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Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Some drug plants in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002953/00001
 Material Information
Title: Some drug plants in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 28 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Christensen, B. V ( Bernard Victor ), 1885-1956
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1929
 Subjects
Subject: Medicinal plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Medicinal plants -- Collection and preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 28).
Statement of Responsibility: by B.V. Christensen.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Prepared and published in co-operation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
General Note: "January, 1929."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002953
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3343
ltuf - AKD9426
oclc - 08889383
alephbibnum - 001962749
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 28
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Full Text

I,.,


.in No. 1nuary, 1929.
'"N . January, 1929.
% .


~emg~z~


Plants


. In Merida


By B. V. CHRISTENSEN, Ph.b.
Pafes.or of Phamauognosy ond Phanracol-yr
Coltrse of Ph;.-YMacy. Unitmr:i o Florida


State of 1Torida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN AYO. Comi..iio.v.
Talahaee ~
-L
^ .. ^ _ ^ *


4


1.
,1






Some Drug Plants in Florida

By B. V. Christensen

Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

P LANTS have been used in the practice o' medicine and
have served as an important source of medicinal prepara-
tions for many centuries. During ancient times a large ma-
jority of medicinal remediies were derived from plants, some
from animals and a few from minerals. For instance, in the
writings of Hippocrates, a Greek physician, who lived about
400 B. C., we find mention of such drugs as Chenopodium
wormseedd), Coriander, ('olocynth (Bitter apple). Clove, Ela-
terium, Fennel, Nutgalls, Hellebore, Henbane, Horehound,
Licorice, Mints, Pennyroyal, Pitch, Pomegranate, Poppy, Pine,
Saffron, Styrax (Sweet Gum), Turpeiltine, etc., all of which
are now used in the practice of medicine in the United States.
It is highly probable, therefore, that a large number of these
had been used before the time of Iippocrates and have been
used consistently during the intervening centuries since that
time.
How these ancient people came to acquire knowledge of the
healing properties of herbs is useless to discuss in detail. Some
think that they got hints by watching animals. Others suggest
that in experimenting with fruits, seeds, leaves, or roots with a
view toward finding new sources of food, our remote ancestors
occasionally found some of these possessing properties the
value of which soon came to be recognized and applied in the
treatment of disease. It is also possible that their curiosity
suggested experiments, and from accidents, both fruitful and
fatal, they gradually acquired a knowledge of the healing
properties of plants. The results of such learning were un-
doubtedly handed down from generation to generation and
thus became the heritage of succeeding ages. In many in-
stances it is possible to ascertain the exact or approximate
date when a particular plant was introduced into medicinal
practice and also to name the person to whom we are indebted
for such contribution.

UNUSUAL VARIETY OF PLANT LIFE IN FLORIDA
With respect to plant life nature has been very generous to
Florida. Several eminent botanists who have studied and
written regarding the plant life of this State have remarked































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Dqnf ow I DigUro. prtdbCllgeo(P micy U~vr~t o N O






SOMIE I)lD,( PLANTS IN FIA)RII)A 5

that in no other State of the Union do we find the large number
of plant families with ihe large representation of genii and
species that occur in Florida. Probably in no other State do
we find as great a range in native plant life, inasmuch as in
this State are found representatives of tropical, sub-tropical
and temperate plant types. Furthermore, many plants which
are native to the northern States not only will grow but will
thrive in Florida. while on the other hand many of the plants
native to Florida cainot be giriwn under the climatic condi-
tions existing further north. Dr. L. II. Panmell of the Iowa
State College remarked that not only is the plant life of Florida
important from the standlloint of number of species, but also
from the standpoint of interest in regard to the peculiar life
history and methods of struggle for existence, and as an ex-
ample he cites the straingling fig.


L. A A M A

C -





". i .

OCALA LIMESTONE
(Eocene) ,I


IJ zI RED CLAY L
(Miocene) I


.VEGLADES


_ MIAMI OOLITE
(Pleistocene)


Fig. 2. Soil map of Florida (Courtesy State Geologist).





6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The unusual plant life in Florida is due in part to the fect
that the State extends through approximately six degrees of
latitude which gives it tropical, subtropical and temperate
climatic features; in part, also, to the fact that it extends
through approximately seven degrees of longitude which makes
possible a great variety of soil conditions and physiographic
features; third, to its peculiar location in relation to other
land bodies and to bodies of water.
The effect of a wide range of latitude, with its accompanying
climatic features, is too evident to require elaboration. With
reference to soil conditions and physiographic features, it
might be interesting to note that a small area in the extreme
lower part of the peninsular section of the State consists pri-
marily of a lime rock formation, called Miami oolite (See
Fig. 2), which has not yet been sufficiently weathered nor has
it yet borne vegetation sufficient to form a layer of soil of any
appreciable depth, except in strips called hammocks. It might
be interesting to mention here also that in this section the fruit
growers in planting h the trees first blast ot o a hole a foot or so
in diameter and two or three feet deep for the tap root of the
tree and with a pickax pulverize a shallower area for the sec-
ondary roots.
Farther north (See Fig 2) is the Everglade region. This
consists of underlying rock covered with a layer of muck
formed from decayed plants. This is a vast prairie broken by
hammocks and during the rainy season much of this area
where not drained is under water. Still farther north (See
Fig. 2) is the sandy area which is much larger in extent than
those mentioned above, and to the westward, in the region of
Tallahassee, are found the clay hills. This probably is suffi-
cient to illustrate the variation in soil and physiography.
With respect to the third factor influencing the plant life of
Florida, namely, its peculiar location with reference to land
and water bodies, Paradise Key might serve as an interesting
example. Paradise Key is an island in the Everglades-it is
one of the so-called hammocks-but is peculiar in that it is
completely surrounded by a flooded area. The interesting
theory is advanced that at one time a great tidal wave sub-
merged the lower part of Florida, bringing with it seeds and
plants from the tropical islands, particularly Porto Rico. With
the receding of this tidal wave these seeds and plants were de-
posited and formed the beginnings of tropical plant life for
this region. However, due to destructive fires, clearing of
forests, etc., this tropical plant life was destroyed in all parts
except Paradise Key, where, due to its isolation, it remains





SOME DRUG PLANTS IN FLORIDA


undisturbed. W. E. Safford, formicr economic botanist, United
States Department of Agriculture, summarizes the situation
very aptly in the following words:
"Paradise Key, an islaud.in the heart of the Everglad.es of
Florida, is almost unique from a biological point of view, pre-
senting as it does a remarkable example of a subtropical jungle
within the limits of the United States in which primeval condi-
tions of animal and plant life have remained unchanged by man,
and thus offering ta striking contrast to the keys along the coast
of Florida as well as to the other Everglade keys in which
normal biological conditions have been greatly disturbed by
destructive fires, clearing of forests, or the construction of
drainage canals, which not only affect the original physical
conditions but at the same time permit aquatic animals and
plants previously unknown to penetrate into the Everglades.
The region is also remarkable for the fact that it is a meet-
ing place for many temperate and tropical types of plants and
animals.
"Paradise Key owes its preservation from fires and other
destructive agencies chiefly to its isolation and to a deep slough
near its eastward order which never becomes dry, even during
periods of greatest drought."

LARGE NUMBER OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN STATE
It will not he possible within the space allotted for this bulle-
tin to name all of the medicinal plants occurring in Florida.
However, it may he interesting to mention a few, particularly
with reference to the three influences discussed above.
Along the borders of Paradise Key are found a number of
marsh-loving shrubs, such as Wax Myrtle, from the root of
which bayberry bark is obtained, and the Swamp Bay (Mag-
nolia glauca) with an aromatic fragrance like that of bay rum.
Among the plants of tropical origin found on Paradise Key,
bitter-wood. Guaiac and Sarsaparilla may be mentioned as
illustrations. In the Everglades, Poke Root grows to an enor-
mous size. Here also are found Black Mustard, Jimson Weed,
Mandrake, (Cstor Bean, Snake Root and Cassia Cinnamon.
Sweet Gum, or American Storax, is found quite generally dis-
tributed over the State, but more particularly in the northern
half.
The medicinal pines, Long-leaf Pine (Pinus palustris) and
Slash Pine (P. caribaea) are most extensive in sandy areas,
Alachua county being approximately in the geographical center
of the pine region. in this same region the prickly ash is
found, also Witch Hazel. Queen's Hoot (Stillingia), Sumac





8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Berry, Yellow Jasemine (Gelsemium) and Saw Palmetto berry.
In the western part of the State some of the most interesting,
if not the most important, medicinal plants are found,,such as


Fig. 3. Panax quinquefollum (Ginseng Root).


Fringe Tree, Seven-barks and Wild Yam (Dioscorea), as well
as Sweet Birch (Betula lenta) and Black Cherry (Prunus
serotina).






Si iM i~ I )Iil 4. I~I..~N'FS IN 121.4 IIU I '.~


MANY DRUGS IMPORTED

A Iarge' mImIber fIII' crude drugs iitieI ill te I 'iiited Slatcs
have. Ilet-lljll lllp11~r 1oin1 fr 1..111 .\,'ai~. South knwlllriva a nd
other couiintric'. II.'?t i'h- x t-u n.-t I,, griwn hieire but
because the lfll-i. t1 dr.I vmri ioii I'. light mio're elieiijily than
the native tiriirs (it tlii 5thesame)lpeicS. Foir (X;lIIIple-, sii(pla1 ints
orP '1)(li-Ibts" is~ ,\iiisv, Caraway, ( lliallnhile, ])ill, Jiore-
homid aild . 4\\ c1,11 11, 11\ ".(\\millml *N. ll41 il 11 clrdlS ill thli-i ( countrN\
for Iloilo- art,. ;r. mill'.11.rt'. 1 fl,4.111 Eirlol l.' IIy the druvuL'Ci t. Till%.
was'iih1ihI a l'.) (iii! til iV t ii l I ii 1.(,lIIC ill vig .IeII' J M114-1 1Ma -


dIrake, W iidi I 4 r ii-Yr ;li' l 4. (';ivara tol lleit -mr iiiiiiailds. We

4)rlt m ri. (d .r i lt* iu iimId..r v t'i r .ii 'aii-r v v. l il
list'll ill this 11411111(] 11* V. Sup lies (it' ia ( ve (.1 11"s an. at pri'selit(:1~

lar ely fili ilie bY 1111cr li vi lec ws til th s p aclcl.ha
1,1111 ,V 011 11 -1\ O1101111-1..\1 1. 11111'?. (~l~ lti t-11 (It t' 11A 11. (1.(
,t1wk

COLLECTION OF DRUG PLANTS

1)114. 11) d w f ';i~11. that Illvrv m1.1f. ampI)o. 111li t., ()I' "t-verail
Ill-it!, Ill ill, s lal .. t t,- ~ ll'1.1 t'll 1.1 lant
444,11114 I,, rijjij'ji .I ]4~:r4, i?*hi4 iri~iiii'tt" ii Iei 4(4 4t iitv


14.111. 111. Ilad'. ll1ill1rv. i 1



I a T T t-11 T 1, .11. 1I 1~ 11 T I I i t I fa I
thiis \ 441k hia huiili4114 harg~veli it Itincraw iiihheitirs andh in
MIlill, 1 `Ws ;is a SuIr'?f (t pili- 11huileY proph sllo 1 I,%(1 hi a il(1' r,









I ...a id I

iiilitl uh I it :, 1; ,i:!w '. iiiuit (hlhI:.i*1al. hli t tiihat o hIve
m l.111411 .111.. 1 %, ~I ( '. I il l 1.l 11 1.1, ( 'a lla veral. V ia t I r i tl c that I s a
i )I rli\ 1111 111 J04,1)~ ~111.1, a' III,- deliland.(l ~L()()(() ()

beell larvi 1. vimfillf-i I,, 111t. 'kll ()f S;1t vtpa 11t C wt\\ vI lll (i(ri lond















































Fig. 4. Panax qulnquefollum, Ginseng showing Fruit, (Photo by Bacon).





SOME DRUG PLANTS IN FLORIDA 11

were being made to export these berries to Germany. If this
plan materializes it will undoubtedly materially increase the
demand for this product.

QUEEN'S ROOT
Several collectors have also derived a profitable income from
Queen's Root. One man reported that the income derived
from this drug plant had enabled him to tide over some finan-
cially difficult periods and for part of the time was his sole
means of support. Queen's Root is quite plentiful in sandy
pine land areas and has been collected primarily in Putnam,
Marion and Lake counties and in the region of the upper Indian
River territory. Large quantities of this are exported to other
countries and the demand has been fairly steady. No estimate
as to the amount collected annually has been obtained.

DEER TONGUE
Deer Tongue is quite plentiful in Sumter, Lake, Orange and
adjoining counties, and is used in making vanilla extracts and
also for flavoring tobacco. Only recently the College of Phar-
macy of the University of Florida received an inquiry from a
large concern in New York in which it was stated that they
wished to buy this plant in carload lots. At the present mar-
ket price of about 10 cents per pound, this should prove an
important source of revenue for interested collectors.
IORSE MINT
There are other native drug plants which could undoubtedly
be profitably collected for the market, such as Horse Mint and
American wormseed. Horse Mint is found particularly in the
sandy region of the State and is used for the commercial pro-
duction of tlhymol. The demand for thymol is quite steady and
the price relatively high. During the past year the lowest price
was $3.40 and the highest $6.50 per pound. In addition to
these, there are several other drug plants native to Florida
Shat could be collected profitably.

CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
The cultivation of medicinal plants in this State is a com-
paratively recent innovation and is still only in its early in-
fancy from the standpoint of development. This may be at-
tributed to the fact that natural supplies have heretofore been
sufficient to meet the demand and could be placed on the mar-
ket more cheaply than lie cultivated product; secondly, to the
fact that it lhas been iinancially impossible heretofore to com-






12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE










4. I


Fig. 5. Phytolacca decandra. (Photo by Stuhr).





SOME DRUG PLANTS IN FLORIDA 13

pete with the cheap labor of foreign countries. However, due
to destructive methods of harvesting and the spread of agri-
culture and other industries which require clearing of the land,
the natural supplies in some cases are being rapidly depleted
and undoubtedly the time is not far distant when it will be
necessary to resort to cultivation to supply the demand for
many crude drugs. Cultivation of medicinal plants is also
being stimulated by the operation of drug plant gardens and
the introduction of courses in the cultivation of medicinal
plants by colleges of pharmacy, thus making it possible for
students to secure training in the fundamentals of medicinal
plant production.
Inasmuch as the Federal government has established by law
certain standards of purity and quality which must be main-
tained by manufacturers in their medicinal products, and has
prescribed official standards of quality for the more important
crude drugs in common use, it is quite evident that the secur-
ing of high standards of quality should be an important con-
sideration in the production of drugs under cultivation. It is
further evident that this end would not be likely to be attained
by persons untrained or unskilled in drug growing. These re-
quirements are factors which will unquestionably stimulate the
production of drug plants under cultivation, for the drugs
offered inl the market by the collector are seldom first class
from the standpoint of purity and quality. According to Dr.
W. W. Stockberger of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Washing-
ton, D. C., in order to place commercial drug-growing upon a
sound basis, it is necessary that individuals undertaking this
work shall have experilcime in special methods of plant culture,
acquaintance with trade requirements and market conditions.
and knowledge of collection and preparation for the market.
The problems presented by this industry are quite similar and
equally as difficult as those encountered in the cultivation of
other crops and the knowledge required is just as fundamental
and probably more specialized than that required for the sue-
cessful production of farm or truck crops.

POSSIBILITIES FOR CULTIVATION OF DRUG PLANTS
IN FLORIDA
Interest in the possibility of successfully growing drug plants
for market is growing yearly. This interest is evident in
Florida and is manifested by the large number of inquiries
concerning drug cultivation being received by the College of
Pharmacy. A few medicinal plants are now being grown under
cultivation in this State, but this industry is still in the ex-
perimental stage and has not yet developed to the point where




14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


m .


f7~


Fig. 6. Monarda Punctata (Horse Mint). (Photo by Stuhr).


r





SOME DRUG PLANTS IN FLORIDA 15

it is made a means of livelihood or family support. Although
the list of plants in this State which yield useful drugs is large,
the number suitable for profitable cultivation is probably rela-
tively small because the demand for many is small and ir-
regular, which makes the market for them unstable and
spasmodic.
Many medicinal plants are regarded as weeds-that is, when
they grow in the wrong place. It has been demonstrated that
many of these plants which grow commonly as weeds can be
grown successfully under cultivation. With such plants it is
only a question as to whether or not it is profitable to grow
them. Among such plants we may mention by way of illustra-
tion are Horse Mint (Monarda punctata) and American Worm.
seed (Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticun). Both
of these grow wild in this State and are very common in sandy
areas.
Horse Mint (See Fig. 6) is used in the commercial production
of thymol, which is a very valuable medicinal product. It is
used as an antiseptic and is one of the three important specifics
used in the treatment of hookworm. Since Horse Mint is now
found growing wild, it would be an easy as well as an inex-
pensive matter to secure either seeds or roots for planting, and
since it thrives on poor, sandy soil this crop could be produced
on land not suitable for growing the usual farm or truck pro-
duce. The growing of Horse Mint suggests the possibility of
utilizing some of the waste land in the sandy areas of the
State.
American Wormseed also grows wild and thrives on poor,
sandy soil. It can be propagated by either seeds or roots and
is easily cultivated. The oil of this plant is second of the
three important specifics used in the treatment of hookworm
and quite frequently is used in preference to thymol. It is
also valuable in treatment for round worms and other intes-
tinal parasites. The demand for the oil is steady and the price
proportionately stable.
For both of these plants, a still (See Figs. 7 and 8) is neces-
sary for the distillation of the oil. Two or more persons might
put up a still on a partnership basis and thus reduce the indi-
vidual expense. Since Horse Mint usually matures and is
ready for harvesting and distillation before Wormseed, both
of these could be grown in the same locality and thus more
benefit could be derived from the still.
Peppermints have attracted some attention in Florida and
there are now a few individuals who arc experimenting in
cultivation. The peppermints grow well in this State, but
there is some question as to whether or not the oil is of such








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SOME11' )RIU( PLANTS IN FOIR~)I)A 17

portant redeeming feature, and this is that many drug plants
and plant products can he carried over a period of price de-
pression without danger of deterioration.
Since the cultivation of medicinal plants is a new industry,
persons who are contemplating taking up this work should in-
form themselves as thoroughly as possible before beginning it,


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so that they Ina.vy liroe.d intelligently, alll thus not only be
fair to themselves but to the industry as well. The require-
ments for success in the business of growing, medicinal plants
are similar to the requirements for success in any other busi-
ness; namely, industry, ordinary intelligence, iand plenty of
good common sense. It might be suggested that it would also
be advisable to belein this work on a small scale and then


\





18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

gradually branch out. This would be less expensive in the
first place, and, secondly, it would enable the grower to acquire
valuable experience which could be applied advantageously
with the expansion of the industry. This would also be of
great advantage in producing an acclimated parent stock with
which to proceed on a large scale.
There is one disadvantage which prospective drug growers in
Florida should carefully consider, and that is the great dis-
tance from markets. It might be interesting to note in this
connection that the three important drug producing states of
the United States are New York, Michigan and Indiana. If
you will stop to consider for a moment, you will readily sur-
iise that this is undoubtedly largely due to their easy accessi-
bility to drug markets. New York is not only accessible to im-
portant home markets, but to export markets as well. Michi-
gan has within its borders several drug concerns, and at De-
troit one of the largest pharmaceutical manufacturing houses
in the world. Indiana not only has its home market at
Indianapolis, but is within easy shipping distance to the mar-
kets of nearby cities such as Chicago and Milwaukee.
It is true that we have drug markets in Florida, but these
are only subsidiary to the larger markets in the North. This
does not mean, however, that drug growing could not be made
profitable here, but it does mean that expenses of transporta-
tion must be considered. With the natural advantages in the
way of climate, soil and plant resources possessed by Florida,
the outlook for drug collection and drug culture as a profitable
and financially important future industry for this State is
encouraging.

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT
RESOURCES
Florida is a virgin field from the standpoint of scientific in-
vestigation of medicinal plant resources. No other state in
the Union suggests possibilities equal to those of Florida with
respect to number of species, range of species, or medicinal
importance of native plants. We have not yet begun to scratch
the surface with respect to plant resources, and hence this
State offers unusual opportunities with respect to scientific
plant investigation. In the first place, there are a large num-
ber of medicinal plants growing in Florida which grow in other
localities as well. Of those which grow in other localities, many
have been analyzed and their constituents are known, but very
few grown under Florida conditions have been analyzed, and
therefore their constituents and medicinal value is uncertain.
for very frequently the same species of plant when grown under




80MB DBUO PLANTS IN FLORIDA 19

different climatic conditions will show not only a variation in
percentage of constituents but also in kind of constituents.
Altitude also affects the percentage and character of oonstitu-
ents in the same species of plants. For iuanM e experiment
tion with the production of Japanes peppermint (See fg 9)
in the United States haa shown that the percentage of menthol
in the oil produced in northern United States is considerably
less than in the oil produced in Japan.
Experiments are now being carried on to determine the
effect of southern climatic conditions, and altitude as well, upon
the menthol content of mint oil. It may be possible that
southern climatic conditions are more conducive to the produc-
tion of a high quality oil than those of the North, but this is
a matter which can be determined only by cientifi investia-
tion. To illustrate further the need and value of sientile
investigation, let us refer to Indian Hemp (Cannabis sativa).
It was thought for many years that in order to acquire the
proper medicinal value this plant should be grown only at high
altitudes and in a climate such as prevails in the Himalaya
mountains of India. As a result of careful experimentation
this plant is now being successfully grown for commercial par-
poses in the United States, mainly in Michigan, and the Ameri-
can grown hemp is now being used in medicine in this country.
It has been shown, however, that the potency of this drug is
much higher when grown in a warm climate than when grown
in a cold climate. Indian Hemp will grow in this State, but its
medicinal qualities have not been investigated. Here, again, it
may be that hemp grown in the warm climate of Florida will
possess a higher potency than that grown in the colder regions,
but this also is a matter that can be determined only by care-
ful study and investigation. These two illustrations are only
suggestions as to the many possibilities along this line.
Second, there are undoubtedly a number of plants growing
in this State which have medicinal qualities not possessed by
other plants or known qualities in such proportion as to make
them much more valuable than plants now in use. During the
past year the College of Pharmacy has received several letters
describing the medicinal properties of plants not generally
known to possess such qualities and none of which have yet
been studied. Some of these were reported on account of their
poisonous effects. It is a well known fact that many of oar
moat valuable drugs were discovered because of their poisonous
effects, and it is also a well known fact that some of our most
useful plant drugs are potent poisons even in relatively small
doses. Here is a second field for scientific investigation which
suggests important future commercial posibilities.












































Fig 9, Jipanee Peppermint In Collieg of Pharmacy Drug Garden, (Photo by Werner),





SOME DRUG PLANTS IN FLORIDA 21

MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWING IN FLORIDA
Following you will note two lists of plants which grow in
Florida. The first is indicated as a primary list and consists of
twenty-five of the most important plants from the medicinal
as well as the industrial point of view. Following this, the
important constituent and medicinal properties are given,
numbered to correspond with the plants respectively.
The second list, indicated as Secondary List, is made up of
plants which are used medicinally but are not used as exten-
sively as those of the primary list, and are therefore of second-
ary importance both medicinally and industrially. These lists
are not presented for the purpose of indicating all known drug
plants of this State. As a matter of fact, less than one-half of
such plants known to be growing in this State are included.
They are presented for the purpose of suggesting possibilities
from the viewpoint of collection or cultivation.
Accompanying these lists is a map of the State of Florida
(See Fig. 12). It is to be noted that the State has been arbi-
trarily divided into sections for convenience in indicating the
general range of the drug plants listed. These lists are based
primarily on the results of the studies carried on under the
auspices of the College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, by
Rev. Hugh O'Neill, upon the request and co-operation of Dean
T. R. Leigh.




22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE







i~iJ













; .
4.











.A' S


'Lv-;


Fig. 10. Xanthoxylum clava-hercules (Prickly Ash).






-(SOME 1I I)R'(; PLANTS IN ILORIIDA 23


PRIMARY LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWING IN
FLORIDA

Symbols A. B1. (', ). E, F, G after the name of the plant refer
to the region of the State in which this plant occurs, as indi-
('ted oil the accompanying map (See Fig. 12).


Name of Plant


Common Name


Locality Official


1. Aristolochia serpentaria
2. Betula lenta
3. Capsicum frutescens
I. Brassicia nigra
5. Chlenopodiulrn amllbrosio-
ides var. antihelninticumn
6. Ciniinani;unllli n canII liora
7. (innanllomniu cassia
8. Citrus mledica, var.
,i inolllllm
.0. Citrus aurantiuni
10. Datura Stramoniumi
11. Gossypium helrbaceumi
12. Liquidamlbar styracillua

13. Mentha sliicata
14. .Mentha piperita
15. .Monarda punctata
10. I'inus palustris and other
species

17. I'odophylliii pcltat 1um
IS. Prunus serotiina
19. Punica granatumi
20. Rhus glabra
21. Ricinus coniiniunis
22. Serenoa serrulata

23. Spigelia marilandica


241. Stillingla sylvatica
25. Vanilla plinifolin

U. S. P.- unitedd States


Snake root
Sweet birch
('Cayenn popper
Ilack mli mustard

nAmericani %vormseced
('amphor
(Cassia (cinnamonll

Lemon
Sweet orani;Lg
Jimson weed
Cotton
Sweet guln

Spearmint
Peppermint
Ilorsemint
Long leaved pine, lob-
lolly pine, etc.

Mandrake
Wild cherry
Pomnegranate
Sunmac berries
Castor Iean
Saw palmetto. Sabal

Pink root


Queen's root
Vanilla bean

Pharin copoeia


U. S. P.*
I. S. P.
'. S. P.
U. S. P.


I". G I'. S. P.
). E 1'. S. P.
.E 1'.S. '.

E. F, I. S. '.
1). E. F, G 1. S. I'.
E. G I'.S. P.
A. B, C, D 1'. S. P.
A, B, C,
1, E U. S. P.


U. S. P.
'. S. P.


E
E
I. C. D, E


A, 1, C,
I). E U. S. P.
).E S.P.
A.H U S. P.
E, F. G U.S.P.
II U.S. P.
A, It, D, E 11. S. P.
A. 1, C,
D. E N. F.:


A, B, 1), E N. F.
I. E N. F.


f N. F.-National Formtulary.






24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

IMPORTANT CONSTITUENTS AND PROPERTIES OF PLANTS IN
PRIMARY LIST
No. of
Plant* Constituents Properties

1. Oil, resin, bitters .................Diuretic, emmenagogue
2. Methyl Salicylate and
derivatives ............................Flavor, antiseptic, analgesic
3. Oil. Resin .. ............. Internal-stimulant; external-
vesicant
4. Oil .............. ... ........................Internal- stimulant, condiment,
diaphoretic; external-rubefa-
cient
5. Oil ............. ... ......................Anthelmintic, verm ifuge
6. Camphor ...................... .........Internal-antiseptic
7. Oil ... ................... ...................... rm native. stim ulant
8. O il .................. ...........................Flavor
9. Oil ........................... ........... flavor
10. Oil and atropine ......................Narcotic, anodyne, mydriatic
11. Hairs; oil .................................... \bsorbent, protective; demulcent
12. Balsam ......... ........ ........ ....Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic,
antiseptic
13. Oil .................... .......... ...........Carminative, flavor
14. Oil ............................................ Carm native, flavor
15. Thymol ........................................ .ntiseptic, anthelmintic
16. Rosin .......................................Base in plasters, etc.
Turpentine .........................ntiseptic, anthelmintic; terpin
hydrate, expectorant, antisep-
tic; terebene, inhalant
17. Resin ............................... .....C. athartic, cholagogue
18. Amygdalin, emulsin,
bitters, prussic acid.............Pectoral, tonic
19. Pelletereine tannates .......... Anthelmintic
20. Tannin ......... .............................. Astringent, diuretic
21. Castor oil .................................. Purgative
22. Oils, resins, sugars ......... ..Sedative, diuretic
23. Bitters, oil, resins ................ nthelmintic
24. Oil, resin, glucoside .................Expectorant, emetic, laxative
25. Vanillin .................. ..... .........Perfumery, flavor

No. of Plant on this list corresponds to the one on the preceding
Primary iAst.





SOME DRUG PLANTS IN FLORIDIA 25


Flg. 11. Iris versicolor (Iris).







SECONDARY LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA

Symbols A, B, C, D, E, F, G, after the name of the plaint means that this plant is found in tle
region of the State in which the plant occurs, as indicated on il acconmpilnying map (See Fig. 12),


Name of Plant
1. Amanita muscaria
2. Aletris arinosa
3, Apocynum cannabinaiu
4. Aralia spinosa
5, Asclepias taierosa

1, Baptisia tinctoria
7, Carica papaya
8, Chionanthls virginlca
9, Cocos nucilera
10, Conocarpus erecta
11, Cornus Florida
12, Cymbopogon eltratus
13, Delphinium consolida
11, Dioscorea villosa
15, Drosera rotundifolia
16, Eupatorium perfoliatuni
17, Eryugium aquaticum

18, Gelsemiuilsempervireii
19, Gentiana elliottii
20, Gualcum officinalis,

21, Hamamelis Virginiona
22, Hedeoma pulegoides


Common Nam
Fly Agaric
Star grass
Canadian Hem
Spignet
Pleurisy root

Wild Indigo
Papaya
Fringe tree
Coco palm
Button-wood
Dogwood
Lemon grass
Larkspur
Wild Yam
Sundew
BoneseO
Water eryngo,
snakeroot
Jessamine
Gentian
Gualac

Witch Hazel
Pennyroyal


e)


Official Locality Properties


E
A,B,C,D,E
IB,C,D,E


,.......... ,F G
N,F, A,B,D
..... E


B,E
NF, A,B,C,D
............ B,E
N,F, B
N,F, A,B
N,F, E
N. F. E
N B
Button
............ E
N,F, A,B,C,D,
....,,,,,., D
U,SP, E

N,F, A,B,D
...... E


Antispasmodic
Uterine tonic
Diuretic, diaphoretic
Stimulant, diaphoretic
Diaphoretic, expector,
ant
Stimulant
Digestant
Alternative, germicide
Demulcent
Charcoal, absorbent
Astringent, tonic
Perfume
Parasiticide
Diaphoretic
Expectorant
Stimulant, tonic

Diaphoretic
Nervine
Tonic
Alterative, antiseptic,
astringent
Astringent
Stimulant, emmena.
gogue






23. Hydrangea arborescens
24. Ipomoea pandurata
25. Iris versicolor
26, Lobelia cardinalis
27, MllaIrliilm vIlIgre
28, Myrica ccllera
29, Papaver somlniferlumi
30, Panax quinqii efoliiim
31, Phytolacca decamira
32, Polygala polygaima
;3, Ruame crislpis
3f. Salix nlgra
:15, Samilbuclls caladlensis

:N, Sanguinaria canadensis

37, Sassafrls viliiblitilii
38, Sctellaria lateriafolia
31 Snlecio aurell
40, Solanim caroliniaasi
11. Tamarindus indica
12, Trilisa odoralissima
3. Ulmus fulva
4i. Verbasculn Thapsus
4,i Xanthoxylum Clava.
Hercules


Seven barks
Iponoeaa
Blue Ilag
Cardinal flower
Ilorehouln(
W\ax Myrtle
Opihlim Poplpy
(;inselng
I'lkeroot
Ililler po)lygala
I)o('k
I'llssy willow
Ilder llowrs

lhlood rool

S;ssafrtas
Skallcap
Lifi' rol plainl
l[orse iettlle hliry
Tamarindl
Deer toligui(
Slippery E 111 ark
llllliein


N,F, A Diuretic
11,1) Diuiretlc, cathartic
N, F, A, D, E Cholagogue
............ 1), 1, Antlelmintlec
S ........ .... Stim ulant
N, F, ,, C, D, E Alteratlve, cholagogue
SS,1 A, 11,C(',.E Analgesic, sonini'erent
Stinlulant, sloimacl l
N. F. Alterative
EI Tonic, laxative
N. F, I Astringent
I S, S. P. .......... Charcoal
NF, \, 11, , F Carminative, diaphor.
elic
N. F, l Stimulating expector.
ant
,N. F. A, I, C. ), E Alterative
N. F. E Tonic, nervine
N, F, E Stllmhlant, diuretic
N, F. 11, E Tonic, antitelanic
N, F, E. F Refrigerant
.. 11,) Perfume, flaor
U.S, S. A inemulcent
N, F, 1 Pectoral, denulcent


Prickly ash N,, F. C, D,R Alteratlve, slalagogue





28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MEDICINAL PLANT LITERATURE

Persons interested in the collection or cultivation of medici-
nal plants may get valuable suggestions and helpful informa-
tion from the bulletins listed below. The titles suggest the
type of information to be derived from the bulletins mentioned.
These may be secured from the Superintendent of Documents,
Washington, D. C.. at the prices noted.

1. Plant Industry Bulletin 139, American Medicinal Barks............ 15c
2. Department Bulletin 26, American Medicinal Flowers, etc......... 5c
3. Plant Industry Bulletin 107, American Root Drugs .................... 15c
4. Farmers Bulletin 663, Drug Plants Under Cultivation............... 10
5. Farmers Bulletin 1231, Drying Crude Drugs ............................... 5c
6. Farmers Bulletin 1184, Ginseng Culture ....................................... 5c
7. Farmers Bulletin 736, Ginseng Diseases and Control ................ 5
8. Farmers Bulletin 613, Golden Seal Under Cultivation ................ 5c
9. Farmers Bulletin 734, Production of Drug Plant Crops in
U united States ........................................ .......... ......................... 5
10. Department Bulletin 372, Commercial Production of Thymol
from H orse M int ................................. ............ 5c
11. Farmers Bulletin 694, Cultivation of Peppermint and Spear-
m int ..................................... ................................... 5c
12. Plant Industry Bulletin 195, Production of Volatile Oils and
Perfumery Plants in United States ........................... 10c
13. Farmers Bulletin 188, Weeds Used in Medicine.......................... 5c



















































































Fig. 12. Map of Florida.




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