nearby melon fields should be compared, with
and without the introduction of bee hives. However, as in 1949,
work will be limited by two things, lack of funds to rent bees,
and lack of time to take records.


REFERENCE CITED
(1) Coff, C. C. Importance of Bees in the Production of Watermelons.
Florida Agr. Exp. Sta., Press Bul. 514. 1938.





28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Control of Mice in Watermelon Fields
By G. K. PARRIS
Plant Pathologist in Charge, Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory, Leesburg, Fla.

Introduction
The white-footed mouse, belonging to the Peromyscus poli-
notus group, can be a serious pest in watermelon fields in Florida.
It digs up the seeds before they germinate and emerge. This
is true not only on land formerly in watermelons but also on
"new" land recently cleared of timber and small brush.
Control of mice saves replanting and enables the grower to
produce an even stand of melon plants of the same age. Mouse
damage necessitates replanting and this results in plants of
different ages and therefore melons which ripen at different
times. A spotty field, containing plants of varying ages, barely
is able to produce a railroad car (900 melons approximately) to
four or six acres at first harvest. A melon field should produce
a car to two or three acres.
Costs of harvesting are higher in a field of melon plants of
uneven ages than in one where the plants are of the same bearing
status. Too much time is spent, by labor, walking the field to
find maturing melons. Early melons bring premium prices. So,
with harvesting spread over a long period, economic returns to
growers automatically drop.
To control field mice Goff' in 1935, working at Leesburg,
recommended the use of powdered alkaloid strychnine on rolled
oats, scattered in the field two days before planting. In 1945
melon growers were not satisfied with the degree of mouse con-
trol obtained with strychnine. Poor control was due to inade-
quate applications of poisoned bait, rather than to the strych-
nine itself. Alkaloid strychnine is one of the best toxic agents
used in rodent control. The single application kills adult rodents
but does not affect young mice in the burrows. Some of these
orphaned young survive, emerge, are not poisoned, and dig up
planted melon seeds.





WVATEIR\M1ELONS IN FLORIIDA


Since 1945 zinc phosphide, another toxic agent, cheaper than
strychnine, has been used successfully in Florida for rodent
eradication in melon fields. Improved methods of field appli-
cation for the best effects of the poison have been worked out.
The purpose of this circular is to report on the preparation of
zinc phosphide bait, and to describe the best methods of its field
application to control the white-footed mouse2.
The Pest
The white-footed mouse is a small animal- over-all lenm'lth
about five inches-white muderneath and gray or brownish-grav
abowe. It lives in burrows in the groundn, the entrance of the
burrow b)eiini in a clear place. A small mound of soil is gen-
erally thrown up in front of the opening. The Iburrows are less
than two feet deep and three to four feet long. They bend
upwards so that the far (end of the burrow is just below thie
surface of the soil. This is to keep the nest area dry from
water seepage and also for protection. When )one tries to dig
out the mice they break throu tolg the far end of the burrow and
often escape capture.
This mouse is prolific. voumig behind present throughout the
year. litters \arv from two to si. .-\ second litter can be
produced in 25 days after the first is born. If food is abl)dant
and natural emleies su(li as hawks. owls. skunks and snakes
are lacking a \ er large )population umn lbe produced.
As mentioned above. this pest causes damage bv diggiiln up
melon seeds. \lelon growers can easily determine if mice haie
Iben at work. The places where tihe seeds were planted show
a scratching., of the packed soil, and usually one or more small
h:les which extend one-half to one inch below tiet surface of
the planted spot. The husks of seeds, broken open and scat-
teredl may be present; or, seeds may )e missing. In areas show-
ing mouse damage not all hills are disturbed. D)ihing is erratic:
frequently mice dig seeds up at one point. tlien move several
hills away and go to work again. Seeds are dlu up in ee\r-
widening circles. This is because the marauders work the field
outwards from their respective burrows.





.30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

(;off' showed, in cage tests at Leesburg in 1934, that on the
average a mouse can eat about two dozen seeds in a night. In
the field mice often dig up seeds and store them in their burrows.
Goff estimated that less than a dozen mice can destroy an acre
of newly planted melons in a week or 10 days. If soil moisture
and temperature are favorable melon seeds germinate quickly
and emerge in five to seven days. However, unless the soil
temperature is above 600F. the seeds will not germinate3. Melon
seeds have been known to remain in the ground in Florida for
three weeks to a month before emerging.
It is interesting that mice do not disturb seeds that are
germinating. Growers know this and those who plant sprouted
seeds, or seeds that show "pips," largely obviate injury. How-
ever, most melon seeds sold today are treated with a fungicide
to combat anthracnose and gummy-stem blight. The fungicides
used, such a spergon, arasan or semesan, may be injurious to
the tender sprouts.

Control
The bait recommended by Coff1 was prepared by mixing
alkaloid strychnine with hot fat and pouring the mixture over
rolled oats. It then was distributed at regular intervals through
fields and adjacent areas. The greatest disadvantage to strych-
nine is its cost. Also, it is bitter and distasteful to rodents.
Unless the animal eats a lethal dose it thereafter may avoid
bait containing this material. Alkaloid strychnine is insoluble
in water and withstands weathering, whereas strychnine sulfate
is soluble and does not withstand such weathering. Goff' made
this point clear in his writing, and growers who prefer to use
strychnine should use the alkaloid form.
In place of strychnine, zinc phosphide (not phosphate) is
recommended. This chemical is materially less expensive than
strychnine and is not bitter. It withstands weathering about
the same as alkaloid strychnine. The following is adequate for
treating 10 acres. Add half a pound (8 ounces) of zinc phos-
phide to half a pint of Honeydew Spreader No. 104. stir well and





WATE'REIELONS IN FL()HI1)A


pour the mixture of poison and oil over 40 )pounds of scratch
grain. Mix the grain thoroughly and until every particle car-
ries some of the poison. In place of scratch grain some other
carrier, such as corn, oats. even old watermelon seeds, can be
used. If the Honevdew Spreader is not obtainable locally, min-
eral oil, corn oil or some other vegetable oil can be substituted.
Time of application of the bait is of importance. For
best control, bait should be put out in the melon field twice. The
first application (40 pounds per 10 acres) should be made about
three weeks to one month in advance of planting. Drop the
bait in small piles. about every eight to 10 paces. rather than
broadcast it. Include lundergrowth adjacent to the edges of the
melon field. Baiting this area should pre\leit invasion. This
first application of bait will kill the adult mice rangIging the field.
I however, voung mice, almost mature, remain alive within thie
burrows. These emerge and may not be poisoned because all
of the graini has been eaten, has bee(n covered Ib cultural prac-
tices, or has disintegrated. For the best protection therefore, a
second appllication of bait, again 40 pounds per 10 acres, is rec-
ommendm(,ed. applied about four days before planting.
If these recommendations are followed. elfecti\e control of
mice can be obtained. The zinc phosphide bait has been used
Ib Florida melon growers for the past three seasons (1947-49)
with success.
This rodenticide is toxic to all warm-blooded animals. Keep
it away from all domestic animals and children.

'Gof C( C. Mi(e and "i ophlers" in \atermelon ficldsl. Florida Agric.
I':\p. Sta. Press Bul. 470. 19:35.
2In this work. thb abhl assistance and .d\ icC of I1. J. Spencer, biologist
\vitli the 1'. S. Department of tlhe Interior, Fishi and Wildlife Sr\i ice.
(;aines\ille, Florida, is gratel ully acknowledvid d.
3Leacih, I1. I. Grow\'Illi rates of host of pathogeIn as lattors Idteriiniini
tlie severity olf prieei lier.enei danipin -ollff. jour. A\ r. HlIs. 75: 161-179.
19-17.
4Thei Ilone\devw Sprcader No. 10 is ltl. trade lnal, lor a sovbean by-
product, ;i lecithin. It is inanufactured by CarWill, IInc., of Cedar Ia.pids.
Il\wa. Thil sprIeal er lias a pleasing odo1r l(nd probably is attract .. to
rodents.





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SUMMARY
Watermelons are grown either for the market or home use
in practically every county in Florida.
Watermelons as a rule should not be grown on the same
land oftener than once in seven to ten years. It is better to
plant on new land whenever possible, thus avoiding loss from
disease.
One should always use a sufficient amount of fertilizer to
produce a good crop.
The practice of pruning melons from the vine is always
recommended. The best time to prune is when the melons are
four to six inches long, leaving only two melons on each vine.
The melons must be cut and not pulled from the vines,
leaving as long a stem as possible.
It is always preferable to load melons into cars or trucks the
same day they are cut from the vines.
All melons should be treated for stem-end rot at the time
they are loaded into the cars.
To make sure that melons arrive at the market in the best
of condition, they must be handled carefully from the field to
the car.

Table V
FLORIDA WATERMELON SUMMARY
Ten Year Period

Melons Return Total
Season Acreage Yield Harvested Per 1000 Crop Value
39-40 23,500 290 6,815,000 $175 $1,193,000
40-41 25.500 270 6,885,000 210 1,445,850
41-42 22,000 325 7,150,000 225 1,609,000
42-43 12,500 325 4,063,000 650 2,641,000
43-44 25,500 305 7,778,000 655 5,095,000
44-45 39,000 260 10,140,000 485 4,918,000
45-46 47,000 225 10,575,000 525 5,552,000
46-47 47,000 290 13,623,000 447 5,419,000
47-48 45,000 305 13,725,000 500 6,862,000
48-49 59,000 240 14,160,000 450 6,872,000

Source: Florida State Marketing Bureau, Annual Fruit and Vegetable
Report, 1948-49 Season.




Table VI

UNLOADS OF WATERMELONS IN 50 CITIES by States of Origin, 1949
South


Unload Point Fla
Akron, Ohio ................. .................... 29
SAlban, ... ......... ............ .. ................ .
A lloona, a .............................. ................. ...................... 44
Baltimore, Md, . ..... ...... ...... .......... ........ ... 182
Boston, Mass .................. .. .. ............................... 599
Bridgeport, Conn ................... ..... ........ ....... 84
Buffalo, K Y ............... ... ................. .................. 183
Chicago, Illinois .......... ....................... . ........... 519
Cincinnati, Ohio ...... ..................... 210
Cleveland, Ohio .. ........... ..................... .. ..... 287
Colunlbus, Ohio .......... ................ .......... ............. .. 86
D davenport, Io a ... ................. .. ....... ......... 11
Dayton, Ohio .. ........................ .. ...8
Des Moines, Iowa .... ............. ........................ 4
Detroit, Mich .... ........ ................ ......... ............. 42
Flint, ich ................ ................. ... ...... 56
Ft, W' ayne, Ind ............ ........... .... ........................ 21
Grand ilapids, Michi ................................ 60
Hartford, Conn .............. ....... ..................... ..... ............ 46
Indianapolis, Ind .. ...... .................... ....... ........... 76
Kansas City, Kans ...... ... ......... ...... ... ................ 21
Los Ang les, Calif .... .................. .. ... 2
L ouisville, K y, ................ ............................ ..................... 5
M adison, W ise, .............................. ......... ........ ........... .. 34
M iam i, Florida ......................... ....................................... 107
Milwaukee, W isc .. ....... ............. ....... .............. 112
Minneapolis, Minn ... .......... ..... ........... ... 71


Ga, Texas Calif, Carolina Okla, Total
30 ) ... ... 2 91
26 4 ... 19 5 128
32 16 .... 5 11 108
62 21 58 ... 323
124 64 .. 194 13 994
15 1 .. .... 143
102 94 27 21 427
171 1868 .. 247 2805
174 119 .. 3 11 517 B
157 306 13 70 833
46 80 ... 11 3 226
4 52 1 6 74 x
21 32 ........ 91
51 .. .... 4 59 Z
474 488 ... 9 88 1483
38 72 .... 8 174
21 44 ... 5 91
47 76 .... 8 191
20 ... .. 19 .... 85
23 57 .. .... 4 160 >
S 323 1 .... 18 363
... 142 .... ... 144
23 7 .... 2 .... 82
4 80 2 .... 3 123
5 1 ... .... 113
47 206 .... 6 21 392
17 245 3 .... 14 350







UNLOADS OF WATERMELONS N O CITIES by States o Origin, 19


Unload Point Fla,
.Newar, N, ........... ...... .................... 1
New Haven, Conn, .... .. .............. ........... 70
New Orleans, La ................................. 50
Nw York, N, Y... .......................................... 1615
Oakland, Cali ... ....... ................. 12
Omaha, Nb. .............. ........... 2
Peoria, Il ........... .................................... 6
Philadelphia, Pa, ...... ................................... 601
Pittsburghll a, .... ...... ................................. .......... 478
Portland, Me ....... ..... ................ .............. 45
Portland, Oregon ... .....................8........ ..
Providence, .R, I .... ......... ....... ...............
Rochster, N, Y. ... .. .. .............................................. 92
St, Louis, Mo, ... ...................... ............... 7
St, Paul, M inn, .... .. .. ............ ........................ 11
Salt Lake City, Utal .......................... ............... 6
San Francisco, Cali, .................................
Scranton, Pa ........ ............ ... ...... ...... ...................... 53
Seattle, W ash ......... ............................................. 18
Syracuse, N ...... ... .............. ........... .................... 9
Tacom a, W as ... ..................................................
Toledo, Ohio ....................................................... .._ 60
ashington,D .............. .................. .. 82


Ga, Texas Call, Carolina Okla, Total


3~4 25 55


11 260
1 4....
3 81
128 3512


4 62
88 1578 Z
63 1179
83 0
2 331 1
166
1 20 0
39 672 5
5 73
171 C
.. 52
2 94
296 p
1 158 B
84
11 172
7 168


Source: U. S, Dept. of agriculture, Production and Mareting Administration,




10uIC UlI


PRODUCTION OF WATERMELONS, COMMERCIAL CROP, 194549
(Cars of 1,000 Melons)


State and Section
I. Southwestern State)
Arizona
California
Total, St. I
2, Southern St;atis
Alabaimaii
Arkansas
Florida
Ceorgia
oiisiana .
Marvihnd .
Mississippi .
Nortl Carolina
Oklahoma .. .
Soith Carolina
Texas ...
Virginia
Total, Sc. 2
. Nortlh Central States
Illinois
Indiana
Missouri .
Iowa
Total, Sec, :)
4, \li a d ll,,ll, ,,. States
Grand Total ... .


Average Percent of
1945 1,16 1947 1948 1949 1945,49 Total


1,498 2.140 2,1701 2,508 2.47 2,129
7,532 11,44 11),25 9,794 10,812 10,092
9,080 13,487 12,595 1202 13.282 12.1:3)

2,484 1,30 1,809 1,92) 1,932 1,945
8110 1,12 1,100 1,10 8 1,218 1,089
10,140 10,57 12,5 1,725 1 4,160) 12,305
14,191 14,224 8i,016 11,000 12,880 13,722
950 94: 868 625 644 806
2,100 2,385 2,500 2,328 2,450 235
1,:105 945 645 768 945 922
2,090 2,4201 2,227 1 2,00 2,140 2,235
2,258 2,860 2,0119 2,990 2,8(00 2,(00(
6,890 6,400 7,200 4,410 4,760 5,930
.12,:7 1:3,)00 12,950 11,710 12,4810 12,621
45( 405 310 :33 500 4001
56,37: .57 ,47 60,6410 5, 560,9109 56,9310

1,050 ,1190 9(:0 9l15 1,012 1,1125
2,720 II(11, :3,600 3,230 2,820 3,222
1,2)00 14 940 1,102 800 1,157
138 187 104 154 188 154
5108 7,659 5.574 5,41 41320 5618
2438 2,6:8 4 2,703 2.149 2 2 2,422
72.949 81,2:37 81.512 7:3,142 76,801 77,128


16.4 '
738



:3,))=
1)9


Source: I , DL pt. Dpof Agriculture, Hearcu of Agricultural Economics.






Table VIII

ACRE YIELDS OF WATERMELONS BY STATES AND SECTIONS
Average


State and Section 1945
1. Southwestern States
Arizona ................................................. ......................... 681
California ....................................................................... .. 697
Average, Section I ............................. .......... ........ 695
2. Southern States
Alabama .................. ................ .. ........ ....... .... 360
Arkansas .................................................................... 280
Florida ........................................ ............................ 260
Georgia ..................................................... ................ 7
Louisiana. .......... ............................. ................... 250
arland .............................................................................. 75
Mississippi.. ................... ...................... ...................... 290
North Carolina ................................................................. 220
Oklahoma .................... ...... ......... ....................... 215
South Carolina ............................................................... 265
Teas ............................................... .................................. 165
Virginia ........................................... .................................. 250
Average, Se. 2 ................................................. ......... 247
3, North Central States
Illinois ........................................... .................. ............. 300
Indiana ....... ........ .......... .... .......... .... .... 425
Missouri .......................................................... ....... 250
owa ............................................................. ..... .... 275
Average, Sec, 3 ............... ..... ....... ....... 312
Average, U, S .................... .. .... .......... 277

Source: U, S, Dept of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics,


1946 1947 1948 1949 194549


606
668
653

282
282
261
286
258
460
229
219
211
215
175
319
236




312
375
274






WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA 37

SPECIAL REFERENCES

M N. Walker, The Blacklee Watermelon, Press Bulletin No. 605, Univ. of
Florida Experiment Stations. December, 1944.
M. N. Walker and G. F. Weber (Revised by G. K. Parris), Diseases of
Watermelons in Florida, Bulletin No. 459. Univ. of Florida Experiment
Stations, May, 1949.
R. E. Norris, Watermelon Growing in Florida. Agricultural Extension Service
Bulletin. Univ. of Florida. December. 1947.




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