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Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Commercial bulb production in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002962/00001
 Material Information
Title: Commercial bulb production in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 37 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahasse Fla
Publication Date: 1929
 Subjects
Subject: Bulbs (Plants) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bulb industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 36-37).
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "March, 1929."
General Note: "Prepared and published in co-operation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002962
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3377
ltuf - AMF3424
oclc - 41414512
alephbibnum - 002448160
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
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Full Text



SBulletin No. 1!9 N w Series March,. 1929

-1
1-r

Commercial Bulb -

Production in

Florida I
4 .
,. -


John MI. Scott
E F
4a-
I+ '
1- 1
I-







NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
t-t
1-






- TALLAHASSEE
1. .
S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
.{- NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
.i TALLAHASSEE
1-.
-i
SlI'Tr(ii'o l and I'P lilel d inl Co(i-opeal ion with tlihe olhleg of 0
.- .\m'riceulture<. I 'nivorsil.v of Florii li. (iainosvill.





















DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture ......... Tallahassee
T. J. Brooks, Director, Bureau of Immigration .............Tallahassee
Phil S. Taylor, Supervising Inspector ....................................Tallahassee
.John M Scott, Agricultural Editor........... .... ................... Gainesville






Commercial Bulb Production in

Florida

By JOHN M. SCOTT
Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, Gainesville

iT ll' ,,l I i i '.rii l ]h l I s'p m illn'tion lIt' It'I I s in "'l ridla dai l's lsuI k
S i n2I h '.' 'llt i) rsh l li ll il llill l it r 'i ill li t isi t'v ilyf(' I i ll
I ils l I;is]s I.|)iiiil \ i v ry l is lltl Y. 1T h 1'1 it l li uT OW-i
n lls ill F lolida ]i l( vrs' 1imi l pln ii i islli' s ;s mii ll li ir i i' s 10 1111 Wi\\i
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rllll rl I \ ly 'r)',llh lll 11 il te N ort'll g'e-n' rall. salist '.\ 111,
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l itl'(I ;ir.lI', ill lh i' S 1 iil.. bill li' ir rsl il l'i';l' si' w ill ,i i ',m11ll1

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lie I tla il sl i is Ill i t ill thi e S l ti l illri' tl s 1l t'.re e isii l tl' ;i1
lrw\vl lel . nl . 0 l()( 1 .()()l00 .000(ll I ili .s. r" I l'\er li 1.200 anlll d
1.300 : } rvs.
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lh lis I s 1l lin. );l i'l ii li rly I 'riH Y ] 'l ril'ia E'l t I eI sini i l h ii l lt in N i1.
IS,'. F l," i l '| \\ ,r i I' 11 ii\ l4l 'I l JI I 1111lril .11"1

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(n II ir i 'llrll' i s .; il ('- I l' y f' r lh..' li ll I Th'I I'rt. il l. li i;iI s sli'ih
a;! ;Irr :llli.ll]r i'nr "rn\ ili I'i ]is p ti>Inll ".. c'aibliI'u".. hrl ilK er.
r{'. i l f ri.l, .il11ins" ;IIV i nwlk c'\\' L s' UI tl 'nsl si, liI
bIlllis 1l' LImd size. r\ lu|i ll,' v)1 |)prIl limin,;' exc'lll l flow ens. 1-hi llihs
i'I'( I\\'ll 01) In v\',V Ill k oils Ii IY a;ill'il[;r I, li, ;is I 'rve mn'
il' Or h ll ll s 2I1' i\\ i iiI il lin;lll s ills. 11111 Ilih ,y ill tl w i n l ally
ils s4 lidl II vi illl );1lI.
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7




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Fig, 1, Planting bulbs,





ULB I'IODIl'CTION IN FLO)RIDA


SOIL PI'EI'AATION
The preparation of the soil for hulbs is very much tilhe same
as for anly Itruci c'rop. When there is tu111ch rash or' g'rowthl
on tihe siurfwce. it is gelei'rally advisable to disk the ground two
or three times after plowini', or as often as necessary, to thor-
ouih!y elt pll all weeds andl trash ald( work it in (lie soil. This
lilllst be done 'so as to allow thorough decomnpo.sit io lihefore
tlie bulbs are platiled.
It is alxw\a.s ldesirablei to lhav lli soil well filled with lhumuis.
whliiii may >li- siiupplie'd liy aln applicalioln or \wi'l rotlted stable
ulaillll or bi. t1li 'iii Ill'der a heIavy 'ver ( ,lI. ('Ilare Il st
It, taken. Hlowevier'. to see that tell material has ihllrolu'ghly de-
.composed before the bIillks are planted. or illnjllry will result
to lie hItlbs.
Whlin thelitad i i inclined to Ibe wet. it is ol'tein necessary lo
plowi it uii) ill bllds and oiper ul a!1 dilhlies so as to provide'
draiiina'e. Thie ealla lily seemss 1o lie alil, to stand Im)ore water
than most other bulbs. hu1111 either tlle ea(lla lily nor narcissus
cian stllid continuous wiet co lditions in tlhe ticld.
'EHRTILIZ.lATl(O)N
A. sufllicienit aollollnt o(' researhih w\orl k las not Ibeen donl ill
Florida to definiliily state jnst l iho\\ imlh niflt' ilizer to apply
per aire', or jlst whale the t'oriminla should l e. Thi general
lr'activ' is to iusi a bloodd vIge'o'table f'milize'r analyzii'ng around
5 perl'c'lit ainiilioia. 7 pe'rcnii available phlosphoric acid. naid 5
pei(rcnt pol;i sh. allhouughi n'l i y I 'rowers inll 'rasi, lic p('rcentaerl
of potaslih.
F'romi onlle-hal]f to o t, toll ol' collinli rciai l I'erlilizer is usually
applied to the land alholit len dtls before llhe bilbs are planted,
or lste it is drilled in the rows ;ailt thuoromughly uixed with the
soil before plantil .. \''r,'y often another appliat ionl is ap-
plied as a .sillhidr'essiini- later on.
With aImaryllis thel frt'ilizenr is colmnioly a)pp)lild in alloit
Ilref a ppliolatils, lif prraidy diuIiii' lelirn a'ry, Ma y andl

('I'LTI V\'ATI()N
BIyx planltiln in twortly-o'uir-, twe'nty-eig'il-, ior thiirty-i h'li
rows's. uall ppor]li tniiy is 'giv\el to rilltivail will horse power or
g'ardiil tractor. \'Wh'l'n the 'rows are as close as tig-liteeln incl'es
apart, cultivatiion will hlav' to lie done witl ile hand hoo.
Not a great deal of ciiltivation is needed us in the winter
there are not so many weed.s rowingu. The en era practice
with most growers' is to give li three or four cultiva'tions with
sweep or any other light onie-hlorse ciulri\'aior.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NUMBER OF BULBS REQUIRED TO PLANT ONE ACRE
The number of bulbs required to plant an acre will depend
entirely on how close together they are planted. When planted
in thirty-inch rows and three inches apart in the row, about
69,000 bulbs will plant one acre. If planted in twenty-four-inch
rows and three inches apart in the row, about 87,000 bulbs are
required for one acre. When rows are 18 inches apart with
the bulbs three or four inches apart in the row, around 115,000
to 120,000 bulbs are required for an acre. Splits may be
planted closer together in the row, one inch apart in the row
being common, which will take around 200,000 to the acre.
A serious drawback to bulb growing is the amount of capital
required to purchase a supply of bulbs for planting, as from
50,000 to 100,000 bulbs are generally required for each acre.
It is therefore the safest plan for the person just starting in
the business to begin on a small scale until he has learned the
best methods for handling the crop.

TYPES OF BULBS GROWN
As the commercial production of bulbs is a new industry in
Florida, there is a great variation in the types of bulbs that are
grown in the State both experimentally and on a commercial
scale. Gladioli and narcissi are perhaps the most popular,
although there is a considerable acreage planted to a number
of others.
The methods of planting and handling each type of bulb
varies somewhat so that a separate discussion of each type will
be more fitting. Florida Extension Bulletin No. 48, by T. A.
Brown, published in June, 1928, contains the latest and most
complete data available on bulb culture in Florida. The in-
formation given below has been taken entirely from this
bulletin.






litIJill I14H01U(_'TI(N IN FLOR)hIDIA 7


GLADIOLI *

Varieties

114' 'l Vii-i 8 it 1 of/)(444rimllinu(4s Ilylbr4dls. 4''4141 h\44 I i1li e v( r ssin8 g
of Gladulidu.r /)//tfl Ulin fl. \4iI Ii v iiiio 1' I il'-fl4I4442PClowr 8l)'i4. se ie
44o beH 1iiII1i1lIre 1) vI~ the4 "cove. Ni) 4414411 is~ made41 tit list the4
vltr' I'MSc ill 1,11A. till- Ill I44WiIi l 4I, b in!L, soil whic h an. Itliort'
42'4144Itill u1. w for41 144 ii114. lo ist. radt


Varieties



(hicattio \Whlii(



Mrlls. Frank Pends olollF
MIr s1. 0.W I 4 laxl .

Ni aga ir;
I l 1.'111414 a
S 1 ( w IlI


Color of Bloom
()rallgo

I rii hil i-dtl
l'1'4. "hiiit 1 w h444'it-l ilthilinS

Salmon4'i pi4l
Hlltsh Itpi 14

1,IS(- 1)11114 \%41(11 V'1 rt', 1 1110I Iu i~l 14 11'0i:04.
Pink w~ith v.-Il444 1ii'4441


\\ hie withi lilacl i4ew44il4.ll' il ilra
Yellow4 withi ;4l-leti4- I4144t-h4 ill [I 4401


\vIIA'F '14) PLA.NTI

W\Vl ill. I ll,, \4 li4Ii4s ( 4 1 4 v1do).'111d 14I 4 ) m-1, I r[l'sults 40, b1141
Ilillillt l ;11141 crossx8 Ip llilltltioll. 4ts41 ; v1I\ I I lel sill is 4i4hic tll w\il, 144'
fourlldl i Ill philllltillu. slI'1 'ivd tlr I'm- I lit- product 1411 "1' 1'l ib" for I li
I Ill tiltl' Ill') I li4ll 44 I. l ilt ai ndl ll 14 I S1141 si 4 44 h Ito
lllvilllIt o 4, rle ritil ite 11,114[ 1 Ill4(,1 11 4't',leSi 111141 II44' : vol 1t 1 tII ill
Florida 444i n o1)11414 Iv val4 I 11 114111-t1 iThal 1* I 1'1t4 \\4illlt i lle 1 roo1 t

st i, vsi l l id, l ilt, new b ulb which III( old o'4e '.'l ov Y I
StitI11;tI, 51 7.szs 441 ,I, ltll". ac :I [ ,,. 1. i .',li adlli 1 over ilt
dI ianivr1 N42 o. 2. 11, ill i I 141., iw h tNo. I it III 11 ihlwli4'8: N(,. 4
:14I ti I i444l : Nil .5. 1 14) 4 I4 jitliv 4i4 ald N ().6 1 14 To i~l~lv ill
41imui44141. i'll 14451 plalitit 11'silwk t~wi lt'' ave'rltiie l42i~
pi(4l41d 1Iv is liltI f~v'4 vir-oI '- 414 ) l t ht II 11 is t'ritii 11 1tlo 2 i 4tchos
11i d i4411 4't41 1. 1 4lld I ill i iiiit I' ill tl ll ottill. it 44 144114illb is

14 Vlled It.I\' 4iv, il) l' 111a 4 I 4 tl ;I, *1t l. oIrli ail l ii Il ul4d ill),' 51/4'
1441141 I4'[4 1an d 2. 5111141 Ir 4le 414 w4Ill 4411 l 'Ill14144444 well 11111 are
Ilit 844 4't2444441i 44444 shold(4 144414I n1lol44W'4 14, Illooiii. T IluIev
s5ol44144 h4ave4 1144' "p1ike4 4c41 out4 oI. 5441444 i4s 41 a4p.1I'S 4tIbo444 tile
so1i4!' 4 as t44 iiili144' 14411r 414 i lid v4111 \i144 t44r 1ext seal-
son. Whlti 14lel-wl\' h4litlvdl44. il. lti l:4i4ri ,Izel-411114l sblutld
inot (4141 1414444i4 bItIl should pJ-i444i14 1144141 it d14174Il 1(4i 14 lii1tdl42(
1- l'l U v\. i' WI'\ Iljv il1ut. IN.






DEPARTMENT OF AGR ICU' LTURE


Fig. 2. Gladiolus, showing old bulb, new bulb
and increase. Courtesy Fla. Agri.
Ext. Div.


small corms or cormiels bulletsts, that will range in size from
a No. 6 down to the size of ai pea. and which should be care-
fully saved at di, ing time for replanting and the subsequent
production of large bulbs for bloom.
In this climate, these cormels may be planted at once after
digging, or may be packed il dry sand for several weeks' stor-
age. or they may be dried and put away for a year before
planting. In tlie latter case, owing to excessive drying and
hardening of the shell, it is advisable to cover tihe cormels
with water for a day and then pour off the water and cover the
wet cormels again with a wet sack for three or four days to
soften before planting. The resulting growth should produce
no bloom in most cases, but a good foliage and bulbs up to an
inch in diameter, and will likely make a great many new
cormels the first year.
Tn northern climates where the ground freezes, the cormels






,, ,.+l ', ,i ,'WYw ,,,, ,


i --~I--


A


Fig, 3, Gladioli bulblies that are making a fine growth,





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


that remain in the ground will be killed and there is no danger
from mixtures resulting from those left in the soil at digging
time. But in Florida, if the grower has more than one variety
(which is usually the case), a new place should be chosen each
time for planting, since even the most careful digger will leave
some cormels in the soil, which will come up later and cause a
hopeless mixture in the next crop, if planted on the same
ground.
Many beginners seem to want to start with very large bulbs,
thinking that these should produce extra large, fine blooms.
But, as a rule, the bulb that has reached a diameter of more
than three inches has gotten very thin in comparison and is too
weak to produce a good bloom. It should be discarded.
CURING GLADIOLI
Bulbs grown in the North, being planted in May and June
and harvested in October, should not be planted much before
Christmas in Florida. as they will not be well enough cured in
most cases to start growth readily. In this climate, native-
grown stock may be planted at any time after it has had time
to cure, which will, of course, depend on the stage of maturity
at which it was dug. If dug as soon as foliage begins to
yellow, more time will necessarily be required for curing than
if allowed to die down in the field.
Curing should be done in any dry, well ventilated place, and
the length of time required will vary from six weeks to four
months. If cured entirely in ordinary storage, the best way
to tell when bulbs are ready to replant is to watch for signs
of growth, and then planting must be done at once or top
growth will start and vitality of the bulbs will be rapidly
depleted.
When the first eyes begin to swell, some growers prefer to
place the bulbs in cold storage for two or three weeks to chill
them thoroughly, claiming that they come up more uniformly.
However, this point seems not to have been definitely settled.
It is true that when planted before the curing process is com-
plete, the bulbs do not sprout evenly and the rows often appear
very uneven and ragged.
PLANTING

The season for planting in Florida may include every month
in the year, but for the production of flowers for profitable
markets, gladioli should be planted in September and October
for fall and in January and February for spring, thus bringing
the bloom when there is none produced in the North. Cormels










* U ,' e'$

I' I L A

Irff,, d;t1P;~ b "d )1;
~V~I1~ A
I, -il


Fig, 1i.Rdioii btgirnimg to blooni, Nincty doys OIter planting,






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


bulbletss) should be planted about 50 to the foot in straight
rows that have a very definite V-shaped bottom, to simplify
cultivation and regulate depth. The depth should he 3 to 4
inches. Care must he taken to keep plenty of moisture to the
young bulbs at all times until they approach maturity.
Blooming bulbs should be planted six inches deep and a
distance apart equal to the width of a bulb, thus allowing for
expansion and growth. At each growing period it will be
found that the old bulb when planted, puts up a top growth as
soon as, if not before, root growth starts. After the top gets
started a new bulb starts to form just on top of the old one and
this new bulb puts out a set of roots independent of those of
the old bulb. When the new bulb approaches maturity and
has bloomed, it puts out a set of rhizomes that resemble short
roots, which develop the small corms or cormels bulbletss) at
their ends. By tlhe time the top begins to die down, these
eormels are ready to dig with the parent bulb. The old bulb
will be found quite firmly fastened to the new one at digging
time, but after they have been in storage for 10 days or two
weeks, can be readily pulled off, at which time the cormels
may be separated also and replanted or stored.
In the open fie!d for commercial production, most growers
plant in single rows to enable them to cultivate with horse
power, thereby reducing the cost. In this case, the distance
between the rows will be governed largely by the type of culti-
vation used and the moisture conditions. The average grower
finds that in order to get through between the rows at bloom-
ing time they should be about 30 inches apart. In "flatwoods"
land, where drainage is very essential, it seems advisable to
ridge the ground and work tile soil up to the plants in a man-
ner similar to the way potatoes are worked. In the drier soils
where drainage is not essential, it is just as well to plant flat
and cultivate likewise. In any event, the bulbs should be
planted six inches deep or the heavy bloom stalk will pull the
plant over with the first strong wind.

)TGGIN( GLADIOLI
(ormels planted in September and October make their regu-
lar growth and (ie down in the early spring, although some
will be delayed until other are half grown. This necessitates
digging while some are immature, which is not usually con-
sidered( much loss. If left in the ground for the late ones to
mature, some of the earlier ones will be growing again before
the latest ones are ready to dig. One must decide when to dig
by watching the general average.


12





Il'l I'L l)I) U'CT'I)N IN FILO)Il)A 13

Commercial remps should le (lii d at the (ien l of every growing
sNPasi ju1sl s son as n tilhe average tops are yellowing and
ready to lie l d\own. The tops should ie lcut otf with i sharp
hoe. The rows may l.b barred oi' with a small plow. leaving
just the larr\ow strip containing the bulbs. This nmiay he eare-
fully picked tilt with a shovel. bein'l, sure IIto get thle .crniells,
and til whole .-ilted through i1 scren11 lilviinIi ailmit eight
illesli1(- t) tli' inleh. Naturally, tlih soil I1ust li dry. So1n1
NortIl 'lr l '"' \'ro 'r's lls.t a file sl oop silcll aits is lsed lo level lile
ilitchens bef''ore layilnj' tile. and this maly Ibe set a just theli right
ian 'le to st lioo upi ) t li' or e soil ill which thl' bli lls are.
A.\l' sr el''li !l. lie l)i(l!s ;i) le l;llali to til llvlr'g shed anlid
s tirea 4 l io t Iil rl'l \ r s lhallo,\\ Iilis i 4 I lry. Ifl'itr w liihlI tlhe
lr si ili'i-rt;ll l I in tid l,. i d l ,I r4rhilrl i1ed li lle ini-' until iarl k<(t
1o p) l l ill i l ii.t'
(i'fail 'ari miist Ii.' oe xel ised ;it all liill's lit keep) romi ,gett ini r
elit- r dill''rIl varilies illixed, as. o l e imtixed(. tiller is 1no pl)rO -
abiility of lettiin' lie varieties se.,parat'ed without several sea-
s.ois" reti'lii ro'jlliii, aniIti W Iaste.
li rit'A iiiiii lie im llls. tile olier e iusk may hI' rei' oenloy d 1o '.ive
It 1 111 a iiire it il ';l rail ('iC ut ill iloll '1 li usl< I ti st )t' I lt'l O(T
Io prevoi'll t(' ssi've dryinli' of tf it(' eyes o' I ds. A iulb t) hat
lias hel, colhpletely peel' d is ntil .ointsidlered ood n'rll-rhilant-
able property.

('I"I'T ING; Till-' IllI NDI

Norlhl r -'llrowers ott' _hadii li. W\'Ilo hiave h lt oill sctason ,achi
'ar lt'or produlltioin. it'!l is thliat l'rom 7i to 121i days are re-
,luir-d r'ronll phlaiilini, tinn to l ,loon. accord' til o variety.
i Wlo ever. i l Filorida I ll i.li I 0 1 tiii' i, so letilities req(iiired, and(
it is diffiuiill t( say just Iho\w ho lei In the (ase of the snu ller blilhis. (line year fI'roill orini''ls. ull-
less they are e'xe'jitionialy viLrorolls. it is not advisable to let
lithe blloolm malr_ at all and most ,rowrTs pi ovr" and cIIt out
thll spikes just as sooii as thliey are far iion(igh liut wof tilh l'dolihge
lo vet at. so its To putl all of till siren ilth into Il)lb growth .
Witit tilt., regular hlooim crop, where bloom is it be marketed,
tli, spikes ;ir, eiut jiist Ias the first hlud begins to 0o1en.
The t'oliahti should not Ile hout of1 or thei vitality of tihe bulb
will b1 rd'eiiel. The spike should l h cut with aI snmall-bladed
knife that ralln e slipped down between th 'leaves. getting as
miitih stalk as possilile. Th'1'e spikrs may he li(l in bunithes, of
25 stand packedd in paper-linedl eirales that are practically air-
ligilt. witlhoti moistunre of any kind. andll shipped by parcel
post. The crates hond be long enough that llthe spikes will





14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

lie out straight. A light block should be nailed down across
the stems to prevent slipping and bruising the spikes.
As soon as the receiver gets the package, he will recut the
stems and put them in water to fill and revive. While they
will be quite wilted, they will straighten and open up when
they get in the water. If the spikes are filled before being
packed, or if water is kept on the steins while lying in the
crate, the spikes will endeavor to straighten to an upright
position and become crooked and will stay that way, spoiling
the appearance of the bloom spike.
If the shipping distance requires more than 36 hours, it is
sometimes found advisable to ship in paper-lined hampers with
wet sphagnum moss in the bottom, upon which the cut ends
of the stems may rest in order to take up moisture. In this
case the hamper should be well filled and then shaken down
so that all of the stems will come in contact with the moss and
there will not be slack space for the spikes to shake around
and become bruised. The hamper should be marked on top
with large plain label indicating the nature of contents and
cautioning express employes to keep right side up, or injury to
the flowers will surely follow.

NARCISSUS (Daffodil)
Different countries have bred up different strains of narcissi
until the varieties are now numbered in hundreds. There are
eleven main divisions or groups of narcissi. Foremost are the
Trumpet Daffodil, Jonquilla, Poeticus and Poetaz (Polyanthus)
groups with many variations in each type. The first three were
bred and introduced mainly in the British Isles and the Nether-
lands, and Polyanthus in southern France. Italy and China. It
is with this southern strain that we are most concerned, be-
cause our climatic conditions are more nearly similar to those
in the native home of this tender variety.
Thie Polyanthus (Tazetta and Tazetta hybrids) varieties usu-
ally found in Florida commercial plantings are the Paperwhite,
Grand Soleil d'Or, and Chinese Sacred Lily. Double Roman,
Pearl, and several others are being tried with some success.
The heaviest importations for commercial use have always been
the Paperwhite and this variety now far exceeds in number
anything else produced in Florida, so much so that it is con-
sidered the standard in all discussion of narcissus types among
our growers, although the other Polyanthus types do equally
well and are liandled in much the same manner. The hardy
varieties adapted to Northern conditions appear to be rather
unsatisfactory throughout the major portion of Florida. For





BULB PROI)V(TION IN FLORHIDA 15

in1ny1 1 i3, s y iear I he PolyaI los I y pe or i a11reissi s Ii as beell 'f rown
in Alachim eomit V by AIl. 'T'. K. (11odbey. but since 1925) pIlait-
igs Wae i ycreased veI'r raIdi(IIV "mil it is miow a staiiidan! cropl)
iii miany c("'t~i ls. thle Imiik of thle erop hI"=~ lcated hin .\linlin
D~uval. Clay. \'olusia anid Seminiiole count jes.


Fig. 5. Bloom of the Paperwhite Narcissus. Courtesy Fla. Agrn. Ext. Div.
V'.IIAAT TO PLANT

As with te'vy otlhr fl,,w.-'lilur bulbl. the. lype vria'ltionl il
narcissi is g( irieatlll \vhlell il;nills ar EI'o\\iI fl' ll i s, il lijth t 0o111-
miercial ]) )1nlcilicers di peInldnll cil ll, 1 p(oIp aig' ll )>;ila ioll f1'omI tlC
iiitilil (ivisinii iilof 11t buillibs. This Occurs it a <'1ertliin stage
of g rowtlh byv m;Ilns ol' ofl''sets .or labs s, paratlilg 'rnim the
nothel'r IhIlli Ilwichl. wlhei planted separately,. u111er proper eil-
lmral onidlii'ini will roiuiil oult to a size that shioiihl pro(lnuee


1q V W_ ,







I )KIA 1h'EEN'l' OF A\ HIt 'I 'Li''E


1 i gold Wolini uuIue rioiiumll" tva' This is hit ill '. u of ot'lllleITP),


w.Ihi1v Juloo 4 Il,1 1(', itfii iiaiig l. and) (2' "I IIis'i oi IeII'' shivis. d xi(Ie
tit-Ill. it ho'1111 14 (1'hlte Sa('il' 1 v llimi We illjl 2hi 1fir 1t vsl fIr eim h



ulhisre' thau tiuir s'ali%. a' this miwinv.' rt''uult'. Ili weak-

is saIidl tit hlt'('ilIli' graJs.NV
Al'.r areill'i (Iomki alnId auth ill (I I.. Slo'll~t' t'iiilll(, Iilliv. IIlr
Slabs a:;re Ilnike~ll Toom. .11141 phlitedl1~ I~lcll pl41011(4. -411111 11 11Sill-sf,
mai~rke't andl thes iiuiitIi'r bullh is a'niiiu planited tit ;II'il~lit- loirt
1214'rea.'.. whil'h it wvill Aemitot iil tt 41(1 iinimltiniti'! v o ler piper

stoclk, and1( Sholdl~( not1 lbe dhispos4ed ol, 02' l-Oegletv((.
It wvill he xi'i'l2 thaI. "ta2't imi wit hi ro14112( Itiairkkt'lihmh' buIlbibs ats
hilawimt i sl' .iwik. It will Ili- tm*il vae~1mi2' betiie onet iwain has.


ht,ll I grower to 1, l1'ui ft11f oil1' 1t hlluill vilcI *ell. therv'iI'It'i'. SIoillo'


Fig. 6. Mother bulb and of*sets of the Narcissus. Courtesy Fla. Agri. Ext. Div.






_______ILB P()I)UC(TI()N IN FLORIDA 17

of the larger slabs will split agaii instead of rounding iip, nind
sonlie of the smaller lones will not make a roulnl bull) of the size
required by the trade and must he plantedl ack will) the
growing-on stock if typical of lthe, variety. This dos nolt imply
that the grower should increase his planting stock with hullbs
that will not make tie t gi rade. but on the cont rary, for 1li pi'ur-
pose of keeotping tlhe stocks up to a high standard. somet of the
very Ibest type round bulbs should be plantedlll hack ach year
seplaraely as nursery .'lock tfrom which to huiil up the strain.
At plantiniig time, a careful watch shout li e kept for any
Iblbs liat a e soft olr diseased. o.r th1;1 ar' apparently not true
to type, ali these' sliouild be destroyed to avoid getting anlly-
thling started< ill the field tha1 is not wanted.

I'LANTI(; NARCITSSI
Owing to flie fact 1llat this trop requires a long growinig
period. it lins boeen foilild best to plant reasolnably early ill ihe
fall. September r or r Oc(tober. hiut planting illuii as late a;s I)e-
ce mber w\\ill ldo fairly \\'well undler favorablle condlitions. The
early I~all plantings will he matured and ready to dig byv late
.Maly while t e lie watllhr h olldilions are e'iierally moist favorable.
Iater di g''in o operations are frelquently hianlicapped by siium-
Ille rIailns. and ill stone cases tile Itllbs start rooting aln 11Ile-
sirable set'inid gtrowllh. Also. thie lillh s that are, (.dul1 out (of
(dry soil are' ill 11111I I leter co dlilonll to go iil nt storalge llitan
those (dIl wet.
'T'h location f(or al plialtilg' shlioild hie C arel'ully considered,
since ai heavy iinvstillent is ito he made Iine sh1iiild see that
adequliate draina,_'e is assured. tle soil is free irollm Herilmul\a o r
taller g'lrasses tliat ar' expensive ito c'ntrioll. a llld is inl a gt(ood
mIeclianival condition.
Thle rows are laid ofl \will aliy suitable impl!t entl and I ite
depth is decided larg'vly by theI l thiorou'liiess ot" t he drailnag'e.
W here tile hand is tile drainedl r I hi ere is 1i,1 likelillood of ex-
e.ssive waier. fulrrows ,-.houid hle five or six inches deep. ]ut
where there' is dall'_ ler of X' exces l iMIlir. all'lis flie avH erail' re
"flalwoods" lield. it seemlls advisable to plow l1li fiel' ill laitl.s,


alter Irainintl' off bil'eeii lt'til will ie v arrivedd off illl) I l e
\Walel. r 1'urri, w 111s more rildlv. In this ase tlhie ph mla lln fi'rrws
should not lhe imore 11than foul. riches deep. Suiffiivlen 'll lfrows
for t lhis may bIe m diie w ith a sled-r1111111i lType ol' mllarke.r l 'vin-"
three or five runills lade of 2 X. -1" scat11lhnu, ill(a d weighted
down to i1111 tile proper depth. The ll are placed ill tle













































Fig, 7, A field of Narcissus bulbs, Paperwhlte variety on left and Chinese Sacred on right,


























I. -

A. A~ii~,


A1


:., .j*


-i


4h *'1,


3 4 l r .... . .


Fig NptrA N Nelrcissi,






20 I)EIPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

furrow about as far apart as the thickness of the bulb itself,
thus allowing room for growth expansion. Next, the row is
covered with soil. usually by means of a wheel-plow furrow, to
prevent the sun cooking them, as they are very easily ruined
by sunburning. Bulbs should not be exposed to the hot sun
more than 30 minutes.
Within a day or two a good ridge of soil is thrown on top of
the row to a depth of six inches, to prevent the bulbs from
heaving out of the soil. which they will certainly do when
starting to root, if not held down by plenty of covering. Subse-
quent workings will draw the soil from the middle up to the
rows and leave them distinctly ridged. This completes the
planting, and cultivation will be needed only to keep down
weeds and grass and maintain a good ridge.
Care must be exercised in cultivation to avoid breaking the
roots, which spread wiidely. For convenience in working, the
rows should be about three feet apart.

DIGGING
Narcissi should not be harvested until the tops have com-
pletely died down at maturity, which is usually the latter part
of May or early Julne. But they should be dug before summer
rains start the bulbs into second growth. If dug in a growing
condition, the vitality of the bulb is likely to be impaired. The
smaller growers usually dig by hand, barring the rows off
with a small plow and lifting the bulbs with a potato rake, or
by running the plow directly under tlhe row and turning it
over so that the bulbs may be picked up from the bottom of
the furrow slice. Great care should be exercised to get all of
thle bulbs, as any remaiinng in tile soil are likely to be com-
pletely ruined or lost and those coming up the following season
will be found weak, and in tihe wrong place to fit into the
current planting.
The larger growers are now quite universally using a me-
chanical potato digger for lifting the crop. This is proving
to be far the best, from the standpoint of both economy and
efficiency. In all cases the bulbs should be picked up at once
iand taken to tlhe shade, as an hour's exposure to the hot sun
is likely to result in sunburn anld, later, a dry rot in storage.

CURING NARCISSI
As soon as the bulbs are dug, they should be taken at once
to the storage or (curing shed, which should be absolutely dry
and well ventilated. It should be arranged so that the sun will
not shine directly on the bulbs at any time. the most approved

















,J








II
l~ I

~ I- V
z


Fig, 9. PNprwhite Nlrcissi in bloom,














































Fig 1, 1, digging Narcissus bulbs with mechanical digger,





BIULBI PRODUI( TION IN FLO)RIDA 23

type of shed being located east and west the long way, with
a driveway through tlie center and binls on each side. A build-
ing 2- feet wide has been found very satisfactory, providing
an 8-foot driveway and bins S feet wide.
The hins should be built of strong material, as the load they
must carry will be heavy. The bulbs should not be placed in
hlem to a depth of more than six or eight inches, to avoid
heating. If piled up when freshly dug, or even left in field
barrels or crates over night. bulbs are likely to be injured by
heating. A good wiiethod of arranging tile bins is to cnut the
floor Ibarids to stimniard lengths and leave tlhem loose, so that
as one level is filled thlie next floor above may be hlid. The
floors should not be closer than 12 inches. leaving several inches
air space between thle bulbs in one bin and lte floor above. Side
boards should lie fitted to the hinis to prevent the bulbs rolling
out. Provision should be made to lock the shed to prevent the
innocently curious visitor from handling the bulbs, taking out
a bulb here and there and replacing it in a bin of another
variety.
The roor of the shed should le well built to prevent leakage
ion the bulbs. A cupola, or ventilator, the full length of the
comllb 11as been found advisable for the ilailenlance of a good
eireulation of air. The eaves should be broad and low. to pro-
tect the bulbs from blowing storms. and tlhe sides should be
left open except for ia loosely woven poultry nIlling. to prevent
handling of the bulbs from the outside. Gables and ends of the
building should lie fully enclosed as a protection from sun and
rain., although the doors to the drive may be slatted to aid in
air circulation.
During the first Itwo weeks af storage. it is well to examine
the hulbs daily to determine it' any heating is taking plaee.
If so. the bulbs imay )e stirred by means of a eypress pole
pusl1hed through then in the iins, loosening them and letting
the air through. If the bulbs sliould be wet when stored this
stirring is essential until they become thoroughly dry.

CLEANIN(; AND (AIl.\l)IN(i NA.\ll'lss
After ltle bulbs have been in storage for six or eight weeks
and are thoroughly dried and cured, the separation of the
gradess may take p!aae. At this time. the slabs will lie found
somewhat loosened from the mother bull and ;cn be easily
separated \\ithI the fingers; the outer husk is dried and loose,
aind this. together with the dried roots 1and an;y remainder of
tlie top. may be easily cleaned off. As the sliabs are separated
from tle mother ulllbs they should lie played in separate bins
































I


Fig, 11, A bulb curIng house.


jd I






BU'LH PHOD('TION IN FILO)RIDA 25

and laler plantled separately, as that is what the marketable
bulbs are irowi t'riom. The mothers should be kept separate
for plant inir. to produce more slabs. All round, single nosed
bulbs. 12 centimeters and more inl circumfe'ilrenc'e. should be
carefully cleaned and prepared for market. Bulbs from which
slabs have been taken, or that have been injured in any manner,
shoulll not be put iln this g-rade.

TESTlIN( FOR 1IA()OMINX( QUALITY
About tlie first of Septemberl, rower and buyer begin to
search for evidence of blooming is selected at randomly alnd split 'romo top0 to bottom. exposing
the exact center of tlhe vertical layers of tle hulb. At lhe base
of the .cern1er should be found a tiny v lluster of eembryo buds.
folded ill an almost 1 ralnsplareiil envelope. which a few weeks
later will have ladva\nced almost to the lop ot, the bullb. Until
this embryo has become well advanced, lie bulbs should not
lie forced into _'irowtlh or the result will be that the growth of
foli;lue takes the stlreioLth away from lhe bloom and the force
will compllain (of lte bulbs heing grassy. ()n either side of this
little bloom embryo Imay be found similar emllbryos of foliage.
which lale develop into tile of'sels or slabs.

SIZIN(; NAC lTSSI

After ilie uradingi is finished, the next step is sizillg lhle hiulhs
hlat are to be Imarketed. Somite small growers use a board
fitted with holes ot' various siXes, Mad all work is done by hand.
hut tlie laru'er growers. filidillig this very lunsatisifatory and
expensive. have imported mechanical sizers from Holland.
which. workiniL, by a system of oscillatinu- shakers, convey thle
bulbs over woodilen screen s lhrouidh which tlie siziniii' is done
very eiviciehntly an i rapidly.
('Ol'NT ING
Since hli sales 'ae based on the couill inl thousands, this
operation is of Imajor imllportanlce. Itn Eu rope. where labor is
cheap, this is all done byv hand. So far. 1he same has beenl true
here illn 'elleral. Ihit a counting table was evolved inl 12!7 that
should be iln general use within a short time. A table is made
with a regular series of two-inch amuger holes in tlie top. the
series leivin't in nulimber 250 or 50110. A false bottoml oit slats is
arranged closely uilerneath lthe lalile top. so that whlien shoved
home tlie s!ats will form the bottom of each hole or pocket.
A shovelflul of bulbs is thrown on tl the table and onle lilb placed
in each liole until all are oeeupied. lwhen thlie false bottom is












































Fig, 12, Bulb sizer-a long trough-like affair with longltudlnal bars placed end to end to separate the bulbs into different sies,
Courtesy U, S, D, A.






I'I.~1"It, IDIVTI4' IN IN FLORIDA~I~


1'1~1 ;11111ed about i%%o III(-h'It, Il.11'(jiille opt-nitol mid Ihe hillb all dropI
1111-l.-rh a i I)I1I illtI, Ow pa cklc'mr c o;Is1, w.li(.11 Is Own known10\.1 III






As vvI flit1) l11t. is Ito "I.111 Shl l idard I'm Ill e pavim 1)II' vi. se, t\ w 1 (01

fliveo v pe, Ill wioilll'!t The (Ill.- ;illlwI) I g iellleraillll() v_
d, I T I I ~!. .11 1 14!11 i 1 11 ;~ 1 111) 1 t it it T N\ I I IllllI
)I If I I T N\ I I I I.,1 ji~i\ II i~i~/ ~i',lc~rC 111' 11

n I I i I rv I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l. ;III I I I it N. I I S.~. I A 1 .3lll
I ; I I I ii- \\ I. I I I t 11 1..1 J I II I I, I I 1 1 -iz III i v r III t
I I I I it lT r I T II I I I I r ;I I I I r, \ 1 111 t T e IY 2 .-
I III.-lT k I I -~ilL ; 1;11(11.1 1 1 1--il A I -11T I Il w 1,.?
1, T I\. 111 Illl~ illl ll I I\;l~ I i -I Il I v I l 1,l11 I I I I
I 1 11 1 (. tri~ I I I -, i I I I ;I I I I A I I .I ;I l lt'i ;I I a I I ce. I c ",1
I I I I it I let. \v I I II I r I I '. ''ll u I I I .1 1 o I ";I I I I I :), -v n t i 11 it- I I.
It I I I I I ] it, I I i I t I 1-,- 1 14 -- I I I I M w 1of' ;I it I I i 11lt ItI I I I r, _)-v -I
\ 11 1, 1 1 1 ';1 il )11 1;1 I i I T T I it i ii ili, ( I I I~ tl~~i'



I II-oall"t. I It- 1;\ ,'"111 '1. 11l.\ ;Ifil l s ill..H 'I I 1;111 111, ar,-.
M~iiir ~ ;il l kil'-i\-r it -,I*;IT-- X .1, ;J. 1 11 -litl'4 I ;I, it 011 4(11
.\I'('I' Iil Ill all i"Isc. Ilie I-11:1! 11 1" I(1.4I 11ill 11'.1 14 upy 4111 11 .l






THE EASTER LILY
'I'll(- Eiisf(-rI Ill:\ bcst a ihipll ed to ) V hlrll dil (r 4.1r 41lili lols appcm'sll.
Ili, t 114 1 1 ;1 rll i-Iill NN Il'i I, -fill,),lll,.l,) !. 11 '(11 11(11!
1;l~ ~~lII -If Id, the I \ Ill- .4,111 1111 (,111 1 (1l 111; 111,

I. v" i In I i t1n.~ I it k No -I I 14 11 /11 Sl. I ur aT hotllli Iw,
I 'ill il I'vve i ll 114) OT ('rw s hilve 1we ll lom It Ili (. 1111 114.;cI a Ize it1 I
1 4) a lilr l~lll ,v e h- he h l- ill ile ,s -1 t Ift N v e ('IIf
d 1111. ll .cI I W i II Ilm li t. it filw "1n m I It ;I it, 1 I-1m In tilt, f I-sts
.\ ; I I* V I I I I I II I I I I .. I II -I I II t -, I 11 .. ... I I . I I , I it I 4 4 1





28 I)EPARITMENT OF AGRICULTURE

appear in succeeding seasons instead of growing in numbers
and adapting themselves to our climate. The other varieties of
the longiflorum species, such as Giganteum, Formosum and
Erabu, have not as yet met with as much success as the Harrisii,
perhaps owing to the fact that the latter has been naturalized
here for many more years than any of the others.
In Florida, the Easter Lily does not seed as freely as in some
other localities, and for this reason most of the increase is
obtained by vegetative propagation, viz.: stem bulblets and
scales.
PROPAGATION OF EASTER LILIES

With the approach of maturity, the bloom stem develops a
setting of tiny bulblets at the leaf eyes that are just at, and
just below, the soil surface. These root independently the fol-
lowing season and develop to a blooming size in one or two
growing seasons. This is the most natural method of propaga-
tion, but where the grower wishes to increase his stock more
rapidly, he may do so by breaking the mature bulbs apart and
using the resultant scales of the bulb for propagation.
The general method following the breaking up of the bulbs
is to layer the scales immediately in some moisture-carrying
medium, such as clean, coarse sand or peat muck soil that has
been thoroughly decomposed and is in good mechanical condi-
tion. Care must be exercised to avoid any possible agency of
decay, as the scales will rot at the least hint of infection. Some
success is had with scale propagation by scattering them on
the ground where they will have shade through the middle of
the day, and covering with a light mulch of leaves.
The usual method employed is to propagate in boxes, sifting
in a light layer of sand or other suitable material, and then
covering this with a layer of the scales, another layer of sand,
another layer of scales, etc., until the box is full. The sand
should contain barely enough moisture to prevent the scales
from drying out. The moisture content should be carefully
watched, maintaining only enough moisture to keep the scales
from wilting. The sand should be examined twice a week, and,
if necessary, additional moisture may be supplied by spraying
water over the surface with an ordinary fly spray atomizer. In
about three weeks, tiny pips should appear on the concave side
of the scale base where it was broken loose from the parent
base. Within a short time, these will assume the form of small
bulblets, which are quite identical with those grown naturally
on the stem on mature plants.
They are now ready to plant out in the open. If preparation






















SI -







WY
A%
rz





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


was started in August, the bulblets should be large enough to
plant out about the first of October, which is usually after
summer rains and heat are over. Occasionally, the larger of
these bulblets will grow rapidly enough to put up a stem six
or eight inches high the first season, and even, in rare instances,
one flower. But growers usually cut the bud just as soon as
it appears, in order to conserve the strength for the bulb de-
velopment. The season's growth should bring the bulbs to a
size that will develop two or three flowers. The first size bulb
in commercial grading should be from 6 to 7 inches in circum-
ference and, unlike the narcissus, lilies are always quoted by
sizes in inches of circumference.

PLANTING
The planting season for Easter lilies in Florida is usually
September 1 to November 1. Since lilies must not be cultivated
after the bloom stems have reached a height of three or four
inches, the Dutch bed method of planting is advised. Lay the
soil off to a depth of about four inches and rake the bottom of
the bed level. Space the blooming sized bulbs about six inches
apart each way, setting them upright (smaller sized bulbs may
be planted closer and not so deep) and return the soil to cover
about four inches again, avoiding any possibility of manure or
any other decaying agency coming in contact with the bulbs.

DIGGING AND STORING OF THE BULBS
Unlike most other bulbs, the Easter lily bulb should never be
dried out excessively or it will wilt and shrivel, thereby losing
much of its vitality. The natural season for the growth to start
is in the fall, with the approach of cool weather. The bulbs
may be left in the ground all summer, and, if dug at all, should
be lifted just before rooting starts (usually late Augu'st and
September). They may be immediately rebedded, or kept in
a cool place away from drying air currents for several weeks.
Imported bulbs are generally packed in tight boxes of dry soil
and are immediately placed in cold or cool storage to prevent
either rooting or excessive drying.
If at digging time the grower wishes to leave the old bulbs
and remove the natural stem increase, he may carefully dig
down around the old stem and remove it with the bulblets,
without disturbing the old bulbs at all. Where the soil is
reasonably well drained, it seems advisable not to disturb the
old bulbs, unless needed, for two or three years at a time, after
which they should he lifted and divided, to prevent root-bind-
ing in clumps.





BULBI PRODI.('TION IN FLOARIDA 31

('ClTTI N TIHE BLOOM
Tlhe Easter lily is considered not only a splendid plant for
heddlini and Ipotting, but also one of the finest for cut flowers.
The (are and cutling of the bloom are important. Usually the
longer the stem. the more desirable the li!y as a cut flower.
But one must hear in mind that the plant grown in the open
will not be likely to have as higlih a stalk as that grown under
glass or in part shade. Where the object is to produce bulbs
as well as bloom. 1he steals should not lhe clt too close to tthe
groundii. At least six or eiigilhl inches of stalk should be left
to assist ill properly maNturing the liulh al l should not lbe again
molested until it naturally dies down. which in most eases will
be il l;ate .-11n'.
lUnless one wishes to attempt to produce seed, tile anthers
should lie remlloved as soon as t le bloom opells. in order to
avoid tlhe shattering of the yellow pollen over the puIre white
interior of tIe flower. which spoils its appearance. This may
be done with the fingers and will be well repaid in thlie appear-
ance o' the flowers when on display.
The bloom manvy be shipped some distance byi parcel post or
express if clit when tihe buds begin to show white. Thlie stalks
are tied in bunches of six and rolled tightLly in paper with tihe
buds straightened out carefully, and several bunlches packed
inl a well lined box or rate that is long enough to prevent
bruising the buds. I poni opeiini tlie package. the stems should
I)e reiil and placedI in water, when they will open lquite
naturally.

AMARYLLIS (Hippeastrum)
The so-called hybrids are the result of lonu years of careful
cross-pollination of the best oblainiable stock. It is with these
that there seems to Ie the best opportlunit y for commnIercial
production. When properly hand pollinated, they will produce
good crops of seed, although they are slow to propagate by
natural division, while tlie .Joilisoi ii is the oppolsite. protduciing
many offsets and almost no seeId.
The indiv\i(lual flowers of tlie comllollll amaryllis do not
ustal Iy measure e more than three inhdes across. aiil are eon-
fined to the one color, red. while tile hybrvlids frequently attain
.a size of eilght inches Icross the ft'e of the flower and lle colors
range from nearly v ure white to the deepest i arooln, with
mani y different patterns of' while backll'rouiid striped or
splotclhed with bIrilliant colors of red andl pink.
Thie bulbs may be planted in rows about 310 inicles apart and
spaced four to six iniles in the row. planned just deep enough





DEPAHRTiMENT OF AGRICIJLTuURE


so that they are covered about two inches after the soil has
settled.


Fig. 14. The Amaryllis. Courtesy Fla. Agri. Ext. Div.


GROWING FROM SEED
For maxiimum seed production, hand pollination must be
practiced with amaryllis, taking pollen from one flower to use
in the next, being careful to use pollen from the very finest
bloom. The pollen is dusted over the pistil during tlie first





I1I 'll PIRODI)'TION IN FL)ORII)A 33

three days it is in sight and before it is self-pollinated. as the
latter condition usually does nol produce much seed.
Seed ripen four to five weeks after pollination. As soon as
the pods Iurn dark and show signs of cracking open they should
he gathered and dried for a few days. The seed should then
he removed and planted at onlle.
Sollle L'rowers plan tile s''eed iln hats under half shade slatted
sheds. while others prepare a bed with a tohlieeo e!otli cverini.g
similar lo the usual celery seeded. ('are must he exercised to
keep aln even Imoisture in tlie ,ed without having it wel enough
to lie soi u'- v W henl lhe plants are well started. it is \\e!1
to raise the a shade. allowiL some, siulihrllt. This should be
increased as the weather ,'l off. until lthe shade may bhe
discoi, iulled b y November.
Fre enll(ll applications of liquid imanurlll' and so ()IoI 'lnmerial
fertilizer with lih'lit iultixvation. will keep tihe plants in a thrifty
condition. They may be lined ouit in field formation iln early
spring. wleni they should have a diamitler of about three-
quarters of' anll inclh.

CALLA LILY
The ealla lily is a tuber instead of a bulb. and is not at all
related to the lily family. However, it is usually classed or
gronpel l with the flowering bulbs,. owin"- to its habits of growth
antd the 'aet that its Idoom is shaped somIewIhat like thle indi-
vidual flower of a lily. The folia.'e is Imediumn dark -reeni with
a large sized leaf. imonted on a tieshy stemi from 12 to :0
inmdis .high.i Thle bloom is a .single peta! shaped like a cor'nu-
copia. usuaIlyl while shladin" lto a delieale 'reecn east inl tlhe
throat. ()ne of the newer varieties. Zanled lschi elliuliatn or
goldehi ealla, is a beautiful yellow with lii'ht u'reecn leaves
splottlited with white. This is very new to Florida and is \win-
ning favor wherever seen. The White Calla is Zantrdischill
mrth ihpioa.
PROPA;GAT 1 ION
'Thie tun rs ,vow and increase very rapidly and. were it not
for a heavy deiay most seasons. would soon hli plentil'u!. ThIe
parents tuler. when planted. heiins to form increase s soon as
thle tops are fully _'rown. The increase is ill tihe form of tiny
tubers which 'row froill the eyes of the old one, starling their
ownI roots and foliau'e when about the size of aol'lrns. If in a
favorable location ihey will spread to a solid mass of roots and
llbers ill a year oIr twoi of gI 1 ll.
The clubers art plait'd for iolliliercial product ion ill Imnuch





34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FS :.f W IIISA M F I RW AVA A
Fig. 15. Tubers and offshoots of the Calla lily. Courtesy Fla. Agrl. Ext. Div.

the same form as any of the ullbs,. 4 inches deep in rows about
30 to 36 inches apart. Flat cultivation seems to be the general
practice. The foliage soon spreads out enough to shade the
ground, so that about all that is necessary is to keep down the
weeds.
HARVESTING
So far as we know,. the tubers should be left in the ground
until needed for other planting, which will probably be towards
spring, when they may be dug and replanted while they have
the least foliage. Many growers are troubled with the tubers
decaying in storage with a dry rot commonly called chalking.
A method of preventing this has not yet come to our attention,
although efforts are being made to avoid this damage.





BULB PRODUCTION IN FLORA)IDA 35

HYACINTHS
For iyers the lhyicinth has been con sidereld one of the fore-
most floweriingr Iillbs of commerce in Europe anld the United
States buit, mitil recently, ihas not been considered iildiptable
to Florida climatic jeoiiditioiis, and veiry little data are avail-
able 1on results of trial plantings. One grwer lnear D)aytona
Beach. who has been trying hliyainths for the past three sea-
sons. lno\\- beieves that both the Romanl and Dtltllh varieties
will sicri'ed if iiroperly handled.
Th'e Ipraiice has been to plini in the early ifall and ihe ie'p
is matlurel alnd ready to lift in May. The sainl fertilizers and
handling g methods as with nariissus are 1i eid. Soine are planted
in Dutch beds and (soi( in silih'e rows. anll steemied satisfactory.
(ultival ion has lben flat. and somewhat less frequent than
with narcissus.
A recent inspection of this crop showed tlie bulbs to have
made excellent girowlth and normal increase by division. The
bulbs. which were ill storage. were clean, well shaped and firmly
and compared very favorably with Northern grown stock.
One objection so far lhas beenil tha thle bloom stems. when
grown ill the (opei, iare short.

.1 ISt 'ELLANE II BUI.BS
A little experimental work lias been dole with the ('rinum,
Encharis, Freesias. .l'ontbretia, and Watsoni. liunt so far these
bulbs are of minor colilnercial importallce ill Florida. Tulips
have not beeni sueessful in Florida. altlihouighl Northern grown
bulbs lhlve been fairly successful when planted in the late fall.
Cannas, halliou.h not a true buil]., are classed as such by
llany people. They aire generally plailled fromi the first ofi
February up to May or the first it' .lne. as 1hey do not stand
the winter cold very satisfactorily. D)iggiig i is started in No-
vember and contillnues for sone lime. often up to iMarch or
April.


Tn all plantiiii's of bulbss of' every kind th're are always a
few\ shattering' ones that are odd varieties. degelt.erates or other-
wise lundesiriable mixtlires. To eliminate this condition as close-
ly as possible, a onsliant wathi. especially during the blooming
period, munist lie maintained. Everythliing that is not I rue to
type should lie remiovedl immediately before its identity is lost.
This requires a inumer of illpections alnd is considered one of
the most important items of sul cei'ss'fuil bull culture.





:6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE _

When the rogue is a standard variety, it is well to move it to
its ownVi plot in another field. but if it is not of a very desirable
standard variety thle best practice is to destroy it and avoid
getting it back into the stock through someone's carelessness.
Too miuchl stress cannot be laid on the importance of keeping
the stock free from mixtures and the grower who makes a
constant effort to keep his stock up to the highest possible
standard will he well repaid for his efforts when going into
trade competition.
While the roguing process is taking pace at blooming time,
where the bloom is not sent to market, it is well to pull the
heads off all bloomn of tile main crop wlien fully open to prevent
seeding. which will conserve some strength for the bulb and
simplify tle inspection of later bloom for rogues.

MARKETING
The bulbs produced in Florida have so far been marketed
through established wholesale distributors in the North. This
practice has been very satisfactory. owing to the economy of
shipping iln ar-lots and to being handled by established firms
who have been in the business f'or years. Smaller growers have
clubbed together in assembling shipments, or sold through
solime larger shipper.

DISEASES ANDI INSECTS
Although insects anl( disease ae not s al t yet a serious menaee
to bulbs in Florida. it is reasonable to suppose that this may
be due to the newness of the industry in the State. Growers
whio desiree information along this line should write to the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla., and
the Unitied States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
l). C.
LITERATURE ON BILB GROWING
The bulletins listed below will be of considerable value to
anyone who desires to go deeper into the subject of bull grow-
ing. particularly Bulletin No. 48 by the Florida Extension
Division.
1. Florida Agricultural Extension Division. Bulletin 4S.
"'Flowering Bul ('Culture in Florida."
2. Initced States I)epartment of Agriculture Bulletin No. 797,
"C('ommi(erial D)utch-Bull C(ulture in the United States."
3. United States Department of Agricullture Bulletin No.
10()S2. "T'hle Production of Tulip Bulbs."





BU3L, PII)ODU(TION IN FIORII)DA 37

4. Deparliment Bulletin No. 1270, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, "The Production of Narv.issus Bulbs."
5. Department Bulletin No. 1327, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture. "Production of Grape-Illyacinth Bu5ilbs."
6. Department Bulletin No. 1331, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture. "The Madonna Lily."1
7. Department Bulletin No. 1459. U. S. Department of Agri-
culture. "Thle Reegal Lily."
8. Departlient Bulletin No. 1462, I'. S. Dep)artnent of Agri-
eulture. Anriean iluilbs Under (ilass.




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