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Group Title: State of Florida. Dept. of Agriculture. Bulletin
Title: Watermelons in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00003044/00001
 Material Information
Title: Watermelons in Florida
Series Title: State of Florida. Dept. of Agriculture. Bulletin
Physical Description: 24 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M
University of Florida -- College of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1929
 Subjects
Subject: Watermelons -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: "January 1929."
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Prepared and published in co-operation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00003044
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3485
ltuf - AKD9388
oclc - 28521759
alephbibnum - 001962711
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text


+ Bulletinl No. 1() New Series annuarv, 1929 +




WATERMELONS +
+visea. S3
IN FLORIDA :"-
.b 1950,


+ By
+ JOHN M. SCOTT








+ +




SNATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner

S --+
SSTALLAHASSEE


Preplarcd and Publishetd in C'o-oplx'ration with tihe CollegK* of
4 Agrici.llure. University of Florid;i
G(-ainesvillh
i_____NATHAN_ MAO
4. , - - - ------- *


& ++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++4<





















DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Nathan Mayo. Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. Brooks. Director, Bureau of Immigration
Piil. S. Taylor, Advertising Editor...... ......
Jolh M. Scott. Agricultural Editor.


Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Gainesville




















ki


i.


Fig, 1,-Some Florida Watermelon, Courtesy D, H. Gilbert,


1 " %ICY








Watermelons in Florida


BY JOHN M. SCOTT


Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, Gainesville



D IIINGU Ih Ipast live years the waterm\ elon alre('age ill the
United o Stales lhas averaged about 1 50.000 acres. The
largest acrenge was in 19122, when 211.060 acres were
planted, while tlhe smllellst acreage was in 1923 with 157,350
acres.
The watiermelon vrop olf Florlida varies from 28.0)0 acres to
38.000 a ires I t'aih year. OnI the avl'ragril this is equal to about
15.5 el'ellt of the total acreage of waterminlons throlighout
the In it(d 1Sat s. Walernielons are grown coninlereially in
nearly every county in Florida. The planting dates will vary
ill diff(trenti seclions. wlihiil means that tihe melonls are not all
ready for tiht market at the sanme time. Melons tfrom extreme
southern Florida g'enera'ly go lt mIarket in May. although
so.nle nllay lie ready to ship in April. .Melons froin the central
part of Ithe State go to tnmarket tenl days to two weeks later
than those frolim southern Florida, and those front North
Florida follow li'e C(ntral Florida ielons hy a week or sell
matter.
To pill it another way. Floridn's anilni wNatlermelonll eop is
about 30,01)0 acres. Tle height of the shippil)ni season for
Florida melons is usually d( riing .Ii une. although thlie actual
i milelolls, however, are shipped out of Floridi as late as August.
and only a tew melons in .Juily.

SOILS
Most of lihe watermelons in Florida are grown on high,
sandy soils. Watermelons require a soil that is well drained,
as on low, poorly drained land is it difficult to get a good
stand. due to frost damage etc. A well drained. sandy soil that
will retain sufficient moisture to insullre tile growth of tlhe
vines produces the best quality of melons. Then. too, the
2 Waterlme'l'i






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


sandy soils warm up earlier in the spring, enabling the vines to
make a quicker growth. Melons thus mature earlier than when
planted on the low, moist soils that are more subject to late
spring frosts.
Watermelons as a rule are not grown on the same piece of
land year after year. Experience has shown that it is best
to grow melons in a rotation. The rotation should be planned
so that watermelons will not be grown on the same land more
often than once in seven to ten years.

SOIL PREPARATION
The land is usually prepared a month or six weeks in advance
of the planting date so that the soil will be in the best condi-
tion possible for planting. The land is plowed broadcast, just
deep enough to cover all grass and weeds that may be on the
ground. After the land is plowed, it should be harrowed thor-
oughly in order to get a well pulverized, smooth surface for a
good seed bed. About ten days or two weeks before planting
time, the rows should be laid off. In fact, it would be advis-
able to lay the rows off both ways. This will be an advantage
at planting time.
FERTILIZER
Every successful watermelon grower in Florida is a firm
believer in liberal use of fertilizers for producing watermelons.
Growers in different sections may not agree as to the amount
of fertilizer to use per acre, but this is natural because soils
differ in various sections of the State.
Neither have all growers agreed as to the best analysis of
the fertilizer. Practically all growers in the southern part
of the State now use a fertilizer analyzing 5 percent ammonia,
7 percent available phosphoric acid, and 5 percent potash,
while the melon growers in the northern and western parts of
the State use a fertilizer analyzing 4 percent ammonia, 8 per-
cent available phosphoric acid, and 4 percent potash. It is de-
sirable to have about half of the ammonia from organic sources
and half from inorganic sources, while the source of potash
should be sulphate of potash. The amount of fertilizer applied
will vary from 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre.
One half of the fertilizer is generally applied a week or ten
days before the seed are planted, and the other half is applied
when the vines begin to make runners. The fertilizer is ap-
plied broadcast around where the seed are to be planted.
In a great many instances the melons are given a side dress-
ing of nitrate of soda or some other quick-acting nitrogenous


6






WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA


fertilizer. This is applied at the rate of 50() to 200 pounds to tihe
;1are .isl I)befo're thle bloom appears.

VARIETIES
'The variety. mI(ost commiiionly grown inl Floriida is the 'IToii
\Wtson. Ill fat. from 80 to 85 percent ofl' the melons shipped
'ol of the, State are of this variety. (Other varieties are the
Florida F;ivorit'. Stoin. Moulntlain. K.eklell' Sweet. Irish
ilraiy a iln TIihurmonili I rav.
h I 'T' ll rV;i tsoll is gl'rown o ilar elyv In'i'M' it lakes a
104, c0 ofl gid( siz aniid aijpji l;i il'l lf' ll,(1 it lstan 5s slipping to
inll.rket blif tr tilan son otl h r varie li"..

II.ANTIN; DATES
IiI order to rg t ithl lii'olis to miiiirlk t ill Mai,\. .Iii and *I1y,
it is i' e' s;1ry I t il i' |pl.t.ilifI ill So 1 i ll F oridIa i'roi .fillm-
air 15 I lo'tr iri Ir 1 : in I, I trial llirida frni .laliary '21 to
F'riiiary 1.): ;and il North iFl,'rila from Fe'riary 20 to
.Mar'ih 15
T Ie (Id i lS I lf I ll11l lll ill y oIIV *Ir' 'et ioll Ill V V; frv 'YfOio on1e1
I4, two w\\'eks. I[i tlhe protected aral s where there is little or

111 il0roll ll' TrI f iti rV. It thie ._'ri\lert i pr',. ar,,d to protl ct
ftr lll f'o't bi\ verl-I\'eiii v I \ lih e p oar -1 l rt'.. plt lliiliL's ill y
StillImale soiellvwhit earlier hlill o herwise.

PAI.NTIN(; DISTANC('E
'The p h l ill.. diTii vlle v' ri'ttes, eI'l'pe lill'" Ilt thle tI l' of
si!l. 'eI SiIlno )l ilters prefer i lll ill.r ill r ,\v .it .ho t feet
llplrt nilld six fe t I lp;ii 't ill the row. 0itlse's pdla t inll c le iks
eight by e'ilit or tel hy 1el feet. ()n thle fertile soils, it is
(e NIerally advi.ible to plant a;t t1e v'reIter distances silence tlhe
plants will produce very prolific vine,... while. ,11 poorer soils
closer phintin.l may I li pra.cti tel d.

I'LANTINM;
The seed ar planted ill hills,. -u.iually for lo six seeds in
each lhi 1. Tlw plant iii-s are ,enerally nadle eavh prin,. The
first pilanti,.1 is1 mIl, at lhe usl. al line. ateid thien1 a week or
tell (Ilys 1 ll'r a se,'old41 plantillll is imnade. This se oild( philini,.
is for thle purpose ol' insrin ni al early crop even although tile
first plan tin-i is in.iured by frostl. The second planting, will
hlIIis l1e ,iltl' ... ,l l. lli ll.Y1 illis 1le. frl s.t ili.1Iry is thIat






8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

the crop may be delayed only a few days. In some cases a
third planting is made. However, the melons shipped each
year are in nearly all cases from the first and second plantings.
Growers ordinarily purchase one pound of seed for each acre
of land to be planted to watermelons. This is more seed than
necessary for one planting, but when two or three plantings
are to be made-which is almost always advisable-one pound
of seed to the acre will not be too much.
After the plants have made a good start, they are thinned
to a stand of one or two plants in each hill.

CULTIVATION
The cultivation of the watermelon is quite simple; in fact,
it is very similar to that of other crops. Almost any implement
may be used that will destroy the weeds and grass. Care should
be taken, however, that the cultivation be shallow and not
close enough to the plants to do any root-pruning.
When the vines begin to run, they must not be disturbed by
cultivation. Any cultivation done after the vines have begun
to run should be done between the rows and far enough away
from the vines so that they will not be disturbed.


Fig. 2. A Field of Watermelons in West Florida. Yes, this Is much b-tter
than the Average Yield. The Average Yield in Florida Is 325 Melons per
Acre. Courtesy D. H. Gilbert.





A'.\'IER1MELONS IN FIA)RDIIA 9

w STEM-ENI) ROT*

This disease. whicIh is particularly destructive\ in the rase of
iiimlons shipped from the Southlastern States. is caused lI a
fungus closelyy related ito or identical with tlhe orgilaisilm which
ianses .Java bhlak-ro'l of sweet potatoIes, ole (it Il stlenti-(nd
rots of citi'is fruits. it 'ottol-lioll iot. and diseases IoI s5oiice
other pllants '11111onlVy 10I 11wn inll wa l a1' lilnal's. In Ilhe Sl)lilll'
thil fulllngill is found inI and i arll un(i d nIlleI fields fruit ini I on
dl-ad *'talks of efff'ee weed. corn. itllun. and otillir pants
S oll s or tiunfiiois seedl bodies I lr \\ ash d ilili t lie s il or
carrI(ill i li1 i 11(i ll ieldsl O il 11iillellc' its or li 11 I \ w ind. l 'ro-
\idI t( li 1I1 flill t lod in-llin t 1 ill a illll I\\Iall,nl' 'l". Ii. I ii11a so i rels'ul', A.s 1 s is1. ii l dI.I ops.

liui'll it llrpr. 1 ct li'l' ,il lil wId 1 ,1 ; v ills or l aili r-avilos prck
liarks. I T esilll ro iln illi 'io s ia r ti1 (li ff s1 iiillc f l infel' r lll
i1atelrial w liichi w, \, sI to hiinl ;l ii4,il 1 lt i 'lidl roit in triallsil
A s. l ih li 's l s itat'd. illtfet li ll and i.l l itnlil lt dI evl .ii o l ir
\\dliri l li .,l r,' 'Ih'v'I t lilt,, \ ,lll',- ; f,,1 i ll'_' t1vllr NI, ll I fr rindl
o)f a fiit'll, l. Bl ili .'s e illd l il i ll 114li d ii V II ci pl-t j v iit ii li
iii't'l l hlal dlli; 1and hill is I s l l.l lll )i" p l. 11A il' 1 sTl it,
however. is a wollild thali is pl-criellt 11n all 1 oiils, land l is ito
ipr'lvniit iinfeti n 1 ia l Oi i poi iit thla l l' j iracltic known a;s
te llit llr';l li. l l t in> I r''ll I'aliblllli ld d' .
In tih' pall'l e i, e ifpi rle- f s. cill-tild Ioll lia tiini'i l iin l IcviI
allrilunted it li t nuse t' large i' nianit ii 's of I'ler ilzers or to Ilie
IIse o l nitrate ofl' siodla as 11 side drli'ssinil'. This is not thi' c'ase.
a1n1d () l li'Nlll, ill' 11 li s t l. il l i'to) iliz. 'l h, fl it f iO Illke f1ields
ilil '.l'i't mi n i Th a f itl\ Ti lloii li ii, to t'r ili/.- j i heir iIii''n ti rli|l
ill ilh lila illir l I lItI i.\|l'rlll' \llii- 1\\ 1,\\n 1 ,, ji'l,,iilrc llir r.irlI-
W,41 Ali l ro i I lvar i,.t,- ,,1 \i' W i l 'mll,'.lls i \V 'i',\\ I

I Id ro'1.
'l' '-olintlro! ot llit' st, nit.-III ii 1 t ii trI 'it .si is ai )itoil Iarativi 'lv
)II ,11 a l I, r a i i I t I1 'I't revI I I"I II ,,In a li I lr,. lin,_I ltit- I I-ll1
s IIijdi' Viiiatt ail n con islts f itiri g ilip il d tratlllil'l thlt sP,'lis
oIf ii'litis W itli ; il 1 nM tItlit i s pi 'l as t e I rIlt- lolls Iire pIa-kI'd
I ll l II t oh l il r I ,o I 4' 111 l l'k1 or w ;a 1 o 11 I s lo lh I n I II to) IIn-ar-hyIv
Iai'.kets. A s a first i-rc iIt ion. ill oI nlrdel'r ti aIvoil 1(lliil iiii -
t i ni witl I ialils ;I n I il ililull n p 'lit. fli t li ll, \vli o ar riic 'li n, _! I lit,


steii mi and l)iati lvd il l 1 tli air A\ it. iIIit dc' i v as the lt-'Lir rvi stt il
Illi l. I, I ll, II,]1 1 fl hi I ,ll I li v,.I- 1 ,In 1 14'l i i f l- .ill in v ,o i1,' ;1 11ix 4..
m aYll, is ili ill lli t] I d al n o'i" 1 1 lonlls sp it, i I da I, I I il fl.-, II
ill;aI. Ix' oill iiill',r i d a dl 'ot inl I spi ,r nf1 I a ll f la 'i'l lli lnt.


. V I I \ F~i r i I-,I .I II I 11 n I T# 4






10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE





\V TERMELONS IN FLORIDA 11

Handle carefully to avoid injury to the rind, and load only
sound nmelons w\ir fresh greenll stems. As each tier of melons
is placed in a car, cut a short piece from the stem by means of
a sharp knife and immediately treat the freshly cut surface
with the disinfectant paste. The method of cutling and treat-
ing the stem is shown in Figure 4. In cutting tlie slems at the
ear it is desirable that tlihe remaining stem he left as long, as
possible. as most dealers like to make a fresh cut when the
imeloins are placed oil thli market. thus giving~ tlhe a fresher
appearance.
Ilhe paste ul.ed for treatillg tIle imelmos to prevent stemi-end
rot ill transit 1may be prepared ill 1-gallon lots as follows: Use
an i ail vlaxll qre kr ttle ol' sllitfiiellt siz,. Place :31.. ilarts of






















Fig. 4.-Treating Melons for Stem.end Rot in Freight Car. Courtesy U. S.
Dept. of Agriculture.

water and 8 n1111esI f l 11hilusto(l in Ill e kett'e and bring the
mixture 1o a boil over a good fire. While the water is heating,
mix 8 ollunces ot starch with 1 pint of cold water, stirriniv until
a milky slolutinll free from lumps is obtained. As soon as tlhe
blles'one is entirely dissolved and the solution ill the kette
is boiling, add ltie starch mixture, Imporilln it in a slow stream
a;id stirring the hol solution vigorously to prevent thle forma-
tion of lumInps. Stir the boililln mixture until tlhe starch thick-
ens evenly, which sliou'd not require more than one or two










I


Fig, 1, All bglng Ludid with itormgong,


)I

li~bx-





WATERMELONS IN FLORIDA 13

minutes boiling ajter the addition of the starch. One-quart
glass fruit jars with porcelain-lined tops or glass tops make
convenient containers for the paste. This preparation is most
satisfactory when used fresh. Commercial paste for treating
watermelons to prevent stem-end rot can now be purchased in
practically all sections where this treatment is necessary.
Cars that have contained melons affected with stem-end rot
should be thoroughly cleaned and, if possible, disinfected by
spraying with 2 percent bluestone before they are lined with
paper, as the paper alone will not prevent the infection of the
fresh shipment of melons. Five gallons of the 2 percent blue-
stone solution and 20 minutes' time of two men with a hand
sprayer will be sufficient for treating a car.

LOADING
Before the melons are loaded in a car, it should be swept
out, cleaned and all trash and rubbish removed. Particular
care should be taken to see that the floor of the care is not
covered with commercial fertilizer.
After the ear has been thoroughly cleaned, it should be well
bedded with excelsior. It has been found from experience that
excelsior is one of the cheapest and most satisfactory ma-
terials for bedding melon ears. About a six-inch covering of
excelsior on the floor is best. The sides and ends of the car
up as high as the melons are to be stacked should be lined with
building paper, as shown in Figure 6.
In loading, it is necessary to place the melons so that they
will lie even and pack close together. When packed loose in
a car, the movement of the car in transit will cause the melons
to shuffle about and get bruised or broken. This will mean a
heavy loss when they reach the market.
Melons are graded according to size. The usual sizes are
24, 28, 32, and 40-pound melons. The majority of the melons
shipped are 28- to 32-pound melons, this size loading 1,000
melons to the carload. Forty-pound melons load from 800 to
850 to the carload.

HANDLING FROM FIELD TO CAR
Handling the melons from the field to the car, as well as
loading them in the car, requires a great deal of care if injury
to the melons is to be avoided. A melon that is ripe or nearly
ripe is very easily injured by rough handling. Should a melon














































Fig. 1 Loded in the Cir ready to go to Market,





W ERMELONS IN FLORIDA 15

be dropped on tl ground or on the floor of the car or truck,
the rind is very pt to be cracked slightly, and a small crack
generally mean a decayed melon by the time it arrives at the
market.




















Fig. 7.-Hauling from Field to Highway where they can be picked up by
Truck and taken to Railroad.

MARKETING
The Florida watermelon is marketed by several different
routes. In many cases the melons are so'd f. o. b. the railroad
track to local buyers who are generally on hand for that pur-
pose. There are also local melon growers' associations to
handle the marketing of the crop, while a few growers prefer
to consign their shipments to brokers at the central markets.
Sti 1 other growers follow the practice of raising watermelons
under contract with the contractor furnishing the seed and
fertilizer, the farmer supplying the land and labor and being
guaranteed so much per carload, f. o. b. the track.
Table 1 shows the acreage of the watermelon crop by states
and sections each year from 1922 to 1926 inclusive. It will
be seen from this table that the Southern States produce 81.3
percent of the commercial waterme on crop of the United
States, and that Florida alone has 15.5 percent of the total
acreage in this country.






16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL URE

'TABLE 1**
ACREAGE OF WATERMELONS, COMMERCIAL CROP, BY STATES AND SECTIONS,
1922-1926 \

Perct.
State and section 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 Av. ofgr.
S_____ 1922-26 total

1. Southwestern states:
Arizona ........................ 1,200 900 1,230 1,100 1,200 1,126 0.6
California:
Imperial Valley...... 4,300 3,400 3,800 4,000 6,000 4,300 2.3
Other areas........ 6,220 5,080 8,040 6,370 6,820 6,506 3.5
Total, section 1.... 11.720 9,380 13,07, 11,470 14,020 11,932 6.4
2. Southern states:
Alabama ...................... 12,760 7,130 10,940 10,030 11,030 10,378 5.6
Arkansas ...................... 1340 780 950 1,480 2,700 1,450 .8
Delaware ............. 1.380 920 1,000 1,900 2,300 1,500 .8
Florida ................... 38.080 30,880 28,280 22,100 24,150 28,698 15.5
Georgia ................... 66,550 42,410 45,890 45,890 53,600 50,868 27.5
Maryland ............2.100 1,850 2,000 1,920 1,800 1,934 1.1
Mississippi ............. 740 750 800 810 1,240 868 .5
North Carolina .......... 5.100 4,730 4,850 4,100 4,880 4,732 2.6
Oklahoma .................. 4,520 3,850 3,800 4,000 4,000 4,034 2.2
South Carolina .......... 15,710 11,200 15,070 11,010 12,720 13,142 7.1
Texas .......................... 25,500 24,920 30,800 32,020 34,900 29,628 16.0
Virginia ......................... 3400 2,480 3,040 3,100 3,100 3,0241 1.6
Total, section 2........ 177.180 131.900 147,420 138,360 156,420 150,2561 81.3
3. North central states:
Illinois ........................ 2,710 1,870 3,120 2,820 3,200 2,744 1.5
Indiana ......................... 2,850 3,050 3,540 3,440 3,440 3,264 1.7
Missouri ...................... 11,670 6,420 9,670 12,200 17,500 11,492 6.2
Other states ................ 2.240 2,200 2,840 1,880 1,640 2,160 1.2
Total, section 3 ...... 19.4701 13,540 19,170 20,3401 25,780 19,6601 10.6
4. Miscellaneous states*.. 2,6901 2,530 3,600] 3.5401 3,340 3,1401 1.7
GRAND TOTAL ......1211,060 157.350 183,2601173,7101199,560 184,988 100.0
Includes Colorado. Idaho, New .ersey, and Washington.
** Bulletin 449, California Expt. Station.
Data for 1922-1923 from U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1924:732. 1925.
Data for 1924-1926 from T. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1926:954. 1927






\WA E\IMEIAONS IN FLORIDII)A 17


Table 2 gives the n iiiner of cairlon(ds1s (1.00() ilMelons per (chr) pro-
due'd by Statis andl .Sctions. It (an be sven that Florida is second
in the prodlieti ll o' arloads. bhing exee'dced onlly by (horgia.

TABI.E 2**

P' rTIIItor o.N V E\TEItMl I.ONS. ('I)M M1 EI IA. 'Ito)r. 1922-)192

((C.'.r of 1.010 nm lonis)


State and section


1. Soithwestern st:hIIs:
Arizona 4411'
California :
Illll riill \';lll .\. '.,-- '..'.'
Imperil Valle) 2.322
ollher areIls 2.I612
TOiOl. sIclin 1 5,3142
2. Siilhell rn saIiiI s :
A '1:11:4 1 1: 15
IA;lll'l',D -'l r:*45'l
Arkins;u 41.3

F1irihia 11.47 7
(;eorgi 20l.l4;:
M1airviii 7'35
Misssissippli 24,s
North C':ri lii 1n:i I 2
(Ik 1:1)hi111:1 1 .S* 2
South Cairoliinn 4.71:
Texas '.51.42-
Virgiiiia 1.190!
T'ota s l 3. North (centrIl stles:
1llih is Ml
hIitini.m )1

Miss-Miliri 3.'i.;
Other sliate 71l
Total. s 4. M is (;.NI. T<'.i lm. 71.12',


1922 192'3 194 19.2 2


:2. 1411 2.2SA1 3.4IHK
2.I3.2 :3.S51 2.541S
1.31;1), ;{.315 5.1114I1

I1.i)7 3.173 2.61s.
_22; :,A 4:32
3:5. 2's 4>1t7
5. 1 ) iG1I;. "1 ) .2'.'S
7.97:: 1 ;.75i 15.s,7s
711:3 5)(l0i 6(1
202 212 :w44
1.7 i 72.. l.:.


;l. .'2 !):'11 1. ;i ;
33:.31!9 .11.111; 12.7'52


7204
">4
Liltl

1.1!;l4

12.7:14


1 I N ;
2.11"
7,1

1,341i
5i; '51


"is
1.21i4
3.5 75
255
1,5(1|


1924 Av.
1922-2 ;


' 42 3:27

.-t,50 1) 2.S14I
30)s 2.810
,7,970 5.9771

3.254 2.940
S 54> : 39
5s 1 4.54
lo..M:3 9.1.S7
241.i95. 1;.43 S
(i64 55,
171 2171
1.4. 1 .:{79
I1.3mI 1.230:
5.21. l. 5. 1 (
(6.9 0) 7 .457
S 7S1 S-43
. 52',s(MI 1(;.2')51


I)";
sit'.
424(
7.91)04,
877J
j7!).551


.3:4 1.3
1.112 1.7
1 -145 5.S.
(;(n( 1.1
5.!28, !.9
1,1521 1.)
5!:1352 10.0


* liitu lletin 44l9 <':alif Diala for 19122 froiim 1'. S. 1Dpl. .A\r. Yea;rlbik 1924 :7:;2. 11025.
I)llil for 192:3 fromlii 1'. S. Dept.l Agr. Yea:iriok 1925 :!10(l. 19211.
DItil:i fr 1!I21 192l' frii 1' S Dept. AL r Yv;arl.,k 1l924:1il.5l 1927


Perct.
of gr.
total




4.S
4.7
1(.1

4.11
0.7

15.5
27.7
1.1
0.4
2.3
2.1

12.6
1.4
7S.1






18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL URE

The acre yield by States and sections is give in Table 3. A four-
year average gives the Southern States a yiel of 305 melons per
acre. while for Florida the average per acre is )5 melons.

ACRE YIELD OF WATERMELONS8
TABLE 3*0
Ac(' Yimu or WATuIMELONI BY SrATEU AND SBac r
(In numbers of melons)


State and section


1. Southwestern states:
Arizona .............. .... ...... 4060 405
California:
Imperial Valley ........... 850 90
SOther areas .................... 480 500
Average, section 1 ..... 578 622
2. Southern states:
Alabama ......... 292 28
Arkansas ....... 279 3M
Delaware ........ 4811 431
Florida .................. ..... 315 374
Georgia ............................... 32 378
M aryland ................ .. ..... 35 8 78
Misinasppi ..... ....... 310' 330
North Carolina ........., 24 400
Oklahoma _............. 338 382
South Carolina ...... ...468 565
Texas ...................... .. 270 364
Virglnl ............. ... ......... 4 306
Average. section 2 .......... 43 8
3. North central states: I
Illnois .......... 274 34
Indiana ........ ................... 320 340
M issouri .................. ......... 382 407
Other states ........................ 82 0
Average, section 3 ..........340 64
4. Av. miscellaneous states* .. 405 38


I----


1922 1923 1924 1925



340 320 150o 320

540 600 600 065
420 400 479 400
433 440 410 462

310 238 290 261
310 290 400 250
250 380 280 387
880 175 245 875
810 188 365 346
350 380 250 380
335 270 265 375
320 30 150 318
350 250 2 3 15
300 375 445 424
335 369 225 176
350 267 200 815
325 296 280 324

325 385 250 290
350 280 300 350
810 300 250 860
850 300 275 850
8834 316 260 888
869 850 348 891


AVimAGE. I united Statesl .3441 31 397| S371 T272 306I l 3I 314
SIncludre Colorado. Idaho. New Jerrey. and Waablngtoa.
** Bulletin 449 California Expt. Station,
Data for 1019-1925 from U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1925:940. 1920.
Data for 1926 compiled from U. 8. Dept. Agr. Yearlook 1926 .A4.

Then in Table 4 the carlot shipments of watermelons by States
is given, which shows that Florida shipped an average of 7,495
carloads each year from 1922 to 1926.


' . .


I -


_
,


1919 1920 1921





TABLE 4'
C.AlllOT Slnil' ll I I I I \F.\' l:IIER H I 1 S F'I il s I \ SITI .\El i' 1 Ii I NlilB 111 1921;


Av, I'ert, I
S ll : sii'l 'llll9i ll 1111' 19 i 111 2111 1 11 21 1 .1125 1126 19 gr, totl


Arizli ll 121 32 1 is :: 152 I 1 199 1
I. S''utlllwi,.sitrialis liii'. I

';iif,'ll;i l, l ;ll :itil I 1 3 1, 1.1 1.1 1," 1 6\1
". Si illiilli sl t l1 :
A,\li mil l\ 1,101 1,X 1% 15 1,21; 2,2l 7 1i811 1 ,S75i 1,831 11
2\S 31 I 577 25 19''l 152 I 1 4m9 35! (.8
il ... .. '.II I 2,1 i ilii ;11 9 I 11 l!sI 1 11 li
liI I .. 1 ..7 1 11,31 1 17 t1 .:: 7.1 11 .2 77 ill, 7i Ii .
!.. l,11,\ 11' 11.111 ;: '' ,1 '21 7 1;,: I.I 11I7 19:11 1 19 I, 31.9
llh lriil ;i . .. 51: il '1, \ .71 1 ;; 3 I 1; i1 13 1 l 1, 1 I
NIId II ... n :;l 9 1 199 I s I,5i. li1l 99| !ll 1 1 ;S, I N l,
Illi ,iin . . 7. l 1 1i 5 5 ; :I S Ili 2 -5 47 l I1Ii 11,4
lilliI 2ii ... .. ........... 117 17 5 1,12 7 1,i1i 11. i 1)7l 1.2 :132 ,21 1.1'i 1 i
Tes lli ........ .. .................... (I...... 1 15 s 1,1:11 l 3 3i 1 3 1 ll. 1
\irlini; i ..... ... ...I........ . l. :1 5i I; 1 ; li 1 71 T i 1ti 232 1 ,


T1 I, li i ...............


ii iil'lh 'tlir li'il lIlcs :
Illino is ........
IIIl lj lll lll .

I lliilll 'i

i. lhileil' l s lt ,
(ll l \ll l"'r it,


2.'.121 31.M11 ;,111.1 :9,: 3 21,!0ls .171 :3,913 ; 1 4 4 i9 :5,741- 11 i.


1111 151! 251 133 1I5 :9 1i 283 (1,1
is iiil I i 51 s I 1 1 11); I 5 Is 1,1
1:I'1 ll 'i sll il;'i 5 ll 1 I 117 3I 11 11i ,
31 . 1 ; illl :.1 1, 15,' 1 I "" 1 ,. 3'12,, i 2.1 1 t.'
41,0S 41,272 ., 421 3,2Y 2.1 :2 2, `0 7 4 ,7 3. l ; I.7 31 S),l
1. 13 1 2 '5 252 17,5 215. 1. 5 '21s 11,5i
30l. li, l ,932, ll fi t3 i ll 211, 1,112 llI,239 1l M .0


Sit1ri' o i1 ililli,:
For 111I1-1l922 frmin 1lisoinri Wi1'l' il libIl, sDiisil 1I1'j I'. ;a, lll 1', S, [lil,. Ag r, Yi'irllook 111i5:011, 1926,
For I19i.i1921 froil I'. sI.Dll, .Ar. Ylrlilok 1126:l!55, 1 127
Ihill.litii 1 i'ili C rlf li Elil,. St:itiln.


~I
ii






I
"F



V
zt


Ow
OY






20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

TABLE 5"*
UNLOADS Or WATEaMI~ONS IN FOBTY-TWO CITIM s STATUES O OaGIN, 1926



City and i tate ,
receiving A |5 s
5 I 5 5 o 0
Akron. Ohio .............. 5 2 .......... 81 143 ....... 20 0.4
Atlanta, Ga. .............. ............. ...... 35 811 1 8471 5
Baltimore. Md ...... ...... ........ .... ...... 78 226 239 93 1.7
Birmingham, Ala. ...... ........ .......... 233 206 .......... 1.353 2.4
Boston, Mass. ........... .......... 1 .......... 252 193 178 6 1.2
Buffalo, N. Y. .............. .. .. ....... ...... .......... 79 164 36 297 0.5
Chicago, Ills. ......... 3 482 213 .......... 738 864 .......... 2,517 4.5
Cincinnati, Ohio ........ ...... ........ 2 .......... 100 792 1 938) 1.7
Cleveland, Ohio ............. 25 4 .......... 182 716 1 953 1.7
Columbus, Ohio .......... ........ 8 2 .......... 23 281 ......... 351 0.6
Dallas. Texas ............ 6 ... 232 .......... .......... .......... .......... 2391 0.4
Dayton, Ohio .......... 2 1 .......... 33 245 .......... 325 0.6
Denver, Colo. .............. 18 ........ 278 .......... .......... .......... .......... 335 0.6
Detroit, Mich. ............ ..... 67 8 .......... 497 687 .......... 1,284 2
Houston Texas .......... 2 ....... 270 .......... .......... ........ ........ 72 0.5
Indianapolis, Ind. ............. 16 4 ......... 71 291 .......... 436 0.8
Jacksonville, Fla. ...... 199 380 10 594 1.1
Kansas City, Mo ...... 4 88 3 .......... 36 31 ....... 627 1.1
Los Angeles, Calif .... 2,442 ........ .. ....................................... 2,445 4.4
Louisville, Ky. ............ .. 3........ ........ 107 270 12 433 0.8
Memphis. Tenn. ...... ...... 52..... 69 249 .......... 436 0.8
Milwaukee. Wis. ........ 27 12.......... 3 146 .......... 251 0.5
Minneapolis. Minn. .... 1 73 157 .......... 22 104 .......... 363 0.7
Nashville. Tenn. ............ 4 .. .......... 74 245 1 345 0.6
Newark, N. J. ............... 1 ........ ........ ........ 42 89 139 318 0.6
New Orleans, La. ......... 4 37 .......... 255 248 .......... 696 1.8
New York, N. Y......... .................. 840 1406 1,055 3,835 6.9
Norfolk, Va. ................. .... ............. 31 48 124 239 0.4
Omaha, Neb. ........... 4 27 150 .......... 7 3 .... 2181 0.4
Philadelphia, Pa. ................. 155 500 736 1.743! 32
Pittsburg, Pa. ............ 5.. ............... 200 560 62 868 1.6
Portland, Ore. ............ 315 ........ 5 ........................ 356 0.6
Providence, R. I. ........ 4 ................ 40 85 63 255 0.5
Rochester, N. Y. ....... 1 ........ ........ .... 46 104 52 238 0.4
St Louis, Mo. .............. 564 87 .......... 142 432 .......... 1,3431 2.4
San Francisco, Calif. 415 ........ ................ ................ ... 415 0.7
Salt Lake City, Utah.. 111 ........ 11 .................................. 131 0.2
Seattle, W ash. ................. 1 30 ........................... 266
Spokane W ash. ........ 74 ........ ........ 20 .......... .................... 96 0
Toledo, Ohio.......... ..... ......... ... ................ 45 157 .......... 210 0.4
Washington, D. C. ............................ 92 164 219 693 1.8
Youngstown. Ohio ............ ........ .......... 50 118 1 203 0.4
Total 42 cities ........... 3.639 1,463 1,881 85 4.839 10,958 2,930 29.601 53.4
*Total shipments in
United States ........ 6.2782,8436272 191 8.261119.369 5,395155,426 100.0
These data do not quite check with those given in table 4.
** Bulletin 449 California Expt. Station.
Data compiled from Unloads of Watermelons in 66 cities by states of origin
during 1926. U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. Mimeo. Report Feb. 5. 1927.





WATERMELONSS IN FLO)RIIA 21

One can see from Tall]e a5 where most of the watermelons of the
United States are mark.ted. It can be seIen that a liarg'e I)art of the
Florida melons are sold in New York. (hicago. Detroit. New Orleans.
Boston and i irminiglham.
For the years 1925. 1926 and 1927 1le monthly carload shi pments
by States are shown in Table 6. Florida is generally the first State
each year to ship me ons in large quantities to Northeirn markets.
the first shipments being in May and continuing through .Jinne and
July. About two-thirds df' the Florida crop. however, is marketed
during June.













I






TABLE 61
MONTHLY (CANlW 811ii'Ii OF WATERlhIELONS, BY STAleS ,I) AND lMOSS O Il0410SN, 1925, 1921, AND 1921
-r J-J~ )ug e


19 I 196


nll lep i----- IIa
MyJun Jue ly Aug. t111. May June July Aug,


1, Slullwlatern stotl( i
A r iln1 ......... ..... .. ....... ........ 11 45 ......
Collforuo:
li Relal VTllY' K.......... 0 8 1, .. 1 ,|28 1 1,t3I2 ......I..
Other area .. ..... .... .. ........ 0 3|1 l\Z .......... I |ll 191 4
To ,ltlon ............ 1,721 1,82% 3 788 2l 5 8w 2,3241 401
2, Soulheri stles1 92 1,347
AIl lm .. ... .. ...... .... .. ..... ... .0 ,. P ,
Arkoun s ............ 2 3 .......... .......
Flord ...........1 .1,4 1 ......... ,, 4 5 1 3,71 16
Gporgi .............3507. 7,616 l T 3 ... 13 ,13, 601
M ry ......................... .......... 1 .......... 4 ......... ....... ... 1,


Tens ........ ............. .... 52 1,88 0 9l 1 ,8I 3,704 612
Vl II .. ........... ...... ... ... 51 ........ ... .

foll, sanltio 2.......... 16,lI15,82l 3 ,8761 8511 551 8. 72,181 ,(88 lI
Ot her stoles ..,......... ..0 .... 1 ,I 0
Tolr w, ., 3
Total, i tln ............ 00. I , 870 81 7,1 818
LNo6rth imtrilt
m11111 18 ....... .. ..... ...... .. .......... .......... ...... ......... ..........
Indli n .................................. .. .... ......... .... ...... 2 .. .... ., .. .
Mll lm url .......,, .. ... ... ... .. .. ...... .. ... 8 A ... .. .. .. ..1
0 lher s Itat ...... ...... ........... ......... .......... .......... 180 ...... .... ..... ....
T0 l, t .lion 3 ............ .... .......... ..... I, 2 1 ..... .. .. ....... 2, 8 I
mt ielleiteomo stote .......... ill S 2 101 ll 18 28 I1 TSm
GRAIm T L ................) i 1,7T17|17,814|11,824| 5 11 lll, 2 1,i1, 1


SIf l Iu


j...~ ~ ~~~1...... ....,BOll/ 21,,~..

125 ... ....11 ..
-.-i~i~ ~1 ,35( 5J4~l l 87 1


...... ...
1,410 6,82, 81(


.....1 6 11, 114 1 I

2W 2,i'88 2,1>
.... .. .. ........ 1 11

l, L3,iGtilllDll0 4


202 66
23() 2(
32 2 .
1,781 61
40 18


T1 .11
9 53
1021
49 X I


82 ..". ". ... I "" 6

322 230| 241
| ..... ".. .... ..... . .... ... I .
J ____ __ _Kt
ja^^^ ao s


25811 11 8j 16 1) 1m


1,8111 5,8192Ml


Nstc1oupllHO frm 119 T, W AP OWCIad 1WMretI lt 21,310, 8F5,7


-- -


li ^ n lj Il|






WAT'FElfIEL()NS IN FLOI()RII)A 23
(
'able 7 enables one to~ compare 1IIh shlipmeiin s in various months
of mleii s and tfrshll fuii/s. The price of wateriielons is, of course,
affected to a certain e tent ly the supply of fresh fruits on til
market at tlhe saimeL tmel. as wat\eri'Ilonl s aill ia c(nllioudit that
naturally has to compete with fresh cantaloupes and fresh fruits.

TABLE 7**
C'AlRl.O)r S Il'MlE.rNTS OF S'rICIFID) MII.o)NS AND FiRE.SII' FRI'I's IN TIIK I'NIITE)
Sr.Tr:s. 1925. 11926. A~N) 1927


\ il ( l' lllIlillSi .
(111'u :11o)11
('lchrrie'
Gratln,>

'i ialige.
Pea r"
I' ellll 1:111n 1 pl ril





I 'ar:1:il4lllli|."
('herlie-
llrpl144s
Mixed d c.ihinins


)I'lllllI t(1(U 1144128tll
t'I: iii- ;:1114
*ri. .111


1M ay Jilli:,

fli.' 11.71;7
1.,'03 11.07oS
17::1 1.0:{;
SN
...17 7i. 1--o
-1)S12 11.339
:G!s 1..951







1:82J I.:I:t!l



5.:1; 1.2031
l.(l.VJ 1.1 17


5 2 ll


.1.-11


WVaIlr iit'lo i- I .l % 15.111.
('1ll;111 ll 1.74-5 11.512
Che.rrie,- l61l GIII
i GraI' s 56
Mixed d(cciiln 11is .. 1 722'
Oranges 7.01.71 5.151)1
Piher- 257 5.
PlIIIII !11 Ta .... 10,934] 39.807
Averilg' for wVil1triieloi. .......... 0 071 12.842j


.111y Alg S p. o .
. .1 fly .\g. I Sept. (1(1.


I7.. II

71 4
1.::1 1 ,
1,7761
2.0:11
1 7.!1: 12

39ss:!





2-!.1.7 1*,
ri.t'.i

-;.111'

21.71 9


Si.237

1.356
2:17


9.t'56

s13.
l:38
4.0>93s
12913s
2.2 *J
1.2501
52.9971
2260069


11.52 -1 2.39 ......
6.567 2.129 145



1.7401 1,726' 1,165
!1.921 7.4211 :41ti
tl;,s 3t 5i:1 2. 's t
1.3.1'. 1.4:51 45
l5:!IT; 57..,11 :9.337


11.3110
5..71



31.2
2.2617
3.2101
24.5-1)


G1.751


1.,5
2. 167

:31.245
762
:.1-44

6.1151
1.,96
54u.911


9

29.S99
341
:.1,83
1.021
2.,55
177
37.485


5.',1 1 240
)5.442, 2.328 108
60 ... ..... .. ..
G.4271 30.SS2 36,445
2.047 1,0771 254
3.4:13 3.20)1' 3.348
13.o15 9.711 176
6.914 5.630. 2.307
1.412 2.019, 176
44.4581 56.0941 42.814
9,587j 1,8311 ............


Sour ie f dali :
Ftor May Ito Sep'litember from ('. S. Dept. .gr. <'niips ;niid nl Mrketis 1 :21S. 24IS.
318. :157, 397. 1927.
For (il tober frmn I'. S c. Dept. Agr. i'r> l moI irkets 3:370. 1924.
** I iulle tin I1 'l':ulf rniiilu I".ll E Slltm ni.


MNl4-li- ;ind Il'lil-






24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRI CULTUREE

DISEASES AND INSE TS
For information on diseases and inse ts of watermelons,
write to the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gaines-
ville, Fla., or the United States Departm nt of Agriculture.
Washington, D. C.

SUMMARY
Watermelons are grown either for the market or home use
in practically every county in Florida.
Waterme ons as a rule should not be grown on the same land
oftener than once in seven to ten years. It is better to plant
on new land whenever possible, thus avoiding loss from disease.
One should always use a sufficient amount of fertilizer to
produce a good crop.
It is best never to leave more than two vines to the hill.
The practice of pruning melons from the vine is always
recommended. The best time to prune is when the melons
are four to six inches long, leaving only two melons on each
vine.
The melons must be cut and not pulled from the vines, leav-
ing as long a stem as possible.
The melons should not be cut from the vines until nearly
ripe.
It is always preferable to load the melons in the car the same
day they are cut from the vines.
All melons should be treated for stem-end rot at the time
they are loaded into the car.
To make sure that melons will arrive on the market in the
best of condition, they must be carefully handled from the
field to the car.




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