I* ilhlin No. 12 Nw %Serivs l,'IhrI'I rv, 19! 29l
JOHN M. SCOTT
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
I'r-'l.ir.-il :anl I'nhll-h .-l in C'o o, r .. nlt il ii. (',il,. of
.\1 lrl ltlllf l r. I'nlil .r-tII f iI Flori i *
Bulletin No. 12
JOHN M. SCOTT
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Prepared and Publlishoed in Co-operation will tIle Colltheg of
+ Agriculture. University of Florida
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo. C'oimmniissioner n' Agriculture
T. J. Brooks. Director. Bureau of Immnigration
Phil. S. Taylor, Supervi.'ing liiLpector ...... ..
John -M. Scott, Agricultural Editor .....
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
By JOHN M. SCOTT
Prepared and Published in Co-operation with the College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
T IE followingg' pIl's, co'nsistinlg' Imainly i f pictures, ,iive a
hird's-eye view ol tlhe present statiis of thel livestock in-
(lustlry in Floridal. The i)pictureis of the g'rasses c nd forage
erops will also 1-ive one l1an idea of why the livestock industry
is expanding ill Florida, flor' ec'onomicill feeding is one of the
first points to) be considered inl producing livestoc.k..
IManyi people who ;are not macqllaiilted with Iactuiul conditions
in l"hoida .as tily v xisi t)llodi seem 1(t have tile iden that neither
0go0 d li't-sim.k nio 0d f '' le rops ca-ll b e evolloilnically pro-
duced in the S'iatle. Toilrisls Cime to Florl'ida mainly for
plea.sire anld naturillaly stay lose tlo ie leaches, golf cour.ses.
and bIri'ht li'Itlls. T'fltey s.d.hlm follow routes that take them
into till, iack onimtry \\'whel'e (hlie atual farin operations are
carriedd on. Ideas of 1he livesiock industry in Florida are
vonllsequci'lly bltcsed to ;a 'rienlt etxtellt up]on c
It is trle1 thlla ill thie past alboult the o nly kind of' livestock
found in llih Stat was o' tlier tpe known as "Native" or
"Piny \\,oods," although there w''er larl'1 e iilnlle)(l's of both
ealttle and sheip, as well as ogs, of this type scattered through-
oit the Slate. This livestock was introduced years ago, proh-
ably bly the Spaiards in their first settlements, or0 shortly
thereafter. so lthiat the term "Native" is not exactly corlrect.
Thel so-callled "Native" stock of Florida was fill far rom beiln
tile ideal for the production of either lmet or milk, but it is
doubtful if a better class of livestock would have proven sue-
c(ssful 1un11delr cL)onditionls as they existed thirty or forty yeall'
agro. Alany changess have occurred in 1the last twenty years.
however, whichl have made it possible to prodeltl(e a better class
of livestock. The extent 1o which Florida furllers have availed
themselves of thle opportunity to improve their livestock is por-
trlayed in tile following' pag;s.
The pictures in this bulletin. all of which were taken ill
Florida. give a general survey of lthe entire State, as a almost
Every section of tlhe State is represented -somne of the pictures
are from the extreme western part of the State. some from the
northern. central, and southern parts, and still others from
the East and West Coasts.
I)EIARTAIEN'r OF A(R1Cum'I1rRE
Florida's Majesty No. 153431 (Jersey)
Reception's Stockwell No. 170369 (Jersey)
These two bulls are half brothers. Both were sired by Reception's You'll
Do, and both are grandsons of Oxford's You'll Do, one of the great sires of
the breed. These two bulls have made a marked Impression on the charac-
ter of the Jerseys in Florida.
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
Texas Fever Tick
T IIE presence of the Texas fever tick ihas been one of the
chief reasons for the slow ilmprovemen t in the quality of
the cattle in Florida. During the past four or five years, how-
ever, tick eradication work has pro-ressed at a fairly rapid
rale so that today about forty percent of tlhe countries in the
Stale are now tick free. In those counties that are now tick
free a very rapid improvement in the character of the live-
stock has taken place. Particularly noticeable has been the im-
poltationl of good bulls of both heef and dairy breeds. The
farmers are not only insisting that lhe hulls be desirable repre-
sentatives of the breed, but they are also insistinll that the
bulls of lihe dairy breeds 0oimlle fronim 'ood produlcinii, dams.
T IlE particular dairy breed for Florida is largely a matter
of personal choice. At the present time there are herds of
.Jerseys. (iuirniseys, Ayrshires. Holsteins. Dutch Belted, and
occasionally oie sees a Browni Swiss, lbut tlie majority of the
dairy cows are Jerseys. All of the dairy breeds do well when
given the proper care and feed.
That dairying is developing and becoming an important in-
dustry iln Florida is shown Ib the number of up-to-date dairies
that have been established in all parts of the State during the
past ten to fifteen years. Another index is the number of cows
that have made official records during the past ten years.
1'p to the present time 128 Jersey cows have made tile regis-
ter of n merit with records rang'in from 4.564 pounds of milk
and 285.6 pounds of fat up to 13,357 pounds of milk and 700.8
pounds of fat. Thirteen (Guernsey cows have made official rec-
ords ranging from 8,050 pounds of milk and 3!90 pounds of fat
up to 13,177 pounds of milk and 711.5 pounds ofl fat. Official
records of from 8,350 pounds of milk and 348.3 pounds of fat
up to 12,473 pounds of milk and 510.7 pounds of fat have been
made by nine Ayrshire cows. Of the )Dutch Belted breed.
thirty-one cows have made official records ranging' from 7,324
pounds of milk and 279.3 pounds of fat up to 17.268 pounds
of milk and 633.8 pounds of fat. All of the above low records
are for t' o- and three-year-old cows.
........... ...... ... ^"
.,. ''11 1
Tiddledywink's Oxford 2nd No, 214288 (Jersey),
Second Prize Aged Bull, National Dairy Show 1925, Herd bull Milam Dairy Farm, South Florida, Courtesy
Mllam Dairy Farm,
Jersey bull, Buttercup's Masterpiece No, 217210, used in a pure bred herd in West Florida, Courtesy Oscar
Maggie's You'll Do, No, 159610 (Jersey), This kind of sire will improve almost any dairy herd,
Courtesy Oscar Willlams,
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA 9
Burke Neptune Korndyke No. 304599 (Holstein). Courtesy Fla. Agri. Expt.
-^ ;sJ A ri
Florida Lasifoso No. 181522 (Jersey). He came to Florida when about a
year old and has enjoyed good health ever since. Courtesy Fla. Agri. Expt.
Lord Mar of Elmendorf No, 32447. An outstanding Guernsey bull. Courtesy L, R, Caldwell.
Guernsey bull, Neptune of Riviera Farm No, 6683, Courtesy V. C, Johnson,
~I: ) ^5 )~
12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC(l'l'IRE
Prince Landseer Tormentor No. 130913. A Jersey bull that is the sire of a
number of good producing cows in Florida.
Not a good pose, but a good Holstein bull.
Sophy's Wexford Noble No, 212494, One of the best Jers'y bulls In Florida. His sire, Fern's Wexford Noble No, 172106
was Grand Champion at the National Dairy Shows of 1922, 1923, and 1924, Since that time two of his half brothers have
been Grand Champion, Courtesy U, S, Dept, of Agrlculture.
14 DEPARI'1'MENT O' AGRICULTURE,
Majesty's Royal Heiress No. 491758. A Jersey cow with good conforma-
tion, good udder, and a good producer. Courtesy Fla. Expt. Station.
Majesty's Noble Lassie No. 492336. Courtesy Fla. Expt. Station. (Jersey).
These two cows are half sisters, sired by the same bull. Both cows have
produced more than 10,000 pounds of milk in one year. Their mothers were
A nice dairy herd built up by the use of good bulls, One of the many profitable dairy herds in the state, Down on the
Siwannce River, Jerseys,) Courtesy Seaboard Air Line Railway,
A nice group of Jerseys in South Florida, Courtesy Milam Dairy Farm,
One of the good dairies in West Florida, Plenty of pasture makes contented cows, (Copyright photo, T, Hope Cawthon),
DIEPPA'rTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
This farmer is growing into the dairy business with Guernseys. There is
a lot of difference between growing Into and going into dairying.
A nice herd of young Jerseys in Central Florida.
Dutch Belted lerd on tie lower East Coast, Courtesy J. GDuPiiis.
DEPARHTM ENT OF AGRIC"ULjrTRTE
Guernsey calves. More and more good calves are being raised in the state.
Holsteins in South Florida. Courtesy Seaboard Air Line Railway.
Holstein cows are found in all sections of the state. These are in North
Florida. Courtesy Marlanna Chamber of Commerce.
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA 21
Future Holstein dairy cows in the northeastern part of the state. When
calves from the best cows and good bulls are retained in the herd, it means
better producing cows. Better producing cows reduce cost of production.
Some good future prospects in this lot of calves (Jerseys). Courtesy Pennock
Ruminating among the pines of West Florida, Courtesy Seaboard Air Line Railway, (Jerseys,)
Good equipment is essential in the production of good milk, This is down on the East Coast, Courtesy Seaboard Air Line
Two good Jerseys from West Florida, Courtesy Oscar Williams,
IAVETS'rOCiK IN FLORIDA
Golden Maid's Rawena 2nd No. 346167 (Jersey). Courtesy Pen.
Topman's Majestic Rosebud No. 473641 (Jersey). 6,244
pounds milk: 379 pounds butterfat; age 2 years 1 month.
AAA class. Courtesy Pennock Plantation.
DI)EIARAIIMEN'! OF A(R I(ULTU E,
Cora's Raleigh You'll Do. No. 387760 (Jersey). 9,717.3 pounds milk; 453.6
pounds butterfat; age 2 years 7 months. Courtesy Pennock Plantation.
On pasture (Jerseys.) Courtesy Pennock Plantation.
LI\ E8,-T()K IN FLORUIDA\
Brampton Bright Noble No. 244825 (Jersey). Silo for background.
Courtesy Pennock Plantation.
Mon Plaiser's Lily of F. No. 421008 (Jersey).
Courtesy Pennock Plantation.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Majesty's Fairy Pogis 491756. A good register of merit cow bred and raised
in Florida. She has a record of 10.696 pounds milk and 504.6 pounds butterfat.
Her mother and grandmother were Florida products. Courtesy Florida Experi-
ment Station. (Jersey.)
Fox's Florida Faers No. 635150 (Jersey).
Courtesy Pennock Plantation.
Ayrshlres like good pasture. Good grass helps mightily In the production
of a full pall. Courtesy Seaboard Air Line Railway.
These will make some good Jersey cows.
LIVE'S'PlICK IN FL(MIDA
Ayrshirc hlerd in South Florldu, Thse wouLd Iooh glood hr iiiy state, Courtesy Tomnpl Chrnhbei of Commlerce,
When the younger generation takes an active interest in developing the dairy calves, it is a good
sign, Prosperity follows the dairy cow (Jerseys),
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULITRURE
A young heifer that will soon freshen. A good prospect for
a future dairy cow (Jersey).
She would be a good cow In any state (Jert
Some pure bred and grade Guernsey heifers from the southern part of the state, Note silo in rear,
Courtesy L, R, Caldwell,
A good dairy herd in North Florida. Courtesy Extension Service U, S. D. A.
LIVESTOCK (IN i FLO RIDIA
A good dairy herd (Jerseys), on the West Coast.
On good pasture in South Florida.
A fine dairy herd with a beautiful background, On the East Coast of Florida, Contented cows produce the most milk,
Courtesy W, E, Sexton, (Jerseys),
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA 37_
A pasture scene in the northeastern part of the state. Good pastures go a
long way toward reducing production costs. (Mainly Holsteins).
Some good Jerseys from West Florida. Such pastures are an important
consideration on this farm. Courtesy Oscar Williams.
Milk room and dairy barn. A well equipped dairy that puts out a good
quality of milk. Courtesy O. E. Miley.
On, of th Profitabldarie So lrida N i b o rn--- m
Oneof he roftabe aires n SuthFloid. Nte ilobac o br Cuts ia ar am
A concrete dairy barn and silo, In addition there is a cold storage room large enough to take care of all dairy products produced .
on the farm, This is on the East Coast, Courtesy The Florida Farmer,
40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
IT IS difficult to say just when the first pure bred beef cattle
were brought into Florida. It is well known, however, that
some good bulls were brought in between 1880 and 1900. Then
between 1901 and 1906 a number of bulls and cows were
brought in from Kentucky and Texas, and from 1906 to 1915 a
few more were brought in. During 1917 a large number were also
brought in, the majority of which came from Texas and were
composed of Shorthorns, Herefords, Aberdeen-Angus, Brahman
and a few Devons and Galloways. Today there are perhaps
more Aberdeen-Angus and their offspring than any other one
beef breed, although there are a number of IIerefords and
Shorthorns. Devons and Galloways are seldom seen now.
On the open range in some sections of the State many Brah-
man bulls and their offspring are to be seen, but the farmer
who keeps cattle in fenced pastures does not take very kindly
to Brahman cattle, as Aberdeen-Angus, IIerefords or Short-
horns are generally preferred.
A\LVESTOCK IN FLORIDA 41
Aberdeen-Angus in Central Florida. Just as good as some you find in
Herefords. Yes sir, they are in Central Florida. Their kinfolks came here
from Texas and Kentucky.
42 )EPAITM ENT (F' AWO(TATIZE,
A good herd of Angus In Central Florida.
He (Shorthorn) came from Indiana to Florida a good many years ago.
There were lots of ticks here when he came, so a quarantine pen had to be
provided. A large part of Florida is now tick free.
LIVE.8STOCK IN FLORIDA
A good Hereford bull.
A good foundation for a Hereford herd.
A choice fat Hereford steer.
A good Angus heifer.
44 DEPARTMENTS O` ;\; ~ 'IrTI Ii~I
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
An Aberdeen-Angus bull that heads a herd in Central Florida.
A good type of Angus.
A group like tils is te beginning of a first class Aberdeen.Angus herd,
A good Angus bMIi,
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
A RIEMAARKABLE change in the character of the hogs in
Florida has taken place in the past ten years. Today
Here is hardly a conininity in the State that does not have
-'ood hogs. They are about equally divided between the Poland
('hias and Duroc .Jerseys. with a number of TIampshires, a
few Chester Whites. Berkshires, and Tamworths.
When it comes to choosing a breed of hogs for Florida, it is
much like choosing a breed for any other State. In other
words. it is largely a matter of personal choice.
Pork can be produced at less cost per pound in Florida than
in many of the northern States. This is due to the fact that
the sandy soils of Florida allow practically all of the crops
grown for hog feed to be harvested by the hogs themselves
without danger of injuring the soil. This reduces the cost of
feeding to the minimum. Corn and peanuts constitute the
chief grain feed for pork production, but there are also a num-
ber of grasses and forage crops that may be grown to supple-
ment corn and peanuts for feeding the hogs up to fattening age.
Corn, peanuts, and beggarweed ready for the hogs-The most economical method of pork production,
After the corn, peanuts, and beggarweed were harvested by the hogs, This field was grazed too closely for best results,
LiVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
A Duroc boar. A good smooth individual.
Duroc sow and litter.
Some good Duroc barrows, No razor backs on this farm and mighty few in the county,
Some good litters, (Poland China)
- -----,i w
IEPAIRTMENT OF AGIII('LTURE
Three mighty good ones." (Poland Chinas.)
Corn and peanuts make them fat. (Poland China).
A PoIlid Dliui sow from West Florida.
The mnthlr of 3 Ict of peol pigs.
The kind of fat borrows that appeal to a judge of hogs, (Poland Chinas.)
Some good Poland Chinas raised in a on rnge grove, There are very few better sows in
the United States,
A Poland Cliina boar with well arched back,
length of body, and legs,
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
Poland China gilt of real quality.
Duroc barrow. Champion fat barrow Jacksonville State
I)DEI'ARTIENT OF A(GRIC(ULTIRE
An exceptionally good breeder (Poland China). Courtesy Extension Service
U. S. D. A.
* *.'..a :~'
A Hampshire boar of good type, Courtesy Atlantic Coast Line Railroad,
Bunch of Hampshire hogs ready for the feed lot in the southern part of Florida. Courtesy Atlantic Coast Line Railroad,
Herd of Hampshirc sows, Courtesy Atnantic Co~st Line RailroAd,
A nice lot of young gilts. (Hampshlres), Courtesy Atlantic Coast Line Railroad,
Durocs raised largely on corn and peanuts, The kind of hogs that fill the smokehouse, Courtesy U. S. Dept, of Agriculture, I
64 )EIARTEI N' (FI AGRICULTURE
A bunch of excellent sows in Central Florida. (Duroc Jerseys).
A nice Berkshire.
Some good ones ready for market. (Berkshlres).
A bunch of hogs like these ar, in good shape to go into the corn and peamnt fields, Courtesy Tampa Clhamber of Comoerce,
Horses and Mules
T II ERE're '.I s111i'ii i111v h thi'r*md (II aIi t Ow? aIrIIIs i 1ida
r?. i Ii lI', 1 ,191 lo. butI I I I,-r.. l 't. I 1 4 0 f .!1 14 04 1 111j tf I t' i I lI I
I .ia tI II ji f tI .-S a vI. i tl iiv I I*Vjti I o Iti ft -,- iS IyeaII rNi iII 1 .:.t .4 I 14 .
iiti fit. Iiuuu;uI a f wti fhni 11. 1,1M0(1 ) i 1I, 1 r,) mgtIfiIt IS iS II iu lit-i Ilt at I
thtsir~iltl I ly me. NVl Itiru il I II. art' tigh ii'. 1.01 tt y1.2w I
I ( II I(h I jtui v k rS. th t aes L r tI t jIavt k p rodv If ;iee a iudel 'it -I r*ivh;
F, Ir fwoiiar v firm w F itr l.i fiet
DEPAUTMENT II)F WRICI'LTIAU:
_LIVESTOCK. I FLORIDA (i7
A desirable type of brood mare for Florida.
Yes, sunny Florida is where we live.
A F~rid niue ~ ~d IiIf yarsoI~
I__ IVESITOCK IN FLORIIl)A 69
P ERIllAPS less progress has been m1ade in the improvement
of sheep in Florida than will any (otierl elass of livestock,
but there are niany signs of1 improvement in a numlbe of sec-
tions of 1 te State. While Florida may never develop into a
-Creat sliced' state, ilIhre are opportunitiess for tlhe nami who
understand ds handling, sheep.
At the present time about two-thirds of the sheep in the
State are found west of the AipalaThieola river; however, all
o'f orllithernii lorida could well afford to ,ive some attention
lo sheep raisillng.
Sheep in South Florida, When given proper care and attention, the returns are satisfactory,
A flock of lth mbsin y ht w t r mth w
A flock of healthy lambs in Jainuary caught when their mothers were away,
TI.... ...* *.. *,,.uiIVV r AnnA -lr
IAVE.STOCK IN FLO)R IDA 7
-T, w r - "t tl-
~~ f C
A farm flock in Central Florida.
* ~L.r~iiS. Ar
^trf*.*., h-: ->.- .. .- ;. -\" <- : =
A small farm flock in Central Florida.
A Dorset ram at the head of the flock shown above.
74) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE' _
T IIERE has been a very marked increase in the number of
poultry kept in the State. as well as a wonderful change
in the general character of the flocks throughout the State,
during the last few years. Today there are very few of the
common barnyard flocks to he seen anywhere in tie State.
On the other hand, the flocks are uniform as to color and breed
characteristics. This shows that the owners are taking an
active interest in their poultry work.
A number of commercial incubators have been established
in various parts of the State. and in other cases tile poultry
raisers have established community hatcheries. The capacity
of these incubators varies from 10.000 to 40,000 eggs. Many
of these are kept in operation from January to the middle of
April each year.
The Florida National Egg Laying Contest that entered into
its third year on November 1. 1928, has proven conclusively
that excellent egg production is possible with Florida raised
chickens as well as with birds imported from the northern States.
In the second year of the contest 960 birds were entered for
the year. These birds produced an average of 191 eggs per
bird. The highest egg production in the contest was by a
White Leghorn hen entered I)b a Florida breeder, with a pro-
duction of 301 eggs for the contest year (51 weeks). Almost
half of the birds entered in the contest produced over 200 eggs
L1IVEST()('IK IN FILOIDA
Aout 2000 hens in this flock- -Wh te Leghorns)
Aoout 2,000 hens in this flock. (White Leghorns).
K, L '
A flock (White Leghorns) like this adds to the farm income each year.
Courtesy Seaboard Air Line Railway.
DEPARTMENT OF AG kICULTURE
A nice farm layout In Central Florida. (White Leghorns).
Capons are a specialty on this farm. Courtesy Seaboard Air Line Railway.
No quacks here. This farm in South Florida raises about 4,000 ducks each
year. Courtesy M. V. Walters.
LIVESTOCK IN FILORIDA 77
_ ____- ___ .... ___ :
No, this is not snow. Sunshine and sand is better than snow for all kinds
of chickens. (White Lechorns).
Rhode Island Reds in an orange grove.
78 DEPARTMENT OF A(:RICULTlRE
January in Florida. (White Leghorns).
These are satisfactory feed hoppers.
Farm flock of Rhode Island Reds in central part of state, Courtesy Ext. Service U. S. 0, A,
One of the excelIent farm flocks in West Florida, (White Orpinoton),
. I A
.v .; I
:: , i
Type of house common in Florida, Note the good ventilation,
1 D -
Turkey are important In some sections of Florldi, They are railed in all parts of the state,
Courtesy Tampa Chaniler of Commerce
LIVESTOCK(I' IN FLO~RIDA\
A '.LLETIN of this kind would not be complete unless
something was said about grasses tlht ml y he .ro Iwni, for
rasS Is ia necessity in livestock production. The late .Jolii .I.
Inigallhs had the following to say ablonl UrIass
"(hr'ss is the for''ivei'ess of Nature-lher conlstanit Ihelcdic-
lion. lFihlis trai pll le(d \ith l)ttl s::ll'i;tel \dwillth lood. torn
\\illh the' rils 1 r vailnlion, grli gr\el lagilijll w\ithl grass. ilnd
* ariii 'ri is f or'i"gottl Str its a alli il it'hd li tla'i v lCv eilIL
grass-grow\ like rural lInes, and are i obiliterated: I'ress t ieeay.
har\vests perishl. Hlowers, valishl. ullt _'sirss is ilmiilrtal. lIe-
le';ai ii'er.ul hy l i su1lln hoists of' wiliter. it \itlhdriws into the
iilipr'i. hri lble t'ortrel s (i' its sutlile l' ill'iii vilility il. a iI ellll es
uIj|il twei' sNiliitation on i' Srinl. Sown hlb tlhe winds. by Wval-
Pasture scene in North Florida.
c !ri'ing birds. plroipa.g atil by tile sullthIh holtlicutlltre 0o' Ith.
( Ilc' ,iils. w\hihi l l are its lliiinsters a il servanllts. i sio tenl s hlle
ruile onlfline i)f th \' world. Its tenacl i Ios fibers (ihli their' verthl
in its pbl;ia'. and pvreve tt its solble il l iiiponllns f'roiti washing
into the se'. It invi-ads the solitin e of deserts., limits then in-
rcressible slopes and forbiiddiliii pi)ima(les of' iuonlilainis. mnoidli-
lies eliimates and determines the history, chiaratler, anid destiny,
of nations. Inobtrisive and (patient, it ias imiiiiortal vigor
a1ind agrrs'sioll. Banisled 1Ironi tlie thiooiiprul'lail'; or tlhe field.
it Ilidles its timl l t, rfelfrnl. Iad whliln vigiillate is relaxed. 'Io
til il dvinasty hais prisnhed, it siilently IreslillPes its throne Frolli
which it has been expelled but which it never abl)i'ates. It
bt r 'll i' 11 llill.ryl of bIloo lll (oclir i thle senll.ses ith frilgranIe
or- Sple (i ir'. hltl its hoIllI(Iy lie1 is Illmo enclaiilltillii thal t l i ,
lilv or I le ri- e. 11 yields no fl'riii ll (ie irt i o ( i ;li anild .yvt
s 1 iliuli it lls ha rv t '. il t' ;a sin l r year fitaiiline wotldl d(.-
p ) ll11 it thle W v o ld.
So1Ii o,'11 Ili eriiill'l 1;lnt Irasses fi i u d row iiI ill Florid
Slhit fi'lii ll ill atluiidaliie i f c rit RooI riziny are ias follows:
Carpet Grass. This grass gets its iianim fr-om its ciirpilt-like
sio l. ( C tlt rh lish it as i111lcl if Fllt Illo't t lill mIIIl i otirl 1-iI s.
Carpet grass pasture in Central Florida. There is no substitute for a good
pasture in livestock production.
It runows in all scel ions of the Staite where congenial conditions
;ilt'c fotill. I1 seil ils to1 r*oW b)st ot i rCoIllp ct. 1l1oist Sooil
whIltlt ti here is (ollipairativl.V little shade. It will gTOW froi
.iltlir stilll or rIoot cilttings. l)lit it is llore easily grown l)v
sowiln t Ie seed. The seed may be obtained iln large quantities
a.ind at reasonable prices on thlie market.
Seed limay lie sown\\ at any time from Fehl'riryv to July. Early
spriniiL seediii. is to be advised. whenever there is sufficient
ImIois~ltite" ill le roundd to insure erm ii-ination anid gro\vth of tlhe
.yonll seedlings. It stars rlowt il early ill the spring and with
favorable conditions continues to give good gIrazin un til
sto])])ed liy a lpeavy 'fostl.
DEPARTMENTS OF AGRI(TIATH I.-
LI VEIS'lTO)K IN F'11O)RM lA
Since carpet grass is at rIiIllinr. it SOOll. spreads elnoulgh to
formi1 a thick sod t ha is not easily injured by heavy tralzinll
or tral';pling. 'Thie grass blh des ar tenIder. sulit' ulenlt, and
nutrit inus, and are relished ly all classes of livestock. ('Carpet
grass will not stand tire. Therefore it is important that tlhe
necessary precautions be taken to keep olt fires.
Dallis Grass. Another perennial grass l s well in
Florida when seeded oni low, moist soil is I)allis 'rass. This is
an upright, rank-growini grass that I)roduces anl alIndant
rvowth lndler 'avoralile eondlitions. 1)allis irass will wilh-
itall(nd considerVable Illore frost than will carlpel Lrass. beline tile
'rIZaiii' season mai y ie lo11-ger.
A pasture that carried one animal per acre from April to November. 1928.
Each animal made a gain of 260 pounds. Courtesy Agronomy Department
Florida Experiment Station.
Bermuda Grass. One of thle well-known gr-asses tlllroglrhout
Florida is Bllllemuda. Whenl this grass is grown on tlhel ri.lht
tjvpe of soil. it l.hpuces an albundance of Zirazilln durinigi a
lalre parl of the yeal, but even on the li-lht, sandy soils it
produces a fair amolint of g0razing at certain times of the year.
(One of the hest features of' this grass is its staying. qualities.
foir it will stand all kinds of hard girazin i dllinir' tle entire
year and wlieii favorable .r(Vowini.- conditions vcome it stprills
iip[ and gives good gra/-zing.
I'l'he tfeein value of I'erilludi is about elilall to tlat of any
IDEPARTII'MENTI (J)F' AGR[CUIATIR E
Bahia grass among the pines. The pines here are a little too dense for beLt
growth of grass. Courtesy Agronomy Dept. Fla. Experiment Station.
A pasture like this will always produce milk or beef economically. Courtesy
Agronomy Dept. Fla. Experiment Station.
LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
of the other grasses if' tile comparison is made w\hen the grasses
are all in the same stage of growth.
Bermuda grass may le propagated from either seed or root
and stein cuttings.
Para Grass. For the southern part of the State, from about
Fort Pierce on tie East Coast and Briadento on the West
Coast southward, this is a valuable pasture grass. It grows
best on rather moist soil anid produces a iheiavy growtth of
nutritious g'razin i material.
Para grass is of no value in tlie northern and western part of
Florida. due to to the fact tha t it will not stand a heavy frost
or liglit freeze. It is propagatled by rooIt and stemn cuttiiins.
A good pasture on rolling land. Courtesy Agronomy Dept. Fla. Experiment
Lespedeza. Perhaps this s better known as .Japanese clover.
and it is heinir used very largely in pasture mixtures in most
parts of the State.
The best pasture for Florida is a mixture ol1 carpet grass.
DIallis grass, and lespedoza. Eilght to ten pounds each of car-
pet grass anid D)allis grass seed, and five or six pounds of
lesl)edeza seed will sow one icre.
Alan's most valued erop is grass. Grass is the essential to
successful production of livestock. In a community., county,
or state that is successful in producing livestock will he found
a class or iduitstrions, well-to-do farmer.s. On) cheap land with
SS I)EPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
cheap labor, a low-grade quality of livestock is generally found.
On higih-priced land wilh high-priced labor (which is gener-
ally more efficient.t there is usually a high-grade quality of
So long as we produce low-grade forage and grasses, just so
lonfl will we continue to produce a low-grade quality of live-
stock. On the other hand, when we hegin to produce forai'e
and grasses that require more careful cultivation, we will then
lie compelled to keep a better grade of livestock-or change
It is probably more significant when we stop and consider
lhat the grasses supply nearly seventy-five percent of the feed
for the cattle of tlhe United States. Here in Florida it supplies
a larger percentage of the feed for cattle, due to the fact that
the grazing season in Florida is longer than in many of the
states farther north.
Therefore, the production of forage and grasses is essential
to the successful production of livestock, and livestock is an
important factor in maintaining and increasing the value of
our soils. Hence. forage. grasses, livestock, soil fertility, and
successful farming are closely related.
LIVESTOC()tK IN FIOR)BIDA
Hay, Forage, and Silage Crops
H AY tiid forage crops are nearly as important to !ivestoek
prodiirtioii as graL'ss. For that reason a ;i iiilii'r of hill
and forage froup pliilres are inclitled in this iiulletin to show
1ll[ types ol sucih erops that can I i rown in iFlorida.
'Th lil' st ( c iilliollly 1"1'(l\o ) li lly til frt'ora.,ge 'f r ps iat tli pre's-
llit tilie ae' corli. sol'ghllllnl Napi)io'r grliss. .J]l;)illlp'st e IIo ', co\w-
penis, .my beans. velvet neans, bl'gam\"',( .tc. Ti'hv yield per
air't orf th*s c
State with th, dliftf'renit soil types.
Napier -'rass on imuik soil nmi yiield foriy to sixty tons of
mni, Iiallitrial pTr ;Mre. \\'hii, on il, lihlter ;illdy soils it lliy
Cowpea hay ready for the stack in Central Florida.
ield f'roll five to fit'te ll tolls o1' r.o'tiln mlaterial per a.cr. .Iap-
atiese c'ane will yie'ld ailioul tihe sdlt' as Napiitr -i grass. ThIe
yield of cowptos and soy It\l 115 vari's I'Oll ie-ilalf Ilo oI)l0
l11nd i hiall'f two tolls oif ihay per at're. a11 v'lv\'l Iianis will
lusully oult-yie!d cillher oW,\'Lc;pes or soy balls. lIB'gga'rw'd
will yield from olie-lialf to Olit toll of Ili)y per arie.
Napier gri'ass is also anll texc'llint stiilii' c l'vo fI'or in addition
to its h(li'y yield ipe'r aii .e, it illy l it' vi twl o or tlll'e tli 'es
dirini'; I le .'Trowiin seasoii.
The crops -
l)ElPA1R1'AEN'I I IIl A(GRI('V'1'IUhE
Napier grass, Japanese anle. and utatemala grass. ('owpeas,
soy beans and le.rgaraiweed may be mixed with any of the above.
('irn is a very important crop in Florida. leing, exceeded
in value by onlyl one other single crop, which is citrus. (Gen-
erally between 00)(.000( and 75().()000 acres are planted to corn
,ealh year in Florida. It is True that the average yield per acre
is only about 12 to 14 Imshels for the entire State : n vertheless.
there are imanay fari'iers who ill tle past few years have c o-
faiiedl average ields of :30 to 40( bushels an acre on their farms.
In the five-a're contests that have been he d the past two or
three years. thle yields have leen from 60 to 100 Ihuslhels all
acre. ()ne cliub lhv a few years ago made an average yield of
11100 Iul.hels an acre for three vo.insecutive years.
()ne of the chief reasons for the low acre yield of corn in
Florida is due to the method of planting. ('orn is usually
planted in rows six ior seven feet apart, and between the rows
ipoaints or velvet heans are planted. This reduces thlie acre
vie.d of corn. but on the other hand both crops increase the
acre yield of feed and forage.
Silos have been in use in Florida for thirty years or more.
The results from their use have been just as satisfactory as
in any other section of the United States. A number of new
silos have been constructed during the past year. At the pres-
ent lime nearly all types or makes of silos may be seen, sielh
as glazed tile. concrete blocks, monolithic, brick, wood and pit
Cowpea hay in stacks in South Florida.
Cowpeas-a good hay crop for all sections of the state. This field happens
to be in North Florida.
Sudan grass in South Florida. This grass grows well in all parts of the
LIVSTII()('K IN FI)RIDA\
11 1 -
Corn in the extreme northwestern part of Florida,
LIVESTOCK IN' FLORID)A
A crop of corn that followed an early spring pepper crop in South Florida.
Courtesy A. A. Coult.
Sorghum is a good crop in all sections of Florida.
A good field of corn in Central Florida, Courtesy J, F, Bazemore,
iAVESTO(I I.< FLORIiIDA 95
North Florida produced this field of corn. Courtesy B. E. Lawton.
Corn in Central Florida. Note cowpeas planted between corn rows.
Corn in the trucking section of the state following winter truck crops, In the foreground are seedbeds for fall and early winter
vegetable crops, Courtesy J, F, Bazemore,
A heavy crop of corn being cut for silage in Central Florida, Courtesy J, F, Bazemore,
/ V :
Yei, this isin Florida, Estmimed pield 4O to W bushes per acre, This entire crcp went into It s'oo
Type oZ concrete s lo o'ten seen fi Flo-ida. 250 ton capacity. Courtesy Mar,on
County Chiiber of Con.ne ce.
L.IV 'ST 'K IN VI.OIDA\ !9!'