Title Page
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida crops
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002941/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida crops what and when to plant
Series Title: Bulletin
Alternate Title: What and when to plant
Physical Description: 76 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, T. J ( Thomas Joseph ), b. 1870
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1960
Edition: Rev. ed.
Subject: Crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horticulture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "May, 1960."
General Note: Earlier editions by T.J. Brooks.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002941
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3329
ltuf - AMR5794
oclc - 01730789
alephbibnum - 002549597
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text

BULLETIN No. 1 R MAY. 1960


wAt and W1en to. Pland

(A Riris d Edition)


LEE THOMII' ON, Comi issuitic


R MAY.. 19600


In order to publish such a booklet as this, we had to contact a number
of agencies for the latest available information and we wish to acknowl-
edge the courteous cooperation we received from the following offices and

Florida State Marketing Bureau; Agricultural Extension Service and
Agriculture Experiment Stations at the University of Florida; USDA Crop
Reporting Service; Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association; Florida State
Farmers Markets; USDA-ASC Committee; College of Pharmacy, Uni-
versity of Florida; Florida Citrus Mutual; Florida Canners Association;
Florida State Department of Agriculture; and the Florida State News
Bureau of the Florida Development Commission, which furnished us with
most of the pictures.

We hope that the readers will find the information enclosed in this
booklet of interest.


Commissioner of Agriculture

Tale of GodeU

Crops Grown in North Florida .... -.. 6--.- .... 6
Crops Grown in Central Florida ...... ... ..- 8
Crops Grown in South Florida ............ 10
Time Table Fruit and Vegetable Shipments ... .. 13
Florida Agricultural Production and Value ....- ... ..... 14
Major Fruit and Vegetable Crops ...... ... 15
Florida State Farmers Markets
Months of Operation .1..
Commodities Sold 17
Primary List Medicinal Plants 19
Secondary List Medicinal Plants ...... 21
Origin of Leading World Crops 22
Fruit and Vegetable Container Information 23
Historical Facts of Florida Fruits and Vegetables ... 25
Asparagus 25
Avocados 26
Beans .... ... .. ........ 28
Lima Beans ......... 30
Beets ..... . .. .. 31
Broccoli .....-- ... .. ..... 32
Brussels Sprouts .. 3
Cabbage .. ....34
Cantaloupe ...... 3
Carrots 37
Cauliflower ...38
Celery ... ..-.... 40
Collards ------ ---- ---.. .. ---- -- --. ...... 42
Corn .. --- -- ------. 42
Cucumbers ... ... ... ... 48

Egy.' plant 49
Endive 49
Escarole .... 49
Grapefruit 49
Lettuce 51
Limes ................ 53
Mangos 54
Okra ... 55
Onions .. ...... . 55
Oranges .. 57
Papaya ... 60
Parsley .-.... 62
Peas ......- .. 62
Peppers ........ ... 63
Potatoes, Irish 63
Sweet .. ... ..... 66
Radishes ..-.. 68
Spinach.... 68
Squash ... .. ...... ... .... 69
Strawberries ... ..... . .... 70
Tangerines ......- -. ....... ........ . 71
Tomatoes .... ... .... 72
Turnips --.. --- 73
W atercress .... .......... ...... ..... 74
W term elons .... . .. ........ ...... .....75


* 5,-~L



What and When to Plant

The harvesting seasons for the various crops vary so greatly owing to
varying seasons as to temperature and rainfall that no definite length of
harvesting dates can be given. The same crop will last much longer when
planted on different dates. Different varieties of the same crop differ as
to length of gathering days. Bunch beans do not bear as long as pole beans,
and pole butter beans bear longest of all.
It will be noted that the number of days from planting to maturity varies
much more in some crops than in others. Weather and soil conditions are
the cause in the main of these variations.

North Florida comprises Alachua, Baker, Bay, Bradford, Calhoun, Clay,
Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Flagler, Gadsden, Gilchrist,
Gulf, Hamilton, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty,
Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Putnam, Santa Rosa, St. Johns, Suwannee,
Taylor, Union, Walton, Washington, Wakulla Counties. Area 14,414,560
The number after crop indicates the number of days required to reach
edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.

Vegetables When Planted
BEANS ....----.....-..--........--. ar., April, May, Aug., Sept. ............
BEETS --....-.......................---Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. ......
BRUSSELS SPROUTS ....-..Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Nov. ............
CABBAGE --.._-.... Oct. to Feb.................... ........
CARROTS ..._.. ..-- -. Feb., Ma-r. -.--.. ------...------....-..
CASSA '..........-....--- ..- Mar., April-a root crop- No definite
harvest date .... .. .... ..................
CAULIFLOWER -- iJan., Sept., Oct. ....---.--. ...
COLLARDS --... ..--. Jan., Feb., Mar., Nov. ......-.------
CUCUMBERS ................Feb., Mar., April ......-- ........
EGGPLANT ....... ---Feb., Mar., April, July, Aug. ...........-....
IRISH POTATOES Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept. .............
KALE ._..........___ Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov....... .................
KOHL-RABI ...........................Mar., April ............--......-----.....
LEEK .. .. ............. Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct. .-.....--.....
LETTUCE .. ____ Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Nov. ..-..... ..
MUSTARD ..... ..-_.... .. Sept., Oct., Feb., Mar. ...... ..........-
OKRA ...._.. ......... ....... MMar., April, May, Aug. ......................
ONIONS .........................---Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
PARSLEY ............... ..Feb., Mar. ............_...........-. .
PARSNIPS ........--- .Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. .--...------
PEAS (English) ........---........... Sept., Feb. .............-..............--.........

When Harvested
90 to 120
65 to 80

100 to 120
90 to 120
60 to 80
100 to 115
75 to 83
40 to 80
125 to 160



RADISHES ...........

RUTABAGA ..........
SPINACH ................
SQUASH ._.........
TURNIPS ..............

TOMATOES .........

PEACH ..................
PEAR .............
PERSIMMON ........
FIG .. ...
SATSUMA .........
GRAPES ....---...

When Planted
...........Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Sept., Oct.,
N ov., D ec ..................- -_-............
.........Felt., Mar., April, Sept., Oct. ...........
..........Feb., O ct. ................................ .......
...........Mar., April, May, Aug ..................
..........A pril, M ay, June ......... ...... ...
.......Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Aug., Sept.,
Oct. ... ..... ... .........
........Mar., April, May, Aug. ............

When Planted

.............Jan., Feb.

Mar., Apr.

.....--...Mar., Apr.
"r "
"r "

When Harvested

50 to 80
50 to 60
60 to 80

73 to 82

When Harvested
..... 2 to 3 years
3 to 4 years
3 to 4 years
.. ....... 3 to 4 years
. ...... 2 to 4 years
3 to 5 years
...... 83 to 93 days
......... 1 to 2 years
...... 85 days

Field Crops
CORN ......... .....-....... .... Feb., Mar., April .....
COTTON .--.....-................ Mar., April .....-----.
PEANUTS ....................April, May, June, July ..........
SUGARCANE ... .. .....Oct., Nov., Feb., Mar. .....
TOBACCO --...--.......... .... Mar., April ..
JAPAN CLOVER ............ May, June, July .. ..........
CARPET GRASS ............Mar. to July ..............
VELVET BEANS ............ Mar., April, May .................
RYE ............ ................-- Oct., Nov., Dec., Jan ... ......
RAPE ........... ..... ...............Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec....
SORGHUM .................... Mar., April, May, June ......
VETCH .. ............... ..........Oct., Nov., Dec ..... ....
COWPEAS .......... ......April to July ......--- ..
BEGGARWEED ..................April to July ..........
KUDZU .........__ .. .... Dec., Jan., Feb. .... ....
CROTALARIA .......... April to June ...........
BERMUDA GRASS ........- Mar., April, May, June, July ....
SOY BEANS ...... .. May, June .....


PECANS ...........

..Dec. to Mar. ....
...Jan., Feb., Mar.
..Jan., Feb., Mar.
.Sept. and Oct..
.Nov. to May

.........- Dec. to Feb.
............ Dec. to Feb.

90 to 180
.. 180
120 to 150
210 to 365
100 to 120

.... After Frost

100 to 160

.. 90 to 120

...... 120 to 100

2 to 3 years
1 to 2 years
1 to 2 years
Mar. to June
1 to 2 years

4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years



Central Florida comprises Brevard, Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough,
Lake, Levy, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole,
Sumter, Volusia Counties. Area, 9,164,800 acres.

The number after each crop indicates the number of days required to
reach edible maturity, or gathering maturity if non-edible.

Vegetables When Planted
BRUSSELS SPROUTS ....- Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
BEANS ....... ............... Feb., M ar., Sept ......................... ........
BEETS ................ ........ ..... Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. ...... -.-..-
CABBAGE ................ Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. ....._--
CANTALOUPES ...............Feb., Mar., Apr. ---.......... ---
CASSAVA -..--..................Mar., April __........--..... --


CUCUMBER ..................
COLLARDS ......................

CELERY ......................
DASHEENS ....---


...Jan. (seed); Mar. ........-......---.....
Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. .... ......... ...
....Sept., Feb., M ar ................. .... .... .... .
....Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Aug., Sept.,
Oct., Nov., Dec. ----------.........
__June (seed); July (seed); Sept. to Feb.
._M ar., A pril .... .............. ..................
SJan., Feb. (spring crop); July, (fall
crop) --.......... ------------
_Oct. to Feb. ........- ...- ---
Sept. to Mar. ..-......--.....- ..-
...Sept. (fall crop); Nov. to Mar.,
(spring crop) .................................

KOHL-RABI .....................- Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov ....................-
KALE ...............-......-....- Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec. .................
LEEK .................................. Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Dec.....................
LETTUCE ............. Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov., Dec..............
MUSTARD .... ............... Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov. .....
ONIONS ...-......... ............Jan., Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov ........
OKRA ..................................... Mar., May, Aug. .......................
PARSLEY ...........................Dec., Jan ......................................
PARSNIPS .........................Feb., Mar., Nov. ........ ...-................--
PUMPKINS .. ............. May, June -- ........ ---.............-..........
PEPPERS ....... ............ Jan., Feb., Mar. (spring crop) ..........-
RADISHES .........-.- ........Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Oct ........... -
RUTABAGAS ..................Jan., Feb., Sept. to Dec.... ..... .. .........
TOMATOES .................... Sept. to Mar., July .............-.....-............
TURNIPS ............... ......Jan., Feb., Mar., April, Sept., Nov.,
D ec. .... ..

When Harvested
90 to 120
65 to 80
100 to 200


120 to 150

50 to 60

100 to 120
60 to 80
90 to 120
100 to 115
75 to 83

40 to 80
125 to 160
150 to 180
100 to 140
50 to 80
73 to 82


;*,, J


`7 7 ~


ORANGES ..........
LEMONS ..................

LIMES ....................
MANGOS ........
AVOCADOS ............
PAPAYA .........--...
GUAVAS .. ......
GRAPES ..........


When Planted Years to Production

4 to 6
4 to 6
4 to 6
3 to 5

3 to 5

4 to 6
4 to 6

12 to 15 mos.
2 to 4 yrs.

... Dec., Jan., Feb.

--Sept. and Oct.
..........Sept. and Oct.
........ Jan. to March ..
...... Feb. to June ...
...-... Oct., Nov., Feb.
........Feb. to Mar.
...... Jan. and Feb .

May and June, Sept. and Oct.

When Harvested
October to June
October to March
October to May
Depends on
Depends on
June, July
July to January
83 to 93

I to 2 yrs. June and July

December to Apr.

150 to 180
90 to 180

October and Nov.
July and August
Oct., Nov., Dec.

July, Aug., Sept.
July, Aug., Sept.
Sept., Oct., Nov.
June, July, Aug.
120 to 160

Field Crops
COTTON -. ............ ... Mar., April ....
CORN .. ........ . Jan. (early); Feb., Mar., April..........
OATS .... . ........ ... Nov., Dec ........... ..... ...........
SUGARCANE .................Oct., Nov., Jan. and Feb ....
H A Y (N ative) .. .... ..... .......... ...... ..
CHUFAS .. . ... .......... Mar., April, May ..
COW PEAS -.. ... .... .April to July .........................
SORGHUM ... ............ April, May, June ....
PEANUTS ....................... April, May, June ............... .....
VELVET BEANS .... Mar., April, May ....................... .....
TOBACCO ................ Mar., April ... .. ..
SOY BEANS .. .. ....May, June ................. ........ ........
RYE .............Oct. to Jan. .................... .......
RAPE .................................... Jan., Feb., Oct. to Dec.
VETCH ... .......................... Oct. to Jan. ......
BEGGARWEED .........April, May, June ...............................
KUDZU ......................... .. Nov., Dec., Jan ........ ..................
NAPIER GRASS ...Jan. to Mar. .
PERMUDA GRASS Mar., April, May, June, July, Aug.,
Sept., O ct. . ..... ......

Dec. to Feb...
Dec. and Jan.

4 to 6 years October and Nov.
4 to 6 years October and Nov.



South Florida comprises Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dade, DeSoto,
Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Indian River, Lee, Manatee, Martin,
Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Sarasota, St. Lucie Counties. Area
11,376,680 acres.


When Planted

BEANS . ...... ... ...Sept. to April ................
BEETS ......... ... ..... .... Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov. ......... ....
BROCCOLI .. ....-. ........Sept.-Jan . ......... ..... ....
BRUSSELS SPROUTS..... Jan., Feb., Nov........ .....
CUCUMBERS .......-..... Jan., Mar. ..... ........
CABBAGE ........... ... ..... Oct. to Feb .. ....... -...... ....... .. .....
CORN ........ ........ ..Jan. to M ar. ............... .. ~~........ ...
CARROTS ......... ................ Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov. .......- --......
CAULIFLOWER ............... Jan. (seed); Feb., (seed); Sept....
COLLARDS ..... ...................Jan., Feb., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec ........
CANTALOUPES ...............Jan., Feb., Mar. ._-.....................
DASHEENS ...... ............ Jan. to April .........- .......... .
EGGPLANT ............... .. Jan.. Feb. (spring crop): July. Aug.

KALE ...........
LETTUCE .......
OKRA --.......


SPINACH .......

.S ....
OES ....

--- -- -- --

(fall crop) ...---- ............- .... .......
........Sept. to M ar. .. ... ........- -
Sept. to Feb. ..... ... .........
Jan., Feb., Oct., Nov .................
.......Nov. to Feb ..........---.......... .......
........Sept. to Jan. ..... .................... .. .....

.........................Jan., Mar., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec .......
....-- ........ .. Feb., M ar., Sept .. ... .......... ......
.-........-.........Jan. (seed); Feb., Mar., Sept., Oct.,
Nov., Dec.. ........ ............ ......
.........................Jan., Feb. (spring crop); Aug. to Oct.
(fall crop) ............ .... .. ... ....... .....
............ ..... M ar., A pril, M ay --------....................
..-.......-..... .. Jan., Feb., Mar., Oct., Nov., Dec .........
.. .-...-.----..... Oct., Nov. ............. ..... ....... __.... .
.............Feb., Mar., April, May, Aug., Sept ....
................ ....Jan., Feb., Nov. ...... .... ........ .....
TOES ......... April, M ay, June, July ...... ................
........ Sept. to Feb.; July for fall crop ..... ..
Oct. to Feb. ......... .....

When Harvested

90 to 120
65 to SO
75 to 90



100 to 120
90 to 120
60 to 80
75 to 83



100 to 140
150 to 180
50 to 80
60 to 80
50 to 60
73 to 82

Ao A





Field Crops

When Planted

Dec., Jan., Feb.
11 "

.1 to C years
4 to 6 years
4 to G years
3 to 5 years
: to 5 years
... 12 to IS months
. 12 to 15 months
4 to 6 years
4 to 6 years
6 to 10 years
2 to .1 years
.. 4 to 5 months
........ 5 to 8 years

3 months
18 to 20 months

Any Time
...Feb. to June
Sept., Oct., Nov.

Oct., Nov.. Feb.
Nov. to Feb.
Any Time

Jan. and Feb.
Aug. and Sept.

.Mar. to June
.Any Time

Any Time
.(Seed) Oct. to Feb.
(Seed) Oct. to Feb.
(Seed) Any Time
Mar. to July
Feb. to June
Nov. to April

When Harvested

3 to 4 months

Nov. to April



In the following table is shown names of some of Florida's most im-
portant products and the months that they are available for market.
July Aur. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June

Beans .
Beans-Lima ..
Broccoli .. --.
Cabbage ..
Carrots .
Celery . .
Celery-Cabbage ...
Cucumbers .....
Corn-Green -.
Eggplant ......
Escarole .......
Grapes ---- ..
Greens -...--
Grapefruit ..-........
Oranges -----
Lemons ......
Limes ..........
Lettuce .........
Tangerines .....
Satsumas .....
Okra ...
Radishes .
Southern Peas
(Edible Cowpeas)
Strawberries .. .
Squash -... ..- .
Sweet Potatoes
Tomatoes ........
Watermelons ..

x x x x
x x x x


. . .


xx x


x x x x

x x
x x x

x x x x

x x

x x x x x
x x x x x x x
x x x x x x

x x x x
x x x x


x x
x x x x x x
x x x x

x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x

x x

x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x
X X x x X X

x x X X x

N N x x X

N N N N x N






(1958-59 season or 1959 calendar year as indicated)
(Source: Florida State Marketing Bureau)


CITRUS (1958-59) 512,400 5,502,000 $350,234,000
Oranges .... 383,900 3,870,000 288,020,000
Grapefruit 101,000 1,408,000 49,684,000
Tangerines 18,400 202,500 10,320,000
Tangelos 2,800 13,500 1,248,000
Limes 6.- ,300 8,000 962,000

(1958-59) 406,400 375,880 1.666,100 155,59.1,000
Beans (Snap & Limas) 60,000 55,500 86,900 15,188,000
Cabbage 19,300 17,500 135,600 5,610,000
Celery 13,800 13,300 229,000 9,220,000
Coin, Sweet 51,900 48,900 153,300 14,336,000
Cucumbers 17,000 15,050 67,500 9,236,000
Escarole 7,500 6,400 38,900 2,709,000
Peppers, Green 17,200 14,100 45,500 12,059,000
Potatoes, Irish 37,800 37,100 247,200 13,221,000
Radishes 13,700 11,800 21,600 2,586,000
Squash 12,800 11,000 24,400 3,454,000
Tomatoes 47,800 46,300 280,400 42,300,000
Strawberries 1,500 1,500 1,700 1,370,000
Watermelons 77,000 72,000 244,800 11,506,000
Others 29,100 25,430 89,300 12,799,000

NUTS (1959) 15,500 14,800 2.562,000
Avocados 4,900 8,300 880,000
Pecans ....- 5,100 1,800 1,025,000
Others ...... 5,500 4,700 657,000

FIELD CROPS (1959) 1,171,700 1,085,600 2,454,000 75,816,000
Corn, All 616,000 603,000 280,900 18,398,000
Cotton (Lint & Seed) 27,800 26,700 9,100 2,405,000
Oats 192,000 27,000 11,200 688,000
Hays, All .......... 109,000 203,000 5,887,000
Peanuts, Equiv. Solid 120,000 49,000 23,500 3,904,000
Soybeans 48,000 46,000 31,700 1,957,000
Sugarcane (Sugar
& Seed) 48,000 48,000 1,824,000 14,592,000
Sweet Potatoes 1,500 1,500 1,900 412,000
Tobacco Type 14 13,900 13,900 9,700 11,401,000
Tobacco Type 62 4,500 4,500 3,000 11,758,000
Tung Nuts ....... 67,000 33,000 1,914,000
Others 100,000 90,000 23,000 2,500,000





(1959) 630,000 7.,948,000

PROD)UTS (1959) 83,500 38.242,000
Broilers 16,700 5,365,000
Faim Chickens 7,700 1,647,000
Turkeys 3,400 2,198,000
Eggs 55,700 29,032,000

SPE(CIALTIES (1959) 21.000 35,000,000
Nurses v Products 10,000 Not 12,000,000
Cut Floweis 1.1.000 Available 23,000,000

Products (1959) 7,200 9.491,000
Forest Products Not 7,000,000
Honey & Beeswax 7.200 2,191.000

COMMODITIES 2.013.380 10.599.300 852.117,000
Government Payments 8,000,000

PRODUCTION 2.013.3S0 10.599.300 860.117.000


1. Ornl.-
2. grapefruitit
4. lieat,
5. C.orln sweet I
6. PFo tat-e
7. PIeIcr'' trVIeen
10. ICVtI'u 'le's
11. (Ce.lry
12. (aIbl I:
13. Slqua.h
Grand Ttal

I!4 4. 1. 4 II 44

II~3:. 111

I l. 5t(1iI4I411
II 111.1( 1

I. (Iran': 's
2. CrI pefruit
I. l pfl, rv

. .. . ..nl.i
7. P.'pp i r.

1. T,1 IIri -
12. ( v;l I a'e
!:;. ]'i ra r,,'


1.7 1.410
14 .:2.,,,,,
6.2 1;.I1) 0A I

1 .1 1 2 010i

I 5," 24,000
11.1 ;l7,0110
] !.l ,l l lll
:1 .40110.111
I :17 ,00
:;.l 1 .| I

444 lll 4 ll t ,
eua n-

WatS'.1e Ins

C n'tii liier



co c o < |n

0 2 > -^ 1. .











NUMBER MARS 9 10 9 8 10 12 13 5


___ 1 ___ I__ -I ---




0 u Q i 2 3 0 I 0
zJ L. U 0c V U)

BROOKER x x x x x x x


FORT MYERS M X x x x x





5TARKE x M x x x x x x M


AIOM^PACN 7 5 3 6 11 8 I 1I5 7 8 8 11 2 9 I 2

(A) Variety of Other commodities also

M- Primary Crop

IN ,

-, 4.1(


Annona Reticulata (Bullock's Heart)

Symbols A, B, C, D, E, F, G after the name of the plant refer to the region of the
State in which this plant occurs, as indicated on the accompanying map (See Fig. 19).

Name of Plant

1. Aristolochia Serpentaria
2. Betula lenta
3. Capsicum frutescens
4. Brassica nigra
5. Chenopodium ambrosioides
var anthelminticum
6. Cinnamomum camphora
7. Cinnamomum cassia
8. Citrus medical, var. Limonum
9. Citrus aurantium
10. Datura Stramonium
11. Gossypium herbaceumn
12. Liquidambar styraciflua
13. Mentha spicata
14. Mentha piperita
15. Monarda punctata
16. Pinus palustris and other
17. Podophyllum peltatum
18. Prunus serotina
19. Punica granatum
20. Rhus galbra
21. Ricinus communis
22. Serenoa serrulata
23. Spigelia marilandica
24. Stillingia sylvatica
25. Vanilla planifolia
26. Vera aloe

Common Name

Snake Root
Sweet birch
Cayenne pepper
Black mustard

Ame: ican wormseed
Cassia cinnamon
Sweet orange
Jimson weed
Sweet gum
Long leaved pine,
loblolly pine, etc.
Wild cherry
Sumac ber, ies
Castor bean
Saw palmetto, Sabal
Pink root
Queen's root
Vanilla bean

"U.S.P. United States Pharmacopoeia.
iN.F.-National Formulary.


F, G

F, G
D, E
E, F, G
D, E, F, G
E, G
A, B, C, D
A, B, C, D, E
B, C, D, E

A, B, C, D, E
D, E
A, B
E, F, G

A, B, D, E
A, B, C, D, E

A, B, D, E
D, E









Sil iiiols A.. B. (, I), 1. F, G, alici the namlne of Ihe plant means that this plant is found illi te
region of tlie State in which the plant occurs, as indicated on the a(uompanying map (See Fig. 19).

.'alI. of Plant

Commiloni Atame /lu itiml Liail

1. A.niiila miiusalia FIN Agai
2. A\lllis farinosa Slar (.rass
:3. A\pl)(iiyniimn Calnnalinum Canadian lHempp

*I. Alalia spinlosa
I. .\tlepias tulbciesa
6i. Ilaplisia tlinctolia
7. (alitia papaya

9. C(ios iiiidciela
10. Co(iotapuls cic(.la
11. (Coinus Florida
12. C(I boil)ipogon ciliatusl
13. l)clilphininum onsoMlida
14. I)iotoica villosa
15. Dimsera rolundittliia
16. I-llat)oriu l ]pi l folialumi
17. iin giuiim aiaiili int

18. ( *sicl niuun S.cieIlllit ns
19. G( lciana elliontii
2II. (,iaiacuim olltinali,
21. Ilaanii iclis Virginiania
22. I Icdlcma pullcgiilds
23. Idiihangea alihmtiesns
2.1. |IpIocea pandowlta
25. 1iis venicoloi
26i. Iil)lia cardinal,
27. Miariil)ium iulg;ai
28. Miuita cerifeia
29. I'apllal l somniitll iiiin
30. Pl'inl\ (uini(Iilnflium
31. Ilivtldacca deandhia
'2. 'ohliala polhgalina
33. Riiinex crispius
31. Sali\ nigr'a
33. Sailnibucus canadvnii's
36i. Sainginaria c'itialdenis
37. Sas.afras \adiifolium
:18. Sicuiellaria laticialolia
39. Seuneio auresii
40. Solanuii cairolineiin,
I1. ainiarindlis indica(
42. Irilisa odoralissima
13. liiiin. fuilva
4-1. ctil)ascum Thapsmi
45. Xailhoxvtnin C(lau-.
I lercules


Wild Indligo
Fringe lt'ce
Comit panl

Leillo glass
Wild Yam
Hllnei l
'alni ciiIngo,
Billthon nakernot






Jasmine N.F. ABC.DI.E
(enlian D
(Guaiac I '.S.. E
\ il i Ih I el N.F. A 11. 1)
Ie11ciiii al E
Scticn lialks N.F. .
Ipolinca B. I)
Ill Illiag N.F. A.B.C.I).E
Caidinal flower Ilil),
I li iiiiioIil(
\\'ax Miltle N.F. .A,l,C.I),
Opiim IPoppy I S.1. A.B.C.I).E
IPokierl N.I:. B
it ler I'oli ,al? E
Dotik N.I. E
PI' s,\ willow I '.s..
F ld lr litwels N.F. A.B.D).E.F
Blood iot1 N.F. A.B
Sa',,;dfas N. F. A.B.C.D.),E
Sklull(a N.F. E
life mi aI lant N.F. E
Hoise nciile berry N.F. B.E
TI'aili iiid N.F. E.F
Dc Ii tongue B.)
Slip|etr\ 'lm Balk I .S.P. A
iuillein N.IF. B

Ilri( k ash N.F. B.C.D1.E

I' /open ties

Uterine ionic
Diulrclic, diaphoretic
Stimulant, diaphoretic

Stlimnlan lt
Altera;ic gcrmicid,.
I)C lllcenil
Chairoal abI)sorlbent

-siitingciil, I1)lli"

IP lrasil i l
Expe iimant
S lillll llllll, lo i

Diaphoi lici

Ne rinei
Alteralike, antiseptic,
Slimillanl. ciiinenagogue
Diiuretic. (athartic
Alleailiv e, cholagogue
Analgesit, soilnniferent
Stilnlll ali, ilolnachit
Tonic. lIa\at:ie
Carminalive. diaphoictic
Sliniulatiniig expectorant
Tonic Nervine
Slimuliant, diuretli
Tonic aniliianic
I'erfiulle, Ilai or
Plecloial, dilcillcnc

Alictatiiv. sialogogue


Bell Pepper

Edible indigenes of Asia include spices, coffee, tea, cinnamon, apricot,
rhubarb, buckwheat, radish, pistachio, licorice, peach, cucumber, almond,
olive, artichoke, garlic, mango, pomegranate, grape, soy bean, yam, lychee,
citrus, rice, cotton, eggplant, black pepper, dasheen, mangosteen, endive,
barley, shallot, fig, date, English walnut, wheat and rye.
Edible Indigenes of Africa include coffee, spinach, cantaloupe, carissa,
and watermelon.
Edible Indigenes of Europe include apple, fennel (parsley family), cur-
rant, gooseberry, mustard, cabbage, turnips, cauliflower, rutabaga, kohl-
rabi, broccoli, brussels sprouts, quince, pear, plum, asparagus, parsnips,
celery, leek, chestnut, filbert, carrot and lettuce.
Edible indigenes of Oceanica include coconut, breadfruit, nutmeg,
grapefruit, cinnamon and banana.
Edible indigenes of North America include corn, bean, pumpkin, cran-
berry, pecan, hickory, guava, avocado, allspice, vanilla, sapodilla, sweet
potato, chayote, blueberry, blackberry, dewberry, chestnut, hazelnut, pa-
paya (West Indies) and monistera deliciosa (West Indies).
Edible indigenes of South America include corn, Irish potatoes, toma-
toes, peanut, cocoa, cassava, pineapple, lima beans, mate, herbaceous pepper,
natal plum, cashew and surinam cherry.



Source: J. T. Duncan, Manager Traffic Division, Florida F. & V. Assn., Orlando.

Beans, other than Lima
Beans, Lima
Cabbage, Savoy
Chicory, Endive and Escarole
Chinese Cabbage
(Cabbage, Celery-Scandi-
navian Type)
Corn. Green
Onions. with tops
Peas, Cow
Peas, English
Potatoes, other than sweet
Radishes, with tops
Radishes without tops

Turnip Greens



Type of Container
1 Bushel Hamper
1 Bushel Hamper
50-Lb. Bags
Wirebound Crate
Wirebound Crate
Wirebound Crate
Wirehound Vegetable Crate
Square Braid Splint Basket

Wirebound Crate
Wirehound Corn Crate
1 Bushel Basket
1 Bushel Basket
I Bushel Basket

RR Container No.


Wirebound L&V Crate 3803
Wirebound L&V Crate 3803
Lettuce & Vegetable Crate 935
WireLound Crate 5007
Square Braid Splint Basket 8101
1 Bushel Wirebound Crate 5001
1 Bushel Hamper 8501
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
1 Bushel llamper S501
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050
50-lb. Bags 7500-7525-7550-7551
1-2/3 Bushel Bags 7500-7525-7550-7551
Square Braid Splint Basket 8101
1 Bushel Basket S026-8035-8050
1 Bushel Hamper S501
Lug Box 1025-1040
Wirebound Tomato Crate 4015
Fibreboard Two-Compartment Tomato Box 7007
36 Pint Crates
24 Pint Crates
1 Bushel Basket 8026-8035-8050

1-3/5 bu. Nailed Boxes 675
1-3/5 bu. WB Boxes 504
4/5 bu. Cardboard Box 3,677
4/5 bu. WB Box (SQ. end type, 3,677
4/5 hu. WB Box (Flat type 3,677
1-3/5 bu. Nailed Box 675
1-3/5 bu. WB Box 504

Source: Citrus container information furnished by W. B. Connor, Statistician, Florida Citrus Mutual.
Lakeland, Fla.
NOTE-There are numerous popular containers on which estimated billing weights have not been published
as yet: such containers are not listed herein. Also, where there are variables as between territories,
estimated weights to the east have been used.

The following Standard Units of Measurement are used in ascertaining
the value of each product as listed below:
Acre-All crops listed as Feed
Bushel-Alyce Clover Seed, Corn, Chayotes, Chufas, Dasheens, Irish Po-
tatoes, Oats, Peanuts, Peaches, Pop Corn, Rice, Rutabaga, Sweet Pota-
toes, Soy Beans, Velvet Beans, Wheat.
Gallon-Milk, Sugar Cane Syrup, Sorghum Syrup.
Quart-Strawberries, Blueberries.
Pound-Cheese, Chestnuts, Black Walnuts, Beeswax, Butter, Deer Tongue.
Grapes, Honey, Papayas, Pecans, Tung Oil, Wool.
Crate-Avocado Pears, Assorted Berries, Beets. Beans (string). Bread-
fruit, Broccoli, Cabbage, Celery. Cucumbers, Carrots, Collards, Cherries,

Billing Wt.

23 lbs.
24 lbs.
90 lbs.
30 lbs.
11.5 Ibs.
33 Ibs.
33 lbs.
34 Ibs.
34 lbs.
32 bIs.
51 Ibs.
101 lbs.
17 lbs.
53 lbs.
49 lbs.
36 lbs.
67 lbs.
43 lbs.
36 Ibs.
25 lbs.
29 Ibs.



Cantaloupes, English Peas, Eggplant, Fern, Grapefruit, Guavas, Jap-
anese Persimmons, Kumquats, Lettuce, Lima Beans, Lemons, Limes,
Loquats, Mangoes, Mustard, Pepper, Parsley, Plums, Pineapples, Pome-
granates, Radishes, Rhubarb, Rape, Romain, Okra, Oranges, Sapodillas,
Sugar Apples, Spinach, Squashes, Tomatoes, Turnips, Tangerines,
Youngberries, Onions.
Per Head or Each-All Livestock and Poultry, Pet Animals and Birds.
Pumpkins and Cocoanuts.
Per Ton-Hay and Forage, Kaffir Corn, Cassava, Sugar (short ton), Broom
Corn, Silage.
Per Bunch-Bananas.
Per Bale-Cotton.
Per Carload-Watermelons.
Per Dozen-Eggs, Cut Flowers, Flowering Bulbs.
Per Lot-Farm Machinery.
Per Stand-Bees.
Per Tree-All Fruit- and Nut-Bearing Trees (Nursery Stock and Non.
Bearing Trees have not been valued).


(Courtesy of United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association)

HISTORY There are about 150 species of asparagus spread
throughout the world in temperate as well as tropical regions.
All are perennials and many species are grown for ornamental
purposes. The asparagus we know today, asparagus oficinalis,
is only one of several species of this vegetable that are edible,
but it is the most important and has been popular for many
centuries. It is believed to be native to the eastern Mediterranean
lands and Asia Minor. It grows wild over much of that area
today and also in the trans-Caucasus, Europe and even in the
U. S. where it has escaped from cultivation. The ancient Greeks
used it in the wild form. They probably received it from the
Phoenicians, the first "traveling salesmen."
Asparagus was a popular appetizer at ancient Roman dinners.
As early as 200 B.C. Cato gave detailed gardening instructions
that would be considered good today, except that he recom-
mended the use of seed from the wild plants. Some early writers
praised the wild forms because they were sweeter in taste.
Some 300 years later, however, cultivated forms were consis-
tently as good as the best wild kinds. The Romans were so fond
of asparagus that they dried the shoots to eat "out of season."
Preparation was so simple that Emperor Augustus is supposed to
have originated a saying, "quicker than you can cook asparagus."
Northern Europeans and the English have been eating as-
paragus since the beginning of their recorded history. In Eng-
land, apparently, this vegetable was as popular raw as cooked.
The 16th century writer, Evelyn, records in his diary that "sper-
age" was "delicious eaten raw with oyl and vinegar." It is
assumed to have been brought to the New World by the earliest
Our name for asparagus is the Latinized form of the Greek
asparagos, and it is easily recognized in most other modern
languages as the same origin: asperge (French and Dutch),
spargel (German) and esparrago (Spanish). About the 17th
century the word was corrupted to "sparrowgrass," but since
the 18th century this form has been confined to the uneducated.
However, from the English and American colloquialisms "spara-
grass" or "sparrowgrass," asparagus has come to be known in
the trade as "grass."


Asparagus has been valued for medicinal qualities as long
as it has been known. It was supposed to be good for anything
from the prevention of bee stings to heart trouble, dropsy and
toothache. As recently as 1949 it was discovered that asparagus
is one of the richest sources of rutin, a drug originally isolated
in tobacco. Its chief value is strengthening the walls of the
capillaries, thus preventing hemorrhaging. Rutin increases in
.asparagus in the autumn when the stalks are too tough to be
-edible. Modern medicine also uses the root as a diuretic.
HISTORY When Cortez first tasted the fruit of ahuacatl in
November 1519 at the festive boards of Montezuma II, at Teno-
chtitlan (Mexico City), the capital of the Aztecs, this tropical
fruit had long been cultivated by the great Indian civilizations
of Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Primi-
tive bowls shaped like avocados have been found among the
temples of Mayas, Toltecs and Aztecs. A fine treasure of the
.great period of pre-Incan civilization, about 900 A. D., found at
the mound of Chan Chan in Peru is a water bowl in the shape of
two avocados, back to back. The first written report to the
Old World was made by the soldier-writer Martin Fernandez de
Enciso, who tasted the fruit in Colombia. Other historians of
the period soon sent in descriptions of this new gourmet's dis-
covery. The news spread rapidly from the court of Charles V
of Spain to other European countries. Unlike many of the popu-
lar new fruits and vegetables found in the New World, the avo-
-cado did not spread as rapidly to other tropical areas of the
world. This was due primarily to difficulty in propagation. How-
,ever, it was growing in the Hawaiian Islands by 1825 and since
then has been widely distributed in Africa and Polynesia, and
today is growing in most parts of the world where the climate is
suitable. Apparently it was not growing in the West Indies until
the Spaniards introduced it from the mainland. Both Enciso and
the historian Oviedo (1526) referred to it as a "native of the
mainland." As early as 1590, Acosta, another soldier-scholar,
distinguished between the main types of avocados. (See RACES
AND VARIETIES.) W. Hughes, physician of the English
crown, in 1672 pronounced it to be "one of the most rare and
pleasant fruits of the island (Jamaica). It nourisheth and
strengtheneth the body, corroborating the vital spirits and pro-
curing vigor exceedingly." His is the first reference to this fruit



in English. George Washington, in 1751, found the avocado to
be the most popular fruit in the Barbados Islands.
The avocado was introduced into the United States in 1833
by Henry Perrine, who sent trees from Mexico to be, planted
south of Miami. It seems probable that the Mission Fathers
might have first brought this tropical delight to California. How-
ever, the earliest reference appears in the Report of the Visiting
Committee of the California State Agricultural Society in 1856.
According to this, an avocado tree was imported from Nicaragua
by a Dr. Thomas J. White who lived near Los Angeles. In 1871,
three trees were introduced by Judge R. B. Ord of Santa Bar-
bara. This planting served to stimulate interest in the fruit and
many trees were planted. Some were imported from Mexico and
other countries of Central America. Others were started from
seeds brought into California by travelers. The 1890's found
other pioneers who further advanced interest in growing the
avocado on a commercial scale. Some enterprising nursery men
began in 1910 to explore Mexico and Guatemala for new va-
rieties. The U. S. Department of Agriculture undertook in 1911
to assist the new industry by exploring the avocado growing
areas thoroughly. This cooperative search lasted nine years.


HISTORY Before the discovery of America the Old World was.
familiar with many types of beans but not with our "common
bean." Snap beans are believed to have originated in Central
America and were distributed widely over both Americas by the
Indians, probably along the same routes as were lima beans.
Because of its greater range of cultivation over the Americas at
the time of discovery, and its greater diversity in North America,
it is probable that its culture is even older than that of the lima.
bean. They were introduced into Europe and Asia soon after
their discovery and became popular very early. They were men-
tioned in Europe about 1542 and by 1616 a large number of
varieties of different types were described. The English first
used the name "kidney bean" in 1551 to distinguish our Ameri-
can common bean from the Old World types. It has been only in
the last 100 years that truly stringless, nearly fiberless, tender-
podded varieties, such as we know today, were developed. An
interest in early bean varieties with stringless pods gave the

flEA It


initial impetus to American bean breeding about 1890. Before
that seed companies had paid little attention to bean breeding.
They merely introduced a kind grown by some farmer or a va-
riety that had become common in some farming community.


HISTORY Lima beans were believed native to Brazil. Evidence
now points to Guatemala. Wild primitive beans along with a di-
versity of cultivated forms have been found in Guatemala. Their
distribution has been traced by the various "prehistoric varie-
ties" left along Indian trade routes. One route of the bean mi-
gration extended up through Mexico into our Southwest, east-
ward to spread from Florida to Virginia. Those grown by the
Indian tribes varied from the present small types used by the
Hopi Indians in the Southwest to the Sieva type found in the

Another "trade route" was down through Central America.
into Peru, where the large-seeded, large podded types were de-
veloped in the coastal areas. The name "Lima" obviously came
from Lima, Peru, one point at which the species was found by
early European explorers. A third branch of development spread
through the West Indies and southward toward the mainland of
South America. This Caribbean branch contains types that tend
to develop poisonous quantities of cyanide under certain con-
ditions but the other branches have not shown this tendency.

The explorers and slavers of the early 1500's found limas ideal
for replenishing their ship's stores. Supplies were obtained
from the Indians in numerous places in the Americas and were
carried to all parts of the earth-Europe, Africa, the East In-
dies, India and the Philippines. By the late 1700's there were
many records of lima beans in all those places. Apparently limas
were recorded in Europe about 1591. The Sieva type was intro-
duced into the United States about 1700 and the large lima about
1824. The bush varieties are of recent development (since 1875),
although the dwarf mutation on which they are based had
doubtless recurred many times before anyone thought of making
use of it. There is a report that a few hundred pounds of bean
seed were purchased from a tramp steamer in Santa Barbara
about 1865 by Henry Lewis. These beans had been purchased


in Peru by the captain of the ship. Within a few years this seed
was being grown generally in the Carpinteria and Ventura areas
and formed the basis of the dry lima bean industry which still
flourishes in Southern California.
Lima Beans are referred to sometimes in the South and other
sections of the country as "butter beans," although this col-
loquialism is sometimes used in New England to refer to yellow-
podded ("wax") varieties of snap beans.


HISTORY Beets grown for their leaves, such as Swiss Chard,
have been known in Europe since any definite records of food
plants there have existed. Beets of the type that produce large
fleshy, edible roots were unknown before the Christian Era.
The ancients used the root of the wild beet or chard apparently
for medicinal purposes only. Beets originated in the Mediter-
ranean area and apparently spread eastward in prehistoric
times, with a secondary region of development in the Near East.
First recipes for cooking the edible roots appeared in the writ-
ings of Roman Epicures in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The next
record of the use of beet roots appeared in English recipes of
the 14th century. The red beet with a turnip-like root was
described first as a food plant in Germany in 1558 and was a
rarity at that time in Northern Europe. The improved beet
was called "Roman beet" in the 16th century in Northern Europe
and France, indicating its introduction from Italy. Garden beets
remained relatively unimportant during the 17th and 18th cen-
turies, but after 1800 grew more in popularity on Continental
Europe that in the British Isles. It is known when they were
introduced into the United States, but only one variety was listed
in 1806.
Cultivation of beets for sugar was established in France and
Germany about 1810. Sugar beets are cultivated extensively in
the United States, and have also been used in northern states as
winter vegetables, sliced and fried and served with meat. Stock
beets or mangel-wurzels are a coarser variety and are used for
cattle fodder. Sugar beets are usually yellowish-white, and
garden beets range in color from extremely dark purplish red
to bright vermilion and to white. Those commonly grown for
commercial fresh market are the red varieties.


HISTORY Although the first notice of broccoli appears in Mil-
ler's Dictionary, edition of 1724, in which he says it was a
stranger in England until "within these five years," and was
called 'sprout coli-flower,' or Italian asparagus, Sturtevant be-
lieves that the Romans knew the sprouting broccoli as well as
other forms at least as early as the beginning of the Christian
era. Two excerpts from Pliny's writings, second century A.D.,
indicate to Sturtevant that the sprouting broccoli (cyma) was
highly favored. Dr. Victor Boswell in "Our Vegetable Travelers,"
The National Geographic Magazine, August 1949, also states that
sprouting broccoli was known for more than 2,000 years in parts
of Europe. In 1729 Switzer described several kinds of broccolis
that he had had growing in his garden near London, "these
past two years," including sprouting broccoli. Sturtevant com-
ments that "since the seeds of the plants described by Switzer
came from Italy and came mixed, we may assume that varietal
distinctions had not as yet become recognized, and that hence
all the types of the broccoli now grown have originated from
McMahon's list of vegetables grown in American gardens,
1806, is the first mention of the broccolis, including sprouting
broccoli, in the U. S. Dr. Boswell says, "It must have been known
here for many years before that," and he further expresses
surprise that such an excellent vegetable failed to become popu-
lar until comparatively recently. Its use was confined to a few
Italian families in the New York and Boston areas prior to the
1920's. In 1923 D'Arrigo Bros. Company planted trial fields of
Italian sprouting broccoli in Santa Clara Valley, near San Jose,
and shipped a few crates by express to Boston. The first ice
pack broccoli was shipped to eastern markets in mixed cars in
the fall of 1924, and by 1925 straight car loads were loaded at
San Jose for the East. Acreages were limited at first, but by
1927 more planters and packers became interested and for awhile
supplies increased faster than demand. In 1929 D'Arrigo Bros.
Company started what is thought to be the first direct adver-
tising program for broccoli through a cooperative radio program
in Italian and in some Italian newspapers. Development of the
industry was rapid and in 1932 a pre-cooler was built at Castro-
ville for broccoli only. The growing season was extended in this-
area through development of new strains, and by 1939 quality


packs became of importance. Grading and bunching was moved
into the packing houses and bunching machines were developed
and installed at Castroville. These were picked up by other broc-
coli shippers and are now commonly used by most broccoli


HISTORY The Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea bullata gem-
mifera) is a form of cabbage which, instead of making a large
single head, produces a number of small heads along its stem
where the leaves are attached. By pulling away the lower leaves
these heads are given room to develop. This form apparently
did not come into existence until about 400 years ago. The 1937
Yearbook of Agriculture states that this plant was not mentioned
by the early writers prior to 1759, but by 1793 Brussels sprouts
were an article of international commerce and its origin is gen-
erally ascribed to Belgium.
Some authors of last century said that they had been grown
"from time immemorial about Brussels, Belgium." Sturtevant's
Notes on Edible Plants, edited by U. P. Hedrick of the New York
State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York, re-
futes this by saying, "if this be so, it is strange that they escaped
the notice of the early botanists who would have certainly
noticed a common plant of such striking appearance." The
Notes give further explanation as to how some authors may
have been convinced that some of the earlier botanists were
describing Brussels sprouts. An early cabbage, after the true
head is removed, will frequently develop small cabbages in the
leaf axils. Dalechamp, 1587, described such a phenomenon and
gave this form the name B. capitata polycephalos. Bauhin 1623,
describes B. ex capitibus pluribus, saying that "some plants bear
50 heads the size of an egg." Because of Bauhin's reference to
Dalechamp, Sturtevant believed he was referring to the same
plant. Lobel, 1655, refers to a cabbage like the B. polycephalos
but he had not seen it. Ray, 1686, also refers to a "like cab-
bage." Sturtevant ascribed the origin of this vegetable to "a
suddenly observed variable of the Savoy cabbage type" at some
time scarcely before the 1700's. By 1821 they were commonly
cultivated near Brussels and were probably in general use in
gardens in France. Booth, 1874, said they were not generally


known in England until after 1854, but a correspondent of the
"Gardeners' Chronicle," 1850, refers to tall sorts as generally
preferred to the dwarf by market gardeners near London. Mc-
Mahon, 1806, mentioned them in this country for the first time
but did not include them in his list of garden vegetables for
America. Thorburn's catalog for 1828 offered seed for one
variety and in 1881 two varieties. Sturtevant, writing prior
to 1887 said that "this vegetable, in this country" was grown
"only in gardens of amateurs, yet (is) deserving more esteem."
The 1925 Yearbook of Agriculture said that these were not
grown extensively for market "until recently when a large in-
dustry developed in the Delta region of Louisiana."


HISTORY There is historical and botanical evidence that cab-
bage has been in cultivation for more than 4,000 years. Sturte-
vant says "views as to the origin of various types of cabbage
must be considered as largely speculative." Even the origin of
the name "cabbage" is clouded in confusion. The name ap-
parently is derived from the Latin "caput," meaning "head,"
although Dr. Victor R. Boswell, USDA, in "Our Vegetable
Travelers," says the word is an Anglicized form of the French
"caboche," also meaning "head." The cabbage is of the genus
"Brassica oleracea," and the modern heading-types common to
this country are classified as "Brassica oleracea capitata." It is
a member of the mustard family, but is botanically separated
from the mustards in that it has a distinct family of its own,
including the cauliflowers, the broccolis, Brussels sprouts, kales
and kohlrabi.
Evidence points to the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor
as the place of origin of the species, but Dr. Boswell says "the
Celts of Central and Western Europe had much to do with the
distribution and popularization of cabbage as a food plant." Its
introduction into Europe has been generally ascribed to the
Romans, but here again Dr. Boswell says "it seems probable that
the Celts introduced it even earlier." He points out that the
Celts invaded Mediterranean lands repeatedly from about 600
B. C., reached into Asia Minor around 278 B. C., and into the
British Isles in the fourth century A.D. The Romans did not
spread into northern Europe and Britain until shortly before




the beginning of the Christian Era. "In view of these move-
ments," says Dr. Boswell, "it is not surprising that the history
of the development of the cabbage-like group of vegetables has
been confused between the Mediterranean and Asia Minor, on the
one hand, and northern and western Europe on the other."
There is no mention of there having been a hard-heading
variety of cabbage in ancient Rome. These varieties apparently
were unknown until after the time of Charlemagne, who died
A. D. 814. Albert of Cologne referred to hard-heading cabbage
in the 13th century, and it was referred to again in the 14th
century by writers citing a distinction between heading and non-
heading cabbages (coleworts). Unmistakably clear descriptions
of hard-heading cabbage were recorded in Europe in 1536.
Sturtevant says cabbage was first introduced into America
by Jacques Cartier in 1541-42, who planted it in Canada on his
third voyage. There is no written record of its being planted
in what is now the United States until 1699, although Dr. Bos-
well says "it was doubtless planted by some of the earliest
colonists." In 1779 cabbages were mentioned as among the
Indian crops around Geneva, N. Y., and in 1806, B. McMahon in
his "The American Gardener's Calendar" mentioned early and
late varieties for American gardens. Thorburn's "American Seed
House Catalog" published in New York listed 18 varieties in 1828.


HISTORY When is a cantaloupe not a cantaloupe? The "true"
cantaloupe variety of muskmelon is grown in Europe and is not
known in America. The European cantaloupe was named for
the Castle of Cantalupo, the country seat of a sixteenth century
Pope, in whose gardens a variety of muskmelon brought from
Armenia was first cultivated. In America "cantaloupe" has be-
come the generic name of all the small, oval, heavily netted
musk-scented muskmelon. All cantaloupes are muskmelons, but
not all muskmelons are cantaloupes.
The netted or nutmeg muskmelon which has become known
as cantaloupe in America originated in Persia and adjacent areas.
A secondary center of origin is southern Asia where it grew
spontaneously from the foot of the Himalayas to Cape Comorin
and the northwest provinces of India, Kashmir and Afghanistan.
It also grew wild in Egypt, and inferior varieties were cultivated


at a very early date. The oldest record of the muskmelon is an
Egyptian picture of 2400 B.C. in which a fruit identified by some
experts as a muskmelon appears.
The muskmelon was introduced in China and also the Medi-
terranean areas of Europe at the beginning of the Christian era.
Pliny the Elder describes "a new form of cucumber . called
Melopepo which grows on the ground in a round form and . .
although not suspended, yet the fruit separates from the stem
at maturity." Galen, the Greek physician, wrote during the
second century of its medicinal qualities, and Roman writers of
the third century gave directions for cultivating and "preparing
it with spices for eating." By the fifteenth century, the musk-
melon was well known in Spain, and Charles VIII of France is
credited with introducing it into northern and central Europe
from Rome about the same time.
The muskmelon was an "early settler" in the New World.
Columbus brought the seed on his second voyage, and in 1494
he had it planted on Isabela Island. It quickly spread to both
American continents and was grown by the Indians in both South
and North America early in the sixteenth century. Between 1534
and 1584, reference to the muskmelon was made in literature and
letters in such widely separated areas as the St. Lawrence, New
Mexico area, Haiti and Virginia. The fruit was also grown in
Massachusetts early in its colonization. Early in the 17th cen-
tury it appeared along the Hudson and in the New England reg-
ion and was introduced into Bermuda in 1609. In 1683 the
Spaniards introduced it into California.
Directions for cultivating the muskmelon appeared in books
in 1693. One written in France at that time was translated for
use in England, Holland, Germany and many other countries for
almost a century afterwards. One of the earliest books on its
cultivation published in America appeared in 1769.


HISTORY The carrot (Daucus carota) gets its name from the
French word "carotte," which in turn comes from the Latin
"carota," says Dr. Victor R. Boswell, USDA, in "Our Vegetable
Travelers." It is believed to have originated in Afghanistan
and adjacent Asiatic areas . and later was introduced into
North and South America, China and Cochin China, according


to Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants. Just when cultivation
started is vague, but Sturtevant says "we believe the carrot was
cultivated by the ancients." The wild plant is believed to be the
original of the domestic variety, which was improved through
cultivation and selection. Galen, a Greek physician of the second
century, implied cultivation in his writings, and by the 16th
century the carrot had become well established throughout a
large portion of the world.
First mention of carrots in the New World was at Margarita
Island, off the coast of Venezuela, in 1965 (which Sturtevant
says "indicates they were well known in England at that date.")
Carrots were grown by the Colonists at Jamestown, Va., in 1609,
and in Massachusetts in 1629. They were mentioned in Brazil
in 1647. George C. Conover in his "Early History of Geneva
(N. Y.)" says "carrots were among the Indian foods destroyed
by General John Sullivan near Geneva in 1779."
"Our common carrot is called the Mediterranean type," says
Dr. Boswell, "because it has long been known there and was
probably developed from types carried from Asia Minor." Types
developed in other parts of the world, such as the Japanese
carrot that is commonly three feet long or more, are not grown
HISTORICAL NOTES When carrots were first brought to Eng-
land from Holland, stylish ladies used the feathery leaves to deco-
rate their hair ... In Germany, a substitute for coffee was made
from carrots chopped into small pieces and browned . In the
Hebrides, off the coast of Scotland, they were collected by the
young women and distributed as dainties among their acquain-
tances on Sundays and at their dances . In some parts of
Europe sugar was made from carrots but its manufacture was
not found profitable . In 1855 surveyors for the Pacific Rail-
road reported that Flathead Indians in Oregon were so fond
of carrots they would steal them from the fields, although strictly
honest as to other articles.

HISTORY Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) is a member
of the cabbage family and is so closely related to sprouting
broccoli that both are designated as the same botanical variety,
"botrytis," from a Greek word meaning "a cluster." It is de-
fined as an annual variety of cabbage, in which the head con-


sists of the condensed and thickened flower cluster instead of
the leaves. Both cauliflower and broccoli have much the same
early history. The parent of these cabbages is native to the
Mediterranean area and Asia Minor, says Dr. Victor R. Boswell,
USDA, in a treatise on "Our Vegetable Travelers."

The word "cauliflower" comes from the Latin terms "caulis,"
which means stem, stalk or cabbage, and "floris" (flower). "Cau-
lis," was changed to "caul," later in German it became "kohl,"
in Danish "kaale," and in Irish "cal." Thus literally cauliflower
is "cabbage flower" or "stalk flower."

The oldest record of cauliflower dates back to the 6th cen-
tury B. C. The Roman naturalist Pliny wrote about it in the
second century after Christ. In the 12th century three varieties
were described in Spain as introduced from Syria, where it had
doubtless been grown for more than a thousand years. In
England in 1586 cauliflower was referred to as "Cyprus Cole-
worts," suggesting introduction from the Island of Syprus.
Cauliflower was on the London vegetable market as early as
1619. It was grown in France around 1600, where it was known
as "chou fleur."

It is uncertain when and how cauliflower (sprouting broccoli)
was introduced into this country, but Dr. Boswell says it has
been grown for "perhaps 200 years in America." Americans of
Italian origin, he said, had grown it for generations in the vi-
cinity of New York and Boston before it was generally appre-
ciated for its attractive qualities. B. McMahon in "The American
Gardner's Calendar," published in Philadelphia in 1806, mentions
early and late cauliflower varieties, as does Thomas Bridgeman in
his "Young Gardener's Assistant," published in New York in
1832. Fearing Burr, Jr., Boston, described 10 varieties in 1836.
The Vilmorin (Paris, France) "Catalog of Seed Houses" de-
scribed 16 varieties in 1870.

Although grown in Europe for centuries both broccoli and
cauliflower have become important vegetable crops in this
country only since 1925. Because of their fine appearance and
delicate flavor they have become increasingly popular with
American consumers. They have been called the "true aristo-
crats of the cabbage family," and Mark Twain once defined cauli-
flower as "cabbage with a college education."



HISTORY Celery belongs to the same family of plants as the
carrot, parsley, fennel, caraway and anise. The characteristic
flavor and odor of the members of this family are due to the
presence of volatile oils in the stems and leaves and especially
in the seeds. It originated in the Mediterranean countries. Wild
celery grows in wet places over Europe, the Mediterranean lands,
Asia Minor, the Caucasus and southeastward toward the Hima-
layas. Smallage, a plant now cultivated in gardens for flavoring
purposes, is apparently "wild" celery, and this has been known
in the Mediterranean lands for thousands of years.
Celery was mentioned in Homer's Odyssey about 850 B.C.
as "selinon." The French name, "celeri," from which the Eng-
lish is derived, was first mentioned in a 9th century poem written
in France or Italy, giving the medicinal uses and merits of the
plant. Dioscorides, Greek medical writer of about the 1st cen-
tury, recommended eating celery for a sedative effect (The vola-
tile oil obtained from ripe celery seeds is used in medicine today
as a sedative). Another use the ancient Greeks made of celery
was as an award to winners of sports contests.
It was still a primitive plant when first cultivated in Italy
and northern Europe and grown for medicinal purposes only.
Use as food was first recorded in France in 1623, and for about
a hundred years thereafter its food use was confined to flavor-
ings. Not until the middle of the 17th century were the little
stalks and leaves eaten with an oil dressing in France and Italy.
Improvement of the plant was not undertaken until the late 17th
and early 18th centuries in Italy, France and England. By mid-
18th century it was discovered that much of the strong flavor
could be eliminated by growing the plants in late summer and
fall, then keeping them into the winter. This brought celery into
its place as a salad plant.
It is not known when celery was first brought to America, but
four cultivated varieties were listed here in 1806. Celery growing
as an industry in the U.S. dates from about 1880 when the
White Plume and the Golden Self Blanching varieties were intro-
duced. Prior to that certain of the older green types were grown
in home and market gardens mainly for local consumption.
Credit for the early commercial development of the industry is
largely due to a group of Holland-American gardeners in the
vicinity of Kalamazoo, Michigan who grew it as early as 1874



and offered it for sale to passengers on the trains passing through
Kalamazoo. Later it was sold on the Michigan Central Railroad
trains to passengers and to people along the route, and a demand
for the delicately blanched product was rapidly created.
Revised January 20, 1953


HISTORY The collard with its close relative kale is one of the
most primitive and oldest members of the cabbage family. It is
native to the eastern Mediterranean countries or to Asia Minor.
It has been under cultivation for so long and has been so shifted
about by prehistoric traders and migrating tribes that it is not
certain which of these regions is the home of the species. Wild
cabbage, from which the collard and more highly developed
horticultural forms arose, is still growing along the coastal re-
gions of Europe and northern Africa. Its use by man as food
antedates written history, and it is believed to have been in
common use for more than 4000 years. All principal forms of
collards known today have been cultivated for at least 2,000
years. Well before the Christian era the Greeks and Romans
grew this plant. "Coles" (collards and kales) were described by
European writers in the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 13 centuries.
The Romans may have taken the coles to Britain and France.
On the other hand, it seems probable that the Celts may have
introduced them to these countries. They invaded Mediter-
ranean lands repeatedly from about 600 B.C. and reached into
the British Isles in the 4th century B.C. The English name is
a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon "coleworts" or "colewyrts,"
meaning literally "cabbage plants."
The first mention of collards in America was in 1669, but
because of their popularity in European gardens, it is probable
that they were introduced somewhat earlier. (See "Our Vege-
table Travellers" by Dr. Victor R. Boswell, National Geographic
Magazine, August 1949.)


HISTORY Indian corn (Zea mays L.) was cultivated in the
two Americas, from Canada to Patagonia, long before Columbus
reached the shores of the New World. The first written record
of corn in North America is found in Icelandic sagas. Karlsefne,


in 1006, found corn at Hop (presumably in the vicinity of
Taunton River, Mass.). Maize and its uses are described by
Columbus in 1492 as "a kind of grain called maize of which was
made a very well-tasted flour." It was also brought to Columbus
in 1498 in Venezuela. DeSoto in the 1540 invasion found it
cultivated in Florida, Alabama and northern Mississippi. Evi-
dence of pre-Columbian maize has been found in excavations in
the "Four Corners" area, where Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and
New Mexico meet. The "Basket Makers" were growing maize,
both field and sweet, apparently as far back as the 600's A.D. or
earlier. According to Dr. Edgar Anderson in Corn Before Colum-
bus, literally bushels of pre-Columbian corn have been found
from this area and in the extremely arid region round southern
Peru and northern Chile. Not only cobs but some nearly perfect
ears have been found. Tassels, stalks, leaves and jars of kernels
have been excavated. At Arica (northern Chile, bordering on
Peru), popped corn has been found. Only a few burned cobs of
pre-Conquest corn have been found in Mexico, but water bowls
and funerary urns used by the prehistoric Zapotecs of southern
Mexico are decorated with ears of corn that apparently were
cast from the original ears. "They are so realistic, even in
trifling details." says Dr. Anderson, "it seems fairly certain
they are cast directly from actual prehistoric ears of corn."


Maize was bound closely to the rise of the great Indian civili-
zations, such as the Inca of Peru, the Maya of Central America
and the Aztec of Mexico. It provided food, currency, fuel, smok-
ing silk, jewelry and building material. It was an important con-
tribution to taxes in Mexico as evidenced by pre-Conquest tax
lists of the Aztec emperor, Montezuma (or Moctezuma). It
loomed large in art, decorating temples, homes, ceramics, toys
and funerary urns. It was inextricably tied to the religious
ceremonies of Indians, both South and North American. There
are probably as many legends about the origin of corn as there
are Indian Tribes. These range from simple nature stories to
more complex histories of the origin of the Indians and the begin-
nings of their cultural development. Maize still plays a part in
certain of the festive and religious ceremonies of present-day
Indians. New York Indians have been known to destroy an en-
tire crop of corn to be used in religious ceremonies because the
shadow of a white man had fallen upon the fields.
The Indian, from eastern North America through South
South America, apparently had to be on constant lookout for
thieves in the cornfield-be they feathered, four-legged or
human. Thomas White, official artist associated with Thomas
Hariot in Sir Walter Raleigh's colony, has a picture of an Indian
cornfield in the town of Secota on Roanoke Island, off the coast
of North Carolina, in which he shows a house for the watchman.
Dr. Paul Weatherwax in Indian Corn in Old America says that,
"in the vicinity of Quito, Ecuador an Indian who might be en-
tirely honest in other ways would have no hesitation about
stealing corn from a white man, his justification being that corn
is inherently the property of the Indian anyhow. In some places
in the Andes, sweet corn is especially attractive to thieves and
a common way of concealing it is to plant a block of it in the
middle of a field of ordinary corn. . An old Mexican law
ordered special plantings of corn to be made along the roads for
the use of the traveler and he was permitted to take up to
seven ears . But for malicious trespass or damage to the
cornfields, or for taking more than enough for immediate needs,
the penalty was death by hanging. One clause of this law . .:
the poor were exempt from the penalty."
Maize apparently went through its first great period of de-
velopment in the Andes, probably in southern Peru, where primi-
tive forms are still grown by the Indians. Within a radius of
100 miles of the old Inca capital of Cuzco there is probably more


'I'" .V' a. 4


variety in maize than in all North America. No one has suc-
ceeded in finding wild maize or the wild parent from which maize
was derived. The only close relative is "teosinte," a weed in
fields and abandoned areas in Mexico and Central America. This
is believed to have been derived from crosses between maize and
Tripsacum, a native American grass, and hence originated from
maize rather than being its "wild" ancestor. Later hybridization
between South American maize and teosinte is believed to have
brought about the development of the modern types of corn-
pointed popcorn, dents, flours and flints-all widespread in
North America by Columbian times.
Indian corn has never achieved the popularity in Europe it
enjoys in the Western Hemisphere. The four-letter Anglo-
Saxon word "corn" is used in Europe as a generic name for all
grains or it may apply to the special grain of the country. In
England "corn" is wheat and in Scotland and Ireland rye. All
nationalities, however, recognize the word "maize" for Indian


The early Spanish and Portuguese travelers spread Indian
corn or maize throughout the Orient. The presence of distinc-
tive strains and distinctive uses of maize among aboriginal
tribes in southeastern Asia raises the possibility that this race
of maize may have crossed the Pacific in pre-Columbian times.
This Asiatic maize is of a type that was grown in South America
in pre-Inca times and at a time when it was the only kind. (See
"Maize among the Hill Peoples of Assam," Annals of the Missouri
Botanical Garden. 36:355-404, Sept. 1949, by C. R. Stonor and
Edgar Anderson.)
The first written account of sweet corn, by Bordley in 1801,
describes it as "having a white shriveled grain when ripe, as
yielding richer juice in the stalks than common corn." Later
records show that members of the 1779 expedition against the
Six Nations of New York under General Sullivan found Indians
cultivating sweet corn west of the Susquehanna. Lt. Richard
Bagnoll introduced it to Plymouth, and it gradually became
common as a kitchen garden vegetable. Interest in Sweet corn
began around 1850 and some 30 varieties were listed in seed
catalogs by 1880.
Sweet corn has a long history, although for some time it was
assumed by American corn experts that sweet corn originated
with the North American Indians and possibly was not grown
in pre-Columbian times. This belief was fostered by the use of
sweet corn in the U. S. exclusively as green corn and since no
sweet corn used as green corn was found below the border it
was assumed that there was no sweet corn in Latin America.
Sweet corn as a distinctive and appreciated variety apparently
originated somewhere in South America, probably among the
high civilizations of the Andes. The Indians of Ecuador, Peru
and Bolivia have a native name for sweet corn, sara chulpi,
which dates back to pre-Conquest days, and since the Conquest
the name maiz chulpi has been applied. This indicates that these
Indians have had sweet corn for a long time. In civilizations
that did not have sugar cane, this "freak" was a source of
sugar. Other varieties of maize were grown for green corn. In
highland Peru and Bolivia there is still grown the ancient variety
of sweet corn which the Incas used in making their high-quality
maize beer of chichaa." (One seed catalog published in the U. S.
today lists a variety, "Quinche," as the "original Inca corn from
the Andean highlands... .handed down for untold centuries." The
catalog further says: "while it has excellent food value for


cattle, it is also used in Ecuador as green corn and has a de-
licious flavor ass 'corn-on-the-cob'.")
"Chicha" is still a common drink in the Andes. In pre-Colum-
bian times, in the absence of sugar cane, the Indians added a meal
made from ground toasted sweet corn to increase the sugar
content and to give chichaa" its extra kick. Survivals of ancient
drinks made from ground roasted sweet corn may still be found
in Guatemala and Mexico-fermented and unfermented. In
M.exico "maiz dulce" (sweet corn) is used. as a source of sugar,
mixed with peanuts and squash seeds in a primitive crackerjack
called "ponteduro" or toasted and ground into a fine powder,
mixed with anise or chocolate or cinnamon and stirred up into a
sweetish drink called "pinole." The Mexican sweet corn is too
gummy when cooked for use as green corn.
The Peruvian sugary corn has ears nearly as wide as they
are high, big as an orange, with a thick heavy cob, numerous
irregular rows of kernels, tapering to somewhat of a point and
smoothly rounded into a basin at the butt. The kernels are con-
siderably larger than present-day hybrid sweet corn kernels.
In color they range from lemon yellow, orange yellow and various
shades of orange red to a deep Chinese red. According to Dr.
Edgar Anderson. in Man. Plants and Life. this ancient South
American variety has moved slowly north, century after century.
mixing with the ordinary corn of the country enough to adapt
itself to the new growing conditions and yet so protected by its
inherent recessivity that in all these years it has not yet lost
all of its distinctive South American appearance. Among the
Plains Indians of North America there are varieties (Nuetta
sweet corn, for instance) which are almost like our Golden Ban-
tam except their kernels are a variety of dilute Chinese reds.
The sweet corn of the Hopi Indians. who have retained as much
of their ancient culture as any Indians in the United States. is one
of the traditional sacred corns used in their summer festivals.
In many of the ears there is still a strong resemblance to the
original South American variety. The Ilopi have grown their
sweet corn for so long that they say its origin is unknown .
or that it had no origin because it had always been in existence.
The five ways sweet corn is used in Mexico (toasted, pinole,
Iponteuro, etc.) and the seven ways it was used by the Six
Nations (boiling, roasting, scraped, etc.) are in no way alike.
The Ilopi however used it in a number of ways. some similar to
those used in Mexico and some of those used b1v the Six Nations.


According to Dr. Anderson, by the time sweet corn reached the
Plains and became adapted to conditions in North America, the
gumminess characteristic of the sweet corn of western Mexico
had di.sappeared and sweet corn became an ideal variety for use
as green corn.
Sweet corn was primarily a minor or local crop for fresh
market until after World II. During the 19)10's there was a phe.
nomenol growth in the cultivation of sweet corn for fresh market.
Among the important factors that contributed to this expansion
are: (1) the breeding of new hybrids suitable for culture in the
South and the West, for local use and for shipment over long
distances; (2) the availability of new synthetic insecticides for
control of corn earworm and other insects; and (3) the develop.
ment of improved packing and shipping materials, equipment
and methods. The most outstanding among these has been the
improvement and extension of precooling ind refrigeration fa-
cilities to reduce loss of eating quality of sweet corn before it
can be delivered to the consumer.

HISTORY The cucumber is supposedly a native of India, al-
though plant explorers have never been able to discover a wild
prototype. Cucumltrs have been cultivated since earliest an-
tiquity. Reliable records indicate they were used as food in
ancient. Egypt, and were a popular vegetable with the Greeks and
Romans. They are one of the few vegetables mentioned in the
Bible: see Numbers 11:5. A Chinese ambassador in 200 B. '.
travelled as far as Persia where he saw cucumbers for the first
time. lle introduced them into China. At a much later date an
English sea-captain, returning from the West Indies, brought
back pickled gherkins to Mrs. Samuel Pepys. Shortly after this
period, cucumbers were being grown in England.
Occasionally in a collection of old glass a plain glass tube or
cylinder resembling a lamp chimney with parallel sides will
turn up. This may be an English cucumber glass, says the Wise
Encyclopedia of 'Cookery. This was a device used at one time
to make cucumlbrs grow straight. George Stephenson. inven.
tor of the locomotive, is credited with this invention.
In England a special forcing type of slicing encumber is
grown in greenhouses. The fruits attain length-over two feet
in som varieties. American consumers, however, do not like the
huge English type any better than they like our smaller slicing



HISTORY and use An annual plant of the potato family, native
to India, where it has been grown since remote antiquity. Has
large white to (lark purple fleshy fruit, sometimes six or eight
inches in diameter. The Chinese and Arabs grew eggplant as
early as the ninth century, and it is supposed to have been in-
troduced into Europe by the early invaders.
According to available records, the early types had small
fruits of ovoid shape, perhaps accounting for the name eggplant.
British traders brought eggplant to the London market from
West Africa in the 17th century, calling it "guinea squash."
Eggplant is prepared by baking it in the skin, boiling it in
water, stewing it in oil or broth as they do in the Near East,
slicing and frying in batter, or barbecuing with meat.


HISTORY Native to the East Indies. It was introduced into
Egypt and Greece at a very early period and references to it ap-
pear in their history. The plant was brought to America by
colonists. Endive is closely related botanically to chicory and
the two names are sometimes incorrectly used as synonyms.
Escarole is another name for a type of endive with broad leaves
and a well-blanched heart. The word "endive" is reserved to
designate plants with narrow finely divided curly leaves.


HISTORY Cultivated upwards of 2.000 years in India and Ma-
laysia. The fruit was brought to Florida by the Spaniards in the
16th century. However, the commercial grapefruit industry in
Florida was based on seedling trees very much like the Duncan
variety and now known as Florida Common. A Spanish settler,
Don Phillippe, is reported to have brought grapefruit and orange
seeds from Cuba in 1842 and made the plantings at Safety
Harbor. The orange trees died from neglect but the grapefruit
trees thrived. The variety was introduced and propagated by
A. L. Duncan of Dunnedin about 1892 and it is still the favorite
among the seedy varieties.


' *''* '


Credit for bringing grapefruit to the attention of the public
belongs to a group of enterprising Florida citrus growers who
shipped the first grapefruit from Florida to Philadelphia and
New York markets between 1880 and 1885. The recognition in
Florida of the grapefruit as an appetizing breakfast dish started
its culture on a commercial basis. Cultivation expanded until
grapefruit production has become an important industry in
Florida. Texas. California and Arizona.


HISTORY Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is believed to be
native to the Mediterranean and Near Eastern centers of origin
of cultivated plants. Wild and cultivated lettuces are still found
in the Near East, which includes inner Asia Minor, the whole of
Transcaucasia, Persia (Iran) and the Alpine Turkoman Republic.
A species of Lactuca (stem lettuce) is native to China. (Source:
Botanical-Geographic Principles of Selection, N. I. Vavilov, trans-
lated in 1946 by Mrs. Eugenia Artschwager USDA.)
Modern forms of lettuce are believed by most botanists to be
derived from a wild form which grows as a weed in most areas
where lettuce is found. Lactuca scariola or prickly lettuce is
a familiar weed over much of this country. It is also edible. It
grows from two to five feet high. The leaves twist or turn edge-
wise to the sun and it is sometimes called Compass Plant for
that reason. The lower part of the stem and the midrib of the
leaves are covered with weak prickles. The leaves clasp the stem
with earlike projections. Their margins are sharp-toothed, al-
most bristle-tipped. The plant is a biennial or sometimes an
annual. It can be found in fields, waste places and roadsides.
When a few inches high, it may be cut for salads or as a pot-
herb. The young leaves are very tender and are used as a salad.
As a potherb, it needs very little cooking. It is gathered in
the spring or early summer. (Edible Wild Plants, Oliver Perry
Medsger, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1954.)
Although lettuce has been cultivated for more than 2,000
years and its culture was widespread in ancient times, it is
neither so old nor was it so widely grown in prehistoric times
as a number of other garden crops, according to Dr. Victor Bos-
well, USDA ("Our Vegetable Travelers." The National Geo-
graphic Magazine, August 1949).


An anecdote by Herodotus indicates that lettuce was served
on the royal tables of Persian kings about 550 B.C. Hippocrates
(430 B.C.) commented on its medicinal properties and Aris-
totle (356 B.C.) praised it. Galen (164 A.D.) noted it and indi-
cated that it was in general use. The Romans liked it. Columella
(42 A.D.) listed as distinct sort the Caecilian, Cappadocian,
Cyprian and Tartesan, while Plina (79 A.D.) listed as types of
lettuce the Alba, Caecilian, Cappadocian, Crispa, Graeca, Laconi-
con, Nigra, Purpurea and Rubens. Palladius (210 A.D.) wrote of
varieties (as distinct from types) and mentioned the process of
blanching. Martial (101 A.D.) called the lettuces of Cappadocia
"viles" or cheap, indicating abundance. In England, Turner
(1538) mentioned "lettuse." China grew lettuce as early as the
fifth century.
Lettuce evidently arrived in the New World with Columbus
in 1494, as Peter Martyr reported that it was being cultivated
on Isabela Island (now Crooked Island in the Bahamas). Ben-
zoni (1565) spoke of its abundance in Haiti, and Nieuhoff (1647)
said he saw it growing in Brazil. In 1612 six varieties were re-
ported growing in France; Vilomrin described 113 varieties in
France in 1883. Holland was growing 47 varieties in 1720.
England had six varieties in 1597, 9 in 1726, 15 in 1763 and 18
in 1765. In 1806 McMahon listed six varieties growing in
American gardens. The report of the New York Agricultural
Experiment Station for 1885 reported 87 varieties, described
with 585 synonyms. (Source: Sturtevant's Notes on Edible
Plants, edited by U. P. Hedrick, 1919.)
The earliest lettuces cultivated were loose leaf types. The
loose-heading and the firm heading forms occurred much later.
According to George M. Kessler, Department of Horticulture,
Michigan State College (Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers: Physi-
ology and Structure in Relation to Economic Use and Market
Quality, published by Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, 1954),
the heading varieties grew in popularity because "the leaves of
well-grown heading varieties are more tender, more succulent
and sweet than those of the loose-leaved types. This is probably
so partly because most of the leaves of the heading varieties
develop under conditions of complete darkness."
Pena and Lobel (1570) wrote that the Cos or Romaine type
was rarely grown in France and Germany, although common in
the gardens of Italy. Heuze (1873) said that this type was
brought from. Rome to France by Rabelais in 1537. Figures


given by the botanists of the 16th century indicate that the
heading habit of lettuce was firmly established. Green, light
green, dark green, red and spotted lettuces are named in the old
botanies, as well as the various kinds such as curled, sharp-
leaved and oak leaved and heading. From this Sturtevant draws
the conclusion that although modern culture has developed im-
proved lettuces, it has not brought into being any new types.


HISTORY Limes, like other citrus fruits, are native to South-
eastern Asia and have been cultivated for thousands of years.
It is believed the Arabs brought limes from India to Persia,
Palestine and Egypt during the period of expansion of Moham-
medanism, A. D. 570-900. The lime was not mentioned by Euro-
pean historians until the time of the Crusades. This citrus fruit
was probably introduced into Europe by the Crusaders who be-
came familiar with it and the sour orange and lemon on their
expeditions into Asia Minor.
The first mention of the lime under that name is attributed
to Sir Thomas Herbert who spoke of finding "oranges, lemons
and limes" on the island of Mohelia off Mozambique during a
voyage begun in 1626. However, the fruit was called "lima" as
early as the 13th century, and Arabs from remote times had a
word "limoon." From the early days of sailing vessels, lime juice
has been on the regular ration of British tars to prevent scurvy.
From their large consumption of lime juice, British sailors re-
ceived the nickname limeyss."
No citrus species are native to America. Columbus, on his
second voyage to the New World, stopped at Gomera, one of the
Canary Island group, from October 5 to 13, 1493. There he
secured seeds of oranges, lemons, limes and vegetables. He
planted the citrus at Isabela on the island of Hispaniola. Lime
trees are mentioned as growing on the island of Haiti in 1514.
The lime spread from cultivated areas in the West Indies and
Florida and was later found growing spontaneously as scattered
plants and sometimes in thickets.
Limes have been grown in California and Florida since the
early days of the citrus industry. During the 70's and 80's Cali-
fornia grew more limes than lemons and it was thought the
California lime industry would become highly important. On


the other hand, Florida grew lemons and relatively few limes.
Now the situation is reversed. California grows virtually all
the lemons and Florida grows most of the limes. Florida's lemon
industry was almost totally destroyed by the great freeze of
1894-95, after which the lime industry expanded.
A sidelight on the so-called "wild lime groves" found on the
lower east coast keys of Florida is that they were planted by
Henry Perrine, to whom Congress granted a tract of land on
Biscayne Bay in 1838 for the establishment of economic tropical


HISTORY The mango probably originated in the Himalayan
region of India and in Burma and Malaya. It has been cultivated
for at least 4000 years. It entered prominently into Hindo myth-
ology and religious observances. It is now well known all over
the tropical world, probably being as familiar in very warm
sections of the globe as is the apple in the temperate zone.
The fruit was introduced into the United States, it is believed,
in about 1833 when plants were sent from Mexico to Florida.
These trees did not survive. About 30 years later seedling trees
were introduced. In 1885 an attempt was made to introduce
choice grafted trees from India, and others followed in succeed-
ing years, but most of the progress reported has been made since
the beginning of this century. Because of the fruit's suscepti-
bility to frost, culture of mangos is limited to the best localities
in southern and eastern Florida where it is a summer crop.
The mango is considered by many the most delicious of
tropical fruits. However, this high esteem applies only to the
choicer varieties. Many of the seedling fruits have very coarse
fibrous flesh and a characteristic "turpentine" flavor. In the
better varieties, these unfavorable characteristics are reduced
to a minimum and are scarcely to be detected at all. Although
mangos are not well known in this country, they are so prized
in some parts of the world that glowing adjectives are used in
describing them. The Turkoman poet, Amir Khusrau wrote in
the 14th century: "The mango is the pride of the garden, the
choicest fruit of Hindustan. Other fruits we are content to eat
when ripe, but the mango is good at all stages of growth."
The mango grows on a tree of the Sumac family, sometimes
40 feet high, with large shiny leaves and yellow or reddish


flowers. The varieties range from the size of plums to that of
an apple, sometimes weighing a pound or more. Color of the
fruit ranges from green to yellow or red, orange color being
the most common.


HISTORY Okra originated in the Abyssinian center of origin
of cultivated plants, an area that includes present-day Ethiopia,
the mountainous or plateau portion of Eritrea and the eastern,
higher part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Little is known of
the early history and distribution of okra. It did spread from
Arabia to North Africa, completely around the Mediterranean
and eastward. It has been cultivated in Egypt for many hun-
dreds of years, but it has never been found in any of the ancient
monuments or relics of old Egypt. It was probably taken into
Egypt by the Moslems from the East in the 7th century. It
apparently reached India after the beginning of the Christian
Because of the outstanding popularity of okra in the French
cookery of Louisiana and its slow gain in popularity elsewhere
in this country, it is assumed that it was introduced to this
country by the French colonists of Louisiana in the early 1700's.
It was being grown as far north as Philadelphia in 1748; Jeffer-
son said it was known in Virginia before 1781 and from about
1800 onward numerous garden writers had something to say
about it.
Okra is sometimes called "gumbo," although that name is
more commonly related to soups and other dishes containing
okra. Both names are of African origin. "Gumbo" is believed
to be a corruption of a Portuguese corruption, "quingombo,"
of the word "quillobo," native name for the plant in the Congo
and Angola area of Africa.


HISTORY The onion is believed to be of Far Eastern origin.
Sturtevant's "Notes on Edible Plants" says: "Perhaps it is in-
digenous from Palestine to India, whence it has extended to
China, Cochin China, Japan, Europe, North and South Africa and


Although the place of origin is indistinct, Sturtevant says
"the onion has been known and cultivated as an article of food
from the earliest period of history." The Bible (Numbers 11:5)
records that the Israelites complained to Moses as they were
being led out of Egypt:: "We remember the fish which we did
eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the
leeks and the onions and the garlick" Herodotus, the Greek
"Father of History," recorded that in his time (5th century
B.C.) the workers engaged in the 20-year job of building the
Cheops pyramid consumed "onions, radishes and garlic" costing
1600 talents (approx. $2 million). Hippocrates, Greek physician,
said onions were commonly eaten in 430 B.C. Theophrastus, 322
B.C., named a number of varieties; Dioscorides, 60 A.D., spoke
of the onion as "long or round, yellow or white;" and Pliny, 79
A.D., described both white and red onions. More than 1200 years
later (1340), Chaucer, the English poet, said: "We loved the
garleek, onyons and ek leeks."
Early explorers brought seed of various types of onions to
the New Yorld. Sturtevant says: "It is possible that onions
were among the garden herbs sown by Columbus at Isabella
Island in 1494, although they are not specifically mentioned. "A.
Humboldt, German scientist and explorer, says the primitive
Americans were acquainted with the onion. Wm. Wood, New
England colonist, mentioned onions as cultivated in Massachu-
setts in 1634; they were cultivated in Virginia in 1648; and were
grown in Mobile, Ala., in 1775. In 1779, onions were among the
Indian crops destroyed by General Sullivan at Geneva, N. Y. B.
McMahon, author of "The American Gardner's Calendar," men-
tioned and described 14 varieties in 1863; and Vilmorin (Paris,
France, seed house) described 60 varieties in 1883.
BOTANY Botanically the common bulb onion is known as Allium
cepa. For many decades the genus Allium was classified under
the family Liliaceae, which includes the lily, the hyacinth and
the gladiolus, but plant taxonomists have decided the flowers of
onions more closely resemble the narcissus and the amaryllis,
and they are now attached to the family Amaryllidaceae. The
name "onion" comes from the Middle English "unyun," and the
French "oignon," which in turn comes from the Latin "unio,"
meaning "onion."
Wild onions are found over nearly the entire United States
and southern Canada. Some of the western states have about a
dozen species. Among these are the Nodding Wild Onion (Allium


cernuum), which is common on banks and hillsides from New
York to South Carolina, and west to Minnesota, South Dakota
and New Mexico. In the northern part of its range, it goes west
to the Pacific Coast. The bulb is strong but, if parboiled, is good
to eat. It is excellent for pickling. The Swamp Onion (Allium
validum), found from Washington to California, is "acceptable
as a flavoring ingredient for soups and stews."


HISTORY The various species of citrus are believed to be native
to Southern Asia, including South China, Indochina and the Ma-
lay Archipelago. There are indications that oranges were grown
in Burma 4000 years ago. References to oranges in Chinese
writings date back to about 2200 B. C. The ancient book "Ku
Yung," a tribute to the Emperor Ta Yu says: "the baskets were
filled with woven ornamented silks. The bundles contained small
oranges and pummeloes."
Oranges are of three principal kinds, sweet, sour and man-
darin (loose-skinned fruit). Sweet and mandarin oranges have
been eaten in South China since the country was inhabited. This
report deals only with sweet oranges, the most important kirid.
By the Middle Ages cultivation of oranges in China was far
advanced. As early as 1178 A.D., Han Yen-Chi, Chinese horti-
culturist, wrote about 27 varieties of oranges growing near the
city of Wenchou, including seedless fruit. Han speaks of oranges
as "very valuable and precious." The spread of sweet oranges
to other countries was slow. While sour oranges were cultivated
in the Mediterranean basin long before the fall of the Roman
Empire, sweet varieties did not appear in Europe until early in
the 15th century. How they got there is uncertain. There is
no reference in European literature to the sweet orange before
the 15th century. Gallesio wrote in 1811 after extensive research
that the sweet orange probably reached Europe first through the
commercial trade of the Genoese. Some others disagree.
Dr. Edward Louis Sturtevant in his famous "Notes on Edible
Plants" says: "The sweet orange began to be cultivated in
Europe about the middle of the 15th century. Phillips says it
was introduced at Lisbon (Spain) in 1548 by Juan de Castro, a
celebrated Portuguese warrior, and from this one tree all the
European orange trees of this sort were propagated. This tree

I"1 '.'




was said to have been alive at Lisbon in 1823 . Gallesio says
the sweet orange reached Europe through Persia to Syria and
thence to the shores of Italy and the south of France, being
carried by the Arabs. It was seen by Friar Jordanus in India
about 1330. In the year 1500, says Loudon, there was only one
orange tree in France, which had been planted in 1421 at Pem-
peluna in Navarre. In 1791, Bertram refers to the orange as
growing abundantly in Florida . and in 1871 Dr. Baldwin
writes: 'You may eat oranges from morning to night at every
plantation along the shore (of the St. Johns) while the wild
trees, bending with their golden fruit over the water, present
an enchanting appearance'."
In the early growing of oranges and other citrus fruits in
Europe, much injury occurred from frost. In the early 14th
century, fanciers began to use specially heated buildings called
"orangeries." Such structures are now called greenhouses. How-
ever, plants were grown under glass (or panes of mica) long
before the orangeryy" period.
Columbus carried seeds of the sweet orange when he sailed
in 1493 to establish a settlement on Hispaniola (Haiti). The
orange flourished there. It was taken to Mexico and Central
America early in the 16th century. Acosta and Piso wrote of
finding the fruit growing wild in the West Indies and Brazil as
early as 1600.
It seems certain that oranges were brought to Florida by
early Spanish explorers and colonists, some time between 1513
when Ponce de Leon came looking for the Fountain of Youth,
and 1565 when St. Augustine, the first Florida colony, was
established. Oranges were also planted before 1577 in South
Carolina. The orange reached California with the founding of
San Diego mission in 1769 but the honor of establishing the first
grove of considerable size goes to San Gabriel Mission where
400 seedlings were planted on a six acre tract in 1804.
The word "orange" goes back to the old Arabian word "na-
ranj" and Persian "narang" used before 300 A.D. Later the
philosopher Albertus Magnus of Bavaria (1193-1280) A.D. used
the term "arangus" for sour oranges. This is very close to the
modern word "orange" and is supposed to account for its origin.
For extensive historical material see "The Citrus Industry,"
Vol. I, by Webber and Batchelor, published by University of
California Press.



HISTORY The Ipapya (Caric' papaya L.) or "tree melon" is
a tropical fruit highly popular in all parts of the tropical worll.
but has been little known in the U. S. except in Florida. It has
long been a staple food in Asia and Africa. It was unknown to
the Old World until seeds were brought from the American
tropics by early Spanish and Portuguese sailors. It was culti-
vated by the Aztec and Mayan Indians long before the arrival of
Columbus and Cortez and other Spanish Conquistadores. Some
botanists believe it to be native to the West Indies or Central
America near the (lIlf of Mexico. Others believe that the cul-
tivated papaya arose as a hybrid between two species of Carica
native of Mexico. The Dutch traveler. Linschoten reported in
1598 that the papaya had travelled from the Spanish Indies to
Malacca, in Malaya, and thence to India. From India seeds went
to Naples, Italy in 1(i26. It spread by seed from Malacca or the
Philippine Islands through the South Pacific islands. It appears
to have been introduced into HIawaii from the Marquesas Islands
sometimes between 1800 and 1823 by Don Marin. a Spanish
settler. It, is believed to have reached Africa by 1600.
Exactly when papayas were introduced into Florida is un-
known. but the introduction must have been soon after the es-
tablishment of Spanish settlements on the East Coast. In 1773
Bartram reported finding it apparently wild on the low bluffs
along the St. John's River near Palatka and even more abundant
near where Sanford is now located. Commercial growing of
papayas in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas was introduced
shortly before World War II. Some attempts were made in Cali-
fornia to grow paplyas but production today is largely limited
to greenhouse-grown or otherwise specially protected plantings.
In Hawaii efforts to grow uniformly good shipping quality
papayas and intensive studies of improved methods of marketing
have done much to give the papaya a wider distribution in con-
tinental U. S. since 1950.
The English word "papaya" is a corruption of the Carib
Indian name. "ababai." Other corruption of the name are "pa-
paia." "lppeya" and "papia." "Papaya" has a slightly off-color
connotation in northern Cuba and is called "Fruta Bomba." In
Hawaii some local names are the lHawaiian "milikane" and "he-i,"
the Tahitian "iita" and some similar terms in other Polynesian
dialects. In some English-speaking countries. Australia. for one.


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( ,,

fi;~~ ,, "::T i-i

.4. ".~ J



pr 1


the name "papaw" or "Pawpaw" is in common use. This serves
to confuse the papaya with an unrelated species to which the
name papaw or pawpaw has long been applied in North America.


HISTORY Parsley is a biennial plant of the same family as
celery, carrots and parsnips. It is believed to have originated in
Southern Europe. Parsley has been planted in European gardens
since the time of Charlemagne. It was in use at much earlier
periods, however. The early Romans are reported to have fed
parsley to their chariot horses in the belief it would make them
speedy. Travelers from Sardinia offered parsley in commerce as
a supposed cure for a variety of ills. It was introduced into the
United States during the early days of colonization.


HISTORY Seeds of the primitive green pea have been found in
lake mud beneath the positions of houses of the Swiss lake
dwellers, dating back perhaps 5,000 years to the Bronze Age.
They have also been found buried in a cave in Hungary, believed
by some to date back even further. The main center of origin
and development is in middle Asia, from northwest India through
Afghanistan. A second area of development is in the Near East
and a third includes the plateaus and mountains of Ethiopia.
It has not been found among any of the ancient Egyptian
treasures, in spite of many claims; but it has been found in
diggings on the site of ancient Troy. The Aryans from the East
are supposed to have introduced peas to the Greeks and Romans,
who grew them before the Christian Era.
It was first grown only for its dry seeds. Some varieties are
grown extensively today for the dry seeds for "split pea" soup.
It was not until after the Norman Conquest of England that
"green peas" were mentioned. People then began to use peas
in the fresh, green stage, cooking pods whole and eating the
peas from the pod and sometimes also eating the pods. In the
12th century, among other foods stored at the Barking Nunnery
near London were "green peas for Lent." They were described in
detail in France in 1536. Garden peas were not common until the


18th century but were considered a rare delicacy in the 17th
century in France. The eating of them became "both a fashion
and a madness." So many fine varieties were developed in
England that it has become known here as "English pea."
The name was derived indirectly from the Latin "pisum."
In Anglo-Saxon is became "pise" or "pisu" and later became
"peaze" or "pease." So many thought this was the plural form
that the "s" or "z" sound was dropped and the word became


HISTORY Although sweet peppers are native to tropical Amer-
ica their culture and use were widespread in Europe before they
became popular in the United States. Peppers were introduced
into Spain in 1493, were known in England by 1585 or earlier
and were taken to India and southeastern Asia in the 17th
century. In the first half of the 16th century travellers to
America found many forms of peppers, not only in the West
Indies but in Central America, Mexico, Peru, Chile-wherever
they touched the American tropics. By the beginning of the
17th century every form known today had been found, all grown
by the Indians.
Our garden peppers, both hot and mild types, are not related
to the true pepper from which we get black pepper. It belongs,
rather, to the same family as tomatoes and potatoes, both
native to the Americas. The name apparently was given to the
plant by Columbus and his associates because of the pungency of
the hot varieties. Peter Martyr wrote in 1493 that Columbus
brought home with him "pepper more pungent than that from
the Caucasus."


HISTORY Although called Irish, Solanum tuberosum, the po-
tato. is not native to Ireland. but to the Americas. Although wild
potatoes are found as far north as Colorado, it was in South
America that potatoes were first cultivated. Peruvian pottery
shows representations of the potato as a cultivated plant at
least as early as the second century A.D.. according to Redcliffe





N. Salaman, author of the authoritative book "The History and
Social Influence of the Potato." But even in the second century,
the potato had for a great while been a familiar article of food
along the coast of Peru. Potatoes may have been used for cen-
turies before the pottery makers sculptured them. And long
before they were used on the coast they had been used in wild
form and cultivated in the Andes mountains. They were grown
in valleys about 6000 feet above sea level, and still are.
Mr. Salaman says the Spanish explorers made their historic
discovery of the potato in the mountains of what is now Colom-
bia. Scouting parties of the expedition of Gonzalo Jimenez de
Quesada visited a high plateau in a native village about 7 N.
latitude, and there found in the houses what they called "tru-
ffles." Actually, they were potatoes and the Spaniards found
them to be good eating. However, they were much more in-
terested in such loot as gold and precious stones than in new
plants. Yet the potato has been more valuable and had more
effect on the history of mankind than all the precious metals
and gems ever dug up.
Salaman finds evidence that the potato was introduced into
Spain between 1550 and 1570. How potatoes were shipped from
the New World to Europe is uncertain, but there were many
obvious difficulties in keeping them on a long journey. It is
believed that the first European crops came from potato tubers
and not from seed. In any event, potatoes were on the market
in Spain as early as 1576. An account book of a Seville, Spain
hospital shows they were being regularly purchased in that year.
The story that Sir Walter Raleigh introduced the potato into
Europe is probably legend. The same is probably true about
similar stories crediting this epochal event to Sir Francis Drake
or to Sir John Hawkins. The Raleigh story says he brought
them to England from Virginia. There are two things wrong
with it: Raleigh is not known to have visited Virginia at any
time; and the potato was unknown in Virginia in Raleigh's day.
How the potato came to Ireland is uncertain, but the time
was during the last 15 years of the 16th century. History does
not record that anyone urged the adoption of potatoes by the
Irish peasants, but they took to them like a cat to catnip. Ire-
land's climate and soil were ideal for potato culture and the
people, always poor, were badly in need of additional food. Dur-
ing the 17th century potato cultivation spread through Ireland
and by the 19th century potatoes were such a large part of the


Irish food supply that an epidemic of potato blight in 1846-17
caused a severe famine. During the 17th and 18th centuries,
potatoes were gradually introduced into most other countries
where they are now grown.
The potato was brought to New England in 1719 from Ire-
land by immigrants who settled at Londonderry, New Hampshire.
NAME The word "potato" seems to have come from the Span-
ish "batata" which was applied to sweet potatoes, and by mis-
take, to Solanum Tuberosum. In Scandinavia the word appears
as "potatis" in Sweden as "potet" and "Potetes" in Denmark.
In Greece it's "patata." The original word for potato, used by
the South American natives, was "papa," a Peruvian word,
which means "tuber." The term "spud," so generally applied
to potatoes, probably comes from the Scottish word "spud,"
meaning a kind of spade or digging fork commonly used in cul-
tivating and harvesting potatoes. "Spuddy" is a slang term used
in England for a man who sells bad potatoes.
HISTORY The sweet potato is unknown in the wild state, so it
is not certain where it originated. However, the weight of
authority is that it's native to the Americas. Victor Boswell of
USDA in his masterly article "Our Vegetable Travelers." (Na-
tional Geographic, August 1949) says Columbus recorded finding
the plants in Central America on his fourth voyage, and prob-
ably found them in the West Indies on earlier voyages. The
natives of the West Indies fed Columbus' men some boiled roots
described by the Spaniards as "not unlike chestnuts in flavor."
Nine varieties growing in Honduras were named by Peter Martyr
in 1514.
However, long before white men arrived in this hemisphere
the Incas of South America and Mayas of Central America
grew several varieties. They called the plant "cassiri." One
variety was grown for food and other varieties to supply their
artists with colors to use in their paints.
Early Spanish explorers are believed to have taken the sweet
potato to the Philippines and East Indies from where it was
carried to India, China and Malaya by Portuguese explorers.
Boswell says the sweetpotato apparently was introduced into
Japan from China some time around 1700 by way of the Ryukyu
Islands. In Kyushu today it is called kara-imo. meaning Chinese



DeSoto and other explorers found sweet potatoes growing in
Indian gardens of what is now Louisiana. Sweet potatoes were
cultivated in Virginia in 1648 and possibly earlier. Early colonists
are believed to have picked up the plants in the West Indies when
their ships following the trade winds, put in there for supplies.
The famous Louisiana sweet potato industry and to a large
extent the entire industry in this country is based on the Mameya
variety brought in from Puerto Rico in 1908 by an unknown
agricultural worker. Mameya is a Puerto Rican word meaning
"yellow yam." Probably the variety was brought in surrepti-
tiously and illegally.


HISTORY The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a member of the
mustard family and is related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, horse-
radish and turnips. China is believed to be the country of origin.
with middle Asia as a secondary center where many different
forms were developed after the plant was introduced from China
in prehistoric times. Ancient Egyptian records indicate radishes
were common food in Egypt before the Pyramids were built.
Greeks and Romans were familiar with the plant, and'Moschian,
an ancient Greek physician, wrote a whole book on radishes.
Tragus, in 1552, mentions radishes that weighed 40 pounds, and
Matthiolus, in 1554, declared he had seen radishes that weighed
100 pounds each. The radish is supposed to have reached Eng-
land about 1548 and was eaten raw with bread or in the form
of sauce as an appetizer for meats. Radishes were seen in Mexico
about 1500 and in Haiti in 1565, indicating they were among the
first European crops introduced into the Americas by Columbus
and his immediate followers. They were among the first crops
grown by the English colonists in this country. McMahon men-
tions ten sorts in his list of American garden vegetables pub-
lished in 1806.


HISTORY Spinach (or Spinage) is native to Iran (Persia) and
adjacent areas but did not spread to other parts of the world
until the beginning of the Christian Era. The first record is in


Chinese which states that spinach was introduced into ('hina
trom Nepal in 6-17 A.1). It reached Spain alhot 1100 A.D.,
brought by the Moors from Norlh Africa and they in turn got
in by way of ancient Syria and Arabia. The prickly-seeded form
was known in Germany in the 1:th century amn was commonly
grown in European monastery gardens by the 1Ilth century. A
1:390 cookbook for the court of Richard II had recipes for "spy-
noches." The smooth-seeded form was described in 1552.
Spinach was probably brought to the U. S. early in colonial days.
but commercial cultivation did not start until about 1806 and
the first savoyed leaf (curly) variety was introduced in 1828.
The English word was derived from Old French "espinache"
which came from the Arabic "isbanakh" or "isfanakh" and
the Persian "isfanakh" or "isfanaj." The Armenian name is "spa-
nax" and the Spanish is "espinaca." The technical Latinized
name "spinacia" is a term devised by botanists about the 12th
or 13th century.
HOTANY Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea) is a small, fleshy-leaved
annual of the goose-foot family. It is a quick-maturing. cool
season crop, hardy and will live outdoors over winter through-
out most of the region from New Jersy southward along the
Atlantic coast and in most parts of the lower South. There are
two other plants called spinach but not genuine: New Zealand
spinach (Tetragonia Expansa) and Mountain spinach, or garden
orach (Atriplex Hortensis). The former, sometimes called ice
plant, is a small annual of the carpetweed family. It is chiefly
an Australasian and .Japanese herb used as a substitute for
spinach. Mountain spinach also belongs to the goosefoot family.
In western U. S. it is part of the vegetation referred to as
'"greasewood" and is sometimes called "saltbush."


HISTORY Squash is native to the westernn Hemisphere and
was known to the Indian centuries before white men came. It
is a member of the ucucbit family, which includes pumpkins
and gourds as well as cucumbers, muskmelons and watermelons.
Squash as we know it today is mighty different from the kind
the Narragansett Indians dubbed "askutasquash" meaning
"'green-raw-unriple"-whlich incidentally was Ihe way they ate
it. \\'e still follow their example and eat summer squash while
tender and unripe, though it is usually cooked.



HISTORY The strawberry was born in North and South Ameri-
ca, travelled to Europe and finally returned in very different
form. Before Columbus landed at San Salvador, Indians of Chile
had selected, from among the wild strawberries that grew only
along the beaches, plants that bore fruit of exceptional size,
commonly as large as a walnut and sometimes the size of a hen's
egg. The fruit was pale red, with firm, meaty, almost white flesh
and a delicate aroma.
This early Chilean variety was taken to Peru in 1557 and is
still grown in Chile, Peru, Ecuador and other South American
countries. A French officer, M3. Frezier, brought back to France
five live strawberry plants from Chile in 1714. Plants of the
meadow strawberry of eastern North America had already been
taken to Europe, and from crosses of these two forms, the mod-
ern strawberry was developed.
In the United States, the commercial development of straw-
berries has come principally since the Civil War and most straw-
berry varieties now grown have originated within the past 55
years. New varieties made possible the extension of the terri-
tory where strawberries could be grown; and the growth of the


railroads and introduction of refrigeration in transit permitted
shipment to distant markets. Strawberries are now produced
in every state and also in the interior of Alaska.
How strawberries were so named is disputed. One explana-
tion is that straw was used between the rows to keep the berries
clean and also was used to protect the plants in the winter.
Another explanation is that in Europe ripe berries were threaded
on straws to bring them to market. Still another is that berries
were found under mown hay in Europe, and "hay" in Anglo
Saxon was "straw."


HISTORY All citrus fruits, including the mandarin group of
oranges of which the tangerine is one type, have been cultivated
in Southeastern Asia since ancient times, probably more than
4000 years. In general, the mandarins have thin, loose skin that
separates very readily from the flesh. The segments also separate
easily. In general, the mandarins are divided into tangerines,
having dark, orange-red peel and satsumas, having lighter
yellow peel.
The mandarins are favored in Japan and China over other
types of oranges. They are supposed to have reached Europe
about 1805 and by 1850 were well known in the Mediterranean
countries. Apparently the first of the mandarin oranges to be
introduced into the U.S. was the Willow-Leaf or China mandarin,
which was brought to Louisiana by the Italian consul at New
Orleans between 1840 and 1850 and planted in the grounds of
the consulate. From there it was taken to Florida and thence
probably to California, according to Webber & Batchelor, authors
of "The Citrus Industry."
The name "tangerine," which is supposed to be derived from
Tangier, Morocco, has come to apply to all the red-skinned va-
rieties of mandarins. In the U.S., the word "mandarin" is gen-
erally applied to the yellow-skinned varieties only.
The most important variety of tangerine, the Dancy, origi-
nated from a seedling grown at Buena Vista, Florida in the
grove of Colonel George L. Dancy. He introduced the variety
into cultivation in 1871 or 1872. Because of the fruit's easy-
peeling quality, Colonel Dancy called it the "kid glove" orange,
and the name stuck.



HISTORY Tomatoes are native to the Americas, probably
originating in the Andes mountain region of South America.
Strangely, however, it was only after tomatoes were widely ac-
cepted in Europe that they began to be used in the United
States on a large scale. Until only a little more than 100 years
ago the tomato was a garden curiosity and thought to be
poisonous. Now about 700,000 acres of tomatoes are grown and
in addition a large quantity is imported.
Cultivated tomatoes apparently originated from wild forms
in the Peru-Ecuador-Bolivia area. They were probably carried
northward into Central America and Mexico by prehistoric
migrations of Indians. Our word "tomato" is a near twin to
the word "tomati" used by the Indians of Mexico. Other words
for this vegetable, as reported by early European explorers were
"tomatl," "tomatle" and "tomatas."
The earliest written record of the tomato dates back to only
1554. The explorers had brought the tomato to Europe. Italians
first grew this vegetable in 1550 and apparently were the first
Europeans to eat it. The feeling that the tomato might be
harmful arose from the fact it is one of the Nightshade family
of which some species are poisonous.
What connection there is between "poison" and "love" is
obscure, but the French called the tomato pomme de amour
(apple of love) and English swains adopted the idea and pre-
sented tomatoes as a token of affection. Sir Walter Raleigh is
said to have presented one to Queen Elizabeth. Threafter the
gallant Raleigh lost his head, but this is no longer considered a
sound argument against having tomatoes in the refrigerator.
Even as late as the 17th century the tomato was grown in
England for ornament only, though it was being eaten elsewhere.
By the end of the 18th Century it was being used extensively in
Italy as a food but it was another half century before people
in the United States (except a few brave souls) dared eat it.
Tomatoes were used as food in New Orleans as early as 1812 but
it was another 20 or 25 years before they became a food item
in the Northeast part of the country. By 1865 there were about
1,000 acres of tomatoes in the vicinity of Philadelphia.
Basically, tomatoes of today are the same in form and color
as those found in America by the earliest explorers. Plant
scientists have improved the fruit as to size and smoothness and



increased the productivity of the plants. Just what the earliest
wild tomatoes were like is uncertain. It is believed they were
no larger than marbles. However, there are no known prehis-
toric sculpture or ceramic records of these early fruits.


HISTORY The turnip, which belongs to the mustard family, is
supposed to be native to Russia, Siberia and the Scandinavian
peninsula. It has been cultivated since ancient times. Columella
wrote in A.D. 42 that two varieties of turnip were being grown
for the use of man and beast and mentions the area now known
as France. Pliny, Roman naturalist, born in Italy in 23 A. D.,
refers to five kinds. He says the broad-bottom flat turnip and
the globular turnip were most esteemed.


Way back in the 16th century, giant turnips caused comment.
Matthiolus in 1558 spoke of having heard of long purple sorts
that weighed 30 pounds. Lest anyone think Matthiolus was
telling whoppers, a turnip of 100 pounds was recorded in Cali-
fornia in 1850. The English had their introduction to turnips in
1550 when some were imported, probably from Holland.
The turnip made the trip across the Atlantic with the early
adventurers. Cartier sowed turnip seed in Canada during his
third voyage, about 1540. Turnips were cultivated in Virginia
in 1609 and in Massachusetts as early as 1629. They were
plentiful about Philadelphia in 1707. They are also mentioned in
South Carolina in 1799.
All Capp's "Lil Abner" has been eating "tarnips" since he
was a baby if he ever was one, and his great strength, it is
reliably reported, is due to a diet rich in "tarnip preserves" and
"poke chops."


HISTORY Water cress (Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum) is a
hardy aquatic perennial, believed to be native to Asia Minor and
to the Mediterranean area. This and many land cresses stem
from the mustard family and are referred to as the herbs of the
mustard group. Water cress has been a popular food for more
than 2,000 years. The ancient Persians were advised to feed it
to their children if they wished to improve their growth. Xeno-
phon, general and historian of the Greek-Persian campaigns, and
Xerxes, Persian King, recommended water cress for their sold-
iers, since it was observed that those with water cress in their
diet were in better health. The Greeks had a proverb about its
being a "wit-producing food" and believed it would cure a de-
ranged mind. The Romans served it as a salad with garum (oil
and vinegar) or with pepper, cummin seed and lentiscus (leaves
of the mastic tree). Sixteenth Century writers of England
recommended it as a remedy for scurvy and Lord Bacon wrote,
"The eating of water cress doth restore the wanted bloom to
the cheeks of old-young ladies." An enterprising German, Nicho-
las Messiner, is reported as the first to cultivate water cress,
in the middle of the 16th century at Erfurt. As popular as it
was in England, it probably was not cultivated prior to 1800.
It is reported that in 1808 a farmer near London began its cul-


tivation for use as a salad plant. Water cress is highly prized
by the Mohammedans of western India (Pakistan). It is not
known when it was brought to this hemisphere, probably with
the earliest explorers. It quickly naturalized itself and may be
found growing wild from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Idaho
and California, wherever there are small, gently flowing streams,
shallow pools or ditches.


HISTORY "David Livingston, the great missionary-explorer,
settled the question of the original home of watermelons when
he found large tracts in central (tropical) Africa covered with
watermelons growing truly wild. The long and general culture of



the watermelon from North Africa to middle Asia led to the
view formerly that it was of Asiatic origin, although it had never
been found wild in Asia or elsewhere." (Victor Boswell, "Our
Vegetable Travelers," The National Geographic Magazine, Aug.
1949) The culture of watermelons goes back to prehistoric
times. Pictures surviving from ancient Egypt show that water-
melons were cultivated then. The actual mention of the water-
melon under the Hebrew name, "abbatitchim", is found in con-
nection with the history of the Hebrew exodus from Egypt. Old
names in Arabic, Berber, Sanskrit, Spanish and Sardinian are
unrelated, indicating great antiquity of culture in the area
around the Mediterranean and east as far as India. In the wild
state both bitter and sweet melons grow in the same locality.
Since they look alike, the natives knock a hole in each fruit to
taste the juice before taking it for food or drink.
The watermelon has been grown for thousands of years in the
warmer parts of Russia, Asia Minor, the Near and Middle East
but appears to have reached China only about 1000 years ago,
where it is called "si-kua," melon of the West. It was probably
known for hundreds of years in Europe, being introduced there
near the beginning of the Christian era. European botanists of
the 16th and 17th centuries described all the shapes, sizes and
colors of watermelons that we know today . red, yellow and
white fleshed and white, red, brown, black green and speckled
seeds. It was brought to America by the earliest European
colonists and was common in Massachusetts in 1629. The Florida
Indian were said to be growing watermelons by the mid-1600's.
Father Marquette, French explorer of the Mississippi, mentioned
them in 1673 as being grown in the interior. Indians on the
Colorado River were growing them in 1799. Earliest records
show American Indians have always been especially fond of


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