• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Part I: Commodities
 Green beans
 Cabbage
 Celery
 Green corn
 Cucumbers
 Eggplant
 Lettuce
 Green peas
 Peppers
 White potatoes
 Sweet potatoes
 Tomatoes
 Watermelons
 Part II: Commodities
 Oranges
 Grapefruit
 Pineapples
 Strawberries
 Part III: Commodities
 Beets
 Lima beans
 Carrots
 Okra
 Squash














Group Title: Bulletin. New Series
Title: From field to market with Florida vegetables and citrus fruits
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002928/00001
 Material Information
Title: From field to market with Florida vegetables and citrus fruits
Series Title: Bulletin. New Series
Physical Description: 108 p. : fold. diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Argiculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1931
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetable trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fruit trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "May 1, 1931."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002928
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3241
ltuf - AJL4730
oclc - 07386134
alephbibnum - 001791060
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 4
    Part I: Commodities
        Page 5
    Green beans
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Cabbage
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Celery
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Green corn
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Cucumbers
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Eggplant
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Lettuce
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Green peas
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Peppers
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    White potatoes
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Sweet potatoes
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Tomatoes
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Watermelons
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Part II: Commodities
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Oranges
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Grapefruit
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Pineapples
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Strawberries
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Part III: Commodities
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Beets
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Lima beans
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Carrots
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Okra
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Squash
        Page 107
        Page 108
Full Text
FROM FIELD TO MARKET
WITH
FLORIDA VEGETABLES AND CITRUS FRUITS
Issued by
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
MAY 1, 1931


FROM FIELD TO MARKET
WITH
FLORIDA VEGETABLES AND CITRUS FRUITS
Issued by
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
MAY 1, 1931




INTRODUCTION
Timely marketing begins with timely planting anrl growers and shippers require the most authentic data possible in connection with the preparation, movement, sale, and the many factors involved from field to market, for instance: The principal commercial varieties produced in the different Florida sections; the planting period and growing season; the normal acreage and yield with probable cost; the grade, method of packing in standard containers and their loading in the car; the extent of competition from local, domestic and foreign shipments; where the product is distributed and the transportation cost; what varieties certain markets prefer or discount; and, of course, the average price the product usually brings. To supply such information in a brief, comprehensive style is the purpose of this book.
The arrangement of the subject matter is given the same order for all commodities. The location by ranking counties is given; the principal commercial varieties; number of plants per acre and the usual planting distances; growing season and average yield; approximate cost of growing the product per-acre basis and the cost delivered loading station per-container basis; packing methods; U. S. and Florida grade, giving for brevity only the No. 1 requirements (complete grades may be had upon application to the Florida State Marketing Bureau); methods of loading in the car; the rates from Florida points to principal destinations in eastern and central territory; the shipments from Florida and competing areas, arranged to show the monthly volume of local, domestic, foreign and the total supplies; carlot distribution to the principal markets; the trade preferences of the varieties grown commercially in Florida; and detailed monthly and seasonal jobbing-price averages of Florida products. With reference to yield and cost figures, it will he remembered that these are AVERAGE and cannot possibly be flexible enough to be individually applicable in all cases.
For reach' reference the various sub-titles are given in the same order under each commodity, as LOCATION, VARIETIES, etc. For convenience to the reader, three divisions have been made in this book: Fart One includes the principal vegetables of the State; Part Two, Oranges with Tangerines included, Grapefruit, Pineapples and Strawberries; Part Three. Miscellaneous Products of importance in many sections, which for the most part, however, have not reached sufficient commercial importance that regular market quotations, shipment and unload or acreage statistics are for several seasons available.
Final analysis must be left to the individual to make the data contained in this work applicable to his own requirements. The average shipper is perhaps too often interested only in price, but it is hoped that a close study will be made of the information carried in tins work under not only TERMINAL MARKET PRICES, but also COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS, DISTRIBUTION, etc. This work is not a technical treatise; it will not require a refining process of voluminous matter to obtain specific data.
NEILL RHODES. Assistant Commissioner, Florida State Marketing Bureau.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author is greatly indebted to the growers and shippers, and others, who supplied or verified cost estimates and other data; the Bureau of Agricultural Economics for general and special statistics which have been used in compiling most of the shipment and distribution information; Mr. J. Curtis Robinson of the Growers and Shippers' League of Florida for most of the rate material; to Co-worker S. W. Hiatt for checking the original manuscript; and to the many requests from growers, shippers, schools and various agencies for brief, condensed, authentic information of this kind, which emphasized the necessity of such a work and inspired its preparation.


PART I COMMODITIES
Green Beans .................................................... 7
Cabbage ........................................................ 11
Celery.......................................................... 16
Green Corn ..................................................... 20
Cucumbers ...................................................... 23
Eggplant ...................................................... 28
Lettuce ......................................................... 33
Green Peas .................................................... 37
Peppers ............ ........................................... 40
White Potatoes.................................................. 46
Sweet Potatoes .................................................. 50
Tomatoes ....................................................... 56
Watermelons .................................................... 62
MARGINAL ABSTRACT
Location ...................... 7,11, 16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37,40, 46, 50, 56, 62
Varieties...................... 7, 11, 16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, -10, 46, 50, 56, 62
Planting ..................... 7, 11,16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, 40, 46, 50, 56, 62
Maturity...................... 7,11,16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, 40, 46, 50, 56, 62
Yield ......................... 7,11,16,20,23,28, 33,37,40,46,50,56, 62
Acreage....................... 7,11, 16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, 40, 46, 50, 56, 62
Cost.......................... 7,11, 16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, 40, 46, 50, 56, 62
Container ..................... 7, 11, 16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, 40, 46, 50, 56, 62
Packing....................... 7,11,16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, 40, 46, 50, 56, 62
Grade......................... 7,11,16, 20, 23, 28, 33, 37, 41, 46, 51, 57, 63
Carlot Loading ................ 7,12,17, 20, 24, 28, 34, 37, 41, 47, 51, 57, 63
Rates......................... 8, 12, 17, 20, 24, 29, 34, 38, 41, 47, 51, 57, 63
Florida Shipments ............. 8,13,17,21, 24, 29, 34, 38, 41, 47, 51, 57, 63
Competitive Shipments ......... 8,13, 17, 21, 24, 29, 34, 38, 41, 47, 52, 58, 63
Distribution ................... 9,14, 18, 21, 26, 30, 35, .., 43, 49, 53, 59, 65
Market Preferences ............ 9,14, 18, 22, 27, 31, 35, 39, 45, 49, 53, 60, 65
Terminal Market Prices......... 10, 14,19, 22, 27, 32, 35, 39, 45, 49, 53, 60, 65


GRKKN BEANS
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $3,427,833.83.
LOCATION.In the seasons 1926-27, through 1929-30, the ranking counties for carlot bean shipments were Palm Beach, Broward, Marion and Sumter.
VARIETIES.The principal varieties grown for commercial purposes in Florida are: Bountiful, Giant Stringless, Refugee, Black Valentine, Kentucky Wonder and Davis White Wax.
PLANTING.From three pecks to one bushel of seed will be required per acie. Usually planted 4 inches apart in drills 3 feet apart.
MATURITY.-The average time required for maturity from the time seed are planted is from 45 to 60 days.
YIELD.The Florida twelve-year average yield, 1919-30, is 83 hampers per acre. In the principal commercial sections, the yield is higher and would average from 100-125 hampers, in instances higher."
ACREAGE.The total fall and spring bean acreage in Florida for seven seasons has been as follows:
COST.Exclusive of land cost, rental, taxes, depreciation, the necessary seasonal cash expenditure for growing beans will average from $50 to $75 per acrecultivation, $15-$25; seed, $11; fertilizer, $lf>-$25; spraying and miscellaneous, $10. Cost per hamper delivered loading station will range from 75c-$1.00growing, 45c; picking and packing, 30c; hamper, 14c; hauling, 5c.
CONTAINER.The bushel hamper is the standard container in general use in Florida.
PACKING.The pack should consist of fresh, bright, firm beans of one variety, or beans having similar varietal characteristics, and be uniform in size and free from damage. The hamper should be well filled and the pack light to prevent settling and excessive shrinkage in transit.
GRADEU. S. No. 1 shall consist of beans of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly bright, fresh, fairly young and tender, firm, of reasonably uniform size, and free from damage caused by dirt, leaves, leaf stems, foreign matter, hail, disease, insects or mechanical or others means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by weight, of the beans in any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed a total of 5 per cent, shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more than 2/5 of this amount, or 2 per cent, shall be allowed for beans affected with soft rot.
CARLOT LOADING,Beans in carlots arc shipped almost entirely under refrigeration. Hampers are loaded in the ear on ends reversed, or on sides, tops against tops and bottoms against bottoms, and are usually loaded 6-7 rows wide, 3-5 layers high, full length the car, ranging from 500 to 650, average
Season
Acreage
1923-24 1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30
19,780 20,530 16,000 19,690 22,710 21.650 29,200


about 550 bushel hampers per carload. Under refrigeration tariffs permit side loading for beans, ends reversed, tops against tops and bottoms against bottoms, not more than four layers high.
RATESThe following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges on green beans in bushel hampers, billing weight 34.6 lbs., and the rate per bushel hamper, from Center Hill, Florida, to important destinations. Express charges for 1. c. 1. shipments in cents per 100 lbs. are also shown:
p r rom Center Ilill. Khi. To Minimum carload Minimum carload charges Rate, based in cents per lju. hamper Standard refrigeration charges per car Express charges, rate based in cents per 100 lbs. (Bu.hpts33Hlbs.)
Baltimore....... Philadelphia..... Pittsburgh...... Chicago......... Cincinnati...... Cleveland....... Detroit......... 350 hprs 350 hprs 350 hprs 400 hprs 400 hprs 400 hprs 400 hprs $252.00 301 (in 269.50 259.00 259.00 2SS.00 238.00 298.00 300 1)0 .72 'ISV/i .86 *75K> .77 '06} ' .74 'Giy2 .74 *6V/2 .72 Mi .im .75 $60.00 65.50 60.00 r,o in 76.50 76.50 70.00 76.50 SI.00 $3.15 per 100 lbs 3.87 per 100 lbs. 3.52 per lOO.lbs. 3.22 per lOO.lbs. 3.57 per 100 lbs. 3.62 per 100 lbs. 3.26 per 100 lbs. 3.71 per 100 lbs. 3.82 per 100 lbs.
If loaded -110 packages or more these lates per package apply.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTSThe carlot shipping season of Florida beans is November through June. The following figures show the monthly carlot shipments from Florida for three seasons:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1927-28 ......... 710 547 102 112 196 681 315 8 2671
1928-29 ......... 160 203 119 432 687 1276 371 3 3251
1929-30 ......... 293 992 593 445 390 565 747 61 4086
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.States shipping beans in part or all of the months of the season common to Florida are: Alabama, Georgia, in April, May, June; Louisiana, Mississippi, in October, November, and in April, May, June; Texas, in November, December, and in March through June; South Carolina, in October, November, and in May, June; Virginia, in October, November. The following table shows comparative straight carlot shipments by months from these competitive states for three seasons:
Season of 1927-28 Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June
Alabama .................................... 46 ....
Georgia..................................... 15 33
Louisiana ............ 122 127 ................ 440 94
Mississippi ........... 7 .................... 93 96
S. Carolina........... 49 19 ................ 255 124
Texas................... 69 2 ...... 38 101 112 ...
Virginia .............. 292 77 ........................
Total U. S............ 542 1006 550 102 112 235 816 1390 1840
FLORIDA ............... 710 547 102 112 196 681 315 8


Season of 1928-29 Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June
Alabama.................................... 70 ____
Georgia..................................... 124 20
Louisiana ............ 198 84 ................ 620 109
Mississippi ........... 3 .................... 216 66
S. Carolina........... 41 19 ................ 553 11
Texas .................. 23 15 ...... 44 241 29 ....
Virginia .............. 147 35 ........................
Total U. S............ 406 323 218 119 432 731 1601 2r>67 1259
FLORIDA .............. 160 203 119 432 687 1276 371 3
Season 1929-30
Alabama.................................... 53 ....
Georgia..................................... 84 77
I ouisiana ............. 301 20 ............... 596 36
Mississippi ........... 28 .................... 64 166
S. Carolina........... 147 57 ................ 405 58
Texas ................... 38 12 ...... 74 401 87 ....
Virginia .............. 213 54 ........................
Total U. S............ 755 465 1004 593 445 464 1000 2476 1998
FLORIDA .............. 293 992 593 445 390 565 747 61
DISTRIBUTION.Florida beans are shipped mostly in carlots, but a good percentage moves by L. C. L. or express shipments. In the 1928-29 season approximately 75% of the Florida bean crop moved in carlots. The distribution of the winter carlot bean movement in that season was limited, about 85% being destined New York City. In the 1929-30 season over 60% of the carlot shipments passing through Potomac Yards were billed to New York City, with about 12% going to Philadelphia. In the Middle West, Chicago is perhaps the most important market. Express shipments move as far west as Texas, as far north as Wisconsin and Minnesota in the middle west, and from Florida to the New England States.
The following unload record of Florida green beans in ten important markets for the 1929-30 season shows the distribution of about 85% of the Florida crop:
Market Florida All others Total
........ 103 28 131
Baltimore ....................... ........ 55 109 164
Boston .......................... ........ 147 293 440
Chicago (arrivals) ............... ........ 358 556 914
Cincinnati ....................... ........ 83 173 256
........ 32 159 191
Detroit .......................... ........ 45 164 209
......... 2298 1131 3429
......... 296 232 528
........ 40 152 192
MARKET PREFERENCES.In general the Eastern markets north of Baltimore prefer Bountifuls and Refugees. New York and Philadelphia are usually considered the leading markets for flat varieties, Bountifuls, for instance, and perhaps the best for Refugees, while Refugees will sell well in Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Providence. In general, the middle western or


central markets prefer the Black Valentines, but in recent seasons have been handling Bountifuls to advantage. The Black Valentine is usually preferred in Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Kansas City, and in the southern markets Memphis, New Orleans, Norfolk. Most of the southern markets prefer the Red Valentine and Round Stringless, for instance Atlanta, Bluefield, Charlotte, Gastonia, Macon, Savannah, Raleigh, Lexington, Louisville, Nashville, with Knoxville, Chattanooga and Virginia cities preferring Hat varieties. Almost without exception southern markets handle only limited quantity wax beans and prefer green type; Boston, Buffalo, Providence, Utica, Wilkes-Barre, Williamsport, Wilmington, Del., however, can handle wax beans to good advantage and at times pay premium which also applies to Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Kansas City, Toledo; the eastern markets of Baltimore, New York, Pittsburgh, Washington, and the central markets of Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis, do not generally handle wax beans to advantage. The Round Stringless seems to be preferred in Baltimore, and Pittsburgh is second in popularity, perhaps, to flat varieties in eastern markets north of Baltimore, second to" Red Valentines in southern markets and to Black Valentines in central markets. As indicated above, most of the important markets will pay a premium for preferred varieties, quality of leading varieties considered, but the introduction of new varieties will often change trade preferences and it should be borne in mind that the above markets will handle varieties other than those shown, but generally at a discount.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.Common to practically all seasons, the period from January 15 to March 15 is the best marketing period for Florida beans. The lowest prices almost invariably are realized in the period April 15 to June 1 and in November and December the prices are comparatively lower. The following table of terminal market weighted jobbing prices by months of Florida green beans in hampers No. 1 grade will show that in 1925-26, 1926-27 and 1927-28, January, February and March are the months of highest prices, witli January, November and December in the order named the best months in 1928-29 and Februarv, March and April peak months in 1929-30:
Season's
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Average 1925-26 .. $4.05 $4.55 $7.85 $9.60 $8.85 $4.00 $4.61 $2.00 $6.09
1926-27 .. 3.85 3.43 7.69 8.45 4.55 2.89 1.82 4.67
1927-28 .. 2.11 2.43 7.29 7.09 5.92 4.32 2.64 4.61
1928-29 .. 4.75 4.20 6.20 3.95 3.55 3.25 2.10 4.00
1929-30 .. 3.92 ?63 3.85 4.46 5.66 4.47 2.72 1.28 3.88
Average for
5 seasons $3.74 $3.45 $6.58 $6.71 sr>.7! $3.79 $2.78 $1.64 $4.65
A relatively definite price return per unit in proportion to a given acreage or seasonal number of shipments cannot be established because of the many limiting factors. However, the law of supply and demand with resultant price fluctuations does prevail, and the following relationship in price to the total U. S. shipments by months is of interest:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1927-28 Average $2.43 $7.29 $7.09 $5.92 $4.32 $2.04
Total U. . 100C 550 102 112 235 810 1390 1840
1028-29 Average Florida prices. .$i.7G $4.20 $0.20 $3.9.r, $3.55 S3.25 $2.10
Total II. S. Shipments.... .. 323 218 119 432 731 1601 ^.-,.',7 1259
1929-30 Average Florida prices.....S3.92 $2.63 $3.85 $4.46 $5.66 $4.47 $2.72 $1.28
Total U. S. Shipments...... 465 1004 593 445 464 1000 2476 1998


CABBAGE
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $1,208,333.33.
LOCATION.In the seasons 1926-27, through 1929-30, the ranking counties in Florida carlot cabbage shipments were Alachua, Marion, Orange and Polk.
VARIETIES.The varieties of cabbage grown for commercial purposes in Florida are the Early Jersey Wakefield, Charleston Wakefield, Hat Dutch and Copenhagen Market. Pointed or Round types are more generally grown in i' lorida.
PLANTING.Plants are usually set 12-15 inches apart in rows 2'/2-3 feet apart. Planted 36x15 inches apart, 11,592 plants will be required to set an acre, or, if planting distance is greater, from 6,000 to 7,000 plants. If planted in seed-bed 6 ounces of seed, or 12 ounces if planted in field, will produce enough plants to set an acre.
MATURITY.The average growing season for Early Jersey Wakefield is from 80-90 days, Charleston Wakefield and Copenhagen Market, 85-100 days, Flat Dutch from 100-120 days.
YIELD.The Florida twelve-year average yield, 1919-30, was 6 tons per acre, or about 120 crates.
ACREAGE.The total Florida planting for spring harvest has for seven seasons been as follows:
Season Acreage
1923-24 ............ 4,920 acres
1924-25 ............ 4,650 acres
1925-26 ............ 3,660 acres
1926-27 ............ 3,010 acres
1927-28 ............ 2,900 acres
1928-29 ............ 6,500 acres
1929-30 ............ 3,700 acres
COST. (Exclusive of rental, taxes, depreciation.) The cost per-acre basis of growing cabbage is from $75-$90: cultivation, $30; seed, $1.00; fertilizer, $35-$45; spraying and miscellaneous, $10. Cost per hamper delivered loading station, 60c-75c: growing, 25c-40c; harvesting and packing, 15c; hamper, 15c; hauling, 4c.
CONTAINER.The 1%-bushel hamper is the container in general use in Florida, particularly for pointed type cabbage as Wakefield, Winningstadt, etc. The barrel and half-barrel crates are also used. The crate affords better ventilation or refrigeration than the hamper; is a more substantial carrier; can be properly spaced in cars, whereas the hamper must be tightly packed; is not as susceptible to breakage as the hamper; and permits better inspection of the contents.
PACKING.Uniform heads should be placed in hampers butts or stem ends down. Heads will range from 1-3 pounds averaging 14 to 26 heads per hamper. In crates the heads are placed stems out or down in orderly layers, making a tight pack with cover slats showing slight bulge. The number of heads per barrel crate will range from 25 to 40.
GRADE.I'. S. No. 1 shall consist of beads of cabbage which are of one type, of reasonable solidity and well trimmed; which are not soft, withered, puffy or burst; which are free from soft rot, seed stems and from damage


caused by discoloration, freezing, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, rtol more than 10 per cent, by weight, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-fifth of this amount, or 2%, may be allowed for decay.
SIZE
The minimum size may be specified in connection with the grades as "U. S. No. 1, 1 pound min." or any lot may be classified as Small, Medium Large, Small to Medium, or Medium to Large, in accordance with the facts.
Small Medium Large
Pointed under 11 i lbs. 1 Domestic under 2 lbs. 2 to 5 lbs. Over 5 lbs.
Danish under 3 lbs. 3 to 6 lbs. Over 6 lbs.
In order to allow for variations in sizing, not more than a total of 15%, by weight, of any lot may vary from the size specifications, but not more than 107c may be either above or below the size specified. This tolerance is in addition to the tolerance for the grade.
CARLOT LOADING.Cabbage in carlots is usually shipped under refrigeration. Under refrigeration, hampers are loaded on ends reversed, tops against tops, and bottoms against bottoms, although this practice is not in general use, since this method results in the contents being badly shaken down. Carriers permit side loading, ends reversed as above, not more than four layers high. The number of hampers per car will range from 420 to 500, average about 450. Usually loaded 7 rows wide, full length of car, 4-5 layers high. Barrel crates are loaded tops up, lengthwise of car, double stripped and are loaded 7 rows wide, 10 stacks long, 3 to 4 layers high, average per car, 250 crates.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges for cabbage in crates and l's-bushel hampers, billing weight, crates, 120 lbs., and hampers, 56.7 lbs., and the rate per crate and hamper, from Ocala, Florida, to several important destinations, with express charges for l.c.I. shipments also given:
From Ocala, Ha. To Crates: Carload min. 200 at 120 lbs. Hampers: Carload mill. 350 l!i-bu. at 56.7 lbs. Standard refrigeration charges per carload Express charges, rate based in cents per 100 lbs. Hilling weight crates 120 lbs., hampers actual weight
Minimum carload charges Hate, based in cents |>er 10O lbs., cabbage bbl. crates at 120 lbs. Minimum carload charges Hale, based in cents per \\i bushel hamper at 56.7 lbs.
Baltimore,... Huston....... $266.40 312.00 276.00 26S.S0 .'lis so 256 so 196.80 25S 00 259.20 $111 100 lbs. 1.30 lOOlbs. 1.15 100 lbs 1.12 100 lbs. 1.12 100 lbs. 1.07 UK) lbs. ,S2 100 lbs. 1.07'.noo ib. i os too ii.s. $23S 00 287.00 255.50 245.00 2-15 00 215.00 201.25 253.75 255.50 .68 per lipr .82 per lipr 73 per lipr .70 per lipr .70 per lipr 70 per lipr .h'Vl per lip .TlVi per hp 73 per lipr .$60.00 65.50 60.00 60.00 76.50 70.50 70.00 76.50 81.00 $3.11 per 100 lbs. 3.72 per 100 lbs. 3.26 per 100 lbs. 3.19 per 100 lbs. 3.30 per 100 lbs. 3.35 per 100 lbs. 3.11 per 100 lbs. 3.45 per 100lbs. 3 56 per 100 lbs.
New York____ Philadelphia. Pittsburgh.... Chicago...... Cincinnati,... Cleveland. ,. Detroit.......



FLORIDA SHIPMENTS The Florida carlot shipping season is December through May. The following carlot shipments moved from Florida in the months and seasons shown:
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Total
1927-28 ................43 277 311 298 209 25 1163
1928-29 ...............35 547 1076 1390 76 12 3136
1929-30 ................75 488 529 805 342 24 2264
COM I'ETITIVK SHIPMENTS. As will be noted by the months shown, the following states have a more or less common shipping season to that of Florida: Alabama, Mississippi, February-June; South Carolina, Texas, Ixmisiana, November-June; North Carolina, March-May; Virginia, December-February' and May. Florida cabbage, in addition to competition with early cabbage, has also competition with old stock from late states and from storage, principally from New York and Wisconsin, as after December 1 the largest percentage of late and storage cabbage comes from these states, which movement continues through February and March. The following table shows carlot shipments by months for three seasons from these various competitive states, together with the total United States shipments, with the Florida shipments also given for comparison:
Season 1927-28
Stale Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
Alabama.................................. 189 598 ....
Louisinna................................. 224 266 47
Mississippi................................ 10 1134 105
North Carolina............................. 2 151 ____
South Carolina......... 23 119 43 ____ 1 555 1452 ____
Texas ..................... 171 1180 2369 2598 740 116 33
Virginia .............. 5 12 26 ............ 540 896
Total U. S............. 3824 2598 4392 4225 4126 2099 4640 2876
FLORIDA................. 43 277 311 298 209 25 ....
Season 1928-29
Alabama.................................. 578 237 ____
Louisiana................................. 239 179 6
Mississippi................................ 264 1393 29
North Carolina............................. 67 184 5
South Carolina ........ 3 77 142 ____ 136 1925 236 4
Texas..................... 115 1166 2036 3033 1425 110 8
Virginia ................... 8 39 .... 5 14 1917 776
Total U. S............. 3648 2702 4388 3770 4849 4727 4675 2968
FLORIDA................. 35 547 1076 1390 76 12 ____
Season 1929-30
Alabama.................................. 135 529 ____
Louisiana................................. 35 193 27
Mississippi................................. 30 836 ____
North Carolina............................. 28 182 66
South Carolina......... 130 188 47 ____ 59 1501 803 ____
Texas ................. 10 191 1152 1496 1367 813 162 27
Virginia ............... 14 26 33 ............ 695 497
Total U. S.............. 3564 3220 4365 2793 2359 3064 3967 1730
FLORIDA................. 75 488 529 805 342 24 ....


DISTRIBUTION.The markets north and east of Potomac Yards have received in the calendar years 1927-28-2!) an average of more than 85% the total Florida carlot shipments. New York and Philadelphia are the two largest receivers of Florida cabbage. A comparatively limited volume moves to the central markets. The total carlot unloads at Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh in 1927-28-2!) were some less than the total for Atlanta, Norfolk and Richmond. The following carlot unload report covering fourteen markets for three calendar years, representing more than 90% of the Florida shipments, is arranged to present a clear view of the distribution of Florida cabbage:
1927 1928 1929
Atlanta ....................... 19 27 89
Richmond ..................... 25 39 80
Norfolk....................... 21 65 17 83 25 194
Buffalo ....................... 7 13 44
Chicago...................... 9 16 45
Cincinnati................... 2 8 96
Cleveland ..................... 2 3 30
Pittsburgh .................... 1 21 1 41 40 255
Baltimore..................... 167 174 282
Boston..................... 26 59 254
Newark..................... 13 21 141
New York..................... 518 741 1147
Philadelphia.............. 217 189 378
Washington ................... 47 988 51 1235 100 2302
Total above................... 1074 1359 2751
MARKET PREFERENCESOf the Florida varieties the Wakefield is usually preferred on the eastern markets, for instance Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Hartford, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland, Providence, Utica, Washington, Wilkes-Barre. with Copenhagen or round type selling to advantage in several of these markets. The pointed and round types seem to be preferable also in the central markets, Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Indianapolis, Lexington and Louisville, St. Louis, Toledo. These types also usually preferred on the southern markets with perhaps the round tvpe being in nref-erence over the pointed although Chattanooga, Knoxville, Lynchburg, Memphis. Wheeling usually prefer the Flat Dutch. Red Cabbage sells to fairly good advantage in Boston, Chicago, Providence, Detroit. In general, pointed types for the eastern markets are preferred in hampers; in the central markets both hampers and crates are used with slight preference toward crates; in the southern markets, particularly those preferring fiat type cabbage, the crate is generally more popular, while some prefer bulk cabbage or crates, for instance, Charleston, Columbia. Winston-Salem, etc. In general, heads weighing from 2 to 4 pounds are the best sellers, northern markets, 3-5 lbs., southern, 2-3 lbs.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.The first three months of the year over a period of several seasons range the highest in price for Florida cabbage. The market usually weakens materially in April, and May is always a month of comparatively low prices. The following arrangement of average jobbing quotations of Florida pointed type cabbage No. 1 stock in l'/e-bushel hampers, by months, will show the high and low price trends for several seasons:


Season's
High Low Aver-Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Month Month age
1925-26 ... .$3 18 $3.21 $2.43 ?1.62 $1.25 Feb. $3.21 May $1.25 $2.48 1926-27 ... 2.06 1.38 1.88 1.20 ...Jan. 2.06 Apr. 1.20 1.72 1927-28 1.60 2.05 1.50 2.00 2.80 1.95 Apr. 2.80 Feb. 1.50 2.05 1928-29 ... 2.25 1.30 1.40 1.05 ...Jan. 2.25 Apr. 1.05 1.55 1929-30 2.67 2.45 2.82 3.27 2.67 1.72 Mar. 3.27 May 1.72 2.67
Average for five
seasons $2.39 $2.04 $2.19 $1.87 $1.64 $2.09
The following table shows the relationship between the total U. S. cabbage shipments and the jobbing-price average of Florida cabbage:
Season
1927-28 Total U. S. shipments.
Average Florida prices.
1928-29 Total U. S. shipments.
Average Florida prices.
1929-30 Total U. S. shipments.. Average Florida prices.
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
4392 4225 4126 2099 4640
$2.05 $1.50 $2.00 $2.80 $1.95
4388 3770 4755 4696 4673
$2.25 $1.30 $1.40 $1.05
4365 2793 2359 3064 3967
$2.45 $2.82 $3.27 $2.67 $1.72


CELERY
The Per-Anniim Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Wan $3,944,083.33.
LOCATION.The commercial celery acreage of Florida is mainly in the specialized sections of Sanford-Oviedo, the Manatee and Sarasota sections, with approximately three-fourths the total movement from the Sanford-Oviedo area.
VARIETIESThe principal varieties of celery grown in Florida are Golden Self-blanching and Special, most of the peak movement in February and March being Golden Self-blanching, and later shipments Special.
PLANTING.Celery seed is expensive and great care should be exercised in its selection. The plants are set 30-36x3'^-5 inches and about 60,000 plants per acre will be required. The plants should be transplanted when 5-6 inches high. Six ounces of seed in seed bed should plant an acre.
MATURITY.From planting the seed bed to harvesting time, from 120 to 130 days will be required.
YIELD.The Florida twelve-year average yield, 1919-30, was 463 crates per acre. The yield per acre will average in the principal sections 500 to 600 crates per acre, with exceptional yields 800 to 1,000 crates.
ACREAGE.The Florida celery acreage by counties has been as follows for five seasons:
County 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930
Manatee ................................ 300 500 800 1000 800
Seminole................................ 3000 3500 4000 4300 4300
Sarasota ................................ 150 100 420 1100 1200
Other counties........................... 70 140 134 100 350
Total for State........................... 3520 4240 5350 6500 6650
COST.(Exclusive of rental, taxes, depreciation.) The cost per acre will range from $300 to $325 to grow the crop: cultivation, $100-$125; seed, $10; fertilizer, $150; spraying, $30. Cost per crate delivered shipping point, 95c-$1.00: growing, 60c; harvesting, 6c; container, 18c; packing, 10c; hauling, 2c.
CONTAINER.The standard container is the 10-inch crate, 10x20x22.
PACKING.Celery is packed in three ways. "In the rough"cut, stripped, sized, and packed in the field; "Crate washed"cut, stripped, sized, and packed in the field with the filled crates washed by spraying with hose, or at loading shed or precooling plant, either immersed in a tank of ice water or passed under jets of water under high pressure; "Individually washed"cut in the field, packed in field crates and then trucked to the wash sheds. Sizes range from large 2U>-4 dozen to small 8-10 dozen to the crate. The 4s and 6s are ordinarily in best demand and bring higher prices, while 2'2S-3s and small 8s-10s are usually discounted.
GRADE.Rough Celery. V. S. No. 1 shall consist of well-trimmed stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which have fairly good heart formation and which are fairly well blanched and not wilted and which are free from damage caused by growth cracks, pithv branches, seed stems, freezing, dirt, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means. (Stalk length may be stated in terms of the nearest even inch, as 18 in., 20 in., 24 in., etc., in accord-


ancc with the facts, hut unless otherwise specified the minimum stalk length of U. S. No. 1 celery shall be 18 inches.)
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 107r, by count, of the stalks in any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-fifth of this tolerance, or 2%, shall be allowed for decay.
SIZE
Where celery is sized uniformly and packed in standard containers, the number of stalks may be stated in terms of dozens and half-dozens. In order to allow for variations incident to proper packing, the number of stalks in any container shall not vary more than from the number indicated.
CARLOT LOADING.The average loading per car is 350 crates. Loaded in the car 16 stacks long, 7 to 8 rows wide (bottom layer 8 wide, remainder 7) or 6-7 rows wide, and 8 layers high, double stripped. Celery is always shipped under some type of refrigeration in carlots: standard refrigeration, initial icing only when celery has been precooled, top iced, etc.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges for celery in crates, billing weight 71.2 lbs. per 10-inch crate, and the rate per crate from Sanford, Florida, to important destinations:
From S.uifiird. Kla. To
Minimum
carload
Baltimore,..
Boston......
New York...
Philadelphia
Pitt-burgh...
Chicago.....
Cincinnati.. Cleveland... Detroil.....
350 crates 350 crnles 350 crates 350 crates 350 crate* 3-50 crates 350 crates 350 crates 350 crates
Minimum Hate, based I Standard carload in cents per refrigeration charges 10-inch crate charges per ear
$246.76 205.75 264.25 253 75 253.75 24S .'" 204.7.5 266.00 260.5(1
s 701, .84'-. .75', .72' .72' .71 .5SJ-> .76 .77
S60.00 65 .Ml 60.00 60.00 76 .VI 76.50 70.00 76 :.ii 81.00
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS. The Florida shipping season is December through June. The following carlot shipments arranged by months moved from Florida in the seasons shown:
First
Season car 1027-28 Dec. 15 1928-2!) Dec. 20
Peak Last
Dec. Jan. Feb. week Mar. Apr. Mav June car Total 24 826 2038 Feb. 19-25 2492 1756 1020 256 Julv 7 8412 1 651 2442 Mar. 17-23 2565 2011 1124 37 June 27 SS3I
1929-30 Dec. 16 102 1329 2563 2/23-3/1 2338 2154 1215 139 June 29 9840
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.California is the strongest competitor to Florida, particularly early crop celery, with a shipping season September to June (Southern District April to March); New York, December-January-February; Michigan, December-Jnnuarv; and imports from Bermuda, April-May-June (1929-30, April, 41 cars; May, 101; June, 42). The following record of monthly carlot shipments from competitive states with comparative U. S. total and Florida shipments will picture the competition to Morida celery for three current seasons:


18 /'...... /';'< './ /" Market With Florida Yeget ahles and Citrus Fruits
Season 1927-28
State Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
....... 1644 2365 683 759 372 613 457
New York............ ....... 1558 502
....... 88 .... 17
2728 3251 2128 1633 733
FLORIDA ............ ....... 24 826 2038 2492 1756 1020 256
Season 1928-29
California ............ ....... 2319 2407 772 597 412 653 555
New York 921 276
Michigan ............. 52 ____ 20
Total U. S............ ....... 3330 3343 3230 3164 2423 1777 618
FLORIDA ............ ....... 1 651 2442 2565 2011 1124 37
Season 1929-30
California............ ....... 2411 1444 659 579 433 722 718
New York 596 97
Michigan.......... 34 ____ 46
Total U. S............. ....... 3175 2876 3222 2918 2575 1944 907
FLORIDA ............ ....... 101 1329 2563 2338 2154 1215 139
DISTRIBUTION.New York State receives by far the largest volume of Florida celery shipments, receiving from January 13th to April 23i'd, 1930, 1730 cars, of which New York City received 1342 cars, Pennsylvania was next with 1142 cars, and next in order: Ohio, 906; Illinois, 597; Michigan, 411. Car-lot distribution of the 1929-30 celery was made to 207 cities in 34 states and Canada. The destination record below for 15 states, January 13th to April 23rd, shows the distribution of about 63% of the 1929 and about 68% of the 1930 Florida celery shipments.
Florida (origin)
State (destination) 1929 1930
D. C. (Washington) ....... ...... 92 128
Georgia.................. 39 107
...... 548 597
186 146
Maryland ................ 238 258
Massachusetts ............ 284 354
Michigan ................. 432 411
131 186
106 210
New York................ 1453 1730
Ohio ..................... ...... 446 906
1106 1142
101 180
134 133
....... 310 183
MARKET PREFERENCES.Practically all markets express a preference for Golden Self-Blanching. It is seldom when any market wants larger than 3s or smaller than 8s, and the general preference on the larger markets is for


sizes ranging from 4s to 6s. cooled celery.
Practically all markets want washed and pre-
TEKMINAI. MARKET PRICES.Of the principal months of the Florida celery shipping season, January, February, March and April, each month has been peak in an individual season except March, yet over an average for five seasons, March averages slightly above the other months. The following weighted jobbing price average of Florida celery No. 1 grade in 10-inch crates, sizes 3s-6s in the rough, will show the monthly price trends and their uniformity over a period of five seasons:
Season
1925-26.......
1926-27.......
1927-28......'.
1928-29.......
1929-30.......
Average for five seasons ..
.Ian.
$4.03 2.74 2.58
2.65
Feb.
$509 2.18 2.73 2.70 2.80
Mar.
$4.50 2.65 3.13 2.40 2.85
Apr
$3.36 2.46 3.45 2.55 3.60
Season's Average
$4 45 2.48 2.98 2.55 3.15
High month
February
January
April
February
April
Low month
April
February
January
March
January
$3.00 $3.10 $3.11 $3.08 $3.12
While many factors must be considered, the demand for a given supply expedites or retards the sale and consequently affects the price. The relationship between a specific supply and the average price Florida celery has brought in several past seasons is given below:
Season
1927-28 Total U. S. shipments..
1928-29 Total U. S. shipments.... Average Florida prices...
Average Florida prices.
a mi a ry February March April
3709 2728 3251 2128
$2.58 $2.73 $3.13 $3.45
3343 3230 3164 2423
$.... $2.70 $2.40 $2.55
2876 3222 2918 2575
$2.65 $2.80 $2.85 $3.60


GREEN CORN
LOCATION.The principal corn producing counties in Florida are Alnchua, Bradford, and I'olk, with Gilchrist, Orange ami DeSoto also producing corn in carlots.
VARIETIES.The principal commercial varieties are Snow-flake, Silver Mine, Stowell's Evergreen, and Truckers' Favorite.
PLANTING.Green corn is planted in 4-foot rows, from 12-18 inches in the drill. About 15 pounds will be required for an acre.
M ATl'RITY.The early varieties will mature within 70 days. The average is from 80-90 days.
YIELD.The average yield in leading sections will range from 50-75 crates per acre.
ACREAGE.The Florida acreage for green corn for the seasons 1924 through 1930 has been as follows:
Season Acreage
1924 ............. 2,000 acres
1925 ............. 800 acres
1926 ............. 1,215 acres
1927 ............. 865 acres
1928 ............. 2,870 acres
1929 ............. 3,500 acres
1930 ............. 3,800 acres
COST.Not including taxes, rental, and depreciation, the cost per acre of growing green corn will average from S20-$25, provided heavy fertilizing is not necessary: cultivation, $10; seed, SI; fertilizer, $10; miscellaneous, $3. Cost per crate delivered shipping point, 65c-75c: growing, 30c-35c; harvesting and packing, 10c; container, 22c, hauling, 3c.
CONTAINER- Tariff specifications of the cabbage and the green corn half-barrel crate, 12-11/16x12-11'16x22 inches. The eggplant and pepper crate is also used in Florida.
PACKING.The pack should consist of cars of green corn of one or similar varieties, uniform in size and be free from damage. The ears should be well filled and covered with fresh, green husks. The size range is 4-8 dozen ears, average 6 dozen per crate.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of ears of green corn of similar varietal characteristics which are well trimmed, well formed, and free from damage caused by smut or other disease, insects, mechanical or other means. Cobs shall be well filled with plump and milky kernels nnd well covered with fresh, green busks. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not moi'o than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade.
CARI.OT LOADING.Green corn in crates is loaded with tops up, lengthwise the car, 16 stacks long, 7 rows wide, and 4 layers high, double stripped. Shippers load 336-448 crates per car, average about 400. Green corn is shipped under refrigeration and in addition should have inside or body icing.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges on green corn in crates, billing weight, 62.8 lbs. per crate, from Uiwtey, Florida, to important eastern and central destinations:


From Minimum Minimum Rates, based
Lawtey, Fla. carload carload in cents per crate
To charges
Baltimore................ 350 crates 8227.50 .65 per crate
Huston.................. 350 crates 276.50 79 per crate
New York.............. 350 crates 245.00 70 per crate
350 crates 2:34.50 67 per crate
Pittsburgh............... 350 crates 234.50 67 per crate
Chicago................. 100 crates 262.00 .65J2 per crate
Cincinnati............... 400 crates 212.00 .53 per crate
Cleveland................ 400 crates 272.00 .68 per crate
100 crates 274.00 68]^ per crate
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida carlot shipping season is during the months of May, June and July. Florida shipped 122 cars in 1928, 283 cars in 1929 and 264 cars in the 1930* season as follows: 30 cars in May, 137 in June and 97 in July.
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.Texas is the chief competitor to Florida green corn shipments.
DISTRIBUTION.Most of the Florida carlots are shipped to eastern markets, New York City being the principal consumer of Florida green corn. The following tabulation of carlot unloads from Florida, showing for comparison the total unloads from all States, by months for the years 1928 through 1930, will show the distribution of green com to important markets:
1928
New York Fla. Total Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May n 61 June 38 201 July 75 178 Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total ..........124 6 3 ...... 449
Philadelphia Fla. Total 4 9 2 55 3 64 .. 9 128
Baltimore Fla. Total 2 1 17 14 .. 1 .. 33
Chicago Fla. Total 1 36 111 85 1..... 1 233
New-York Fla. Total 9 ...... 3 1929 16 185 196 394 53 147 3 7 . 267 739
Philadelphia Fla. Total 38 41 117 5 59 53 214
Baltimore Fla. Total 1 6 5 38 1 7 51
Chicago Fla. Total ...... 4 1 78 1 122 65 1 .. . .. 270


22 From Fitld to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. .Mar Junr lult Auk. Srpl. Oct. Not. Ore. Total
Cincin- Fla. ,. .. ....... 2 ...... 2
nati Total ........ 19 08 29 ...... 110
1930
New Fla. ........ 13 54 1-2 ......249
York Total ........ 189 342 259 ......794
Phila- Fla. ........ 5 20 26 ...... 51
delphia Total ........ 47 110 93 ......260
Balti- Fla. ........ 1 1 ...... 2
more Total ........ 12 33 11 ...... 56
MARKET PREFERENCES.The following markets usually prefer Stow-ells Evergreen and Country Gentleman: Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Kansas City, New York, Philadelphia, Providence, St. Louis, with Adams Early, Golden Bantam and other varieties handled to advantage. The southern markets seem to prefer Country Gentleman, Stowells Evergreen and Adams Early.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.The prices for Florida green corn in crates on the New York and Philadelphia markets ranged in May and to June 15th, 1930, $2.25-S3.00. Texas corn was quoted more regularly on the principal markets. The following quotations of Texas corn in bushel baskets will indicate the price range in May and June, 1930, for several important markets:
May llnltimorc < hi. as.. Cincinnati New York Philadelphia
10-19 price range $3.50-$2.35 $2.00-$2.00 $2.15-$2.25 $4.26-82.65 $2.85-12.26 20-30 price range 2.35- 2.75 2.00- 2.00 2.25- 2.00 2.25- 2.15 2.50- 2.50
June
1- 5 price range $3.50-53.15 $2.25-$2.15 $2.25-$2.15 $2.25-$2.65 $2.25-$3.25 6-15 price range 3.25- 2.85 2.10- 2.00 2.15- 1.50 2.75- 2.75 2.75- 1.50


CUCUMBERS
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $3,562,500.00
LOCATION.The ranking commercial producing counties in Florida are Alachua, Hardee, Levy, and Sumter.
VARIETIES.The principal varieties are the Davis Perfect, Improved White Spine and Early Fortune.
PLANTING.From 2 to 3 pounds of seed is ordinarily sufficient for an acre; hills 2 to 3 feet apart in rows 4 to 5 feet apart.
MATURITY.Early varieties will mature in about 60 days from the planting of seed to first picking, though the average will be from 70 to 85 days.
YIELD.The Florida twelve-year average yield, 1919-30, was 149 hampers per acre. In normal seasons the average yield in leading sections will range from 200 to 250 hampers, though 300 are often produced.
ACREAGE.The total fall and spring Florida acreage for seven seasons has been as follows:
Season Acreage
1923-24 ............... 12,370
1924-25 ............... 10,820
1925-26 ............... 7,590
1926-27 ............... 7,720
1927-28 ............... 9,420
1928-29 ............... 11,340
1929-30 ............... 12,100
COST.Excluding rental, taxes, and depreciation, it will cost from $95.00-S115.00 an acre to produce cucumbers in Florida: cultivation, $25; seed, $7.50; fertilizer, $47.50; spraying, $12; miscellaneous, $15. Cost per hamper delivered shipping point, about 75c: growing, 40c, picking and packing, 18c; container, 14c; hauling, 3c.
CONTAINER.The bushel hamper is in more general use in Florida, especially for both express and carlot shipments, and the bushel crate is also used.
PACKING.The pack should consist of fresh, firm cucumbers uniform in shape and size with a minimum length of not less than 5 inches, and should be carefully arranged in the crates. Sizes range from 4 to 10 dozen, mostly 6 to 8 dozen per bushel.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of cucumbers which may be slightly misshapen but which are fresh, firm, which are sufficiently mature for slicing purposes but not full grown or ripe and which are free from decay and from damage caused by dirt, freezing, mosaic or other disease, insects or mechanical or other means. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, the minimum length of the cucumbers shall be not less than five inches.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than five per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the specified minimum length. In addition, not more than ten per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the remaining requirements of this grade but not more thai) one-tenth of this tolerance, or 1 per cent, shall be allowed for decay.


24 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetable* and Citrus Fruits
CARLOT LOADING.Bushel crates arc loaded tops up, lengthwise the car, properly braced and stripped, running 6 rows wide, 28 stacks long, 4 to 5 layers high, double stripped. The number of crates per carload will range from 420 to 600, generally 450 to 500. Hampers are loaded in the car on ends, 7 rows wide, full length of the car, 2 to 3 layers high, alternate hampers inverted or rows alternately inverted. The average load per car ranges from 420 to 500, mostly 450 hampers per car. Cucumbers are almost without exception shipped in ventilated box or dry refrigerator cars. Occasionally in extremely unfavorable weather, in order to prevent depreciation, Cucumbers arc shipped under refrigeration.
RATES The following table gives the minimum carload freight charges for cucumbers in bushel hampers, billing weight, 54.2 lbs. per bushel hamper, and the rate per hamper from Gainesville, Florida, to important destinations. Express charges for l.c.l. shipments in cents per 100 pounds are also given:
From (iainesville. Ha. To
Minimum
carload
Minimum carload charge.1*
Rate, based
in cents per hamper
Express cluirges,
rate based in cents per 100 lbs., hampers actual weigh I, crates 50 lbs.
Baltimore Itoston.. .. .\<-u York. Philadelphi Pittsburgh. Chicago... ( iniinnati. Cleveland. Detn.it. .
421) hprs 420 hprs 420 hprs 42(1 hprs 420 hprs 400 hprs 400 hprs 400 hprs 400 hprs
S23U 10 2;.s jii 200.40 247.80 204.00 200.00 210.00 270 (Ml 27N ii
$57 .71
.62 .59 .63
.mi'.
54 .69 -69J-J
$2.94 per 3.45 per 3.15 per 3.00 per
3.04 per 3 15 per 2.94 per 3.30 per 3.35 per
100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. l(K)lbs. 100 lbs. 1(H) lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs 100 lbs.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida carlot shipping season is in the period November through June, as is shown in the following tabulation of Florida monthly carlot shipments for three current seasons:
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1927-28 .. 41 7 ....... 488 822 165 .. 1523
1928-29 .. 03 16 .. 5 397 1221 483 ..... 2185
1929-30 5 106 54 .. .. 9 203 581 41 .. 999
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.The months of the principal shipping season of states competitive to Florida are given to present in more detail an outline of competition to Florida cucumbers: Alabama, South Carolina, May-July; North Carolina, Virginia, June-July; Georgia, Mississippi, May-June; Louisiana, Texas, April-May-.lune. The following monthly carlot shipment record for three current seasons will show the shipments from competitive states, the United States total, with comparative Florida shipments given:


Frmii Field In Market Willi Florida Yei/elnhles and Citrus Fruits_25
State
Alabama......
Georgia.......
Louisiana .....
Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina
Texas ........
Virginia ......
Total U. S. FLORIDA
Alabama ......
Georgia.......
Ixmisiana .....
Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina
Texas .........
Virginia .......
Total U. S.....
FLORIDA ....
Season 1927-28 Nov. Deo. Jan. Feb. Mar.
Apr.
66 41
89
63
Alabama.........
Georgia..........
Louisiana....... 2
Mississippi.......
North Carolina .. South Carolina ..
Texas.......... 3
Virginia .........
Total U. S...... 124
FLORIDA ...... 106
u
7
20
44
530 488
Season 1928-
19 16
'j 7
5
433 397
149
1428 1221
Season 1929-30
55 54
21
28 9
336 203
May
105
15
238
June
490 76 18 2
314
636 18B 49
1295 2198
822 165
729 66
115 14
11 35
458
386 657
129 11
4 61
1963 1507
483
612 263
38 92
19 67
79
619
' 146 941
722 56
65
222!' 2432
581 41
Jul J
498
178 2025
193
112 1162
48
109 964
IMPORTS
Florida cucumbers must also meet the competition from imports, and the following table is arranged to show the volume of imports by months for three current seasons in pounds:
Nov. tor*.
Cuba........................
Mexican West Coast ..... 3.108
Cuba .............. SdO 4.S55
Mexican West Coaat ...........
Season 1927-2S (pounds)
Jin. Feb.
11.510 9.916 12.182 ......
Mar.
16.280 6.110
Season 1928-29 (pounds)
It.IN 79,55* 27/
12
1 l"
Apr. May Junr
75.222 UN 225 52.399 17.975 ...
9.721
Total 114.4(6
191.774
134.4X0 265


Season 1929-30 (pounds)
Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total.
Cuba.............. 69.265 622.333 817.230 228.975 165.431 17.806 3.465 ... 1.914,507
Mexican West Coast..... 76,466 4,084 1,456 9,952 4,749 ....... 96,707
DISTRIBUTION'.More than 75% the Florida carlot shipments in three current seasons have moved to points north of Savannah, largely to the eastern markets; from 10'/ to 15% went to central territory; and from 5% to 10% to southern markets. In the 1927-28 season 85% the total Florida carlot shipments were destined to points north of Savannah, 1928-29 season 70%, 1929-30 season 90%. In the 1929-30 season New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore received 75% the Florida shipments, New York alone taking 56% the entire Florida movement. Chicago, by comparison, handled about lVs%. The following table shows the unloads of cucumbers including full cars and I.e.I. freight, boat and express receipts by months for the years 1928, 1929, 1930, from Florida and the total all sources for comparison on important markets:
1928
New-York Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Fla..... 1 170 Imp'ts 18 16 5 1 Total 18 24 17 184 May 448 456 June July 195 746 737 Aub. Sept. Oct Nov. Dec. .... 3 50 13 ........17 363 339 44 55 32 Total 880 57 3015
Philadelphia Fla. Total .. 2 3 41 43 107 110 51 199 81 30 58 3 4 4 5 6 208 539
Baltimore Fla. Total . 7 7 27 27 14 60 45 16 31 2 48 188
Chicago Fla. 1 Imp'ts . Total 3 7 15 26 1 43 105 207 1 324 148 47 46 33 12 22 8 10 153 1 905
Cincinnati Fla. Total .. 4 4 6 2 3 1 21 5 3 1 1 8 43
Pittsburgh Fla. Total .. 5 6 8 36 65 3 150 155 55 22 8 45 468
Boston Fla. Total .. 5 3 3 7 17 26 17 109 173 10 42 3 2 37 380
1929
New York Fla. 1 Imp'ts 30 Total 31 3 14 27 77 3 92 461 471 460 666 574 311 190 194 3 34 65 2 74 44 42 86 1114 91 2750
Philadelphia Fla. .. Total .. 2 5 20 28 104 104 94 161 140 20 6 29 7 4 11 11 231 521
Baltimore Fla. .. Total .. 3 3 23 23 30 38 36 36 4 14 2 2 58 156
Chicago Fla. 1 Total 3 *4 23 25 181 216 51 330 228 118 22 29 27 16 33 25 26 297 1061
Cincinnati Fla. Total .. 1 S 9 11 19 9 1 1 19 40
Pittsburgh Fla. .. Total .. 3 8 15 78 91 28 146 94 127 23 31 3 3 5 5 119 541
Boston Fla. .. Imp'ts Total .. 3 2 4 26 31 33 70 1 86 142 21 4 3 1 4 65 1 366


N'ew York Jan. Fla. .. Imp'ts 46 Total 46 Feb. 16 26 Mar. 10 10 35 Apr. 124 1 137 May 351 564 June July 49 909 185 Aug. Sept. 188 284 Oct 35 104 Nov. 148 151 Dec. 40 15 55 Total 757 88 2684
Philadelphia Fla. . Total .. 2 2 21 21 78 142 16 227 9 20 58 3 4 21 24 4 4 145 511
Baltimore Fla. Total , 2 2 25 37 5 62 24 55 27 2 6 6 2 2 40 217
Chicago Fla. 1 Total 6 4 2 7 21 44 12 299 3 397 191 28 37 2 l(i 39 52 9 10 89 1115
Cincinnati Fla. Total 2 2 14 40 6 8 1 1 4 2 3 5 7.s
Pittsburgh Fla. Total 7 10 20 111 2 158 107 54 65 4 1 3 30 512
Boston Fla. 2 Total 2 '2 2 1 2 39 Ml 4 197 118 5 30 5 12 14 1 1 59 458
MARKET PREFERENCES.Markets prefer long, dark green cucumbers of medium size, the preferable sizes per bushel hamper or crate ranging from 4 to 8 dozen, with 6 dozen probably in best demand.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.While a good and fairly uniform level of prices for Florida cucumbers prevails in November and December, the average jobbing prices dropping under $4.00 only a few times in the past eight seasons, the scarcity of supplies in the period latter January, February, to March 20th, results in the highest-price period of the Florida season. Practically without exception the trend is sharply downward from April 15th through May and into June, in which two months the lowest prices of the season are experienced. In the seasons 1921-22 through 1929-30, the average destination price level has not declined below the $3.00 mark until after April 1st, while by June 15th the range is usually from 75c to $1.00. According to official records of carlot shipments, no straight cars have been reported in the month of January for three current seasons, and the total U. S. shipments in February have averaged less than 25 cars. The following arrangement of destination monthly price averages of No. 1 Florida cucumbers in bushel hampers or crates covering five seasons will better illustrate the best and incidentally the poorest season for Florida cucumbers; total U. S. monthly shipments for three last seasons are included to show total shipment and price relationship:
Season's Aver-
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June age
1925-26 ............ 1926-27 ............ $3.54 $5.94 $8.49 5.01 4.97 5.24 $.... $.... 6.96 $6.46 3.35 $3.22 2.66 $1.55 $4.39 .... 4.52
1927-28 Fla. prices .. Total U. S. shipments 4.25 66 4.30 13 20 44 5.95 530 4.20 12:).-) 2.45 2198 4.50
1928-29 Fla. prices Total U. S. shipments 5.40 89 5.35 19 8.25 8.00 27 6.60 433 3.55 1428 2.40 1963 1507 5.45
1929-30 Fla. prices .. Total U. S. shipments 5.25 124 4.60 55 5.25 21 8.05 28 6.20 336 3.35 2229 1.15 2432 5.00
1930


From Field to Market With Florida Vegetable* and Citni* Fruits
EGGPLANT
Tin- I'er-Anniim Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1923-30 Average. Wan $537,873.00
LOCATION'.In the seasons 1927-28 through 1929-30. Manatee and Lee counties ranked first and second with Gilchrist, Broward and Hernando, third, in I In- order of the seasons named.
VARIETIES.The principal commercial Florida varieties are Black Meant v. New York Improved i'urple Spineless, Florida High-Bush, New Orleans Market.
PLANTINGSfal ounces of seed in the seedbed will be sufficient for an acre. Plants should be set 3 feet apart in rows 5 feet apart, which will require about plants to tlio acre.
MATURITY.It will take about 120 days for eggplants to reach maturity.
YIELD.The Florida eight-year average yield, 1923-30, is 283 bushels per acre. The yield in principal sections will range as high as from 500 to 600 crates.
ACREAGE. The Florida eggplant acreage lias been us follows for the past Ix easons:
Season Total Acreage
1924-25......... 1400
1925-26......... 1020
1920-27......... 1020
1927-28......... 1550
1928-29......... 1280
1929-30......... 1630
COST.The growing cost per acre, exclusive of rental, taxes, depreciation, will range from $95 to $125: cultivation $35-$50; seed, $2; fertilizer, $55, .spraying, $10; miscellaneous, $10. Cost per crate delivered shipping point, 75c-$1.00: growing, 40c-50c; harvesting and packing, 18c; container, 20c; hauling, 5c
CONTAINER.The standard container is the eggplant or pepper crate, Illtxl4x22.
PACKING*Eggplants of uniform sizes should be packed in crates with butts and stems reversed in each row, 48s, 2-2 (4 lavers, 12 each); 3f>s, 2-1 (4 l:i>. r .'. each); 30s, 2-1 (4 layers, 8 inl-3, 7 in 2-4); 24s, 2-1 (4 layers, 6 each). Sizes run from 24s to 60s, with 24s to 36s usually in best demand.
GIIADE.1". S. No. 1 shall consist of eggplants of similar varietal characteristics which are firm, fairly smooth, of good characteristic color, fairly well shaped, which are free from damage caused by disease, insects, mechanical or other means. If count is specified, the eggplants shall be reasonably uniform in size in the packages.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements for this grade, but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay.
CAULOT LOADING.Crates are loaded tops up lengthwise the ear, 1G stacks long, 5-(! rows wide, 5 layers high, double stripped. The average number crates per cur is 420, ranging from 350 to 480. Usually shipped under refrigeration in straight or mixedcars.


RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges on eggplant in crates, billing weight, 57.fi lbs., and the rate per crate, from Rradenton, Florida, to important eastern and central destinations. Express charges fori. c. 1. shipments arc given in cents per 100 lbs:
From liradcnlon, Flu. To Minimum carload Minimum carload charges Kate, based in cents per standard crate Standard refrigeration charges per carload Kxprcss charges, rate based in cents per 100 lbs. Hilling weight 50 lbs. per crate.
Baltimore....... Boston......... 350 crates 350 crates $269.50 318.50 287.00 270.50 270.50 300.00 250.00 316.00 318.00 S.77 crate .91 crate .82 crate 79 crate .79 erate .76J4 crate .64 crate 7!) crate .79)4 erate S60.00 65.50 60.00 60.00 76.50 70.50 70.00 76.50 81.00 S3.15perl00 lbs. 3.77 per 100 lbs. 3.41 per 100 lbs. 3.24 per 100 lbs; 3.41 per 100 lbs. 3.45 per 100 lbs. 3.20 per 100 lbs. 3.57 per 100 lbs. 3.65 per 100 lbs.
Philadelphia..... Pittsburgh...... 350 crates 350 crates 400 crates 100 crates 100 crates 400 crates
Cincinnati...... Cleveland....... Detroit.........

FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida shipping season is the period October through July. The following record of monthly carlot shipments from Florida for the seasons 1927-28 to 1929-30 will show the period of heavy and light movement:
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. .Ian. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1927-28 ...... 12 31 ........ 23 16 53 27 162
1928-29 .............. 1 14 45 88 48 5 201
1929-30 ...... 21 42 2 4 2 2 11 52 61 9 206
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.The following states have part of their shipping season common to that of Florida: Virginia, Louisiana, South Carolina, July; Texas, October-December. However, Florida's greatest eggplant competition comes from imports which are in excess of the Florida shipments and come principally from Cuba. An arrangement showing the carlot shipments for three current seasons by months is given below, including shipments from competitive States, total United States, with comparative Florida ship-
ments:
Season 1927-28
State Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Texas................ 8 .................
Virginia..................... '........ 68
South Carolina..........................
Total U. S.......... 17 39 ........ 23 16 53 96
FLORIDA .......... 12 31 ........ 23 16 53 27
Season 1928-29
Texas...................................
Virginia.............................. 97
South Carolina........................ f.
Total U. S................ 1 14 45 88 52 108
FLORIDA................. 1 14 45 88 48 0


Season 1929-30
State Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Texas .............. 6 8........ .........
Virginia...................... ........ 62
South Carolina...........................
Total U. S.......... 27 50 2 4 2 2 11 52 65 78
FLORIDA .......... 21 42 2 4 2 2 11 52 61 9
IMPORTS
Florida eggplants have not only domestic competition but also competition from imports throughout most of the shipping season, as is shown by the following report of imports by months for three current seasons:
Season 1927-28 (pounds)
Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
Cuba ........................867.928 1.060,685 965,3:15 427.959 390.430 20.011 3,732,318
Mexican
West Coast ........... 10,724 114,580 129,868 297,173 39.389 1.605 ...... 693,339
Season 1928-29 (pounds)
Cuba ................. 10,223 276.345 1,411,208 1,734,532 1.162.364 392,533 55.799 5,043,104
Mexican
West Coast ........... 9.143 28.834 43,327 21,608 9,936 56.939 ...... 172,787
Season 1929-30 (pounds)
Cuba ........... 48.356 629.405 949,420 1.422,712 1,207.604 901,931 238,885 ...... 5,401,313
Mexican
West Coast ........... 17.006 128.1-14 270,458 282.548 187,566 14.054 38.143 899,776
Total carlot imports for past five seasons have been as follows: 1925-26, 241; 1926-27, 360; 1927-28, 302; 1928-29, 381; 1929-30, 328.
DISTRIBUTION.The largest proportion of the Florida carlot shipments are destined to the larger eastern cities through Potomac Yards. In the 1929-30 season, according to arrival records, about 66% of the straight carlot shipments from Florida went to New York and Philadelphia. The following report shows the total carlot unloads from Florida on important markets, from imports and the total unloads by months for the years 1928,1929 and 1930:
1928
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aufr. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
New York-Philadelphia
Baltimore
Chicago Boston
Fla. 3 1 13 13 28 1 to .. 61
Imports 105 78 'oo 44 10 1 7 305
Total 108 79 60 57 23 29 48 48 18 i > 2 7 487
Fla. 3 7 14 19 8 51
Total 3 7 14 19 27 1 71
Fla. 1 7 4 2 14
Total 1 7 4 8 3 23
Fla. 6 1 1 3 3 3 0 .. 22
Total 6 1 1 3 3 3 5 22
Fla. 1 1 2 3 8 CO 1 .. 25
Imports
Total 4 3 5 2 3 8 9 12 2 1 1 1 . 50


1929
Jan. Fit). Mar. Apr. May Juno July Auk. Sept. Ort. Nov. Dee. Total
New Fla. 1 ... fi 35 54 33 3 .. .. 12 32 15 191
York Imports 35 114 121 13 14 .......... 1 46 344
Total 36 114 127 48 68 33 49 22 8 17 37 61 620
Phila- Fla. ... 2 ... 8 18 20 11 .. .. 2 8 2 71
delpliia Imports ... 2 6 3 2 .............. 13
Total ... 4 fi 11 20 21 37 1 .. 2 10 2 114
Haiti- Fla....... 1 1 6 4 2 .......... 14
more Imports ......... 3 2 1............ 6
Total ...... 1 4 8 5 8 .......... 26
Fla....... 1 2 8 3 2 ........ 1 17
Chicago Imports ... 1 ... 4................ 5
Total ... 1 1 6 8 3 2 1.. 1 3 1 27
Cincin- Fla.......... 1 1 1 ............ 3
nati Total ......... 1 1 1 ............ 3
Fla.......... 6 15 2...... 1 6 1 31
Boston Imports ... 5 6 1................ 12
Total ... 5 6 7 15 2 9 7 .. 2 8 1 62
1930
New Fla. 2 1 2 9 32 38 9 .... 23 53 19 188
York Imports 66 66 79 28 9 .......... 2 47 297
Total 68 67 81 37 41 40 48 5 1 23 55 66 532
Phila- Fla. ... 1 ..... 7 25 6 .. .. 2 12 7 60
delphia Imports ... 1..................... 1
Total ... 2 ..... 7 30 28 .. .. 2 12 7 88
olfi Fla. ... 1 1 1 1 5........ 4 3 16
ESS" ImP>-ts ...... 1.................. 1
mole Total ... 1 2 1 1 6 9 3.... 4 3 30
Fla. 1 ... 1 3 .. 2 ...... 6 5 .. 18
Chicago Imports ... 1 3.................. 4
Total 1 1 4 3.. 2 3.... 6 5.. 25
Cincin- Fla.............. 2 2 ...... 3 .. 7
nati Total ............. 2 2 ...... 3 1 8
Pitts- Fla.............. 1............ 1
burgh Total ............. 1............ 1
Fla. ... 5... 1 7 4 3.... 7 8 1 36
Boston Imports 1........................ 1
Total 15... 174 15 52791 57
MARKET PREFERENCES.Most of the larger northern markets prefer eggplants of dark color and wrapped. For instance, the following markets have a preference for dark color, 24s to 36s wrapped: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, New York, Providence. Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis handle 30s to 36s wrapped) purple color, Kansas City dark, 28s to 36s. The southern markets usually prefer slightly smaller sizes, 30s to 48s, purple color, for instance: Chattanooga, Columbia, Knoxville, Louisville, Lynchburg, Memphis, Norfolk, Raleigh, Richmond, Winston-Salem, Wheeling, Atlanta, Indianapolis, Savannah, 36s, dark color, wrapped; Charleston and New Orleans, 30s to 48s, dark color.


TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.Jobbing prices usually begin advancing in January, continuing through the high price period until April 15th, with the peak season extended in several seasons to include December and May. While there are exceptions, the trend is downward in May, reaching the lowest level of prices for the season in June. Eggplant prices remain fairly steady at a price range of from $3.00-$5.00 throughout the season and the price range with few exceptions in two seasons did not fall below $3.00 until April 15th in the seasons 1921-22 through 1929-30. The following weighted jobbing price average on Florida No. 1 eggplant in standard crates will show the price trend by months through five current seasons, together with the season's average. The total carlot supply, including U. S. shipments and imports, is given with the 1929-30 season to show the monthly total volume in relation to the average monthly price.
Season's
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Average
1925-26 .......... $4.20 $3.61 $5.45 $6.68 $6.79 $6.65 $5.67 $4.99 $5.47
1926-27 .......... 4.79 5.08 5.07 5.08 5.14 3.75 3.42 3.22 4.40
1927-28 .......... 2.78 1.96 3.73 3.62 4.68 3.86 3.45 2.89 3.42
1928-29 .......... 6.65 8.20 7.35 6.00 4.30 3.45 2.90 2.30 4.95
1929-30 .......... 4.20 3.88 4.37 4.13 4.11 4.33 4.20 2.66 4.00
U. S. and Imports
(in carlots) ...... 51 46 86 84 81 41 62 65


LETTUCE
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was SI,220,916.67
LOCATION.The three ranking counties in Florida for the seasons 1924-25 through 1929-30 were Manatee, Orange, Seminole.
VARIETY.The most extensively planted variety of lettuce in Florida is the Big Boston.
PLANTING.Sufficient seed in the seed bed for planting an acre, from 1 to 2 pounds. Plants are set 14x14 to 16x16 inches. About 30,000 plants will be needed for an acre.
MATURITY.Big Boston will mature in about 70 days.
YIELD.The twelve-year average yield, 1919-30, in Florida was 315 crates per acre, though 600 to 700 crates to the acre are produced in the main sections.
ACREAGE.The Florida acreage of lettuce has for six seasons been as follows:
Season Total Acreage
1924-25......... 3400
1925-26......... 1500
1926-27......... 1840
1927-28......... 1850
1928-29......... 1970
1929-30......... 1530
COST.It will cost about $100, exclusive of rental, taxes, depreciation, an acre to produce lettuce in Florida: cultivation, $50; seed, $1.00; fertilizer, $40; miscellaneous, $10. Cost per hamper delivered shipping point, 55c-60c: growing, 25c; cutting and packing, 15c; container, 15c; hauling, 5c.
CONTAINER.The standard containers in Florida are the 1%-bushel hamper and the 2-dozcn crate.
PACKING.In hampers the heads in the fust layer, usually 2-3, are placed stems down, heads up, with succeeding layers alternated, stems to stems and heads to heads with the top layer, which usually has 7 to 9 heads, packed with stems uppermost. The container will hold 24 to 40 heads of lettuce, 2-4 dozen. In crates the bottom layer is placed with stems down and the top layer with stems up. The crate contains 24 uniform heads.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of heads of lettuce of similar varietal characteristics which are fresh; which are not split or burst, and which are free from decay, tipburn, seedstems, russet, brown blight, doubles, and from damage caused by broken midribs, freezing, dirt, sunburn, discoloration, disease, aphis or other insects, or mechanical or other means. Each bead shall be reasonably well trimmed unless specified as well trimmed. The wrapper leaves shall be free from serious damage by any cause. Not less than 75 per cent of the heads of Iceberg type lettuce shall be firm and the remainder shall be fairly firm. Heads of Big Boston type lettuce shall be fairly firm.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not more than one-half of this tolerance or 5 per cent, shall be allowed for decay affecting the compact portion of the head; provided that


not more than two-fifths of the tolerance for decay or 2 per cent, shall be allowed for slimy decay. This tolerance shall not permit in any lot of U. S. No. 1 Iceberg type lettuce fewer than 90 per cent of heads which are firm or fairly firm and free from defects on the basis of a ratio of 3 firm heads to 1 fairly firm head.
CARLOT LOADING.Lettuce in hampers is loaded full length the car, 6-7 rows wide, 3-4 layers high. The usual number of hampers per carload is from 400 to 500. Hampers are placed on ends with alternate hampers reversed, succeeding layers placed tops against tops and bottoms against bottoms. Tariffs permit hampers loaded with lettuce to be placed on their sides, ends reversed, tops against tops and bottoms against bottoms, not more than 4 layers high. Crates are loaded on edge 16 stacks long, 8-9 rows wide, 3 layers high or lying flat 5 rows wide and 7-8 layers high, properly stripped. Lettuce is always shipped under some type of refrigeration.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges on lettuce in 1^-bushel hampers, billing weight 36 lbs., and the rate per 1% -bushel hamper, from Bradenton, Florida, to important eastern and central destinations:
From Bradenton. Fla. To Minimum carload Minimum carload charges Rate, based in cents per 114 bushel hamper Standard refrigeration charges per carload
Chicago............... Cincinnati............. Cleveland............. 350 hampers 400 hampers 100 hampers 100 hampers 100 hampers $209.50 318.50 2S7.00 276.50 276.50 306.00 256.00 326.00 330.00 .77 *.65J^ hpr .01 *.79^hpr .82 *.70J^ hpr .79 *.67^ hpr .79 *.71^ hpr .76J^> hpr .64 hpr .81H hpr .82] i hpr 860.00 65.50 60.00 60.00 76.50 76.50 70.00 76.50 81.00
If as many as 412 packages or more are loaded per car, these rates apply.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida carlot shipping season is November to April as is shown by the following monthly shipment record for three seasons:
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1927-28 ....... 239 261 203 63 94 860
1928-29 ........ 61 378 363 146 169 ... 1117
1929-30 ........ 67 165 137 46 98 513
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.California and Arizona are regarded as the heaviest lettuce competitors to the Florida crop. In December to May Arizona shipments are heavy and California ships heavily during the entire Florida shipping season. Texas ships carlots in limited volume in February and March. Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas ship Big Boston; California and Arizona, Iceberg. Competition to Florida lettuce is emphasized by shipments reported by months for the seasons 1927-28 through 1929-30 in the following table:


Season 1927-28
State Ocl. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
California............. 2041 2719 974 3677 4817 3216 2676
Arizona....................... 3129 1186 335 1649 2785
South Carolina................................. 133
Texas................................. 48 27 ____
North Carolina................................ 94
Total U. S............. 3503 3357 4375 5089 5270 500G 6747
FLORIDA ................ 239 261 203 63 94 ....
Season 1928-29
California............. 3199 3610 1167 2938 4962 4031 1367
Arizona....................... 3009 1635 90 435 3886
South Carolina............................. 178 132
Texas................................. 32 29
North Carolina................................ 253
Total U. S............. 3676 4082 4561 4976 5236 4871 5646
FLORIDA ................ 61 378 363 146 169 ....
Season 1929-30
California............. 4607 3276 1932 3128 5638 3588 2666
Arizona....................... 1793 1702 200 2058 2695
South Carolina............................. 31 102
Texas................................. 26 27
North Carolina................................. 117
Total U. S............. 4980 3513 3899 4972 5916 5822 5500
FLORIDA ................ 67 166 137 46 98 ....
DISTRIBUTION.More than 90% of the Florida lettuce shipments are absorbed by New York City. Philadelphia is the next largest receiver, but handles only about one-seventh the volume that New York receives. The five important markets of Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, and Pittsburgh received only twenty cars in the 3 years 1927-28-29. Florida lettuce has strong competition with Iceberg lettuce in smaller markets, southern markets and even inside the State. For instance, Atlanta received no carlots of Florida lettuce in either 1927 or 1928 and only 1 car in 1929 compared to 239 cars from California in 1929. Jacksonville unload records do not credit Florida with any straight carlots of lettuce in either 1927-28-29, but show that California placed 115 cars on this market in 1929. Tampa handled 2 cars Florida lettuce in 1927, none in either 1928 or 1929, but received 164 cars of California lettuce in 1929.
MARKET PREFERENCES.A preference is usually given heads of medium size, packing 2 dozen to the flat crate or 30-40 to the 1 Vj bushel hamper. The eastern markets handle Florida Big Boston lettuce to better advantage, since this variety is in comparatively little demand in the larger central markets. Practically all the important markets of the south prefer Iceberg in crates, for instance, Atlanta, Charleston, Chattanooga, Columbia, Durham, Knoxville, Lexington, Lynchburg, Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, Norfolk, Raleigh, Richmond, Savannah, Winston-Salem, Wheeling.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICKS.From February 10 through March the highest prices on Florida lettuce usually prevail. December and January are


36
From Field to Marled With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits
ordinarily the months of lowest prices, this being true in the seasons 1923-24, 1924-25 and 1928-29, while in the 1929-30 season the December-January period was about as good as the February-March period. The price range in February and March is usually from ?2.00-4.00 with S2.00-3.00 the average. The following weighted jobbing price average of Florida No. 1 Big Boston lettuce in 1%-bushel hampers will show the monthly price trend for two seasons with the total U. S. shipments given for further analysis:
Season's
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Average
1928-29 Average Florida prices.... S1.55 $1.45 $1.95 $1.80 $1.70 Total U. S. shipments..... 4561 4976 5236 4871
1929-30 Average Florida prices.... S2.80 $3.10 $3.41 $2.76 $3.02 Total U. S. shipments..... 3899 4972 5916 5822


GREEN PEAS
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-29 Average, Was $152,090.91
LOCATION.The ranking counties in English pea production in Florida are Palm Beach, Hillsborough and St. Lucie. In the seasons 1928-29 and 1929-30 Palm Beach county led in straight carlot shipments.
VARIETIES.The principal varieties in Florida are Little Marvel, Lax-tonian, Telephone, Thomas Laxton.
PLANTING.From 1 to 2 bushels seed per acre will be required. The rows are usually 4 feet apart and the seed 1 to 2 inches apart in the drill.
MATURITY.About 60 days will be required for English peas to mature in Florida, or from 55-65 days.
YIELD.The average yield for eleven years, 1919-29, was 51 hampers per acre. From 100-200 hampers is the average yield in the principal sections.
ACREAGE.The Florida acreage for the past seven seasons has been as follows:
Season Acreage
1330 2250 760 700 1230 1320 730
1923-24 1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30
COST.Exclusive of rent, taxes, depreciation, etc., it will cost to grow an acre of peas in Florida $75-100: cultivation $25-35, seed $10, fertilizer $40, spraying $5. Cost per hamper delivered shipping point 90c-$1.25: growing 50-75c, picking and packing 30c, hamper 14c, hauling 5c.
CONTAINER.The bushel hamper is the standard container for Florida green peas.
PACKING.The pack should contain pods of peas of one variety or similar varieties that are fresh, firm, reasonably uniform in size and maturity, filled with well developed peas and free from decay and damage.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of pods of peas of similar varietal characteristics, which are fairly well filled, fresh, tender, firm, of reasonably uniform maturity, free from excessive moisture, decay, mildew injury, damage caused by freezing, hail, dirt, leaves, or other foreign matter, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by weight, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5 per cent, shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more than one-tenth of this tolerance or 1 per cent shall be allowed for decay.
CARLOT LOADING.The first layer of hampers is loaded on ends or on sides with ends reversed full length of car, tops against tops and bottoms against bottoms, alternate layers reversed, and are usually loaded 5-6 rows wide, 3-5 layers high, usual load is from 450-550 hampers. Shipped under refrigeration.


RATES.The following table gives the minimum Qarload freight and refrigeration charges on green peas in bushel hampers, billing weight 34.1 lbs. per hamper, and the rate per bushel hamper, from Center Hill, Florida, to important destinations. Express charges for I.c.l. shipments are also shown, based in cents per 100 lbs.
From Center Hill, Fk To Minimum carload Minimum carload charges Rate, based in cents, per bushel hamper Standard refrigeration charges per carload Express charges, rate hascdju cents per 100 lbs.
Philadelphia..... Pittsburgh...... Detroit......... 350 hprs 350 hprs 350 hprs 350 hprs 350 hprs 400 hprs 100 hprs 100 hprs 400 hprs $252.00 301.00 209.50 259.00 259.00 28S.00 23S.00 29S.00 300.00 .72*.01^h]>r .80*.753-i>hpr .77*.OG3^hpr .74*.G3Hhpr .74*.67j^ hpr 72 hpr .o9y2 hpr .7ii4 hpr .75 hpr moo 65.50 60.00 60.00 76.50 76.50 70.00 76.50 SI.00 S3.15 per 100 lbs. 3.87 per 100 lbs. 3.52 per 100 lbs. 3.22 per 100 lbs. 3.57 per 100 lbs. 3.62 per 100 lbs. 3.26 per 100 lbs. 3.71 per 100 lbs. 3.82 per 100 lbs.
If as many as 410 packages or more are loaded per car, these rates apply.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida shipping season extends from November to April with carlot shipments moving from January through March. The following report of monthly carlot shipments for two current seasons will show the heaviest shipping period of the Florida season:
Season Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1928-29 ........ 11 18 1 .. 30
1929-30 ........ 3 3 .. .. 6
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.California ships peas in carlots in every month of the Florida season. States other than Florida shipping in April and May are Arizona, California, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia. Shipments from these States by months for two current seasons are given below, showing the extent of competition to Florida green peas:
Season 1928-29
State Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
Arizona......................... 4 6
California........... 148 31 6 235 447 634
Mississippi...................... 199
North Carolina................... 41 327
South Carolina..................... 232 10
Virginia........................ 5 188
Total U.S........... 149 42 25 236 929 1186
FLORIDA............. 11 18 1 ......


Season 1929-30
Stale Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
Arizona................ ...................
California .......... 249 32 158 353 822 549
Mississippi...................... 215 17
North Carolina..................... 480
South Carolina.................. 07 185
Virginia........................... 123
Total U. S.......... 249 35 161 356 1108 1367
FLORIDA............. 3 3 .........
IMPORTS
As exports of green peas from the Mexican West Coast are made in the period November to May, which period is common to the Florida shipping-season of green peas, the following tabulation of imports is given to show the volume of imports by months for the seasons 1927-28, through 1929-30:
1927-28 (pounds)
Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April Total
Mexican West Coast., 13.923 9SS.318 3,556,908 7,402,488 2,457,763 39,164 14,438,564
1928-29 (pounds)
Mexican West Coast.. 2S.800 1.S98.225 6,655,603 6,309,325 4,544,168 196,306 19,632.427
1929-30 (pounds)
Mexican West Coast....... 5,552,759 13,850,464 8,352,263 2,319,213 38,908 30,113,612
MARKET PREFERENCES.Of the Florida varieties established in the larger markets, the Thomas Laxton, Laxtonian and Dwarf Telephone are usually given as the preferred varieties,for instance, in Baltimore, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Cincinnati. The Laxton sells well in Atlanta, Charleston, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Norfolk, Richmond. The Little Marvel is favored in several markets,St. Louis, Savannah, Wheeling and others.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.The average seasonal range in price of Florida green peas in bushel hampers on the larger northern markets is from $2.26-4.25. The trend is usually upward in latter February and continuing through March. In the 1928-29 season the eastern markets ranged from $2.25-2.75 in early March to $3.50 in latter March. In 1929-30 latter January and February ranged from $2.25-2.75, and March mostly from $2.75-4.25. In the 1929-30 season the Florida markets of Jacksonville, Miami and Tampa were throughout the season about as good for express shipments as the larger outside markets.


PEPPERS
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1923-30 Average, Was $2,381,500.00
LOCATION.The counties of Broward, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, and Orange are the ranking counties shipping peppers in carlots from Florida.
VARIETIES.The principal varieties for commercal purposes grown in Florida are the Ruby King and World Beater.
PLANTING.One pound of seed in the seedbed should produce enough plants for an acre. Plants are set 36x20 inches apart, average number required for an acre about 9,000.
MATURITY.The growing season is about 80 to 90 days from plant stage, or about 120 to 130 days from the time seed are planted.
YIELD.The Florida eight-year average yield per acre 1923-30 was 347 bushels, or about 217 crates, 250-300 crates per acre being produced in some sections.
ACREAGE.For the seasons 1924-25 through 1929-30, the Florida total fall and spring pepper acreage has been as fellows:
Season Total Acreage
1924-25......... 3560
1925-26......... 3370
1926-27......... 2700
1927-28......... 6410
1928-29......... 5920
1929-30......... 5630
COST.The average cost per acre of growing peppers exclusive of rental, taxes, etc., is from $90-125: cultivation $35-60, seed $5, fertilizer $35-50, spraying $10, miscellaneous $5. Cost per crate delivered shipping point 75c-$1.00: growing 40-50c, harvesting 5c, container 20c, packing and grading 12c, hauling 5c.
CONTAINER.The standard pepper crate, 1134x14x22. The bushel hamper is also used.
PACKING.The pack should consist of peppers uniform in size, well shaped and free from defects and damage. Long varieties should be 3M--4 inches in length and 2I/t-2% inches in diameter; short varieties 2%-3 inches in length, 2V4-3 inches in diameter.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of sweet peppers of similar varietal characteristics which are green but not immature, which are firm and free from decay and from any defect or injury that has penetrated through the fleshy wall, and from damage caused by sunscald, freezing, hail, scars, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means. Not less than 60 per cent of the peppers in any lot shall be well shaped and the remainder shall be fairly well shaped. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum size of peppers of long varieties shall be SVz inches in length and 2V4 inches in diameter: the minimum size of peppers of short varieties shall be 2% inches in length and 2M: inches in diameter.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot, may be below the specified size. In addition, not more than 10 per cent, by count, may be below the remaining


requirements of this grade, but not more than one-twentieth of this amount or % of 1 per cent shall be allowed for peppers affected by decay.
CARLOT LOADINGCrates are loaded 6 rows wide, 16 stacks long, 4-5 layers high, double stripped, ranging from 360 to 500 crates per carload. The usual average is from 420 to 448 crates. Peppers are shipped almost entirely under refrigeration.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges for peppers in crates, hilling weight 47.!) lbs. per crate, and the rate per crate from Pompano, Florida, to important destinations. Express rates for l.c.l. shipments are also given:
Prom
Pompano. Ha.
To
Baltimore...
Boston.....
New York. .. Philadelphia. Pittsburgh...
Chicago......
Cincinnati... Cleveland.... Detroit......
Minimum carload
Minimum carload
charges
Rale based in cents per crate
350 crates 350 crates 350 crates 350 crates 350 crates 400 crates 400 crates 400 crates 400 crates
I
3304.50 353.50 322.00 311.60 311.50 272.00 222.00 2S2.00 284.00
S .87 1.01 .92 .Ml
.89 .68 .55'^ 70,'2 .71
Standard refrigeration charges per car
$60.00 65.50 00.00 60.00 76.50 76.50 70.00 70.50 SI. 00
Express rale based in cents per 100 lbs. Hilling weight crates 40 lbs., bu. hampers 25 lbs.
S3.60 per 4.33 per 3.94 per 3.65 per 3.92 per 1.03 per 3.52 per 4.12 per 4.27 per
1 IK)lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs.
FLORIDA SHI I'MENTS.The Florida carlot shipping season extends from October into July. The regular carlot movement by months for three seasons will be noted in the following table: (It should be remembered that a considerable proportion of Florida peppers move in mixed cars and by express.)
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1927-28........... 275 219 126 141 249 427 344 293 17 2091
1928-29........... 8 26 78 225 415 412 524 184 7 1879
1929-30............ 28 98 77 80 242 344 467 316 10 1662
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.No state has an entire shipping season common to that of Florida. In the fall months California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia in October and November, give carlot competition to Florida peppers. Again in June and July carlot competition is felt from Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Jersey (July). In the period December through April Florida has practically no domestic competition, and supplies 99% of the domestic shipments; however, chief competition from December to June is from imports, mostly from Cuba and Mexico. The following carlot monthly shipment tabulation is arranged to show in detail the competition to Florida peppers during three current seasons:


Season 1927-28
State Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
California........... 12 ...........................
Georgia...................................... 4 14
Louisiana.................................... 188 160
Mississippi........................................
North Carolina............................... 4 61
New Jersey.......... 402........................ 29
South Carolina.................................. 10
Virginia............. 3 ...........................
Total U. S........... 445 275 219 126 141 249 427 344 508 304
FLORIDA ............. 275 219 126 141 249 427 344 293 17
Season 1928-29
California ........... 22 ...........................
Georgia.................................. 1 18 13
Louisiana................................ 10 217 120
Mississippi.................................. 4 1
North Carolina.............................. 8 92
New Jersey.......... 284 ........................ 9
South Carolina............................... 2 13
Virginia ............. 6 ...........................
Total U. S........... 323 8 26 80 225 415 412 535 433 256
FLORIDA .............. 8 26 78 225 415 412 524 184 7
Season 1929-30
California........... 84 50 2 ............... 2 4
Georgia ............. 6 77 2 ............... 16 20
Louisiana ........... 3 2 .................. 141 27
Mississippi .......... 3 ...........................
North Carolina...... 3 1 .................. 24 149
New Jersey.......... 237 8 ..................... 19
South Carolina.......... 3 ..................... 25
Virginia ............ 29 9 ......................
Total U. S........... 386 179 110 77 80 242 344 471 510 248
FLORIDA ............. 28 98 77 80 242 344 467 316 10
IMPORTS
Imports give Florida peppers competition in most of the shipping season as will be noted in the following record of imports by months from principal foreign competing areas for the seasons 1927-28,1928-29 and 1929-30:
Season 1927-28 (pounds)
Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May June Total
Cuba ...................... 786,203 840,833 504,061 186,788 174,181 16,161 2,508,227
Mexican
West Coast .. 5,300 165.408 1.227,945 3,863,107 1.974,779 811,196 921,808 ...... 8,969,543
Season 1928-29 (pounds)
Cuba ........ 270 107.545 482,395 729,736 669,802 139,610 35,598 21,610 2,185,466
Mexican
West Coast .. 15.708 409,217 2.002,119 1,813,866 923,383 266,269 515,224 52,066 5,997,852
Season 1929-30 (pounds)
Cuba ........ 102,241 712,262 1,317,330 960,763 580,286 278,689 91,349 ...... 4,042,870
Mexican
West Coast ......... 377,105 1,092.096 1,166.077 1,453.032 1.820,656 684,118 ...... 6,633,227


Total pepper carlot imports for several seasons have been as follows: 1925-26, 9G9 cars; 1926-27, 1026; 1927-28, 743; 1928-29, 566; 1929-30, 477.
DISTRIBUTION.In the 1927-28 season Florida peppers were distributed 73% north of Savannah, 14% to central markets, and 13% to southern points. In 1928-29 73% of the Florida shipments went to northern and eastern markets, 21% to central, and 6% to southern markets. In 1929-30, 80% went to northern markets, 19% to central and 1% to southern; in this season, New York and Philadelphia handled 50% of the Florida shipments and Chicago 107c The decline in distribution in southern markets the two latter seasons was due largely to Mediterranean Fruit Fly Quarantine Regulations. In the 1927-28 season, before distribution was affected by fruit fly regulations, the three eastern markets of New York, Philadelphia and Boston took 80% of the carlot pepper shipments from Florida, New York alone receiving 57% of the Florida movement. Chicago received about 12% and Pittsburgh ranked next with about 57c. The following table shows the monthly carlot unloads, including full cars and l.c.l. freight, boat and express receipts, of peppers from Florida, imports and total from all sources on important markets for the vears 1927,1928,1929 and 1930:
1927
Jan. Feb. Mnr. Apr. May Juno July Auff. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
New Fla. 29 8 83 202 163 200 25 11 4 11 155 178 1069
York Imports 94 194 201 79 18 8 ............... 14 608
Total 123 202 284 281 181 259 257 379 469 239 291 197 3162
Phila- Fla. 10 1 15 31 29 47 7 ......... 19 40 199
delphia Imports 6 3 9 1 ........................ 19
Total 16 4 24 32 29 57 30 2 1 ... 20 42 257
Balti- Fla. 2...... 1 ... 2 2......... 1 ... 8
more Imports 1 ... 1........................... 2
Total 3 ... 1 1 ... 2 3......... 1 3 14
Fla. 27 15 38 45 41 18 1 ......... 25 25 235
Chicago Imports 8 45 50 12 ..................... 2 117
Total 36 60 88 57 42 64 47 38 11 20 41 36 540
Cincin- Fla. 1 ... 3 3 1 2 1 ......... 1 3 15
nati Imports 1 ... 1........................... 2
Total 2 ... 6 3 1 2 3 ......... 1 3 21
Pitts- Fla. 14 7 5 21 13 18 ............ 12 18 108
burgh Imports ... 1 2........................... 3
Total 14 8 7 21 13 29 !) 8 16 67 22 18 232
Fla. 11 6 13 29 22 40 ............ 53 33 207
Boston Imports ... 2 8........................... 10
Total 12 8 21 30 22 55 33 43 76 106 61 35 502
1928
New Fla. 85 69 89 197 234 204 65 ......... 5 14 962
York Imports 83 125 97 32 5 2 ............... 16 360
Total 168 194 187 229 239 240 251 289 340 340 121 36 2634
Phila- Fla. 18 6 15 28 40 51 16 ............ 2 176
delphia Imports ... 6 10 ... 2..................... 18
Total 18 12 25 28 42 55 18 ......... 1 3 202
Balti- Fla. 2 ... 1 1 4 3 10............... 21
more Imports ...... 2........................... 2
Total 2 ... 3 1 4 3 12............... 25


1928Continued
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
Cincin- Fla. 1 1...... 1 3 1 1............ 8
nati Imports ... 2 4 3........................ 9
Total 1 4 4 3 1 3 3 1...... 1 ... 21
Pitts- Fla. 3 1 6 20 29 19 7 ............ 1 86
burgh Imports ... 1 ... 2........................ 3
Total 3 2 6 22 29 27 26 21 36 54 11 1 238
Fla. 22 13 19 37 41 36 ............ 2 3 173
Boston Imports ...... 2........................... 2
Total 22 13 21 37 41 47 34 63 55 105 11 3 452
1929
New Fla. 37 100 226 246 288 164 21 ......... 12 50 1144
York Imports 79 134 66 13 2 ............... 6 65 365
Total 116 234 292 259 290 191 220 80 189 276 141 140 2428
Phila- Fla. 4 13 24 27 39 46 10 ...... 1 1 8 173
delphia Imports 3 9 8 ........................... 20
Total 7 22 32 27 39 50 19 ...... 1 6 11 214
Balti- Fla. ... 2 2 2 3 3.................. 12
more Imports 1 1.............................. 2
Total 1 3 2 2 3 3 1............... 15
Fla. 20 31 54 42 54 11 ............ 2 24 238
Chicago Imports 9 10 4 2 ........................ 25
Total 29 41 58 44 59 65 77 35 26 46 38 25 543
Cincin- Fla. ... 1 ... 1 3 3 1............... 9
nati Imports 1 1 2........................... 4
Total 1 2 2 1 3 3 1......... 1 ... 14
Pitts- Fla. 2 13 32 24 27 13 ............... 6 117
burgh Total 2 14 32 24 27 31 12 14 32 45 7 6 246
Fla. 6 25 40 37 54 32 1 ......... 8 17 220
Boston Imports ... 4 4 1........................ 9
Total 6 29 44 39 54 42 74 30 81 68 18 23 408
1930
Wa Fla. 36 52 119 214 214 237 14 ...... 3 76 158 1123
Vn,l Imports 66 56 39 9 1 ............... 1 12 184
101K Total 102 108 158 223 215 305 151 73 76 154 187 172 1924
Phila- Fla. 10 9 20 34 35 75 13 ......... 15 25 236
delphia Total 10 9 20 34 35 77 22 ......... 23 29 259
Balti- Fla....... 1 5 4 7 1......... 3 4 25
more Total ...... 1 5 4 7 1...... 1 4 7 30
Fla. 15 13 36 46 40 20 ............ 26 41 237
Chicago Imports 3 12 5 4 1 ..................... 25
Total 18 25 41 50 43 45 11 11 6 75 62 49 436
Cincin- Fla. 1 1 2 2... 3............... 1 10
nati Total 1 1 2 2... 3 3... 1 ... 2 1 16
Pitts- Fla. 4 4 8 23 22 20 ............ 9 18 108
burgh Total 4 4 8 23 22 35 11 12 37 46 19 18 239
p =f Fla- 11 10 29 28 35 56 6 ......... 24 32 231
cosion Total n J0 31 3Q 3? 69 46 irj 37 54 45 32 419


MARKET PREFERENCES.Most of the larger northern and central markets, for instance Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Deti'oit, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, prefer a long green variety, Ruby King, World Beater-, etc. Southern marketsCharleston, Chattanooga, Columbia, Durham, Gastonia, Knoxville, Louisville, Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, Norfolk, Raleigh and Savannah, also prefer the Ruby King or similar varieties. Several markets for instance Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Hartford, Knoxville, Providence, will take a limited amount of red peppers, though the preference is decidedly for green peppers.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.Considering the past eight seasons, the average jobbing prices on Florida peppers from latter February through May have ranged from $3.50 to $5.50 per crate. The highest prices of any individual month for these eight seasons were had in December, 1928, in which month in 1927, November, 1927, and June, 1930, the lowest prices of the individual months for these eight seasons wore experienced. The following weighted jobbing price averages of No. 1 Florida peppers in crates for the past five seasons will show the seasonal monthly price trends with total U. S. shipments and imports by months included in the two last seasons:
Season's
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Average
1925-26 .......... $3.67 $4.77 $5.12 $6.88 $8.13 $7.36 $7.35 $5.91 $6.19
1926-27 .......... 3.47 4.95 4.26 6.21 4.65 3.23 4.83 3.81 4.45
1927-28 .......... 2.50 2.10 3.80 5.15 4.05 4.45 4.15 3.50 3.75
1928-29 .......... 7.25 10.65 6.95 3.85 3.20 4.20 3.70 2.90 5.20
Total carlot supplies...... 250 409 527 432 561 436
1929-30 .......... 6.55 6.35 6.10 6.20 5.75 3.90 4.55 2.40 5.10
Total carlot supplies 187 185 182 178 329 417 499 513


WHITE POTATOES
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $5,441,416.67
LOCATION.St. Johns County ranks first in carlot shipments of white potatoes in Florida. Since the 1924-25 season Putnam County has ranked second and Flagler third, except in 1929-30 Alachua ranked third.
VARIETIES.In the St. Johns-Putnam-Alachua potato belt, the Spaulding Rose is the commercial variety grown. In South Florida and in sections of West Florida the Red Bliss or Triumph is the main variety grown.
PLANTING.For planting an acre of potatoes, about 10 bushels of seed will be required. Potatoes are usually planted 12-14 inches apart in rows 3-3V2 feet apart.
MATURITY.Potatoes in fertile soil will mature in 70 to 90 days with average weather conditions.
YIELD.The twelve-year average yield, 1919-30, of Florida potatoes is 103 bushels per acre. The yield in the Hastings section will range higher, from 50 to 100 ban-els per acre, though the average normal yield per acre is around 45 barrels.
ACREAGE.The Florida potato acreage by principal producing sections for five seasons has been as follows:
1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30
South Florida ..... 4,915 5,400 7,000 4,640 4,800
North Florida..... 18,155 22,600 23,000 17,360 26,200
Hastings.......... 16,980 20,675 20,800 15,820 22,500
La Crosse ........ 500 1,525 1,850 1,190 3,200
West Florida...... 675 400 350 350 500
Total State ....... 23,070 28,000 30,000 22,000 31,000
COST.Exclusive of land cost, taxes, rental, etc., the cost of growing an acre of potatoes in Florida will range from $75-8100: cultivation, $15; seed, $25; fertilizer, $35; spraying, $5; miscellaneous, $5. Cost per barrel delivered shipping point, loaded cars, $2.50-$3.00: growing, Sl.50-S2.00; digging, 20c; barrel, 55c; packing, 10c; hauling, 10c.
CONTAINER.The principal container in Florida is the double-head barrel. Bushel hampers and crates are used for early potatoes to distant markets and for local markets, especially for Red Bliss. The sack in normal seasons has a comparatively limited use ainong Florida potato shippers.
PACKING.In packing potatoes the barrels should be shaken down several times while being filled. The pack should consist of potatoes of one variety, uniform in shape and size and be free from decay and damage. Round varieties should have a diameter of not less than 1-7/8 inches and long varieties 1-3/4 inches.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of potatoes of similar varietal characteristics which are not badly misshapen, which are free from freezing injury and soft rot, and from damage caused by dirt or other foreign matter, sunburn, second growth, growth cracks, hollow heart, cuts, scab, blight, dry rot, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.


The diameter of potatoes of round varieties shall be not less than 1-7/8 inches and of potatoes of long varieties 1-3/4 inches, but lots of potatoes which are not less than 1-1/2 inches in diameter and which meet the remaining requirements of this grade may be designated "U. S. No. 1, 1-1/2 inches minimum."
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 5 per cent, by weight, of any lot may be below the prescribed size. In addition, not more than 5 per cent, by weight, may be damaged by hollow heart, and not more than 6 per cent may be below the remaining requirements of this grade; but not to exceed one-sixth of this amount, or 1 per cent, shall be allowed for potatoes affected by soft rot.
CARLOT LOADING.Potatoes in barrels are loaded on the end or on the bilge. Loaded on end the barrels are placed 5 rows wide, 18-20 stacks long, 2 layers high. Loaded on bilge, 18-19 stacks long, 3 rows wide, 3 layers high. The range in number of barrels per carload is from 1G5 to 200, the average, 185. Bushel crates are loaded 23 stacks long, 6-7 rows wide, 3-5 layers high, double stripped. The range per carload is from 500-600 crates, average, 550. Potatoes from Florida are shipped under ventilation.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight rates for potatoes in ban-els, billing weight, 185 lbs. per barrel, and the rate per barrel from Hastings, Florida, to important destinations:
From Hastings, Fla. To Minimum carload Minimum carload charges Rate, based in cents per 100 lbs.
30,000 lbs. S20S.50 .69JI per 100 lbs.
30,000 lbs. 277.50 .9234 per 100 lbs.
30,000-lbs. 208.50 .6934 per 100 lbs.
30,000rlbs. 20S.50 .0934 per 100 lbs.
Pittsburgh............... 30,000-lbs. 235.50 .78 per 100 lbs.
30,000 lbs. 244.50 .8134 per 100 lbs.
Cincinnati............... 30,000 lbs. 169.50 .5634 per 100 lbs.
30,000 lbs. 244.50 .8134 per 100 lbs.
30.000 lbs. 244.50 SlH per100lbs.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida carlot season extends from January to July. April and May are the heaviest months, as will be noted in the following tabulation of monthlv shipments for the seasons 1927-28 through 1929-30:
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1927-28 ............ 46 57 143 1201 5895 365 10 7717
1928-29 ............ 5 37 1013 2932 1061 7 8 5063
1929-30 ............ 30 183 543 1906 2089 24 27 4802
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTSIn the period of the Florida season, March through June, new potatoes are offered on the markets in competition to Florida potatoes from Texas in March-June; Alabama, April-June; Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North and South Carolina, in May-June; and Virginia in June. Old stock from the nineteen surplus late producing and other late crop states is competitive to Florida stock throughout the season. The Florida


shipments are comparatively light by June and negligible in July, and as the season of new potatoes from the early states competitive to Florida fades out in June and July, movement begins from Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, and by July a number of additional states are shipping. The following arrangement of carlot shipments by months will show for three current seasons, the relationship of the Florida shipments to the competitive early states shipments, the late-producing states shipments and the total U. S. shipments:
Season 1927-28
State Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Alabama...................................... 934 2121 .....
Georgia....................................... 93 196 20
Louisiana...................................... 1167 488 .....
Mississippi.................................... 46 100 .....
North Carolina................................. 13 7623 1008
South Carolina................................. 1161 3438 .....
Texas ............................... 132 962 1326 893 .....
Virginia............................................ 8631 13913
Total Early Group .... 63 46 57 276 2204 11028 26351 21015
Total Late States..... 13632 20232 22856 23434 15051 12709 3324 33
Total United States ... 13695 20278 22913 23710 17255 23737 29675 21048
FLORIDA................. 46 57 143 1201 5895 365 10
Season 1928-29
Alabama................................. 12 1126 388 .....
Georgia....................................... 209 59 2
Louisiana ..................................... 751 256 .....
Mississippi.................................... 21 81 .....
North Carolina................................ 482 4857 466
South Carolina................................. 3146 641 .....
Texas ............................... 263 1260 440 668 .....
Virginia............................................ 10022 10489
Total Early Group .... 27 5 40 1282 4290 7346 19774 19419
Total Late States..... 13180 20015 20361 21679 15849 13012 5039 164
Total United States .... 13207 20020 20401 22961 20139 20358 24813 19583
FLORIDA ................. 5 37 1013 2932 1061 7 8
Season 1929-30
Alabama................................. 16 2559 128 .....
Georgia.................................. 3 369 180 13
Louisiana ................................ 2 1999 197 .....
Mississippi .................................... 70 38 .....
North Carolina............................ 1 189 6903 238
South Carolina................................. 3286 1195 .....
Texas .............................. 59 1880 2607 834 .....
Virginia ............................................ 7296 13209
Total Early Group..... 10 30 183 602 3813 14054 22294 22073
Total Late'States...... 14148 20272 19733 21504 15957 8689 2616 126
Total United States ... 14158 20302 19916 22106 19770 22743 24910 22199
FLORIDA ................ 30 183 543 1906 2089 24 27


DISTRIBUTION.New York City is the largest receiver of Florida potatoes and takes from 15-25% the Florida shipments with Philadelphia the second largest receiving market. Cleveland, Detroit, and Pittsburgh are important markets for Florida potatoes. The states of New York and Pennsylvania are the largest consumers of Florida potatoes, absorbing more than one-third the Florida crop. Extending over several seasons Ohio takes about b'i the Florida crop; Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, each takes about 3% the Florida shipments. About 75% the Florida shipments are destined to points north of Savannah, 12% to central states, and 5-10% to southern points. From March 15 to May 15, 1930, New York received 960 cars, Pennsylvania 934, Ohio 195, Maryland 163, New Jersey 142, Michigan 136.
MARKET PREFERENCESSince the Spaulding Rose is the principal Florida variety, it is well established among the trade and is the preferred variety from Florida, particularly for Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Hartford, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Providence, Utica, Washington, Wheeling, Wilkesbarrc, and the eastern markets in general; and in barrels in Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit. Toledo. Smaller markets using the Rose variety are Bluefield, Charleston, S. C, and W. Va., Columbia, Durham, Gastonia, Norfolk, Raleigh, in barrels, though in crate shipments they usually prefer the Red Bliss. Lynchburg, Richmond, Wilmington, Del., Winston-Salem, take the Rose in barrels to advantage. The Bliss variety is preferred especially when packed crates in Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Kansas City, St. Louis, and sell well in Chicago, Detroit, and most of the other central markets. The Florida markets and most of the other southern markets prefer the Bliss: Atlanta, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Louisville, Memphis, New Orleans, Savannah. The most desirable sizes are potatoes medium or medium to large in size.
TKKMIXAL MARKET PRICES.The price level of Florida potatoes for the main commercial movement in the period March-June inclusive, is highest in .March and early April, with the trend downward in May and June. In 1926-27 however, the May average was above that of April and this was again true in the 1928-29 season. The following weighted jobbing destination price average of Florida U. S. No. 1 Spaulding Rose potatoes in barrels will show the monthly price trend for several different seasons:
Season March A pril Mav June Season's \ \ er
1925-26 .... .... $.... $15.06 $10.59 $8.12 $11.87
1926-27 , 12.32 7.07 7.60 8.20
1927-28 12.10 11.30 5.15 '3.75 8.60
1928-29 9.01 6.92 6.99 7.75
1929-30 .... .... 9.65 8.06 7.31 8.66
The ratio of Florida prices per barrel to the total U. S. shipments is shown in the following tabulation by months:
Season March April May
17,255 23,737
Average Florida prices. . $12.10 $11.30 $ 5.15
1928-29Total U. S.............. 22,961 20,139 20,358
Average Florida prices.. $ 9.01 $ 6.92 S 6.99
1929-30Total U. S.............. 22,103 19,776 22,649
Average Florida prices.. $ 9.65 $ 8.06 $ 7.31


SWEET POTATOES
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-1930 Average, Was 83,002.066.67
LOCATION'.The counties of Washington, Jackson, Jefferson, Gadsden. Santa Rosa, Suwannee, and Marion, are the principal producing counties of sweet potatoes in Florida. In carlot shipments Escambia, Gadsden, Jefferson, and Okaloosa have been leading counties in current seasons.
VARIETIES.The Porto Rico is the principal variety grown in Florida. The Big Stem Jersey is also a popular early variety for shipments to the northern markets.
PLANTING.Set 15 inches apart in rows 4 feet apart, it will take 8,000 plants for an acre; 14-18 inches in drills 30 inches apart, 10,000 to 12,000 plants. To produce enough slips for an acre from the first pulling 6-8 bushels of seed is required, (1 bushel produces 800-1,000 plants); if two or three pullings are made, 3-4 bushels will be sufficient.
MATURITY.From 100 to 120 days will be required for maturity from the time of setting plants. Usually four to six weeks, occasionally eight, will be required for the plants to reach transplanting stage from the time seed are bedded.
YIELD.The twelve-year average yield 1919-1930 for the State is 92 bushels per acre. In leading sections a yield of 250 to 300 bushels is not uncommon, and from 100 to 150 bushels the average.
ACREAGE.Hie Florida sweet potato acreage for the past seven seasons is shown in the following:
Season Acreage
1924......... 25,000
1925......... 29,000
1926......... 28,000
1927......... 29,000
1928......... 28,000
1929......... 29,000
1930......... 28,000
COST.Exclusive of taxes, rental, or depreciation the cost of growing an acre of sweet potatoes will range from $35-45: cultivation $10-15, seed $10, fertilizer $15-20. Cost per bushel hamper delivered shipping point 50-60c: growing 25-30c, harvesting and packing 7c, hamper 15e, hauling 5c.
CONTAINERIn Florida the 100-pound sack is generally used. Results have been_fairly satisfactory because of the short distance the potatoes are usually shipped in sacks. Bulk loading is practiced to some extent in Florida, though this practice except for short hauls should not be followed. Both the bushel crate and hamper are used. Tariffs specify the bushel hamper and the 5-pcck crate.
PACKING.The pack should consist of sweet potatoes of one variety, which are sound, firm, uniform in size, and free from decay and damage. The sizes should run from 1 ?j to 3% inches in diameter, and the length be not less than 3 inches. The top layer of potatoes should always be representative of the entire pack. In facing, most of the potatoes should be placed with their longest diameter parallel to the sides of the crate with succeeding layers arranged to fill vacant spaces. In facing hampers, round stave baskets and barrels most of the potatoes should be placed at right angles to the rim of the container.


GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of sweet potatoes of similar varietal characteristics which are firm, not badly misshapen; which are free from black rot, decay, and freezing injury; and free from damage caused by dirt, secondary rootlets, bruises, cuts, scars, growth cracks, scald, scurf or other diseases, weevils or other insects, and by mechanical or other means. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, the diameter of each sweet potato shall not be less than l'1'i inches nor more than 3% inches, and the length shall not be less than 3 inches nor more than 10 inches, but the length may be less than 3 inches if the diameter is 2 inches or more.
TOLERANCES.In order to allow for variations other than size, incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by weight, of the sweet potatoes in any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed a total of 5 per cent, shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more than % of this amount, or 1 per cent, shall be allowed for sweet potatoes affected with soft rot. In addition, not more than 10 per cent, by weight, of the sweet potatoes in any lot may not meet the size requirements, but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5 per cent, shall be allowed for sweet potatoes which are below the minimum size requirements.
CARLOT LOADING.Bushel crates are loaded tops up full length of car, usually 22-23 stacks long, 6 rows wide and 4 layers high, each layer double stripped, ranging from 500-600 per carload. Bushel baskets are loaded tops up, 4 layers high (36-foot car), 6 rows wide, and 26 stacks long with each basket seated on the rim of two baskets underneath. In the 5-5 offset method they are loaded 5 wide. From 500 to 600 baskets arc loaded in the car. Hampers are loaded on ends, alternate hamper inverted or rows alternately inverted, 7 rows wide, full length of car, and 3 layers high; average load will range from 420 to 650 usually 560-600 per car. Tn bulk, false flooring and bedding material should be used as protection in cold weather and to prevent bruising. Shipped under ventilation.
RATES.The following table gives the rates on sweet potatoes in the containers mentioned for the carlot minimum shown, from Marianna, Florida, to Southern destinations. Rate based in cents per 100 lbs.
From Marianna, Florida To In Standard Bushel Crates. Min. Car 30,000 lbs. Per 100 lbs. In Bags, Barrels. Crates, or in Bulk. Min. Car 24.000 lbs. Per lOOJbs. In Standard Bags of 2% bushels or in Hulk. Min. Car 24,000 lbs. Per 100 lbs.
*.50
2SJ4
.48 .27"
Miami, Fla.................. 42^
.36
Minimum carload is 30,000 lbs. to Atlanta.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida shipping season begins in July with Porto Ricos and continues through December, with potatoes from banks or storage moving until April. The following table shows the Florida monthly carlot shipments for three current seasons:
Season July Aug;, Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Mny Juna
1927-28 ____ 49 37 13 11 12 13 8 3 7 4 2
1928-29 .... 27 11 3 2 4 8 9 3 2 10
1929-30 .... 57 4 3 6 9 S 11 4 9 2 2


A considerable volume of Porto Rico sweet potatoes move in less than carlots to markets inside the State by local freight and truck. Amount in carlot equivalents unknown and not included in the above.
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.The following states ship Porto Rican sweet potatoes in more or less the same season as Florida: Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas. The Yellow Jerseys do not move in heavy carlot volume from Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, and the Eastern Shore of Virginia, until August. The movement of Nancy Halls from Tennessee continues from August to July. The following record of carlot shipments by months for three current seasons from states competitive to Florida in shipping Porto Ricos or Yellow or Big Stem Jerseys and Nancy Halls from Tennessee, will present a closer study of the competition to Florida sweet potatoes:
Season 1927-28
Stale July Auk. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan Feb Mnr. Apr. May June
Alabama .. 231 280 12
Georgia ... 143 113 43 48 56 68 68 54 58 11
Louisiana 33 106 130 109 156 117 74 78 106 143 87
Mississippi 27 14 16 18 36 46 15
N. Carolina 9 431 112 66 52 147 181 192 245 151 73
S. Carolina 16 33 51 79 67
Texas ..... 59 175 195 153 96 192 147 174 72
Maryland .. 163 391 593 315 280 274 119 63 43 14
New Jersey 261 287 179 162 94 122 65 33
Virginia .. 674 2174 1903 1542 178 42 24 58 23
Tennessee 309 122 255 310 194 426 487 476 409 428 386 111
Total U. S. 823 2062 3815 3873 3215 2262 2232 1S77 1675 1085 587 226
FLORIDA 49 37 13 11 12 "l3 8 3 7 4 2
Season 1928-29
Alabama .. 165 180 .. .. 7
Georgia ... 26 so "a 8 19 27 24 12 16
Louisiana 39 129 97 111 107 73 51 75 111 136
Mississippi 6 12 7 23 18 28 19
N. Carolina 270 58 25 50 51 68 31 85 43
S. Carolina 25 23 35 21 16 54
Texas ..... 3i 44 89 103 72 99 106 80 48
Maryland .. 91 452 303 387 358 191 134 102 65 is
New Jersey 338 296 153 161 106 83 42 20
Virginia ... 859 2250 2060 1069 168 65 17 26 14
Tennessee 6 16 139 178 165 256 293 332 369 396 332 301
Total U. S. 243 1611 3594 3270 2589 2037 1615 1242 1204 923 660 414
FLORIDA 27 11 3 2 4 8 9 3 2 10
Season 1929-30
Alabama .. 325 177 19 8
Georgia ... 117 67 15 223 26 26 43 47 31 25
Louisiana 37 160 349 96 SO 142 115 D7 93 55 .'!
Mississippi 51 18 10 14 23 7!. 14
N. Carolina 13 122 48 85 26 47 61 9s 110 94 34
S. Carolina 26 51 97 60 56
Texas..... 17 40 61 123 170 178 75 67 10


Season 1929-30Continued
State July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
Maryland.. .. 56 189 -367 386 315 190 139 113 41 15 ..
New Jersey .. .. 237 333 145 136 79 60 42 13
Virginia..... 1173 2654 2172 968 121 43 32 53 19
Tennessee 133 75 259 313 388 424 393 389 563 483 261 99
TotalU. S. 687 1931 3965 3879 2783 2194 1843 1489 1453 904 419 116 FLORIDA 57 43698 11 4922..
DISTRIBUTION.The distribution of the Florida sweet potato crop begins with the heavy consumption on the farm. It has been estimated by authorities that from only 5 to 10 per cent the sweet potato crop in the southern states is shipped, with 20 per cent moving to nearby markets, about 10 per cent fed to livestock and 5 per cent saved for seed, and 25 per cent lost by freezing, disease, etc. This indicates that about one-third of the crop is consumed on the farm. This may be illustrated by a comparison with white potatoes: in the average acreage of Florida white and sweet potatoes from 1927 to 1930 there was a difference of only 250 acres, and the production average for sweet potatoes was 2,675,500 bushels per annum compared to 3,048,500 bushels white potatoesyet Florida annually shipped an average of 5,781 cars of white potatoes in these four seasons and only 141 cars of sweet potatoes. The following record of unloads for 1927, 1928, 1929 will show the distribution of about 50 per cent of the carlot shipments in these years: (Distribution of Florida Porto Rican potatoes among southern states is restricted due to not only local supplies of the Porto Rican potato in the southern states, but also because of the quarantine against Florida sweet potatoes in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee).
City 1927 1928 1929
Birmingham .......... 9 10 17
Chicago .............. 10 4 3
Cincinnati ............ 9 2 5
Cleveland ............. 9 5 9
Columbus............. 6 4 8
New York............. 7 4 6
Philadelphia .......... 7 1 5
'Jacksonville ........... 6 5 0
?Tampa ............... 21 11 2
"The decline in carlot unloads on these markets is chargeable to increased truck receipts.
MARKET PREFERENCES.The southern states produce, and their markets prefer, moist sugary varieties of potatoes, for instance, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North and South Carolina, Mississippi, Texas. Of the Florida varieties, therefore, in southern territories, the Porto Rican is decidedly the favorite. The Nancy Hall is of the southern varieties preferable west of the Mississippi river and in central and northern markets north of Tennessee and cast of the Mississippi river; in the eastern markets, north of Virginia and east of Ohio, the dry-fleshed Jersey is preferable.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.Since the largest proportion of the Florida Porto Ricos are used within the State, the following high and low monthly jobbing price ranges on the Jacksonville market for years 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, with Miami and Tampa included in 1930, will show the Florida larger market price trend, basis No. 1 potatoes in 100-lb. sacks except as noted:


9 ft
High. Range Date Low Range
$2.75-3.00 12-31 }1MM hi
2.75-3.00 l-J 2,25-2,50 !!
2,50-2,75 1-7 1,75-2,00 22-31
1,75-2,00 1- to
2- to 1-7
1-11 1,00-1,25 11-22
IJJI-Li.1
1,75-2,25 22-31 1,51-1,75 3-20
2,00-2,25 1-11 1,75-2,00 12-28
2,00-2,25 11-31 1,75-2,00
!l5 '8-13 210-250 22-25
28-30 2,25-2,50 2-
4.254.75 2841 2,25-2,75 2-17
4,50 1-7 3,50-3,75 22-30
3,75 2-4 2,00-2,50
2,00-2,50 1-9 1,75 20-3
20-31 1,75


June
Origin Date 1-12 18-17
Florida ii
Georgia
Georgia
Virginia Georgia
Georgia
ii
!l ii
rginia ii
ii
ii
ii
1
2-23 i
6-27
50-2.75
50
!>%
21-30 2.00-2,2;
2-8 21-2.50
0-11 2.00-2,25
2-15 2,25-2,50
6-23 1,75-2,25
7 -
8-10 -
1-2 1.50-1,75 6 1,00-1,75
2,75-3,00
2,50-2,75 2,50
1,75-2,00
1,25-1,37 1,50-1,75
August
Origin Dale Bushel Barrel
New Jersey 1-16 $8.00-3.50 -
17-22 3,25-3,75 -
ii 23-to 30 3,75-4,25 -
New Jersey 1 4,25-4,75 -
ii 2-8 4,50-5,00 -
ii 8-12 4,75-5,25 -
Florida ID 4.00
12 3,50
15 3,00-3,25 -
ii ii 17-18 in 2,75-2,00 -q nA
ii ill 20-24 U.UU 3,25
ii 30 2,25-2,75 -
ii st 31 2M50 -
Georgia 1 2,50-2,75 -
New Jersey 1-2 1,50-1,75 -
Georgia 6 2,15-2,50 -
ii 7-8 2,25-2,50 -
ii 11-13 2,00-2,50 -
5.00-5,50 Virginia Georgia
450-5,00 sen
HLn'ffi
2,00-2,38 2,00-2,15
m
Ml 2.00-2,25 23-24 -25 -
m in! m
0(t.
B Co
JH J,
.!>
C.
< a H
%
u n J too
ft 8, p
MU-7.UU 5,50-6,50 3.00-4.50
y p
,.0*3 -30
AS
tiH
2M0


TOMATOES
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $9,114,333.33
LOCATION.The leading tomato-producing counties of Florida are Dade (1st from 1922-23 through 1929-30); Manatee (2nd for the past four seasons); Broward (3rd for the past two seasons); and Marion, Palm Beach, Sumter.
VARIETIES.The principal commercial varieties grown in Florida are Livingston's Globe, Marglobe, Break o'Day.
PLANTING.From \i-Vi pound seed should produce enough plants for an acre. Set from 18-24 inches apart, rows 4 to 6 feet wide, from 3600 to 7000 plants per acre will be required.
MATURITY.From planting time until maturity the average period is from 90 to 100 days. Livingston's Globe, 95 to 100 days, Marglobe, 95-105 days, Break o'Day, 90-100 days.
YIELD.The twelve-year average, 1919-30, yield per acre of Florida tomatoes is 99 bushels, or about 132 crates. In leading sections the yield is from 200 to 250 crates.
ACREAGE.The total fall and spring Florida tomato acreage for the seasons 1924-25 through 1929-30 is as follows:
Season Acreage
1924-25............... 33,470
1925-26............... 20,700
1926-27............... 29,800
1927-28............... 29,260
1928-29............... 38,700
1929-30............... 31,260
COST.Exclusive of rental, taxes and depreciation, the growing cost for an acre of tomatoes will range from $90 to $120: cultivation, $30-$40; seed, $3; fertilizer, $50-$60; spraying, $5; miscellaneous, $5-$10. Cost per six-basket crate at loading station, $1.00-$1.30: growing, 40e-55c; picking, 8c-10c; container, 23c; grading, packing and loading, 25c-35c; hauling, 5c.
CONTAINER.The six-basket crate and the lug are the containers used in Florida. In the 1929-30 season the lug box was used almost exclusively.
PACKING.The usual pack and arrangement of various sizes is as follows: 72s, choice, placed flat, 2 layers, 3 and 3 along sides of baskets (12 per basket).
84s, choice, placed 6 flat, 3-3 bottom layer; 8 flat, 4-4 top layer (14 per basket).
96s, choice, placed 8 flat, 2 layers, 4-4 (16 per basket). 108s, fancy, placed 6 flat, 3-3 bottom layer; 12 edged 4-4-4 top layer (18 per basket).
120s, fancy, placed 8 flat, 4-4 bottom layer; 12 edged 4-4-4 top layer (20 per basket).
144s, fancy, placed 12 edged, 4-4-4 two layers (24 per basket). 180s, choice, placed 15 edged, 2 layers, 5-5-5 (30 per basket). 216s, placed 18 edged, 2 layers, 6-6-6 (36 per basket).
In lugs, fancy are generally same size as 120s-144s and are packed 6x6 and larger; choice, the same size as 180s, packed 6x7 and 7x7; 216s are smaller


packs. The lai-ge size packs are 4x4, 4x5, 5x5, 5x6, 6x6; medium size, 6x7, 6x6 top with 6x7 bottom, 7x7.
GRADEU. S. No. 1 shall consist of tomatoes of similar varietal characteristics which are mature but not overripe or soft; which are fairly well formed, fairly smooth, free from decay, freezing injury, and from damage caused by bruises, cuts, sunscalt, sunburn, puffiness, catfaces, growth cracks, scars, disease, insects, hail or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5 per cent, may be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more than one-fifth of this amount, or one per cent, may be allowed for decay.
MARKING FOR SIZE.The. minimum size, numerical count, or description of pack of the tomatoes in any package should be plainly stenciled or otherwise marked on the package.
When size has been specified, the following tolerance shall apply. In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing, not more than 10 per cent, by count, may vary from the size specified.
CARLOT LOADING.Tomatoes in crates are loaded in cars, tops up lengthwise the car, 7 rows wide, 16 stacks long, 4-5 layers high. The average range is from 420 to 448 crates, though loaded at times from 448 to 560 crates. Lugs range from 600 to 650, average 630 to the car, and are loaded 20-21 stacks long, 6 rows wide, 5 layers high, with each layer securely double stripped. Tomatoes are shipped mostly in ventilated refrigerator cars.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight charges for tomatoes in six-basket crates and lugs, billing weight crates, 48.6 lbs., lugs, 32.7 lbs., and the rate per crate and per lug from Miami, Florida, to important eastern and central markets. The express rates for 1. c. 1. shipments, rates based in cents per 100 lbs., are also given:
From Miami, Fla. To
Crates: Carload mill. Vent. 420 crates
Lugs: Carload min. 000 Ventilation
Minimum carload charges
Kate per crate
Minimum carload charges
Rate, based in cents per lug
Express charges.
rate based in cents per 100 lbs.
Billing weight six-basket crates 40 lbs.
Baltimore...
Boston.....
New York. Philadelphia Pittsburgh.. Chicago. . Cincinnati. Cleveland... Detroit.
8333.90 392.70 354.90 342.30 359.10 352.00 302.00 362.00 364.00
79^ .93J4
S4J4 SIM
85M .88 .7514 .90)4 .91
$357.00 420.00 381.00 366.00 384.00 396.00 339.00 10S.00 411.00
.59K
.70
03^
.61
.64
.66
.06V0
.68
.68^
S3.75 per 4.45 per 4.07 per 3.86 per 4.18 per 4 25 per 3.82 per 4.39 per 4.49 per
100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs. 100 lbs.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida carlot shipping season is the period November through June. The following table gives the monthly shipments for the seasons 1927-28 through 1929-30:
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1927-28 .. ..291 491 300 532 2102 3955 792 .. 8463 1928-29 .. ..392 586 1235 1589 1971 2036 125 .. 7934 1929-30 .. 4 47 177 638 1379 1481 2572 229 .. 6527


58
From
Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus
Fruits
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.The following States ship tomatoes in car-lots (luring the months of the Florida season as shown: In November, California and Texas; in May and June, California, Texas, and Mississippi; and in June, the additional States of Arkansas, Georgia, South Carolina and Tennessee. Cuba and Mexico are the chief competitors to Florida tomatoes by imports, the Mexican shipping season running from November to June, with February, March and April peak months. Cuba ships November to May; peak, December, January and February; January is the peak month for the Bahamas. The extent of the competition given Florida by these States and by imports by months can be determined from the following summary of carlot shipments for three seasons:
Season 1927-28
State Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June 166 242
California 694 214
46
3098
86
Tennessee........... Texas ............... 51 943 455 3096
Total U. S........... 769 291 491 300 532 2109 5117 8049
Imports Total ....... 871 136 636 50 1375 1 1526 313 12
Bermuda.......... Cuba .............. Mexico............ Porto Rico......... '292 443 '247 339 154 1220 "l9 1507 "'2 'sii 3 "9
Total Supplies....... 769 291 1362 936 1907 3635 5430 8061
FLORIDA E. C....... OTHER FLORIDA 250 41 480 11 297 3 532 1896 206 2476 1479 307 485
Season 1928-29
Arkansas.....
California ....
Georgia ......
Mississippi ... South Carolina Tennessee .... Texas........
857
37
Total U. S.
Imports Total
Bahamas ...
Bermuda ...
Cuba ......
Mexico.....
Porto Rico .. Total Supplies
FLORIDA E. C.......
OTHER FLORIDA ...
55
932 392 586 1235
73 1024 1172 1384
10 139 205 36
"21 387 413 256
41 497 554 1092
1 1
1005 1416 1758 2619
367 539 1210
25 47 25
139 931
805
25 780
1807
4614
733 "2
'731
92 922
5347
470 1566
98 204 44 3356 302 567 2933
7708
4
7712
1
124


Season 1929-30
State Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
Arkansas......................................... 118
California ............ 822 61 1 ........ 3 103 117
Georgia.......................................... 22
Mississippi................................... 154 3233
South Carolina.................................... 265
Tennessee........................................ 646
Texas................ 274 49 ............ 6 2922 3826
Total U. S............ 1122 175 178 638 1379 1490 5765 8590
Imports Total ........ 44 621 727 1338 2623 1424 272 ....
Bahamas............... 12 102 61 14 ............
Cuba .............. 39 476 237 101 59 22 ........
Mexico............. 4 130 384 1174 2550 1402 272 ....
Porto Rico.......... 1 3 4 2 ................
Total Supplies........ 1166 796 905 1976 4002 2914 6037 8590
FLORIDA E. C........ 4 45 137 591 1274 1113 825 9
OTHER FLORIDA........ 2 40 47 105 368 1747 220
The following report of carlot tomato imports into the United States for the past six seasons, November to June, will show the amount of seasonal import competition:
1924-25 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30
Bahama Islands ...... 190 274 313 381 390 189
Bermuda......................... 5 2 ----
Cuba................. 156 572 623 908 1241 934
Mexico ............... 2777 3020 4803 4133 4630 5916
Porto Rico.................... 13 1 2 10
Total ............ 3123 3866 5752 5428 6265 7049
DISTRIBUTION.New York City alone receives about 30% of the Florida tomato shipments, leading all other markets. Baltimore passed from fifth to second in rank from 1927-28 to 1929-30, Philadelphia ranking third in both these seasons and Boston fourth; Chicago dropped from second rank in 1927-28 to fifth in 1929-30; Pittsburgh ranked sixth in both seasons. In the 1929-30 season, movement to points west of the Mississippi river and to Canadian cities was limited, and in February and March very few cars were billed west of Pittsburgh. After the heavy movement of the Mexican crop, markets in the central States made possible a wider distribution during the latter part of the season. The following monthly carlot unloads of Florida tomatoes in the important markets were made in the seasons shown:
Season 1927-28
Market Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
Atlanta ...... 5 33 55 39 132
Baltimore .... 22 82 216 51 371
Boston....... 11 54 233 99 397
Chicago...... 33 123 277 41 474
Cincinnati .... 4 29 150 50 233
Cleveland .... 5 12 59 16 92
Detroit....... 3 21 152 22 198
Philadelphia . 15 79 306 60 460
Pittsburgh .... 13 50 174 94 331
St. Louis..... 7 70 7 00
Washington . 11 45 75 29 160
New York..... 127 342 1002 445 1916


Season 1928-29
Market Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
Atlanta....... 7 10 20 32 43 35 147
Baltimore ..... 46 67 85 94 117 154 31 594
6 25 67 87 98 153 43 479
63 65 53 126 96 135 1 539
15 29 26 33 31 53 2 189
Cleveland ..... 2 17 23 36 17 13 ... 108
3 16 12 36 21 45 133
New York 82 35 269 302 444 819 iii 2065
Philadelphia ... 36 :>,i 54 102 108 274 23 631
Pittsburgh 14 37 1 43 9 70 22 99 32 135 23 2 400 87
Washington ... 7 18 27 23 39 52 12 178
Season 1929-30
Atlanta ....... 2 6 11 20 39 25 6 109
3 28 71 121 130 164 58 575
Boston........ 4 15 45 71 96 210 91 532
15 22 22 41 99 86 10 295
2 12 15 35 55 33 20 172
Cleveland ..... 2 9 2 15 11 39
Detroit........ 4 1 1 1 51 50 "a 112
New York..... 31 204 337 390 988 303 2260
5 6 37 61 100 266 80 555
Pittsburgh 4 13 36 76 79 19 227
3 1 4 14 16 3 41
4 4 9 34 36 65 17 169
MARKET PREFERENCES.Of the Florida varieties Livingston's Globe is the most widely known among the trade, and most of the important northern and southern markets will handle this variety to good advantage. The following markets prefer Livingston's Globe, Marglobe, Stone, packed in six-basket crates, 120-144s, lugs 4x4, 5x5, 6x6: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Philadelphia, New York, Wilmington, Del. The following markets handle to advantage Livingston's Globe, and/or Marglobe and Stone: Buffalo, Gastonia, Hartford, Kansas City, Memphis, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Providence, Raleigh, St. Louis, Savannah, in six-basket crates mostly 144s, in lugs 6x6s and larger. The markets of Chattanooga, Cleveland, Indianapolis, Louisville, Lynchburg, Columbia. New Orleans, Richmond, Washington and Wheeling seem to prefer the Globe; Knoxville and Lexington the Stone. For a number of seasons considerable stock has been repacked on the markets of Chicago, Pittsburgh and St. Louis, but in the past two seasons this practice has developed until a large proportion of the Florida tomatoes are repacked, for instance, in Baltimore, Cincinnati, Detroit, Kansas City, New York, Philadelphia, Washington. In the Manatee section, 1930 season, the lug pack 6x7 and 7x7 was usually discounted heavily under the price for 6x6 and larger pack.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.In the 1925-26 and 1928-29 seasons the highest prices of Florida tomatoes were realized in March, April and May with the lowest prices prevailing in January and June and again in these two months in 1927-28. Both January and February were ranking months in the season 1926-27 and 1929-30 with March in the former and May in the latter season also high months; April and June in both seasons had the lowest prices. December, March and April were months of good prices in both 1927-28 and 1928-29. Latter May and June were consistently weak in all the above seasons due to the increase in domestic competition in these months. The following destination jobbing monthly price averages of No. 1 Florida tomatoes in six-


basket crates for five seasons will better illustrate the high and low price period:
Season's
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Aver.
1925-26... ..$... $ ... $4.62 $5.05 $5.78 $6.06 $6.22 $3.20 $5.23
1926-27... 6 59 5.77 4.43 2.88 3.06 2.76 4.40
1927-28 5.50 3.76 4.02 6.46 5.01 3.85 3.22 4.49
1928-29 4.20 4.85 2.80 3.25 4.00 5.50 4.15 3.50 4.05
1929-30... 5.25 4.76 3.47 3.32 4.52 1.93 4.01
The following data will illustrate the monthly average price changes of Florida tomatoes corresponding to the increase or decrease in the total of U. S. domestic and imported tomatoes for three current seasons:
Season Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1927-28- -Total U. S. and Imports. 1363 936 1907 3635 5430 8061
Average Florida prices.. .$3.76 $4.02 $6.46 $5.01 $3.85 $3.22
1928-29- Total U. S. and Imports. 1759 2619 2659 2806 5347 7691
Average Florida prices.. .$2.80 $3.25 $4.00 $5.50 $4.15 $3.50
1929-30- -Total U. S. and Imports. 905 1976 4002 2914 6037 8590
Average Florida prices. .$5.25 $4.76 $3.47 $3.32 $4.52 $1.93


WATERMELONS
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $2,342,816.67
LOCATION.In the seasons 1926-27 through 1929-30 Alachua, Lake, Gilchrist, Suwannee and Jackson have been the leading counties in watermelon shipments.
VARIETIES.The leading commercial variety in Florida is the Watson. The Stone Mountain is increasing in popularity.
PLANTING.From 1 to 2 pounds of seed per acre will be required, in planting watermelons. Planting distances vary, growers planting 8x8, 8x10, 10x10,10x12 feet, etc.
MATURITY.The average growing season is 80 days, or from 90 to 100 days.
YIELD.The twelve-year average yield 1919-30 of Florida watermelons is about 1 carload to every 3 acres. Best yields will produce a carload to every 2 acres.
ACREAGE.The Florida watermelon acreage for the past seven seasons has been as follows:
Season Acreage
1924......... 28,280
1925......... 22,100
1926......... 24,150
1927......... 29,420
1928......... 37,840
1929......... 40,400
1930......... 34,700
COST.Not including land cost, rent, taxes, or depreciation the growing cost per acre will range from $40-50: cultivation $15-20, seed $2, fertilizer $10-20, spraying $5, miscellaneous $5. Cost per car loading station $90-130: growing $65-95; harvesting, hauling and loading cars $25-35.
CONTAINER.With the exception of a very few early melons shipped by freight or express in barrel crates, watermelons are shipped bulk in carlots.
PACKING.Sizes of Florida melons range from 18 to 40 pounds, though nothing under 20-22 pounds should be shipped. Only watermelons of the same variety or having similar varietal characteristics should be loaded in the same car, and they should be uniform in size and mature and melons showing decay, sunburn or other damage should be discarded. The pack should not vary in size average more than 4 to 6 pounds. The floor of the car should be bedded with excelsior, about three bales per car, and the car lined to the full height of the load with heavy paper and the ends be cushioned with excelsior pads to the height of the load. The following grading, average weight and count per car is customary:
Loaded No. Melons per Car
Average Watsons Dixie Watsons Dixie
Size range in weight and Grays Belles and Grays Belles
18 lbs. 16 to 20 lbs. 5 deep 5 4 deep 1600 1350
20 18 to 22 4 1500 1200
22 20 to 24 *' 4 3 1150 1050
24 22 to 26 4 3 1050 1000
26 24 to 28 4 3 1000 920
28 26 to 30 -1 3 960 860
30 28 to 32 4 3 880 800
32 30 to 34 A o 11 1 840 7(50
34 32 to 36 4 3 800 720
36 34 to 38 4 3 720 680


GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of watermelons of similar varietal characteristics which are mature but not overripe, well formed, and free from decay, whiteheart, anthracnose and from damage caused by other disease, sunburn, insects, or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10%, by count, may be below the requirements of this grade but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay and not more than If, of the total tolerance or 2% may be badly misshapen or seriously damaged by any means.
SIZE.Where the size of watermelons is stated in terms of average weight. Unless otherwise specified, the melons in any lot averaging less than 30 pounds shall not vary more than 4 pounds below the stated average, and the melons in any lot averaging 30 pounds or more shall not vary more than 6 pounds below* the stated average. Size may also be stated in terms of minimum weight. In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing, not more than 5 per cent, by count, of the watermelons in any lot may be below the size requirements.
CARLOT LOADING.Watermelons are loaded in bulk in carlots and shipped under ventilation. A car of 25 pound average and over should be loaded only 4 deep, under 24 pound average may be loaded 4-5 deep. Watermelons are loaded evenly in rows end to end, running lengthwise the car. A 26 average would be loaded 21-22 stacks long, 11-12 or 12-12 rows wide and 4 layers high; 28 average 20-21 stacks long, 10-11 or 11-12 rows wide 4 layers high; 30 average 20 stacks long, 10-11 or 11 rows wide; 32 average 19-20 stacks long, 10-11 rows wide; 34 average 18-19 long, 10-11 rows wide, etc.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight charges for watermelons per carload, carlot minimum 24,000 lbs., from Leesburg, Florida to important eastern and central destinations:
From Leesburg, Florida To
Minimum carload
Minimum carload charges
Rate, based in cents per 100 lbs.
Baltimore..
Boston.....
New York. Philadelphia Pittsburgh. Chicago. . Cincinnati. Cleveland... Detroit.....
24,000 lbs. 24,000 lbs. 24,000 lbs. 24,000 lbs. 24,000 lbs. 24,000 lbs. 24,000 lbs. 21,000 lbs. 24,000 lbs.
S154.88 211.20 176.40 168.00 180.00 178.80 121.20 175.20 177.60
SvlVo per 100 lbs. .88 per 100 lbs. .73M per 100 lbs. .70 per 100 lbs. .75 per 100 lbs. .7414 per 100 lbs. .50J4 per 100 lbs. .73 per 100 lbs. .74 per 100 lbs.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida carlot shipping season is in the period May through July, with June the peak month, as will be noted in the following shipment report for three current seasons:
Season May June July Total
1927-28 .......... 272 5964 2942 9,178
1928-29 .......... 3355 6982 106 10,443
1929-30 .......... 269 6685 1596 8,550
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.Beginning in May and continuing through July, California and Texas are the main early competitors; in June and continuing through July, Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Mississippi, and South


Carolina are shipping; and in July Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri and Oklahoma are also shipping. To present a more specific view of the seasonal competition by months, the carlot shipments from these states together with the total U. S. and Florida shipments are given below:
Season 1928
State April May June July
2 510
40
57 26
2171 2482
81 12583
96
Mississippi ......
126
North Carolina...

South Carolina. .. 361 i
Texas ........... 2135 3072
Total U. S....... ...... 508 10410 24937
FLORIDA....... ...... 272 5964 2942
Season 1929
Alabama....... 230 303
205
"46 46
23 2032 2980
10606 9526
29
Mississippi...... "60 126
12
North Carolina... 140
8
South Carolina... '190 3125
Texas .......... ...... 120 1898 1678
Total U. S...... .. 36 3498 22047 18287
FLORIDA ...... .. 36 3355 6982 106
Season 1930
310 362
Arizona........ 51 23
135
California....... ...... 70 2852 2419
Georgia........ ...... .... 5212 15267

"46 "71
Missouri........ 293
North Carolina. 851
Oklahoma...... 45
South Carolina. 92 4221
...... 12 2221 2871
Total U. S............. 351 17470 28182
FLORIDA ............ 269 6685 1596


DISTRIBUTIONThere are between 15 and 20 markets that receive more than 100 cars each of Florida watermelons, of which New York City is the largest consumer, handling from 10% to 15% the total Florida crop. The distribution is more widespread, however, than is true for several other Florida products. In the seasons of 1927,1928, and 1929 the markets of Baltimore, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh received an average of about 23% of Florida shipments each season; the central markets of Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, and St. Louis received an average of about 19%. The southern markets of Jacksonville, Memphis, and New Orleans will together average more than 500 cars each season.
MARKET PREFERENCES.The Watson has for a number of years been the leading Florida commercial variety and being well established in trade circles will sell well on practically all markets. The Dixie Belle has gained rapidly in popularity the past two seasons in not only southern but in the eastern and midde western markets. Watson seems to be the preferred variety in Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Lexington, New York, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Providence, St. Louis, Toledo, Utica, Washington, Wilkesbarre. Other varieties sell to advantage on many of these markets, for instance the Irish Gray in Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Toledo, Utica. The Dixie Belle might also be mentioned for Baltimore, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, Detroit, Pittsburgh and has the preference on the southern markets of Atlanta, Charleston, W. Va., Knoxville, Savannah, Wheeling, and shares preference with the Watson on several other markets. Birmingham, Bluefield, Charleston, Gastonia, Louisville, Lynchburg, Memphis, New Orleans, Raleigh, Richmond, Winston-Salem usually prefer Watsons. The preferred average weight for the southern markets is 26s to 30s, while most of the northern markets prefer 28s to 32s, handling lower averages of 24s and 26s and up to 40s to good advantage.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.Florida with very limited competition in May needs only favorable weather conditions to realize high market prices for watermelons. Watermelons move best in warm weather but May is the month of highest prices, with June next. The lowest prices are had in July. The seasonal destination jobbing price averages for Watson melons from Florida has for current seasons been as follows: 1927 $532.00; 1928 8489; 1929 $465.00; 1930 $477.00. The average price of Florida watermelons for June in proportion to the total U. S. shipments is shown for the following seasons: 1927 S475.00, total U. S. shipments June, 15,255; 1929 $489.00, total U. S. shipments June, 10,410; 1929 $410.00, total U. S. shipments in June, 22,047; 1930 $610.00, total U. S. shipments in Juno, 17,470.




PART II. COMMODITIES
Oranges, Tangerines included ..................................... 69
Grapefruit....................................................... Hi
Pineapples ...................................................... 88
Strawberries .................................................... 90
MARGINAL ABSTRACT
Location ................................................. 69,81,88,90
Varieties ................................................ 69,81,88,90
Planting ................................................. 69,81,88,90
Maturity................................................. 69,81,88,90
Yield .................................................... 70,81,88,90
Acreage ................................................. 70,81, .. 90
Cost ..................................................... 70,81,88,90
Container ................................................ 70,81,88,90
Packing.................................................. 70,82,88,90
Grade ................................................... 71,82,89,90
Carlot Loading ........................................... 72,82,89,91
Rates .................................................... 72,82,89,91
Florida Shipments......................................... 73,82,89,92
Competitive Shipments .................................... 73,83, 89, 92
Distribution .............................................. 75,84,89,93
Exports (Citrus) ......................................... 78,85,.. ..
Market Preferences.............................................93
Terminal Market Prices ................................... 79,87,89,91




OKANGES
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $21,344,583.33
LOCATION'.Polk, Orange and Lake have, in the order named, been the three ranking counties in Florida carlot orange shipments, in the seasons 1923-2-1 through 1929-30, except in 192-1-25 Polk ranked second to Orange. The normal carlot shipping capacity of individual loading stations was affected in the 1929-30 season by Mediterranean Fruit Fly Regulations, except for which season Orlando for the past seven seasons ranked first in carlot shipments from individual Florida loading stations. The five ranking counties together with the five ranking individual loading stations are given in order in the following table, for seven current seasons:
First Second Third Fourth Fifth
1923-2-1 I County Polk .........Orange........Lake.......Hillsborough .DeSoto
j Station .Orlando ......Arcadia .......Plant City.. .Lakeland ____Eustis
192-l-9i> County I Station
Orange.......Polk .....
Orlando ......Plant City
.T,akc.......Hillsborough .Volusia
.Eustis......Arcadia......Leesburg
1925-26 f County ..Polk .........Orange........Lake.......Volusia
I Station .Orlando ......Wauchula......Plant City ..DeLand
... Hardee ... Arcadia
1920-27 (County Polk .........Orange........Lake.......Volusia......Hillsborough
(Station Orlando ......Plant City.....DeLand.....Wauchula____Leesburg
1927-28 I County Polk .........Orange........Lake.......Volusia......Brevard
( Station Unavailable.......................................................
1928-291 County .Polk .........Orange........Lake .......Volusia......Marion
(Station ..Orlando ......Winter Garden .DeLand.....Eustis.......Winter Haven
1929-30 I County Polk..........Orange........Lake .......Hillsborough Pinellas
| Station ..Winter Haven. Winter Garden Auburndale .Frostproof .. .Florence Villa
In tangerine shipments, the ranking counties are Polk, Orange, and Volusia. Orlando, DeLand and Winter Haven are among the largest individual loading stations.
VARIETIES.The principal commercial varieties of oranges produced in Florida are: EarlyParson Brown, Hamlin, Satsuma; mid-seasonSeedlings, Pineapple, Jaffa, llomosassa, Ruby, Dancy Tangerine; lateValencia, Lue Gim Gong, King. Dancy's Tangerine is the principal tangerine variety grown commercially in Florida.
PLANTING.The planting distance varies, but is usually 25x25, 25x30, or 30x30 feet. Planted 30x30, the number of trees per acre will range from -1-1-18, 25x25 from 64-70 trees per acre.
MATURITY.About 5 years will be required to bring the citrus grove to bearing age. For maturity of the seasonal crop, from 7-10 months will be


required from the bloom stage to the picking of fruit. The bloom disappears and the fruit is set March 1st to April 1st. Parson Brown ripens October 20th, will remain on trees until January; Homosassa ripens November 25th, will remain on trees until January 15th; Pineapple ripens December 10th, will remain on trees until February; Ruby ripens December 15th, will remain on trees until March; Valencia ripens March 10th to June; Lue Gim Gong ripens March, will remain on trees until April-June; King ripens February 1st to April 30th.
YIELD.The average annual production for the State for twelve years, 1919-30, was 9,766,667 boxes. The average yield for good mature trees will range from 3-5 boxes or 175-225 boxes per acre. Many growers get a much higher average while the State's average yield would not be more than 2 boxes per tree.
ACREAGE.According to a report of the State Plant Board made July 1st, 1928, based on actual inspections, there were 10,846,932 trees of bearing age and 2,813,529 non-bearing, total 13,660,461, or about 62% of the total citrus trees of the State. Allowing 70 trees per acre, there would be 154,956 acres in bearing, 40,191 acres non-bearing, total acreage of oranges for the State 195,147. An estimate by Mr. E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citriculturist, placed the number of orange trees in the State January 1st, 1931, at 16,666,666, about 14,000,000 bearing, 2,666,666 non-bearing. This would indicate an acreage in bearing of 200,000 and 38,095 acres non-bearing in Florida. The July 1st, 1928, report of the State Plant Board showed 1,677,042 tangerine trees of which 1,149,490 were bearing and 527,552 non-bearing, representing about 8% the total citrus trees for the State. Allowing 70 trees per acre, this would represent 16,422 acres in bearing and 7,536 acres non-bearing.
COST.The cost of production on the tree, not including taxes, interest, depreciation, for an individual season's crop is about 75c per box, ranging from 60-90c per box. Cost per box delivered loading station is SI.65-1.70: growing 75c, picking 10c, hauling 8-10c, packing house charges 70-75c (principal itemsbox 22c, material 10c, packing 7c, miscellaneous 32-35c). If precooled, from 10-12c per box should be added. For agency marketing cost about 25c should be added,selling and brokerage 15c, advertising, financing, assessments, Clearing House, 10-I2c. The cost of growing tangerines is about 82c per strap. Cost delivered loading station $2.22: growing 82c, picking 20c, hauling 10c, packing $1.10.
CONTAINER.The standard container for oranges in Florida is the box 12x12x24 inches. For tangerines, 6x12x24 inches.
PACKING.Official U. S. and Florida grades provide for the standard pack that fruit shall be arranged in boxes according to the approved and recognized methods. The fruit shall be tightly packed and the wrap show at least one-half twist. Each fruit shall be enclosed in its individual wrapper, except that in packs of oranges of a size 250 and smaller only fruit in the top and bottom layers and fruit exposed at the sides of the box shall be required to be wrapped. Each box of oranges shall show a minimum bulge of lyi inches. Boxes of tangerines shall show a minimum bulge of s,i inches.
The following table shows the number, size, and arrangement of oranges in the box for the packs used in Florida:
96s, diameter 3 1/2 inches, 4 layers, 12 each
112s, diameter 3 1/4 inches, 4 layers, 14 each
126s, diameter 3 1/8 inches, 5 layers, 13 each in 1-3-5, 12 each in 2-4
150s, diameter 3 1/16 inches, 5 layers, 15 each
176s, diameter 2 15/16 inches, 5 lavers, 18 each in 1-3-5, 17 each in 2-4
200s, diameter 2 13/16 inches, 5 layers, 20 each


216s, diameter 2 11/16 inches, 6 layers, 18 each
226s, diameter 2 9/16 inches, 5 layers, 23 each in 1-3-5, 22 each in 2-4 252s, diameter 2 7/16 inches, 6 layers, 21 each
The Florida pack for tangerines is as follows:
48s, 3% inches diameter; 2 layers of 12 each
60s, 8% inches diameter; 3 layers of 10 each
76s, 314 inches diameter; 3 layers, 13 each in 1-3, 12 in 2
90s, 3 inches diameter; 3 layers of 15 each
120s, 2% inches diameter; 3 layers of 20 each
144s, 2% inches diameter; 4 layers of 18 each
168s, 2v2 inches diameter; 4 layers of 21 each
216s, 2\'i inches diameter; 4 layers of 27 each
GRADEU. S. Fancy shall consist of citrus fruits of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, well colored, firm, well formed, smooth, thin skinned, free from decay, bruises, buckskin, creasing, scab, ammoniation, sprayburn, cuts which are not healed; from injury by black or unsightly discoloration scars, scale, thorns, or green spots, and from damage caused by dirt or other foreign materials, sprouting, dryness, limb rubs, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In this grade not more than 20 per cent of the surface of each fruit may show light discoloration.
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of citrus fruits of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, fairly well colored, firm, well formed, fairly smooth, fairly thin skinned, free from decay, bruises, buckskin, creasing, sprayburn, cuts which are not healed, and from damage caused by black or unsightly discoloration, scab, ammoniation, scars, scale, thorn scratches, green spots, dirt or other foreign materials, sprouting, dryness, limb rubs, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In this grade (except when designated U. S. No. 1 Russet) not more than 75 per cent of the surface of each fruit may show light discoloration.
In addition to the statement of grade any lot may be further classified as Bright, or Russet, as hereinafter defined, provided; that any lot of fruit classified as Russet must have not less than 40 per cent, by count, of the fruit showing more than 75 per cent light discoloration.
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of citrus fruits of similar varietal characteristics which are mature, which may be only slightly colored, fairly firm, slightly misshapen and slightly rough but which are free from decay, bruises, cuts which are not healed, and from serious damage caused by buckskin, creasing, scab, ammoniation, sprayburn. black or unsightly discoloration, scars, scale, thorn scratches, green spots, dirt or other foreign materials, sprouting, dryness, limb rubs, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In addition to the statement of grade any lot may be further classified as Russet, as hereinafter defined, provided; that any lot of fruit classified as Russet must have not less than 40 per cent, by count, of the fruit showing more than 75 per cent light discoloration.
Unclassified shall consist of citrus fruits which are not graded in conformity with the foregoing grades.
COLOR CLASSIFICATION: Any lot of fruit may be classified according to the amount of discoloration as follows: Bright, when the surface of the fruit shows not more than 20 per cent light discoloration. Russet, when the surface of the fruit shows more than 75 per cent light discoloration and meets the specified grade requirements in other respects.
TOLERANCES: In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling in each of the foregoing grades, the following tolerances will be permitted in the grades as specified:


U. S. Fancy Grade. Not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade but not to exceed one-fourth of this amount or 2v2 per cent, shall be allowed for injury by black or unsightly discoloration and not more than one-twentieth of this tolerance or vz of one per cent shall be allowed for decay* but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for worms or worm holes.
U. S. No. 1 Bright Grade. Not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade but not to exceed one-fourth of this amount, or 2M> per cent, shall be allowed for damage by black or unsightly discoloration and not more than one-twentieth of this tolerance, or % of 1 per cent, shall be allowed for decay* but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for worms or worm holes.
U. S. No. 1 Grade. Not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade other than for discoloration, and not more than one-twentieth of this amount or y> of one per cent, shall be allowed for decay* but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for worms or worm holes. In addition, not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may not meet the requirements relating to discoloration but not to exceed one-fourth of this amount or 2U> per cent, shall be allowed for damage by black or unsightly discoloration.
U. S. No. 1 Russet, U. S. No. 2, and U. S. No. 2 Russet Grades. Not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of any of these grades, and not more than one-twentieth of this amount or Vi of one per cent, shall be allowed for decay* but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for worms or worm holes.**
CARLOT LOADING.Oranges in boxes are loaded in the cars on end, tops facing center of car, 30 stacks long, 6 rows wide, two layers high, double stripped, or bottom layer double stripped and top layer single stripped. The average number of boxes per car is 360. Oranges move in carlots under refrigeration, shippers initial icing, precooled, in ventilated refrigerators, and a very limited amount in ventilated box cars. Tangerines in straps are loaded in the car on end, tops facing center, 30-31 stacks long, 6 double or 12 half straps wide, 2 layers high, properly stripped. To indicate the type of transportation service used by Florida orange shippers, the following table has been prepared showing the percentage of each season's crop classified according to the method used:
Vciitilntcd Ventilated
Season Refrigeration Prccool Shippers ice rcfriccrators box
1924-25 ......... 49% 10% 4% 31 6%
1925-26 ......... 56% 13% 4% 24% 3%
1926-27 ......... 46% 12% 8% 31% 3%
1927-28 ......... 56% 11% 12% 19% 2%
1928-29 ......... 48% 13% 16% 21% 2%
1929-30 ......... 48% 20% 20% 127c
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carlot freight and refrigeration charges on citrus fruits in boxes, billing weight 90 lbs., and the rate per
Decay, or other deterioration developing in transit on citrus fruits otherwise up to srada shall be considered as affecting tho condition and not the grade.


box from Orlando, Florida, to important eastern and central markets. Express charges for l.c.l. shipments are also given:
From Orlando, Fla. To Minimum carload .Minimum carload charges Rate, based in cents per 100 lbs. Standard refrigeration charges per carload Express rate, based in cents per 100 lbs. liilliug weight, 80 lbs., per box.
Baltimore... 32.400 lbs. S311.04 S .96 100 lbs. S60.00 $2.94 per 100 lbs.
Hoston..... 32,400 lbs. 309.36 1.14100 lbs. 65.50 3.57 per 100 lbs.
.New York. 32,400 lbs. 336.96 1.04 100 lbs. 60.00 3.30 per 100 lbs.
Philadelphia. 32,400 lbs. 320.76 .99 100 lbs. 60.00 3.15 per 100 lbs.
Pittsburgh.. 32,400 lbs. 343.44 1.06 100 lbs. 76.50 3.30 per 100 lbs.
Chicago. . 32,400 lbs. 353.16 1.09 100 lbs. 76.50 3.35 per 100 lbs.
Cincinnati... 32,400 lbs. 304.56 .94 100 lbs. 70.00 3.15 per 100 lbs.
Cleveland... 32,400 lbs. 349.92 1.08 100 lbs. 76.50 3.45 per 100 lbs.
Detroit 32,400 lbs. 353.16 1.09 100*lbs. 81.00 3.62 per 100 lbs.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida commercial shipping season begins in September and continues through June. The following report shows the Florida carlot shipments of oranges, tangerines included except segregated 1929-30, by months, for the past eleven seasons:
Season Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Total
1910-20........ 491 1527 4088 3395 2536 1771 671 306 16 .. .. 14,701
1920-21........ 487 3695 4001 3870 3352 2832 1981 620 21 .. .. 20,859
1921-22...... 3 491 2097 4131 2901 2750 1804 1086 413 41 1 .. 15,718
1922-23...... 78 1254 2723 4890 4139 3854 2713 1798 1231 309 13 4 23.006
1923-24...... 23 1091 6173 5175 4217 4653 5428 4222 1973 467 8 1 33.431
1924-25........ 245 4269 5749 5266 4220 2664 1682 867 129 1 .. 25.091
1925-26........ 447 2969 4061 3153 3005 2778 2545 692 76 .. .. 19.625
1926-27........ 525 3073 5225 3790 3954 2759 2212 821 162 13 2 22,536
1927-28...... 6 834 2953 4174 3145 1987 1867 1049 410 27 1 .. 16.463
1928-29...... 5 890 3735 5025 5390 4826 4466 4452 2977 762 16 6 32.660
1929-30...... 5 275 2312 3960 3867 3499 2596 789 6 3 .. .. 17.312
TANGERINES
1929-30........ 9 195 396 222 19 2 .......... 843
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.The following states have shipping seasons in the same period as Florida: Alabama and Mississippi in October, November, December; Louisiana, Arizona, and Texas in October through February; California, in November through October (Navels November to May, Va-lencias May to October). The following record of carlot shipments by months will show the extent of competition given to Florida oranges, by domestic shipments and imports:
1920-21 Season
State Sept Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aufj.
Alabama ................. 43 44 ................................
Arizona .............. S 38 5 .................... 1 ........
California ........ 1341 685 1907 3189 3459 3801 5614 6143 5748 6411 3205 2992
FLORIDA............ 487 3695 4001 3870 3352 2832 1981 620 21 ........
U. S. Totals...... 1341 1177 5683 7539 7329 7153 8446 8124 6368 6433 3206 2992


7 ;_From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits
1 "121-22 Season
State Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug.
Alabama.............. 21 89 35 ................................
Arizona .............. 4 44 24 1 4 ____ 1 ................
California ........ 2477 259S 1792 3538 3567 1732 4222 3153 3106 2006 1536 121.
FLORIDA ........ 3 491 2097 4131 29C1 2750 1804 1086 413 41 1 ----
U. S. Totals...... 2480 3114 4022 7728 6469 44S6 6026 4240 3519 2047 1537 1212
1922-23 Season
Alabama ......... 5 32 290 HO ................................
Arizona .................. 44 26 1 ............................
California ........ 1084 1428 1976 3600 3535 4322 5734 5532 6664 5080 3920 298S
Missi ippi ................ S 1 ................................
FLORIDA ....... 78 1254 2723 4890 4139 3854 2713 1798 1231 309 13 4
U. S. Totals...... 1167 2714 5011 8666 7675 8176 8447 7330 7895 53S9 3933 2992
1923-24 Season
Alabama ............. 4 320 276 ................................
Arizona .............. 4 70 16 2 ............ 2 ............
California ........ 2819 2176 3103 4081 3315 4321 3863 5595 4724 5322 3154 2716
Mississippi ............... 12 1 ................................
Louisiana......................... 1 2 ........................
Texas............................ 3 ............................
FLORIDA ....... 23 1091 6173 5175 1217 4653 5428 4222 1973 467 8 1
U. S. Totals ...... 2842 3275 9678 9549 7538 8976 9291 9817 6699 57S9 3162 2717
1924-25 Season
Alabama ......................... 1 1 ........................
Arizona .............. 1 38 5 ........................ 1 ....
California ....... 2604 2107 4201 3042 3116 2377 4370 3917 3941 3287 2029 1740
Louisiana................. 2 ....................................
Texas ................... 1 l ........ 1 ....................
FLORIDA............ 215 4269 57 19 5265 4220 2664 1682 867 129 1 ____
Imports:
Cuba ......................... 5 ................................
Porto Rico................ 151 75 40 35 71 42 15 4 ____ 0
Total Imports............. 151 80 40 35 71 42 15 4 ____ 5
U. S. Totals...... 2604 2353 8511 .8797 83S2 6598 7035 5599 4808 3416 2031 1740
Total Supplies ____ 2604 2353 S662 SS77 S422 6633 7106 5641 4823 3420 2031 1745
1925-26 Season
Alabama ............. 18 285 35 ................................
Arizona .............. 7 66 19 3 ........ I ................
California ........ 1726 693 3695 3735 33S1 3238 5126 5552 5091 410S 4163 3210
Mississippi ................ 2 6 ................................
Louiitiana................. 1 ....................................
Texas .................... 5 1 ................................
FLORIDA............ 447 2969 4061 3153 3005 2778 2545 592 75 ........
Imports:
Mexico ................... 7 5 .1 fi 7 9 6 2 ........
Porto Rico ....... 11 173 246 244 40 108 240 55 25 ........ I
Total Imports .... II 173 253 249 43 114 247 64 31 2 ____ 1
U. S. Totals...... 1726 1165 7023 7877 6537 6243 7904 S098 5683 41S3 4163 3210
Total Supplies____ 1737 133S 7276 8126 65S0 6357 SI51 8162 5714 4185 4163 3211
1926-27 Season
Alabama ................. 110 69 ................................
Arizonn .................. 52 19 1 ................ 1 ........
California ........ 3044 2654 3102 4562 41S6 3646 6231 7084 6351 5005 4071 3664
Mississippi ............... 2 2 ................................
Loui*iana ................ 1 ....................................
Texas ................ 4 2 ____ 1 2 ........................
FLORIDA............ 525 3073 5225 3790 3954 2759 2212 821 162 13 2
Import!:
Mexico ................... G 3 2 I 4 7 I ............
Porto Rico........ I 107 177 82 18 61 115 157 42 2 ____ 1
Total Imports ..... 4 107 182 85 20 65 119 164 43 2 ____ 1
L*. S. Totals...... 3044 3183 6342 9877 7973 7602 8990 9296 7172 5168 4084 3666
Total Supplies ---- 3048 3290 6524 9962 7998 7667 9109 9460 7215 5170 4084 3667


From Field to Market With Florida Yef/etuldcs and Citrus Fruits_75
1927-28 Season
State Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Auk.
Alabama ........... 90 20.'! 10 ................................
Arizona ................. 2-1 9 ................................
California ........ 3259 2350 1468 5676 3199 1076 5129 5180 51 11 2868 3063 2812
Mississippi ............ 1 14 ....................................
Louisiana ............ 18 85 86 49 13 ........................
Texas ................ 3 4 7 3 II .......................
FLORIDA ........ 0 834 2953 4174 3145 1987 1867 1049 410 27 1 ....
Imports I
Mexico ................... 6 5 ................................
Porto Itico ....... 2S 301 87 129 116 329 296 160 40 1 .... 1
Total Imports ____ 28 301 93 134 116 329 296 160 40 1 ---- 1
U. S. Totals ____ 3265 3296 4751 9971 6396 60S5 7296 6229 5551 2895 3064 2812
Total Supplies____ 3293 3597 4844 10105 6512 6414 7392 6389 6594 2S96 3064 28IS
15128-29 Season
Alabama ................'. 95 2 ................................
Arizona .............. 2 43 19 2 ............................
California ........ 2787 1991 4628 4690 5402 4623 5897 6861 7567 7515 5565 6126
Mississippi ................ 5 ....................................
Louisiana ............ 8 67 97 58 34 ........................
Texas ................ 11 7 g 5 3 2 ....................
FLORIDA ........ 5 890 3735 5025 5390 4826 4466 4452 2977 762 16 6
Import*!
Cuba................................. 1 ........................
Porto HI ........ 11; 16 IE 9 8 1 ........................
Total Imports..... Ill 16 15 3 8 2 ........................
U. S. Totals ...... 2792 2902 8580 9838 10857 9186 10365 11313 10514 8277 5581 6132
Total Supplies---- 2808 2918 8595 9841 10S65 9488 10365 11313 10544 S277 55S1 6132
1929-30 Season
Alabama ............. 102 312 71 ...............................
Arizona .................. 31 39 12 1 3 4 ................
California ........ 4674 5219 3730 4325 2612 3369 4627 5928 4625 3187 3676 3071
Mississippi ........... 5 18 2 ................................
Louisiana ............ 7 97 116 52 6 ........................
Texas ................ 2 31 41 69 13 ........................
FLORIDA ........ 5 275 2312 3960 3867 3499 259C 789 6 3 ........
Import*:*
Cuba.................................. 2 ........ 9 13 ........
Porto Rico............ 21 73 81 133 169 80 57 8 ............
Total Imports......... 21 73 81 133 171 80 57 17 13 ........
Total II. S........ 4679 5610 6531 8554 6612 6878 7226 6721 4631 3190 3676 3071
Total Supplies .... 4679 5661 6601 8635 6745 7049 7306 6778 4618 3203 3675 3071
1930. subject to revision.
DISTRIBUTIONIn the seasons 1924-25 through 1929-30, New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, were in the order named the largest receivers of Florida oranges, except in the seasons 1926-27 and 1927-28, when Ohio ranked third. The states of New Y'ork, Pennsylvania. Massachusetts and Marvland received about one-half the total Florida carlot orange shipments as will be noted: 1924-25 and 1925-26, 50%; 1926-27. 48%; 1927-28, 46tf : 1928-29, 53%; 1929-30, 59%. The following report will show in more detail the distribution of Florida oranges among the different states for the past six seasons:
States 1929-30 1928-29 1927-28 1926-27* 1925-26* 1921-2;
Alabama........ 288 867 439 638 623 688
Arkansas....... 9 20 42 43 129
Colorado ........ 3 5 11
Connecticut..... 442 553 266 239 .382 517
Delaware ....... 46 15 19 CO 20 33
Dist. of Columbia. 386 536 289 349 317 286


Stall's 1929-30 1928-29
42 101
357 V.
763 1139
264 392
12 12
4 11
Kentucky ...... 365 .Mil
96 334
57 74
Maryland ...... 836 1192
Massachusetts .. 1220 1703
Michigan ....... 272 315
43 19
106 Kifi
153 299
Montana ....... 3 2
Nebraska....... 3 6
New Hampshire. 6 19
New Jersey..... 214 161
4893 6578
North Carolina .. 317 819
Ohio........... 816 1339
Oklahoma...... 2
Pennsylvania ... '. 2763 4332
Rhode Island 163 273
South Carolina 189 698
2 2
306 1142
112
Utah ...........
Vermont........ 25 "26
Virginia ........ 567 1090
Washington..... .....
West Virginia ... 78 144
Wisconsin...... 42 39
Canada ....... 125 90
Total........... 16273 26106
1927-28 1926-27' 1925-26* 1921-25*
58 62 148 99
825 1509 1332 1005
525 543 878 1063
l.v. 263 289 368
26 17 24 52
10 4 19
'255 396 258 313
183 176 139 255
31 43 53 85
556 684 751 664
poo 1244 1481 1712
231 317 310 176
20 31 9 :;s
109 190 238 272
205 211 309 266
6 2 1
7 7 4 9
3 3 4 32
60 43 67 100
2866 4026 4646 4505
468 453 583 430
1164 1536 1325 1419
4 4 10
1781 2893 2880 2723
118 194 188 210
456 O 613 565 291
51G '700 730 443
54 58 59 114
3
*8 "n 9 13
273 506 595 515
54 127 i 18 113
40 55 53 62
189 113 59 194
13226 18369 19488 19239
?NoteThe 1924-25, 1925-26 and 1920-27 seasons include straight cars of tangerines.
The largest consumer of Florida tangerines is New York, taking about one-third the Florida carlot shipments. Pennsylvania is the next largest receiver, with Maryland, Massachusetts, Illinois and Ohio also being important territory for Florida tangerines. The states of Maryland, Massachusetts. New York, Pennsylvania and Washington, D. C, take about 75% of the Florida tangerines. The following table will show the Florida distribution for three seasons:


Recapitulation of Distribution of Florida Tangerines by States Past 3 Seasons
States 1929-30 1928-29 1927-28
Alabama........................... 1
Connecticut.......................... 18 33 3
Dist of Columbia.................... 15 20 10
Florida ............................... 1
Georgia................................ 8
Illinois.............................. 37 121 30
Indiana ............................. 3 2
Kentucky............................ 8 5 4
Louisiana .............................. '
Maine .................................
Maryland............................ 37 127 52
Massachusetts ....................... 55 137 33
Michigan........................... 16 56 10
Minnesota.............................. 2 1
Missouri ............................ 2 9 6
Nebraska...............................
New York........................... 359 572 273
North Carolina.......................... 10
Ohio................................ 39 150 65
Pennsylvania ........................ 183 430 165
Rhode Island........................ 11 16 4
South Carolina......................... 34 24
Tennessee........................... 1 13 3
Texas .................................. 1
Virginia............................. 5 50 9
West Virginia...........................
Wisconsin........................... 1
Canada ........................ 2 6
Total............................ 793 1,823 705


To Country 1
.Wtlierlawl*..........
Canada ..............
l'nite(IKiii)!iliiiii......
Mexico...............
illllllhll.......
mm,..,
(toes)
lj k t$ Od h Hit, Jiiii, Fell, .March ;lpril Hi; Jot
1 tV .................. I H! ...... 11 ...... 4875 15335
.... 1 .............................. 1021 li iff mm m
1314 147816 111277 MM 181311 323477 212 288376 422713 ,111558 389606 427496
1855 21541 22551 5620 3522 3238 (IS 13182 74044 10(542 21 2 150919
JM 395 11 285 228 400 491 595 909 151? 2286 1477
urn nm mm
537 1323
HI
2477 430 9(0 542 495 3280 1825 5517 2397 2023
020 [Oil Kill
844 709 111]
co: 1IA UN
HIM I Ml
7(33 1079;
no m
'i 3132
[J. SL Total Exports States oranw ex
m \m M m m m m m m w
i .li......,
(boxes)
jiaiy,,, Canada ...i
Mexico......
i'lima......
in' Kniii'.
Iliilippiiii'l luinl......
New Zealand...........
120 M I Jill- no u im iiiiii/i j
18.54 1172
1
HII'WI ')
505 |sw,, W
5 ...... 1
,| j 22 2
!il 153722 275147 175521 iw 187.
1 790 1334 i 215 1854 19577 11381 7179
1136 710 962 723 723 652 1252 607 531
2159 1611 li 817 415 384 470 402 423
596 1018 622 918 1228 1354 1126 1436
1767 1319 384 282 79( 1299 1759 1414 41311
H iiinA nun
lil! 42 412 212 281! 651 1370 m
665 2225 2601 3234 181 3375 310 5848
,i......
MIC (392
Mm M)>
li Total Ex|imi>......


Through the courtesy of the U. S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, the following table is available showing the total exports of oranges from the United States for the calendar years shown:
Year Boxes
1922 1,400,000
1923. .. 2,300,000
1924 ., 2,600,000
1925... 2,000,000
1926,., 2,700,000
1927 ,, 3,600,000
1928 2,677,618
1929... ..... 5,511,514
1930 ..... 1,737,709
Canada and the United Kingdom are the principal foreign markets for United States orange exports. The United Kingdom is also the principal market for orange exports from Spain, Palestine, South Africa, Jamaica. Germany is the principal market for Italian exports. Most of the foreign orange exporting countries ship their oranges in the winter and spring months and our keenest competition is in these months. For instance, Spain, November to June, peak, December to March; Italy, November to June, peak, January to April; Porto Rico, September to May; etc.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.The following weighted auction price average of Florida oranges per box by months will show the price trends for the eleven past seasons of the New York market:
New York Market Florida Oranges
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Average
1919-20.......... $.3.16 S2.80 53.95 $1.22 $6.43 $6.63 $9.40 $8.32 $.... $.... $3.91
1920-21 .......... 5.47 4.65 3.17 4.37 3.91 4.20 4.82 5.56 4.88 3.51 4.17
1921-22.......... 3.06 4.18 4.29 3.95 4.85 6.68 7.15 8.06 8.99 9.97 5.54
1922-23.......... 3.69 3.8S 4.08 4.53 4.31 4.72 6.67 5.47 4.45 3.90 4.65
1923-24.......... 3.11 3.55 2.68 2.84 3.02 3.16 3.51 3.85 4.88 4.81 3.27
1924-25.............. 3.63 2.57 3.68 4.43 5.87 6.43 7.76 8.44 ____ 4.89
1925-26.......... 7.80 6.80 4.00 4.23 4.41 4.50 5.82 5.91 6.54 7.45 6.79
1926-27.......... 3.70 4.79 3.53 3.76 3.91 4.10 4.86 4.75 4.54 3.12 4.11
1927-28.......... 3.67 6.31 5.59 5.23 5.97 6.29 6.84 8.58 9.11 ____ 6.24
1928-29.......... 5.08 3.71 3.55 3.45 3.30 3.30 3.55 3.33 2.99 2.92 3.40
1929-30.......... 3.42 4.04 2.21 4.49 4.44 4.98 7.13 7.42 6.60 .... 4.94
The following table is available through the courtesy of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association and shows the weekly price averages of Florida and California oranges on the leading auction markets in the United States with the number of cars of Florida and California oranges offered in the corresponding period:


Week
Ending Cars offered Auction Average
1929 Florida California Florida Californi:
9-27....... 490 ?.... ?4.67
10- 5....... ....... 1 369 2.15 4.65
10-12 ....... 468 .... 4.95
10-19 ....... ....... 6 546 2.90 4.80
10-26 ....... ....... 27 583 3.45 4.20
11-2....... ....... 72 498 3.16 4.15
11- 9 ....... ....... 124 478 3.25 4.15
11-16 ....... ....... 140 430 335 4.15
11-23 ....... ....... 256 361 4.25 4.80
11-30 ....... ....... 321 291 4.00 4.9.r>
12- 7....... ....... 434 22S 3.65 4.80
12-14 ....... ....... 447 279 4.00 5.25
12-21 ....... ....... 634 348 4.10 5.60
12-28 ....... ....... 302 183 4.25 5.95
1930
1-4 ....... ....... 313 239 4.70 5.40
1-11 ....... ....... 549 247 4.45 4.90
1-18....... ....... 575 239 4.10 5.05
1-25....... ....... 450 212 4.05 4.75
2- 1 ....... ....... 512 262 4.00 4.75
2-8....... ....... 428 240 4.05 4.85
2-15 ....... ....... 386 265 4.25 5.05
2-22 ....... ....... 417 280 4.50 5.10
3-1 ....... ....... 501 254 4.10 5.15
3-8....... ....... 443 274 4.15 5.25
3-15....... ....... 389 240 4.50 5.65
3-22....... ....... 350 227 5.30 6.50
3-29 ....... ....... 309 224 5.85 6.15
4-5 ....... ....... 286 374 6.70 6.20
4-12....... ....... 284 384 6.85 6.15
4-19....... ....... 228 402 6.70 6.20
4-26....... ....... 138 445 7.00 6.10
The following average prices per box for oranges and tangerines were returned to Florida marketing agencies in the seasons shown (average f.o.b. selling prices):
Season Oranges Tangerines
1926-27 82.75 83.49
1927-28 4.16 5.28
1928-29 2.12 2.90
1929-30 3.30 3.50


GRAPEFRUIT
The IYr-Anniim Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1910-30 Average, Was $14,040,416.67
LOCATION.The five ranking counties in carlot shipments of grapefruit have been as follows for the seasons shown:
1923-24 1924-23 1923-26 1926-27 1927-2S 192S-29 1929-30
First Polk Polk Polk Polk Polk Polk Polk
Second Pinellas Pinellas Pinellas Pinellas Pinellas Pinellas rinellns
Third Manatee Manatee Orange Orange Manatee Manatee Manatee
Fourth Orange Orange Manatee Manatee Orange Orange Orange
Fifth St. Lucie Dade Dade Lake St. Lucie Lake Leo
The five ranking individual loading stations in carlot grapefruit shipments were as follows:
First Palmetto Frostproof Clearwater Frostproof Unavailable Clearwater W. Haven
Second Clearwater Clearwater W. Haven Haines City Unavailable W. Haven Clearwater
Third W. Haven Palmetto Orlando Clearwater Unavailable Palmetto Frostproof
Fourth Orlando Haines City Palmetto W. Haven Unavailable Highlands C. Auburndale
Fifth Frostproof W. Haven Haines City Orlando Unavailable Haines City Palmetto
VARIETIES.The principal commercial varieties in Florida are: early, Triumph; mid-season, Duncan, Walters, Silver Cluster; late, McCarty, Marsh Seedless, Duncan.
PLANTING.There is variation in the planting distance, but trees are usually planted 30x30, 25x30, 25x25. Planted 30x30, the number of trees per acre will range from 44-48 and 25x25, 64-70.
MATURITY.Trees given the proper care will come into bearing about the fifth year with Vt-Vz box per tree, and full production is reached about the tenth'year. From 7-10 months time is required from the time bloom disappears and the setting of fruit to harvesting. The Triumph ripens November 1st, remaining on trees until January; Walters ripens November 10th, on trees until April; Silver Cluster ripens December 1st. on trees until April; Duncan ripens December 20th, on trees until April; McCarty ripens February 1st, on trees until June; Marsh Seedless ripens February 1st, on trees until May.
YIELD.The average annual production for the State as a whole for twelve years, 1919-30 was 7,608,333 boxes. The yield for well matured trees will range from 3-5 boxes or around 200 boxes per acre.
ACREAGE.Based on a report of the State Plant Board July 1st, 1928, compiled from actual inspections, there were 5,189,679 trees of bearing age and 420,508 trees non-bearing, total 5,592,187, or about 25% of the total citrus trees in the State. Allowing 70 trees per acre, this would give 74,138 acres bearing and 5,750 acres non-bearing, total grapefruit acreage for the State 79,888. Mr. E. F. DeBusk, Gainesville Extension Citriculturist, estimated the number of grapefruit trees in the State, January 1, 1931, at about 6,000,000, of which 5,580,000 were bearing and 420,000 non-bearing. This would represent an acreage of 79,714 acres in bearing and 6,000 acres of non-bearing grapefruit trees in Florida.
COST.The cost of production on the trees of an individual season's crop, exclusive of rental, taxes, depreciation, etc., is about 55c per box ranging from 45-65c per box. Cost per box delivered loading station is about Sl.40-1.45: growing 55c, picking 5c, hauling 8-10c, packing house charges 70-75c. If precooled, about 10c per box should be added. For average agency selling charges, about 25c per box should be added.
CONTAINER.The standard container for Florida grapefruit is the box 12x12x24 inches.


PACKING.- -The pack should be arranged in accordance with approved, recognized methods. Fruits should be tightly packed and the wrap show at least one-half twist. The minimum bulge should be 2 inches. The following table shows the size and arrangement of the Florida grapefruit packs:
28s, diameter 5>i inches, 3 layers; 5 fruits in 1 and 3, 4 fruits in layer 2.
36s, diameter 5 inches, 3 layers; 6 fruits in each.
46s, diameter inches, 3 layers; 8 fruits in 1 and 3, 7 fruits in 2.
548, diameter 4 '/. inches, 3 layers; 9 fruits each.
61s, diameter 4 'i inches, 4 layers; 8 fruits each.
70s, diameter 4inches, 5 layers; 9 fruits in 1, 3 and 5; 4 fruits in 2 and 4. 80s, diameter 4 inches, 4 layers; 10 fruits each. 96s, diameter 3% inches, 4 layers; 12 fruits each.
GRADE.(See Oranges).
CARLOT LOADING.Boxes are loaded on ends with 3 rows on each side having tops facing the center of car, 30 stacks long, 6 rows wide, 2 layers high, double stripped. Usual load 360 boxes per car. The following table will show the type of transportation service used by Florida shippers for several past seasons:
Ventilated
Refrig- Shippers refrig- Ventilated
Season eration Precool ice erators box
1924-25 27'; 4%) 4% 65% 10%
1925-26 29% 6% v, 55% 6%
1926-27 28% 6% 57-; 2%
1927-28 19% ,v; 7% 67%
1928-29 32% 6% 11% 49%. 2%
1929-30 39'; 12% 33%
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carlot freight and refrigeration charges on citrus fruits in boxes, billing weight 90 lbs., and the rate per box from Orlando, Florida, to important eastern and central markets. Express charges for l.c.I. shipments are also given:
From Orlando, Fla. To Minimum carload Minimum carload charges Rate, based in cents per 100 lbs. Standard refrigeration charges per carload Express rate, based in cents per 1(X) lbs. Billing weight SO lbs. per box
Baltimore... New York... Philadelphia. PitUburgh,. Chicago. .. Cincinnati... Cleveland... Detroit 32,400 lbs. 32.400 lbs. 32,400 lbs. 32,400 lbs. 32,400 lbs. 32,400 lbs. 32.4(H) lbs. 32,4001b*. 32.4(H) lbs. S311.04 369.30 336.90 320.70 343.41 353.10 304.50 349.92 353.10 S .90 100 lbs. 1.14 100 lbs. 1.0-1 100 lbs. .99 100 lbs. 1.00 100 lbs. 1.09 100 lbs. .91 100 lbs. 1.0S 100 lbs. 1.09 100 lbs. SCO.00 65.50 60.00 60.00 70.50 70.50 70.00 76.50 81.00 2.94 per 100 lbs. 3.57 per 100 lbs. 3.30 per 1(H) lbs. 3.15 per 100 lbs. 3.30 per 100 lbs. 3.35 per 100 lbs. 3.15 per 100 lbs. 3.45 per 100 lbs. 3.62 per 100 lbs.
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The Florida carlot season begins in September and continues through June. The following report shows the Florida carlot shipments by months for the eleven past seasons:


1919-20...
1920-21...
1921-22...
1922-23...
1923-24...
1924-25...
1926-26...,
1926-27...
1927-28....
1928-29...
1929-30____
Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
298 841 1117 738 1366 1417 1894 885
100 1151 1592 87S 1949 1406 1833 1336
300 1332 1702 1073 1883 1781 2046 1990
210 1331 1836 1547 2513 1919 2776 2046
443 1992 2482 1573 2417 2700 2789 2190
13 1G90 2626 1684 2616 33S2 2868 3503
. 85 20 881 1942 1821 2491 2075 20S9 1730
633 2810 1741 2624 2404 2882 2498
188 1485 1924 14S5 18S1 1948 2181 1631
88 545 208S 2173 2190 2877 3010 3206 3514
1999 15G8 1455 2262 2178 2551 1341
May June July Aug.
1219 284 25
S35 34 1
750 78 3 "6
1946 607 172 66
2296 533 165 34
1435 231 4
951 196 8
1554 230 t- "i
1096 270 60 17
2458 237 1 2
21 25 9 1
Total 10,084 11,115 12,943 16,969 19,614 20,087 14,269 17,304 14,166 21.844 13,955
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.Domestic competition to Florida grapefruit is had with Arizona from September to June: California, September to August; Texas, October to April. The following tabulation of monthly carlot shipments will show the competition given to Florida grapefruit in the past ten seasons:
1920-21 Season Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar.
10 6 1 2 30 30 27 26
Arizona California FLORIDA
19 10 25 29 42 100 1151 1592
U- S. Totals...... 125 1199
1644 918 19S5 1434 1S61
1921-22 Season
Arizona ............. 20 18 7 7 4
California ....... 37 25 32 37 39 38
Texas ....................... j 7
LI2RnjA,300 HHJ i702 1073 1883 1781
U. S. Totals...... 337
Arizona California Texas
1377 1752 111S 1936 1823 2093 -2041
1922-23 Season
23 12
15 42 2
16 53 17
22 84 6
,FrL0I""A,....... 210 1331 1836 1547 2513 1919 2776 2046 1946
U.S. Totals...... 219 1366 1895 1630 2599 2031 2835 2065 1986
1923-24 Season
Arizona California ..
Texas ......
FLORIDA .. U. S. Totals.
38 27 1
17 46 16
16 40 18
443 1992 2482, 1573
14
42 21 2417
50
Apr. May June July Aug.
25 33 53 82 49
1336 835 84 1
1361 S6S 87 83 "
6
45 54 "88 "54 "7
1990 760 78 3 6
-20-11 804 166 57 12
1
18 "46 15 "29 112
2040 1946 G07 172 66
2065 19S6 622 201 178
12 12 1
39 23 32 52 "44
Arizona .. California
Texas ____
FLORIDA
Imports:
Cuba.....
Porto Rico. Bermuda ..
497 2058 2560 1647 2494 2
23 21 35
00 2789 2190 2296 779 2S69 2241 2331
1924-25 Season
41
34 8
34
86 62
23 48 33
34 42 86
7 43 129
5 46 82
1
37 5
13 1690 2626 1684 2646 33S2 28GS 3508 1435
683 566
33 3
165 217
GO
34 7S
13
37
14 14
17 21
40
47
Total Imports. U. S. Totals... Total Supplies.
Arizona .. California
Texas ____
FLORIDA
Imports:
Cuba ...
U. S. Totals......
Total Supplies____
97
"37 1773 2758
37 1773 2855
3 40 24
10 30 46
8 110
"ii 881 1942
"23 45 38
220 624 201
443 669 239
98 959 2122
541 1528 23G1
60
18 28
41
87
1S38 2826 3573 3088 3727
1925-26 Season
20 26 85
54 47 41
113 54 12
1821 2491 2075
5 4 5
150 126 80
155 130 85
2008 2618 2163
2163 2748 2248
47 65 1
20 202
15 42
19 117
22 199 4
225 147S 1703
56 'Hi
12f.
125 1014
231 4
9 10 62
78 32 51
87 42 103
267 64 11
354 106 114
1 SO
190 "s
10 1i Ill
66 49 47
65 60 158
250 88 22
315 148 180


1926-27 Season
Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Auk.
3 36 16 15 25 30 44 27 15
13 39 74 61 44 38 72 38 62 72 'so "54
Texas .......... 74 196 167 184 112 10 3 1 ....
FLORIDA "20 533 2810 1741 2624 2404 2SS2 2498 1554 230 7 1
Imports:
352 163 53 14 3 6 1 1
374 382 318 7 g 21 69 "69 '163 -250 209 "68
72(! 545 371 21 12 26 70 69 103 250 210 68
U. S. Totals..... 36 682 3095 1974 2877 2584 3008 2566 1622 302 57 55
Total Supplies... 762 1227 3466 1995 2889 2610 3078 2635 1725 552 267 123
1927-28 Season
12 45 37 26 23 26 31 10 1
18 30 98 59 64 63 80 82 "ii 46 02 "67
Texas .......... 99 290 284 246 108 9
FLORIDA...... '188 1185 1924 1485 1881 1948 2181 1631 1096 270 60 17
Imports:
1 6 8 21 46 35 15 51
Porto Rico...... 556 562 "80 147 97 190 221 111 42 7 "25 58
Total Imports... 556 563 80 153 105 211 267 176 57 7 26 109
U. S. Totals..... 218 1659 2319 1854 2214 2145 2301 1723 1163 317 152 74
Total Supplier 774 2222 2129 2007 2319 2356 2568 1899 1220 321 177 I S3
1928-29 Season
1 36 38 23 32 24 28 26 31 32 1
23 49 65 43 46 51 72 52 64 131 187 "49
Texns .......... 113 247 311 352 251 270 58 10 4 1
FLORIDA...... '. "88 20SS 2173 2190 2877 3.010 3206 3614 2458 237 1 2
Imports:
Cuba ........... 54 85 6 8 13 2 1 1 135
209 64 2 i 11 3 "3 17 "s "9 43 16
Total Imports ... 263 149 8 12 "7 5 3 18 8 9 44 151
U. S. Totals 112 2286 2523 2567 3307 3336 3576 3650 2553 404 190 5 :
Total Supplies... 375 2435 2531 2579 3331 3341 3579 3668 2561 413 234 202
1929-30 Season
Arizona ........ 30 48 47 49 84 83 61 15
24 6 6.- 44 77 98 198 183 172 iii "ii "73
Texas .......... 595 700 943 1106 148 1
Louisiana....... 1
FLORIDA ...... .' 545 1999 1568 1455 2262 2178 2551 1341 21 25 9 1
Imports:*
Culm ........... 129 24 fi 7 7 9 34 57 41 12 2 200
53 396 121 205 132 177 300 537 328 233 123 27
Total Imports... 182 420 127 211 159 186 334 594 369 245 125 236
U. S. Totals..... 569 2631 2381 24S9 3494 2508 2833 1585 'jos 192 80 74
Total Supplies... 751 3051 2508 2701 3653 2694 3167 2179 577 437 205 310
'1930. Subject to Revision.
DISTRIBUTION.New York ranked first in the seasons 1924-25 through 1929-30 as the largest receiver of Florida grapefruit. Pennsylvania was second, with the exception of seasons 1924-25 and 1925-26, when Illinois was second and Pennsylvania third. Illinois was third in 1928-29 and 1929-30 and fourth in 1926-27 and 1927-28. Ohio was fourth in 1924-25, 1925-26, 1928-29 and 1929-30, while third in 1926-27 and 1927-28. The States of New York, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts received in the above six seasons from 35-40% of the Florida carlot grapefruit shipments, while Illinois and Ohio received from 15-19%. The following shows for several seasons the distribution by States of the Florida carlot grapefruit shipments:


Stales 1U29-30 1928-29 1927-28 1926-27 1925-26 1921-25
51 23-1 104 187 118 36
Arkansas ........ 1 31 28 33 26 36
65 142 84 82 135 201
221 281 134 211 197 254
Delaware ........ 23 5 6 8 11
Dist. of Columbia.. 395 272 148 198 190 189
40 481 109 65 51 23
72 325 122 451 493 477
Idaho ............ 1 23 8 17 15 22
Illinois .......... 1.124 1,445 786 1,005 1,402 1,614
Indiana.......... 188 359 194 294 290 334
62 172 22 162 168 144
23 77 58 76 72 72
Kentucky ........ 339 165 104 161 110 144
Louisiana ........ 27 105 65 77 34 44
Maine ........... 53 77 29 47 48 44
555 437 22(1 277 230 305
Massachusetts .... 752 863 575 755 680 971
452 851 307 670 699 579
142 206 154 205 305 302
5 20 10 30 29 34
Missouri ......... 373 559 383 4G0 19G 528
26 44 34 19 22 41
Nebraska ........ 59 149 7.", 82 110 72
Nevada .......... 3 > 2 2 5
New Hampshire .. I 2 4
220 79 17 17 10 41
New Mexico ..... 2 2
3,257 4,373 1,780 2,922 2 122 3,292
North Carolina ... 57 148 68 146 101 112
North Dakota____ 4 10 10 12 17 10
Ohio............. 788 1,186 800 1,047 1,053 1,131
6 75 52 74 74 119
9 64 33 60 114 114
1,734 1,685 840 1,290 1,114 1,303
Rhode Island..... 63 94 57 79 74 119
South Carolina ... 57 266 181 379 328 122
South Dakota ____ 8 16 9 6 20 18
89 489 242 394 303 262
86 74 125 126 101
Utah ............ 14 46 31 31 48 57 13
19 17 6 13 16
369 (520 230 287 242 268
Washington ...... 21 140 72 85 184 161
West Virginia .... 36 54 23 07 55 57
83 139 133 152 162 215
9 14 9 11 17 15
Canada ........ 256 412 210 206 234 218
Total ............ 12,154 17,347 8,798 12,978 12,649 14,285
EXPORTS.The United States made the following export s of grapefruit in
the following calendar years
Year Boxes Year Boxes
224,000 1927 7f.r, nnn
..... 281,000 1928 lUvtUUv 679 479
..... 313,000 1929 '"V. "V, 1
1930 ~\ I 'l'>z.
1 04,0u0


To Country Exported III
Franco........
Germany......
Season 1928-29 (boxes)
Aug. Sept, Oct, k Dei
Feb. March Ipril
721 225 2ffi
72714 74! M 421
lay June
lit C2
m m in
115 2751!
1!CPI France .........
Germany .......
IS ,.
i............
una.........
itS, Ml
1838 1
(lies)
711
Ml till I
525 361 173 52 15
Total United States graiiefruit exports July 1,1929, to June 30,1930..............


According to records of the U. S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Comrr tree, Florida exported from Jacksonville about 36,000 boxes of grapefruit the 1927-28 season. In the 1928-29 Season from Jacksonville 125,421 box A and in addition 62,754 boxes not segregated but mostly grapefruit, and 119,961 boxes from Tampa, or a total of 175,382 boxes. In 1929-30 from N< Member 2 to May 31, Florida exported 56,446 boxes, from Jacksonville to Unit .-d Kingdom. In the 1930-31 season, Oct. 11 to Feb. 1, 89,790 boxes fresh rrapefruit were exported to the United Kingdom from Jacksonville, and 15 416 boxes from Tampa, total in this period exported to the United Kingd in 105,406 boxes.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.The following weighted /ction price average of Florida grapefruit per box by month will show the r/ice trends of the New York market for the past eleven seasons:
New York Market Florida Grapefruit /
Aver-
Season Oct Xov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July age
1919-20 $3.72 $3.67 $3.29 $3.16 $3.28 $3.60 J 1.05 $5.02 $2.61 $6.20 $3.70
1920-21 5.31 4.71 3.92 4.86 4.30 4.71 4.55 4.54 i 4.21 4.33 4.55
1921-22 3.37 3.52 3.86 3.47 3.78 3.91 4.46 6.2V, 6.18 5.22 4.03
1922-23 3.75 3.84 4.00 3.73 3.96 Z.'.S 3.98 3.48 3.26 2.96 3.70
1923-24 2.89 2.80 2.91 3.00 2.86 r.is 3.02 3.45 2.72 8.04 2.98
1924-25 4.19 2.99 2.39 2.94 3.00 ^.90 4.04 4.50 6.99 3.38
1925-26 4.93 3.95 4.03 4.05 4.07 4.78 5.37 5.07 4.85 6.06 4.72
1926-27 5.35 4.07 3.40 3.58 3.75 3.67 3.59 3.66 3.80 2.44 3.66
1927-28 1.60 4.70 4.71 4.82 5.07 5.52 5.45 4.92 3.93 6.28 4.93
1928-29 4.71 4.15 3.44 3.5? 3.20 3.30 3.32 3.83 4.71 6.36 3.70
1929-30 4.51 4.23 4.26 4.'J 4.09 4.TI .-..09 4.25 3.24 3.10 4.42


PINEAPPLES
The Per-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1923-30 Average, Was $83,375
LOCATION'-The location of the pineapple belt in Florida may be defined as follows: a narrow section of high land about 85 miles long, fronting on the Indian River in Indian River, St. Lucie, Martin, and Palm Beach counties, extending from V'ero Beach to Delray.
VARIETIES.The principal varieties in Florida are the Red Spanish, Smooth Cayenne, Abakka.
PLANTING.About 10,000 plants will be required to put out an acre of pineapples, plants spaced 21 inches in rows 21 inches apart, every seventh row skipped and left as an aisle between two beds, and 2 rows omitted after every third bed (6 rows) for a roadway.
MATURITY.When good healthy plants are planted under favorable conditions the first crop is gathered in about twenty months after planting. Annual crops are harvested thereafter.
YIELD.The average yield per acre is from 250-300 crates, about 300 crates first and second year, 250 crates third year, 200 crates eighth and twelfth.
PRODUCTION.According to Federal reports the Florida production of pineapples has been as follows from 1923 to 1930:
1923 .................57,000 crates
1924 .................90,000 "
1925 .................42,000 "
1926 .................22,000 "
1927 .................13,000 "
1928 ................. 9,000 "
1929 ................. 6,000 "
1930 ................. 6,000 "
COST.The pineapple is a perennial plant, will cost from $400 to $450 per acre the first 2 years, about $100 per acre thereafter for fertilizer and labor. Exclusive of taxes, rent, etc., the cost of growing an acre of pineapples is for cultivation $60, plants $160, fertilizer $150-200, miscellaneous $20. Cost per crate delivered shipping point $1.50-2.00: growing 90c-$1.40, container and wraps 35c, harvesting and packing 15c, hauling 8c.
CONTAINER.The standard container for pineapples in Florida is the crate 10^x12x33 inches, the half-barrel crate.
PACK AND SIZE.The pack and arrangement of various sizes in the container is usually as follows:
18s placed from ends, 3 layers, 3 wide, crowns reversed each layer.
24s placed from sides, 3 layers, 4 wide, crowns even, layers reversed.
30s placed from sides, 3 layers, 5 wide, crowns even, layers reversed.
30s placed from sides, 3 layers, 6 wide, crowns even, layers reversed.
42s placed from sides, 3 layers, 7 wide, crowns even, layers reversed.
48s placed from sides, 3 layers, 8 wide, crowns even, layers reversed.
Ordinarily the 18s, 24s and 30s are fancy grades, while 36s, 42s and 48s are choice.


GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of pineapples of similar varietal characteristics which are firm, mature, well formed, free from excessive moisture, and free from damage caused by sunburn, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 5 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements of this grade.
CARLOT LOADING.-Crates are loaded in the cars tops up or on sides, lengthwise the car, 7 rows wide, 10 stacks long, 4-5 layers high, double stripped. The average number of crates per car is 350, ranging from 300 to 385 crates to the car. Pineapples are shipped either in ventilated box or refrigerator cars.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight charges for pineapples in crates, billing weight 90 lbs. per crate, and the rate per crate from Delray, Florida, to important destinations:
From Delrav, Florida "To Minimum carload Minimum carload charges Hate, based in cents per 100 lbs.
Baltimore............................ 32,400 lbs. S349.92 SI. 08 per 100 lbs.
Boston.............................. 32,400 lbs. 408.24 1.26pcrl001ls.
New York........................... 32,400 lbs. 375.84 1.16 per 100 lbs.
32,400 lbs. 362.SS 1.12 per 100 lbs.
Pittsburgh........................... 32,400 lbs. 379.OS 1.17 per 100 lbs.
32,400 lbs. 3S8.80 1.20 per 100 lbs.
Cincinnati........................... 32,400 lbs. 340.20 1.05 per 100 lbs.
32,400 lbs. .'385.50 1.19 per 100 lbs.
Detroit.............................. 32,400 lbs. 3S8.80 1.20 per 100 lbs.
SHIPPING SEASON.The Florida pineapple shipping season begins at Delray about May 10th, continuing through July.
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.The most severe competition to Florida pineapples, fresh fruit, in our domestic markets is from the West Indies, and canned fruit from the Hawaiian Islands.
DISTRIBUTION.From 70% to 95% of the carlot shipments from Florida for the past six seasons have been destined to points north of Savannah, eastern markets.
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.The best prices for Florida pineapples are received on the early shipments in May and June.


STRAWBERRIES
The Pcr-Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop, 1919-30 Average, Was $1,758,000.00
LOCATION.For the seasons 1926-27 through 1929-30, Hillsborough, Bradford, and Polk have been the ranking counties in strawberry shipments from Florida.
VARIETIES.For commercial purposes the principal variety of strawberries in Florida is the Missionary. The Klondike is also used in some sections.
PLANTING.Strawberry plants are usually set 14 inches apart in rows that are from 30 to 36 inches apart in single rows. From 12,000 to 15,000 plants will be required for an acre.
MATURITY.Strong, healthy plants will come into bearing within 3 months, or 70 to 90 days, from the setting of plants.
YIELD.The twelve-year average yield, 1919-30, for Florida strawberries is 1878 quarts per acre. In the leading sections, 2500 to 3000 quarts per acre is not an uncommon yield and maximum yields are higher.
ACREAGE.The total Florida strawberry acreage for five current seasons is shown in the following table:
Season Total Acreage
1924-25................. 4,240
1925-26................. 2,980
1926-27................. 3,680
1927-28................. 3,670
1928-29................. 5,640
1929-30................. 8,100
COST.Not including rent, taxes, depreciation, the growing cost per acre of strawberries will range from $150 to $200: preparation and cultivation, $50-$75; plants, $40; fertilizer, $40-$50, spraying, $7.50; miscellaneous, $10-$25. Cost per 32-quart crate delivered loading station is from $4.25-$5.00: growing, $2.10-$2.85; picking, 96c; container, 60c; grading and packing, 64c; hauling, 5c.
CONTAINER.For carlot shipments the 32-quart crate has been in general use. The 24-pint square cup crate and the 36-pint oblong cup crate are now extensively used in the Plant City section, and seems the preferable size of the 1931 season. For express shipments to distant markets, 32-quart, 64-quart, and 80-quart Pony Refrigerators are used, the 80-quart size being the most popular. To local nearby markets the 32-quart and 24-pint crates are used.
PACKING.The pack and arrangement of strawberries in the fillers is a very important and essential step in their marketing. Not only the top layer but the entire pack should consist of firm berries of one variety, uniform in size with the minimum 3/4-inch in diameter and be free from decay and damage. The berries are placed caps on in the quart cups and the following methods are often used in arranging the top layer: in the top layer the berries are packed on their sides all pointing one way; or stems are placed against the sides of the cup all around, tips toward the center of the cup, etc. The proper pack will not be either slack or so tight that the berries will be bruised or crushed.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of strawberries of one variety, with the cap (calyx) attached, which are firm, not overripe, underripe, or undeveloped; and which are free from mold or decay and from damage caused by dirt,


moisture, foreign matter, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum size shall be not less than three-quarters of an inch in diameter.
In order to allow for variations other than size incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by volume, of the strawberries in any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-half of this tolerance, or 5 per cent, shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more than 1/5 of this amount, or 1 per cent, shall be allowed for decay.
In addition, not more than 5 per cent, by volume, of the strawberries in any lot, may be below the specified minimum size.
CARLOT LOADING.Strawberries in carlots are shipped under refrigeration. The 32-quart crate is usually placed lengthwise the car 16 stacks long, 7-8 rows wide, 2 layers high, triple stripped, ranging from 175 to 225 crates per car, usually 224 crates.
RATES.The following rates apply on strawberries in carlots under refrigeration by freight in containers shown. Rates based in cents per crate, estimated weights of crates being 32-quart, 63 lbs.; 24-quart, 48 lbs.; 36-pint, 36 lbs.; 24-pint, 25 lbs.:
From Plant City, Fla. To Carload? 32-Miu. quart Carload 24-Min. quart Carload 36-.Min. pint Carload 24-Min. pint
Philadelphia....... 100 S2.6S 175 1.87M 134 $2.04 234 1.43 ISO SI. 53 312 1.07 200 SI.34 350 .94
100 3.13 175 2.32^ 134 2.38 234 1.77 ISO 1.78 312 1.33 200 1.56M 350 1.16M
New York and..... Pittsburgh......... 100 2.75}4 175 1.95 134 2.09 234 1.4S ISO 1.57 312 1.11 200 1.38 350 .07'a
Cincinnati......... 100 2.5SJ4 175 1.82H 134 1.90 234 1.39 ISO 1.47 312 1.04 200 1.29)S 350 91H
Note: No through rates published to Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit: To construct rates these points add to Cincinnati rates to Chicago, 39\'2c; Cleveland, 37%CJ Detroit 38c per cwt, minimum car beyond Cincinnati, 18,000 lbs.
For solid cars of strawberries moving under refrigeration by express, the carload minimum is 17,000 lbs. per car, rate based in cents per 100 lbs. For 80-quart pony refrigerators, billing weight is 250 lbs.:
From Plant City, Florida To Rate 100 lbs. (carlots) Refrigeration Carload Mill. 17,000 lbs. Express rate, 80-quart pony refrigerator
S3.01 SS2.50 S8.05
3.75 95.00 9.08
3.OS 90.00 8.25
3.40 95.00 8.93
3.29 90.00 8.80
Cincinnati........................... 3.05 90.00 8.15
3.47 95.00 8.75
3.47 95.00 9.2S
3.57 95.00 9.55


92_From Field to Market With Florida Vegetable$ and Citrus Fruits
FLORIDA SHII'MKNTS.The Florida carlot shipping .season extends from December through May, as is indicated by the following tabulation of monthly shipments for three current seasons:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1927-28 ____ .......... 11 58 283 178 12 ... 542
1928-29 ____ ....... 1 172 675 706 73 6 ... 1633
1929-30 .... ....... 107 3.19 439 591 174 48 ... 1721
It will be noted thut Florida shipped a total of only 88 cars more in 1930 than in the 1929 season. The 1930 movement, however, was much larger since the express car minimum, which was used for the first time in that season, is about 50% greater than that of the freight car.
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.In the months of November, December. January, and February, Florida has comparatively no carlot competition in strawberry shipments. Louisiana in March begins the strongest carlot competition with shipments increasing in April and continuing heavy in May, and Texas shipments begin in March. In April, carlot shipments arc moving from Alabama, Arkansas, California. Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee and Texas, and by May, 19 states other than Florida are shipping strawberries in carlots. The following arrangement of carlot shipments for three current seasons by months will present a comprehensive view of the extent of compel i-tion to Florida berries, particularly in the later months of the Florida seaHon, April and May:
Season 1927-28
State Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
Alabama....................................... 477 516
Arkansas....................................... 44 1865
California...................................... 45 113
Ix>uisiana................................... 89 1755 1006
Mississippi..................................... 14 74
North Carolina.................................. 45 2105
Tennessee.......................................... 1625
Texas.......................................... 75 28
Total U. S.......................... 11 58 417 2646 10964
FLORIDA ......................... 11 58 283 178 12
Season 1928-29
Alabama....................................... 992 362
Arkansas ...................................... 66 2417
California...................................... 6 160
Louisiana................................... 127 2342 390
Mississippi...................................... 76 39
North Carolina................................. 1144 339
Tennessee...................................... 57 2094
Texas...................................... 11 226 16
Total l \ S...................... 1 172 675 844 5053 10406
FLORIDA ...................... 1 172 675 706 73 6
Season 1929-30
Alabama................................... 3 629 139
Arkansas....................................... 142 544
California...................................... 92 85
Louisiana................................... 63 1557 768
Mississippi...................................... 35 34


Season 1929-30(Continued)
State Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
North Carolina.................................. 140 614
Tennessee...................................... 75 1078
Texas...................................... 2 80 10
Total U. S....................... 107 359 439 662 2938 5425
FLORIDA...................... 107 359 439 594 174 48
DISTRIBUTION.New York City affords the largest outlet for Florida strawberries, receiving in 1927 about one-halt' the Florida shipments, in 1928 slightly more than one-half, and in 1929 about 40%. The largest proportion of the Florida crop goes to the eastern markets of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Washington, these four markets taking 79%, 76%, and 58% the total Florida carlot shipments in the years 1927, 1928, and 1929. Chicago is second in rank in the number of carlots received, particularly in 1928 and 1929, with Philadelphia third and Boston fourth. Of the central markets, Chicago and Cincinnati are the largest receivers of Florida strawberries and handle about 15% of the Florida crop. In the period Feb. 7 to April 3, 1930, destinations of cars passing through Jacksonville, Baldwin, Dupont and Way-cross were as follows to the larger markets: Boston, 60; Buffalo, 14; Chicago, 146: Cincinnati, 48; Cleveland, 24; Detroit, 38: Kansas City, 12; Newark, 8; Philadelphia, 68; Pittsburgh, 30; New York, 241, etc.
MARKET PREFERENCES.Of the Florida varieties. Missionary and Klondike are preferable on most of the larger northern markets and also the southern markets. In carlot shipments the 32-quart crate is in general preference, but with the commercial introduction of the 24-pint crate in Florida in the 1929-30 season, the 24-pint crate is satisfactory and preferred by several markets for early shipments of berries. The following table shows the leading varieties and containers in the principal larger and smaller markets:
Market Leading Varieties Containers, Crates
Atlanta ......Missionary 32-quart 24-pint
Baltimore ... .Missionary Klondike 32-quart 24-pint
Boston .......Missionary Klondike Aroma 32-quart
Chattanooga ..Klondike 24-pint Chicago ......Missionary Klondike Aroma 24-quart 24-pint, early-Cincinnati ____Klondike Missionary Aroma 24-quart 36-pint, early-Cleveland ----Klondike Aroma 24-quart
Detroit ......Missionary Klondike Aroma 24-quart 24-pint, early
Durham ......Klondike 32-quart
Hartford .....Missionary 32-quart
Indianapolis ..Missionary 24-pint
Kansas City ..Aroma Klondike 24-quart 24-pint, early
Knoxville____Klondike 32-quart
I^xington .. .Klondike 32-quart
Ixmisville ....Klondike 32-quart 24-pint, early
Lynchburg ...Klondike 32-quart
Memphis .....Klondike Missionary 32-quart 24-pint
New Orleans .Missionary Klondike 24-pint
New York____Missionary Klondike 32-quart 24-pint
Norfolk ......Klondike 32-quart
Philadelphia ..Aroma Missionary Klondike 32-quart 24-pint
Pittsburgh ...Aroma Missionary Klondike 24-quart 24-pint
Portland.....Klondike 32-quart 24-pint
Providence ...Klondike 24-pint
Richmond .... Klondike Missionary 32-quart 24-pint, early


Market Leading Varieties
Savannah ....Klondike
St. Louis.....Klondike
Toledo .......Missionary
Utica ........Klondike
Washington .. Klondike Wilkesbarre .. Klondike Williamsport .Missionary
Containers, Crates
32-quart 24-pint
32-quart 24-pint
32-quart 24-pint
32-quart 24-pint 32-quart 32-quart
32-quart 24-pint
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.The first arrivals of Florida strawberries on the markets in November and December have practically no competition and bring the highest prices of the season. The carlot shipments moving in good volume from Florida in January, February, and March, the price range of from 40c to 60c per quart on the larger markets, has prevailed through March for the seasons 1921-22 through 1929-30. With the heavier receipts in April, prices break materially. The following jobbing price averages per quart by months for five seasons, based on number one grade of leading varieties, mostly Missionary, show the seasonal price trends and emphasize the period of high and low prices:
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Season's Average
1925-26 .................. 1.05 .65 .53 .49 .66
1926-27 ...................75 .75 .39 .51 .60
1927-28 ..........................53 .38 .45
1928-29 ...................56 .40 .41 .38 .45
1929-30 ................59 .43 .45 .40 .35 .39
There are too many limiting factors involveddisorderly marketing, competitive products, industrial conditions, etc.to establish a basis or law whereby a definite return, per unit, in proportion to a given total acreage or total carlot volume in specific months or seasons, may be determined. However, it is interesting to note the relationship of the jobbing price average of Florida strawberries on the principal markets to the total U. S. shipments by months for three current seasons:
Season N( 1927-28 Total U. S. shipments.........
Average Florida prices.......
1928-29 Total U. S. shipments.........
Average Florida prices.......
1929-30 Total U. S. shipments.........
Average Florida prices.......
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
11 58 417 2646
.53 .38
i 172 075 844 5053
.56 .40 .41 .38
107 356 438 663 296S
.59 .43 .45 .40 .35


PART III COMMODITIES
Bunched Beets .................................................. 97
Lima Beans ..................................................... 100
Bunched Carrots................................................. 102
Okra............................................................ 105
Squash ......................................................... 107
MARGINAL ABSTRACT
Location .......................................... 97,100,102,105,107
Varieties ......................................... 97,100,102,105,107
Planting .......................................... 97,100,102,105,107
Maturity .......................................... 97,100,102,105,107
Yield ............................................. 97,100,102,105,107
Cost.............................................. 97, 100,102,105,107
Container ......................................... 97,100,102,105,107
Packing........................................... 97,100,102,105,107
Grade ............................................ 97, ... 102,105, ...
Carlot Loading.................................... 98,100, 103,105,107
Rates ............................................. 98,100,103,105,107
Florida Shipments................................. 98,101,103,106,108
Competitive Shipments............................. 98, ... 103.......
Market Preferences ................................ 98,101,104,106, 108
Terminal Market Prices............................ 98,101,104, ... 108




BEETS
LOCATION.Palm Beach County has shipped beets in straight carlots during the last season of 1929-30 and perhaps leads the State in commercial acreage, while there is a scattering acreage in Dade, Hillsborough, Seminole, and several other counties.
VARIETIES.The Florida principal commercial varieties arc Crosbys Egyptian, and Detroit Dark Red.
PLANTING.From four to six pounds of seed will be required for an acre. Plants are set about 4 inches apart in rows 12-15 inches apart. This will require about 100,000 plants per acre.
MATURITY.From tiie planting of seeds, maturity will be reached in from 70 to 80 days.
YIELD.The State's average is less than 100 crates per acre, though several hundred crates per acre are realized in the leading commercial sections.
COST.The cost per acre in the Sanford section, exclusive of rental, taxes, etc., is about $125: cultivation, $65; seed and transplanting, 810; fertilizer, $45; spraying, $5. Cost per 10-inch celery crate delivered shipping point, about 55c: growing, 25c; harvesting and packing, 13c; crate, 18c; hauling, 2c.
CONTAINER.Tariffs specify the bushel hamper for beets with tops. The 10-inch celery crate is used. Most of the carlot shipments move in crates holding about 5 dozen bunches.
PACKING.The size of beets ranges mostly from 1%-2V2 inches in diameter. All bunches should be uniformly graded and well sorted as to size, roots of approximately the same size tied together. Usually in diameters l%-3% inches, 3 large, 4 medium, 5-6 small roots are placed in the bunch, each bunch containing about the same quantity and usually weighing about one pound. Runches are tied 2-3 inches above the roots. The container should be well filled. Beets are packed either with full tops or trimmed back 6-10 inches in length, but not less than 6 inches. The crate is usually packed with 4-6 dozen bunches. In packing crates different methods are used. The "shingle" pack bunches are placed lengthwise the crate with roots next to one end in succession on tops of preceding bunches, until opposite end is reached, when the direction of the bunches is reversed, each succeeding layer similarly arranged. The "laced" packstarted by placing 4-5 bunches on bottom of crate with roots next to one end, completed with several more bunches with roots next to opposite end of crate. Second layer similarly arranged except bunches are placed crosswise the crate with roots placed against the side, with remaining layers placed alternately. Sometimes bunches are placed crosswise the crate with roots against the ends or with roots in the center and tops toward the outside of the crate. When the basket or hamper is used, bunches are placed with roots next to the outside, in a ring around the sides, with tops in center, with the open spaces filled by placing roots in center. The bushel hamper is packed with from 26 to 36 bunches.
GRADE.U. S. No. 1 shall consist of beets of similar varietal characteristics which are firm, fairly smooth, free from decay and from damage caused by growth cracks, dirt, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means. The tops shall be fresh and either full size or cut back to not less than 6 inches in length. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum diameter of the beets shall be 1!2 inches.


In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 5 per cent, by count, of any lot, may be below the specified minimum diameter. In addition, not more than 10 per cent, by count, of any lot may be below the remaining requirements of this grade, but not more than one-tenth of this amount, or \c'c, shall be allowed for decay.
CARLOT LOADING.Crates are usually loaded 17-18 stacks long or full length the car, 5-6 rows wide, II layers high. Hampers are loaded in rows full length of car, 7 rows wide, on end or side, 3-4 layers high, alternate hampers inverted. Usual loading, 336-1150 crates. Shipped under refrigeration.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges for beets with tops in crates, billing weight, 75.7 lbs. per 10-inch crate, and the rate per crate from West Palm Beach, Florida, to eastern and central distillations:
From Wot Palm 15cr crate Standard Refrigeration charges per car
Baltimore............... 350 crates S2.ll 00 ,S-I SCO.00
Boston.................. 350 crates 343.00 .(IS 65.60
New York............... 3.50 crato 311.50 .89 60.00
Philadelphia............. 350 erates 301.00 .SO 00.00
Pittsburgh............... 350 crates 301.00 .SO 76.50
Chicago................. 1(H) crates 352.00 .SS 70.50
< Cincinnati............... 400 crates 284.00 .71 70.00
Cleveland............... 400 crates 350.00 .87'.; 70.50
Detroit ........... -100 crates 352.00 .88 Sl.(M)
FLORIDA SHIPMENTS.The few carlot shipments from Florida move mostly in the period February, March, April, though beets from mixed cars and express shipments are on the markets from January until June.
COMPETITIVE SHIPMENTS.The carlot movement of bunched beets from Louisiana and Texas is mostly in the period December through June; Mississippi, April-May-June.
MARKET PREFERENCES.Of the Florida varieties the trade seem to prefer the Detroit Dark Red, with Crosbys Egyptian next in preference. (Practically all markets prefer the crate averaging about 6 dozen bunches.)
TERMINAL MARKET PRICES.Florida receipts of beets on the larger markets have not been sufficient to establish a regular daily market and complete quotations are not available. However, Texas beets were regularly quoted on the markets of Baltimore, Chicago, New York and Philadelphia in the 1929-30 season, and the following tabulation will show the seasonal price range of Texas beets in crates on these markets by months:


Season 1929-30
January Baltimore Chicago
lst-Oth the price range was ........ S2.75-3.00
10-20 ........ 3.25-3.00
21-30 ...... $3.37-3.87 3.00-3.62
February
lst-9th.......* 3.50-2.35 3.62-3.15
10-20 ........ 3.85-3.35 3.15-3.25
21-28 3.50-3.50 3.25-2.85
March
lst-9th" 3.35-3.15 2.85-2.65
10-20 2.75-3.15 2.50-2.60
21-30 '3.15-3.00 2.60-2.50
April
lst-9th 2.85-3.00 2.50-2.85
10-20 3.15-3.50 2.85-2.85
21-30 3.35-3.25 2.65-2.50
May
lst-9th '3.25-2.85 2.25-2.25
10-20.....' 2.25-3.00 2.25-2.65
21-30 3.15-2.25 2.65-2.35
I'hiladel-New York phia
$3.25-3.25 $2.50-2.25 3.67-3.50 3.25-3.25 3.12-3.75 3.25-3.75
3.87-3.50 3.50-3.65 3.50-3.85 3.65-3.65 3.00-2.75 3.65-3.00
3.00-2.75 2.75-2.65 2.65-3.00 2.75-2.50 2.85-3.00 2.85-2.25
3.00-3.25 3.15-3.15 2>.VJ.35
2.35-3.00 2.25-3.10 3.00-2.50
2.65-2.50 2.35-1.85 2.50-3.00 2.00-3.35 3.25-2.50 2.85-3.50


LIMA BEANS
LOCATION.The counties of Alachua, Dade, Hillsborough, Marion and Palm Beach arc the principal producers of Lima beans in Florida.
VARIETIES.The Fordhook Bush Lima and the Henderson Bush Lima are the principal Florida varieties.
PLANTING.- Bush Lima beans are planted with rows 2 to 3 feet apart and 0 to 12 inches apart in the drills. From 4 to 5 pecks of seed will be required for an acre.
MATURITY.The Lima bean will mature in from 65 to 80 days from time seed are planted.
YIELD.The average yield of Florida Lima beans is from 100 to 125 hampers per acre.
COST.Exclusive of taxes, depreciation, etc., it will cost from $00-75 to grow an acre of Lima beans: cultivation $l.r>-20, seed $15, fertilizer $25-35, spraying S5. Cost per hamper delivered shipping point $1.00-1.25: growing 60c-75c, hamper 14c, picking and packing 25c, hauling 5c.
CONTAINER.The bushel hamper is the container used in Florida. The six-basket tomato crate and 32-quart crate have been used satisfactorily in some sections.
PACKING.The pack should consist of Lima beans of one variety, or of beans having similar varietal characteristics, which are fresh, firm, bright, reasonably uniform in size, and free from damage, caused by dirt, hail, disease, insects, or mechanical means. Hampers should be well filled and the pack reasonably tight to prevent shrinking in transit.
CARLOT LOADING.Under refrigeration tariffs specify that the first layer of hampers must be loaded on ends reversed and the hampers extend from end to end of car, completely filling the floor space, all other layers to be loaded in the same manner, tops against tops, and bottoms against bottoms. Hampers are usually loaded G-7 rows wide, 3 layers high, full length of car. An exception permits beans in hampers to be loaded on sides. Loaded lying flat, the rows run 5-0 wide, lengthwise the car 4-5 layers high, with alternate layers reversed. Average load 500-550 hampers. Shipped under refrigeration.
RATES.The following table gives the minimum carload freight and refrigeration charges on Lima beans in bushel hampers, and the rate per bushel hamper, from Center Hill, Florida, to important destinations. Express charges for l.c.l shipments in cents per 100 lbs. are also shown:
From Center Hill, Fla. To Minimum carload Minimum carload chnrges* Bate, based in cents per btl. hamper Standard refrigeration charges per car
New York....... Philadelphia..... Pittsburgh....... Chicago......... < 'incinnati....... Cleveland....... Detroit.......... 350 hprs 350 hprs 350 hprs 100 hprs 400 hprs 4(H) hprs 400 hprs $252.00 :;m mi 2(i!).50 250.00 250.00 2SS.00 238.00 29S.OO 300.00 .72 *.r,\}2 .86 \75>2 .77 VtV','., .74 .('.. .74 *.C7K. .72 .59}i 74! j ., 5 860.00 65.50 tin (in 00.00 76.50 70.50 70.00 76.50 81.00
Express charges, rate based in
cents per 100 lbs. Basis: Actual Weight
1 S3.15 per 100 lbs.
3.S7 per 100 lbs.
3.52 per 100 lbs.
3.22 per 100 lbs. | 3.57 per 100 lbs. | 3.62 per 100 lbs.
3.20 per 100 lbs.
3.71 per 100 lbs.
3.82 per 100 lbs.
1 li loaded 410 packages or more these rates per pnrkajrc apply.


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