hulllclin No. 20 New 1Mi1
'Sae fFlorida age
NH MO a
JOHN \ (. C~oTT
Stat Plbi~ed CofFleraidawt l(,Cleeo
NA~o1utiE o Jill vAol,1 (y of i'orii4r a,
astt f lrLl
D) EA'AwI'riENI' OF A(M~ICU 1LTI HE
\at Iiai NIimps. t nminii in. r (if .rr~iviad tire .... .Tallaa.bav'
I' .1. Bri uk%. I)irevtor. Itimratai of Imrlfnisrtr;lt j in .. Tallahavse
Iiiii. s. T;ra om., s jult'rviitig itiswii~mi .............. I'llalimseescY
John M1 ~. Scott, Agriculturallrll Editoi .................. (;ainesnville
M A %N (;O ]:S h a ve h e( v l -ro w n ill F lo rid a fo r a good m in y year11als.
Their valm. poi ii as and Iipol a tritil crojp II, evv 1,
haivent Ibet'ii bY riiizi lbi ,v riowrs r .1, the
of Floriitda. buit in Ilith oltithiern p'art ofI te sIhvIatv andI in pbr(,-
aThtlele prbvl t hue 'eisr ane to pridit a be tter tielied )I fril.. andx
'Siltlti lt hr' r-ili
(Ihinihig ; I' he ille I eIt \t It i li vithi *;11T r.oit'' r b;iil t'r.t IIi
siderable protn-t-, ba, bven.?.1' 11.~ Inadc 4-11 both III' 1)1-4,1l( 1.(~('111t.11,
(111.lig the pail i IN% ir ;1 t v Yea I-,. c1j41N14 c1al Lro wvr;I and rvIwarvl('
1111t IHle t' ou nu hilu i l l (I l .1it ltts (i ll(n (, ll loe ibs atll it Is toi) be
tXplcteditIIhat Ihv long, desirttl va'ariettN. w ill soonl n-waiu
Thuil., Iullet111 1 11 4-T a .1 0.4 a 1 s 1,lihijelI ii -tti-jt'l I.t I' ialln.-! iilt
buht njithit'i a (tlttlti'lit n.il.itVit' tI v. *inttl, _!ow r- whot have
yud ear~s of txptnriiletu ill ro~uwillg uoitugtts. Wet express olin.
thiantks ito all I litse wlit have sot kilitll v tiinii1islit't 111it inuttnlIuiat itti
By JOHN M. SCOTT
Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, Gainesville
SOR MANYl years the I'nited States Department of Agriculture
has been searching the face of tihe earth for useful and orna-
mental plants to experiment will and, if possible, adapt to
our uses for profit and pleasure. Among llhe thousands of
plants introduced is the mango (J1Man!/ifera indica Linn), which
comes to Florida from India and the Malay Peninsula.
The history of this lt is very interesting. It has been
known and cultivated in its natural habitat from lime im-
memorial-I'rom away back before history began. II has been
written about, siung, about, and worshipped.
The man lo is a fruil for which some people must acquire a
taste, bulit with many others it is enjoyed from the first. Its
composition would indicate a Iigih dietetic value. The brightly
colored fruit of some varieties makes it very attractive to the
eye. and the great majority of tlhe highly colored varieties are
very desirable so far as eatinii qualities are concerned.
In discussion' "lHow to ( o About It." there are a few
don't's t hat iImust be kept ill mind, bin so few of them that
ihey are mentioned first :
1. Don't alteillpt o girow mIangoies where the temperature
goes much below freevzinii;. unless you are fully prepared to pro-
2. Don't for-get that the mango is a dry climate plant; too
much moisture or humidity favors flungous diseases on both
plant and fruit.
:3. Don't think that because mangoes will ,row in almost
any kind of soil they will not respond to intelligent attention.
The manmigo tree is an evergreen. Seedliinus plaited in rich
fertile soil row to i ns si, often ins( tilhe tropics reaching
a spread of I00 to 125 feet. alto they are quite old 1,before they
grow so large. Trees a hlunldred years old are not uIlI(ncomlllo inl
the tropics. The seedling trees grow to a larger size than do
budded trees (See Vig?. 1).
Fig. 1, Row of seedling mangoes about 20 years old, These trees are about 30 feet high, Photo taken in
FLOI I)A MANGOEI S 7
ADAPTED TO SOUTH FLORIDA
Since the mango is a tropical tree. it is adapted only to the
southern part of Florida. At the present time mangoes are
grown successflly" on areas near the coast as far north as Mer-
ritt's Island on lhe East ('oast, and as far north on the West
Coast as 13Bradenton and portions of Pinellas County. There are
areas in the interior of the state where they may be grown sec-
cessfully if care is taken in selecting locations that are free from
frosts or nearly so.
()n grower tells us thlit he has had "close to eighty differ-
ent named mana.goes. many of them from far off India, some of
thieni from Cochin-China. others from South America, and still
others from the Ihilippines. Many of them have (died, whiile
others have grown into beautiful trees, but have produced no
fruit. Some. on the other hand. have produced fruit of fine
outward appearance but internally repulsive with spots of
canker-like growth, apparently due to some mysterious physio-
logical disturbances. A few of these pIlants have grown into fine
trees which produce nlmagniicent rI'til. Upon these few fine
sorts we should concentrate. pushing tlihm for all they are worth.
and growing seedlings from them with the hope of securing
varieties better adapted to Florida conditions.
"The plan is to bring about a combination of fine color, good
size, and fine eating qualities. We grat'l alternate rows of our
seedlings with scions from tliese finest rcees. The bees and other
insects you will notice flying about at blooming time scatter the
pollen, mixing things up. just as nature has planned it: the
fruit comes; tile seeds are planted; andi. 1 and behold, we have
something different. For instance, blight (anthlracnose) as you
probably know. is a fungouis disease which devastates and de-
stroys: it spots and kills the leaves and mars the beautiful fruit
witl unsightly blotches. Many of the finer sorts of mangoes are
susceptible to this blighting process. while a few of them are
very much less so; in t'acl, one of them which we have been
watching for some time appears to be practically immune. Buit
this fruit lacks tie high color which is so attractive to the con-
sumelr. To carry out the general plan. highly colored fruits are
grafted in alternating rows with fruits not so attractive to the
eye, liut fine in every olher way. This gives these plants a fair
chance to 'cross-pollinate.' Sometilmes we graft two or three of
these fine sorts oi the same tree. 'The result of this work. in
tlih ease we have ill mind. is several trees with fruit of fine
I)EI:IAIITMENST OF AGRZICULTUIIE
character, one in partieiilar. which, iln amount of Ithe ine quality
aiitl loveliness of its tf''il. has been lam'Ied ul set.' This tree
thus far has proven prolific and fairly free from btli,,ht-and it
conIes pretty near being ; 'Florida Tree. Another crop or so
will tell tile story."
'From the l'foregoin reference to cross-pollinalion, it need not
be inferred that interiplanIl in of varieties is necessary to secure
pollination aindi fruiting. The researches of Popenoe on this
siuhje-t Iprovd ilmt for all practical purpose, ti 1, mano flower
is self-fertile, althouli insiet agency is necessary to transfer
pollen from anot her to stigma. This f'act of self-fertility is a
distinct advaningae, since once a variety has been ldeitided on as
best suited to a particular locality, tils variety may he planted ill
solid bloks.. as thle IH adn is now largely planted il Florida.
()e grower advises that "tihe difference between the seedlinm
i1mango and Itle EIast iidian and oltheir ine graftedl varieties is
a Illatler of refiniementl. Sime seedling I;' ifr its are of fine flavor
bllt fibrous. Iln some ol tol'c poorer seedlings the filer is very
objeltionabLle. In thle very poorest sorts the turpentine flavor
is an added objection. Tlh lilnest o(i' Ite i seedliis have very little
tiller and are oif in e flinor. They weiL!h as much as a pound (or
more,. with a large seed. many of (liIhe beautifully colored. Highli
in our dooryard is a tree of t his kind, one of oiur lonely makers.
It is over forty feet hiilh. with a spread of about fifty feet ill di-
amieter. The writer planlted tlhe seed fronm which it has grown.
It is an impressive sighl. anI part icularly interest ing due to
lthe fact that it has produced oeeasional crops of sixty bushels
and( over of fruii which were ssold for a dollar andl a half per
Iushel ., net."
Probably vy there are upiIards of a hundred naitd nlanZotes,
most of tliem ninlerest ini, fromni the emuerial or utility sta(nd-
point ill Florhia. A brief lhissification that mighlit suit Florida
would be: Ploor. (;oof. Iletler, and lest. i'nlder the "Poor"
lieadinl wioul lie tlie yellow, strinMl,'v lhliins with thi flavor of
turpentine. The -Good" class wou li he made up of the ordi-
Inary seedlin'., final of thlvor but fitro'us. Tl'e Ietter"' ones
would be tlie finest seediluns, with very little fiber; and the
"lBest" would mean the line tfiberless !l'rat'led or lidiled fruit-
the fruit which no one yet has s'eeedth' in ahdeiiuately desvrili-
in'. The aim oil tlie enthusiast should hIe to brinr about fruit
trees of fine haracter, which caln lie deepened upon for enlerolls
crops, and which are, as nearly as possible, immullne from disease.
These conditions have beenll partially realized in tlie lladen
variety of Florida oriin, ut we iiell more itof these adapted
varieties tof local origin.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
* :. I
Fig. 3. Itamaraca (Brazil). Grafted about 2 1-2 years ago. Photo
taken February. 1929.
FLORIDA MANGOES 11
MULOOBA, for instance, the very finest of mangoes, is a shy
bearer and subject to the disfigurements of blight. The same,
to a more or less degree, may be said of most of the other intro-
duced varieties, as practically all of them seem unable to thrive
under Florida conditions. The varieties that we have tried out
and which seem to be more or less satisfactory are Haden, Cam-
bodiana, Faizan, Gala, Be nnett Alphonse, FaP.ji-long, Itamaraca,
and Raijpury. Other varieties of merit sometimes grown in Flor-
ida include Paheri, A- mini, Carabuo, Cecil, Sandersha, and
CAMBODIANXA, with its greenish yellow skin and comparative
freedom from blight, and Haden, with its wonderful color and
Fig. 4. Gola (India). Regrowth after storm damage. Photo taken
in February, 1929.
12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Fig. 5. Haden variety three years after grafting on seedling. Photo
taken in February, 1929.
fruit quality, seem to be the two most promising varieties. A
fruit that combined the Haden color with the Cambodiana's
resistance to disease and wonderful texture and flavor would
would rank close to perfection. The Cambodiana comes from the
Malay Peninsula, where it is said the climate is-much the same as
the humid climate of Florida. The I-Iaden is a Florida seedling
of Mulgoba, very highly colored, prolific, and of fine quality.
Seedling mangoes have been the money makers for local con-
sumption, and will continue to be so until we can produce the
finer fruits in such quantities as to make them profitable at a
low price. Twenty-five to seventy-five and over cents apiece is
too much. The need is "more fruit."
To develop and hold a profitable market in the large popula-
tion centers, however, it will be necessary to furnish a standard
product. This means the use of budded varieties, keeping the
seedlings at home. To prolong the shipping season, and lessen
the marketing risk, two or more varieties will probably be de-
sirable, maturing their crops at slightly different periods.
THE SOIl AND ITS PREPARATION
Remember that mangoes are a dry climate plant. They do not
relish being soaked with water-just enough to keep the ground
moist, not wet.
All the mango asks is room, plenty of dry weather, particu-
larly at blooming time, and a moderate winter temperature with
little or no Irost. Damage from cold depends largely upon the
condition of tlie tree. It makes no stipulation as to the quality
of' the soil. for it will grow almost anywhere that it. is not too wet
or too cold. We have seen some of the finest mango trees on white
sand twelve to fourteen feet to the water table.
Humus will improve nearly all soils and all plants will res-
potnd to the addition of lIinus to the soil. It will 1be found advis-
able to turn under some good leguiime cover crop oil the land
previous to planting ma11ngo.es.
The seed should be planted soon after r they have been removed
from the fruit, and before long you will have growing mango
plants eager to serve your purpose. Some of the plants will show
a single stem (Monemlbryonic) ; others may send up several
shoots from the one seed (Polyembryonic). The single stemmed
plants may be left as they are. Carefully lift the multiple stem-
med plants and you will see that the seed is a twisted lot of sub-
divisions. each with a stem and a root. These subdivisions may
be separated and replanted, but it must be done so as not to
injure the roots and stems.
The mango is similar t o many other plants in that it does not.
as a rule. reproduce "true to name." Its polyembryonic seeds.
however, are said to often prove an exception to this rule: at any
rate they are deserving of special attention, par icu larly it' the
seed is from a fine fruit.
But, you may say, these plants are all of them seedlings and
of doubtful character. Right you are: but they are. most of them.
14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE .
Fig. 6. West
Indian Seedling (Cuba) about 20 years old; showing
size of trunk of tree.
,. i'; 1 - r
Fig. 7. Same tree as Fig. 6, showing spread of top.
strong healthy plants with fine root systems-just the kind which
may be counted upon to make wonderful trees later on if you
are interested in developing new and superior varieties. It is the
later treatment of these seedling trees that is most interesting
Many of these seedling trees will bear fruit in from three to
five years, a few ol them sooner than that, with the chance that
some of them will give you something new in the mango line,
prolific, with fruit of good size and shape, of fine eating qualities,
and an appearance that will catch the eye of the consumer. Such
trees should be watched carefully, and, if they persist in such
good deeds, scions should be taken from them for grafting on
other trees of less desirable character.
As soon as the plants are well rooted and making good
growth, say about the size of a pencil, they may be transferred
to their permanent location, or put in boxes for shipment or other
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
treatment, or they may be left in the rows about 18 inches apart
to grow until needed. Transplanting is often done in June just
before the rainy season sets in.
The above is a brief outline of the seed bed route. In doing
ones own propagation, however, the grower quoted above, prefers
to, as far as possible, plant the mango seeds at the permanent
location to start with, say two or three seeds at each planting.
Planting in this way we may have two or three plants at each
location to select from, all but the best plant to be removed as
may be required.
We believe in care in transplanting. The ground is laid off
to suit one's fancy, with tree locations not less then fifteen feet
apart, say twenty by twenty, with much more room provided for
the seedlings which grow to be very large trees. Stakes should
be driven at each location, which is prepared for the tree by
digging a hole some time before planting. A wire with a loop
at each end is used to mark the holes, one loop over the stake,
the handle of the shovel through the other loop. A circle four
feet in diameter is described and a hole of that size is dug two
feet deep, the stake left standing in the center. The excavated
dirt is piled evenly around the edge of the hole. The hole should
be left open as long as it is convenient, meanwhile putting in it
a couple of sacks or so of dead mango leaves or other trash that
will rot quickly. Later on two or three handfuls of fertilizer are
spread over the dirt at the edge of the hole and all of it chopped
into the hole with a hoe, getting into the hole as much of the
sweet surface soil as possible, the workman standing in the hole
to tramp it down. In a few weeks the location is ready for the
Plenty of water should be used when setting the plant, not
for the plant itself necessarily, but to compact the soil to the
plant. Scratch the ground around the tree occasionally and
cover it with mulching. Cultivate the middles if you want to,
but not too close to the tree for fear of disturbing the fine fibrous
roots. If you have rabbits, protect with chicken wire, for rabbits
like young mango.plants; if it is gophers (land turtles) drop a
little "cyanogas" in the burrow and cover it.
Fig. 8. Cambodlian (Cochin China) variety grafted about 4 12 year ago. Courtesy 0, G. A, Kelbert
DEPKIARlTM~ENT E IF At;H~1 CI i.TI *IC:_______
4; sEI' i IN 41
a lilt 11% g~ralt It ii all 'if vssr ..'tiliir .'. siti a.1 tilt-% art-iof uftfi-
tit tr'hA is licit nIevssarit Y de'siro.s l ; ti'. '.lt- tiii th itraft' tIle
111-l' ore Illv Ivot jiis'se,.(ui to rvl el hi rioilt it mwd ling 1. tt'
41It i's1ur'se. t he q~uiceks't way tos frutit proiwltit'? 15hi' to billy yourl
I rs' \fromt a rie'lw nsuilile littir mal. 114'-. %ilhl sttit voll~ itil IIthi
I"-? aii' grI" Itljog s inl go t r t naIl IN- suem at ahuiuss'1111 t any1,M.
I i me. Il ialis b r s il lil t raill, i lile Irs 1ro wor o l Ihis'1 i',ind n e
j aft elrlIte Irve ilts 1is? litleld11 it 1h ish of It(-%%- Jrillt.I lI'lle It(-%rn
t i~firs rIII, ma un ii v thi' 1. got-u n 1-11,1 li; e'.s u n re's
a r iatl. th hal are I-nii-o t Iast I'i it- swt' s lcaq' jis f~r,-at
t11'. 1tivrx' than l aif t ilr. still. hihtn ti'w tlhiesi i t,-%% Iui ajt-ih* wis tisii.
Ihslilt( his' is I it irigih fo IIer gr ift i ei"-- wl ie-ii tlift s ark it'v tihlt
It t'tt IItI lli ((ttt'th, lwich it is ivIl Stig ot rit i I'.t't yttttii frti% slli.
utI '1 it s Ij t'. ts s iw rat hwr s '\JtI(,'ve. t11w Ms hl i rri Illiorffaine
I "1l, anii l l ami aIn 14hil at tts Ito licsr4ito m ll!d 1i1ra aip o' n rtlU 't at
tistlmethai n lar eri uihio t Illc i t as tech liows:ll tl wl?.
a s Idis i sr tl.ets1h 11r-. a s halt j ilt wh en tilt- ba of til
fl...silts the iaraft bli i illi'ui itis Jill i'i1tis1it h jssj1 you ng. a mil g lruhl,
bur t Ilit lug thin lsarItflul. i'tipert'sto1'o ha ir rathesrel .1,4 orir' Isaras f list
sqNtitlll tIiI' sIt' II h lls tss )rIS Sg.
at Ihl,44 orisi Iaujih. i- ili-s'alf all inch: -s n. kind wsiia'. thea too
'U 'iith s' jsotrsf l t tri.a 'tiA ss~ lit ito u-' :~r ;Ira'i m soall m
i6-r paittrtt's. aitis ksjsft lisj.tc m l w ith a s'Is iti tsr '.jshi rigt brad, Ihti ttl~
*mlig raffs'k (s lt suttr l forisu' I l'. sla'. .hs r '51 ltnI ti l-
"Sl it ll itit'hi s it (flh jI'tIN issitW. I' i ltv e 11stsI' tlit's tlt-i w .~it l site iji
-I h isf gi t l i t'.v uiavll t u'si'IsIis this'nss 11risittisl. that i to si t 1,%ihi
't: a'ls n risi.z '. ha dinw ia d-' s it 'h ll. '.T 1ir. s'r, -a' jsi t- theyuii.
Fig, 9, Cambodiana (Cochin China) variety, showing graft about 41.2 years old,
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
at tile base of the first large branches if the tree is a large one,
the point being to balance as quickly as possible a large root area
with a proportionate area of top growth.
"If you wish to be very particular about your work, brush
the spot selected for the graft with a weak solution of copper
sulphate and remove the surplus moisture.
"With the chisel or gouge make a glancing cut of about two
inches long down through the bark to the wood. Make a cross cut
at the lower end of this first cut and remove the chip. This
leaves a vcrticle niche. exposing at its lower end the wood beneath
tlih bark, with a flat shelf, so to speak, at the lower end, the niche
bIinig just about the right size for the upper part of the graft
to rest in. As soon as this niche is cut, paint it with tile warm
"Prepare the graft with as many buds on it as you want.
One bud is enough if you can get it placed without damage from
rough handling. We prefer two buds, but if the graft is terminal,
witl several buds too close to be separated, we use them just as
('ut the lower end of the graft on the long side of the wedge
already cut on the corner of the little shelf at the bottom of the
niche you have cut in the tree and, with a knife or a chisel, make
two clean cuts through the bark down 'rom the shelf about as
long as the long side of the wedge on your graft, gently lift the
upper end of this tongue of bark and slip in the graft with the
long side of the wedge next the tree. press the flap of bark
firmly against the graft to make sure that it is upI tight against
11 e wood of' the tree, nail it I'ast, with a three-quarter inch nine-
teen or twenty wire brad at the upper end of the bark flap and
through the center graft itself. Paint the graft and all (-ct places
with the melted paraffin, tested first on your finger to see that it
is not too hot.
"Successful 'cat ches' will come in proportion to one's ability
to plaee the cambium layer of tle graft in contact with the
ea(abitun layer of the tree. The paraffin shuts out air and out-
side moisture and. being translucent, permits the passage of
beneficial light rays.
"'leave the nails; don't try to pull them out-they will rust
off' and disappear. As the grafts grow, he sure to support themc
with stakes. either stuck in tlhe ground or nailed to the tree. Lop
off parts of the tree so as to even things up and to throw the
strength of the tree into the graft, and finally, when you think
it about time, trim off the tree close to the graft so that the
wounlld imay readily lieal over. Now, all o1' this stuff is good for
one tree.' or forl one tlhousalld trees. It is not guaranteed perfect.
but it has made possible some wonderful things."
Fig, 10 Close up showing bloom panicles of mango,
"22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC'ILTI'RE
Mangoes are fertilized pretty much tile same as citrus. gen-
erally inorganic mixtures, though once in a while they get a
taste of organic stuff. It does not seem to do them any harm.
A fertilizer containing 4 to 6 percent ammonia, 6 to S percent
aivailable lhosplholi(i acid, iand (i to 8 percent potash will, under
average conditions. give good results. The amount to apply per
tree will depend largely on the size of the tree and its ability to
produce fruit. A large tree with a go4l crop of fruit will require
much more fertilizer than will a smaller tree with a small crop
of fruit. An application of froIm 15 to 20 pounds per tree up
to 30 to 40 pounds per tree, applied in two or three applications
per year should be sufficient.
While no experimental work has been conducted to determine
thuevalue of cover crops in a mango grove, it is reasonable to
suiplxe that the same advantages would result with this elass
of fruit trees as with many others. IA'Kuminous cover crops are
recommended for mango groves in IIawaii and India. The best
legumile cover crops lor Florida are velvet beaiiNs, cowpeas, beggar-
weed, and erotalaria. as all of these do well in the sandy loallm
soils. (See Bul. 15. New Series. Soil Improving Crops for Flor-
ida. State Dept. of Agriculture. i
It is advisable to grow a legume crop in the grove until the
trees become Inrge enough to shade the ground so inemuch that
the cover ecrop will niot grow satist'fctorily. Ill growing a crop
between the rows of trees, care must le taken so as not to injure
the trees or root system. Space enough must always be left be-
tween the tree rows and the legume crop so that there will be no
danger of injury to the trees.
The cultivation of the mango grove is very much the saine as
for other fruit trees. IWhen the trees are small, it is necessary to
see lhit. weeds iiand griiss do nol grow tiup close to thlie trees uand in
this way take both moisture and fertilizer that belongs to tihe
tree. Mulchini is also desirable. But regardless of what cultiva-
tion is done. the root system must not he injured.
FLOHII)A MANSGOES 23
Fig. 12. Sandersha Mango. Courtesy U. S. D. A.
DEPARTMENT (F .A(;Ikl'I'LTI'IE
TIME OF RIPENING
The time of ripening of the mango will depend upon the
variety, the loeality where grown, and the time of blooming.
Sometimes the early bloom is lost from rainy weather and the
only fruit secured is the result of a later secondary bloom, a
peculiar and fortunate habit of the mango tree. The earliest
ripe fruit may be obtained in April or May, while later maturing
varieties ripen anywhere from June or July until September
Quoting again from one correspondent:
"Fruit buyers come to us with their trucks loaded with
boxes. They pick the seedling fruit with long bamboo poles with
a hook at the end. The fruit is pulled off green iand hard so that
rough handling does not injure it. The pickers select the best
on the tree, leaving the less mature fruit for subsequent pick-
ings. The fruit is nailed up, without wraps, in tomato crates, and
paid for in cash.
"The fine grafted fruit is handled more carefully. Each
fruit is picked with a small, wire rimmed muslin pocket or bag
fastened to the end of a stout picking pole. Bruising the fruit is
avoided. It is sold without wraps in four-quart tomato baskets
at a dollar the basket, six to ten fruits to the basket. The larger
fruit, weighing up to two and a half pounds or so, sells at
special prices. With such demand for this fruit, right at our
doors, there is no occasion to make many shipments, except to
fill special orders."
There are several localities in the state, however, that ship
fruit to outside markets. Where shipments to distant markets
are made, it is necessary that the fruit be carefully picked and
packed so that bruises will not result, or decay is apt to set in.
Several kinds of containers are in use, some of them with a com-
partment for ice. Refrigeration is necessary for shipments of
fruit that are ripe or almost ripe.
The most troublesome factor in the fruit growing business
is the selling of tile product; that is, selling it so as to leave a
fair share of its value for the producer. Viewed from this stand-
point, the maligo has so far made a satisfactory showing. There
seems to be no end to the demand for it and, due to the fact
that the area in which it can be produced is limited, it will
probably hold its own as a profit maker for some lime to come.
26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Fig. 13. Carabao Mango, Philippine type. Courtesy U. 8. D. A.
FLORIDA MANGOES 27
In addition to eating mangoes as fresh fruit, which is the
real way to use them, they may be prepared in many ways,
some of which are given helow. The following brief recipes have
been adapted from various sources, but all have been tried in
Florida and found useful.
MANGO Ji:..Y.-For jelly-making, the green fruit (before it
softens) is preferred. Peel and slice the pulp from the seed.
Cook until tender and strain. To each cup of boiling juice add a
cup of sugar and boil till jelly forms when the juice is dropped
from a spoon.
3 ANGO MARMALADE.-I'se ripe fruit. Peel, and put into a pan
with water enough to half cover. The pulp may or may not be
cut from the seed (the latter makes a smoother marmalade.)
When tender, rub through a granite colander. Add a cup of
sugar to each quart of the pulp, and boil thirty minutes. Seal at
IMANGO PI~1SERVES.-Select fruit just showing color. Peel and
cut in sections. In making the syrup, allow, for each pound of
sliced fruit, one pound of granulated sugar anl a tcacupful of
water. Boil the sugar and water together till it drops heavily
from the spoon. Pour over the fruit, and let stand till (old.
Drain off the liquid, and boil down as before. When the syrup
is quite thick, put in the fruit, boil hard for twenty minutes. Seal
Tests have proved the Mulgoba to be one of the best for pre-
M ANGO SWEET PICKuI;.-Select small ripe mangoes. Peel and
place in a stone jar, covering with a syrup made by boiling equal
parts of sugar and vinegar; with sufficient whole cloves, allspice
and cinnamon to produce the desired flavor. When cold, drain,
reheat the liquid and pour over the fruit. Repeat several limes.
The last time place the fruit in the boiling syrup, and when well
heated put in wide-mouthed jars and seal at once. The continued
draining off of the liquid and reheating cooks the fruit without
MANGO C wIU'lrTNEY.-Take a quart of green mangoes, peel and
cut into half-inch cubes. Chop together one onion, six sweet
peppers, and six hot pers,d s ht add a tablespoonful of salt. Let
this stand an hour and drain (discarding the liquid). Heat to
*Bulletin 127 Florida Experiment Station.
28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Fig. 14. Haden Mango. Courtesy G. B. Cellon.
FLORIDA MANGOES 29
boiling a half pint of grapefruit or lime juice with a half pint of
vinegar and a half pint of brown sugar. Add a half pound of
raisins, a tablespoonful of white mustard seed, the prepared
mangoes, onion, and peppers. Boil all for about thirty minutes.
Put in jars and seal at once. All chutncys are better after stand-
ing for several weeks.
FRIED MANGOEs.-Peel and cut in sections. Fry in butter or
drippings, sprinkle witli salt and sugar, and serve hot.
MANGO ICE-CREAM.-Use plain ice-cream custard made by
any favorite recipe as a basis. To each quart, add one pint of
ripe mango pulp and freeze.
MANGO SlUNoA.--Have the fruit well iced. Cut in halves
and remove the seed. Fill the cavity with ice cream (plain
vanilla is best), and serve at once.
DEPARTMENTT OF AGRI(;ILTIRE
Fig. 15. Gola Mango.
FLORIDA MANGOES 31
DISEASES AND INSECTS
Information on the diseases and insect pests of mangoes
may be secured from the Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville, Fla., and the United States Department of Agricul-
ture, Washington, D. C. The literature given below will also be
of value to those who wish to go more deeply into the subject of
1. Fatrmerfi Bulletin No. 542, "Pollination of the Mango,"
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
2. Farmers' Bulletin No. 52, "Anthracnose of the Mango in
Florida," U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
3. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1257, "Insects Injurious to the
Mango," U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
4. Station Bulletin No. 127, "Mangoes in Florida," Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.
5. "Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits," by Wilson
Popenoe, published by The Macmillan Company.