ll i N -. 4 Nq.\v w t-ri-., (h-iol4iTr. .S
i~*-^ ^ ~* -* -* *-* c*-* -*-*- -* ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ~* -* -* *
By J. PETERSEN
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
.\''NATHAN M1AYO. ('Coiiii1111111siii'
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Natha~ill Nlavoc, ( mn In lissicoller it* A .\Criculturtl'c
'T. .1. B1Io0ks. I)iN100rt I Bilreall Ioifiiin'.rration
JohniIf Scvott. Advrcut il-i-a E'dit",
'a I Ia assee
'Tall a Itasset'
A W t
A Well Fr'uited Plant.
Interior View Papaya Fruit.
Papaya Culture in Florida
T HE native home of the pail) ya is tihe Americani tropics. Ap-
parvently il was onte of the first tropical fruits to attlracl the
expllorer. for soon after tihe discovery y of that continent
I)ipapayi seeds were taken to the Orient, where the fruit today
is highly valued. In llawaii and other tropical coulntlties the
apl)l.ya is conlsidetird i verytl delicious breakfast fruit and is
tranlkedt il im portance nIext to the bilf ianaa.
Although ithe )Ilapayila hlas been known for 400 years, little
litellterature is available onllCt-r int'" its lpr)opaIattiio and
This stitli jtt t hi s reclliv d l co' nsidtt iral hl atteitti lin recentlyy, illI
ait i-reat t Inlt ii problems still rcil1ai 'in unsolved. Tihe most in-
portan'h t of thl'is is the seleh' ion and lbreedii't of better varietit.
of li'ifo, s'tr iz itl al flavor, and without i the ti tlid si t ab li chal
lacteristics of their jlI)tl'It aiiestors. lOther problems iarc p i-
te11 tion against t'ro.t the tpal pal(i-a nfl land m iarlket inll'.
i 'taiaya plantil' ii s are indeed verY atltralctive. eit het singly
lor i t t a oiipl, tli l always draws alttentiont l while ta wel-
ral g 'ed rove is a p)ictlir'e otf belutyv. Most fruit trees re-
tllire a lo iL' lapset, of tiie before they yield returllns: not so tilhe
papaya. Quick product ion and tgoodI yields are ano1L1, its de-
rided advantages. Furthermore. fruit is available several
sirce. If sc ientific methIods are applied to ro win'iiil- papava.
they may prove t re' ilineral ive occlpation. At ailv riate. lit
ppaiaya Imerits more extensive ultivation than it has been
given up) to date in Florida.
S1I i itly trv opic l il i ils r'equilremeits. tlhe papilaya i an be safely
'ro\vn only inll compall ratively frostless reI-, ions. In Floridt.
colnImeI'rcial papal ya culture is limited to ithe Florida Kes tandll
the coast region aits far north aIs P'alm Heach on the East ('Coast
and Bradeniton ont lhie West Coast. Even inll these areas frost
may otasionall injure thlm. The only other areal inll tilted
United States vwhlere papa\yais Itare 'rowi\l is inll extreIme solluthernll
California. Acordinlg tIo various lhorticultirral writers. the
paplaYas produced in California are of inferior quality, their
insipid flavor being calsed, it is supposed, by tilhe prIevaililng
low night temllperlature. It was observed after the last freeze
in South Flloridai that papayas grrowing' even inll especially pro-
teeted places \were of inferior finavor.
2 ';ilIta ;
i ii tail\a i.a ai ti I lii "V lii' Rd)1'1 ~ Ii.Lilll gt;I1 ii i! ~lll iV l ; 1( ()111
llht'hIiiitlt~i t hut t ile f- 1a) ;1 R Vltdoi'. tet.fi (4hitIse flultli' frilol t'
Iwax. cfa.\ to hI_,Iil (IIII ll. 11 -r w 11)t(1X I-a tY n h li
iii \ ii i a licI Niiui I'i ul el.II p liip ii it i I' the ',(o li fi' t 'lllt b ie re
I~cllelliber ed 111,11 the pap af a is a crro ss t iv der. w fmse l ias ve mlleI(
lit iIl thie wiivre'itI a i iI i ii. hutter I lillf'n i a nd II oIIill
iiats- t' MU, If 5r;1111 iii aid t r atiwih Theu (Itl lt'1-4.1i-cill'ttl 14t)i
I v 1 (1 a t utI I iRp jt itt Aii iis I thaii t hi lii itgl o -4Ir.re l a nd~!
f12 e. ili) w i ih t Ihe I s iir I l i val ll i il o 'lt- I( of til m lllelcill i d h'.l-
Iiol' ils lal 0 .ullo L, Jtt'R.Im t*lIt al.lllul(llial. I II'*' t' v lit ilaithiY' Ibc e a tth-
h'llcicci'i i('ico. 11o nd 12 ) IIR't'I S lit I hat S cii tutllllth tlci(ai'llt bRiv
;I ?.?' teI ) v ile la ts
antd11' t oll ti i ilt- iustll il t.erlif (lIr Sl1pera illidaliv if
I'm) tt'' t it i/pp till t' i lo' 11t it' oll tI h t ill II g !il- v ii1tlullY.
Tiii papa%-ial;. plit twa, it p1r(ll-ipelatilttuimt every six
cll'(Ii lill'I Ld i the V (Ill a comlt ill VIllip v lit plant food.
fertiill 'z r. ai c i t 1)1i 11ve il M1(3 it* teil Ili/. I l liIa y e I 'w i1,litlY I iI
k'l'(zil5'( ill aillohit,. ai n adi t l(( ionalld app)licationi Iina v If( made.
Staiblie a ii(I eiiei Illaillin- niot lllfuirlnis hexelletint nuitri-
lilt-it to1 tlt-' planti Ibiut they. N I. Iak ill;Iuvv fav il abl lbacterial
%, i tv andl ra*;II. the il( o Ill ii-'e-il((I(illg. ealacIl off tie soil. It
tis af tisale it)w kee p lj,! tp' viil we lll u tic iji atall thellesa GIras
,eW-1([ weeds (i0lt' illY kinld m ilake I liiIIs' favorYlit'Sil iehi .hae
Bre hriff'dllt I %( a( nd' Ie JiI'( I)hl('-ld (l ilellv lel t (r i 'p liclllls 5CVf ilex
('l'()ss-l"nhhi lltc ld l m is ~ll('e(Ill~lpi shell~ 1i iflseects W\lii(ll (r'i'l'- thec
NIrtddI s I'll illlili-h ll'llli'l(' 1W1'teetfloplr't
1)ci reel te I% l'Papit( vslke manyfrujeits al d fli'tet ldlifl lrols. sutha
pea'chttl .llhlteiV I I ilele ae lSilC. (I1't' I llt hail feflh(L lile seedl1t.
T)ot plIa sveX elmll it e lzeidefr Ilutil tief g lnmidulityiil., apelli. triClt
Is soilhe ]ill(\ 11 tsc' tIll' parayas aWie pllldhlrll Ifi'(in thle stanSid-
(IWiItt ( tlli l ie gt e. the ae tlhlale (,Idlts lll.\- II smal en isidetre dt
theri(rl\N. se'11111g, phiii iiawtilell plmllve h~i-lt t-icr IlY llike till(.
ee. aipaas wilt veells bllile ex Jagatl'l)lvlltahhV aIll h i le
hIlact ied by I prvl l I'(iililecill gt'Od er t'. ic-ilc )(i io"
DE'PAUTME'NT 41F AGRICULTURE
A Heavy Bearing Plant with large Fruit.
PA PAYA E I N FLO R I DA
Ini South Florida, Ipapaya seed may lie sown at any timel dur-
ing tlhe vyiar. The. seed bed should he thoroughly Il-repared by
inlorl)poraiiilla a; ( g(oodly lluaintity of humolls, and the soil should
he kept in a friable. mellow condiition. Flats or boxes may he
used. conltaiingin about four inches of soil underlaid with some
charcoal. It is i-'eiierally advisable to plant the seeds in rows
fouI inchles apart. leavi'lln about tile sanile dlistanice between the
single seeds il tihe rows. The seed 111.st then lite overed with
porous soil not more than one-hialf inch deep. l'The seed bed
must be kept moist biut not wet. and it is intessary to prIoteet
it d(uiniig tIle ii hlit against Ipossible frost.
The seed will begin to sprout about two weeks after they
are planted. When tilte ouning plants have attained a height
of about foiur inclies, t(hey are ready to be transplanted to
flower pots or o(li'er su iljlt]e conltaillers.
When tlie young papayas are about 8 inches hiigh, they should
be transplaintedl to thte open field. If tiln cans are used, it is
lot l'eessarv to remltove t heil ti le till will sooni rust whlie ill
contact will tlhe soil and the roots can then easily penetrate
Whlien plaintig on sand s soil, tihe holes should be made two
feet ill diameter and one foot deep. Then il is desirable to
fill these holes with well rotted compost aind allow them to
settle for several days. The papayas may be planted 6 to 10
feet apart. The vyounig plants may Ite set somliewhat deeper
in the soil than they stood in tIlhe seed bed. They a're very
susceptible to standing water and rot off at Ile base if water
collects around the 1111trn11k.
After th le plants have been removed to the open field, they
slioihl le prolected against the rays of tIle sun. for which
purpose oldhi ball happier may be used.
Wlihile it is advisable to replat thlie voiunig seedlini'-s before
thlie are more tlian one foot lhighi. even large plants from five
to six feet high imiav he t'ranspllalted if they are takelin up with
a lar'._,e ball of earth and if ;all large leaves are removed.
Alter tran)splailtig, the younil plants should lhe watered
r'equ'iieitly until thwey *i vhive becol.me well established. Without
an adl.|iial supply of moisture. the plants will and drop thll
leaves. W while the pllailts are y'ouln g, a muilchli colsistin' of le
moli or litte,. should lie kept around thiili. This will not oil
DEPARTAIE'NT OF AGRICULTFRE
PAPIAYA (TiI/'RIE IN FILO)IIDA
Staminate Papaya Producing Fruit from Tip Flowers.
DPI)E1TAH''EN'F OF \G'RlC1_LT1'RE
cheek evaporation, but also creates conditions favorable for
nitrification. Later when the leaves afford sufficient shade, the
mulch may be disposed of and the remnants incorporated into
the soil. After the papayas have rooted well. few difficulties
will e encountered, and rowh will ecouteed, d growbe so rapid that one will
be able to note its progress almost daily.
In frost-protected locations, the papaya seed are sometimes
dropped direct in the places where the plants are desired to
grow. If three or four seeds are placed to a hill, the weaker
plants and males may he eliminated later, but plants grown
under this system are often spindly and not so stocky.
IN THE PAPAYA ORC(IIARI)
The first blossoms appear about one month after transplant-
ing, and flowering and fruiting go on almost continuously. If
properly cared for, the papaya will yield considerable fruit
during the first year. The size of the fruit varies according
to the variety. Usually a plant produces fruit of the same
form. but the size is usually smaller as the trees get older.
Some fruits are not Imuch larger than a pear, while others may
reach weights of 15 or 20 pounds. They vary in shape from
spherical to cylindrical. The most desirable size, however, is
fruit weighing from two and a half to four pounds.
Tle papaya fruit has a thin skin. The flesh, which is white
Ibfore maturity, later turning to a deep orange in color, is
from one to three inches in thickness. Inside of this is a cavity
which, attached to its wall, contains numerous grayish-blaek
wrinkled seeds tlhe size of a small pea.
The papaya plant characteristically consists of a single trunk,
bearing dark green, deeply lobed leaves, sometimes two feet
across and supported by hollow petioles several feet long. The
leaves are so arranged that they appear like an umbrella
shading tlie fruit, which is closely clustered near the top. The
leaves, as they grow older, turn yellow and drop to thle ground,
leaving conspi(uious scars on the trunk. If developed undis-
turbed. the trunk usually has no lateral branches. When a
plant has grown so tall that it becomes inconvenient to gather
the fruit, the trunk may be cut a few feet above the ground.
and a nunt)er of sprouts will later bear fruit like the mother
A slight frost will usually kill the papaya down to the root.
If the lower part of the trunk is banked with soil, and the
upper end c(ut off in time to prevent further decay, the root
may develop several sprouts. Wind storms also may cause
IAI'AYA ('UIITRE IN FOIA)IDI)A
A Typical Plant.
DEPA RT'1PMNT OF AGR 1 ULTIT'l-E
heavy losses in papaya plantings, which makes it desirable lo
have wind breaks on the exposed sides of the orchard.
The papaya plant is comparatively short lived. In some see-
tions of Florida the plants are expected to produce only one
crop of fruit. while in other sections thireeo five years is
about tie life of a plant. In sections where only one crop of
fruit is expected front each plant, the plants are inter-planted
each year. In other sections where the plants are expected to
live longer, inter-plantings are made every three to five years.
In this way the plantings are maintained from year to year.
I'ESTS AND I)ISEASES
There are two pests that threaten the papaya: i. e., the
papaya fruit fly and the papaya leaf blight or leaf-spot, a
The female of the papaya fruit fly inserts her eggs into tlie
youngii inniature fruits by means of a long ovipositor. The
young larvae first feed on the seeds, but later on work into
the flesh, causing the dropping of the fruit or making it unfit
for human consumption. It is, therefore, advisable to prolpa
gate only varieties having very thick flesh so that tlihe eggs
cannot be deposited in tlie seed cavity.
The papaya leaf-spot. although previously observed in the
West Indies, has been reported in Florida. This fungus dis-
ease attacks tlie foliage, forming oil tie under-surface of the
infected leaf, black pustular spots which are slightly raised
above the leaf tissues. Tlie infested areas appear on the upper
side of the leaves as brown distinctly outlined spots. In the
black masses on the uider-surface of the leaf are found the
spores of the fungus, which. carried by wind or insects, spread
tlie disease. A severe attack may cause complete defoliation
and death of the plant.
If discovered in time. tile leaf-spot may lie controlled by
thoroughly spraying with i-8-50 Bordeaux mixture. Both
upper and under side of the leaves should be thorouglghly cov-
'red with tlhe spray in order to kill all spores Iproduced and
protect tlhe new leaves against infection. It will be necessary
to repeat the spraying three or four times at intervals of about
ten days. It is also advisable to remove and ldstroy all severe-
ly infected leaves both on the plaits and on the ground, and
the remaining foliage must he sprayed at weekly intervals
until tle disease has disappeared. In case of a severe attack
on young plants, it will he more economical to remove them
and plant new ones.
A very Tall Plant. This Type not so Desirable.
IA '.\Y.A (l'l'lIl IN FLOlIllD).\
D.EI,\RAI'ENT OF AGRICU'LLTURE
Nelmatodes (root-knot) may cause some loss in young plants,
but if the seedlings are grown in seed beds free of nematodes,
the damage from this cause will be slight.
There are few scale insects found on papayas that are
troublesome to the orchardist.
YIEIU) ANI) MARKET
At present the demand for papayas is much greater than
tle supply and the retail price ranges from 10 to 12 cents per
pound. However. as more of this fruit goes on the market, the
price is likely to be reduced, and in the future it is possible
that the price may he reduced one half, or even more. of the
Papayas respond very quickly to good treatment. During
18 months an exceptionally good healthy tree may yield as
much as 300 pounds of fruit. An average yield for an orchard
is usually between 50 and 100 pounds of fruit per plant. Most
varieties turn golden yellow during ripening, while others re-
main green. If it is desired to ship them, they should be
picked before fully ripe, and carefully packed in excelsior.
The conlmercial possibilities of papaya culture are somewhat
limited because it is not safe to ship the fruit a great dis-
lance without icing it properly. However, oi several occa-
sions, fruit has been shipped as far as northern ('anada and
Europe, the shipments arriving in good condition and selling
at a handsome price.
The ripe papaya endures cold storage exceptionally well.
Even after two months in cold storage, the characteristic flavor
will have been retained almost perfectly. Frosted fruit, how-
ever, is not palatable, being tasteless and insipid.
It is not to be expected that papayas will be an economic
factor of prime importance, yet with improved transportation
and with wider familiarity with the merits of this delicious
fruit, the northern markets should offer good opportunities.
At least every home garden and grove in South Florida should
possess a few papaya plants, picturesque as well as useful.
It is doubtful if Vlorida will ever be able to compete with
foreign markets in manufacturing papain, yet it may be worth-
while trying. To such growers as would be interested in rais-
ing papayas for papain extraction, the following -remarks by
V. A. Beckly. printed in the Journal of the Department of
Agriculture. UInion of South Africa, may be helpful:
P AP~AYA. ('LTIATE IN FLORIDiA
"It is well known that the juice of the papayas will remler
tou,'h nelat more tender. This is due to a ferment (papain)
which possesses the power of dlig'esting protein materials such
as menat e.L'L' white, the vuNrd oft milk, etc. Its action is similar
to the t\wo well-known body fevrmenits. pepsin and trypsin.
()n account of its efficiency being' greater than llhat of pepsin.
it is largely replacing that substance as a dir '.
"'Papain appears on the i market in til' form of a white or
creamy powder, easily pulverized between thli fingers. It has
a chlirarterist ic pungl 'lent sn oll. It should not Ile discolored.
lnor should it possess a(l. milaloor. The presence of ally dark-
(niingi' generallyy indicates improper niiii ufacture, while a bad
odor shows tIliat ai (ertainll aiiimountI ol decomposition hias takenll
plar>. If pi edl
command a vl i ry Ilow priv., ii it. in fa lt tI 'rt, w(er ally (dellLmand
for it at all.
"' pai is o4)fti adulller Itea d with starch anw d s inuilar suni
stance(Is. Such lilllter;atliil d "i'e r ls t 'IV ratly 1fro'1 the value o)
tihe article but is more vasil. h\ ,41e l
genrierally hlu.ight according to assay, its power of digestinLe
casein hli il!iu the critvion iiof vailu<. Not only dh(es this assa51
determiii e the di.u''stive power (of tihe sample lbut it also pro:-
vid(s a mi4 cai s ol'f d e', ct iiing' adll l oration wilth l ot(ihr prot'ein-
splittin fi'iri itllis.
"'1 al inll is very aiily obltaind in its i o eI-a' 'iaul form Ia
simply dr'yiiie the latex or mlilck thl t xi a ls frorm lthe rind ofe
la r in papa a f'rui. A.s losiiI i a'"s c( trl in silii )]it )p) ca tltioln
are obl 'rved. it i is witllint their power nf any u'rower ()I papa as
to product e pnpaii o(f' a hi'lher i i'ercha(Iahle vaalte.
"The latex c ontaif init t h' )a[I pa inll is lbcst oltain ed fIrom ifll
grown or nearly full-growvn. well-developed gree<'n papayas l:n
scratching,' or maki)nu' shallow cuts in tht. rind with an ivory.
bone ()Ior wooden knife. Very youIng' 'ruits give a latex that is
rather w(lk in digrestive power. while the ripe fruit gives very
little, if' al eo. milky j1iire.
"The juice that exudes is collected in a glass or vhina vessel.
which cnuset be scrupulously clean. After a short while the
milk coagulates in the cut and tlhe flow ceases. The Curd is
carefully removed from the cut and added to the milk in the
vessel. The 'fruit miay be tapped several times at an interval
of a few days until it begins to show signs of ripening.
"On no account should a steel kt)nife le used in cutting fruit.
nor should the latex he (collected in a tin. Either of these
will cause tlhe resulting papain to bIe blackenled or darkened.
DEPA RTM'\ENT OF' W(RICUTLTURE
aliil thus (crease its market val ietilmes adar lk-cololred
lalex is obtained from the fruit even though n11 iron utensil
has been used. Such latex should be discarded.
"'Shortly after collection, Ithe whole maiiiss of the latex coagu-
lates, ftormiiilg' ai pure white eurd. This must ie rapidly dried
lest decomposition slhouldl set in. spoiling the material. On
a small scale the drying iiay he carried outl by spreading the
curd thinly on sheets of glass and drying in the sun. If the
drying hle 'comiiiiIecie not later tlian ailmut midday, the curd
should. by n .ilitfall. be suiffic-iently dry to insure that no
ldeconpositilo will take phlae durintig the night. The next day
tlIh citird can lie c, npletely dried.
"S'uni-dryiln is minst uncertain and vtry in early il)npra(cticable
on a large scale. Artificial drying i by means of a fruit evapor-
ator or a drying' stove is more satisfactory, and yields a better.
lore lliforli. pTrodiclt. The lerd is spread oil brown or iun-
bleached linen stretched over light wooden frames that fit the
dryer to insure rapid drying.'
"'An easily Vconstructed drying stove is thlle type used ill the
West Indies. This consis sts of a brick chambelir 3 feet high. :l
teet wide, and (i feet long. open at thle top; the dimensions may
he clhan-ied to Ileet the requirliteenlts of tlie grower. About
a foot iProm the top a sheet of iron is fixed horizontally across
tlie chamber. A small fire-box is constructed at one end and
a chimneym at tile thler end.
In using, the dryer, a layer of sand is placed on thle sleet
,o iron to keep the temlperaturle as even ita possible. A fraeil
is placed over the tolp lo the chamber, forming, as it were, a
lid or cover, when the hot air hdives off title moisture. Great
care must be observed to maintain as low a temperature as
possible. At ino time should the temperature of the tray exceed
100 degrees F.. as above this point the activity of the product
"As the material dries it shrinks -reatly. so that eventually
hie partially dried contents of several trays may le placed ill
one tray and the drying completed. The drying is continued
until the material shows no stickiness and is crisp throughout.
While still warmi it is ground finely in a mill (a coffee mill is
very suitable and the powder packed in clean air-tiglit tils.
Ior preferably bottles."
Panpayas may le used in numerous wAays. If served for
bIreakfast or after dinner, they are cut lengtIhwise and eaten
with a spoon after the sees and the thin gelatinous april have
Ibeen remove. Sall, peppiri or h ilonu jiive millay III, adI edt
a.verrdig lo ta iste. The fruit is ripe when it urives way to the
preissiiur ofIe t1he thumb.
The best way to prepare papay.il-as is its follows: Ice the fruit
thlloroughlly. ('it theli papaya into hlialve's. l'iliove the seds and
the out er peelinl'r. T'heln ciut int+o biles, tllix with llr e e n'ctiilies
aild sprinkle a little sui'g'r Ion. An\1 a
sIit'eez'e(d ol n lop) of the clulb 's a ld s 'rvedl in a o< 'ktail] lass.
Sli ,edl atdl serve with wlhippei[) l renll, papayas ilake, a
,1 nlillb 'er's. a \'lhole'solin a l nol rishiniL' i lal i It' cale'll raw .
papayas s io e 'what resemble,, il th,. inorlhl ,rn il o.1 tali pe.
'apal ya marinalhd amnd ji ll.y ;re 'r 'l:, x rlish d.
il' pr'epare d ,l w ilh l lil e or le i ,on, juice. 'I'lh.el tlher'e arn. nllt lt'"r
Iol otiler vwa siv n ta utIilize the' rip, papaya Ior pies. short laki s.
slherb ls, al nl. pickles. lI'iripe piapaya-s lcaln le lli lld or sl i l'c
and servcld as a i t e' tivabl, like squasl h or kolh.]raiii. Tih iren
fruit also imakeis a deliious sallee resemiblilL_' that litale froinl
ppls' ('rystalized papaya cnitl s. it' p'rcpareld arefully,. make
sonie of the lbest van irs that van Ihe madle fromn tropial fruits.
The, pa ayva plant in its dliffterent or ais--trunl. ieavs. l l.,-
s0m and fruit contains a milky .juiet', lthle acli\ve' priniiiple< of
which is tcallhd papain ia .licii.al closely related in it.s action
tlo allnimllal p ,psi, an tI sl snit'cessft' illy its ita renll dy f' or ait
innlmbel r of ail tnniits. sulch as lys (pepsia. Sincet. llhe dig-estive
properties of painn becaunn better undlerstool, it hias attrattel
anl eVOr inlcreasinlg
War. most of the papain ,used for nedicinall purposes was ill-
ported front In(lia. and when the in rice went up t4o $25 per
poul llnd. co, iplaintls becat ie ntimn erous that it was ahilterated.
The di,'grestiv prope'rt'ies of tihe' papain are wIell recognilzed lyh
'he natives of Indhia. who wrap papay- leaves around a piece
of In'at in order to make it teldler.
Tihe ,tn'iipe fruit especially contains auln lh uli lan.c of apaii
juii'e. which flows freely a1di is collected at tihe surface' when
tlihe skin of fthe fruit is lightly sore(id with a Iknife. Thl sa<'rin"g
mIay be i l oine several times libefore the fruit is picked and
not seein to inlerferei' with lthe eating il qualities of tihe fruit.
altliolughi the scores, appearing' oni thie sillrfal e ats ait result iof lthe
blhl ind inilake the fruit unsightly ;n li therefore hia'rdllr to sell.
The total suli'gar continteil of tile ripe papil a differs accord ling',
io variety allnd s ason. m i in s it 'xce' Il-, 10 pli'elnt andi
it is principally folilundi inl the t'orii of invert sul 'ar.
PAPAYA (TIATRE IN P'LORIDA
D)EPA RTM1\ENT OF~ AGR ICULTI'RE
The papaya is a very common fruit itn Hawaii and is served
in many different ways on the island. The following quota-
tion. taken from Bulletin No. 32 of tlie Hawaii Agricultural
Experiment Station. "The Papaya in Hawaii," will give the
reader an idea of tie food value of papaya, and some of the
methods of preparing the fruit for table use in Hawaii should
he of interest to people in Florida.
THE PAPAYA AS A FOOD
Perhaps lthe mIost frequielit use of the papaya is as food, al-
though almost all parts of the plant are utilized in some way.
The general composition of the papaya fruit is shown by the
Nitrogen-free extract 6.32
Reference lias been made above to tlhe nearly universal use
of the ripe papaya in the tropics as a breakfast fruit. For this
purpose it is cut lengthwise into portions and the seeds re-
moved. The placenta with the seeds attached may often be
removed without scraping the flesh, which is thus left in the
most attractive form for serving. Many prefer the choicest
fruits without other flavoring of any kind, but a little juice of
the lemon or the lime is a favorite accompaniment, while a few
prefer salt and pepper or even sugar. The green fruit when
fully grown may be cooked as summer squash, for which it
affords a very good substitute. The ripe fruit is used in maRk-
ing plapaya glaee.
The following recipes, taken from a book recently published,
give some directions for the use of this fruit :**
CHINA ORANGE AND PAPAYA MARMALADE. No. 1
To 1 measure papaya allow % measure China oranges. Wash
oranges well, squeeze out seeds and juice. Put skins through a meat
chopper and add to the juice. strained free from seeds. Add papaya
pulp cut in small pieces and boil all together; then add as much sugar
as pull). Boil again for 15 or 20 minutes.
Maine Sta. Bul. 158.
** Jessie C. Turner anrd .\gaues I .\B A 'xanll'cr. "How to Itse Hlawaiian
Fruits" lHonolulu, 1910. pp. 17, 42. *.1.
PAPAYA CULTURE IN FLORIDA 21
CHINA ORANGE AND PAPAYA MARMALADE. No. 2
To 6 cups papaya cut in small pieces add 1/3 cup China orange
juice. Boil 15 minutes and add half as much sugar as pulp. Boil
again for 15 or 20 minutes.
STEWED PAPAYA. No. 1
2 cups diced papaya Juice 2 lemons
1,2 cup sugar i4 cup water
Cut papaya in dice and stew with sugar. water, and lemon juice
',2 hour. Serve in sherbet glasses as a first course for luncheon, or
a dessert. Can use 4 China oranges in place of lemons.
STEWED PAPAYA, ..o. 2
Cook in the same manner as No. I. with 1/ cup sugar and only
enough water to keep fromn burning. Serve as a vegetable.
Cut papaya in halves lengthwise. Add a little sugar and China
orange, lime, or lemon juice; or a little cinnamon in place of the
juice. Bake 20 minutes and serve immediately on taking from the
oven. This is a vegetable.
Make sir'up of I measure sugar and o measure vinegar. Add a few
whole cloves and pepper corns and 2 measures fii half-ripe papaya cut
into small pieces. Boil until tender.
APPAYA AN) GINGER
Make a sirup of I measure of ginger, 1 measure water, some finely
sliced dried ginger, and a few slices of lemon. Add 2 measures half-
ripe pat:aya sliced lengthwise, which has been previously simmered
in water until clear, but not broken.
Cut papaya in dice and serve in glasses witli cocktail sauce and
chipped ice. Or serve with China orange. lemon or lime juice, and
little sugar in same manner.
PAPAYA SAI.AD. No. I
On a strip of peeled papaya lay small bits of poimelo and orange.
Serve with mayonnaise on separate plates. and garnish each with one
or two nasturtiums and leaves.
PAPAYA SALAD, No. 2
Cut papaya in cubes and add S smill Chinese onions an(d .5 pieces
green celery chopped fine. Serve with boiled dressing.
To I1*. cups papaya pulp add juice I lenion. I 'l p suiiir and heat
into 2 stiffly whipped whites of eggs.
D E'PA RTMEN'r OF AG R1CULTlUR E'
1 box gelatine 1 cup boiling water
I'.J cup cold water 1 cup papaya pulp
Juice I lemon 12 cup suear
Soak gelatine in the cold water 5 minutes. Dissolve the sugar in
the boiling water, add gelatine and strain. \\hen cool. add th e lapaya
and lemon juice. Place on ice to harden.
2 eggs Juice 1., lemon
1 cup papaya pulp 1 cup sugar
12 cup butter
Make a bottom pie crust and bake. Cream butter and sugar. Add
beaten eggs, lemon juice and papaya. Pour into pie crust and bake.
Make a meringue of white of eggs and 2 tablespoonsful of sua;r.
Place on pie and brown in oven.
Mix 4 cups papaya pull with 2 cups sugar and juice of -2 lemons.
MED)I('INAI, AND OTHER USES
Pl'ala \ bark is used in tIhe manufacturers of ropes. Nearly all
parts ofl the plant are credited with sollie medicinal value. The
roots afford a Ile-rve tonic. Thle seeds are said to be anthll-
llniltic. 'lilllolnaigie', aild carmiinative. lTheyv are also atell as
a delieae'y and as ia quencherl of thirst. The ripe fruit finds a
place as an inllgredient in certain sirups and elixirs. which are
said to be expectoralt. stedative, alnd tonic.
The most important iedlicinal property of tlie plant is found
in the milky juice. This is used by the natives of thle tropics in
the treatment of ecZenia, warts. intestinal worlms,. ullers, allnd
many kinds of foul sores. in diphtheria to dlissolve lhe false
Iiemlnralnes in tlie throat, and for numelrolus other ailments.
The ripe fruit is used as a cosmetic. a slice of it being rubbed
upon tlie skin to remove freckles and other blemishes. The
rleen fruit iland tile leaves are employed as soap to remove
stains from clothing. .
No single use of the papaya. except for food, is so common
in the tropics as that of thie milky .juice in rendering tough
meat tender. For this purpose a slice of the green fruit, rich
in juice. is rullbbed over the tliouhl flesh, or the latter is dipped
for a few minutes in a solution of the juice. Sometimes a
piece of the gr'eell fruit is put il tile water in which tlie meat
P~1APAYAI'1'R IN FLO'ARID)A
Another practice is to wrap the meat in papaya leaves over
night. or even to hang it in the papaya tree. The feeding of
'reen papayas to hogs is reported to make lhe pork tender.
Some of these Iractices are of doubtful efl'icay. Some writers
recommend mixing ginger with the juice when it is to le ap-
plied to meat.