• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Main














Group Title: Bulletin - Florida Department of Agriculture ; no. 88
Title: The production, distribution and competition of Florida vegetables
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002927/00001
 Material Information
Title: The production, distribution and competition of Florida vegetables
Series Title: <Bulletin> New Series
Physical Description: 163 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhodes, Neill
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: <Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1940>
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetable trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Neill Rhodes.
General Note: "October 1940."
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. Dept. of Agriculture) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002927
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001797119
oclc - 41560610
notis - AJM0848
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Section
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Acknowledgement
        Page 5
    Foreword
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Table of Contents
        Page 8
    Main
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





NEW SERIES
NUMBERR 88


THE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION

AND COMPETITION OF


#loi-aa


Veyetiales


NEILL RHODES
Assistant Marketing Commissioner


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


OCTOBER 1940 TALLAHASSEE. FLORIDA





NEW SERIES
NUMBER 88


THE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION

AND COMPETITION OF


Vje9etalet


NEILL RHODES
Assistant Marketing Commissioner


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


OCTOBER 1940 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


&7k4 dc~a






INTRODUCTION


Production, Distribution and Competition of Florida Vege-
tables is devoted to appropriate formation relating m the main
to the following subjects' The location in Florida of the pro-
ducing centers of each major truck crop,-the acreage by counties;
the principal commercial variety; the Florida and U S. grade;
the cost per acre of growing, the average per acre yield, and the
cost per designated package delivered Florida shippmg point;
the ordinary method of loading standard packed containers m
the car; the usual Florida shipping season, defined by the opening
and closing months, the carlot volume shipped in all the months
thereof, and individual season's total shipments by rail, boat and
truck for given periods, the methods of transportation and the
area of distribution, the simple average northern terminal market
jobbing sales prices by weeks and months, by seasons, the Jack-
sonville. Florida, index of home market prices by months; the
carlot competition, on a rail and boat basis, each of the principal
Florida vegetables has with domestic United States fresh and
storage supplies, also with import receipts, and the peak or low
price periods if such are possible to define,-all this information
appearing in brief but it is hoped adequate form under appro-
priate sub-titles, with the classification, contmuity and arrange-
ment running consistently under each of the following principal
vegetables of Florida: Green Beans. Lima Beans, Cabbage, Cel-
ery, Cucumbers. Eggplant, Lettuce, Green Peas, Peppers, Pota-
toes. Strawberries Tomatoes. rnd Watermelons
The supplementary Miscellaneous section includes specific,
principally sales average, information for several additional
Florida vegetables, which have not yet reached sufficient com-
mercial importance for long enough seasonal periods that as
complete data as were shown for the Principal Vegetables above
mentioned, are available for the following' Green Corn. Okra,
Squash, Bunched Beets, Broccoli, Bunched Carrots, Cauliflower,
Bunched Green Onions, Spinach. Sweet Potatoes, and Bunched
Turnips
Production. Distribution and Competition of Florida Vege-
tables is so arranged and abstracted that special information
required from any of the subjects embraced for all the vegetables
included, may be quickly located and extracted. This book is not
a theoretical perplexity, not a technical labyrinth, and is so writ-
ten that any grower may readily comprehend its contents.
The value of this work will in the final analysis be determin-
ed by how adequately the information it features serves the re-






quirements of the grower, shipper, marketing agency, student,
instructor, library, and those in general engaged or interested in
the vegetable industry of our State. As a public servant in the
Agricultural Department of the State of Florida, the author will
have failed in accomplishing the design of this contribution if
agricultural usage finds it in the slightest destitute of as complete
essential, pertinent text as may be anticipated upon referring to
any part of it.
NEILL RHODES,
Assistant Commissioner,
Florida State Marketing Bureau







ACKNOWLEDGMENT


To Mr. J. C. Townsend, Jr, Agricultural Statistician, Agri-
cultural Marketing Service, Division of Agricultural Statistics,
U S. D. A., Orlando, Florida, I am very grateful for his pains-
taking revision of county and state acreage statistics. All acreage
data in this publication are based upon records ol the Agricul-
tural Marketing Service of the U. S Department of Agriculture.
For much of the rail and boat shipment, and individual market
unload records, I am greatly indebted to Mr B. C Borce, Special-
ist in Market News, Agiicultural Marketing Service, U S D. A.,
Washington For checking loading methods and grades, the
Fedeial-State Inspection Ser\ ice Orlando. Fla. deserves a large
share of credit To all these sou ces. and others who so willingly
and coultcou l% cooperated in xcrifying essential information,
mi aiplieciation is far too meaogre compensation
For the valuable assistance of Mr. S W. Hiatt, for his help
in checkipi particularly the cost data with growers and shippers
in the leading shipping sections of Florida. I feel under renewed
obligation The author acknowledges w ith deep appreciation the
assistance icndecid in the prep.il;ation of Production. Distribu-
tion and Competition of Florida Vegetables by the clerical force
of the Flo ida State Marketilng Bureau. Preparing the many
statitical tabulations included, and typing the manuscript, in
addition to dich.crang their regular work routine, made the
assignment all the more burdensome
Finally, a word of acknowledgment to Commissioner of Agri-
culture linn Nathan Maxlo. and Assistant Commissioner Hon.
T J Brooks. whose issuance of this book makes the information
it contains available to the vegetable industry of Florida. not to
mention the release, under their guidance by the State Depart-
me-t of Anriculture, of so many other very creditable and most
useful publications on Florida agricultural subjects
Gratefully acknowledging the assistance of all who in any
way contributed to the pronaration of Production Distribution
and Comnetition of Florida Vegetables. I assume full resnonsibil-
itv for the text Since every word in the hook was written by the
author, no one else who mav have kindly sunolied or verified
some nart of the basic material. can be held responsible for the
final composition, or for the conclusions therein expressed.


-N R







FOREWORD


To emphasize the magnitude of the vegetable industry of the
United States, only the proportion flowing through commercial
channels, the rail and boat carlot shipment volume of the thir-
teen principal vegetables included in this book, for a ten-year
period, is shown m the following table:


Commlrodit 1930 1931 1i32 193 19 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
rcans iSnap
and I ia) 9,35 10,833 9,339 3 11,927 11 565 9,997 9,718 7,629 9.395 5,773
Cabbage 38 205 .8 798 28 .16 25,093 35,132 24,650 26 798 25,140 25,524 I8 746
Celen 21 411 22,503 20 359 18.421 19,616 17,998 19,683 21,781 21,222 20 134
CULmnbers 7663 6,480 4,722 4,134 3,955 5,286 4,066 3,128 4,274 3,227
Egg ilant .0 261 371 352 321 1U 274 206 319 253
Lettutcin &
Romneme 55,628 49 890 46,681 42 76q 44 158 46,99 49445 51 317 43,475 52,416
Peas Green 7,295 6,582 7 8 5 9,122 6,688 8,002 8,472 7850 6,481 7,793
PepI 3.145 2,803 2,150 3,02 2,162 1,975 2,667 2,422 3163 2242
Poltadie 2.2 11 211,00l 19) 158 2C4(82 223,12 22 22321 212S50 222023 211,279 197,583
Siraw-berries 10,)78 13,770 12,931 13,.12 12033 8.4J8 6 &J 7,689 6,513 7,251
Tomatoe 34 050 27,666 23.1i9 22,985 235240 23,236 25,269 21.176 353235 23 438
Waitrmelons 59,011 52 1 32 148 29,752 28 51 31 823 3,470 32.159 24 326 191142
504,372 472,722 387,449 334,911 413,193 30 950 t0 39 085 405 520 391.211 362 923


When imports and the amount of domestic production pro-
cessed or canned are taken into consideration, it must be admitted
that the Florida vegetable grower has by no means a monopoly
on the fresh vegetable supplies of the United States. However,
narrowing down the calendar year to the common Florida ship-
pmg season, consisting for the most part of the fall, winter and
spring months, the proportionate total of the above vegetables
supplied by Florida increases rapidly. The relative shipments of
a few products, lettuce for instance, provided by Florida make a
creditable but not boastful showing, while on the other hand the
comparative shipments of some Florida vegetables, beans and
tomatoes for instance, rank at or very near the top.

The Florida vegetable grower must keep abreast with the
quick changing methods of transportation, increasing tendency
toward shipping point sales in preference to consignment, mar-
keting facilities, improved seed strains, and economical produc-
tion cost and packing charges He must continually improve the
trade reputation of Florida vegetable quahty, which fundamen-
tally means an increasing interest in raising the grade standard
and securing certification thereof by official agencies. Even
though such requirements may not be legally compulsory, a plain
survival of the fittest will bestow upon the Florida vegetable
industry such rank as may be earned by the degree of alertness
exercised in placing on the markets the finest quality at the low-
est possible cost.





After serving an agricultural branch of the State Govern-
ment of Florida for more than 23 years, I am convinced of one
fact: No more patient and courageous group of farmers ever
tilled the soil than those engaged in Florida vegetable growing.
It requires intestinal fortitude of the unquestionable sort to sur-
vive depression, drought, floods, freezes, competition, along with
normal adversities, and then lead the nation in the commercial
volume of green beans, for instance. No weakling can look
across a field of beans or other vegetables after it has been frozen
to the ground, which was the day before being marketed at good
prices, in which crop a long period of hard labor and frequently
borrowed capital is invested, and before sunset,-and after sunset
many times,-plant beneath the ruins another crop and start anew
from scratch. The Florida Everglades growers have done just
that! They have done this too without cheap foreign labor, and
without inter-racial difficulties. With inherent courage and en-
viable patience, given efficient and honest leadership, the Florida
grower will more than survive,-he will take the lead. To help
him in every conservative way is a challenge to all agricultural
departments, and the citizenry as well, of the State of Florida.










TABLE OF CONTENTS


The Principal Vegetable Truck Crops of Florida


Pages
Beans. Green 9-19
Beans. Lima 20-27
Cabbage 28-37
Celery 38-52
Cucumbers 53-63
Eggplant 63-73
Lettuce 74-84
Peas. Green 85-92
Potatoes 93-109
Peppers 110-120
Strawberries 121-129
Tomatoes 130-143
Watermelons 144-152


Miscellaneous Florida Farm Crops

Corn, Green 154-156
Okra 157-158
Squash 159-160
Beets, Bunched 161
Broccoli 161
Carrots, Bunched 161
Cauliflower 162
Onions, Green, Bunched 162
Spinach 162
Sweet Potatoes 162-163
Turnips, Bunched 163






Thi Piodraltzoln, Diltribution inid Comptzliton of Florida VegltabIle 9

GREEN BEANS
Acreagc.-The location, where and inm what volume grown,
of the commercial snap bean producing sections in Florida is in-
dicated by the following compilation of Florida snap bean acreage
by counties, for the seasons 1928-29 to 1939-40 exclusive. Note the
acreage in Broward and Palm Beach counties m 1939-40 compared
to that in 1928-29:

County 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939*
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Alachua 900 1,250 1,100 1.200 1,000 350 00 400 600 600 7001 800
Bradford 400 410 250 350 150 200 200 300 200 200 200 200
Brevard 50 -. --
Broward 5,450 5,300 7,300 7700 19000 14,000 17,600 23,000 22,800 21.000 17,200 12,800
Clay 10 100 50 50 -- -
Colher 200 100 300 100 50 50 -
Columbia 100 100 100 10 --
Dade B50 1,100 1,000 500 1,500 650 2.100 2,200 ,200 500 2,700 950
De Soto 50 150 50 100 100 50 50 50
Gadsden 500 500 50 0 500 130 200 100 100 100 400 400 400
Glades 125 300 150 150 100 50 50 200 300 200 200 200
Hardee 650 300 250 100 100 75 50 50 50 50 50 50
Hendry 700 850 600 225 275 350 700 900 700 700 600 400
Heinando 100 210 200 325 200i 350 200 173 150 100 100 250
Highlands 100 50 300 300 400 300
Hillsboto 950 1,100 825 550 550 700 1,200 600 800 1,600 1,600 1,100
Indian R 1,000 800 650 500 450 300 400 450 300 250 250 250
Lake 175 35 100 100 100 100
Lee 50 50 200 -
Levy 175 150 300J 550 500 3 300 300 350 300 450 400
Manatee 125 300 400 200 500 700 150 150 100 100 100
Marion 2,075 4100 2,9150 3000 3300 2300 1,700 1,700 2,000 2,000 1,100 2,000
Martin 750 450 350 275 325 350 400 300 200 400 400 800
Okeechobee 325 500 300 700 800 1,300 1,3010 1,100 1,300 80)0 400 300
Orange 2 20 225 530 530 350 500 400 300 550 500 400 450
Osceola 15 75 100 50 25 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
P Beach 7.300 11,000 14,500 19,000 18.600 35,800 36,000 25,300 25,100 28,800 35,00 27.800
Pasco 100 50 50 100 100 200 50 100 100 100
Polk 350 50 200 125 100 100 i00 100 100 100 100
Putnam 100 33 50 50 100 100 100 100 400
St Johns 25 50 25 -- 100 100
St Lueie 300 850 450 325 425 011 400 450 500 300 250 150
Sarasota 35 20 150 50 150 50 50 50
Seminole 300 463 650 875 300 700 250 323 450 450 400 400
Sumter 2,400 4000 5,200 2,700 1,250 1,150 650 300 250 400 300 400
Union 315 450 125 100 100 100 s5 100 100 100
Volusia l 25 -- 100 o100
Mids 150 500 500 575_ 25 50 100 50 400
State Total 27,000 33,800 40,000 41,500 50,800 61,300 65,500 59,200 58,800 60,700 64,000 52,000*
The following shows a broken-down arrangement of the
above state total acreage figures, giving the fall, winter and
spring total acreage of each season, 1932-33 to 1939-40 seasons
inclusive:
Season Fall wi mter Spring Total
1932-33 10.50 26,800 13,500 50,800
1933-34 20.500 20,000 20,800 61,300
1934-35 14,000 28,000 23,500 65,500
1935-36 11.000 29,100 19,100 59,200
1936-37 18,200 28,900 11,700 58,800
1937-38 12.500 30,000 18,200 60,700
1938-39 18.000 31,000 15,000 64,000
1939-40 15,000 17,000 20,000 52,000*
*Preliminary






10 The Productton, Distribution and Competltion of Florida vegetable

Variety.-The principal commercial varieties of green beans
shipped from Florida are Bountiful, Black Valentine, Tender-
green, Giant Stringless, Plentiful. Several varieties of pole and
wax beans are grown in different sections of the State.
Grade.-(U. S. and Florida Standards for Snap Beans)-
Introduction.-The tolerances for the standards are on a container
basis. However, individual packages in any lot may vary from
the specified tolerances as stated below, provided the averages
for the entire lot, based on sample inspection, are within the
tolerances specified.
For a tolerance of 10 percent or more, individual packages
in any lot may contain not more than one and one-half times
the tolerance specified.
For a tolerance of less than 10 percent, individual packages
in any lot may contain not more than double the tolerance speci-
fied.
Grades
U. S. Fancy shall consist of beans of similar varietal char-
acteristics which are of reasonable and fairly uniform size, well
formed, bright, clean, fresh, young and tender, firm, and free
from damage caused by leaves, leaf stems, other foreign matter,
hail, disease, insects or mechanical or other means
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight,
of the beans in any container may be below the requirements of
this grade, but not more than 5 percent shall be allowed for de-
fects causing serious damage, and not more than 1 percent shall
be allowed for beans affected by soft rot.
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of beans of similar varietal char-
acteristics which are of reasonable size, fairly well formed, fair-
ly bright, fresh, fairly young and tender, firm. and free from
damage caused by dirt, leaves, leaf stems, other foreign matter,
hail, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight, of
the beans in any container may be below the requirements of this
grade, but not more than 5 percent shall be allowed for defects
causing serious damage, and not more than 1 percent shall be al-
lowed for beans affected by soft rot.
U. S. Combination shall consist of a combination of U S. No.
1 and U. S. No. 2 snap beans, provided that at least 75 percent,
by weight, meet the requirements of U. S. No. 1 grade
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and
handling, not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight, of the
beans in any container may be below the requirements of U. S.





The Prodictio,, Dit.lrabltton and Competrtton of Florida 'egetables 11

No. 2 grade, but not more than 1 percent shall be allowed for
beans affected by soft rot. No part of this tolerance shall be al-
lowed to reduce for the lot as a whole, the percentage of U. S.
No. 1 beans required in the combination but individual con-
tainers may have not more than 10 percent less than the percent-
age of U. S. No. 1 beans required.
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of beans of similar varietal char-
acteristics which are fairly fresh, firm and not over-mature and
free from serious damage caused by dirt, leaves, leaf stems, other
foreign matter, hail, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight, of
the beans in any container may be below the requirements of
this grade but not more than 1 percent shall be allowed for
beans affected by soft rot.
Unclassified shall consist of beans which are not graded in
conformity with the foregoing grades.

Definitions of Terms.
As used m these standards.
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the beans are of
the same color and general type. For example, wax and green
beans, or beans of the Refugee or Valentine types must not be
mixed.
"Reasonable size" means that the pods are not spindly or
excessively short for the variety and have not been prematurely
picked.
"Well formed" means that the pods have the normal typical
shape for the variety
"Firm" means that the pods are not wilted or flabby.
"Damage" means any injury or defect which materially af-
fects the appearance or the edible or shipping quality. Pods hav-
ing spots due to Blight or Anthracnose, and similar spots caused
by other diseases shall be considered as damaged.
"Fairly well formed" means that the pods are not badly
crooked, curled, twisted or otherwise badly misshapen for the
variety Excessively tapered pods caused by unfavorable pollin-
ating or growing conditions shall not be considered as fairly well
formed.
"Overmature" means that the walls of the pods are distinctly
woody or fibrous.
"Serious damage" means any injury or defect which seriously
affects the appearance or the edible or shipping quality
Effective date' August 1, 1936. Revision to Oct 1, 1940.






12 The Princtl'ln. fihtriltIion tnl Con-pItcoi p' Firld.: 1 rgI llz"es

Growing Cost.-The general State's average cost of growing
a crop of beans in Florida, not including land cost. rental, taxes
or depreciation, will range from S40 to $75 per acre: Prepara-
tion and cultivation of land $12.50-26.50; seed $6 50-9 00: fertilizer
$15-30: spraying and miscellaneous $6.00-9 50-or 40c-75c hamper,
on a yield for instance of 100 hampers per acre. The cost of
beans delivered at loading station will average from 90c-$1.30 per
hamper: Growing 40c-75c; picking 22c-25c; grading and packing
(most beans in the Lake Okeechobee section are belt graded) 9c-
10c. hamper 14c-15c; hauling 5c.
Loading in Car.-Beans in carlots by rail are shipped under
refrigeration. The bushel hamper is the standard container in
general use in shipping Florida beans. The hampers are usually
loaded in each end of car. 8 stacks, 5 and 6 rows wide. 5 and 6
layers high on sides, with hampers alternately reversed, or layers
of hampers alternately reversed Irregular loading between door-
ways The average load per car is about 572, ranging from 446 to
660 hampers or more per car
Florida Shipments -The following tabulation shows the rail
and boat shipments of Florida beans, limas included, by weeks.
from November 4 through May 25, for five seasons, 1935-36
through 1939-40, and truck shipments. limas not included, for the
two seasons 1938-39 and 1939-40 (previous seasons unavailable)
by weeks. Shipments by rail and boat, monthly from Octobel
through the following June each season, for eight seasons 1932-33
through 1939-40 are also included-

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Rail and Boat)
Nov. Nov Nov Nov. Dec. De Dec. Dec De. Jan. Jan Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb.
Season 4 II 18 5 2 9 16 23 30 6 1 20 27 3 10
935-36 -. 214 271 270 169 49 63 46 57 86 134 220 147 182 29 211
1936-37 230 285 283 287 314 319 276 202 205 259 316 365 237 1 3 109
1937-38 123 188 202 250 220 119 107 149 175 162 172 197 157 156 258
l138-39 188 (18 303 352 293 163 188 214 233 187 130 146 127 149 168
1939-40 301 87 92 134 97 70 71 133 118 105 115 151 104 59 17
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Truck)
1938-39 80 133 122 149 123 159 191 181 152 209 222 216 160 20 194
1939-40 85 116 167 136 13 144 184 117 174 216 25 111 39 7

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Rail and Boat)
Feb Feb. Mrh Mrh Mch Mbch Mch Apr. Apr. Apr. pr May Ma MayMay
Season 17 24 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 4 11 18 2
1935-36 230 26 271 179 120 13: 145 10 207 283 214 249 19 99 31
1936-37 114 98 82 73 102 171 233 254 149 199 159 147 94 53 31
1937-3 223 224 141 193 256 273 378 384 319 379 283 68 45 38 27
1938-39 144 104 51 59 82 94 160 145 183 186 274 116 51 32 53
1939-40 14 2 0 0 0 3 34 200 207 147 183 268 243 145 73
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Truck)
198-39 200 0 11 115 184 204 28 225 259 256 311 209 157 48 21
3-40 6 1 3 4 12 37 82 25 327 27 321 415 383 243 1






Tin P iiodll iiu I),ithlitin and C(i ompiltoII n on Filorila Ir. labl0 s 13

SIIPMLENTS BY MOVIIIS (Rall and Boat)
SEASON Oct XNv. Dee Jan. Feb., Mllh, Apr ay JunTTotal
1932-33 407 597 603 1513 1373 1332 1423 597 17 7868
1933- 4 204 1522 1279 1454 1049 1321 1429 1007 63 9328
1D34- 5 37 9o3 508 G5 1401 1508 1509 399 17 6399
195- 36 144 1028 246 717 949 772 885 623 37 5411
19, -37 271 1143 1183 1262 470 337 841 233 65 61:B
197- 38 131 3j0 631 730 R5 1103 1473 192 21 6044 (2Jiul
193 39 303 1223 894 663 320 404 835 238 37 5137
1939-40 153 432 430 500 59 53 854 691 25 3197

Transportation and Distribution.-Changes in the method of
transportation of Florida green and Lima beans have been so
rapid m recent years that comparatively few realize it, that for
instance in the 1938-39 season less than one-half the total bean
shipments moved by rail, compared to four-fifths the total in
1934-35. that more than one-half moved by truck, compared to
only one-seventh the total in 1934-35. The following figures of
total Florida bean shipments by rail with pick-up express in-
cluded, boat and truck Limas included, with percentages of each,
by seasons, will better illustrate this point

1938-3'i 193T-18 1936-37 193N-36 11)4-35
C 1i c C,/s C C 1s % C/i % C/ls %
Rail shipments 4475 40 -, 5723, 63 o3920 72o, 5231 84% 613 83%
Boat shDirnents b2 6<, 319 4'o 219 3% 180 3% 260 3%
Truck shipments 5925 54 3000 33 ; 2100 235 800 13%; 1000 14%
Total 11062 100%1 9044 100C 8239 100% 6211 100% 7399 100%

In view of the facilities used for shipping Florida beans, the
increase in truck volume is of particular interest The merchant
trucker having his own money in the shipment, and fairly regu-
lar trade contacts, will usually distribute the load more profitably
than the grower who depends upon consignment of 1 l ship-
ments to the larger markets Rail passing of Florida beans have
been primarily destined to Eastern (north of Potomac Yards),
Western (Cincinnati, and beyond the Ohio and Mississippi cross-
ings), and Southern territory (on and south of the Ohio and Po-
tomac rivers, and on and east of the Mississippi), in the five fol-
lowing seasons, percentage basis, as follows

1938- 3 1937-18 1936-37 1933536 1934-35
PaI"iis E1stern territory 64i% 6'5% 70% 71% 70%
Prs ings Weqiein territory 29%i 27% 24% 22% 24%
Pasilngs Southern tellitorv 7%. 8V 6% 7% 6%

It will be noted from the above that about two-thirds of the
total rail passing are destined to Eastern territory, declining
some in more recent seasons, and that passing to Western terri-
tory have increased slightly. The average passing to Southern
territory have about held their own.







14 The Produl tw., Dlri),buiton iSd Comrpetallin or Florid I retables

The following tabulation shows in more detail the volume of
rail and boat actually unloaded on important markets, for which
carlot unload records are available, for five calendar years, with
the proportion of the total Florida rail and boat shipments that
is accounted for on these markets:


1939 19381
8 16
400 669 4
1668 2652 24
167 305 3
141 222 1
17 2401-64,3% 27 3891-57 1%7
475 787 5
195 369 1
125 181 1
205 287
35 94
50 1085-2 0' 166 1884.277 ,


937 1936
11 51
32 469
04 2891
87 548
33 unav
443411-657% 101
43 523
185 217
00 105
32 202
30 75
86 1176-226 130


1935
72
460
291
473
190
4060-62 5% 122 4008-63 4-
484
194
112
188
72
1252-18 9', 152 1202-190 ,


Total above 3486-93 3, 5775-84 8% 4587-88 3 5312-804% 5210-824%
Shipments 3736 6810 5192 6594 6317
(Cal. year)


Complete carlot unload records of Florida beans by rail, ex-
press included, boat and truck for New York and Philadelphia
(other markets complete, unavailable) are given below for the
same five years included in the foregoing tabulation:


1939
N.Y. Phil.
Rail-Exp. 1196 162
Boat 472 5
Truck 1438 1071
Total 3106 1238


1938
N.Y. Phil.
2275 294
3V7 11
777 858
3429 1163


Official carlot rail unloads are
Southern cities, but the following
equivalents of truck passing that
named cities in the 1938-39 season'


Atlanta 410 Columbus
Asheville 26 Durham
Augusta 30 Creensboro
Birmingham 129 Greenville
Charleston 23 Knoxville
Charlotte 57 Louisville
Chattanooga 18 I.;nchburg
Columbia 83 Macon


unavailable for the smaller
table will show the carlot
were primarily destined to


Memphis
Mobile
Month gomer
New Bern
New Orleans
Norfolk
Raleigh


Richmond
Roanoke
Savannah
Spartanburg
Winston-Salcm


The total green and Lima bean truck shipments in 1938-39
amounted to 5925 carlot equivalents. Doubtless a few of the above
passing were finally destined to points beyond, not unloaded in
the cities specified, but as a basis, the tabulation indicates that
more than one-fourth the total truck shipments of beans in


Baltunore
Boston
New York
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Washington
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Detroit
Kansas City
St Louis






ITi Prodiltwon,, 1iitnbutloi aind LIompeIIItn Florid ii egetables 15

1938-39 were sold on Southern markets It was shown above that
7% of the rail passing in 1938-39 were destined to Southern ter-
ritory, in the calendar year 1939 total carlot rail unloads in mar-
kets outside Southern territory accounted for 93% the total rail
shipments Because of shorter haul and quicker trip, less com-
petition by rail and boat in these Southern centers, it is natural
that a larger percentage of truck passing than rail shipments
would be distributed in Southern markets. New York and Phil-
adelphia are the two most important markets for Florida beans,
receiving more than one-half the total rail, boat and truck ship-
ped volume, in 1939
Northern Market Averages.-The following unweighted sim-
ple average ten-terminal-market destination jobbing sales prices
of Florida green beans, preferred varieties, bushel hampers, No. 1
or top quote basis, include five seasons 1935-36 through 1939-40
by weeks, and eight seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40 by months'

Weekly
Prices Nov. Nov. Nov. Nov. Dec. Dec. Dec.
Season 4 11 18 25 2 9 16
1935 36 $169 1 41 1 93 237 347 3.36 4.09
1936-37 156 167 1,84 2,03 200 1.56 1.46
1937-38 2 84 2,18 2.22 2 13 1.73 2.44 315
1938-39 136 134 162 148 161 1.47 1.76
1939-40 1 77 243 276 265 248 2.45 2.91

Dec. Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb.
23 30 6 13 20 27 3 10
1935-36 5.12 444 342 3 00 2 69 284 267 230
193637 147 1,52 201 227 184 202 245 3.16
1937-38 311 290 267 272 234 231 282 261
1938-39 1.65 160 151 186 2,21 251 223 221
1939-40 2 75 2 08 2 31 244 2 22 274 375 4.23

Weekly
Prices Feb. Feb. Mch. Mch. Mch M h. Mch.
Season 17 24 2 9 16 23 30
1935-36 2 66 244 229 2,50 2.87 3.92 3.48
193637 339 414 417 412 413 382 289
1937-38 2 27 189 199 2 57 2 46 197 1.84
1938-39 2.40 2 59 3 31 4.04 3.81 3.15 3.05
1939-40 5.18 5 09 629 647 691 5.63 4.86

Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr. May May May May
6 13 20 27 4 11 18 25
193536 3 65 313 276 2 29 215 189 192 172*
1936-37 3.02 3.06 3.38 286 2.96 3.11 2,31 1.65*
1937-38 1.71 1 67 1.76 1 64 1.45 1 25 1.33 1.23
1938-39 2.09 229 2.27 2.22 181 198 153 148*
1939-40 3.09 2.02 2.42 249 2.14 1.70 1.51 1.89






16 The Prodiction, Distrhbut'on and Cornpettton of Florda Vegetables

Monthly
Prices
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
1932-33 $_.... $2.21 3.58 1.95 169 2 41 1.77 1.61
1933-34 1.48 1.50 196 2.35 251 2.37 1.63
1934-35 .__ 2.47 2.99 5.96 2.83 1,79 2.06 120
1935-36 .... 1.84 402 3.10 2.53 2.96 308 1.88
1936-37 .. 1.78 160 2.04 325 3.94 3.06 2.64
1937-38 2.30 2.70 252 2.43 2.19 1.72 1.32
1938-39 146 1.59 2.06 243 353 2.23 176
1939-40. 251 2.56 2.62 4.73 6.03 248 1.82
*Incomplete, all markets not quoted for whole week, or month.

Florida (Jacksonville) Averages.-The followmg simple, un-
weighted jobbing price averages by months, of Florida green
beans, in bushel hampers, give an index of Florida home market
quotations. The period from January 1926 through June 1940, by
months, is included:

YEAR JAN. FEB. M AR. An MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC.
1926 -- 5.15 0 7.30 340 297 1.81 214 373 3.54 2.65 223 2.36
1927 5,36 6 22 3 60 2 16 1 63 2,41 256 236 258 2.40 163 1 7
1928 440 507 3.59 261 1.57 160 217 361 423 350 332 2.52
1929 __ 354 2 62 2,51 220 110 127 233 302 2.80 255 274 228
1930. 2.93 302 4.10 3.56 185 124 287 237 2.71 1.58 155 285
1931 4 82 4 05 3 90 2 55 1,52 1 33 2.95 1.85 1 93 1 93 1.51 150
1932 166 229 305 349 150 .70 127 2.04 2.01 1.36 188 299
1933 205 1 54 170 129 1.74 211 289 105 141 224 118 99
1934 151 1.91 201 1.85 9ar 8or 2 07r 2 44r 1 78r 1 36r 212 231
1935 5.33 2,36 160 168 78 108 154 159 193 235 105 312
1936 2,28 161 101 192 125 1.19 159 1.28 124 100 127 125
1937 124 232 2,62 216 1.46 1.18 134 156 167 1.76 1.84 195
1938 180 1 83 1 37 84 .61 1.10 .85 1 65 2 01 1 55 81 98
1939 1.31 1.67 2 60 1 43 .67 96r 1 64r 1 41r 1 19r 1 59r 1 79 195
1940 1 98 394 5 22 188 115 1 18
*Part month
r-Southern offerings

Competition.-The competition given by other States to Flor-
ida bean shipments is the greatest in the early fall and late
spring period of the Florida shipping season. Domestic competi-
tion is the least in the period December, January, February and
March, and latter November and early April might be included
since normally bean shipments from other States are compara-
tively light in these part months Bean shipments are made from
Louisiana and Texas in more months of the Florida season
than from other States, but Mississippi, North Carolina, South
Carolina and Virginia ship beans in October ahead of initial ship-
ments from Florida, and shipments from Arkansas, Georgia,
Maryland, New Jersey and Tennessee continue after the Florida
season closes in June. Consequently, early Florida fall shipments
if made before killing frost largely eliminates shipments from
other States, and the late Florida spring shipments if continued





I he I' IroItlon, D t,,btdoi and Cormpliton o Florida l, gelble, 17

after a number ot other States are shipping heavily, must bring
proportionately lower prices.
Impoit competition of beans, prmcipally Limas, to Florida of-
ferings comes mainly from Cuba in the period of the Florida ship-
ping season. December through March, the total volume annually
amounting to 4-5 of the Florida rail and boat shipments Mexico
with less on the average than a dozen cars annually, gives neg-
ligible competition in the eastern territory. The few cars from
Puerto Rico are less in volume than the Mexican imports The
Lima bean import competition in the months ol December, Janu-
ary. February and March is considerably greater to Florida ship-
ments than the domestic volume supplied by other States, and
being placed largely on a few eastern port markets is still more
competitive than if distributed to a number of inland markets.
The following tabulation shows the extent of competition
eiven to Florida green beans. Limas included. on the basis of rail
and boat shipments, during each of the 9 months, October to June
inclusive, for 11 seasons 1928-29 through 1938-39. total U. S
shipments, minus Florida shipments, equals Florida competitive
shipments'


SEASON


Total U S Shipments
1928-29 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S)
Total U. S Shipments
1929-30 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S)


OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB.

406 323 218 119 432
0 160 203 119 432
406 163 15 0 0
818 458 993 591 452
9 298 993 591 452
809 160 0 0 0


Total U S Shipments 629 1.102
1930-31 Florida Shipments 224 1,019
Competitive (U S.) 405 83


Total U S Shipments
1931-32 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S )
Total U S Shipments
1932-33 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S )
Total U S. Shipments
1933-34 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S)


333 214 273
333 214 272
0 0 1


773 1,400 1,406 1,260 924
330 1,330 1.403 1,254 876
443 70 3 6 48
951 746 603 1,515 1,375
407 597 603 1,515 1,375
544 149 0 0 0
401 1,692 1,298 1,458 1,050
204 1,522 1,279 1,454 1,049
197 170 19 4 1






18 The Prodiuclon, Disriiiiitton and Compnition ol Florida vegetables

SEASON OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB.
Total U. S Shipments 502 1,100 510 65 1,401
1934-35 Florida Shipments 37 955 508 65 1,401
Competitive (U. S.) 465 145 2 0 0
Total U. S. Shipments 480 1,176 304 724 949
1935-36 Florida Shipments _. 144 1,028 246 717 949
Competitive (U. S.) 336 148 58 7 0
Total U S Shipments 691 1,209 1,188 1,262 470
1936-37 Florida Shipments 271 1,145 1,185 1,262 470
Competitive (U. S.) 420 64 3 0 0
Total U S. Shipments 437 996 654 737 867
1937-38 Florida Shipments 151 850 651 736 865
Competitive (U. S.)_ 286 146 3 1 2
Total U. S. Shipments 670 1,332 894 663 521
1938-39 Florida Shipments 303 1,223 894 663 520
Competitive (U. S ) 367 109 0 0 1
Total
MAR. APR. MAY JUNE (9 mos.)
Total U S. Shipments 731 1,601 2,567 1,259 7,656
1928-29 Florida Shipments .687 1,276 371 3 3,251
Competitive (U. S.) 44 325 2,196 1,256 4,405

Total U S. Shipments 468 1,045 2,552 2,073 9,450
1929-30 Florida Shipments ... 390 594 728 58 4,113
Competitive (U. S ) 78 451 1,824 2,015 5.337

Total U. S. Shipments 459 1.101 2,540 1,980 8,631
1930-31 Florida Shipments .. 433 760 995 65 4,315
Competitive (U. S.) 26 341 1,545 1,915 4.316

Total U. S. Shipments 592 273 2,430 1,271 10,329
1931-32 Florida Shipments .._ 456 264 987 41 6,941
Competitive (U. S ) 136 9 1,443 1,230 3,388
Total U. S Shipments 1,363 1,807 1,492 627 10,479
1932-33 Florida Shipments 1,332 1,425 597 17 7,868
Competitive (U. S) 31 382 895 610 2,611
Total U S. Shipments 1,338 1,564 2,561 1,116 12,478
1933-34 Florida Shipments 1,321 1,429 1,007 63 9,328
Competitive (U. S, ) 17 135 1,554 1,053 3,150





IA; h roudaic o,, DI Itrtl t i n al t.iui p twn :! t I r I i 1, Iabhi 19


MAR.
Total U S Shipmonts 1.508
1:34-35 Florida Shipment, 1,508

Competitive (U, S,) 0
Total U, S Shipments 773
1935-36 Florida Shipments 772
Competitive (U S) I
Total U S Shipmnentc 548
1936-37 Florida Shipments 537
Competitive (U S) 11


Total U S Shipment.s
1937-38 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S)
Total U S Shipmenlts
19.38-39 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U. S.)


APR. MAY JUNE (9 mos.)
1 685 2,017 1.067 9.855
1 509 399 17 6,399


889 1,384 685 8,326
841 363 65 6,139
48 1,021 620 2,187


1 147 1691 1,347 563 8,439
1,103 1.473 192 21 6,042
44 218 1,155 542 2,397
432 411 1,153 377 6,953
404 835 258 37 5,137
28 76 895 340 1,816


The mid-season peliod,--that is January, February, March
and early April-is that in which Florida bean shipments bring
the highest prices. This high-price, mid-winter period has its
attendant frost risks, and it is not practical for growers in all of
the Florida bean producing sections to time their harvesting ex-
clusively for the high-prico period. Bean producers with less
danger of cold damage to their crops m November and Decem-
ber have averaged fairly good prices for bean shipments made in
these months The season's weighted average is what counts and
heavy shipments at only fair prices yield more revenue in some
seasons than very limited supplies at exceptionally high prices





20 The Production, Dstribution and CompettWon of Florida Vegetabs

LIMA BEANS
Acreage.-The principal producing sections of Florida Lima
Beans are in Alachua and Palm Beach counties. The tabulation
below shows the acreage by counties for the seasons 1934 to 1940
inclusive:
County 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940
Alachua 200 200 500 1150 1800 1350 1350
Bradford .... ---.- 150 200 150 50
Broward -1- 1 10 1 00 100 200 250 250 200
Dade .... 200 200 300 100 150 250 100
Highlands ..100 100 150
Marion 200 200 250 50 50 50 100
Palm Beach 700 700 500 700 1500 2100 1400
St Luce -- -- 300 .
Miscellaneous 100 100 150 50 150 550 650
State Total 1500 1500 1800 2400 4500 4800 4000
Preliminary

Variety.-The Fordhook Bush and the Henderson Bush are
the principal commercial varieties of Lima beans grown in
Florida.
Grade.-(U. S. and Florida Standards for Lima Beans)-In-
troduction. Numbers in parentheses following grade terms indi-
cate where such terms are defined under Definitions of Terms.
The tolerances for the standards are on a container basis.
However, individual packages in any lot may vary from the
specified tolerances as stated below, provided the averages for
the entire lot, based on sample inspection, are within the toler-
ances specified.
For a tolerance of 10 percent or more, individual packages
in any lot may contain not more than one and one-half times the
tolerance specified.
For a tolerance of less than 10 percent, individual packages
m any lot may contain not more than double the tolerance speci-
fied.
Grades
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of pods of Lima beans of similar va-
rietal characteristics (1) which are fairly well filled and not ex-
cessively small (2), not badly misshapen (4), and which are fresh
(5), and not overmature (7), free from soft decay, sprouted beans,
worm holes and from damage (8) caused by dirt, russeting, scars,
leaves or other foreign matter, freezing, hail, disease, insects or
mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight, of





The Pl >d,;ii,,, D)tni.lai,,iln iad ( r mpd( tli, l n of Ilorda I regetasil 21

the pods of Lima beans in any container may be below the re-
quirements of this grade, but not more than one-half of this tol-
erance, or 5 percent, shall be allowed for defects causing serious
damage, and not more than one-fifth of this amount, or 1 percent,
shall be alloIoed for Lima beans affected by soft decay
U. S. Combination shall consist of a combination of U S No.
1 and U S. No 2 Lima beans, provided that at least 75',, by
weight, meet the requirements of U S No. 1 grade
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight, of
the pods of Lima beans in any container may be below the re-
quirements of U. S. No 2 grade, but not more than one-tenth of
this amount, or 1 percent. shall be allowed for Lima beans affected
by soft deca.- No part of this tolerance shall be allowed to re-
duce for the lot as a \whole the percentage of U S. No I Lima
beans required in the combination but individual containers may
have not more than 10 percent less than the percentage of U. S.
No 1 Lima beans requi-red.
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of pods of Lima beans of similar
varietal characteristics (1). which are reasonably well filled (3),
fairly fresh (6) and not over mature (7), free from soft decay and
from serious damage (9) caused by dirt. russeting, scars, leaves
or other foreign matter, freezing, hail, disease, insects or mechan-
ical or other means
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and
handling not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight of the
pods of Lima beans in any container may be below the require-
ments of this grade but not more than one-tenth of this amount,
or 1 percent. shall be allowed for Lima beans affected by soft
decay
Unclassified shall consist of pods of Lima beans which have
not been classified in accordance with any of the foregoing
grades The term "unclassified" is not a grade within the mean-
ing of these standards but is provided as a designation to show
that no definite grade has been applied to the lot

Definitions of Terms
As used in these standards:
1. "Similar varietal characteristics" means that the pods of
Lima beans i any container are of the same general type.
2. "Fairly well filled and not excessively small" means that
more than one-half of each pod shall be filled with fairly well
and/or well developed beans but that no pod may have less than
two fairly well and/or well developed beans. Pods that are just
half filled with at least fairly well developed beans but have





22 The Produclon, Dlstrlbutton and CompelttoW n of Florida I gtablE(

enough additional beans a little smaller than those considered
fairly well developed so as to make the equivalent in volume to
the beans in a pod more than half filled with at least fairly well
developed beans, shall be considered as fairly well filled
3. "Reasonably well filled" means that not less than a third
of each pod is filled with fairly well and/or well developed beans
Pods that are not a third filled with at least fairly well developed
beans but have enough beans a little smaller than those consid-
ered fairly well developed so as to make the equivalent m vol-
ume to the beans m a pod one-third filled with at least fairly well
developed beans, shall be considered reasonably well filled.
4. "Badly misshapen" means that the pods are badly con-
stricted, crooked, curled, twisted or otherwise badly malformed.
5. "Fresh" means that the pods are not more than slightly
wilted and flabby
6. "Fairly fresh" means that the pods are not badly wilted
and flabby.
7. "Overmature" means that the beans have developed be-
yond that stage of growth at which they are desirable for use as
fresh beans. Pods that are becoming yellow and dry or beans that
do not show a tinge of green color on the cotyledons after re-
moving the outer skin. or have become hard starchy and brittle
shall be considered as overmature.
8. "Damage" means any injury or defect which materially
affects the appearance or the edible or shipping quality Dirt or
russeting which materially detracts from the appearance of the
lot shall be considered as damage.
9 "Serious damage" means any injury or defect which
seriously affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality
Effective date January 5. 1938. Revision to Oct 1 1940
Growing Cost -Exclusive of land cost or rental, taxes, in-
terest and depreciation, it will cost S50-80 per acre to grow Lima
beans in Florida' Preparation of land and cultivation of crop $12-
22, seed $10-14; fertilizer $25-40; spraying and miscellaneous $3-4
The cost per hamper delivered loading station will average 95c
$135: Growing, on the basis of an average yield of 100 hampers
per acre, 50-80c, picking, grading and packing 25-35c, hamper
14c: hauling 5c.
Loading in Car.-Beans in carlots by rail are shipped under
refrigeration. The bushel hamper is the standard container in gen-
eral use in shipping Florida beans. The hampers are usually
loaded in each end of car, 8 stacks, 5 and 6 rows wide, 5 and 6
layers high on sides, with hampers alternately reversed, or layers
of hampers alternately reversed. Irregular loading between door






7 iP, l'd 2iuon, D.l.tibultion and Compclzt.omn of Flcorda VegTables


ways. The average load per car is about 572, ranging from 446
to 660 hampers or more per car. In northern and central parts of
Florida, most of the Lima bean shipments move out in refrig-
erated trucks.
Florida Shipments.-Rail and boat lines do not report Lima
bean shipments separately from green bean shipments and ship-
ment information for green beans by rail and boat included Lima
bean shipments m the seasons shown The truck volume has been
available for the seasons 1938-39 and 1939-40, and the following is
a record of reported truck passing m carlot equivalent volume
by weeks for these two seasons, butterbean shipments shown
separately in 1939-40

No- Nov NoI Nov Dee. Dee. Der. Dee. Dec Jan. Jan. Jan Jan.
4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27
1938-39 L Icl Idl. I, idl. Ici 2 cl ll 2 8 8 6 9
1939-40 L 0 Icl dL. I cl Idle 2 3 3 7 5 6 2
1939-40 B 0 ll Ic cl d cl Idc. Id. Icl. Id. idc. Id Id. Icl
Feb. Feb Feb Feb. Mch Mich Mch Mch. IMe Apr Apr. Apr Apr.
3 10 17 24 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27
1938-39 L 10 14 19 12 15 18 18 17 14 22 22 31 29
1939-40 L 1 1 4 1 Icl dl. Il 1 d10 Il. 6 7 4
1939-40 B 0 0 0 dl 0 0 IdL Id. 0 0 0 0 D
May MA) May May June June JDne June June
4 11 18 25 1 8 15 22 29
1938-39 L 40 45 94 108 93 50 14 3 0
1939-40 L 9 22 25 52 78 61 51 22 10
1939-40 B Ic] Idc 1 5 16 20 10 5 1
L-Lima Beans. B-Butter Beans, IdlLess than carlots

The following figures will show truck shipments of Florida
Lima beans by months for the 1938-1939 and 1939-40 seasons:

Nov. Dec Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1938-39 I 5 32 59 73 132 315 106 723
1939-40 (dl) 9 20 7 I 22 166 160 385

Transportation and Distribution.-Rail and boat shipments of
Florida Lima beans and rail passing are included by carriers with
green beans. Unload records, rail and boat, likewise include Limas
with green beans, with the exception of New York City and Bos-
ton Truck shipments complete by weeks and months are unavail-
able for seasons prior to 1938-39. Therefore, it is impossible to
secure proportionate rail, express, boat and truck shipments, rail
passing, unloads or arrivals, and similar data shown for green
beans and the other principal truck crops included in this book






24 The Producton, Distribution and Competition of Florida Vegetables

Rail, boat and truck total unloads, carlot equivalents, of Flor-
ida Lima beans were as follows m the calendar years 1933 through
1939 on the New York City and Boston markets:

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
New York 109 90 105 56 37 178 218
Boston 1 .. 1 1 1 4

The following truck passing, carlot equivalents, of Florida
Lima beans in the 1938-39 season were intended for the following
destinations:


Toward New York:
Limas
Toronto, Can _ICL
Washington, D. C. 62
Augusta, Ga. .. ..._._. 4
Brunswick 3
Savannah 13
Baltimore, Md. 77
Asheville, N. C. _...-~....... 3
Charlotte 7
Durham 3
Gastonia ........ 1
Greensboro 2
Hickory 1
High Point -___ ..... 1
New Bern 5
Raleigh ..........__ 10
Salisbury ....... 1
Wmston Salem 2
New York 126
Philadelphia _. ..... 140
Charleston, S. C. 4
Columbia ...... 18
Greenville 3-..... 3
Pageland 2
Spartanburg .. 2
Sumter -_ _.. .....Il.
Bristol. Va. 1
Danville 1
Lynchburg ............. 3
Norfolk .. 5
Richmond 22
Roanoke 11
Charleston, W. Va .... 3
Bluefield lei.
Huntmgton .I.

Total Cars 536


Toward Chicago a

Birmmingham, Ala
Dothan _-
Mobile
Montgomery
Little Rock, Ark.
Albany, Ga
Atlanta .-
Columbus .
Macon
Thomasville
Valdosta
Waycross
Chicago, Ill
Evansville, Ind.
Indianapolis
Louisville, Ky.
New Orleans, La,
Benton Harbor
Detroit, Mich
Grand Rapids
Kalamazoo
Jackson, Miss
Meridian
Joplin, Mo
Kansas City
St Louis
Cincinnati, O
Bristol, Tenn.
Chattanooga
Johnson City
Knoxville
Memphis .
Nashville
Dallas, Texas
Ft. Worth
Houston
San Antonio


nd Other Points:
Limas
16
1
-_... 4
3


lei.
...--...-..... 1
40
3
4

... .. ._ 1
1
-_ 5

..-.. 1
11

-.. .. 1


Total Cars 134

The above truck destinations account for about 93% of the
total Florida shipments. Of the total passing volume,-93 % of the
shipment volume,--80% of the movement was destined to-


.
_
_

_






Th, P oduil nto, Dfili buii lion rn d Competrlin ol Florida VIrglo llblh 25

ward New York and 20% toward Chicago, with a large propor-
tion unloaded in southern territory,-about 38% in southern
states. Philadelphia was the largest receiver in 1938-39, New York
second, and then in ranking order Baltimore, Washington, At-
lanta, Richmond, Columbia. Birmmgham, Savannah, Louisville,
Roanoke, Raleigh, each handling 10 cars or more.
Truck destinations m carlot equivalent volume (conversion
factor 466 bushels per car) were made to the following groups of
States and the principal cities therein in the 1939-40 season as
follows:


Destinations
WASHINGTON, D C
MARYLAND
Baltimore
Other Points
NEW JERSEY
Ne, ark
Other Points
PENNSYLVANIA
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Other Points
NEW YORK
New York City
Rochester
OHIO
Cincinnati
Cleveland
INDIANA
Evansville
ILLINOIS
Chicago
WEST VIRGINIA
GRAND TOTAL

Destinations
ARIZONA
COLORADO
MISSOURI
St Louins
Kansas City
TEXAS
Houston
Other Points
GRAND TOTAL

Destinations
ALABAMA
Birmingham
Dothan
Mobile
Montgomery
Other Points


Destinations
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
Atlanta
Augusta
Brunswick
Columbus
Macon
Savannah
Thomasville
Valdosta
Other Points
KENTUCKY
Louisville
Other Points
LOUISIANA
New Orleans
MISSISSIPPI
Jackson
Meridian
NORTH CAROLINA
Asheville
Charlotte
Durham
Greensboro
Raleigh
Wmston-Salem
Other Points
SOUTH CAROLINA
Charleston
Columbia
Greenville
Other Points
TENNESSEE
Knoxville
Memphis
Nashville
Other Points
VIRGINIA
Lynchburg
Norfolk
Richmond
Roanoke
Other Points

GRAND TOTAL






26 7 h Produ lin. Dlotrbutlon and Competrtton of Florda I'egetables

Northern Market Averages.-The following unweighted
simple average jobbing prices of Florida Lima beans, No. 1
or top quote average, m bushel hampers, for as many of ten
of the larger terminal markets as had sufficient supphes to es-
tablish regular quotations, cover weekly periods for five seasons
1935-36 through 1939-40, and monthly average prices same mar-
kets, same quotation basis, for the seasons 1929-30 through
1939-40


Weekly
Prices Nov. Nov. Nov. Nov Dec. Dec Dec. De Dec. Jan Jan Jan. Jan.
Season 4 11 1i 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 2 27
1935-38 $ 450' 2 37 6 00* 4 00' 544 5 24 419
1936-37 281' 375' 333 570 420* 476 452 390 361 318
1937-38 375 250* 2Z50 225- 5i35 551 454 394
19:8-39 381 454* 501' 485 475 341 269 260 311
1939-40 473 487 401 335 342 292 264 33 402


Weekly
Prices Feb. Fr
Season 3 I
1935-36 501 4
1936-37 302 3
1937-38 3963
1938-39 277 2
1939-40 5 05 4



Weekly
Prices May Mj
Season 4


1935-36
1936-3 _-
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40


342 382
426 4.76
2 16 226
2235 288
378 350


eb Feb Feb. Mch.. Mc Mch Mch. Mch. Apr
0 17 24 2 9 G1 23 30 6
38 377 307 300 33 3l 449 404 376
02 355 4A5 485 456 460 93 4.85 421
40 331 293 274 264 277 253 2.69 3,0
61 254 271 334 372 348 302 328 357
15 517 444 5 25 725 8 00* 5 25 __


Apr. Apr Apr.
13 20 27
396 383 352
372 389 415
3.28 326 268
329 285 24a
344 354 385


May May June June June June June
IS 25 1 8 15 22 29
443 326 246 331 208' 254"
4.79 428 3.92 311 288 300 285
208 244 225 222 3 25
2.52 195 1E75 164 184 300*
2 60 2.59 2 15 199 2.04 237 213


Monthly
Prices
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Meh. Apr. May June
1929-30 .... $ 0 0 5.21 564 648 5.99 4.20'
1930-31 0 0 7.41* 6,42' 7.49 5.35 3,26
1931-32 O 454 465 5.12 7 11 5.26 2.80'
1932-33 0 3.65 354 3.08 2.96 3.55 331'
1933-34 ... 3.82 3.09 3.47 2.63 331 3.68 217'
1934-35 .. 0 0 0 425* 356 3.21' 1.98*
1935-36 0 4 80 4.03 3.73 3.83 3.73 2.35*
1936-37 4.49' 3.43 4.04 4.71 3.97 4.45 296
1937-38 .... 4.70 338 2.68 3.04 2.25 239'
1938-39 ...... 4.65 2 92 2 68 3.38 3 06 2.33 1.96
1939-40 3.84' 3.44* 4.87 7.12' 3.64 2.93 2 11

*Incomplete, part week or month.






The Produ ii..o. Distribution and Comipettion io Flornda I egetabirs 27

Florida (Jacksonville) Averages.-The following tabulation
shows the simple average jobbing sales prices of Florida Lima
beans on the Jacksonville market, m bushel hampers, top quote
basis, by months for the period January 1926 through June 1940.


Year Jan. Feb Mar. Apr M1ay Jue July Aug Sept. Oct. Nov Dec
1926 $ 0 0 0 0 273 210 224 23 0 0 0
1927 0 O 0 0 0 0 2 1 392 209 0 0 0
1928 0 0 0 0 0 0 2109* 87* 0 0 0 0
1929 0 0 0 0 225* 169 1 75 2 7B* 0 0 0 0
1930 619' 5 17* 359* 511 433* 292 1 83 261 218 1 87 225 487
1931 5 55 658 612 496 416 222 218 1 80 184 201 312 319
1932 370 369 419 494 332 133 119 210 202 0 310* 457*
193 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 06 99 1 51 1 93 2 12' 0
1934 290 298 245 244 273 137 177 185 161 134 2221 4 98*
1935 4 16' 0 0 353 278 116 1 04 115 165 168 244 483
1936 421 392 302 297 261 43 13 54 1 60 203 0 339 348
1937 316 337 392 iJ3l 321 206 129 0 0 0 0 336
1938 J353 3 54 230 2 16 1 0 1 45 107 2 42 301 3 72' 329* 350
1939 256 206 2 52 2 32 1 39 1 03 2 0ar 231r 299r 0 490' 386
1940 323 453 319 392 275 44

*Incomplete, part week or month
r Southern offerings

Competition.-The Florida Lima bean shipping season extends
from November with Ic 1 lots, and December through June in
carlot volume Georgia and the Carolinas offer competition to
Florida shipments except in the winter and early spring months,
but Cuban competition offered from latter October through April
is more severe, especially since the shipments are made chiefly to
New York and eastern port markets. Mexico and Puerto Rico also
offer import competition, but the volume is negligible compared
to that from Cuba The trade agreement with Cuba. reducing the
duty from December through May. tends to encourage compe
tuition from that source in the Florida shipping season. Infor-
mation showing the Florida rail and boat shipments, the U. S.
shipments and imports m each of the months of the Florida ship-
ping season. is unavailable






28 ~1he Pirodicrllln, Dlributrion iuia, Complettion of Flonds vegetables

CABBAGE

Acreage -The following tabulation of Florida cabbage acre-
age by counties for the seasons 1929 through 1940 shows where
and m what volume the Florida commercial cabbage crop is
grown. The crease in acreage in Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns
m North Florida, and m Palm Beach county m South Florida,
in the period shown below, is of interest:

County 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1 1937 1938 1939 1WO0
Alachua 450 500 5 5 00 6 500 600 300 400 00 400 500 800
Bradford 25 10 20 25 .
Brevard 10 10 20 20 2 5 25
Broward 150 50 200 150 50 200 25 100 25 50 50 10
Clay 75 30 20 20 50 _
Dade 700 150 450 300 300 1 100 1 100 100 200
De Solo 10 50 50 100 25 25
Escambia 25 5 50 SO 50 __ 50
Flagler 300 100 100 100 300 350 50 300 400 600 750 1,000
Gadsden 50 100 200 200 300
Glades 100 40 100 100 s3 100 50 100 100 100 100 100
Hlardee 40 25 50 50 50 -
Hcndry 30 150 100 100 300 LOO 500 300 300 300 500
Hernando -O_ 50
Highlands 25 30 30 30 50
Hillsboro 175 25 50 50 50 400 25 100 100 50 100 50
Indian R 25 10 50 50 150 25 50 50 50 50
Lake 375 250 300 150 250 450 250 300 350 400 400 600
Lee -- 50 150 25
Levy 20 10 20 100 200 25 50 50 50 100
Madison 70
Manatee 250 200 450 300 2`0 600 350 400 300 250 300 600
Marion 1,100 500 700 800 600 900 400 700 400 400 500 700
Martin 25 20 25 50 200 250 -- 100 100 350
Ok'chobee 40 30 50 50 100 300 200 250 300 200 200
Orange 550 325 650 500 800 900 300 350 550 500 500 1,000
Osceola 20 50 50 100 150 150 50 100 100 100 100
P Beach 100 150 650 400 1,000 1,500 1,400 2,000 1.800 2,000 2,200 5,000
Pinellas 20 10 40 40
Polk 350 350 550 400 400 750 350 400 450 450 450 500
Putnam 200 30 30 40 50 50 100 300 300 1,000 1,050 1,500
St Johns 3 30 30 50 100 200 100 300 700 800 1,200 1.200 1500
St Lucio 40 10 75 50 100 1 100 100 0 50 50 50 0
Sarasota 15 50 50 50 50
Seminole 370 250 450 400 300 600 300 400 500 400 400 600
Sumter 500 300 300 250 450 1,0o00 300 500 350 350 350 500
Volusia 140 150 225 200 200 250 50 50 200 200 200 200
Misc 50 150 _- 75
State
Total 6,500 3,700 6,500 5,500 6,200 10,700 5,600 9,000 8,500 9,400 10,000 16,000
*Prelimmary

Variety.-Leading commercial varieties of cabbage grown
in Florida are Copenhagen, Early Jersey Wakefield, Charleston
Wakefield and Red Rock. In more recent seasons the tendency has
been away from pointed types toward the more popular round
cabbage.

Grade.- (U. S. and Florida Standards for Cabbage). Intro-
duction. The tolerances for the standards are on a container basis.
However, individual packages in any lot may vary from the speci-
fied tolerances as stated below, provided the averages for the




I ,, I 'r ,l,. l Ii,. .' (. Pnrp.., i .' ', rl I tt,.i 29

entire lot, based on sample inspection, are within the tolerances
specified.
For a tolerance of 10 percent or more, individual packages
in any lot may contain not more than one and one-half times
the tolerance specified, except that when the package contains
15 specimens or less, individual packages may contain not more
than double the tolerance specified
For a tolerance of less than 10 percent. individual packages
m any lot may contain not more than double the tolerances spe-
cified, provided at least one specimen which does not meet the
requirements shall be allowed in any one package

gradess

U. S. No. I shall consist of heads of cabbage which are of
one type, and of reasonable soldity, which are not withered,
puffy or burst and which are free from soft rot, seed stems and
from damage caused b? discoloration, freezing, disease, insects
or mechanical or other means
Unless otherwise specified, each head shall be well trimmed
However, cabbage may be specified .s "U S No 1 Green" when
the cabbage in each container generally has fairly good green
color. When specified as "U S No I Green", each head may
have not more than 7 leaves which do not enfold the head
fairly tightly more than two-thirds the distance from the base
to the top
In order to allow for variations, other than excess number
of outer leaves on "U S No 1 Green" cabbage, incident to proper
grading and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent. by
weight, of the heads in any container may not meet the re-
quirements of this grade, but not more than one-fifth of this
amount, or 2 percent, may be allowed for soft decay. In addition,
when a lot of cabbage is specified as "U S No 1 Green". not
more than 10 percent may not meet the requirements as to
number of outer leaves
Unclassified shall consist of cabbage which is not graded
in conformity with the foregoing grade.

Size

The minimum size or minimum and maximum sizes may be
specified in connection with the grades as "U S No. 1, 1
pound mm," or "U S. No. 1, 2 to 4 pounds." or any lot may
be classified as Small. Medium, Large. Small to Medium, or
Medium to Large in accordance with the facts.





30 The Production, Distributon and Competition of Florida Vegetables

Small Medium Large
Pointed under 12 lbs. 1z to 3 lbs. Over 3 lbs
Domestic under 2 lbs. 2 to 5 lbs. Over 5 lbs.
Danish under 3 lbs. 3 to 6 lbs. Over 6 lbs
In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing not
more than a total of 15 percent, by weight, of the heads in any
container may vary from the size specifications but not more
than 10 percent may be either above or below the size specified.
This tolerance is m addition to the tolerance for grade defects

Definitions of Terms
As used in these grades:
"One type" means that all the lot is Pointed, Danish, Do-
mestic, Savoy or Red as the case may be. Pointed type includes
such varieties as Early Jersey Wakefield, Charleston Wakefield,
Early York, Winnigstadt, and others which normally develop
oblong, conical or posted shaped heads. Danish type includes
such late maturing varieties as Danish Ballhead or Hollander.
Danish Roundhead, etc., and such early maturing varieties as
Cannonball, Danish Summer Ballhead. etc., which normally de-
velop hard, tightleaved. compactly formed heads A head of any
such variety even after trimming will appear tight and smooth
leaved around the basal portion and when viewed from the stem
end, circular and regular in outline. Domestic type includes such
varieties as Succession, All Head Early, Flat Dutch and others
that are commonly termed Domestic and which normally de-
velop heads flat m shape and less compactly formed than those of
the Danish type. The term also includes such varieties as Cop-
enhagen, Glory of Enkhuizen and others that develop heads
roundish in shape but which in solidity of head and storage qual-
ities are similar to the Flat Domestic type
"Reasonable solidity" means fairly firm for pointed type
cabbage and southern Domestic type cabbage. Northern Domes-
tic type cabbage shall be firm and Danish or Hollander type fairly
hard. "Reasonable solidity" as appled to Savoy cabbage means
not soft or puffy; Savoy type cabbage is characteristically loose-
ly formed and rather light in weight
"Puffy" means that the heads are very light in weight in com-
parison to size and have air spaces i the central portion. They
normally feel firm at the time of harvesting but soften quick-
ly. They are known as "Balloon Heads" in certain sections
"Seed Stems" means those heads which have seed stalks
showing or in which the formation of seed stalks has plainly
begun





Il I' lln 1"r 1, eq,-r1) Fr II,,! o ,m p, > t ,'i ,1 -f. I 1 .,1 hl t 31

"Damage" means any defect or injury which materially af-
fects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality. Worm
injury on the outer head leaves or wrapper leaves which ma-
terially affects the appearance of the head. or worm holes which
extend deeply into the compact portion of the head shall be
considered as damage
"Well trimmed" means that the heads shall have not more
than four leaves which do not enfold the head fairly tightly
more than two-thirds the distance from the base to the top. and
that the stems do not extend more than one-half inch beyond the
point of attachment of the outermost leaves.
Effective date, December 20. 19:39 Revision to Oct 1, 1940.
Growing Cost.-The average cost of growing cabbage in
Florida-exclusive of land cost. rental taxes or depreciation-
is from S43-60 per acre Broken down into individual items.
Preparation and cultivation of land $15-25; seed $100-1.25, fer-
tilizer $25-30: spraying and miscellaneous $2 00-4 00 Delivered
at shipping station the cost per 11 bushel hamper is about
as follows (Basis 200 hamper per acre eld) from 44c-61c: grow-
ing 2112c-30c, harvesting and field packing 5c-10c: hamper 15c-
16c: hauling 3c-5c
Loading in Car.-Cabbage is ordinarily shipped under re-
frigeration. the load top iced by many shippers The 1Ia bush-
el hamper is in more general use in Florida than other contain-
ers. especially, for pointed types of cabbage Several different
crates are used, the barrel, half-barrel, Western type lettuce
crate, etc. The hampers are loaded in each end of car, length-
wise. side load with hampers alteinatelv liversed, 5 stacks 5x6
or 7x7 rows wide. 5 to 6 layers high, loading irregular in door-
way (3x3. 3x4. 4x5. 5x6, etc ) The average load ranges from 420
to 450 hampers
Florida Shipments.-The compilation below gives the rail and
boat shipments of Florida cabbage by weeks, for the period be-
ginning Nov. 4 and ending May 25. for five seasons. 1935-36 to
1939-40 inclusive, and truck shipments by weeks for the two
seasons 1938-39 and 1939-40. Rail and boat shipments by months
covering the Florida shipping season. Nov to May inclusive, are
shown for eight shipping seasons, 1932-33 through 1939-40.
WEPKL. SIHlPMIINTS (K.l i and Boat)
Season NO Nov No Nov Dec. Dee lec Del rr Jan Jan. JaJanJan Feb Feb
4 11 i 25 9 16 l3 30 6 II 2 27 3 10
1935-36 0 0 0 0 9 5 5 40 54 64 50 57
136-37 0 0 I 0 I 0 89 54 40 62 124 81 102
193i7-38 0 Ii 0 0 0 6 23 49 41 59 fi "i 61 141
1 S3-t) 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 23 43 42 70 105 66 128 90
1939-40 0 0 0 1 3 12 26 42 07 63 128 136 194 116 156
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Truck)
1938-39 Icl I ] 1 2 3 2 17 14 41 105 119 142 1 164 203
1939-0 0 I l 1 2 3 10 26 23 s 16 148 178 132 13 162






32 The Productton, Distribution and Competition of Florida Vegetable

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Rail and Boat)
Season Feb reb.Mar. M a Mar. aMar Marr Apr A rApr Apr MaMay MayM May
17 24 2 9 16 23 O3 6 13 20 27 4 11 18 25
1935-36 105 52 85 108 137 109 204 230 236 208 77 50 18 3
1936-3 151 64 89 163 62 119 45 73 65 26 13 5 3 0
1937-38 238 210 293 377 376 444 403 218 182 33 18 7 0 0
1938-39 142 145 178 141 129 115 98 56 24 8 1 0 0 0
1939-40 161 162 124 12 197 224 328 406 469 42 399 166 35 19
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Truck)
1938-39 227 219 220 240 179 159 110 72 42 25 13 1 1 0 0
1939-40 245 282 298 317 344 345 368 362 327 385 341 186 81 35 9

SHIPMENTS BY MONTHS (Rail and Boat)
Season Nov Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch Apr. May. Total
1932 33 17 141 414 732 1054 418 97 2873
1933-34 0 184 952 916 981 221 70 3336 (12 cars June)
1934-35 1 26 45 179 1008 832 104 2196 I 1 car June)
1935-36 0 24 201 311 654 692 35 1917
1936-37 3 139 311 402 455 221 8 1539
1937-38 1 72 252 709 1710 65 26 3342 ( 7 cars June)
1938-39 0 89 322 526 591 100 2 1630
1939-40 3 153 587 611 954 1804 146 4259 ( 1 car June)

Transportation and Distribution.-A decline m the rail ship-
ments of Florida cabbage from 83% of the total shipments in
1934-35 to 39% the total m 1938-39, and an increase m the truck
shipments from 16% the total m 1934-35 to 60/2% the total in
1938-39,-the rail volume more than five times the truck move-
ment in 1934-35, the truck volume exceeding by 54% the rail
movement in 1938-39-indicates how the truck movement has
gained in five years time. Note the number of cars and percentage
of the total by rail, boat and truck of Florida cabbage shipments
m the five-year period:

1938-39 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35
C/Is % C/Is % C/ls % C/Is % C/l1 %
Rail shipments 1610 39 % 3287 62% 1487 67% 1846 78% 2175 83%
Boat shipments 20 s% 55 1% 52 2% 71 3% 21 1%
Truck shipments 2487 60 % 2000 37% 700 31% 450 19% 425 16%
Total 4117 100'c 5842 100' 2239 100', 2367 100% 2621 100t

Rail passing of Florida cabbage into Eastern territory have
shown a gradual increase from 1934-35 to 1938-39, but have on the
other hand shown a sharp decrease into Western territory. The
percentage of rail passmgs into Southern territory m 1938-39
was about the same as m 1934-35. with consistent decline from
1935-36 to 1938-39. The following tabulation shows the percent-
age of Florida cabbage passing by rail moving to Eastern. West-
ern and Southern territory for five seasons:

1938-29 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35
Passigs Eastern teirtory 88% 80% 80% 73% 65%
Passing Western territory 9% 16% 13% 18% 32%
Passing Southern territory 3% 4.% 7% 9% 3%






7 he 'lo, n ,aIn ll.'lt.. iid 1 ,mp tllr [ I.r.la r'I tablb s 33

Breaking down the distribution of Florida cabbage in the
light of the total rail and boat carlot unloads on important market
centers, the following shows the percentage of the total rail and
boat shipments by Eastern and Western market groups, for five
recent calendar years

r1,11 1938 1937 1936 1935
Alban, h 30 i 7 28
B.ltlmole i5 84 90 156 54
oitoin 74 229 109 124 145
Brndeport 1o 11 0 4 10
Buffalo 1. 24 4 17 43
H.lriford ili 29 7 11 23
Newark Id." 155 e1 70 42
New Haven 7 16 1 5 13
New York 749 111 362 ,Tr 693
Philadelphi. 323 513 327 341 180
Plllsburgh 3l 210 61 .1 121
Pro\ idcnce 22 3(1 13 24 13
Rochehster 14 29 3 0 22
Waelinlton 17 1476 -B7' 41 2622-78. 33 1274 -6 6V 48 1582-77 i -8 22 1409-64 2%
Chicago 41 1B5 51 39 225
Cincinnati 9 5B1 24 11 11l
C.cl.vland 24 72 1,3 1 76
Columbus 10 1l 3 3 21
Delrolit 81 113 9D 77 108
Kansas Cit\ 0 2I 1 I6
St Louis 4 IiS9-10 31 526-157", 10 194-1327 5 185- 91' 853 60-296-
Total above 1645-97, 3148-937C. 146R-9985, 1707-869L 2059-938%
Slnpmcnts C -Y 1l97 r.i8 1470 2iO31 219'1

New York and Philadelphia rail, boat. and truck carlot un-
loads of Florida cabbage by calendar years are given below for
the period 1935-1939 inclusive-
N 1939 9' I3[ 1917 1936 | 1935
N. Y. tPhl | NY Phil, I Y PhiL NX I Phil I N Y Phil.
Rail 720 323 1111 10 490 325 -.3i 335 6.7 177
Boat 29 0 70 3 72 2 .5. 6 27 3
Tluck 110 59 31 32 7 15 9 23 3 0
Total 5'j 3R2 | 1217 543 I 51 342 I 717 364 6ii7 180

Truck passing of Florida cabbage in the 1938-39 season (pre-
vious seasons unavailable) were as follows for Southern cities, to
which 12 or more carlot equivalcntb were destined'

AlbaIy 12 Cohlumbia 59 LouIS lillle 9 Raleigh 156
Asho ulle 18 C1h"att nioor 34 iMacon I1 Hichlio.nd 100
Allnta 442 'olumbus 14 11lilfe lil lRo".hk, 38
AlrUila 24 Durl-am 12 .0ontgomer. 27 Sao ianrnah 31
B-i-inhami14 144 G 'enl to 14 id-an 13 W1nston-Salem 43
Bl un. ick 13 Green ill, 17 N ahiillc 11 -l
Clarlotte 26 Knoxvllr 33 FPageand 14 Total 1460

Referring to only the proportion of Florida cabbage shipped
by rail, or rail and boat, there is consistency in the volume of rail
passing increasmg regularly into Eastern territory, and the pro-
portion of the total rail and boat car lot unloads made on the East-






34 The Prodnuttion, Distrzbution arnd Competrizon of Florida Vegetables

ern group of important markets also increasing from the 1935 to
the 1939 season. Likewise, while the total percentage of rail pass-
ings into Western territory has declined in the same five-year
period, generally speaking the proportion of Florida cabbage rail
unloads made on the central larger markets has declined from
1935 to 1939.
On the basis of only rail and boat shipments by calendar
years, New York and Philadelphia together have handled in 1936
51% of the total Florida cabbage shipments, m 1937 60%, in 1938
50% and m 1939 63%. If, however, truck shipments are included,
and truck unloads are included also with rail and boat unloads
on the New York and Philadelphia markets, they together han-
dled in 1939 only 30% of the total Florida shipments. The truck
distribution included lowers considerably the proportion to East-
ern markets, in 1938-39 for instance about 39% of Florida cabbage
truck passing, basis Florida border line, were destined towards
New York and 39 % towards Chicago, much of the Chicago direc-
tional movement going into Southern territory particularly the
larger cities as Atlanta, Birmingham, Nashville. etc. Atlanta is
the largest primary receiver of Florida truck cabbage of any
market in the United States, and outranks the total of Florida
cabbage receipts by truck of any two markets combined. The
Southern markets receive more than one-half the Florida cabbage
shipments by truck.
Northern Market Averages The following table shows the
unweighted ten terminal market simple average destination job-
bing sale prices on Florida pointed or round type cabbage in 1%
bushel hampers, leading varieties, No 1 or top quotation basis,
by weeks for the seasons 1935-36 through 1939-40, and by months
for eight seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40, by weeks each season
November 4 through May 25 and by months December through
Mav.
Weekly
Prices Nov. Nov Nov. Nov. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec.
Season 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23
1935-36 $ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.38 185
1936-37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1937-38 0 0 0 0 0 0 152 1.64
1938-39 0 0 0 0 0 1.29* 143 129
1939-40 0 0 0 0 144* 160 1.20

Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb.
30 6 13 20 27 3 10
1935-36 $1.76 1 70 173 1.36 1.16 149 1.26
1936-37 0 ,91 .89 .88 96 .98 1.08
1937-38 1.70 131 1.61 168 175 1.88 1.87
1938-39 1.20 1,04 115 1.05 1.00 1.02 1.06
1939-40 133 118 1.27 1.17 1.36 1.47 1,34






The Produ",itn, Distrtbution tad Comp.iirloln of Florida I egetables 35


Feb. Feb. Mch. Mch. Mch, Mch. Mch. Apr.
17 24 2 9 16 23 30 6


Apr. Apr. Apr. May May May May
13 20 27 4 11 18 25


Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch.


Apr. May


*Incomplete, all markets not quoted for whole week, or month

Florida (Jacksonville) Averages -The tabulation below gives
unweighted jobbing price averages by months of Florida cabbage
in containers or units of sale shown below for the period January
1926 through June 1940


YEAR JAN FEB MAR. APR. MAY JUN JLL ALG. SEP


OCT NOV DEC
o o 0
o 0 0
0 0
0 101 105z
S 1 577 99z
1 53a 62d 45d
0 90d 83d
1.40a 1.75a 156a
1 29a 1.56" 1.76z
1.78a 1.532 1 55a
153 2.15o 2.28P
1 36n 1 21a 1.24a
1.571 1 98a 1.39a


*Incomplete, not quoted for whole week or month
r-Southern offerings, z-Impers, c-Crates, d-per dozen heads, a-per hundred
pounds






36 I'he Piodiutton, Dfltrzhutlon ad Competrzton of Fhlorda Vegetables

Competition.-Florida cabbage has competition from both
the early new crop and the late crop of other States, and also
from storage cabbage. Cabbage from Louisiana, South Carolina
and Texas is shipped in almost every month of the Florida cab-
bage season, and storage offerings from New York and Wiscon-
sin compete with Florida cabbage shipments in practically every
month from December through April. Alabama, Georgia and
Louisiana place new cabbage on the northern markets in March,
April and May. Mississippi and North Carolina in April and May;
and Tennessee and Virginia in May Shipments from several
other States give competition during some of the Florida ship-
pmg season, for instance, Arizona, California, Minnesota, etc.
Import competition, however, is not serious Cuba exports a few
cars to the Umted States usually in January and February.

The earlier Florida cabbage shipments move in the fall, the
heavier the competition with domestic late cabbage, and the later
Florida cabbage is shipped in the spring, the heavier the competi-
tion from increased shipments of new cabbage from early or sec-
ond early States. Either fresh or storage cabbage is shipped in
every month of the year by some State other than Florida. Florida
shipments do not m any month equal the United States total
shipments exclusive of Florida

The compilation below shows the total U. S. shipments of
cabbage in each of the seven months of the usual Florida shipping
season, November through May, and the Florida shipments in
the same period which deducted from the U. S total shows
the extent of the competition Florida cabbage must meet in
each month of the Florida shipping season. The following infor-
mation is based upon rail and boat shipments and covers eleven
seasons, 1928-29 to 1938-39 inclusive:

Total
SEASON Nov Dec Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May (7 mos
Total U S Shxpments 0 2,702 4,388 3,770 4,849 4,727 4.675 25,111
1928-29 Florida Shipments 0 35 547 1,076 1,390 76 12 3,136
Competitive (U. S ) 0 2,667 3,841 2,694 3459 4,651 4,663 21,975
Total U S Shipments 3,564 3,220 4,520 2,827 2,361 3,165 4,004 23,661
1929-30 Florida Shipments 0 75 500 528 799 344 25 2,271
Competitive (U. S ) 3,664 3145 4,020 2.299 1,562 2,821 3979 21,300
Total U S Shipments 3109 3,315 4,146 3.638 4,376 3,823 4,095 26,502
1930-31 Florido Shipments 1 200 517 718 1,106 569 46 3,257
Competitive (U, S ) 3108 3.115 3,529 2,920 3,270 3,254 4049 23,245
Total U S Shipments 3,168 3,072 3,411 2,789 2,698 2,632 2,352 20,122
1931-32 Florida Shipments 19 229 329 430 379 124 11 1.521
Competitive (U S 3,149 2843 3,082 2,359 2.319 2,508 2,341 18,601











Total I S Ship'nt'
1'i2-%I Fbloida Si p)mentls
Compill Ie U S
Total U S ilpinleni-.
13,:3-'4 Florimd Shit[(ments
ComTipell i, i S
Total L SI ,-Uprue1-,
1'l-p1-5 FlV j ida S= !iw nt
ComOprt li. U S
Total UL' S ShIpnmenIsl
19Jl-36 Floiida Sbliipment,
Comtipotil' cU S
Total I S Shipnnmens
193i1-37 Florida Suhpments
Comcpet'tliv (U S)
TtAlU S Sil'ipmntis
1917-1R Flor-id Shipments
Compeclin (1 S
Total U S Shipments
l)i-'39 Florid. ShI~|]pmncts
Coinmp ritie (IU S )


Total
Apr. M., (7 mIa.k)


No% DIl Jan Feb .- r,


2 230 2 64 2 72i 2 848
,1 141 414 732
2,213 2 512 2311 2,11i


2 83 2 532 2 717 .18608
1 J04 41B 97 2873
1,8'l 2,114 2670 1,.735


0 2 ,317 3,149 3,310 4147 3,228
0 184 952 91b 981 221
0 221., 2J, 2 394 0 Ib, 3007


2,111 20,232
7,1 BvS
_13,i mqssu


1 3202 J 1B8 252 22 18! 2 580 3 217 16,895
1 2,1 45 179 1 1~tI 832 104 2,195
0 3,170 3,14, 2,342 1,178 1,748 3.113 14,700
0 2 348 ,d102 S,306 3,106 3,004 3.,3i8 18,344
0 24 201 311 h34 B92 ,1 1,917
0 2,324 2.901 3 08 2,432 2312 3 333 16 42
2,273 2,621 3 107 3023 2 845 3022 2 387 19778
3 1,9 311 402 453 221 8 1,539
2,270 2,482 2,7i9 2.621 2,3Io 2,801 2,879' 18.239
2,145 2,,i24 2,1Vi 2 3113 2 12 3 922 3,217 1 601
1 72 252 70 1 710 565 21 3,335
2,14- 2.452 2 306 1 1 212 3,35 3 211 16 266
1,799 2 160 2,158 2 048 2142 2294 3,20 15 891
0 UD 322 526 591 100 2 1,630
1 799 2,071 1,836 1,22 I, 11 2,194 3,,218 14,21l


Since the monthly shipments of new crop cabbage from early
States may vary greatly, particularly if curtailed by freeze dam-
age, and since storage competition is somewhat governed by the
volume of new crop shipments. Florida cabbage prices may follow
the total volume of new cabbage more directly than the total
supply of storage and fresh cabbage. The total United States
supply basically controls the demand and market price, but de-
mand and relative supply of new cabbage more directly affects
the market for Florida cabbage m some seasons than in others
Thus there are exceptions if any month is designated as consist-
ently the one of highest prices.-in the past fifteen seasons, for m-
stance, each of the months December to May inclusive ranked
first at least once, and all months except April ranked lowest one
or more times.


Thi IP i l, ,tln ) .l Ihnll -ind (I',mp lllli, ,,,- Flrlda I m''eetll bb






38 The Production, Dstributon and Compet riin of Florida Vegetables

CELERY
Acreage.-The Florida celery acreage by counties, seasons
1929 to 1940 inclusive, is shown in the following tabulation:

County 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940*
Brevard -. 50 100 100 100 70 100 35
Dade 20
Highlands 25 25 30 50 50 30 5
Lake 5 5 5 5 5 5
Lee 5
Manatee 1000 800 800 625 600 550 500 500 525 500 265 420
Marion 10 50 100 150 250 175 175 160 200
Orange 70 75 75 40 50 50 ) 30 20 20
Palm Beach 25 70 150 25 120 100 50 100 180 350 600 1060
Putnam 75 15 5 5 5 5 5 5 15 10 5 5
St Johns __ 65 50
Sarasota .. 1000 1200 105 1200 1400 1400 1200 1350 1275 1300 1250 1215
Seminole 4300 4300 3900 4800 4300 3650 4000 4250 5300 5600 4980 4600
Miscellaneous 10 65 40
State Total 6620 6650 6150 6850 6650 6000 6000 6500 7500 8000 7300 7500

*Prehninary

Variety.-Golden Self-Blanching, Special, and Green Pascal
are the principal commercial varieties of celery grown in Florida.
Grade.-(U. S. and Florida Standards for Rough Celery).
Introduction.-The tolerances for the Standards are on a container
basis. However, individual packages in any lot may vary from
the specified tolerances as stated below, provided the averages
for the entire lot, based on sample mspection, are within the tol-
erances specified.

For a tolerance of 10 percent or more, individual packages
in any lot may contain not more than one and one-half times
the tolerance specified, except that when the package contains
15 specimens or less, individual packages may contain not more
than double the tolerance specified.
For a tolerance of less than 10 percent, individual pack-
ages in any lot may contain not more than double the tolerance
specified, provided at least one specimen which does not meet
the requirements shall be allowed m any one package
Numbers and letters m parentheses following grade terms
indicate where such terms are defined under Definitions of
Terms
Grades
U. S. Fancy shall consist of stalks (1) of celery of similar
varietal characteristics (2) which are fairly well developed (3)
and have fairly good heart formation (4), which are clean (5),
well blanched (6), well trimmed (7), not badly spread, and are
free from blackheart. brown stem, decay, doubles and from





1 he Prod ictton, Dstrbutton oand oC mpetfiti' of Floridla I egl blues 39

damage (8) caused by wilting (8), cut worms (8a), freezing
(8), growth cracks (8b), hollow crown (8), pithy branches (8c),
seedstems (8d), disease (8). insects or mechanical or other means
(8)
The average midrib length (9) of the outer whorl of branch-
es on stalks in this grade shall be not less than 6 inches. The
stalk length may be stated in terms of the nearest even inch
as 20 inches. 22 inches, 24 inches, etc in accordance with the
facts but when tops have not been generally clipped back the
length of stalks (10) shall be not less than 18 inches.
When the tops have been generally clipped back, this fact
and the resulting stalk length, shall be stated following the grade
designation as, for example. "U S Fancy clipped to 16 inches."
In order to allow for variations, other than lengths, incident
to proper gradmg and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by
count, of the stalks m any container may be below the require-
ments of this grade, but not more than one-fifth of this amount,
or 2 per cent, shall be allowed for decay. In addition, not more
than 5 percent, by count, of the stalks in any container may not
meet the requirements relating to stalk length, and not more than
5 percent shall be allowed for stalks havmg an average midrib
length shorter than that specified
U. S No. 1 shall consist of stalks (1) of celery of similar
varietal characteristics (2) which are fairly well developed (3)
and have fairly good heart formation (4); which are well trim-
med (7). which are not badly spread and are free from black-
heart, decay, and from damage (8) caused by brown stem (8),
wilting (8). cut worms (8a), freezing (8), growth cracks (8b),
hollow crown (8), pithy branches (8c). seedstems (8d), dirt (8e).
doubles (8f), disease (8). insects or mechanical or other means
(8) Unless otherwise specified, stalks shall be fairly well blanch-
ed (11). However. any lot of celery which meets all the require-
ments of this grade except as to blanching may be designated as
"U. S. No. 1 Mixed Blanch", provided that any lot of celery
which has a dark green appearance shall be designated as "U,
S No. 1 Green"
Unless otherwise specified the average midrib length (9)
of the outer whorl of branches on stalks in this grade shall be
not less than 5 inches
Stalk length may be stated in terms of the nearest even
inch as 20 inches, 22 inches, 24 inches, etc in accordance with
the facts but unless otherwise specified when tops have not been
generally clipped back the length of stalks (10) shall be not less
than 18 inches





40 The PidI itron, Distributon ain Compel tiloni of Florida Iegeltablcs

When the tops have been generally clipped back, this fact
and the resulting stalk length, shall be stated following the grade
designation as, for example, "U S No. 1-clipped to 16 inches."

In order to allow for variations, other than lengths, incident
to proper grading and handling, not more than a total of 15 per-
cent, by count, of the stalks in any container may be below the
requirements of this grade, provided that not more than
two-thirds of this amount, or 10 percent, shall be allowed for de-
fects other than pith but not more than 2 percent shall be al-
lowed for decay. In addition, not more than 5 percent, by count,
of the stalks in any container may not meet the requirements
relating to stalk length, and not more than 5 percent shall be
allowed for stalks having an average midrib length shorter than
that specified

U. S. Combination Grade.-Any lot of celery may be desig-
nated "U. S Combination" when not less than 60 percent, by
count, of the stalks in each container meet the requirements
of U S No 1 grade and the remainder U. S No 2 grade.

In order to allow for variations other than lengths, inci-
dent to proper grading and handling, not more than 5 percent,
by count, of the stalks in any container may be below the re-
quirements of U. S. No 2 grade but not more than two-fifths of
this amount, or 2 percent, shall be allowed for decay. In addition,
not more than 5 percent, by count, of the stalks in any container
may not meet the requirements relating to stalk length and not
more than 5 percent shall be allowed for stalks having an average
midrib length shorter than that specified No part of any tol-
erance shall be allowed to reduce, for the lot as a whole, the per-
centage of U. S. No. 1 required in the combination, but individual
containers may have not more than 10 per cent less than the
percentage of U. S No 1 stalks required.
U. S. No. 2 grade shall consist of stalks (1) of celery of sim-
ilar varietal characteristics (2) which are fairly well developed
(3). have fairly good heart formation (4), which are well trim-
med (7) and free from blackheart, decay and from serious dam-
age (12) caused by brown stem (12), wilting (12), cut worms
(12a), freezing (12), growth cracks (12b), hollow crown (12),pithy
branches (12c). seedstems (12d). dirt (12e). doubles (12f), disease,
insects or mechanical or other means (12). Unless otherwise speci-
fied stalks shall be fairly well blanched. However, any lot of cel-
ery which meets all the requirements of this grade except as to
blanching may be designated as "U. S. No. 2 Mixed Blanch", pro-
vided that any lot of celery which has a dark green appearance
shall be designated as "U S. No 2 Green "





Thi I'rdll 'i'i -lll iutt'ni aInl i'nip.tl t oi Florida I 'gr labbl 41

Unless otherwise specified, the average midrib length of the
outer whorl of branches on stalks in this grade shall be not less
than 4 inches
Stalk length may be stated m terms of the nearest even
inch as 20 inches, 22 inches, 24 inches, etc in accordance with
the facts but unless otherwise specified when tops have not
been generally clipped back the length of stalks shall be not
less than 18 inches.
When the tops have been generally clipped back, this fact
and the resulting stalk length, shall be stated following the grade
designation as. for example, "U. S. No. --clipped to 16 inches."
In order to allow for variations other than lengths incident
to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by
count, of the stalks in any container may be below the require-
ments of this grade, but not more than one-fifth of this amount,
or 2 percent. shall be allowed for decay In addition, not more
than 5 percent, by count, of the stalks in any container may not
meet the requirements relating to stalk length and not more
than 5 percent shall be allowed for stalks having an average
midrib length shooter than that specified.
Unclassified shall consist of stalks of celery which have not
been classified in accordance with any of the foregoing grades.
The term "Unclassified" is not a grade within the meaning of
these standards but is provided as a designation to show that no
definite grade has been applied to the lot.

Requirements As To Count
The number of stalks in the container shall be specified by
numerical count or in et ims of dozens or half dozens Variations
from the number specified shall be allowed as follows'
Less than 50 stalks-3 stalk variation
50 to 70 stalks Inc -4 stalk variation.
More than 70 stalks--5 stalk variation

Definitions of Terms
As used in thIse standards
I "Stalk" means an indn idual plant
2 "Sumilai varietal characteristics" means that the stalks in
any container have the same color and character of growth.
For example, celery of Giant Pascal and Golden Self Blanching
types must not be mixed





42 The Prod, tilon, D Istrbluti nd Competflion oI Florida Iregetable

3. "Fairly well developed' means that the outer branches
are not spindly or abnormally short and thin.
4. "Fairly good heart formation" means that the inner heart
branches are of reasonable number, length and stockmess.
5 "Clean" means that the stalk is practically free from dirt
or other foreign materials. All celery which is washed may not
be sufficiently free from dirt or other foreign materials to
be considered clean, while other lots which have not been wash-
ed may meet this requirement
6. "Well blanched" means that the midrib portions of the
branches on the stalks are generally of a creamy white color.
7. "Well trimmed" means that the outside coarse and dam-
aged branches have been removed and the root or roots have been
so trimmed that the remaining portion of the root or roots do not
extend a distance of more than 3 inches below the point of at-
tachment of the outer branches The actual length of the root
or roots shall not be measured but the distance through which
they extend below the base of the branches shall be measured
when the stalk is resting in an upright position on a solid sur-
face.
8. "Damage" means any injury or defect which materially
affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality. Any one
of the following defects, or any combination of defects, the
seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one
defect, shall be considered as damage.
(a) Cut worms-when the worms are present, or when worm
injury occurs on the heart branches, or when occurring on the
midrib portion of more than two branches, or when aggregating
more than two-thirds of a square inch on the midrib portion of
the branch or branches.
(b) Growth cracks, when the stalk has more than two
branches affected by growth cracks each of which is more than /
inch long. Growth cracks of any length affecting not more than
two branches shall be permitted.
(c) Pithy branches, when the stalk has more than two
branches which are pithy Pithy branches means those which
have a distinctly open texture with air spaces in the central por-
tion. When judging stalks for damage by pithiness the branches
should be examined at about the center of the midrib length
(d) Seedstems, when the stalk has a seedstem the length
of which is more than one and one-half times the greatest dia-
meter of the stalk. The greatest diameter of the stalk shall be





Thl Pioduri on, Dtirzbiliton and Comnpettlion of Florida Vgelables 43

measured at a point 2 inches above the pomt of attachment of
the outer branches to the root, The length of the seedstem shall
be measured from the point of attachment of the outer branches
at the base of the seedstem to the top of the actual seedstem ex-
clusive of any leaves or leaf stems attached to the top of the
seedstem.
(e) Dirt, when the stalk is caked with dirt.
(f) Doubles when not separated and the appearance is seri-
ously affected, or if separated and either of the stalks is badly
turned, or when the heart branches are not fairly well pro-
tected
9. "Midrib length" of a branch means the distance between
the point of attachment to the root and the first node
10. "Length of stalk" means the distance from where the
main root is cut off to a point which represents the average
length of the longest branches and leaves.
11. "Fairly well blanched" means that the midrib portion
of the branches on the stalks are generally of a light greenish
to creamy white color.
12. "Serious damage" means any injury or defect which se-
verely affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality.
Any one of the following of defects, or any combination of de-
fects, the seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for
any one defect, shall be considered as damage:
(a) Cut worms-when the worms are present, or when worm
injury occurs on the heart branches, or when occurring on the
midrib portion of more than three branches, or when aggregating
more than one square inch on the midrib portion of the branch
or branches.
(b) Growth cracks, when the stalk has more than four
branches affected by growth cracks each of which is more than
2 inch long.
(c) Pithy branches, when the stalk has more than four
branches which are pithy, or when more than one-half of the
outer branches (other than heart branches) are pithy. Pithy
branches means those which have a distinctly open texture with
air spaces in the central portion. When judging stalks for serious
damage by pithiness the branches should be examined at about
the center of the midrib length
(d) Seedstems, when the stalk has a seedstem the length
of which is more than twice the greatest diameter of the stalk.
The greatest diameter of the stalk shall be measured at a point





44 The Prodrlizoln, Dlnribl.bition aid Comperliitu Fl oridi igr tales

2 inches above the point of attachment of the outer branches
to the root The length of the seedstems shall be measured from
the point of attachment of the outer branches at base of the
seedstem to the top of the actual seedstem exclusive of any leaves
or leaf stems attached to the top of the seedstem
(e) Dirt, when the stalk is badly caked with dirt.
(f) Doubles, when the heart branches are not fairly well
protected.
Effective date: January 10, 1938 Revision to Oct. 1, 1940
Growing Cost. The average cost of growing a season's cel-
ery crop in Florida outside the Everglades is from $260-$325
per acre, not including cost of land, rental, taxes, interest on
investment, insurance, depreciation, or living costs. The costs
included, itemized Preparation and cultivation of land $125-150;
seed $10-12, fertilizer $100-$125; spraying and miscellaneous
$25-38. On the basis of 500 crates per acre of marketable celery,
the cost per crate at shipping point is from $1.00-1.20 per crate:
Growing 52c-65c, harvesting 6-8c; crate 17-20c: hauling 4c; grad-
ing, packing and precooling 21-23c.
Loading in Car.-Celery is shipped under refrigeration. The
standard celery containers in Florida are the 10-inch crate,
10x20x22, the small 16-inch 10x16x22. and the wirebound standard
10x20x22. Crates are usually loaded in the car, 16 stacks long,
7 or 8 rows wide and 3 layers high The 2 lower layers are double
stripped, top layer single stripped. Rows should be well spaced
and aligned. The "clipped top" wirebound crate has become a
very popular container, it is not stripped. The average load is
352 crates, ranging from 336 to 384 crates
Florida Shipments.-The Florida celery crop is shipped out
in the period December through the following June Informa-
tion below shows the rail and boat shipments of Florida celery
by weeks, beginning Dec. 16, ending June 22 each season, for the
seasons of 1935-36 through 1939-40, and truck shipments by weeks
for the two seasons 1938-39 and 1939-40, previous seasons unavail-
able for truck shipments The monthly shipments of Florida
celery by rail and boat for the season December to June inclusive
are shown for the seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40.

Weekly Shipments (Rail and Boat)
Dec. Dec. Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb.
Season 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 3
1935-36 0 0 0 30 165 258 292 344
1936-37 0 0 41 136 366 493 522 272
1937-38 18 9 107 131 137 255 238 365
1938-39 0 0 53 112 174 293 346 551
1939-40 0 18 17 90 240 254 318 377





Ihe Priiodiiion, Dilirlbit,,ii and Comlpettion of Florida l'ireables 45


Weekly Shipments (Rail and Boat)
Feb. Feb. Feb. Mch. Meh. Meh. Meh.
Season 10 17 24 2 9 16 23
1935-36 377 420 376 415 367 320 600
936-37 294 406 481 356 457 509 478
1937-38 386 335 418 485 640 613 338
1938-39 480 398 391 457 491 267 374
1939-40 280 343 287 370 420 464 469

Weekly Shipments (Rail and Boat)
Mch. Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr. May May
Season 30 6 13 20 27 4 11
1935-36 732 643 442 285 335 243 263
1936-37 508 549 445 510 561 518 404
1937-38 505 612 582 486 330 375 413
1938-39 425 362 241 443 517 380 436
1939-40 494 775 654 464 414 351 240
May May June June June June
18 25 1 8 15 22
1935-36 316 155 119 22 21 0
1936-37 404 254 77 4 0 0
1937-38 366 255 97 6 0 0
1938-39 372 260 148 7 0 0
1939-40 232 205 92 18 2 0


Weekly Shipments (Truck)
Dec. Dec. Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb.
16 23 30 6 13 20 27 3
1938-39 2 1 3 16 22 32 34 39
1939-40 1 5 12 37 48 40 31
Feb. Feb. Feb. Mch. Mch. Mch. Mch.
10 17 24 2 9 16 23
1938-39 43 45 42 49 49 36 36
1939-40 5 53 54 75 90 101 116

Weekly Shipments (Truck)
Mch. Apr Apr. Apr. Apr. May May
30 6 13 20 27 4 11
1938-39 32 37 31 29 29 21 15
1939-40 107 107 81 79 50 31 30

May May June June June June
18 25 1 8 15 22
1938-39 19 14 5 0 0 0
1939-40 27 23 12 2 1 0





46 The Production, Distribution and Competition ol Florida Vegetables

Shipments by Months (Rail and Boat)
Season Dec Jan. Feb. Mch. Apr. May Jun. Total
1932-33 38 1225 1403 1828 1568 885 40 6987
1933-34 34 901 1351 2173 2313 1527 44 8343
1934-35 15 336 1514 2136 2003 1218 29 7251
1935-36 1 681 1601 1940 2131 1068 158 7580
1936-37 29 1537 1461 1965 2332 1715 51 9090
1937-38 109 846 1507 2390 2136 1471 41 8500
1938-39 117 1073 1838 1744 1695 1505 59 8031
1939-40 36 1053 1362 2020 2413 971 31 7886


Transportation and Distribution.-The proportion of celery
shipments from Florida by rail have not in comparison with beans
and cabbage for instance shown such heavy declme. Noting the
five seasons 1934-35 through 1938-39, the rail and boat shipments
accounted for more than nine-tenths the total movement of
Florida celery. The truck shipments of celery have increased
gradually, and the 1939-40 season shows about the heaviest per-
centage over any previous season of the total Florida celery crop
moving out by truck. The following tabulation will show the
movement of Florida celery by different means of transporta-
tion for five recent seasons, and the percentage of the total mov-
ing by each method:

1938-39 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35
C/is % C/s % C/n % C/I % C/Is q
Ral shipments 7696 88% 8270 93% 8902 92% 7483 94% 7203 94%
Boat shipments 335 4% 230 3% 18I 2% 97 1% 48 1%
Truck shipments 684 8% 350 4% 600 6% 400 5% 400 5,
Total 8715 100% 8850 100% 9690 100% 7980 100% 7651 100%


Blanket distribution of Florida celery is indicated by the
following passing information of rail movement only, five years
as shown, percentage of the total destined to Eastern, Western
and Southern territory:

1938-39 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35
Passings Eastern territory 55% 52% 55% 54% 54%
Passing Western territory 371 38% 35% 35% 34
Passings Southern territory 8% 10% 10% 11% 12%;

On the basis of the above rail passing, Florida celery distri-
bution has about held normal into Eastern markets, and has in-
creased slightly to Western markets Passings by rail into South-
ern territory have declined in the five-year period shown






ThO, PImni, ;,, i. D,,rurtli ..'on ld ldCnpafiioen O7 loridi! fegelniblhs 47

Total rail and boat carlot unloads of Florida celery have been
as follows in the years shown on important Eastern, Midwestern,
Southern and Canadian markets:


1939 1938 1937 1936 1935
Allhnn 64 79 69 51 46
Atla.1ta 5j 69 5 62 44
Balni-rc 123 269 277 254 241
Bn nminham 37 46 40 32 15
Boston 3bT 413 487 31 344
Buffalo 17 1.56 190 1S4 156
Chicago 806 775 S06 758 624
Cincinnati 251 275 .324 324 252
Cleveland 314 334 364 343 282
CoZlumbus 75 83 B5 74 5i
Delli lt 75 590 645 525 421
Irt ford 63 63 70 37 23
Indianapolos M 94 97 80 69
Kansas City B0 56 44 20 60
Lnuis ille 33 44 45 49 61
Meimphns -9 18 30 27
Milw ukee 128 109 95 76 72
Minneapolls 46 34 37 10 57
Nashvll e 25 33 38 1 18
Ne.,>ark 97 99 49 39 36
New Haven 31 22 34 29
Nsi Orlean, 5t9 56 52 2 50
New York 1734 1653 1990 2713 1570
Philadelphia 633 712 791 744 674
Pwttsburgh 383 432 463 387 346
Poviidcencc 48 49 55 43 35
lRohcr'ter 78 66 B4 77 7B
St LouiS 228 ]qn 227 164 ]81
Spn ,nficid 44 42 42 56 45
Toronto 140 145 135 69 100
Syracuse 27 30 47 42 40
Toledo 58 55 39 36 32
Washington 112 130 142 l91 9g
Montrcal 99 '2 92 56 53
Total 7246 1321 w800 b8i42 6234
Cal Yr Shpts 7949 8508 9170 7608 7237
Sdistl abone 91 1' 86'7 88r 8999 86 1%


New York and Philadelphia unloads in carlot equivalents by
rail, boat and truck are available, and are as follows, calendar
years 1935-39:


13,9 | 198 I37 1936 I 1935
N. Itl I N '. Phil N. Y. Phi I N e, VhiI N. Y. Phil.
Rail 14G2 625 I 1446 711 17T90 782 1616 743 15i25 672
Boat 272 8 217 1 200 9 | 97 1 45 2
Tru k 18 46 1 I I 2 7 2 4 0 0
Totsil 1732 679 1654 679 | nla 798 171] 748 1lT0 674


Truck passing for Florida celery prior to the 1938-39 season
were unavailable, and the following passing for 1938-39 to South-
ern cities to which carlot equivalent volume of 8 cars or more





48 7 hr Produalin Distrbnitzonl ind Compettlloin o Florida I getbllbes

per season were destined, are not to be confused with either the
foregoing rail passing or rail and boat unloads:

Ashei lle 9 Charlotte 13 Louiwvlle 17 Richmond 44
Atlanta 49 Columbia 15 Mobile 13 Roanoke 26
rrnmlnghamn 14 Greensboro 9 Nashvllle 14 Savannah ]2
Charleston (SC) 10 Greenville 8 Norfolk 5 -
Charleston (WVaO B Huntmrton 9 Ralegh B Total 303

New York City is the largest receiver of Florida rail and boat
celery, and New York and Philadelphia together handle about
30% the total Florida shipments calendar year basis, rail and
boat shipments. These two cities in 1935 unloaded 31% the
Florida rail and boat shipments, in 1936 32 ,, in 1937 30%, in 1938
28%, and in 1939 30% in round percentages.
The above calendar year unload record for important mar-
kets accounting for about 87% the average five-year annual ship-
ments by rail and boat shows that while New York is the
largest receiver, Chicago is the second largest receiver of Flor-
ida celery, holdmg this rank in the straight years 1936-1939
inclusive. Philadelphia ranks third, and Detroit fourth, same
basis. The consistency of the percentage actually unloaded
in the larger midwestern markets compares favorably with the
proportion moving to the largest Eastern markets,-note the
increase regularly to Milwaukee for instance. In 1939 calendar
year, about one-third the Florida rail shipments were unloaded
on 11 mid-western markets.
Distribution of Florida celery in the 1939-40 season, was
widespread with carlot distribution into 147 cities in 33 states.
and Canada, a considerable increase over 1938-39 when the
movement went to 119 cities in 32 states.-Wyoming receiving
shipments in 1940 Noticeable in the 1939-40 season was the
volume distributed in middle western markets.
Northern Market Averages.-The table below is a compila-
tion of unweighted simple average ten-terminal market job-
bing sales prices of Florida celery in crates, sizes mostly 3s to
6s, leading varieties, No 1 or top quotation basis by weeks for
the period December 16 through June 22 in each of the seasons
1935-36 through 1939-40, and by months January to June in-
clusive in each of the seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40:






I I't llrot ., !lii,.tl I ( 1,,mp, t iF u Ill id I dile.ibht 49


WEEKLY
PRICS iEs e Deer Her lan Jan Jan ITn Feb Feb Feb Feb. rch Mch Nich.
,EASON 16 23 So 6 3 20 2: 3 10 17 24 2 9 16


Ma' %ila% Jun Jun Jun. Jun
1] 25 1 8 15 22


Mch. Apr.


May June


Florida (Jacksonville) Averages.-The following simple av-
erage unweighted jobbing prices of Florida celery by months
on the Jacksonville market will give an index of home market
price trends by calendar years for the period January 1926,
through June 1940, basis crates, top quotation, preferred sizes and
varieties:


Sear Jan Feb Mar 'pr 1L. Jim Jul ilg ep O(t Nv Deer.


*Incomplete qutiTationh linaaiiable for ,hole week or month






50 hlr Pirdlii !tn, Ditrrbitoi ,ri nd Comptlnr n ii Fliiird I,' i tItble

Competition.-Florida celery shipments m the first months
of the season must compete with new crop, and also storage
shipments, though in far more limited proportions Celery ship-
ments from Califorma are placed on the markets from either
the northern, southern or central districts of that State i not
only every month of the Florida shipping season, but in every
month of the calendar year Florida celery is shipped in carlot vol-
ume from December through June with no carlot shipments out
m the five months July through November. California shipments
are the heaviest in December, and second largest in November.
so that Florida shipments are placed on markets well supplied
with California November shipments, and must meet the heaviest
month's shipments of the entire California season in December
California Celery shipments reach peak m the month in which the
Florida celery shipping season begms. California ships out its
lowest monthly volume in April, and the United States total cel-
ery shipments are the lowest in order, in July and August. Louisi-
ana ships comparatively few cars of celery in May and June, and
Virginia less than 75 cars in June in recent seasons.

Competition from old crop or late celery comes chiefly from
New York, and secondly from Michigan in December and Jan-
uary. The imports are of little consequence. Bermuda occas-
ionally ships out a few cars to the United States.

The following information shows the extent of competition
given to Florida celery shipments by months in the average ship-
ping season December to June inclusive for the period 1928-29
through 1938-39 For convenient reference the tabulation is ar-
ranged to show by months the total U. S. shipments, the Florida
shipments, and the competitive domestic U S shipments:

TOTAl.
SEASON DEC JAN FEB MAR. APR MAY JUNE (7mos)
TotalUl S Shpmernts 3,331 3343 3,230 3.14 2,423 1,777 618 17,85
192B-21 Florida Shipments 1 651 2,442 2 565 2,011 1 124 37 8 31
Competitive (US S) 3,329 2692 788 599 412 653 581 9,054
Total U S. Shipments 3,177 2851 3,211 2.937 2,50 1 947 96 17 611
1929-30 Florida Shipments 102 1,329 2,563 2 338 2154 1,219 147 9852
Compettilv (U S 3075 1,522 650 599 426 728 759 7.750
Total U S Shipments 3,31 2678 2,630 2.778 3,469 889 594 16,389
1930-31 Florida Shipments 7. 996 1,694 2210 2 95 279 27 8.244
Competitive (U S) 3278 1,682 936 568 504 610 567 8,145






The l'nl,' lin, Dlrdur liron nml imp. tilnon ot Fl.riid; Tegetables 51

TOTAL
OEASOx DEC. JAN. FIll MAR APR. MAY JLNE (7mos)
Total U S Shipments 2 758 2,521 2341; 2,534 2384 1,729 808 15,074
1931-32 Florida Shipments $, 1,223 1,649 1,476 1.987 1,175 85 7,931
Competitl- (U. S ) 2.422 1,298 191 1.058 397 554 723 7,143
Total U S Shipment, 1,925 2,304 2,171 2,061 1,835 1,595 666 13,157
1932-33 FloriTd Stupments 38 1,225 ,41), 1,328 1,568 885 40 6,987
Compettl t cU S ) 1 887 1,079 71,i 853 267 710 626 6,170
Total U S Sipmcnt 2,075 2,351 2 141 273 2,383 1,722 495 13,905
1911-34 Florida SIpments 34 901 .51 2 173 2 313 1.527 44 8,343
Compctltn U S 2,141 1,430 790 565 70 195 451 5,562
Total U Sh SipTets 2,340 1,869 1920 2,372 2,110 1,655 701 12,967
P' 14-35 Florida h upiiments 13 336 1,.14 2,136 2,1103 1.218 29 7.251
Competitive IU S 2325 1533 410i 236 107 437 672 5,716
Total V S hiaprenT 2.,37 1,634 2 26 2,641 2442 1,880 811 13,711
1q33-36 Florida Satllnents 1 681 1f01 1,940 2,131 1068 158 7580
Competitive tU S ) 2,0136 953 6i5 701 311 812 653 6,131
Total U S Shipments 2,135 2,798 1,970 2,767 2 601 2,290 625 15,186
l'..-37 FlolIda bllSielpnts 29 1,537 1,411 1,965 2232 1,715 51 9,090
Comip.ctii *' S 2 106 1,261 509 B02 269 575 574 6.096
Total U S Shipment 2,525 2238 32 3,098 2,432 2,145 767 15,54
1937.-3 Florid] Shipments 109 846 1507 2,390 2,136 1,471 41 8,500
Competlit v (U S i 2,416 1,392 l22 708 2') 674 726 7.034
Total U S Shipments 2 219 2,131 2,484 2,477 2,19) 2,090 838 14,408
19it 839 Flollda Shii ents 117 1073 838 1,744 1.695 1,505 59 8,031
Compcllti' U S I 2 102 1,058 1,46 733 474 585 779 6,377


A lot of Florida celery competition begins in the home pro-
ducing sections, and the steadiness of market prices depends
probably as much upon how orderly, in what volume, and in
the territory distributed, as upon the shipments from California
and other states If the Florida shipments were a third less,
market prices could still be disrupted unless aggressive and or-
derly distribution, spreading of the normal peak shipping sea-
sons, and selling only No 1 quality of trade preferred sizes, is
followed closely Since only one other State ships new crop
celery the first six months of the year in heavy competitive
volume, since the celery growing districts are concentrated in
only a few Florida counties, if Florida shippers would increase
their shipments only in reasonable proportion to the declining
volume of new crop celery from California and the more limited
proportion from storage, it would seem that March. April and
May should be months of uniformly good prices for Florida cel-
ery. If the cost of harvesting, packing and general processing at





52 The Produ'.liion, Dirtnlldio anli Comnpetition of Florndd Vegetabir

shipping point rapidly increases without the destination or ship-
ping point prices improving, the growers are gradually realizing
less net returns for their endeavor. In view of the general grow-
mg and marketing conditions of celery, it is more to the advan-
tage of the Florida celery growers to try to prevent causes of dis-
astrously low prices, than to attempt to increase their revenue
by timing their marketing season for individual peak weeks or
months in the shipping season.






The Prodclton. DliHlrlutlin amid Compe1tlion of Florida Vegetables 53


CUCUMBERS

Acreage -The acreage, and where grown, of the Florida com-
mercial cucumber crop is shown in the following tabulation by
counties, seasons 1928-29 to 1939-40 inclusive:


COUNTY 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939.
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Alachua 1823 1750 2050 1225 900 650 300 300 800 800 1150 1300
Baker 25 25 100 -
Bradford 150 200 200 50 250 __ 200 200
Brevard 10 10 -
Charlotte 25 25 25 25 .. .... .. 75 225 150 50
Clay 40 30 50 50 --
Collier 25 25 50 -- 250 200 200 300 250 300 400
Columbia 150 140 200 50-- -
De Soto 150 200 200 225 300 50
Gadsden 20 --- 50
Gilchnrst 100 35 25 -
Glade 25 .-- --- -
Ha lton 20 25 --- -- -- -
Hardee 1940 1925 1800 1150 950 900 130O 1050 850 1500 1400 1600
Hendry 175 70 50 50 50 50 100 100 100 100 100 100
Hernando 35 100 50 75 -
Hillsboro 300 500 150 200 100 150 150 150 200 375 350 250
Holmes --- --------- -- --- 240
Indian R, 50 50 170 100 150 125 50 200 200 100 100 100
Jackson -- ---- -- 50 100
Lake 250 110 100 50 --. 25 50 __ 100 100 100
Lee 450 350 300 300 500 525 600 1050 60 500 250 300
Levy 1425 1420 825 715 450 550 450 200 200 200 150 350
Madison 150 25 25 50 50 ..
Manatee 100 100 160 250 250 250 200 350 350 525 35 360
Marion 940 1050 575 370 250 225 200 200 10 0 3I350 600
Martin 50 70 --- -- 100 300
Nassau -_ -
Orange 900 1000 530 420 225 150 200 250 225 400 500 350
Oceoa 40 110 0 35 10 15
Pasco 25 20 50 200 25-- --
Pinellas -- 100 50 5 --
Polk 50 110 160 60 10 10 5
putnam 100 -- 100 350 35
St. Johns 300 50 -- --- 60-
St Lucle 50 50 50 125 100 100 200 200 250 200 550 150
Sarasota 75 - -- 100 100 100 150 300 200 250
Scmnmole 10 20 25 .
Sumter 1700 2050 1520 1120 720 550 600 600 600 1000 800 750
Suwannee -35 25 150 100 -
Union 200 280 130 25 50 50
Volusia 20 50 20 25 --- -
Washington - --- -- 600
Miscellaneous --- 20 160 100 50 125 75 200

State Total 11340 12100 9650 7300 5600 5000 5100 5700 5600 7000 7600 8200*

*Preliminarv





54 The Produciiii, Distribution and Competlieon of Finrida Vegetables

The proportion of the State's total acreage in the fall and
spring each, is shown in the following tabulation, for eight
seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40:

SEASON FALL WINTER SPRING TOTAL
1932-33 1,600 0 4,000 5,600
1933-34 1,600 0 3,400 5,000
1934-35 1,800 0 3,300 5,100
1935-36 1,600 0 4,100 5,700
1936-37 1,600 0 4,000 5,600
1937-38 ...... ...... 2,000 0 5,000 7,000
1938-39 ... 1,800 0 5,800 7,600
1939-40 1,800 0 6,400 8,200*
*Preliminary.

Variety.-The principal market varieties of cucumbers grown
in Florida are Davis Perfect, Kirby's Improved Straight Eight,
A. & C., Kirby's Long Stay Green, Kilgore's Long Dark Green.

Grade.-(U. S. and Florida Standards for Slicing Cucum-
bers.) U. S. Fancy shall consist of cucumbers which are well
formed, fresh, firm, and sufficiently mature for slicing purposes
but not full grown or ripe, which have a green color over two-
thirds or more of the surface and are free from decay and from
damage caused by dirt, freezing, mosaic or other disease, insects
or mechanical or other means. Unless otherwise specified, the
minimum length of the cucumbers shall be not less than five
inches. (See tolerances).

U. S. No. 1 shall consist of cucumbers which are fairly well
formed and which are fresh, firm, and sufficiently mature for
slicing purposes but not full grown or ripe; which are free from
decay and from damage caused by dirt, freezing, mosaic or
other disease, insects or mechanical or other means. Unless other-
wise specified, the minimum length of the cucumbers shall be
not less than five inches (See tolerances).

U. S. No. 2 shall consist of cucumbers which are not badly
deformed and which are fresh, firm, and sufficiently mature for
slicing purposes but not full grown or ripe; which are free from
decay and from serious damage caused by dirt, freezing, mosaic
or other disease, insects or mechanical or other means. Unless
otherwise specified, the minimum length of the cucumbers shall
be not less than four inches (See tolerances)

Unclassified shall consist of cucumbers which are not grad-
ed in conformity with any of the foregoing grades





he P.'rmin t' Dtrtha'n and ( nmprtziwn or i'rloida I'fgetab 55

Tolerances for Preceding Grades
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than 5 percent, by count, of the cucum-
bers in any container may be below the specified minimum
length. In addition, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the
cucumbers in any container may be below the remaining re-
quirements of this grade but not more than one-tenth of this
tolerance, or 1 percent shall be allowed for decay.
The tolerances specified for the various grades are placed on
a container basis However, any lot of cucumbers shall be con-
sidered as meeting the requirements of a specified grade if the
entire lot averages within the tolerance specified, provided that
no sample from the containers in any lot is found to exceed the
following amounts:
For a specified tolerance of 10 percent, not more than one
and one-half times the tolerance shall be allowed in any one
package.
For specified tolerances of 5 percent or less, not more than
double the tolerance shall be allowed in any one package.

Definitions of Terms

As used in these grades-
"Well formed" means the normal typical shape for the
variety.
"Fresh" means bright, not wilted or old
"Sufficiently mature for slicing purposes" means the cucum-
ber has a bright color and the warts or knobs when present are
fairly prominent. The seeds are not hard and the flesh firm and
fairly crisp
"Full grown" means that the cucumber has a dull appear-
ance, is fairly smooth and warts when present are not prominent.
Such cucumbers are generally well filled out at the ends and
yield to slight pressure of the thumb. The seeds are fairly hard
to hard and the pulp in the seed cavity is usually watery or
jelly like
"Fairly well formed" means that the cucumber is not more
than shghtly curved, tapered slightly more than normal at one
or both ends, or otherwise slightly misshapen
"Damage" means any injury by the causes mentioned which
materially affects the appearance, edible or shipping quality.





56 7 he Production, Distribu ton and Compri ion oi Floridai iegtCables

"Badly deformed" means that the cucumber is so badly
curved, hooked, beaked, bottlenecked, constricted, or otherwise
so badly misshapen that the appearance is seriously affected, or
excessive waste is caused in preparation for use.
"Serious damage" means any injury by the causes mentioned
which seriously affects the appearance, edible or shipping quahty.
Effective date: April 5, 1932. Revision to Oct. 1. 1940.
Growing Cost.-Exclusive of taxes, interest rental, depreci-
ation, it will cost from $70 to $95 per acre to grow cucumbers
in the open field in Florida. Preparation and cultivation of land
$20-30 ($50-$60 per acre under trough), seed $3.00-5.00; fer-
tilizer $35-40; spraying and miscellaneous $12-22. On the basis of
a yield of 125 bushel hampers per acre, the cost per hamper
delivered at shipping point is from .95-$1.33 as follows: Growing
56-78c, harvesting 10-15c; hamper 14-15c; hauling 5c; gradmg and
packing 10-20c.
Loading in Car.-Cucumbers from Florida are generally ship-
ped under ventilation, in dry refrigerator cars. The tub type
bushel basket and the bushel hamper are the principal con-
tainers used in the carlot shipment of cucumbers from Florida
The baskets are usually loaded lengthwise the car 21x22, or 22
stacks in each layer of each row. end-to-end offset method,
3x3 rows, 3 layers sometimes 4 layers high Average load 421-
450 baskets, range from 400-500 baskets Hampers are loaded
alternately on ends full length of the car, 7 rows wide, 2-3 layers
high. reverse order in layers with tops against tops. bottoms
against bottoms. Average load 450 hampers per car, range from
420 to 520.
Florida Shipments.-Carlot shipments of Florida cucumbers
are made in the season beginning in October and ending in June.
The following table includes weekly shipments of Florida cucum-
bers complete by rail and boat for the seasons 1935-36 to 1939-40
inclusive, and truck shipments for the same weekly periods for
the seasons 1938-39 and 1939-40. Florida cucumber shipments by
months each season, December to June inclusive, by rail and boat
are given for the seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40'






l he I l t ti '. itrIhI d I, Is o I t 'I r.''vsd [ kmr .I I I hl


WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (BIail and Btrl)




1935-36 58 53 38 47 14 18 8 4
1936-37 12 15 6 4 5 2 3
19s7-3B 13 21 2a8 B 28 6 2 ]
193B- 9 17 44 d5 A1 8 7 1 II
1939-40 13 10 16 5 6 6 4 I
WEEKLY SHIPNII-TS (Truck)
i19383- 8 23 21 19 10 i2 i6 4
1939-40 35 21 24 ]6 17 12 12 6

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Rail and Roat)
,r c, =


:.u~'O


n r
" r r


S 3 '2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1
J 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1


I f %%! g s i i i' i i


1935-36 0 0 0 5 29 47
193i-37 2 7 40 30 ,9 i.i
1937-38 0 4 32 129 249 255
193a-39 11 21 34 7 7B 57
1939-40 0 0 0 0 5 22
HEEKL.Y SHIPMENTS (Truck)
1938-39 3 10 19 40 47 50
1939-40 1 1 0 0 0 11


50 55 127 163 iB 20 3 0
31 91 117 125 178 133 111 139


Tluck SliIpments 1939-4a0 Stc..son W1ek mIlin June 151h 89 car
Truck Shipments 1939-40 So.eon, Wck end.in June 22nd. 8 cars


SHIP IE\TS Bl MONTHS (Rail and ntot)

Season Oct Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apr. May June Total

1932-33 39 98 13 0 0 97 201 101 4 553
1933-34 57 151 68 5 0 5 200 338 4 828
1934-35 26 127 30 0 0 19 438 255 0 895
1935-36 19 210 46 5 0 1 256 273 26 836
1936-37 31 38 14 1 0 63 228 155 14 544
1937-38 20 93 26 0 0 109 920 275 0 1443
1938-39 41 127 16 0 0 135 282 294 0 895
1939-40 43 42 23 3 0 0 190 741 143 1185


Transportation and Distribution -The following figures will
show the movement by rail, boat and truck, and the percentage
of each, of Florida cucumbers shipped out in the seasons 1934-35
to 1938-39-


1938-39 7IW-3B 1916-37

R.l Slilpinlo e B09 40', 1351 6, 515 8',
Boat Shlipmnicr* It "I 112 .111, 1 1
Truck slipniments 80S 47' 600 29' 100 ]'
Ttal 1695 o100 2043 100 644 100


1935-36 131-35
( 11 ", c Is 1,






58 1 il P-dlei i, 1i;rhbut'.n ondi Ctimpt,,rit' t Florodl I ,frtabhst

On the basis of blanket distribution as indicated by rail
passing. Florida cucumbers have declined from 82' the total rail
movement into Eastern territory in the 1934-35 season to 69%,
the total in the 1938-39 season. Rail movement into Southern ter-
ritory is about the same in these two seasons. On the other hand
rail movement to Western territory has increased from 15% the
total to 28', the total in the five-year period ending with the
1938-39 season. For instance.


193-39 1937-38 1936-37 193536 1934-35
Passing Eastern territory 69', 69r0 77% 74', 82',
Passing WtEstcrn err Ior 28 301 22'r 23', 15
Passing Southern toiel tor% 3'. 1- 1' 3' 3'


The following break-down of rail and boat carlot equivalent
unloads in the principal Eastern and Midwestern markets will
further show where the Florida cucumber rail shipments have
been distributed, five calendar years.

1939 1918 1937 1936 1935 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935
Baltimo 3 2 4 9 11 Cincinnati 11 17 3 9 14
Boston 80 121 37 38 93 Cle eland 2 12 1 1 6
Ne. York 4n8 f .4 415 454 562 Detroit 59 103 19 17 40
Philadelphia 24 89 33 47 88 Kansas City 3 12 2 2 10
Pittsburgh 42 89 ]8 unav 38 St. Louis 12 29 9 5 9
Washington 14 2 6 6 9 Minneapolis 13 22 1 1 2
Chicago 142 228 102 86 125


Comparatively few terminal markets have complete records
of arrivals or unloads by all means of transportation. New York
and Philadelphia being large receivers of Florida cucumbers,
and records being complete for these markets, the information
given below for the calendar years 1935-1939 inclusive'

1939 1938 1937 193 1935
NY Phil N V. Phil N Y Phil. N Y. Phil. I N Y. Phl.
Rail Exp 325 24 545 89 361 32 | 374 41 490 85
Boat 83 0 09 0 I 54 I 80 6 I 72 3
Truck 344 180 214 156 75 74 26 70 11 0
Total 752 204 868 245 490 107 480 117 573 88

In the first tabulation it was shown that in the 1938-39
season, 47% of the total Florida cucumber shipments moved out
by truck. Prior to 1938-39 only estimates were available, but
actual passing records at Florida truck gateways were tabulated






III II'w /.l'.I ,w lia !lr-!lll' l,- I 11 ( .m pet, n'i i ,; H-,lltl I r..:*bll 5 1

in 1938-39, and truck passing of Florida cucumbers weie on that
basis intended for the following states carllt equivalents

Ni'. York J'r S Carinlqa 1. Knllt ck Milran 2
PenI'. iania 127 IlliIn. 17 Inu i fin,i IT iiiin 1
Mai:'land Li T'Pnn n .esc B4 OIn 5
W.lalllllton T '.is I 3 W IVi ',Ita. 4
N (arolihn I 1 M. .t t I 1 .i ,I
'\ in. .i .1 GtIns .. S AIl.ihfra 32 i -' 70s

The aboxe truck passing account for about 88', the total
truck movement of Florida cucumbers in the 1938-39 season.
About 76'; the total truck passings moved toward New York
and about 13', toward Chicago. though pait of the truck vol-
umre in each instance remained in Southern tlri itorv. For in-
stance, the states of New York Pennsyvlania. Marj land and
Washington received. If passing report-ed were accomplished,
about 67', the total Florida truck movement in 1938-39, the
states of Georgia. Kentucky Louisiana, North Carolina. South
Carolina. Tennessee. Texas. Virginia. West Viigmia. Alabama
and Mississippi apparently recenled 17'. while the group con-
sisting of Illinois. Indiana. Michigan. Missouri and Ohio had only
41 -', of the tuck movement The truck passing and rail pass-
ings both show distribution of about two-thuds the Florida
cucumber crop is made in Eastern telrltoiy There is however a
wide variation in rail and truck intended destinations in the
1938-39 season, for while onl' 3', of rail passing were billed for
Southern markets, evidently between 15', and 201; of the truck
passing were sold on the Southern markets Also while 28';, of
the rail passing were routed to Western teni torv. apparently
not more than 5'; of the truck passing were finally placed in
the Midwestern territory

Northern Market Averages,-The compilation below, based
upon unweighted sim ile average destination terminal market job-
bing sales prices of Florida cucumbers in bushel hampers, pre-
ferred varieties, top quotation basis will show the market trends
by weeks for the seasons 1935-36 through 1939-40. and also the
destination prices same basis by months 1932-33 through 1939-40


Weekly
Prices Nov. Nov. Nov. Nov Dec Dec. Dec. Dee.
Season 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23
1935 36 $3 32 2 85 2 50 2 56 2 54 2 77 3 14 : 59
1936-37 2 64 2 9 3 66 422 5 15 5 43 538 548
193738 358 351 328 18 203 301 307 395
1938-3q 220 253 2 31 234 2 63 2 06 401 4 77
19i.-40 243 288 375 4 30 4 40 4 0 492 503







b6 I it Prodl nli ., t .lliitll in andl Competit lionI o1 Florida I ,'tlab ls


Weekly
Prices Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb. Feb.
Season 30 6 13 20 27 3 10 17
1935-36 S3 61 4 56 4 39 4 76 0 0 0 0
1936-37 583 526 505 0 0 0 0 0
1937-38 3.57 226 3.75 5.05 6.65 6.52 0 6.63
1938-30 5.13 5 16 5 66 492 4.62 5.74* 6.13' 5 83
1939-40 4 65 4.49 4.47* 5 02* 5.65* 595* 0 483*
Weekly
Prices Feb. Mch. Mch. Mch. Mch. Mch. Apr. Apr.
Season 24 2 9 16 23 30 6 13
1935-36 $ 0 0 0 5.94 661 5 84 567 474
1936-37 0 566 550 5.33 504 404 422 3.85
1937-38 6,53 596 649 628 526 383 241 2,04
1938-39 6.36* 6 13' 478* 492 413 3.65 3.04 3.40
1939-40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 550*
Weekly
Prices Apr. Apr. May May May May June June
Season 20 27 4 11 18 25 1 8
1935-36 4 05 341 297 3.00 295 289 247 156
1936-37 4,36 5.07 614 5 68 4,26 3.29 2 63 163
1937-38 2 14 252 2.81 266 287 2.88 0 0
1938-39 3 26 3 58 285 2.15 167 1.88 0 0
1939-40 4 20 3 49 3 27 2,98 2 43 2 54 2.85 3 27


Monthly
Prices
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apr. May June
1932-33 $2 68 492 0 0 4 54 3.36 2.59 0
1933-34 193 263 3 00 0 5 82 432 296 0
1934-35 305* 322* 0 0 4 98 359 156" 0
1935-36 2.85 3 02 4,38* 0 6 30* 477 2.96* 2 12
1936-37 3 40 5 45 514" 0 5.15' 4.33 4.86 2 29*
1937-38 337 325 5 28 653* 578 235 281 0
1938-39 238 3.92 512 5 96' 4.37 3 34 211 0
1939-40 3 57 484 502 5 37* 0 4.23 276 251'

Florida (Jacksonville) Averages.-The following tabulation
shows the simple average jobbing prices of Florida cucumbers by
calendar years, by months, from 1926 through June 1940, bushel
hampers, top sales of offerings quoted:
Year Jan Feb. Mar Apr, May Jun Jul. Aug. Sep Oct No Dec.
1926 $522 0 05 7 286 121 169 0 0 251 348 367
1927 420 0 567* 306 143 1 67* 1 36 191 256 206 250 254
1928 0 0 406* 444 282 1 28 1 15 0 0 3 14 275 342
1929 0 0 350 215 142 171 273 310 270 251 289 276
1930 379 290 598 5 0R 269 101 219 279 338 239 224 284
1931 362 414 454 471 203 103 20O 187 227 0 0 0
1932 480 523 359 458' ) 93* 70 0 0 0 1 60 229r 346
1933 0 0 3 78 234 1 69 0 1 50r I 62r 1 92r I62r 1 39 1 77
1934 1 99* 3 19' 468* 376 1 97 82r 1 54r 2 21r 2 58r 2 05r 226 256
1935 0 0 385 293 89 74 132 187 241 266 207 212
1936 210 219* 425 331 157 108 1 41 160 1 56 120 148 258
1937 3044 29 387 245 238 97 106 155 208 215 227 260
1938 3 33 466 4 30 1 62 1 24 100 1 43 151 280 1 78 1 48 209
1939 311 377 373 226 106 1 09r 1 57r 179r 2 24r 1 57 1 90 259
1940 331 3 97 385 362 2 13 1 22
*Incomplete part wrek or month r-Southern stock quoted





I hi P'rrdnctf n, it. hui tt'n curd crptI on or -lo da .I egtaid. 61

Competition.-Florida cucumber shipments, if the season
starts in October, must meet the fall domestic competition with
the rail and boat shipments from Georgia, Louisiana, and to some
extent the movement from Maryland and North Carolina, and
home grown local supplies m the northern sections. Thus initial
fresh stock shipments from Florida are overlapped by the fm-
ishmg supplies moving from sections in other states while at the
close of the Florida season in May and June, Florida shipments
overlap fresh supplies beginning to move from other early and
second-early States. Domestic competitive supplies from other
States fade out m November, and Florida in December ships
practically all of the open ground domestic volume. However, in
November Cuba and Porto Rico begin exports to the United
States. largely to the eastern markets, and including Mexico, these
are the three sources of imports The import receipts from Cuba
and Porto Rico are heaviest in January, next in February, declin-
ing in March. ending in April. largely dominating the eastern
markets from December to March Florida has also in the early
months some hothouse competitive supplies, mainly from Illinois,
Indiana and Ohio. The import competition is especially serious
in view of the low production costs, particularly labor in foreign
competing producing sections Otherwise, the comparatively lim-
ited Florida volume of cucumbers from hothouse or protected
acreage would yield far more profitable returns in particularly
the early months of the year

In April early domestic movement begins in carlot volume
from Texas and reaches peak movement from that State in May.
The competition is decidedly greater m May for then Alabama,
Georgia and South Carolina ship cucumbers in heavy carlot
volume, and the Florida cucumber season's closing shipments in
June must meet competitive movement from Arkansas, Cali-
fornia. Maryland. Mississippi. Texas. Virginia. and of course
heavy shipments from Alabama. Georgia. North and South Caro-
hna, and a few scattering cars from other States
Having noted the different competing sections, domestic and
foreign, and their respective shipping seasons, the following ar-
rangement will show the total domestic competition supplied
Florida cucumbers by other States with the Florida volume ex-
cluded from the total U S. shipments, the total amount of com-
petitive import shipments, and the grand total carlot competition
to Florida shipments in each of the nine months of the usual
Florida shipping season October to June inclusive, for the eleven
seasons 1928-29 to 1938-39 inclusive







62 Tih Pnllidnt ,inD, Di'lrilbution and Comnpetironr o Florida Vegetables


Total
SEASON Oct No. Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr. May Jun. (9 mos )
Total U S Shipments 0 89 19 0 27 433 1,428 1,963 2,107 6,066
1928-29 Florida Shipments 0 63 IS 0 5 397 1.221 483 0 2,185


Competitive lU S I
Total U S Shipments
1929-30 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S )
Total U S Shipments
1930-31 Florida Shipments
Competitive U S I
Total U S Shipments
1931 32 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S)
Total U S Shipments
1932-33 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S)
Total U S Shipmlents
Florida Shipments
1933-34 Competitive (U S)
Competitive Imports

Total Competitive
Total U S Shlpmlents
Flo ida Shipments
1934-35 Competitive (U S)
Compclttie Iiipors Is
Total Competitive
Total U S SShipments
Florida Shipments

1935-36 Competitive (U S
Competitive Imports

Total Competitive
Total US Shipments
Florida Shipments

1936-37 Competitive (U S)
Competitive Import,

Total Competitive
Total U S Shipments
Florida Shipments
1937-38 Compettiive i( S
Competitive Importl
Total Competitive
Total U S Shipments
Florida Shipments
1938-39 Competitive (U S
Competitive Imports
Total Competitive


0 26 3 0 22 36 207 1,480 2,107 3,881
93 124 55 0 20 42 356 2,379 2,475 5,544
5 106 54 0 0 9 202 581 30 987

88 18 1 0 20 33 154 1,798 2,445 4,557
203 229 22 0 0 37 245 2,055 1.136 3,927
66 215 20 0 0 0 154 1,097 83 1,635

137 14 2 0 0 37 91 958 1053 2,292
143 82 10 0 22 B5 75 1,340 1 562 3,319
37 82 10 0 22 85 14 379 49 678
106 0 0 0 0 61 961 1,513 2,641
169 102 13 I 13 110 342 766 929 2445
39 98 13 0 0 97 201 101 4 553
130 4 0 1 13 13 141 665 925 1.892
222 154 68 7 15 21 218 1,228 1 331 3,264
57 151 68 5 0 5 200 338 4 828

165 3 0 2 15 16 18 890 1,327 2,436
0 2 45 65 36 15 7 0 0 170

165 5 45 b7 51 31 2 890 1,327 2,606
133 127 30 2 10 31 595 1,393 1,318 4,239
26 127 30 0 0 19 438 255 0 895

107 0 0 2 10 12 157 1,738 1,318 3,344
0 0 24 82 73 32 17 0 0 228

107 0 24 84 83 44 174 1, 173 318 3,572
98 212 46 7 4 2 284 1,163 1,360 3176
19 210 46 5 0 1 256 273 26 836
79 2 0 2 4 1 28 890 1,334 2,340
0 2 64 88 53 33 6 0 0 24S

79 4 64 90 57 34 34 890 1,334 2,586
187 40 14 1 1 63 228 606 1,058 2258
31 38 14 1 0 63 228 155 14 544

156 2 0 0 1 0 0 511 1044 1,714
0 2 62 1 71 68 5 0 0 289

156 4 62 81 72 68 5 511 1,044 2,003
77 97 26 0 0 109 928 1,019 1,094 3,350
20 93 26 0 0 109 920 273 0 1443
57 4 0 0 0 0 8 744 1 094 1.907
0 G 82 52 30 26 6 0 2 204
57 10 82 52 30 26 14 744 1,096 2,111
192 146 16 0 0 135 340 1 116 617 2,562
41 127 16 0 0 135 282 294 0 895
151 19 0 0 0 58 822 617 1667
S 6 65 87 63 54 7 0 0 282
151 25 65 87 63 54 65 822 617 1949






7 he Poodlattfoi Disltrbulton lnd Co petlilion of lornda I egetablei 63

Although the Florida cucumber commercial shipments move
to the northern markets nine months of the year, the lowest
movement from the State of Florida takes place in December,
January, February and early March This is likewise the period
of the slightest total U. S. domestic shipments With few excep-
tions the lowest northern market prices on Florida cucumbers
occur in May and June, which is the natural consequence when
it is considered that Texas shipments reach their peak in May
with an additional number of States beginning heavy shipments
in May With fresh stock available from so many different States,
some of them nearer the larger markets with lower transportation
charges, and with Florida receipts then representing mostly clean-
up stock, prices of Florida offerings invariably reach low levels
in latter May and June
On the basis of the twelve-season average, 1925-26 through
1936-37, and the more recent five-season average 1932-33 through
1936-37, and the past fifteen-season average, the period December
15th to April 1st represents the highest average prices of the
Florida cucumber shipping season
EGGPLANT

Acreage -Compared to several of the larger truck crops of
the State, Florida eggplant acreage is not so important, and the
acreage in the principal growing sections is comparatively lim-
Ited, the individual county acreage not running over 500 acres.
The following figures show the acreage of Florida eggplant by
counties for the seasons 1928-29 through 1939-40-

COUNTY 1928 1929 19 191931 1932 1933 19 191935 1936 1937 1938 1939*
29 30 31 32 3. 34 35 36 37 1 39 40
Alachua 110 120 70 50 85 60 75 50 50 250 150 75
Brevard 10 -
Broward 50 25 10 225 50 25 25 100 50
Charlotte 5 30 30 25 40 40 40 40 40 25 25 20
Citruls 60 25 25 50 50 50 50 25
Clay 25 25 15
Collier 10 25 105 100 25 50 25 25 75 25 25 25
Dade 60 0 100 100 25 255 25 25 25 50 25
De Soto 10 30 20 10
Gilchrist 20 55 60 50 50
Glades 5 5 5
Hardee 90 60 200 175 175 150 150 75 225 225 350 195
Hendly 10 30 25 15
Hernando 20 265 300 250 325 325 180 60 100 100 50 20
Hillsboro 50 45 40 100 150 175 100 100 100 0 100 150 50
Indian R 10 25 25 10 25 25 25 25
Lake 25 20
Lee 270 280 100 450 550 350 300 300 275 400 350 300
Levy 10 20
Manatee 220 250 150 175 175 200 100 150 125 150 225 225
Marion 30 55 90 50 100 50 75 50 225 225 275 200






64 ne Pr I 'i n, [ttr.but(t' ,n,4 (" *mrl't. n i F!- r -d", I e tl.


-OUNT1 19Z8 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 I93M 1939*
2!9 3 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 311 3 40

Mlaltn 25 25 10 25
Ok- ci tlnli 5 5 25 15
Oranit 20 15 35 15 125 10) 173 50 25 25
Oselli 70 40 10
P.0lm BR. e h 75 20 70 50 25 25 50 25 75 75 200 100
pasc. 5 25 100 Ol f.O 50 BO
Pulk 20 25 25 50
S, L.Lni 25 3 5
S-IT noil 75 40 60 50 120 50 45 50 45 45 5 43
Sumti-r 5 5
Lninii 11 50 100 25 25
ValllLlMI 5 01 5
MlC( tanl, n.11s 25 55 75 25 40 85 50 25

Stilr. ilt1l ll121) ]u 1800 I 1 250 I0gW 24N 1 100 I.40 2111 1400





Tihl Ptrdiiilli., Dftlll toni i d Cromplnlpt on oif Hrliird, ege1lFab1s 65

The amount of the seasonal acreage of Florida eggplant
grown an the fall, winter and spring is shown m the following
tabulation for eight seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40:


SEASON FALL WINTER SPRING TOTAL
1932-33 1,050 0 1,400 2,450
1933-34 1,050 0 1,000 2,050
1934-35 900 0 600 1,500
1935-36 .500 0 600 1,100
1936-37 _850 0 600 1,450
1937-38 1,000 0 800 1,800
1938-39 1,100 0 1,000 2,100
1939-40 1,000 0 400 1,400*
Preliminary,


Variety.-The Black Beauty, Ft. Myers Market, Manatee
Special, New York Improved Purple Spineless, Florida High-
Bush and New Orleans Market are the leading Florida vari-
eties of eggplant for shippmg purposes.

Grade--(U. S. and Florida Standards for Eggplant.) U. S.
No. 1 shall consist of eggplants of similar varietal character-
istics which are firm, fairly smooth, of good characteristic
color, fairly well shaped and which are free from damage
caused by disease, insects, mechanical or other means. If count
is specified, the eggplants shall be reasonably uniform in size
in the container.

In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent, by count,
of the eggplants in any container* may be below the require-
ments of this grade but not more than one eggplant in any
container* may be affected by decay provided an average of
not more than 1 percent of the eggplants in any lot may be
affected by decay.
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of eggplants which are firm and
which are free from serious damage caused by disease, in-
sects, mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grad-
ing and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent by count,
of the eggplants in any container' may be below the re-
quirements of this grade but not more than one eggplant in
any container* may be affected by decay provided an average
of not more than one percent of the eggplants in any lot may
be affected by decav.






66 [ hi, Irodi ,n": I.l. trri at-.n .n.ld Compeli.nII ... Flori da P lnd i ables

Unclassified shall consist of eggplants which are not graded
in conformity with the foregoing grades.

MARKING REQUIREMENTS FOR SIZE
The size of eggplants may be designated in terms of count
or minimum diameter.
Where the size is specified, in order to allow for variations
incident to proper packing, not more than 10 percent, by count,
of the eggplants in any container* may be below the size speci-
fied.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the eggplants
are alike as to shape and general characteristics.
"Firm" means that the eggplants are not soft or flabby.
"Good characteristic color" means that the eggplants are
uniformly colored a deep purple Streaked color, light purple,
reddish or yellowish color shall not be considered good charac-
teristic color
"Fairly well shaped" means that those of the long type
such as Florida High Bush may be either cylindrical or slight-
ly curved but that they shall not be materially deformed; those of
thick, chunky type such as New York Improved may show the
characteristic scallops at the base and may be slightly curved.
but they shall not be materially deformed.
"Fairlv smooth" means that any scars present do not ma-
terially affect the appearance, shape or color.
"Damage" means any injury which materially affects the
appearance, edible or shipping quality.
"Serious damage" means any injury which seriously affects
the appearance, edible or shipping quality.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right angles to
the longitudinal axis.
Application of Tolerances.-The tolerances specified for
these grades are placed on a container basis. However, any lot
of eggplants shall be considered as meeting the requirements
of a specified grade, if the entire lot averages within the tol-
erances specified, provided that the defects m any container
based on sample inspection do not contain more than double
the amount allowed
Effective date. December 1, 1933 Revision to October 1. 1940
Growing Cost.-Not including cost of land, rental, taxes, in-
terest, depreciation, the average cost per season of producing egg-
plant in Florida \ ill average from S95 to S125 per acre. Prepara-





TheIf Prodtllutoi, Ditr utton anld Co ,peItton of Fl orlda I .i.e'ltlfl 67

tion and cultivation $35-50, seed $2-3, fertilizer $50-55, spraying
and miscellaneous $8-17. On a yield of 200 bushels per acre, the
cost per crate delivered shipping point is from $1.13-1.45: Grow-
ing 70-93c; harvesting 10-15c, crate 18-20c, hauling 5c: grading
and packing 10-12c
Loading in Car.-Eggplants are shipped in straight or mixed
cars under refrigeration. The principal container used m shipping
Florida eggplant is the 1Y bushel crate, inside dimensions
llxl3%x22 inches. Shipments are also made in bushel baskets and
hampers Crates are loaded full length of the car 16 stacks long,
usually 6 rows wide, and from 4-5 layers high. Bottom layers
are double stripped, top layer single stripped. The number of
crates per carload ranges from 426 to 496, average about 448
crates per car.
Florida Shipments.-The eggplant shipping season in Flor-
ida is a long one, beginning in October and continuing into
July. The record below gives rail and boat carlot shipments of
Florida eggplant for five seasons 1935-36 through 1939-40 by
weeks, beginning with November 4th and ending June 22nd each
season. Rail and boat shipments of Florida eggplant by months
in the season October to July inclusive with the total for each
season are also given for eight seasons, 1932-33 through 1939-40:

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Rall and Bo.lt)


SEASO e c -

1935-36 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 3 2 0 0 0 0-0
1936-37 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 8 3 2 4 2 3 2 0 0
1937-38 0 1 2 6 3 2 1 4 4 0 0 1 0 0 1 12
1938 -39 1 7 5 7 5 3 5 4 8 6 7 9 6 1 0 1 3
1939-40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Truck)
1938-39 19 21 27 17 15 11 12 8 9 18 11 14 11 8 9 11 11
1939-40 14 12 15 13 10 9 11 10 7 8 5 6 4 4 1 1 2

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Hlall and loat)


SEASON 4 .

1935-36 00 1 3 7 11 10 13 21 19 13 13 27 22 11 16
1936-37 1 2 2 9 3 6 6 10 7 8 8 4 13 15 18 17 17
1937-38 0 0 0 0 3 9 12 17 14 29 37 27 23 17 21 0 0
193B-39 4 5 6 14 17 10 12 11 11 12 17 16 6, 15 10 15 17
1939-40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Trunk)
1938-39 11 10 13 18 17 15 17 23 24 22 28 2 2 24 26 24 30 20
1939-40 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 5 7 14 13 15 16 9 12 12 12






68 1 ll Produt lton, DlUlribtllitn and Copliii.'wn o t Ilorida regetables

Shipments by Months (Rail and Boat)
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Total
1932-33 26 30 2 1 5 51 90 73 53 9 340
1933-34 13 6 9 18 11 8 56 102 47 3 273
1934-35 15 9 20 0 0 2 31 55 42 6 180
1935-36 0 4 2 6 0 2 39 78 79 18 228
1936-37 14 15 18 19 5 15 28 39 69 18 240
1937-38 0 9 11 4 4 3 52 119 66 8 276
1938-39 6 26 21 29 6 39 51 64 54 6 302
1939-40 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 6 0 0 11



Transportation and Distribution.-The following tabulation
showing shipments of Florida eggplant by rail, boat and truck
complete for five seasons, presents an interesting condition in that
in three of the five seasons, 1936-37, 1937-38 and 1938-39, both
truck and boat shipments exceeded those by rail The boat ship-
ments exceeded the truck volume in the three seasons 1934-35
through 1936-37, and equalled the volume in 1937-38, the truck
movement however m 1938-39 bemg the greater:


1938-39 1937-38 1936-3 1935-36 1934-35
C/ls % C/is Cr C/Is % C/i % c/I %q
Boat Shipments 279 30% 250 48% 184 54% 122 42% 100 42%
Truck Shipments 620 67% 250 48% 100 29% 60 21% 60 25%
Rail Shipments 23 3% 26 4, 56 17% 106 37% 80 33%
Total 922 100% 526 100% 340 100% 288 100% 240 100%


Unload records of Florida eggplant are somewhat deceptive,
for a fair volume is shipped i mixed cars, with peppers for in-
stance, and included in mixed vegetables or as NOS, while the
unload records of several important markets, particularly by boat,
express and truck and usually by rail, are broken down to show
the actual amount of different products in mixed car unloads.
It is therefore possible for unloads reported to exceed consider-
ably the shipments reported by calendar years The following
markets do not all have complete records of unloads by rail, boat
and truck, but since it is the most complete record available from
all sources, it is given for the information, complete on some of
the markets, it does contain:






S1 P ,,,t t ,, D' t,'iliu n ,an, ( rmp tr, n oinn ir, t ti I e~', iil' 69


(Basis, c/1 equivalents, calendar years)


Atlanta
Baltimorme
Boston
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Detroit
New Orleans
New York
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Washington

Total


Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Detroit
New Orleans
New York
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Washington

Total


1939
RI Bt Tk Tot
0 U 29 29
0 4 0 4
6 0 3 9
10 0 55 65
1 I0 n I)
0 0 un 0
0 0 un 0
0 0 34 34
3 259 162 424
1 7 146 154
5 0 4 9
3 0 8 11

29 270 441 740


1938
RI Bt Tk Tot
0 27 27
,0 6 0 6
S11 0 0 11
1 9 0 28 :7
1 0 un 1
S) 0 un 0
2 0 un 2
9 8 0 17
,10 310 135 455
2 12 119 133 I
S1 0 0 1
2 0 0 2

47 336 309 692
1936
RI Bt Tk Tot
0 0 33 33 I
S9 0 9
19 0 I1 )
16 0 11 27
1 0 un 1
1 0 un
8 0 un 8
5 5 0 10
43 166 51 262
15 19 53 87
un 0 un un I
13 0 0 13

121 199 150 470


1937
RI Bt Tk Tot
0 0 27 27
0 8 0 8
15 0 U 15
11 0 7 18
0 i un 0
1 0 un 1
1 0 un 1
1 1 0 2
21 199 37 257
8 15 81 104
2 0 U 2
7 U 0 7

67 223 152 442


5 0 0 5
11 0 0 11

84 115 53 252


Since in the 1938-39 season more than two-thirds the total
Florida eggplant shipments were made by truck, destinations
based upon passing reports at Florida border will be of interest.


Now York
Pennsylvania
Georgia
Louisiana
Maryland
Washington, I
Alabama
Illinois


North Carolina
Virginia
Texas
South Carolina
Tennessee
Mi'.sour
Ohio
Mississippi


Michigan
Kentucky
Indiana
West Virginia


Total


The above truck passing account for about 95' the Florida
truck shipments of eggplant, and show the states in ranking or-
der of volume used. New York and Pennsylvania together ac-
counted for 351; the total truck passing volume. and handled
a much larger proportion of the rail and boat shipments. If the
above states are grouped, about 46'l of the total truck passing
moved toward the Eastern, 10% toward the Western and 39%
toward the Southern territory, in the 1938-39 season. Chicago is
the largest receiver of Florida eggplant in the midwestern terri-





70 II. P ,ii i I lrb,! rtin (.'d ) pflr, t Fir ida Frgei abls

tory, Atlanta and New Orleans in the Southern territory.
Northern Market Averages.-The following tabulation shows
the destination quotations of Florida eggplant for 34 weeks each
season, beginning November 4 and running through June 22, for
five seasons 1935-36 through 1939-40; and for eight months each
season, beginning November and running through June for eight
seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40 Basis, unweighted simple average
ten-terminal market jobbing sales prices of Florida eggplant in
1'L bushel crates, preferred varieties, No. 1 or top quotations:
Weekly
Prices Nov. Nov. Nov. Nov. Dee. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec.
Season 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30
1935 36 $3 52 3.44 3 66 3.97 3,78 347 330 3.30 311
1936-37 1.71 241 2 84 2 76 232 220 229 241 219
1937-38 407 383 319 299 297 332 365 381 336
1938-39 226 233 225 224 180 2.04 218 256 261
1939-40 3 15 2 82* 348 3 73 3.18 3.11 2.84 295 2.46
Weekly
Prices Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb. Feb. Feb Mch.
Season 6 13 20 27 3 10 17 24 2
1935-36 82 93 288 2 8' 288 323 4.11 405 389 383
1936-37 210 2 03 207 2 25 2 22 244 2.54 2.85 288
1937-38 346 351 363 2 58 3 90 3 86 3.97 3.42 2.67
1938 39 191 1 94 182 1.73 160 2,42 2,67 260 261
193 '40 2 53 251 2 67 2 78' 3 06 413- 3 25' 5 67 5.23
Weekly
Prices lMch. Mch. Mlch. Mch. Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr.
Season 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27
1935-36 $3.66 3.49 3.74 329 2 98 289 304 2.79
1936-37 2 88 2 84 2 90 286 2.81 2.93 3.06 308
1937-38 277 333 3 05 2 28 44 224 227 222
1938-39 280 270 267 240 208 208 219 230
1939-40 505 339- 0 0 0 5 45 4 12 400
Weekly
Prices May May May May June June June June
Season 4 11 18 25 1 8 15 22
1935-36 S269 2.45 235 222 225 219 214 213
1936-37 320 331 297 287 265 245 214 173
1937-38 205 206 2 06 2 03 1.95 180 172 157
19.3839 224 2 24 2 32 1 98 175 1.68 77 184
1919-40 374 347 336 347 361 362 395 341
MONTIILY
PRICES
SEASON Nov. Der. Jan. Feb Mleh Apr. May June
1932-3 1 S209 326 3 35 326 285 194 2.33 202
193334 3 23 3 44 263 289 285 282 230 202
1914-35 2 32 229 3.74* 502* 420' 313 250 238
1935-36 366 344 294 3 74 3 68 2.97 247 219
1936-37 241 2 27 211 250 287 2.95 3.09 218
1937-38 348 344 3 56 3 75 295 233 205 1 72
1938-39 2 23 226 185 2 42 265 2 16 2.17 173
1939-40 331 288 273 440 439' 447 348 360






Tin odia,!,, n DItab ti ,f it L .one ti...o. .. T, rla i eF 1,. abI, 71

Florida (Jacksonville) Averages.-The following tabulation
of Jacksonville, Florida, simple unweighted jobbing sales price
averages of Florida eggplant m 1, bushel crates, top quotation
basis will be of interest to the Florida grower who uses the
home markets largely for the sale of his eggplants The period
January 1st, 1926, through June 1940 is included by months

Yea r n Feb. I1. Ma J.1un Jul d Adug Sep Oct No.- Dec
1926 3 3 0 5 30 5 32 0 4 39 1 91 1 9 228 2 41 20 331
1927 388 477 418 346 268 228 0 172 171 166 204 170
1928 269 2 7 278 241 2 Ob 2123 1 2 208 1 81 .l6 3 21 3 03
1929 4 38 4 34 2 1 2 3. 2 15 1 88 1 74 1 87 2 13 1 73 2 03 2 72
1930 2 84 26 260 2 63 2 212 1 94 1 163 1 69 1 77 217
1931 222 2 07 2 71 272 194 1 9 3 1 03 84 11 0 1 30 1 29 16
1932 0 1 27 1 34 1 20 1 3 88 0 0 85 71 95 1 28
1933 1 33 1 bb 1 45 98 76 74 63 '59 88* 28 1 31 1 61
1934 1 2! I 22 1 25 109 97 78 77 901 171 86 1 '03 1 42
1935 2 2. 2 71 1 6 1 40 1 J 1 i 1 5 65 i 23 64 1 84 i 6
1936 1iS ,34 1 71 1 34 1 06 92 BO 57 77 80 85 1 f0
1937 92 1 04 1 0 1 26 1 20 9 71 54 170 I11 175
19 1 65 1 74 1 53 133 1 84 49 2 9i1 11 97 97
1939 99 19 114 97 81 78 72 90 961 101 137 1 b
1940 1 33 2 32 4 29* 3 35' 2 33* 2 30
'In complete, pait ,cek or month
r-Southel n offIr ]e i
Competition.-Florida has for a number of years supplied
more than 9/10 of the total U S rail and boat shipments of
eggplant during the Florida shipping season.
Domestic carlot competition is negligible until Virginia
shipments move m June and July, the comparatively lighter
shipments from Texas, Louisiana and South Carolina not be-
ing seriously competitive in the main Florida season While the
total volume of eggplant shipped from Florida by rail, boat
and truck does not reach the proportion of a number of other
vegetables, the competition to Florida shipments is pronounced
because imports from Cuba and a large proportion of the
Florida crop are shipped by boat, destined principally to the
same eastern port markets, so that boat arrivals on certain
days are very heavy, and the heavier receipts depress the
markets accordingly Sale prices of rail, truck and express
shipments re-act according to the volume offered for sale
Following the chief import competition from Cuba, come
next Mexico and Porto Rico Imports fiom Cuba begin m
latter November or in December and increase in January, Feb-
ruarv and March, drop off sharply in April and usually end
in May The Mexican season is principally January to May in-
clusive, but in much less volume than the Cuban shipments
The statistics below will show the total U. S. domestic
volume and also the competitive import volume on a carlot
basis that Florida shipments of eggplant must meet in each of the
ten months October to July, on the basis of eleven past seasons
1928-29 to 1938 39 inclusive






72 ihe Pr11dril il nitrtibtln ,ind CompeMtwni l of Florida iregeabl. s


0 0 0 1 14 45 88 52 108 30
0 0 0 0 1 14 45 88 48 5 201
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 103 107
21 50 2 4 2 2 11 53 65 78 28
21 42 2 4 2 2 11 53 61 9 207
0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 69 81
40 72 10 8 1 3 4 9 43 130 318
40 72 7 6 1 3 4 9 40 25 207
0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 105 Ill
1 21 22 25 18 28 57 6I 43 77 353
0 13 21 25 18 28 57 61 41 21 285
1 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 56 68
26 30 2 1 5 51 90 73 55 49 382
26 30 2 1 5 51 90 73 53 9 340
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 40 42
0 0 4 16 30 38 15 2 0 0 105
0I 0 4 6] 30 3 15 2 2 40 147
13 6 9 18 11 8 56 102 47 33 303
13 6 9 18 11 8 56 102 47 3 273
f 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 30
0 0 7 21 49 63 46 2 0 0 188
0 0 7 21 49 63 46 2 0 30 218
13 9 20 1 0 2 31 55 43 25 201
13 9 20 0 0 2 31 55 42 6 180
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 19 21
0I 0 14 37 62 86 55 4 0 0 257
S 0 4 'I 62 86 55 4 1 11 27,
I 4 2 6 0 2 39 78 79 19 229
0 4 2 6 0 2 39 78 79 18 228
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 23 89 111 139 48 3 0 0 411
0 2 8.1 89 111 139 4G 3 0 1 412
14 15 18 19 5 15 28 39 69 21 243
14 I 18 19 5 15 28 39 69 ]R 240
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
0 52 64 7 92 27 3 0 0 310
" 3 52 b4 67 92 27 5 0 3 I31.
0 9 11 4 4 3 52 119 66 IB 286
" 11 4 4 3 52 119 6 8 27b
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 in
0 0 6 40 104 140 1 1 3 0 3^5
0 0 6 40 104 140 61 1 3 10 363
f1 2G 21 29 6 39 51 M4 54 G 302
, 2W 21 29 6 39 51 64 54 6 302
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 3 50 77 70 65 13 2 0 0 281
1 3 50 77 70 65 13 2 0 0 281


SEASON


TotIl U S Shipmllents
1928-29 Florida Ship)ments
Compeitnle (U. S )
Total U S Shipments
1929-30 Florida Shipmentsi
Competitle Ui S )
Total US Shipm.ents
1930-31 Florida Shipments
Competitive (U S)
Total L" S Shipments
1931-32 Florida Shipmentsi
Compe-title iU S
Total VS Shipmrents
Florida Shipments
1932-33 Competitwie ,U SI
Competlline impoi s


Total U S hipments
Flornda Shipmenus
1933-34 Comnpetit\% ,U S )
Competlit e impolrts
Total Coinpe-timl r
Total S S Slhipme 's
Florida Shrpments
1934-35 Competitlc lU 5
Competit'ie Inipotil
'l' ,l Compl...n. '
To1lal S Sl3ipmets
Florida Shipmients
1"59-3l Competitue (II S)I
Competitive Imrporls
Tol;il Compettie

Florida Shipm. nt'.
1936-37 Conpetitei L' S
Competitne Imports
Total Comp.1 tile
Total U S, aiipments
Florida Shlpnrts
1937-38 Compeftitu i r a
I ompetitl- Iip i..ts
TotWl Compi tLlive
Total U S Shipmen
ilot ida ShipmIIIts
1938-39 Compelile %F S)
CompEtitln imlpoits
Total Compltii-





7I P'iiduciio. Distla lbuon and Competition of Florida Vegetables 73

The Florida eggplant carlot shipping season includes all but
two months of the year. In view of the total Florida shipments,
rail and boat, not reaching 350 cars per season, the movement is
so spread over the long shipping season that Florida shipments
are seldom sufficient to seriously break the market. The market
quotations are fairly uniform therefore during the entire season,
the northern market destination monthly average quotations
dropping lower than $2 00 per crate only four times in the eight
season period 1932-33 through 1939-40. In recent seasons the in-
creased volume of Florida eggplant shipments moving out by
truck has made possible wider distribution of this product, and
truck arrivals have the advantage of quick diversion of part or
all of the truck loads if they reach the port markets on boat arri-
val dates, or immediately after such boat arrivals, particularly
from Cuba, are unloaded and placed on the market.
In view of the large proportion of the total eggplant sup-
Splies placed on the northern markets being foreign and arriving
by boat, the heavy increase particularly from Florida in the last
few seasons of shipments by boat and truck, and considering
further the unusually severe cold waves in the 1939-40 season, the
high price period in the last three seasons does not follow those
of either the previous six or twelve season averages. On the
basis of the past fifteen seasons, the higher prices prevail in the
early months of the year, and the general tone of the market for
Florida eggplant is steady to rising from November through
March and, with exceptions, declining in the last three months
of the season






74 The Prodio ti, Dstrihuttoni and Compretltovi ri Florda I egetabl'

LETTUCE

Acreage.-Less than a dozen Florida counties grow lettuce in
sufficient volume to ship straight carlots The Florida lettuce
acreage by counties given below (Romaine included) shows the
principal producing sections, and for reference purpose twelve
seasons 1928-29 to 1939-40 inclusive are listed The heavy in-
crease in the acreage in Manatee, Palm Beach and Seminole m
the 1939-40 season follows the interest now being given the Ice-
berk type of lettuce: (Note the Iceberg lettuce acreage in 1940
was estimated at 1100 acres compared to 250 acres in 1929)

COUNTY 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939*
Z9 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Alachua 100 100 150 100 75 50 25 30 123 123 100 100
Manatee 350 330 400 216 300 325 400 100 300 350 425 750
Marion 300 150 250 100 125 250 100 50 75 100 100 100
Orange 300 210 200 175 150 5 75 25 50 25 25 25 50
Palm Beach 15 100 50 75 100 5 25 25 75 1000 300
Polk 40 25 25
Seminole 430 285 380 285 200 250 250 200 200 200 200 550
Sumter 50 25 25 25 25 25
Volusia 20 40
Miscellaneou[ 10 40 50 25 25 50 25 150
State Total 1500 1100 1600 1000 950 1100 900 550 800 900 1000 2000*
*Preliminary
Variety.-The principal varieties of lettuce now (1940) be-
ing grown commercially in Florida are strains of Improved Ice-
berg, adapted to Florida. Iceberg No. 847 and No. 44 are lead-
ing varieties Until the advent of improved crisp-head Ice-
berg strains m Florida a few year ago, Big Boston was the
principal variety grown.
Grade.-(U. S and Florida Standards for Lettuce.) Intro-
duction.-Numbers and letters in parentheses following grade
terms indicate where such terms are defined under Defini-
tions of Terms.
The tolerances for the various grades are placed on a
container basis. However, for a tolerance of 10 percent indi-
vidual packages in any lot may not contain more than one and
one-half times the tolerance specified, and for one of less than
10 percent individual packages m any lot may not contain
more than double the tolerance specified, provided that the
entire lot based on sample inspection shall average within
the tolerance specified.
GRADES
U. S. Fancy shall consist of heads of lettuce of similar vari-
etal characteristics (1) which are fresh (2), firm (3), well
formed (4), and well trimmed (5); which are not split, burst
(6), or open, and which are free from decay, tipburn. russet,





7 hit P rI,, 11, 11 L ,l titl oui ,md ( rp'il tri n oi l- ridr I ,rlitabi, 75

brown bhght, doubles (7), and from damage (8) caused by
seedstems (8a). broken midribs (8b). freezing (5 & 8c), dirt
(8d), sunburn (5 & 8e), discoloration (5 & 8), disease, aphis
(8f) or other insects. or mechanical or other means (8)
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than 10 per cent, by count, of the heads
in any container may be below the requirements of this grade,
but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5 percent,
shall be allowed for decay affecting the compact portion of
the head Of this tolerance for decay, not more than two-
fifths or 2 percent, shall be allowed for slimy decay
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of heads of lettuce of similar vari-
etal characteristics (1) which are fresh (2), which are not split
or burst (6), and which are free from decay, tipburn, russet,
brown blight, doubles (7). and from damage caused by opening
(8g), seedstoms (8a), broken midribs (8b), freezing (5 & 8c),
dirt (8d), sunburn (5 & 8e). discoloration (5 & 8). disease,
aphis (8f) or other insects, or mechanical or other means (8).
Each head shall be fairly well trimmed (9) unless specified
as closely trimmed (10). Not less than 75 percent of the heads
of Iceberg type lettuce shall be firm (3), and the remainder
shall be fairly firm (11) Heads of Big Boston type lettuce shall
be fairly firm (11).
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grad-
ing and handling, not more than 10 percent b% count, of the
heads m any container may be below the requirements of
this grade, but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5
percent, shall be allowed for decay affecting the compact portion
of the heads, provided that. of this tolerance for decay not more
than two-fifths or 2 percent, shall be allowed for slimy decay
This tolerance shall not permit m any lot of U. S No. 1 Iceberg
type lettuce fewer than 90 percent of heads which are firm
or fairly firm and free from defects, on the basis of a ratio of
three firm heads to one fairly firm head
U. S. Commercial shall consist of heads of lettuce which
meet all of the requirements of U S No 1 grade except that
they shall be free from serious damage by tipburn instead of
free from tipburn
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the heads
in any container may be below the requirements of this grade.
but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5 percent, shall
be allowed for decay affecting the compact portion of the head;
provided that, of this tolerance for decay not more than two-
fifths or 2 percent, shall be allowed for slimy decay This tol-
erance shall not permit in any lot of U S Commercial Iceberg





76 The Prodiction, Datrnbllion and Competiiioni o Florida Vegetables

type lettuce fewer than 90 percent of heads which are firm or
fairly firm and free from defects, on the basis of a ratio of
three firm heads to one fairly firm head.
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of heads of lettuce of similar vari-
etal characteristics (1) which are not split or burst (6), which
are free from decay, from damage (8) caused by seedstems
(8a), and from serious damage (12) caused by wilting, tipburn,
freezing, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than 10 percent, by count, of the heads
in any container may be below the requirements of this grade.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
1. "Similar varietal characteristics" means that the heads in
any container have the same characteristic leaf growth. For
example, lettuce of the Iceberg and Big Boston types shall
not be mixed.
2. "Fresh" means that the head is crisp, although the
wrapper leaves and the outer one or two head leaves may be
slightly wilted.
3. "Firm", as applied to heads of Iceberg type lettuce,
means that the head is compact but may yield slightly to mod-
erate pressure; as applied to heads of Big Biston type lettuce,
means that the head is fairly compact.
4. "Well formed" means that the head is well shaped, and
that midribs of the leaves are not abnormally promment or
protruding.
5. "Well trimmed" means that the butt is trimmed off
close to the point of attachment of the outer leaves; that
wrapper leaves are free from appreciable injury by any cause;
that on heads of Iceberg type lettuce wrapper leaves do not
exceed six in number, not more than one-half of which may be
excessively large and coarse such as are characteristic of No
6 strain, and, provided further, that the outermost leaves of
the head show some shade of green color on a part of the
leaves. "Wrapper leaves" means all leaves which do not fairly
closely enfold the compact portion of the head. Heads shall not
be considered well trimmed when the wrapper leaves are badly
blistered or show yellow discoloration or more than slight
brown margins Heads with torn wrapper leaves shall not be
considered well trimmed when such leaves appreciably injure
the appearance of the head
6. "Burst" means that the head is broken open





lhe Pinldl to, D, .tritzonn and Compelliin of Florida Vegetables 77

7 "Doubles' means two heads on the same stem
8. "Damage" means any injury which materially affects
the appearance, edible or shipping quality of the lettuce except
defects affecting wrapper leaves as restricted under definitions
of "well trimmed", "fairly well trimmed", and "closely trim-
med". The following shall be considered as damage:
(a) Seedstems which are apparent upon external exam-
ination of the head.
(b) Broken midribs, when more than two of the outer head
leaves have the midribs broken in two due to abnormal growth
conditions.
(c) Freezing, when the head leaves show a brown dis-
coloration over more than half of the crown, or when more
than three of the outer head leaves show appreciable injury by
freezing.
(d) Dirt. when the head is smeared with mud, or when
wrapper leaves are badly smeared with mud, or when the basal
portion of the head is caked with mud or dry dirt.
(e) Sunburn. when the head leaves show a brown discolor-
ation over more than half of the crown of the head.
(f) Aphis, when the head proper is infested, or when
the wrapper leaves are badly infested.
(g) Opening, in hard or firm heads which have one-fourth
or more of the head distinctly separated from the remainder,
or any degree of opening m fairly firm heads.
9. "Fairly well trimmed" means that the butt is trimmed
off close to the point of attachment of the outer leaves; that
wrapper leaves are free from serious injury by any cause; that,
on heads of Iceberg type lettuce, wrapper leaves do not ex-
ceed ten m number, not more than six of which may be ex-
cessively large and coarse such as are characteristic of No. 6
strain; and, provided further, that the outermost leaves of the
head show some shade of green color on a part of the leaves.
"Wrapper leaves" means all leaves which do not fairly closely
enfold the compact portion of the head. Heads shall not be con-
sidered fairly well trimmed when the wrapper leaves show
yellow or brown discoloration or brown margins to an extent
that the appearance of the head is seriously injured. Any blis-
tering except that causing yellow or brown discoloration which
seriously affects the appearance of the wrapper leaves or any
tearing of wrapper leaves shall not be considered as serious
injury.
10 "Closely trimmed" means that the head meets all re-
quirements of "fairly well trimmed" except that the wrapper





78 The Production, Distributon and Caompcttion of Florida Vegetables

leaves shall be not more than 3 in number, none of which may
be excessively large or coarse.
11. "Fairly firm" means that although the head is not firm,
it is not soft or spongy
12. "Serious damage" means any injury which causes the
loss of a material portion of the edible part of the head. The
loss of crispness due to freezmg shall not be considered serious
damage. Heads affected with tipburn shall be considered as
seriously damaged when any single spot is larger than one and
one-half inches m length and/or three-fourths of an inch in
width.
13. "Fairly uniform in size" means that not more than
10 percent, by count, of the heads in any one container may
be one standard size smaller than the standard size head for the
count packed.
Example of Standard Size Head.-The standard size head
for a 4 dozen pack is that size which will pack tightly 4x4
heads of uniform size in a layer m the crate, assuming that the
head has the average number of wrapper leaves found on
all the heads m the crate.
STANDARD PACK
Heads of lettuce shall be fairly uniform in size (13), and
tightly packed in uniform layers according to the approved and
recognized methods, provided that a "bridge" may be used with
sizes smaller than 5 dozen count
In order to allow for variations mcident to proper pack-
ing, not more than a total of 15 percent of the containers m any
lot may not meet the requirements of the Standard Pack, but no
part of this tolerance shall be allowed for packs which are ex-
cessively loose in the layers.
Effective date. March 15, 1934. Revision to October 1, 1940.
Growing Cost.-Not including taxes, rent, interest, depre
ciation, it will cost about $97.50 an acre to grow Big Boston
lettuce in Florida: Preparation and cultivation $55; seed $1.50.
fertilizer $35, miscellaneous 6. The cost per crate delivered
at shipping point, on a yield in the principal sections of 300 crates
per acre, is about 60c crate. Growing 32c, harvesting, field
packing. 10c; crate 15c; hauling 3c Growing cost of Iceberg
lettuce is approximately $92.50 per acre Preparation and culti-
vation $55; seed $2 50; fertilizer $35 Cost per crate delivered
at loading station is about $114: Growing, on the basis of an
average yield of 230 crates per acre, 40c per crate; harvesting
4c; grading, packing and icing 41c; crate 26c; hauling 3c
Loading in Car.-Lettuce is shipped under refrigeration
The 1% bushel hamper has been the container generally used






7h, Plodmi th sai ll lltion iand Competiltlon of Florida eglables 79

in past seasons for shipping Big Boston lettuce, but the Los
Angeles crate 13Px171/zx215 is used almost exclusively for car-
lot shipments of Florida Iceberg Big Boston m hampers is load-
ed full length the car, side load with hampers alternately re-
versed, 5x6, 6x6, 6x7 rows wide, 4 to 6 layers high Average
load range, 400 to 500 hampers Florida Iceberg lettuce is loaded
14 stacks, 5 rows. 4 lavers, 2 stacks, 4 rows. 4 layers. Usual load-
ing 312 crates
Florida Shipments.-The rail and boat shipments of Florida
lettuce by weeks for period beginning with week of November
11 and ending with week of May 4th, are shown below for five
seasons, 1935-36 through 1939-40, and truck shipments for two
seasons 1938-39 and 1939-40 are shown by weeks for period be-
gmning each season week of November 11 and ending week of
April 27 Rail and boat shipments by months November-April
inclusive, for eight shippmg seasons 1932-33 through 1939-40,
are also shown


Weekly Shipments
(Rail and Boat)
Season Nov.Nov.Nov.
11 18 25
1935-36 4 8 24
1936-37 0 0 0
1937-38 2 11 8
1938-39 0 16 5
1939-40 0 4 10
Weekly Shipments
(Rail and Boat)
Season Feb. Feb. Feb.
10 17 24
1935-36 7 7 3
1936-37 11 13 22
1937-38 29 11 8
1938-39 21 9 6
1939-40 8 23 18


Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Jan.
2 9 16 23 30 6
38 38 28 9 15 16
16 27 16 14 36 40
17 8 17 17 20 14
1 10 20 19 17 21
6 8 17 27 21 27


Mch. Mch. Mch. h. Mch Apr.
2 9 16 23 30 6
6 15 19 17 7 0
7 8 11 15 2 0
11 16 26 27 5 2
5 5 1 2 0 0
15 15 3 9 11 9


Weekly Shipments
(Truck)
Season Nov. Nov. Nov. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb.
11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 3
1938-39 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 Ic 3 4 5 4 2
1939-40 0 0 2 2 3 5 2 2 4 8 9 8 4

Weekly Shipments
(Truck)
Season Feb. Feb. Feb. Mch. Mch. Mch. Mch. Mch. Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr.
10 17 24 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27


1938-39 4 13
1939-40 4 5


10 11 17 2 4 11 6 1 (Idc) (1cl)
7 7 9 14 26 27 34 17 4 1





80 The Production, Distrtbutton and Competition of Florida Vegetables

Shipments by Months (Rail and Boat)
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apr. Total
1932-33 .._...... 43 84 113 120 86 17 465 (2 cars in May)
1933-34 _39 132 120 54 68 7 420
1934-35 55 50 72 82 53 4 316
1935-36 38 125 59 35 63 4 324
1936-37 13 96 116 53 42 1 321
1937-38 _____ 42 83 82 66 84 3 360
1938-39 -.. 22 66 79 51 12 3 233
1939-40 46 98 97 70 38 22 371

Transportation and Distribution.-Comparatively little Flor-
ida lettuce is shipped by boat, on an average of 1% or less the
total moved by all transportation agencies, and practically none
is shipped in interstate commerce by express. Therefore the fol-
lowing table includes boat in rail shipments, and shows for pur-
pose of comparison only the truck shipments along with rail ship-
ments, with the percentage moved by rail and truck, five seasons"

1938-39 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35
C/Is % C/Is % C/Is % C/Is % C/Is i
Rall-Boat
Shipments 233 69% 360 78% 321 77% 324 76% 316 89%
Truck Shipments 104 31, 100 22% 100 23 100 24% 40 11%
Total 313 100% 460 100% 421 100 424 100% 356 100%
Rail shipments in relation to the total movement of Florida
lettuce have declmed in the above five-year period, while truck
shipments have increased. In 1934-35 rail shipments comprised
89% the total shipments, in 1938-39 69%, a relative decrease of
20%; the truck shipments in 1934-35 comprised only 11% the total
Florida lettuce shipments, in 1938-39 31%, a relative increase of
20%.
With negligible boat shipments, rail and truck passing re-
flect very accurately where the Florida lettuce crop is distributed.
The following data will show the passing of Florida lettuce, by
rail, for the seasons 1934-35 through 1938-39, to Eastern. Western
and Southern territory, percentage basis:

1938-39 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 1934-35
Passing Eastern territory 90% 95% 94% 99% 96%
Passing Western Territory 2% 4% 4 0 1%
Passing Southern Territory 8,- 1% 2'1 1% 3%

Rail passing have in the above five-year period declined in
movement to Eastern territory, have increased only slightly to
Western territory, but have increased about as much in propor-
tion into Southern, as they have declined into Eastern territory.
Since the increase into Southern territory is noticeably greater
in 1938-39 it would indicate that Florida Iceberg is reclaiming






The Pjioduiton, Distributlon and Comipetoo of Florida regetables 81

some of the territory previously yielded to Western Iceberg in
Southern markets.
The following tabulation of rail and boat total unloads of
Florida lettuce for five calendar years shows where most of the
Florida shipments are distributed, but the absence from the fol-
lowing of important cities, such as Akron. Albany (1 car m 1938),
Columbus. Dayton. Detroit, Indianapolis. Hartford. Kansas City,
Memphis, Milwaukee. Minneapolis, Newark (1 car in 1937), New
Haven, Richmond (1 car in 1935), Syracuse, and especially such
common markets to other Florida products as Cincinnati (1 car
in 1937) and Cleveland (1 car in 1938), is both interesting and
astounding, yet such are the facts based upon a carlot unload
record of lettuce in 66 cities of the United States, released by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture:

1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935
Atlanta 10 0 0 0 Now O0i leans 1 0 0 0 0
Baltimore 21 11 7 3 12 New York 211 314 328 206 302
Birmincham 1 0 0 0 0 Philadelphia 19 19 27 23 40
Boston 1 2 4 4 5 Pittsburgh 26 0 0 0 0
Buffalo 1 0 0 3 4 Providence 1 1 0 0 0
Chicago 1 4 1 2 3 Rochester 1 0 0 0 0
Louisville 1 0 0 0 0 Washington 0 5 8 9 11
Nashville 1 0 0 0 0 Toronto 73 0 0 0 0

Several of the above markets unloaded 1 or more cars in 1939
that reported none in the previous 4 years. This is encouraging in
view of the Florida Iceberg in such good quality being available
for the last two seasons. Atlanta reported unloading 10 cars by rail
in 1939, and 5 by truck The above it will be remembered is a rail
and boat unload record, with truck excluded
The New York and Philadelphia markets have records of
Florida lettuce unloaded by rail, boat and truck, and as informa-
tion a record for five calendar years is given below:
939 1938 137 1936 1935n
N Y Phil x. Phil :. Phil N.Y. Phil. N Phil.
Rail 211 19 307 19 323 27 202 23 297 38
Boat 0 0 7 0 5 0 4 0 5 2
luck 96 12 5 12 3 3 0 5 1 0
Total 307 31 319 31 331 30 206 28 303 40

It is obvious from the above figures on rail passing, and
from the rail and boat unloads, that the Eastern markets, prin-
cipally New York City receive the greater proportion of the Flor-
ida rail and boat lettuce shipments. Since truck shipments in the
1938-39 season constituted 31% the total Florida lettuce move-
ment, where these truck shipments were distributed is of inter-
est Truck passing 1938-39 season at Florida border stations were
reported moving to the following selected states, in carlot equiv-
alent volume. New York 62 (60%), Washington, D. C. 11, Georgia





82 The P'roduitliiid lD riirh.tlon aind Compiiton of Florldi IEl arbli

9, South Carolina 8, with cll lots reported moving to mid-Western
territory and the more distant Southern territory. As a general
index 11 carlot equivalents were destined toward Chicago, and 92
carlot equivalents toward New York. with naturally much of the
volume towards both destinations stopping in Southern terri
tory.
Florida Iceberg lettuce can surely regain the Southern mar-
kets that in the past have preferred the Western Iceberg to
Florida Big Boston, even the larger Florida markets, and if Flor-
ida celery shippers have survived Western celery competition
in Midwestern markets, there is good reason to believe that Flor-
ida Iceberg lettuce can also hold its own in Midwestern markets
with Western Iceberg The above records should be sufficient to
prove that Florida lettuce distribution, due mainly to variety,
has been sadly neglected
Northern Market Averages.-The table below shows the
simple unweighted jobbing sales price average of Florida Big
Boston lettuce m l1/-bushel hampers, No, 1 or top quotation
average. Eastern markets principally New York and Philadelphia.
for five seasons 1935-36 through 1939-40, by weeks for period each
season beginning with week of Nov. 18 and continuing for the
season through the week of April 27 Destination lobbing prices
by months on the same basis, for eight seasons 1932-33 through
1939-40, November-April inclusive each season, are also shown
(Jacksonville prices omitted because of limited amount of Big
Boston variety offered regularly.)
Weekly
prices Nov. Nov. Dee Dec Dec. Dec Dec Jan. Jan, Jan. Jan Feb.
Season s1 25 2 1 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 3
1935-36 $ 0 2 18 1 71 50 98 97 I 02 1 05 1 50* 2 00' 2 79 4 00
1936-37 0 0 0 188 138 97 103" 1 02 98 94 90 203
1937-38 1 22 1 16 1 05 1 38 1 38' 1 71 1 31 B I 18 1 18' 1 11 97
1938-3 1 31 1 21 1 48 1 7 1 67 1 28 1 6B 1 32 1 42 1 46 I 4i 1 62
1939-40 40 147 102 86 76 84 b6 741 03 1 0 1 32 160
Weekly
Prices Feb Feb. Feb. rMeh Mich Mch. Mch Men Apr. Apr Apr Apr.
Season 10 17 24 2 9 li 23 30 6 13 20 27
1935-35 $281 1 83 211 275 319 226 187 202 121 0 I 0
193637 240 204 203 1 4 1 91 243 241 1 88 1 88* 0 0 0
1937-38 107 1 05 1 55 208 1 64 123 143 1 53 1 79' 0 0 0
193839 140 1 00 77 2 36 1 83 1 80 2 56 235 1 72 1 70 0 0
1939-40 149 16i 3 200 197 292 293 204 133 1 28 130 181 196

Monthly
Prices
Season Nov Dec. Jan. Feb. Mch. Apr.
1932-33 S 0 1 63 1 39 159 1 61 0
1933-34 0 1 30 1 24 1 82 1 62 1 89*
1934-35 0 1 95 1 67 1 63 1 87* 2 14*
1935-36 1 32* 1 65o 2 53* 249* 1 45*
1936-37 0 1 27 94 212 204 I 92'
1937-38 1 18* 1 36 1 07 1.19 1 57 1 74
1938-39 1 36* 1 53 1.42 1 23 2 21" 1.83'
1939-40 1.33* 80 1 12 1 68 2.20 1 52
Incomplete, part week or month





Tin PJioilu Ion Dind'. i iiiio, d Ci rnpittziil o Floridl I'egClnrl bi 83

Competition -Lettuce shipments of several different States
outrank the volume shipped by Florida, and have provided such
strong competition that Florida shipments, consisting mostly of
the Big Boston variety until the last two seasons, have been sold
mostly on the New York and Philadelphia markets California is
the strongest competitor. shipping more than 70' of the United
States total, and moves more lettuce in every individual month
than Florida ships in all twelve months of the year

The shipping season of Arizona is about the same as that of
Florida, but Arizona ships a much heavier volume. The volume,
large as it is, shipped by California and Arizona is the principal
competitive factor, but the Iceberg type of lettuce from these
States is well established in practically all of the markets of the
United States including Southern and the larger markets in
Florida An improved variety of Iceberg lettuce, adapted to Flor-
ida, has been very successfully grown in and shipped from the
State in the past two seasons and prices of Florida Iceberg have
corresponded closely to those of the Western Iceberg lettuce, and
at times it has brought higher prices on the Florida market.

Georgia occasionally ships out a few cars of lettuce m March
or April, South Carolina ships in March, April and May, and
North Carolina in April and May m good earlot volume. Texas
moves out a few cars m February or March Since most of the
southern states also ship the Big Boston variety of lettuce, Flor-
ida Big Boston shipments have all the more competition in the
restricted distribution area which has been another good reason
for Florida to change over to Iceberg lettuce. There is no import
competition

Noting the different individual states, and the normal ship-
ping season of each, that compete with Florida lettuce, the fol-
lowing tabulation will summarize the data, givmg the total rail
and boat carlot volume of Florida shipments by months, No-
vember through the following April season, and the total domestic
competitive volume of lettuce with which Florida shipments must
compete each month, in each season on the average based upon
eleven past seasons 1928-29 through 1938-39






84 The Production, Distribution and Compettion of Florida Vegetables


SEASON TOTAL
Nov Dec. Jan, Feb. Mar. Apr (6 lmos.)
Total U S. Shipments 4.082 4,561 4,976 5,236 4,871 5,646 29,372
1928-29 Florida Shipments 61 378 363 146 169 0 1.117
Competitive (U S ) 4.021 4,183 4,613 5.090 4,702 5,646 28,255
Total U. S. Shipments 3,381 3901 4,977 5,919 5,810 5,597 29,585
1929-30 Florida Shipments 68 189 145 56 98 4 560
Competitive (U. S ) 3.313 3,712 4,832 5,863 5.712 5.593 29,025
Total U. S. Shipments 3.248 4,94 4.963 4212 5.644 5.266 28,327
1930-31 Florida Shipments 52 244 189 205 221 29 940
Competitive (U S ) 3,196 4,750 4,774 4,007 5,423 5,23 27.387
Total U S. Shipments 3,822 3123 4,823 4,660 4,551 5,457 26,436
1931-32 Florida Shipments 147 123 89 69 12 0 440
Competitive (U S 3,675 3.000 4,734 4,591 4,539 5,457 25.996
Total U S. Shipments 3956 3,073 3,963 3,906 3,114 4664 22.680
1932-33 Florida Shipments 43 84 113 120 6 17 463
Competitive (U. S.) 3,913 2,989 3,854 3,786 3,028 4,647 22,217
Total U. S. Siipments 3,352 3,872 4,212 3,917 4,325 5,054 24,732
1933-34 Florida Shipments 39 132 120 54 68 7 420
Competitive (U. S.) 3,313 3,740 4,092 3,863 4,257 5,047 24,312
Total U S. Shipments 3.391 3.520 4.355 4,421 4,245 5.175 25,107
1934-35 Florida Shipments 55 50 72 82 53 4 316
Competitive (U S) 3,336 3,470 4283 4,339 4192 5 171 24,791
Total U. S Shipments 3,580 4,690 4,020 4,527 4,949 5.439 2,205
935 36 Florida Shipments 38 125 59 35 63 4 324
Competitive (U S 3,542 4,565 3,961 4,492 4886 5,435 26,881
Total U S Shipments 3.995 4,504 3,938 3,671 413 6,177 26423
1936-37 Florida Shipments 13 96 116 53 42 I 31
Competitive (U S ) 3982 4408 3,822 3,618 4,096 6,176 26 102
Total U S. Shipments 4,061 4,584 4.597 4,175 4.276 3.320 25,013
1937-38 Florida Shipments 42 83 82 66 84 3 30
Competitive (U S ) 4019 4,501 4,515 4,10 4 192 3,317 24,653
Total U S Shipments 3.786 3,898 4,869 4,075 5,395 5,912 27.935
1938-39 Florida Shipments 22 6 79 51 12 3 233
Competitive (U S.) 3,764 3,832 4,790 4,024 5 383 5,909 27.702

April is generally (exception 1938) the month of the heav-
iest United States lettuce shipments, and the lightest of Florida
monthly shipments. Since the total supply of Big Boston lettuce
from Florida and other southern States is not, relatively speak-
ing, sufficient to control or seriously affect the market prices
based upon the total supply of all varieties, the price trend of
Florida lettuce follows more closely Florida shipments than the
U. S. total. On the average, latter February, March and April
have in the past seasons been the months of highest Florida Big
Boston lettuce prices






ihe Prodctirloii Ditrbutiion and Cormpetlliuio of Florida Vregeables 85

GREEN PEAS
Acreage.-In noting the heavy increase in the acreage of
green peas in Palm Beach county, which is the principal produc-
ing section of Florida, it should be noted that practically all
other counties show a gradual decline in acreage m recent sea-
sons. The following table includes acreage by counties for the sea-
sons 1929 to 1940 inclusive:

County 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1 1934 5 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940
Alachua 100 50 50 50 50 -- -. -..
Dade 30 50- -
Hardee 60 10 50 50 50 .- --.--
Hendry 25 25 300 50 50 -0 100 100 100 __
Hernando 100 100 200 100
Hillsboro 150 50 100 75 50 25 5 .
Indian River 75 25 25 25
Lake 40 25 25 25 -
Manatee 30 25 50 50
Marion 130 50 50 50 _
Ma tin 10 100 10 00 100
Okeechobee 50 500 350 200 200 100
Palm Beach 300 300 1000 3000 2500 4000 4300 7700 5800 500 4800 4800
Polk 200 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 100
St Lucie __ 100 50 50 50 50
Sumnter 30 75 200 200 50 .
Mise 180 40 75 25 50 50 100 25 25 150 15
State Total 1350 700 2000 3800 3600 800 5000 8200 6200 6200 5000 '5000
SPreliminary

Variety.-The principal varieties of Green Peas grown in
Florida for shipping purposes are Little Marvel, Telephone, and
Laxtonian.
Grade.-(U S. and Florida Standards for Fresh Peas)-U.
S. No. 1 shall consist of pods of peas of similar varietal character-
istics which are not excessively small, not badly misshapen, not
watersoaked; which are fairly well filled, are fresh, tender and
firm, are free from decay and mildew injury; and from damage
caused by freezing, splitting, hall, dirt, leaves, or other foreign
matter, disease, msects. or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than 10 percent, by weight, of the pods
of peas in any container may be below the requirements of this
grade but not more than one half of this tolerance, or 5 percent,
shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not
more than one tenth of this tolerance, or 1 percent, shall be al-
lowed for soft decay. (See Application of Tolerances).
U. S. Fancy shall consist of pods of peas which are well fill-
ed and which meet the requirements of the U S. No 1 grade in
all other respects
Unclassified shall consist of peas which are not graded in
conformity with either of the foregoing grades.





86 The Prodution, Dzstribution and Competttion of Florida Vegetables

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used m these grades:
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the pods of
peas m any container are of the same color and general type.
"Excessively small" means pods with less than 3 fairly well
and/or well-developed peas.
"Badly misshappen" means that the pods are badly constrict
ed, crooked, or badly twisted.
"Fairly well filled" means that more than one half of each
pod shall be filled with fairly well and/or well developed peas.
"Well filled" means that more than two thirds of each pod
shall be filled with fairly well and/or well-developed peas.
"Damage" means any injury which materially affects the
appearance or edible or shipping quality
"Serious damage" means any injury which seriously af-
fects the appearance or edible or shipping quality. Badly mis-
shapen pods or pods affected with downy mildew injury shall be
considered as being seriously damaged

APPLICATION OF TOLERANCES
The tolerances specified for the various grades are placed
on a container basis. However, any lot of pods of peas shall be
considered as meeting the requirements of a specified grade if
the entire lot averages within the tolerances specified, provided
that the defective pods of peas in any container, based on sample
ispection, do not exceed the following amounts-
For a specified tolerance of 10 percent, not more than one
and one half times the tolerance shall be allowed for any one
container.
For a specified tolerance of less than 10 percent, not more
than double the tolerance shall be allowed for any one con-
tainer.
Effective date. February 1, 1934 Revision to October 1, 1940
Growing Cost.-Without allowance for rental, taxes, interest,
depreciation, the average cost of growing a season's crop of peas
in Florida will average in the Everglades District from $38-63
per acre: Preparation and cultivation $15-25; seed $8-10, fer-
tilizer $10-18; spraying and miscellaneous $5-10 The cost de-
livered at shippmg point on the basis of an average yield of 75





The Piodi l ion, [Dislrbution oand C(mpetltcon io Florida I F~etlable' 87

bushel hampers per acre, is from $1 05 to $1 50 per hamper:
Growing 51c-84c, harvesting 25c-35c, hamper 16c, hauling 5c;
grading and packing 8c-10c

Loading in Car.-Green peas are shipped under refrigeration
The bushel hamper is the standard container used for shipping
Florida green peas Top ice, crushed or chunk, is used by many
shippers of fresh peas Loaded upright alternative inverted
method, full length of car, 7-8 rows wide, 3 layers high; upright
load with alternate stacks inverted 5-6 rows wide, 3 layers high;
side load with hampers alternately reversed 8 rows wide, 4-6 lay-
ers high, side load with layers of hampers alternately reversed,
6-5 rows wide. 5-6 layers high Load generally ranges from 550 to
650 hampers per car.

Florida Shipments.-The Florida shipping season of green
peas extends from November into the following April. Both week-
ly and monthly shipments are listed below, shipments rail. and
boat included, by weeks for five seasons 1935-36 through 1939-40,
and truck shipments by weeks for the two seasons available 1938-
39 and 1939-40 for the period November 11 through the following
week of April 13, and shipments by months for the eight seasons
rail and boat, 1932-33 through 1939-40

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Rail and Boat)
Nov Nov Nov Dec. Dec Dec Dec. Dec Jan. Jan. Jan
Season I1 IS 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20
1935-36 0 3 3 0 15 7 18 46 53 104 96
1936-3 2 2 3 0 i1 52 47 60 42 49 45
1937-38 0 0 0 0 8 7 4 20 75 63 74
1938-39 0 1 16 1 2 16 15 16 37 25 29
1939-40 0 0 1 0 4 9 7 34 25 51 61

WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Truck)
1938-39 0 1 2 2 5 15 18 23 45 37 45
1939-40 0 0 3 10 13 15 10 27 24 31 30
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Rail and Boat)
Jan eb Fe. Feb Feb. Mch Mch Mch. Mch Mn Apr. Apr.
Season 27 3 10 17 24 2 9 16 23 30 6 13
1935-36 108 128 68 42 31 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
1936-37 27 18 4 2 2 7 6 7 12 8 2 0
1937-38 117 61 49 40 40 45 31 19 9 2 0
193-3q 13 4 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 0 0 0
1939-40 41 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6 8
WEEKLY SHIPMENTS (Truck)
1938-39 i5 13 1 7 4 7 18 14 2 2 2 1
1939-40 17 3 0 0 1 1 3 7 11 15 20 17

SdIPM ENTS BY MONTHS (Rail and Boat)
SEASON Nov, Dec Jan Feb. Mch. Apr Total
1932-33 1 16 119 144 51 0 331
1933-34 0 99 285 2652 93 5 745 (1 i June)
1934-35 1 23 66 266 126 4 486
1935-36 6 25 298 363 35 0 727
1936-37 7 152 185 23 35 12 414
1937-38 1 34 356 172 102 1 665
1938-39 18 49 106 7 7 0 187
1939-40 1 55 179 I 9 25 270






88 The Productton, Distrbutron and Competiton of Florda Vegetables

Transportation and Distribution.-The boat shipments of
Florida green peas averagmg 1%/ or less of the grand total ship-
ments, and express shipment being comparatively negligible, the
rail and truck movement is of more interest for comparison. The
following five-season figures on Florida green pea shipments, and
the percentage of the total shipped by rail with boat included and
truck, will show the comparative movement:

1938-39 1937-38 1936-37 1935-36 194-35
C/Is % C/Is % C/s % C/Is % C/Is %
Rail shipments 187 39% 666 82% 414 84% 727 85% 486 85%
Truck shipments 295 61% 150 18% 80 16% 125 15a 90 15%
Total 482 100% 816 100 494 100% 852 100 576 100%


The distribution of Florida green peas is made largely to the
Eastern territory, New York and Philadelphia being the largest
receivers. Truck shipments from Florida are incomplete for
seasons prior to 1938, but in the 1939 season, rail, boat and truck
shipments were available for Florida green peas, and likewise
carlot equivalent unloads by rail, boat and truck are complete
for New York and Philadelphia. In 1939. New York and Phil-
adelphia unloaded 78% the total Florida shipments by rail, boat,
express and truck The following gives the rail, boat and truck
unloads of Florida green peas by calendar years for 1935-39
inclusive:

1939 1938 I 1937 1936 -1935
N.Y Phil. I NY Phil. N.Y Phil NY. Phil, I N., Phil
Rail 89 18 332 145 231 61 377 173 339 74
Boat 4 0 2 0 1 0 4 1 3 0
Truck 120 84 | 70 57 1 1 18 0 0
Total 213 102 404 202 233 62 [ 399 179 342 74

The following is an unload record of rail and boat receipts by
calendar years 1935-39, carlot equivalent basis, of Florida green
peas on as many of the larger markets that received Florida
carlots as have tabulated unload records:
1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1939 1948 1937 1936 1935
Baltimore 1 10 11 12 13 New York 93 334 232 381 342
Boston 16 45 8 33 6 Philadelphia 18 145 61 174 74
Chicago 0 7 0 ]1 0 Pittsburgh 9 14 6 un 0
Cincinnati 6 38 3 13 3 St Louis 0 0 0 1 0
Cleveland 0 1 0 1 0 Washington 3 10 8 3S 15
Detroit 3 21 2 19 1

It will be noted that on a rail and boat unload basis, the
Eastern territory is the area of distribution for Florida green
peas, Cincinnati and Detroit being the principal Midwestern
market outlets.






I h, Ik .; 'I. :,tq ;., ( m pe:,'- 1 tI l, .,'. ,' 89

In the 1938-39 season, truck passing in cailot equivalents
were reported for the following btateh

l 1 rk 121 Lu- -na 3 Illn I1
P. .l -. :..l 72 Obse J i11il kl Id
1n l. l 24 I n, ll*. 2 M11al i. n ]t-
W. .. ...I... .I, C 2U Alah..im 1 M, SiouII k'l
(. lli .i 13 Irulilld 1 '1 -1.x.. 1

Vt .. 4 s.i'a .1 2

The .ibo\ tiuck passings IccoTunt fol 93', thle total Florida
truck shipments in the 1938-39 season About 65', the total truck
passing in 1938-39 were destlne'd to New Yoilk and Pennlsylvallla
Of the Southern maikets. Atlanta. Bummnghaim. Columbia. Mo-
bilet New Orle"ns. Richmond and Savannah leri.e the largest
outlets for Floirin glr'en p('as tach rceiving 2 .'rs lor more
in 1938-39

Northern Market Averages.--Belo a tabulation is presented
giving the simple unwerghted jobbing sales plotic axtlrages of
Florlda green peas preferred arnet'tes in bushel hampers.
No I or the top average *sales iiottd, te-minal marllket destina-
tion quotations, by weeks period Nov 11 through thi following
week of April 13 each season for tlhe flvL seasons 1935-:36 through
1939-40 Sales prices averaged on thie .same basts are also in-
cluded b, months. for eight ,eason, 1932-33 through 1939-40
December-April inclusive

Weekli
Priorn 1. I- i) r i 1C
1935-.16 S 261 :1 15 114 225 238
1936-37 0 1 8 1 75 1 51l 1 82 1 59
1937-38 0I 0 It 0 1 75
1938-39 0 0 3,13" 337 3!12* 4,79
1939-40 0 0 232 1 86 2 0112 222
Seekli
PrIrl,e -r Dec Jan Jjn Jan Jan
Sfo-n I 6 |1"
1935-.16 $2 12 2 05 1 89 2 15 1 71) 1 75
1936-37 1 41 I 36 1 71 2 111 2.02 256
V137-:38 1 'l 2 10 2 31 2 17 1 96 I 62
1938-39 :3 90 3 3 7 1 2 037 1 l 201 2 12
1939-40 1 88. 1 61 1 [5 1 4 ]1 55 233

Wrrelk
PriT. F, b. F. F'bh Fe' Mrh Mh i Mclh Mbh .ill \pr %pr
S nsnll 3 1 1 21 *l 16 .1I l 13i
I,.3-.1 $1 72 I 77 1 i7 I 7.1 1 "5 2 401 2 .. 2 2 2 27 2 "1 0
193-.o7 3 07 2 4 23 4 4 4 6 4 M 1 l I 27 2 2 2 37 2 40
193 I-..B ] 70 1 84 1 97 202 2ill 1 2 |3 2 37 2 2 2 75
19 -3- 25 4 2 "K 20* 2 00 2 : 1 82 1i 1 l
913-40 2 .7 239 2 RK, a' 21 2 ? 51 246 191






90 7hI Prudl. tton, i)ltriilibrn and Comprt'rlton Florida I egrtable

MONTHLY
PRICES
SEASON DEC. JAN. FEB. MCH. APRIL
1932-33 $2.17 254 2.76 3.00 1 54'
1933-34 204 2.29 2.03 149 1.56*
1934-35 3.13 2,81 1.93 206 2.23'
1935-36 2.52* 1.98' 1.72 2.14' 2.17'
1936-37 1.54* 207 3.63 4.07 2.49-
1937-38 1.97' 200 1 89 2.19 2.70-
1938-39 399 2.18 2 12 1.95' 2 08'
1939-40 1 99 1 75 2.53* 2 36' 226'

Florida (Jacksonville) Averages.-The following Jackson-
ville, Florida simple average jobbing prices of Florida Green
Peas, bv months, from January 1926 through June 1940, basis
in bushel hampers, top prevailing quotation average, will give
an index of Florida home market prices prevailing over a
long period of time:

yEAR Jan. eb Mar, Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep Oct xo Dec.
1926 S4 36 472 394 310 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 33
1927 3 36* 0 2 2 2 08 21 92 90 90 9 03 0 1 87
1928 3 49 3 91 2 84 2 80 0 237 0 0 0 0 3 43' 2 83
1929 3 03 1 65 2 23 2 02 2 23 01 03' 97 0 0 0 2 8
1930 2 75 254 3 23 2 95 221 0 0 0 0 0 2 72* 2 72
1931 369 206 277 174 154 0 0 0 0 0 309 242
1932 2 53 2 .S r 2 80 2 07 1 ] 0 0 0 0 0 2 54r 2 42
1933 168 210 218 163 0 0 0 0 0 234 139
1934 1 41 151 133 0 0 0 0 0 326
i935 2 99 1 W 1 70 221 1 55 0 0 0 0 2 67 2 83
1936 1 90 1 40 1 81 182 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 77 1 38
1937 126 2 43 30 189 141 163' 0 0 0 0 318 2 34
1938 180 160 1 75 1 67 0 0 0 0 1 86r 3 lir
1939 200 1 R5 219 1 96 1" 0 0 0 0 02 53 1 82
1940 145 325 249 188 19 0
*Incomplete part week or month
-Southern offerings

Competition.-Florida carlot rail and boat shipments of green
peas are made in the shipping season November to April. Dur-
ing every month of the Florida shipping season there is strong
competition from California The California shipments far exceed
those from any other State, and in fact that State ships more
than one-half the total United States domestic volume. Missis-
sippi carlot shipments begin in latter March, continue in April
and May. North Carolina shipments move in April. May and
June: South Carolina shipments are made in April and May.
Texas shipments move out from December through March. Lou-
isiana ships out a few cars some seasons in March and April:
Alabama and Georgia also have a few cars out in April; carlot
shipments from Virginia do not usually begin until May

How much competition from other States, how much from
imports, and how much from the total carlot shipments of do-
mestic and import volume, is of interest and value to the Florida








I I', ,1 1, I, I Pl ,ritll lin i. (i ri p ;, Ir .' lI -.1 l 1 ,' IIbb 91


producer of green peas Such information is provided in the
tabulation below, the volume by months common to the aver-
age Florida shipping season, both domestic and import total
and the grand total and the season's total for a period of eleven
seasons 1928-29 through 1938-39 inclusive, rail and boat ship-
ments


TOTAI.
*1>\ 1i0 J11 1 KB \ IP R(6mos i


Co1mpettn1 11.' S i
Toltal US Fhlipment


1l2-1 Fh nllda SIhipm1ent.



Comp.t it- Ui" Sl
ToFla L' Sbhipme nl~
)1 1-i- Flilda S hlp.n. n1

To'mp it io pei ie

Tl.tl VL S S hiprItil





Pi3-' r .rda Si.pm. en.
Tltil S Shi|ii n(-







C'omnp hhL IJ Sri
Florndd Sliipnunt-,


C ni|i ellin Inipilb




Tot.l C oporitiv"
T tala U S Slipm [int,
Flor] 1"34-3S5 Compe"tlet S

Total Coimpetilive




TItaIl U S Shlipinnt11
Flo id. Sip enint,

1935-37 Compohtii LOTmlpetil'ti Ir-portl
TIil l C ii]] i|) i Iln .




Toill U S SI npmii.t
Flilda S pill.. nt.
13BI-37 ,omiptl e i L S 11

Iotal W CO ipi I l|


Total Comnpectlive


Ii i 5 111 21.
11 1 11 18 1



_1 24J 15 111 t7
i) I J II

1B 243 J 1 l. 379

31 171 i 102 6.37
11 1 'liP 41

13 171. I1 41,i 3

l4 1 ,1 l'; 7]

411 1 14 1411 710

W 277 12, l ], 22R
I1 11 11 144 ,17

5.1 161 I s 177
555 1..5 J33 147 176


51 .4 .8A 4 '4 1
(I 8. 1B2 1 l 4 8

534 17H 11il IAH2 48
1 2 128 314 2 2l
145 1.5 Is 74 7 2




6, 25 ,298 ,13 35.

314 4ifl 74 1. 4,1
(I Ti f Ti ri

314 4.9 1(7 Ca 41
7s4 4iiS 211 h7 21-1
7 1312 1.5 2.1 n-
777 253 211 44 17i
1 1I 14<1 Ri 125
77. 271 1W ] ) 12-'
534 3411 4-. 4,14 411
1 34 'I51i 172 1112
5:1 3111. 1(12 2 2 il l
1 1s 124 N8 24

34 324 22i 9l i]i


'921 1609
0 30

92' 1.579

I[ i" 2035
0 6

1 99 2.029

18 10 2,754
19 130

I 78i 26.24

1 247 2 171
2 145

1 245 2 026

1 .120 2il,14
0 331

1 320 2273
1160 3.06
5 744

1 15 ,162
0 302

1,155 1464
B74 2717
4 486
870 2231
0 252

.71 2,483
1, 1195 3144

1i 5 2617
1 20T

I 1l19; 2824
S'i3 2.5 '34
12 414

821 2 12



ill3 2 "2
95ii

0 195





92 7l, Prodi, o tlo Dltr.ribtiin aind Comnptrlton of Florida I egetabls

TOTAL
SEASON NOV. DEC JAN. FEB MAR. APR(60mos.
Total VU S Shpments 196 88 261 273 48 1.070 2if
Florida Slipments 18 49 106 7 7 0 18i
i90 -w0 Competttitc iu S p 178 39 155 26 479 1,070 2.187
Competitl' e Imports 0 6 55 53 63 0 INO
Total Conmptitve 178 45 210 319 542 1,079 2373

Green peas is another product imported into the United
States in large enough quantity to be competitive to Florida ship-
ments. Mexico is the principal foreign source, and shipments
from Mexico begin in the latter part of November, or m De-
cember and continue through March and into April. A few cars
from Porto Rico are placed on the eastern markets, and the
season starting in November continues through March. aver-
aging only about two cars per month.
Therefore, as the Florida shipping season begins in Novem-
ber and ends in April. the strongest competition is provided
by California. Texas and Mexico. (the total import average
is heaviest in January) California is the largest domestic com-
petitor. and Mexico the largest import competitor and both of
these sources have advantages m Western and most of the cen-
tral markets, and Texas shipments also move largely to the
central markets Since Florida shipments do not have such
extensive import competition from Cuba and Porto Rico plac-
ing peas on the larger eastern markets, and since the Florida
shipments are terminated in the spring before overlapping move-
ment is heavy in other competitive southern and eastern States.
Florida shipments have generally had less competition on the
eastern than the central and particularly the western markets.







I he l'1od-r1 n I> rieii+ii in i ad t mpI oi", olt ,, V 11+PlS11 h 93

POTATOES

Acreage-The location of the potato growing districts in
Florida is shown by the following tabulation of count.% acreage
for the seasons 1928-29 to 1939-40 inclusive. There has been some
reduction il acreage in more rcent seasons in Alachua, Clay,
Flagler and St Johns counties. while the South Florida counties
of Dade. Lee and Pa!m Beach have shown considerable increase.

lMtT, 19 11 1q1o 1,131 1.31 113( 193I 39. 1Po 6 19eW 193V o 19139
--29 -0 -31 -11 -33 -34 -35 -37 -3 -39 -10
Alachu 1u. 011 21 1) 220 1800 11010 14 iX 160I U ]21110 -' 10 ) 2400 ll)0 1o(pi
Blaidf 1d 23 .21(1 Joi> 21 200I 2110 ol I1(a 125 125 100 20(1
Blef.irdc 40 5i) a0 511 21
-B[c ar > 1 40011 W
D(-1. 11), I 151,l 711 4(011 tPI 0I 4.1 5ill 4.1 1 Jai 511
Dade Ry 11xa oIK IT. a 100 i.l i. 4a.(. 630 80i iil t3. r.
Ealin Tn "l i 0 I 1 'I" 71111 ,ll050 l0t IWaI a(0i ainI a1 0
Flail l 221e0 '11JI 2111 27( I 200 I 0I .I1 l.10 i4 l .5(00l( 2 11)0 21000
GlIfI al
Hirderk 14 1713 i 1 21( 1 O 120 l i 1N 1)1 1 1i0 Il0 H1I 11 50
HM li II, iO 1) 2 j
HI ll 5ir '1 0 "I 2 1 1 1 I 200 I 00 0 2l5a 210. 2- 1 202 0
Indlan Rie, r lo M 401 2a. 311 23 M aa i0 2)0 10(1 100
-Lak,, 50 2
Locv 4"
Minitr in I y h K t 12 W, 17.1 "l INd ) 4-11 2lU10 Ros in
Mailon 3 ja W o 101a i 50 2.11
Maan 2 I0 "''ll iaa I( i 21 10
O tlnclr 31,c 10( 1 T* l 5 i. ->0 0I I 00,
Oranciv 2i v 2s 25 is i i o
Palm ic 7(1 p 0(1e I 0i0 1(11 4e11 [15( 24e r 1aie 111s ]a 7 2500
Patn, 25 100 1111
Prlles eeI 1( 0 n t
Polk 241 21 25 ill 101 )I 11 -i 0 150 15"M
P.Itnami n fl 2500 I 2711 liO J.r 2f50?1 21011 2tel a 2l0 72no 3100
St .Johns s 1i m no. a 4io 75.(1 Troon 9i:- ii00 a81 K120i 681o 9 .1
st ucic 600 600 30r 150 25 75 21 a'0 100 400 300
SanTa Rofa in 0as. 5
S Arastta 40 10 25 25 25 -i a d on loo 100 Io we 5h
Union 175 500 500 400 200 200 100 100 275 275 200 200
Volus. a 350 1000 450 350 300 700 100 300 410 ,3 0 300 250
Statr To lal 2200,1 31f1X) 27000 3100 17000a ?2r0) '4a00 241500 113a l 11401a 2h70. 251o
'Preliminary

Variety.-The Katahdin. Red Bliss, and Spaulding Rose are
principally the varieties of potatoes grown commercially for
shipping purposes in Florida. Several other varieties have been
less extensively used in some potato growing sections of the
State

Grade-(U. S and Florida Standards for Potatoes.)-Intro-
duction.-Numbers and letters in parentheses following grade
terms indicate where such terms are defined under Definitions of
Terms.
All percentages shall be calculated on the basis of weight.





q4 I h, Pr ,l i Dioiltrtb. utn 11id (Compeltlivil oi Florltda I egetafblc

The tolerances for the standards are on a container basis.
However, individual packages in any lot may vary from the speci-
fied tolerances as stated below, provided the averages for the
entire lot. based on sample inspection, are within the tolerances
specified.
For a tolerance of 10 percent or more, individual packages in
any lot may contain not more than one and one-half times
the tolerance specified, except that when the package con-
tains 15 specimens or less, individual packages may contain not
more than double the tolerance specified

For a tolerance of less than 10 percent, individual packages
in any lot may contain not more than double the tolerance speci-
fled, provided at least one specimen which does not meet the
requirements shall be allowed in any one package

Grades
U. S Fancy shall consist of potatoes of one variety or similar
varietal characteristics which are firm, mature (1), bright (2).
well shaped (3), free from freezing inurv, blackheart, shriv-
eling, sprouting, soft rot or wet breakdown (4), and hollow heart,
and free from injury (5) caused by dirt or other foreign matter,
sunburn, second growth, growth cracks, air cracks, cuts, scab,
blight, dry rot. rhizoctona. other disease, msects or mechanical
or other means (5)
The diameter (6) of each potato shall be not less than 2
inches
For long varieties such as Burbank, Russet Burbank. Early
Ohio, Pride of Wisconsin, or other similar varieties, not less
than 40 per cent of the potatoes m any lot shall be 6 ounces or
more in weight
For round or intermediate shaped varieties such as Irish
Cobbler. Bliss Triumph. Green Mountain. or other similar va
rieties. not less than 60 per cent of the potatoes in any lot
shall be 2114 inches or larger in diameter
The size of the potatoes may be stated in terms of minimum
diameter or minimum weight, or of range in diameter or weight.
or of a certain percentage over a certain size. following the grade
name, but in no case shall the potatoes be below the sizes speci-
fled for this grade (See Tolerance for Size)

Tolerance for defects-In order to allow for variations
other than size incident to proper grading and handling, not





Tin P lrodu lll l D tlint,,li oi rind (oIp'ip t ol I lirtd,: I'peFIIl-0 95

more than 6 percent, of the potatoes in any container may be
below the requirements of the grade but not to exceed one-sixth
of this amount, or 1 per cent, shall be allowed for potatoes af-
fected by soft rot or wet breakdown
U. S. Extra No. I shall consist of potatoes of one variety or
similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well shaped (7).
fairly clean (8). free from freezing injury blackheart. and
soft rot or wet breakdown (4) and from damage (9) caused by
sunburn, second growth (9a), growth cracks (9a). air cracks
(9b), hollow heart, cuts, shriveling (9c), sprouting (9d). scab
(9e and f), blight, dry rot, rhizoctoma (9g), other disease (9)
insects or mechanical or other means (9)

Unless otherwise specified, size of potatoes (See Size Classl
fiction and Tolerance for Size) shall be as follows
The diamenter (6) of each potato shall be not less than
l'/ inches
For long x\arities such as Burbank. Russet Burbank. Early
Ohio, Pride of Wisconsin, or other similar varieties, not less
than 60 per cent of the potatoes in the lot shall be 6 ounces
or larger, of which not less than one-half or 30 per cent shall
be 10 ounces or more in weight.
For round or intermediate shaped varieties such as Irish
Cobbler, Bliss Triumph. Green Mountain or other similar va
rieties, not less than 60 per cent of the potatoes in the lot
shall be 2P1 inches or larger. of which not less than one-half
or 30 per cent shall be 23) inches or larger in diameter.
Tolerance for defects.-In order to allow for variations other
than size incident to proper grading and handling, not more
than 6 percent of the potatoes in any container may be below
the requirements of the grade but not to exceed one-sixth
of this amount, or 1 per cent, shall be allowed for potatoes
affected by soft rot or wet breakdown In addition not more
than 5 percent may be damaged by hollow heart
U. S. No. I shall consist of potatoes of one variety or similar
varietal characteristics which are fairly well shared (7). free
from freezing inury, blackheart, and soft rot or wet break
down (4), and from damage (9) caused by dirt (9h) or other
foreign matter (9h), sunburn, second growth (9a). growth cracks
(9a), air cracks (9b). hollow heart, cuts, shriveling (9c), sprouting
(9d). scab (9e and f), blight, dry rot. rhizoctonia. 9g), other di-
sease (9) Insects or mechanical or other means (9)





96 1 he Pr 'ductw,, A istrl. D ult i rid Competilron o] Flond r I egetable

Unless otherwise specified the diameter (6) of each potato
shall be not less than 1%/ inches. (See Size Classification and Tol-
erance for Size.)
Tolerance for defects.-In order to allow for variations other
than size incident to proper grading and handling, not more
than 6 percent of the potatoes in any container may be below
the requirements of the grade but not to exceed one-sixth of
this amount, or 1 percent, shall be allowed for potatoes af-
fected by soft rot or wet breakdown. In addition, not more
than 5 percent may be damaged by hollow heart.
U. S. Commercial shall consist of potatoes which meet the
requirements of U. S No. 1 grade except that they shall be free
from serious damage by dirt (10a) and except for the increased
tolerance for defects specified below.
Unless otherwise specified the diameter (6) of each potato
shall be not less than 1%/ inches. (See Size Classification and
Tolerance for Size )
Tolerance for defects.-In order to allow for variations
other than size and sprouting incident to proper grading and
handling, not more than a total of 20 per cent of the potatoes
in any container may be below the requirements of this grade.
but not more than 5 per cent may be seriously damaged by
hollow heart and not over 6 percent may be below the remaining
requirements of U. S. No 2 grade, provided that not more than
one-sixth of this amount, or 1 percent, shall be allowed for
potatoes affected by soft rot or wet breakdown. In addition.
not more than 10 per cent of the potatoes may be damaged by
sprouting, provided that if all of the 20 per cent tolerance
is not used for other defects the unused part of the tolerance
may be also used for potatoes having sprouts over % inch long
but which are not seriously damaged by shriveling
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of potatoes of one variety or similar
varietal characteristics which are free from freezing injury,
blackheart and soft rot or wet breakdown (4) and from serious
damage caused by dirt (10a) or other foreign matter, sunburn,
second growth, growth cracks, air cracks, hollow heart, cuts
(10b), shriveling (10c), scab (10d and e), blight, dry rot, other dis-
ease. insects or mechanical or other means (10).
Unless otherwise specified the diameter (6) of each potato
shall be not less than 1% inches. (See Size Classification and
Tolerance for Size.)
Tolerance for defects.-In order to allow for variations other
than size incident to proper grading and handling, not more
than 6 percent of the potatoes in any container may be below





I/ :,! 1.,: ,,, "i : ,, t m." '', ', I 4,d h o'*t'i. 97

the requirements of the grade. but not to exceed one-sixth of
this amount. or 1 percent. shall be allowed for potatoes affected
by soft rot or et breakdown In addition not more than 5
percent may be seriously damaged bI hollow heart
Unclassified shall consist of potatoes which are not graded
in conformity with any of the folegoing grades.
Size Classification for All Grades Except U. S. Fanc..-
When potatoes are designated as "L S No. 1". "U. S. Com-
mercial" or "U S No 2" without specifying a si/e classification,
it is understood that the potatoes meet the minimum size speci-
fied in the grade but that no definite percentage of the potatoes
is required to bh larger than this minimum size
When potatoes meet the requirements of either size A or size
B as described below, the size classification may be specified in
connection with any of the U S, grades except Fancy, as:
"U S No 1. size A" "U S No. 1. size B, "U S No 2, size A",
or "U S. No 2. size B'. in accordance with the facts. When size
A or size B is used in connection n ith the grade, It is not permis-
sible to specify% any smaller sizes than those specified under
these designations
Size A-Foi long varieties such as Burbank, Russet Bur-
bank. Early Ohio. Pride of Wisconsin, or other similar varieties.
the diameter of each potato shall be not less than l7s inches and
not less than 40 percent of the potatoes in the lot shall be 6
ounces or more in weight
Foi round or intermediate shaped varieties such as Irish
Cobbler. Bliss Triumph Green Mountain or other similar va-
rieties, the diameter of each potato shall be not less than 1s
inches and not less than 60 per cent of the potatoes in the lot
shall be 2/4 inches or larger in diameter
Size B.-For all varieties the size shall be from 112 inches
to not more than 2 inches in diameter
Other sizes.--When either of the above sue designations is
not used in connection with U S No. 1, U S. Commercial or
U. S. No 2 grades, it is permissible to specify any other minimum
size such as "112 inches minimum,"' "2 inches minimum"; or
both a minimum and a maximum size as "17 inches to 3 inches,"
'6 to 10 ounces", or to specify a certain percentage over a certain
size as "25 per cent or more 24 inches and larger," "50 percent
3r more 6 ounces and larger."
Tolerance for size.-In order to allow for variations incident
to proper sizing, not more than 5 percent of the potatoes in any
container may be below any specified minimum size except that





98 I I rP i,. nh, iPl ,1,r, nll ini (Id t1C ron 1 ,1 FL,r:>da I .r.l.rj ,

in order to meet the requirements of size A classification, U. S.
Fancy or U S Extra No. I grades, any lot of potatoes shall
have not more than 3 percent below the minimum size specified
In addition not more than 15 percent ma' be above any specified
maximum size
When a percentage of the potatoes is specified to be of a cer-
tain size and larger. no part of an\ tolerance shall be used to
reduce such a percentage for the lot as a whole, but individual
containers may ha'e not more than 15 percent less than the
percentage required or specified provided that the entire lot
averages within the percentage specified For example, a lot
specified as 25 percent 212 inches and larger may have con-
tainers with not less than 10 percent 21' inches and larger pro-
vided the lot as a whole averages 25 percent 21, inches and
larger.

Definitions of Terms.-As used in these standards

(1) "Mature' means that the outerskin (epidermis) does
not loosen or "feather" readily during the ordinary methods
of handling.
(2) "Bright" means practically free from dirt or other
foreign matter, and that the outer skin (epidermis) has the
attractive col',r normal for the variety
(3) "Well shaped" means the normal shape for the va-
riety and that the potato is not pointed, dumbbell-shaped, ex-
cessively elongated, or otherwise ill-formed
(4) "Soft rot or wet breakdown" means any soft. mushy.
or leaky condition of the tissue, such as slimy soft rot. leak.
or wet breakdown following freezing injury or sunscald
(5) "Injury" means any defect which more than slightly
affects the appearance of the individual potato or the general
appearance of the potatoes in the container, or which cannot be
removed without a loss of more than 2 percent of the total
weight of the potato including peel covering defective area

(6) "Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right
angles to the longitudinal axis The long axis shall be used
without regard to the position of the stem (rhizome)

(7) "Fairly well shaped" means that the appearance of
the individual potato or the general appearance of the potatoes
in the container is not materially injured by pointed. dumbbell-
shaped or otherwise ill-formed potatoes





7 h, P frd tri. DOTdrh .'n it (ompi tliin or I'A d I -g ..tabbl 99

(8) "Fairly clean" means that from the viewpoint of the
general appearance the potatoes in the container are reasonably
free from dirt or other foreign matter and that individual po-
tatoes are not materially caked with dirt or materially stained.
(9) "Damage" means any injury or defect which materially
injures the appearance of the individual potato or the general
appearance of the potatoes in the container, or which cannot
be removed without a loss of more than 5 percent of the total
weight of the potato including peel covering defective area
Loss of outer skin (epidermis) shall not be considered as damage
unless the skinned surface is materially affected by very dark
discoloration Any one of the following defects or any corn
bination of defects the seriousness of which exceeds the max-
Imum allow ed for any one defect shall be considered as damage:
(a) Second growth or growth cracks which have developed
to such an extent as to materially injure the appearance of the
individual potato or the general appearance ol the potatoes in
the container
(b) Air cracks which are deep or shallow all cracks which
materially injure the appearance of the individual potato or the
general appearance of the potatoes in the container
(c) Shriveling when the potato is more than moderately
shriveled, spony,. or flabby
(d) Sprouting when more than 10 percent of the potatoes
have sprouts over three-fourths of an inch long
(e) Surface scab which covers an area of more than 5
percent of the surface of the potato in the aggregate
(f) Pitted scab which affects the appearance of the potato
to a greater extent than the amount of surface scab permitted
or causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of
the potato including peel covering defective area
(g) Rhizoctomna when the general appearance of the pota-
toes n the container is materially injured or when individual
potatoes are badly infected
(h) Dirt when the general appearance o tlie potatoes in
the container is more than slghtiv dirtv or stained, oi when
individual potatoes are badly caked with dirt or badly stained,
or other foreign matter which material affects Ihe appearance
of the potatoes
(10) "Serious damage" means anv injury or defect which
seriously injures the appearance of the individual potato or
the general appearance of the potatoes in the container, or which
cannot be removed without a loss of more than 10 percent of the




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