• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Trees
 Palms for Florida gardens
 Shrubs in the home grounds
 Shrub index by common names
 Species recommended for Florida...
 Shrubs suggested for different...
 Vines for Florida homes
 Lawns for Florida homes
 Foundation plantings
 Index














Group Title: Bulletin New series
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002888/00001
 Material Information
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
Series Title: <Bulletin> New series
Physical Description: 99 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: State of Florida, Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: <1950>
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Landscape gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins.
General Note: "April, 1950".
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002888
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001869211
oclc - 44606358
notis - AJU3743
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Trees
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Palms for Florida gardens
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Shrubs in the home grounds
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Shrub index by common names
        Page 44
    Species recommended for Florida homes
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Shrubs suggested for different uses
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Vines for Florida homes
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Lawns for Florida homes
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Foundation plantings
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Index
        Page 98
        Page 99
Full Text
LANDSCAPE PLANTS for FLORIDA HOMES
By John Y. Watkins
?50.5> 1950
e.3
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner tallahassee


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES


New Series No. 106
April, 1950
LANDSCAPE PLANTS for
FLORIDA HOMES
by
John V. Watkins
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
tallahassee


6>3oS


rees
Trees are essential to the successful development of any landscape plan. Suitable kinds in adequate numbers must be carefully selected as the first step in any home beautifi-cation project. These may be natives that already grow on the property or they may be nursery-grown exotic species bought especially for the purpose. Trees relate the house and garden to the land and to the sky as well and scale relationship must be carefully considered. One must think in terms of mature sizes rather than of nursery grades when choosing trees for planting around the home. In Florida, many semi-tropical species grow quite rapidly and assume gigantic sizes in a comparatively short time. Many of these, too, cast very dense shade under which it is impossible to grow a lawn. These kinds are unsuitable for small residential properties and their use should be limited to parks, arboretums and large estates. Mature sizes will be indicated in the descriptive paragraphs.
Shade is most necessary in Florida because of the large number of intense sunny days. Broadleaved evergreens may be chosen if year-round shade is wanted, while deciduous species are best in some positions so that sunlight may be enjoyed during the winter.
Framing is an important function of trees in landscape design. Trees set toward the property lines on both sides, rather forward of the house, enframe the dwelling and the garden and give a finish and completeness that can be attained in no other way. For this purpose, small, erect growing species should be chosen for most homes.
Two or three somewhat larger evergreen trees set at the rear property line will furnish a background that gives solidarity and definition to the plan.
Hardiness, adaptability to one's soil type, long life, freedom from diseases and insect pests and resistance to strong winds are important considerations when a list of trees is being compiled for home planting.
While the following list of ornamental trees is not a long one it includes species that are completely dependable within their climatic zones in Florida. Every home owner will want to grow a few rare trees experimentally, but these should be incidental to the species of unquestioned adaptability which form the backbone of the planting.
Some species are selected for their beautiful evergreen foliage, others are cherished for their striking blossoms, while still others are all time favorites because of the fruits that they bear.


Cajeput Tree(Melaleuca leucadendron)
A beautiful small tree that is outstanding; as a specimen, street tree
or windbreak


Collecting; lawn trees from the woods has long been the practice in Florida and thousands of beautiful specimens now growing all over the state were secured in this manner. It must be remembered that many species are protected by law and cannot be dug without permission of the property owner. Every right-thinking person will want to respect property rights and will ask permission to collect before going into a woodland with digging and pruning tools.
Black Olive(Bucida bneeras) An excellent avenue or windbreak for the Miami area
Wild trees, growing in competition with their neighbors have far-reaching roots and it is impossible to dig them with satisfactory, compact root systems. When everything is considered, it is more desirable and but little more expensive to buy trees from a reputable nursery. The nurseryman has transplanted, root-pruned, cultivated, fertilized, sprayed and irrigated his stock and his trees will attain maturity much more quickly in your garden than will trees of comparable sizes from the wild.


Transplanting is most successfully accomplished when plants are dormant and this will be between December and February in Florida. Until that time, it is a good idea to prepare the planting holes so that the locations will be ready for the trees at the right time. Dig holes that are large enough to contain the sizes that you plan to acquire. Throw a layer of compost and a couple of handfuls of a mixed commercial plant food at the bottom, fill the hole with fertile woods soil and leave a slight basin to gather water.
When the plants are at hand next winter, carefully shovel the fertile soil aside, set the tree in the hole so that it will be at exactly the same level that it grew formerly. See that the roots assume, without bending and crowding, the same relative positions which they held. As the soil is slowly shoveled back, allow it to be washed into place with a gentle stream from the hose. Finish with a saucer-like depression and fill this with water at least once each week that it does not rain.
Newly planted trees of all classes have low resistance and so it is recommended that the trunks be protected for the first two seasons. Beginning at the ground level make a spiral wrap upward until the branches are reached. Spanish moss, muslin, paper or a similar material may be used and it can be secured at intervals with a cord as needed. After leaves emerge the following spring, loosen the wrap or allow it to disintegrate gradually. This wrapping is good protection against sunscald, excessive drying and borers and it will materially aid your tree in recovering from the transplanting operation.
Cutting back to reduce the leaf-bearing surface in proportion to the loss of the roots is most important. Head in lateral branches at least half of their length, perhaps remove some of the limbs down close to the ground. Do not prune the central leader, but allow the single terminal growing point to maintain its dominance.
CULTIVATION, FEEDING AND PRUNING
Newly planted trees will not need to be fertilized during their first growing season because of the high nutrient level of the soil into which they were set. However, during the following February, and annually thereafter, all trees should be fed systematically.
A mixed commercial fertilizer is applied in punch-bar holes around the tree. Use a heavy crow bar or similar tool to make holes about 10 to 12 inches deep concentrically around the trunk and then fill these holes with your chosen plant food. The number of holes and the amount of fertilizer


to apply will vary with the species, age, soil type and other factors, but, generally speaking, a pound of fertilizer for each inch in diameter might be about right. Of course, the holes should be equally distributed around the tree inside the drip of the branches.
Until shade trees, ornamental citrus and palms are well established, they should be grown in circles that are kept free of grass by frequent cultivation. Ordinarily these rings of cultivated earth may be five to eight feet in diameter, depending upon the species, the size of the individual, the fertility of the soil and other factors.
Camphor Tree(Cinnamomum camphora) Suitable for any section of Florida


The best tool to use in keeping these circles free of grass is a sharp, long-handled scuffle hoe, the common goose-necked garden hoe being a poor second best. During the rainy season, shallow cultivation should be practiced every week or ten days while for the remainder of the year a light hoeing once a fortnight should suffice. So that feeder roots will not be injured, the soil must be flat-hoed, that is, the blade must not be allowed to cut deeper than an inch or two. Another reason for recommending the scuffle hoe is that it serves as a good edger to cut the grass around the periphery of the circle at each cultivation.
It is generally held that mature lawn trees look best when they grow out of the unbroken turf, therefore the grass may be allowed to encroach gradually so that it grows up to the trunks after five or six years.
Tropical species of Ficus often have very attractive branching.


Lawn trees should need little pruning, but occasionally it is necessary to remove crowding, crossing or interfering branches or those that have been injured by cold or wind. Sometimes it is essential that one of two leaders be reduced so that Y-crotch may be avoided.
Sharp, well adjusted pruning saws, hand shears and tappers are necessary accessories. Smaller branches are headed in with the hand shears, or removed close to the supporting member with the tappers, while the pruning saw is used for larger wood. Always make a preliminary cut about a foot from the supporting member. This will prevent the heavy branch from carrying away a strip of bark when it falls. The final pruning cut, then, is made very close to the limb from which the branch to be pruned, arises. Painting the wound with a tree wound dressing or with good oil paint is strongly recommended. This will help prevent checking and will assist in the exclusion of wood-rot fungi until callus can cover the wound.
Generally speaking, the best time to prune ornamental trees is just prior to spring growth or immediately after blooming.
Spanish moss, which grows so luxuriously in parts of Florida, is harmful and must be removed annually if lawn trees are to be kept in good condition. This fast growing epiphyte casts unusually heavy shade, forces growth outward and causes many small branches to die.
SPRAYING
When fruit trees (oranges, avocadoes, mangos and pecans) lts employed as lawn trees, they must be protected from insects and diseases just as they are in commercial orchards. L'nsprayed fruit trees will not look thrifty and clean and they cannot bear abundant fruits of good quality. Most home owners cannot maintain equipment and help that is needed to apply insecticides and fungicides efficiently to mature fruit trees, so it is strongly recommended that local grove service organizations, nurseries, or tree maintenance companies be engaged to apply spray materials in the approved manner at the correct time. Your county or home demonstration agent or the secretary at the chamber of commerce can furnish names of approved service organizations.
Shade trees discussed in the following pages should not need regular spraying excepting as noted specifically in the descriptive paragraphs.
If you have over half an acre you will want to buy one of those efficient wheelbarrow sprayers. Single or double


wheeled models with iron rims or rubber tires are available. Most home owners will want a hand-operated model because it is efficient, capable of producing high pressure, easy to clean and easy to repair as it will have a minimum of working parts. Advanced models are operated by electric motors and you can plug the extension cord into handy receptacles on the porch or in the garage; others have little gasoline engines to run the pumps.
if your garden is a small one and you have a yard man, a five-gallon, brass, knapsack-type sprayer will be a good buy, but if you must do your spraying unaided, a stirrup pump is good to have. Good types available as war surplus, are inexpensive and very efficient. The spray material is mixed in a water bucket, over the side of which the intake element of the stirrup pump fits. Fairly high pressure and satisfactory breakage of the liquid is obtained with these sprayers.
Garden supply houses, retail nurseries, seed stores and mail order houses carry sprayers of the types mentioned. In the national garden magazines will be found advertisements of manufacturers of dependable spraying equipment.
Tree Index by Common Names
common name 1'age common name page
Acacia...... 11 Lily-thorn..... 17
Annatto...... 11 Lipstick tree..... 11
Black olive..... 12 Live Oak..... 20
Bo tree...... 23 Loquat...... 17
Cajcput...... 12 Magnolia...... 18
Cnlumondin..... 15 Mahogany..... 18
Camphor...... 12 Mango...... 19
Cassia...... 14 Mimosa...... 19
Casuarina..... 14 Mountain-ebony .... 20
Chaste-tree..... 15 Moreton Bay Chestnut 19
Chestnut, Moreton Bay 19 Oak....... 20
Citrus...... 15 Orange...... 15
Crape-myrtle .... 15 Orchid-tree..... 20
Crape-myrtle, Queen's 15 Pine....... 20
Dogwood...... 16 Pongam...... 21
Ficus...... 23 Redbud...... 21
Frangipani..... 16 Royal Poind ann .... 22
Fringe-tree..... 16 Rubber tree..... 23
Gciger-tree..... 16 Sapodilla...... 24
Gum....... 23 Satinleaf...... 24
Gumbo-limbo..... 16 Seagrape...... 24
Holly...... 16 Senna...... 14
Jacaranda..... 17 Sweet-gum..... 23
Jerusalem thorn .... 17 Tamarind..... 24
Kumquat..... 15 Travelers-tree .... 22


Trees Especially Recommended for Florida Homes
Acacia (Acacia spp) 8-50 feet. These showy members of the legume family are noted for the large numbers of bright yellow blossoms and are available at nurseries in several species and varieties. Mostly all are semi-tropical and must be grown, therefore, in the southern part of the state.
Propagation is by seeds.
Annatto Lipstick Tree (Bixa orellana)* 25 feet. This small tree is quite showy when its terminal panicles of rose-colored blooms are in season. The fruits, which follow, are the source of a yellowish-red dyestuff that is used in coloring food products.
Propagation is by seeds.

Australian Pine(Casuarina cunninyhamiami) This is the hardiest species of Casuarina
* The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used by Dr. L. H. Bailey in Hortus Second 1941


Black Olive (Bucida buceras) 50 feet. The native black olive is in hign favor in southern Florida because of its adaptability and great resistance to strong winds. As a street tree, windbreak or lawn specimen, this tropical evergreen is highly commended to home owners within its range.
Propagation is by seeds.
Jerusalem Thokn(Paikinsonia aculeata) This is one of the best small trees to use as a lawn specimen
CAJEPUT (Melaleuca U itcadeudrott) 50 feet. A medium-sized tree of great distinction, the cajeput is a popular lawn specimen in central and southern sections. The thick, spongy bark, the strict habit, the small, narrow leaves and the yellow-white blossoms all contribute to make this one of our outstanding ornamentals. In some areas this Australian tree has established itself in great cultures which demonstrate its adaptability to conditions in this state. Other species, the bottlebrushes, are popular ornamental trees or shrubs.
All are increased by seeds.
CAMPHOK (Cinnaiiionutnt camphura) 40 feet. Well known as a beautiful, hardy, evergreen tree, the camphor is satisfactory on fertile soils that do not become excessively dry


during spring droughts. Unattractive yellow foliage and an unthrifty condition may be accounted for by a mineral deficiency in the soil or red spiders attacking the leaves. Sulphur dust (300 mesh) or syringing with the hose are effective in reducing red spiders, but these controls are seldom employed for camphor trees. Florida red scale, those rounded black dots with red centers, frequently attack camphor foliage. A white summer oil at 1% or 2% dilution will give a good control. This type of scalecide is obtainable at your seed store under the trade name "Volck," "Niagrol" or "Sunoco." Complete directions for use are printed on the labels.
Magnolia(Magnolia grandiflora) This is a young specimen of the south's favorite tree


As they cast heavy shade and are voracious feeders, it is usually difficult to maintain a good lawn under healthy camphor trees.
Camphor trees do not transplant readily, and for this reason they are container-grown so they may be moved without disturbing the root system. Seeds, employed en-
Live Oak(Querent virginiana) Acknowledged as the best oak for planting in Florida
tirely for propagation, are sown directly in these containers and the small plants thinned to one to each vessel.
Cassia, Senna (Cassia spp> 8-30 feet. Several species arc grown in the warmer sections. The great quantities of showy yellow or pink blossoms that are so freely borne have earned for this group an important place as a small garden tree.
Propagation is easily accomplished by sowing seeds.
Casuarina (Casuarina spp) 70 feet. Adapted to the widest possible range of conditions, the casuarinas have become one of the most numerous trees of southern Florida. C. equiseti-folia withstands brackish soils and salt spray and is grown extensively near the seashore as clipped hedges, windbreaks and high screens. C. Cunninghamiana is considered the


most hardy and may be grown as far north as Gainesville. C. lepidophloia, more widely planted than any other species, has an attractive dark green color, dense habit and produces quantities of root suckers. These are used to increase plantings of this last kind, while the others are grown from seeds.
Chaste Tree (Vitex agnus-eastus) 20 feet. As a small door-yard tree, the vitex is quite popular because of its attractive lilac blossoms. Although the tree is deciduous, the lacy digitate leaves are beautiful during summer when the fragrant blossoms appear. The tree may be grown from softwood cuttings during summer.
Citrus Trees and their allies (Citrus & Fortunella species and hybrids) are among the most decorative of all of the broadleaved evergreen trees grown to horticulture. As shade trees, for backgrounds, framing and as free-standing specimens, the oranges, tangerines, calamondins, kumquats and their hybrids are widely employed in Florida home grounds plantings. In order that the health and beauty of the trees and the quality of the fruits may be of the best, a careful spray program as suggested on page 7 is highly recommended.
Citrus trees are usually secured as budded specimens from nurseries and moved while comparatively small in size. During the winter they are moved with the greatest facility, but it is well known that small orange trees can be transplanted during any month in the year.
It is the custom to grow citrus trees in circles that are kept hoed free of grass. Thus, the trees can be cultivated and fertilized most efficiently. The turf may be allowed to grow close around mature, established calamondins, kumquats and sour oranges that are grown purely as ornamentals.
Crape-Myrtle (Lagerstroemia sppL Whether it be the common crape-myrtle (L. indica 20 feet) or the Queen's crape-myrtle (L. speciosa 60 feet) the wealth of showy color will repay one for growing these oriental trees. Of easiest culture, succeeding on a variety of soil types, crape-myrtles have earned their right to their great popularity. Powdery mildew, appearing as a gray fuzz on the leaves in midsummer is the principal disease of crape-myrtle. Control may be affected by starting to dust with 300 mesh sulphur at first signs and continue through the rainy season. Customarily crape-myrtles are headed back during early winter when the leaves shed. This makes for heavy bloom, a compact head and heavy, lush foliage. Suckers which spring up around the trunks during the growing season should be


rubbed off while they are still herbaceous and tender. If allowed to remain, these suckers are very untidy and detract from the beauty of otherwise well grown crape-myrtles.
For planting stock, dig suckers which arise from cut roots, or root tender tips in white sand in summer.
DOGWOOD (Cornus florida) 40 feet. Native to the hammocks of central and northern Florida, the flowering dogwood is well known and widely planted as a lawn specimen. Graceful, beautiful in flower and fruit, small in size and attractive when not in leaf, this tree is strongly recommended to home owners within its range. Nursery-grown, grafted trees are suggested as the best for planting, and protection of the trunk against borers is essential.
Frangipani (Plumeria spp) 20 feet. Several species and varieties of the fragrant frangipani are widely planted throughout the tropics of the world. Easily grown from cuttings, the short, stout, spreading trees are widely accessible in Key West and Miami.
Fringe Tree (Chionanthus virginica) 30 feet. The white blossoms that appear with the leaves in spring are most attractive and account for the popularity of this small native. In the upper part of the peninsula and westward, the fringe tree is successful when grown in fertile soil. The trees are grown from seeds.
Geiger Tree (Cordia sebestena). This native of the Florida keys is coming into its fair share of popularity with gardeners who live in the Palm Beach-Miami area. Growing some thirty feet in height, the Geiger tree has large opposite leaves that make for course texture. The showy orange colored flowers are borne in terminal clusters.
Gumbo-Limbo (Bursera simarubra) 50 feet. Because of its bright tan bark that appears just to have been shellacked, and the unusual knarled and bent branches, this native tree is highly prized and widely planted as a landscape subject in the Palm Beach-Miami area. Well adapted to that section, the gumbo-limbo is particularly decorative. Propagation is usually by seeds but cuttings root readily.
Holly (Ilex spp) 15-50 feet. Beloved by all, the holly has come down through the ages as one of the most popular of all evergreen trees. Thirteen species are native to Florida and of these, six are classed as trees. Horticultural varieties of these and several exotic types that grow well here are offered by nurseries. Good soil of acid reaction, an even supply of moisture are requisites for success. The berries


are borne on pistillate trees and, to insure an abundance of these, one should be certain that a staminate tree of the same species grows in the neighborhood. Hollies are protected by law and must not be collected without permission of the property owner. When everything is considered, grafted, true-to-name, heavily fruiting trees from a nursery are much superior to those dug from the woods.
Jacaranda (Jacaranda acutifolia) 50 feet. This is central Florida's most spectacular flowering tree. In springtime the blue flowers make a never-to-be-forgotten display. Native to South America, this large, fern-leaved, deciduous tree demands little attention save for careful planting and adequate moisture during the first few years. Jacarandas are grown from seeds.
Jerusalem Thorn (Parkinsonia aculeata) 30 feet. The lacy foliage, pendulous habit, attractive yellow blossoms and green bark of the Jerusalem thorn make it quite unusual and attractive. For all parts of the state, this small, open, hardy tree is of great ornamental value and is highly recommended.
Seeds may be sown directly in containers so the roots of the young trees will not be disturbed in transplanting.
Lily-Thorn (Catesbaea spinosa) 15 feet. Indigenous to southern Florida, this little tree can be used when fine scale is indicated. The in-,inches are wiry and heavily armed with sharp spines about an inch in length. In late summer the creamy-white blossoms are produced in profusion. Lily-thorn is grown from seeds.
loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) 30 feet. Over most of the state a favorite dooryard tree is the loquat. The attractive, dark, evergreen leaves, the decorative, delicious fruit and its small size commends this tree to home owners. Easily and quickly grown from seeds, this Chinese fruit tree can be had by everyone.
Unfortunately, loquats are host to fireblight, a disease which may cause large branches to die back for a considerable distance. A mild copper fungicide sprayed into loquat blossoms should arrest the development of infection brought in by bees or flies. Infected branches must be cut back well into healthy wood as soon as the disease is discovered. Tools used for this work must be sterilized by dipping in alcohol after each cut is made.
While they will succeed and produce good crops of luscious fruit under light cultivation, a heavy mulch of leaves, compost or peat is ideal for loquat trees.


Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) 100 feet. Justly famous throughout the south, this native is one of our choicest trees. Evergreen, trim and graceful, the tree is highly desirable at any time of the year, but in springtime, the huge, creamy-white blossoms put the magnolia in a class by itself. Choice varieties are grafted but the species increases naturally by seeds. From Gainesville westward the deciduous oriental magnolias, (M. liliflora and M. soulageana) succeed if given fertile, acid soils and adequate moisture.
Magnolias, of all classes, are forest dwellers, and thrive with a thick, spongy blanket of leaves and twigs over their roots. While clean cultivation is satisfactory, an organic mulch is preferred.
t i
sacred bo tree(Ficns religiosa)
Magnolias may be secured as balled and burlapped specimens from a nursery in late winter and early spring, and moved during that season, with complete success.
Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) 60 feet. The native mahogany is frequently to be seen in the Miami area as a street tree. Although evergreen, the tree does not cast dense shade and lawns can be grown under it quite well.


Mahoganys produce seeds in great abundance which germinate and grow readily.
MANGO (Mangifera indica) 50 feet. While essentially a fruit tree, the mango is very ornamental and is much used as a street tree and lawn specimen from Vero Beach, around the coast to Tampa. Seedlings will grow easily and rapidly, but improved varieties, purchased as grafted trees are strongly recommended.
Insects and diseases must be controlled by an adequate spray program (see page 8) and clean cultivation is recommended for choice budded stock.
Sea Grape(Coccolobis uvifera)
Mimosa (Albizzia jvlibrissin) 40 feet. The mimosa is so much at home here that it has become naturalized. Ever popular because of its attractive pink globular blossoms which are borne for a long period during summertime. The graceful fern-like leaves are produced in March-April. Propagation is by seeds, and growth is rapid even under trying conditions. For the first two or three years, clean cultivation will encourage strong growth. Thereafter, the mimosa will succeed in turf. As this is written, there are no serious diseases or insects to guard against in Florida.
Moreton Bay Chestnut (Castanospermum australe) 60 feet. This is a tall tree that has attractive evergreen pinnate leaves and showy racemes of yellow flowers in springtime. Highly thought of by those who possess it, the Moreton Bay Chestnut should succeed on good soils of acid reaction.


Propagation is by seeds, which incidentally, earn the tree its name as they are edible when roasted.
Mountain Ebony, Orchid Tree (Baukinia spp) 6-20 feet. For the warmer sections this spectacular tree is unsurpassed when a small flowering specimen is wanted. All of the species and varieties which are available are well worth growing as lawn specimens for Orlando and southward.
Bauhinias are easily grown from seeds, but as they do not transplant readily, it is suggested that the seeds be sown directly in expendable containers so that the small plants can be transported and set without disturbing the roots.
These diminutive trees will not grow thriftily nor will they bloom profusely if heavy turf covers their roots. Clean cultivation or a mulch of leaves will assure healthy growth.
Oak (Quercus spp) 100 feet. Several native species have been extensively planted as street, roadside and shade trees. Their complete adaptability is beyond question and they are resistant to disease, insects and drought. Some thirty species, both evergreen and deciduous, are credited to Florida and these range in size from the dwarf running oak to the giants of the hardwood hammocks.
The most desirable species is the live oak (Quercus vir-giniana). This well known tree has the longest useful life of all southern species and does not reach senility and break up when less than fifty years old as may the laurel and water oaks. True, it grows less rapidly than the others, but, given good care, its rate of growth is satisfactory and, at the half-century mark it does not present hazards to public safety and necessitate costly replacement. It is suggested that moss be removed annually so that normal growth will not be impaired. This clean-up, together with annual feeding of young live oaks is all the care that is needed.
Trees can be collected from the woods or grown from acorns.
Pine (Pinus spp). Native to our state and thriving under most trying conditions, the several species of pines are without superiors for home grounds plantings. Where lofty, narrow-topped trees that cast light, broken shade can be used, the indigenous pines will serve well. To break the direct rays of the sun over azalea or camellia beds and for backgrounds, these coniferous trees are unexcelled.
Transplant very small seedlings during midwinter or at the beginning of the rainy season and retain a ball of soil of sufficient depth to encompass all of the far-reaching taproot.


If mature pines exist on your building site, be certain that stout protective barriers of 2-inch lumber be built around them so that it will not be possible for the contractor to pile building materials or drive heavy trucks over the roots close to the trunks. Unfortunately, many valuable pine trees are fatally injured by construction crews.
Pongam (Pongamia pinnata) 40 feet. One of the best trees for street and windbreak planting because of its strength, this Australian tree is highly recommended. Beautiful and fast-growing, the pongam is well adapted to conditions in southern Florida where it seeds abundantly. These produce seedlings easily.
Royal Poixciana(Delonix regia) Southern Florida's most spectacular tree blooms in the summer
Redbud (Cercis canadensis) 40 feet. Always popular because of its delightful spring color, this small native tree is widely planted as a front lawn specimen. For the best soil types that occur in northern Florida, the redbud cannot be too highly recommended. The trunks of newly transplanted specimens should be wrapped, rings of lightly cultivated earth should surround the trees and an annual application of a balanced fertilizer should be made in punch bar holes as suggested on pages 4 and 6.


Propagation can be accomplished by sowing seeds, but nursery-grown trees of improved types are grafted.
Royal Poinciana (Delonix regia) 40 feet. This, Florida's most spectacular tree, is tropical in its requirements and is found only in the warmest sections. The myriads of scarlet blossoms are borne in early summer and make a show that is without equal in the plant kingdom.
Propagation is by seeds.
Traveler's Tree (Ravenala madagascarivnsis)
This is an outstanding lawn specimen because of its exotic appearance.


Rubber Tree (Ficus spp) 80 feet. This tropical genus, containing several hundred species, is well represented by many ornamental kinds in tropical Florida. Typical of most species is rapid growth, great size and aerial roots that drop from the larger branches to form multiple trunks. F. benja-mina, the weeping laurel, a beautiful avenue tree; F, elastica, the India-rubber tree; F. religiosa, the sacred Bo tree and many other interesting and worthwhile species are widely available and much used in southern Florida. All tropical Ficus trees require much space for full development and are not recommended for small properties. All members of the genus Ficus are increased by cuttings.
Sweet Gum(Liquidambar styraciflua) This native tree has a most attractive, symmetrical habit of growth


Sapodilla (Achras sapota) 50 feet. A beautiful evergreen tree native to the American tropics that has found a congenial home in the Miami area. The fruits are edible and the latex yields gum chicle from which chewing gum is manufactured. Highly thought of as a lawn specimen or shade tree, the sapodilla is widely planted within its climatic range.
Trees are easily grown from seeds.
Satinleaf (Chrysophyllum oliviforme) 30 feet. This small native tree is well named because the under sides of the leaves are a soft, glistening copper color. For the warmest places, this indigene is a distinctive and worthwhile lawn specimen.
Propagation is by seeds.
Seagrape (Coccolobis uvifera) 20 feet. Native to the coastal dunes, this stout, much-branched, small tree is frequently seen as a landscape subject in its native habitat. Utterly distinctive in appearance, the seagrape exerts a strong tropical influence and is much appreciated in resort areas.
Propagation is by seeds.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) 75 feet. This massive tropical fruit tree is quite ornamental and is frequently seen toward the tip of the peninsula. The leaves resemble those of the black-locust; the pods contain an acid flesh that is used in ades and sauces.
Propagation is by seeds.


Eucalyptus


TREES AND PALMS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS Trees and Palms for Avenue Planting
common name
Black olive Cabbage palm Cajeput Casuarina Coconut Dogwood Holly Live Oak Magnolia
Trees and Palms for Lawn Specimens
page common name page
12 Mahogany 18
31 Mango .... 19
. 12 Pongam .... 21
. 14 Queen palm . 34
. 32 Royal palm . 35
. 16 Royal Poinciana . 22
. 16 Tamarind 24
. 20 Washington palm 35
. 18
Acacia
Areca palm Black olive Cabbage palm Cajeput Calamondin Camphor Cassia Casuarina Chaste-tree Chinese fan palm Citrus Coconut Crape-myrtle Dogwood European fan palm Frangi-pani Fiji fan palm Fishtail palm Gumbo-limbo Holly Jacaranda Jerusalem thorn
11
31 12 31 12 15 12 11 14 15 32 15
32 15 16 32 16 33 33 16 16 17 17 15
Lily-thorn..... 17
Loquat...... 17
Magnolia..... 18
Mahogany..... 18
Mango...... 19
Mimosa...... 19
Mountain ebony .... 20
Orange...... 15
Paurotis palm .... 33
Pigmy date palm ... 33
Pindo palm..... 33
Pine....... 20
Pongam...... 21
Queen palm..... 34
Redbud...... 21
Rhapis palm..... 34
Royal palm..... 35
Sapodilla Satinleaf Seagrape
Senegal date palm
24 24 24
35
Silver palm.....35
Traveler's tree
22
Kumquat .
Trees and Palms for the Seashore
Cabbage palm 31 Paurotis palm 33
14 Pindo palm . 33
Cajeput .... 12 Rubber tree . 23
Sapodilla . 24
16 Saw palmetto 35
Live oak .... 20 Seagrape . 24
Loquat .... 17 Senegal date palm . 35
Washington palm 35
Flowering Trees
Acacia .... 11 15
Chaste-tree 15 17
Cajeput 12 18
Calamondin 15 Mimosa..... 19
Cassia .... 14 Moreton Bay chestnut . 19
Crape-myrtle 15 Mountain ebony . 20
Dogwood 16 15
Frangi-pani . 16 Poinciana .... 22
Fringe tree . 16 Queen's crape-myrtle 15
Jacaranda 17 Redbud ..... 21
Jerusalem thorn . 17 Senna ..... 14


PALMS
Nowhere in the continental United States is it possible to grow the wide variety of palms that can be successfully cultivated in Florida. Mainly tropical in distribution, these graceful trees do much for Florida's distinctively different landscape. Many native and exotic species, varying from dwarfs of a few feet to magnificent trees which attain a height of 100 feet, are widely employed with telling effect in this semi-tropical tourist land.
Palms may be used in many ways in landscape planting. Species in varying heights can be planted in attractive groups; they may be used as enframement and background for the home, but the most telling way that palms can be employed is as avenue trees. Tall, clean-growing, single-trunked specimens, planted at 25-30 foot intervals on either side of an avenue make a picture that is not soon to be forgotten.
TRANSPLANTING
Palms may be transplanted at any time of the year, but the beginning of the rainy season is most favorable. Then, root action is most rapid and the plant rallies from the transplanting operation most quickly.
Several weeks before you plan to move a palm, prepare the planting hole as described on page 4.
Palms are transplanted in all sizes from small seedlings to finished landscape specimens; being limited only by the mechanical equipment that is at hand to transport the trees. The size of the root ball is much smaller in proportion than that habitually taken with a typical woody tree. In fact, sometimes the roots are trimmed within a foot or two of the trunk with a sharp axe.
It is well known that palm roots will emerge higher and higher above the crown and, therefore, it is common practice to set palm trees slightly deeper than they grew. Use good judgment as il is easy to plant too deeply. Too shallow planting is dangerous and must be avoided.
When the palm is in place (slightly deeper than it grew) fill with the fertile soil that was taken from the enriched hole, allow water to flow in from the hose to eliminate air pockets and to make a good contact between the roots and the particles of soil. Finish the job by tramping to firm the soil and then build a saucer around the tree to hold water. Once each week that it does not rain, fill this depression with water.


Because of the drastic reduction in the volume of roots, it is accepted practice to remove the leaves at transplanting time. Tie the uppermost leaf stems around the bud as protection. Every effort must be made not to harm this vital structure. When a large palm is felled, it must be guyed so that it does not fall hard and harm the bud.
Palms over eight feet in height should be firmly braced. Three 2 x 4's spiked to the trunk at one end and then firmly secured to "dead men" in the ground are the most satisfactory braces. If these timbers remain in place for about 18 months a heavy root system will have been built to hold the palm against strong winds. Choice exotics may be braced each autumn as routine protection.
AFTERCARE
Young palms will grow rapidly to attain mature landscape size if they are encouraged by proper cultivation and fertilization. As already discussed on page 5 it is a good plan to keep a circle of clean earth around your young trees for the first few years. Cultivate a five- to seven-foot ring frequently with a scuffle hoe, allow the hose to run slowly for several hours (all night is better) once a week during dry spells and fertilize in punch bar holes several times during the growing season.
Dwarf palms are valuable as patio subjects and lawn specimens


Palms that have been neglected can usually be reconditioned by filling rotted cow manure into post holes that are dug at intervals around the trunk.
Most palms are particularly resistant to diseases, insects and drought, and once they become established, the lawn can be allowed to grow up around the crown and little routine maintenance is required.
All brown leaves and flower and fruit clusters should be removed with a sharp pruning saw as soon as they become unattractive with age.
Several species of the genus Phoenix together with the pindo palm are likely to be attacked by the palm leaf skele-tonizer. This destructive insect despoils the leaves by its feeding during the warm months. In order that damage may be kept to a minimum, an arsenical spray or DDT with an adequate spreader should be applied at intervals during the spring months. Fronds that have been made unattractive by the palm leaf skeletonizer should be promptly removed with a pruning saw or pole pruner.
PROPAGATION
Palms are increased by seeds and by division. As soon as they are ripe, the seeds should be sown in beds, pots or boxes of fertile soil. Cover the seeds to a depth approximating their diameter and cover the whole with one thickness of burlap. This material will conserve moisture and discourage birds and rodents. In winter the seed beds must have full sun, but during the warmer months, they must be protected by cheesecloth or slat shade. At the beginning of the rainy season, the burlap should be renewed so that the seeds will not be washed out of the soil.
Palm seeds vary greatly in the length of time required for germination. Some will sprout in a few weeks, while others will require as much as one and one-half to two years to come up. It is quite evident, therefore, that close attention is needed until the seedlings are well under way.
Seedlings may be potted shortly after germination; they must be potted before the roots attain much length. Then they may be set individually in earthen flower pots, felt plant bands, wooden boxes or discarded refinery cans. The soil used in these containers should be a fertile organic mixture of slightly acid reaction.
Coconuts are set in rows and buried only one-half their thickness, the upper portions being full exposed. Germination should be complete in about five months.


Division is the method of vegetative propagation in which a plant is divided into several units. Species of Phoenix, Chrysalidocarpus, Rhapis and Caryota may be so multiplied when well rooted offsets are seen to be available. If the specimen is in a container, it can be turned out and cut into units with shears or an axe, if it is a lawn specimen, sturdy offsets several years old can be severed from the old tree with the aid of a sharpened leaf from an automobile spring, large chisel or heavy crow bar. The several divisions may be potted or set directly in the garden where they are to grow.
Palm Index by Common Names
common name page common name page
Aerocomia..... 31 Pigmy date.....33
Areca palm..... 31 Pindo palm.....33
Blackburn palm .... 35 Porto Rican hat palm 35
Cabbage palm .... 31 Queen palm.....34
Canary date palm ... 31 Rhapis palms .... 34
Chinese fan palm ... 32 Royal palm.....35
Coconut...... 32 Sabal palms.....35
Date palm..... 32 Saw palmetto .... 35
European fan palm .32 Senegal date palm .35
Fan palms..... 32 Sentinel palm .... 35
Fiji fan palm .... 33 Silver palm.....35
Fishtail palms .... 33 Washington palm .35
Paurotis...... 33


PALMS FOR FLORIDA GARDENS
Acrocomia (Acrocomia spp) 50 feet. These striking pinnate-leaved South American palms are well adapted to conditions south of Leesburg. The bulged trunks are usually armed with vicious spines 1 to 6 inches in length. Because of these spines this genus is adapted to group plantings only, and, in any case, the thorns must be pruned off to well above head height.
Areca Palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) 20 feet. As an urn subject and patio plant, this clump-growing, yellow-stemmed palm from Madagascar is extremely popular. Because it requires moist, rich soil and freedom from frost and salt spray, the areca palm is limited in distribution as a garden plant. Wherever it will grow successfully, however, it is very well liked and therefore it is strongly commended.
Cabbage Palm (Sabal palmetto) 80 feet. The hardiest of our native palms, this well known species grows well throughout the state. Tolerant of a wide variety of soil types, salt spray and brackish water, the cabbage palm well deserves its universal popularity.
Canary Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis). Hardy over the Florida peninsula, this huge pinnate-leaved palm has
Pindo Palm(Butia, sp.) Has blue-green leaves that recurve sharply and touch the ground


been widely planted. Because of its massive trunk, low, drooping leaves and its susceptibility to the palm-leaf skele-tonizer it is not recommended as a door-yard tree. Until it attains some size its branches interfere with traffic and it cannot be recommended as a street tree. For municipal properties and large acreages its monumental size is well adapted.
Coconut (Cocos nucifera) 100 feet. The native coconut palm with its tall leaning trunk, immense leaves and spectacular fruits lends a tropical aspect that can be equalled by no other plant. As a street tree, lawn specimen or background subject, this palm is unsurpassed and can be recommended without reservation to all who live south of Fort Pierce and Sarasota.
Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) 100 feet. The species that produces the date of commerce is occasionally seen as a single specimen in Florida, but, because of the high humidity here, edible dates are rarely produced.
European Fan Palm (Chamaerops humilis). This dwarf, hardy, slow-growing plant is native to southern Europe, but has found a congenial home in Florida. Useful as a tiny lawn specimen and for grouping, this diminutive palm is highly commended.
Fan Palm (Livistona spp). Two or more species are grown as lawn specimens, tne most widely planted being the Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis) 20 feet. Neat, graceful and well adapted to our soils, these attractive fan palms succeed from Ocala southward.
The beautiful Queen palm is central Florida's most popular palm


Fiji Fan Palm (Pritehardia pacifica) 30 feet. One of the most graceful and distinctive of all palms, this tropical species is well thought of in southern Florida. Easily injured by cold and by strong winds, the Fiji fan palm must be grown in protected locations.
Fish-Tail Palm (Caryota spp). Very satisfactory for the Lower East and West coasts and for the warmest parts of the ridge section, these distinctive ornamental palms have gained wide popularity. Caryota mitis (25 feet), the smaller species suckers readily and may be increased by separating these small offsets. In addition to its value as a garden tree, this species is grown in urns for indool decoration during the winter tourist season.
Caryota wrens (40 feet) which grows with a clear trunk is much admired as a free-standing lawn specimen and is highly recommended.
paurotis Palm (Paurotis wrighti) 20 feet. In high favor for landscape work, this dwarf, fine-scale, clump-growing palm from Southern Florida and the West Indies is found as a specimen in some of Florida's most beautiful gardens.
Of easy culture, tolerant of reasonable amounts of salt drift, the principal requirement of the Paurotis palm is freedom from frost.
Specimens are available at most landscape nurseries.
Pigmy Date Palm (Phoenix roebeleni) 7 feet. The best liked of all dwarf palms, this tiny, feather leaved species has many characteristics that are attractive to everyone. As a pot plant, patio subject or as a part of the landscape planting, the pigmy date is quite worthy of the high esteem in which it is held. A partially shaded spot in which the soil is fairly rich and slightly acid in reaction is to the liking of this plant. This accounts in part for its wide acceptance as a patio subject and as a northside plant in the foundation planting scheme.
Subject to several species of scale insects, the pigmy date should be protected by several applications of a white summer oil (see page 11) during the warmer months. Container-grown specimens, apparently most prone to scale attack, can be covered efficiently if the foliage is swirled about in a deep container of the 2% oil mixture. For individuals growing in the open ground, the oil must be applied by a mechanical sprayer, of course.
Pindo Palm (Rutia spp) 30 feet. Extremely hardy, and therefore capable of being grown in all sections, this South American palm can be depended upon to succeed in every garden. The pendant, blue-green leaves arise from stout trunks to arch sharply downward. Because of this low,


spreading habit, the pindo palm requires much space and is not adapted for planting along streets, walks or in small dooryards. Very effective in palm groups, however, this type is recommended for parks and estates. Formerly this palm was erroneously known in the nursery trade as Cocos australis. Seeds from Butia palms may require 18 months or more to germinate.
Queen Palm (A recast rum romanzoffianum) 40 feet. Central Florida's most popular palm, usually called "Cocos plumosa" is a native of Brazil. Wherever citrus will grow successfully, the queen palm is highly recommended as an avenue tree, a lawn specimen, or as a background subject. Here it serves well as a substitute for the royal palm which is recommended only for the most nearly frost-free sections.
Royal Palm(Ropstovea regia) These stately palms are native to Southern Florida
Rhapis Palm (Rhapis spp) 10 feet. This genus is composed of dwarf palms with fine, reed-like canes that form clumps by means of stolons. Very satisfactory as tubbed specimens, patio plants or as a part of the foundation planting, these hardy little palms can be depended upon throughout Florida. Propagation is accomplished by dividing old clumps.


Royal Palm (Roystonea regia) 100 feet. The massive tapering, cement-grey trunks, the clean appearance and attractive crown of dark green pinnate leaves have universal appeal and make this native the most popular of all palms within the state. Classic examples of its effective use as an avenue tree are well known to everyone who has visited in our southern Florida cities. Indigenous to moist, rich soils, the royal palm is best adapted to such locations, although it succeeds on light sands if it is properly planted and cared for.
Sabal Palms (Sabal spp). In addition to the native cabbage palm, several exotic species of this genus are occasionally seen as specimens. The Blackburn palm (S. blackburniana) from Bermuda and the Porto Rican Hat Palm (S. causiarum), both attain heights of about forty feet and are characterized by very stout trunks and huge, grayish, fan-shaped leaves. These are striking trees that are effectively employed as specimens or for avenue planting.
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa re-pens) 3 to 8 feet. The saw palmettos are thought of as noxious weeds by stockmen and farmers, but they do have definite landscape value. When one is building on land on which they grow, clumps can be left to good advantage as they blend in well both as a foundation subject and as a member of the informal shrubbery border. A tree-like form with erect trunk is occasionally found and this makes an attractive fine-scale specimen palm.
Senegal Date Palm (Phoenix reclinata) 20 feet. A leaning palm that grows in large clumps made up of many slender trunks finds wide usage as a patio specimen as well as a lawn tree. This picturesque, easily grown palm is highly commended for gardens south of Gainesville.
Sentinel Palm (Howea spp). Formerly called Kentias in the florist trade where tubbed specimens are widely employed for decorating, the two species of Howea have become well known. They are occasionally seen as lawn specimens in the Miami area but they have not been widely planted out of doors in America.
Silver Palm (Coccothrinax argentata) 25 feet. This slender, fine-scale palm is native to the keys and adjacent mainland. Occasionally used as a landscape specimen in that section, the silver palm is distinctive and unusual.
Washington Palm (Washingtonia spp) 100 feet. These giants of the California deserts grow very well in Florida's humid climate where they attain a height of nearly one hundred feet. Hardy in the peninsula, these monumental trees find their greatest use for avenue planting where they are particularly picturesque and effective when planted at 25- to 35-foot intervals.


SHRUBS IN THE HOME GROUNDS
In our modern concept of the home grounds we have come to consider shrubbery- as indispensable. Through countless successful demonstrations, through the many useful articles in garden magazines, through the work of the garden clubs, and with the aid of suitable plant material, we have carried this concept through to a state of near-perfection that was not dreamed of a generation ago.
In considering the planting of the modern suburban home we should think of it in three major unit areas. The first, and possibly the most important, is the public area or the front yard which embraces the area between the dwelling and the street. This setting for the home should be simply planted as the house should present a dignified picture. A few trees or palms for enframement and an adequate base planting of shrubs for transition and surface decoration are needed. These shrubs are permanent elements of the picture and they may well be the choicest most costly plants in the landscape scheme. It is these plants that make the first and lasting impression and you should expend thought upon their selection and time and effort on their care. The lawn contributes a great deal toward the beauty of the public area and it should be just as nearly perfect as it is possible to make it.
The shrubs that are to be selected for the base planting must be chosen with great care, as a proper scale relationship between the plants and the building they are to accent is essential. The plants should be dense in habit, bearing small, closely packed leaves on stubby, short branches. Harmony in scale between the elements in the design is fundamental.
The arrangement of the plants near a doorway is sometimes called the "portal planting." These accent plants should be deep and rich in tone, not boldly variegated lest they attract attention away from the door. Plants for this important location are almost always evergreens, broad-leaved or coniferous, hardy, resistant to the attacks of insects and diseases and capable of withstanding sun and drought as well as dense shade. Plants of open habit, those that are untidy or of coarse texture and those species that grow rapidly are not well adapted to be used as a part of the portal planting.
Frequently we select species that will soon outgrow their stations, putting the whole scheme out of scale. Some of our well adapted evergreen shrubs may quickly submerge the house in a ten-foot wall of impenetrable green. How


often have we seen pyramidal aborvitae on either side of a bungalow door, that have reached the eaves and have almost covered the front walk and the steps. The plants by one's front entrance must be wholly presentable in all weathers, therefore, hardiness is of first importance.
The remainder of the foundation planting connects the structure with the ground, and with adjacent shrub borders so that, after a time, the house and the ground will appear to have grown together into a permanent harmonious unit. Shrubs and vines tend to soften architectural lines and features. On the other hand, certain types can be employed as strong architectural accents.
With the older type of house that stands on piers, a continuous planting of evergreen shrubs is essential, as this open area below the floor level is very unsightly. However, with the later type of construction, in which the house is built directly upon the ground, or without open space beneath, one may use a few choice specimens as accents, then, in places, allow the house to merge into the land, unadorned. Simple restrained plantings are the vogue today, as there is a definite trend away from the heavily planted foundations of a decade or two ago.
There is the notable tendency in Florida to use some species too frequently. In northern Florida the general use of fast-growing, inexpensive wax privet makes for mediocrity ; in the southern part of the state there is a great tendency to overdo the ABC planting, namely, Aralia, Bougainvillea and Croton. All of these are excellent plants, when used as strong accents, but they are often employed too extensively.
The second subdivision of the modern property is the service area. Shrubs are planted to screen this section from the outdoor living area and the street. The plant materials used to enclose this smallest unit must be strict in habit so that they will occupy a minimum of space. They must be evergreen for permanent effect and they must be resistant to pests, drought and cold, so that maintenance may be kept to the minimum.
The aralia, in its many horticultural forms is valuable for southern Florida, while the dwarf, fern-leaved bamboo is widely planted in the northern and western parts of the state. It is necessary to restrain this giant grass by cutting out excessive shoots and to restrain the roots by frequent ditching by installing metal roofing vertically in the ground.
This area, near the kitchen door and driveway may also serve as a play yard for the children and is usually the


repository for the fuel tanks and garbage containers. Light shade from a small deciduous tree or palm, planted near the kitchen door, will be a welcome addition.
The third, and final unit of the ideal suburban property is the private area or outdoor living room. This is the largest part of the modern residential property and the one that assumes the closest relationship with the family and their guests. This subdivision has grown out of the old "backyard" which all too often was a catch-all for poultry houses, fuel piles, incinerators, garbage cans and other utilitarian but hardly ornamental items of household equipment.
An attractive outdoor living room enclosed by informal shrubbery borders
In its modern development with attractive borders and open central area, an outdoor living room is specially useful in Florida where it is possible to spend so much of the time out of doors. A side of the house with proper base plantings of evergreen shrubbery will serve as one boundary, possibly the garage or ell of the house will become another and the two remaining sides may well be planted with appropriate evergreen shrubs.
Where space permits, the most popular method of enclosing the outdoor living room is the employment of hardy broad-leaved evergreens in an informal shrubbery border that has interesting bays and promontories and intriguing sequences in foliage color and texture. Perhaps five or seven plants of feijoa might merge into a group of six wax privets, which, in turn, would have as neighbors, six oleanders.


The planting distance in this type of layout may be four to six feet each way. Always in groups, rather than spotted singly or alternated, is the accepted way of planting. The individual plant is always subordinated to the effect of the whole in this sort of planting. This simulated hedge row, completely informal or naturalistic, seems to appeal to the majority of gardeners and is widely used in suburban backyards throughout America. In this arrangement, annuals, perennials and bulbs are set in drifts or large beds in the shrubbery bays so that their colorful blossoms, as strong notes, serve as points of interest or focalization.
Generally speaking, landscape material can be set about two feet out from the house in starting the base planting. When ventilators are present, in the rear of the house, it is a good plan to carry the plants out in small promontories to allow for the circulation of air and the entry of workmen when necessary.
No plant should be set closer to a choice specimen than five feet, lest this specimen be crowded out of symmetrical shape. Indeed, close spacing will soon deprive the plant of its status as a specimen.
Planting intervals, for best effects in the base planting, should be comparatively short. Semi-dwarf species such as boxthorn, lime-berry and Kurume azaleas may stand perhaps two feet from their neighbors. More robust growers should never be less than three feet, and, when there is no objection to a spotty effect for the first season, a four-foot planting interval may be employed.
In laying out informal or naturalistic borders, robust evergreen shrubs are used and these should be five feet apart. For clipped hedges, buy small sizes and set the plants in a double, staggered row with one foot between plants. Start clipping early the first season, allow the top to grow up slowly, and you will soon have a very presentable hedge with foliage well down to the ground.
Because most broad-leaved and coniferous evergreen shrubs together with the vines that we grow in Florida prefer a slightly acid soil, the beds or planting holes should be well prepared some weeks in advance of the date you expect delivery from your nursery.
First, remove all concrete and mortar that has been left by the contractor. As many small fragments will pass through the tines of a rake, it is recommended that careful hand picking be resorted to in the area immediately around the house that the plants are to occupy. The presence of


lime-bearing materials will make for an alkaline growing medium that is not to the liking of many of our choice shrubs. Next, remove the soil to a depth of a foot or so and replace it with a mixture made up of acid peat, hammock soil and cow manure. As this fertile mixture is shovelled into the shrubbery beds, it is an excellent plan to fortify it with a light sprinkling of a mixture of minor elements. These mixtures, under several trade names, can be secured at your seed store and they will serve as long-range insurance against mineral deficiencies.
After the rich acid mixture has been filled in level, soak the beds to assure proper physical condition and good bacterial action. From time to time remove any weeds or grass which might appear, and do not allow the made-up beds to become excessively dry.
When your shrubs arrive from the nursery in mid-winter, set them about on the beds and arrange them for best landscape effect, mark around the root balls or containers and then turn out the soil and commence to plant. Make certain that shrubs are not set deeper than they grew. If the plants are container-grown or bare-root, it is easy enough to use the soil line as the depth gauge, but if the stock is balled and burlapped, there is often the tendency to cover the collar of burlap around the crown and as a result the shrubs will be set too deep. To avoid this possibility, cut the roll of burlap away and then you will be able to find the surface of the original soil and set the shrubs so that this is very lightly covered when planting is finished. Of course, too shallow planting must be avoided as well.
Finish by firming the soil with your feet and soak the entire bed thoroughly. Run the hose for a couple of hours or so each week that it does not rain.
All of us want automatic underground sprinkling systems, of course, but these are out of the question for many of us, so we must rely upon the common garden hose and sprinkler. The type of sprinkler that you buy is entirely a personal matter that concerns you alone. Today, the national garden magazines carry advertisements exploiting many different designs, and on the counters of your seed and hardware stores will be found many excellent sprinklers. Some are more sturdy than others, some have advantages in engineering, materials and workmanship, but after all is said and done, it matters not whether you spend one dollar or six, so long as the device distributes water to your liking. For more than a decade, this gardener has used two or three of the little spiked twirling models that sell for about a dollar,


and replacement, when necessary, will be made with this same inexpensive type.
Some good gardeners simply lay the open end of the hose on a board and allow it to run gently for an hour or so and then move it along to a new spot, others own those canvas soil soakers that allow the water to ooze slowly among the shrubs. In any event, water should be applied in considerable quantity to assure a thorough soaking of the earth in which our garden shrubs grow.
For best growth of shrubs, lawn grass should be restrained from growing in the beds. Frequent, systematic edging is necessary during the summer months so that the grass may be kept back well past the drip of the outer branches. If this is carefully attended to your landscape planting will have that finished professonal look and the constant danger of injuring your shrubs with the lawn mower will be eliminated. Occasionally lilyturf is employed as an edging around shrubbery in the foundation planting, but many trained landscape architects hold that this is not the best taste.
Your shrubs, healthy and vigorous when they arrive from the nursery, must be kept in tip top condition if your planting is to look its best. A continuous pleasing effect can be assured only by constantly maintaining good conditions for growth.
Generally speaking, the species which go to make up our foundation plantings are acid demanding, shallow rooted types that will succeed best under a mulch of oak leaves, peat or compost. Clean cultivation, with a sharp scuffle hoe is acceptable for the most robust species, yet mulch has many advantages for the choicer kinds. It acts as a layer of insulation, thus reducing wide fluctuations in soil temperature, it aids materially in the retention of water and the decaying leaves furnish mild acids and elements of nutrition. Weeds are discouraged by a heavy mulch and root-knot nematodes do not thrive under a moist blanket or organic material.
Shrubs, properly planted, will not need to be fed until their second growing season. Then, during January, apply an acid, balanced commercial fertilizer. Some gardeners like to broadcast the plant food directly on top of the mulch and wash it part way through with the hose, but this gardener holds that fertilizer is much more efficiently utilized if it is placed in punch bar holes around the plants. Again at the beginning of the rainy season ornamental shrubs should receive a second yearly application of a balanced fertilizer.


Within recent years several fertilizer companies have formulated special mixtures for azaleas and camellias. From experience and observation, it can be stated that these are entirely reliable and so they are highly recommended. Not only are these special acid, slowly available plant foods very good for azaleas and camellias, but they are recommended for hollies, hibiscus, magnolias and all types of choice landscape material. These azalea specials as well as lawn and garden mixtures can be secured from your local seed store or by mail from advertisements that are to be found in the pages of the national garden magazines.
PRUNING
In Florida's humid, semi-tropical climate most ornamental plants that are recommended for home grounds planting grow very rapidly and for this reason frequent systematic pruning is needed.
For the most part, informal, naturalistic pruning, rather than shearing to geometrical forms, is preferred today. Standard hand pruners are used to remove robust shoots well below the contour of the bush. When these heavy growths are severed down close to the ground, they will break into several twigs of normal size. Fine, twiggy growths should be reduced without regular pattern and in moderation so that the plant will not display an artificial barbered look. Pinching, the removal of terminal buds with thumb and forefinger should be practiced all through the growing season to encourage well-branched, compact shrubs.
The time when shrubs should be pruned will vary with several conditions. In general, it can be said that spring-blooming species should be pruned immediately after flowering. Bridal wreath, abelia, hydrangea, oleander and a host of others fall into this category. Because flower buds are formed during summertime, blossoms will be sacrificed if the plants are pruned in late summer. Crape myrtle blooms on current season's wood, and it is standard practice to prune this southern favorite after the leaves are shed in the fall.
Coniferous evergreens and broad-leaved species that are not grown for their blossoms, should be headed back all through the spring, summer and fall when shoots grow out of bounds. Cherry laurel, wax privet, wax myrtle, podo-carpus and the junipers can be lightly headed back all through the growing season so that the plants are kept shapely and compact.


Hedges need frequent shearing from February or March until autumn to keep them tidy and attractive. Hedge shears are accompanied by directions which state that trimming must be done while the new growth is tender and succulent lest the jaws of the shears be thrown out of alignment. This manufacturers warning, issued in the interests of their products, is sound horticulture as well, as so trimmed, clipped hedges will be kept in best possible condition.
PRUNING SHRUBS INJURED BY COLD
Upon occasion, all of us who garden are faced with the necessity of removing parts of plants that have been injured by low temperatures. It is the feeling of this gardener that most ornamental shrubs are not benefitted by deferring this work, and so, it is strongly urged that the job be done within a day or two after injury has occurred.
Take your pruning shears and nick along a frosted branch until the incision reveals healthy, green inner bark, then, drop somewhat below this point and make a clean, slanting cut. It is good practice to sever injured branches just above a shoot or healthy bud that points away from the center of the plant. For small wood, hand shears are used, for larger branches one should employ a pair of heavy lopping shears, and for members above an inch and a half in diameter, a sharp, well-adjusted pruning saw is the accepted implement.
After pruning is complete, all wounds over two inches in diameter should be covered with an approved tree wound dressing. These modern antiseptic paints are available under several trade names at your seed store or they may be obtained by mail order direct from the manufacturers who advertise in the national garden magazines.
Though we regret the devastating effects of frost in our gardens it cannot be denied that periodic cutting back not only contributes to the well being of shrubs that have grown leggy and unattractive, but the overall appearance of the garden is much improved as well.


Shrub Index by Common Names
common name page common name i'agh
Abclia...... 45 Japanese juniper ... 68
Allamanda..... 45 Jasmine..... 58
Aralia...... 45 Juniper...... 58
Azalea...... 45 Lantana..... 58
Boxthorn .... 48 Limeberry..... 59
Brazilian pepper ... 49 Nandina..... 59
Bridal wreath .... 49 Natal plum .... 59
Bush cherry .... 54 Oleander..... 60
Camellia..... 49 Orange jasmine ... 60
Cape-honeysuckle ... 52 Pfitzer's juniper ... 58
Cherry laurel .... 53 Pittosporum .... 61
Chinese holly .... 58 Plumbago..... 62
Cocculus..... 54 Podocarpus..... 63
Copperleaf..... 54 Poinsettia..... 64
Croton...... 54 Primrose jasmine ... 58
Eugenia..... 54 Privet...... 64
Feijoa...... 54 Shore juniper .... 58
Firethorn..... 54 Silverthom..... 65
Flowering Jasmine ... 58 Snow bush..... 65
Gardenia..... 55 Star jasmine .... 58
Glossy privet .... 64 Thryallis..... 65
Golden dewdrop ... 56 Turks Cap..... 65
Hibiscus..... 56 Virburnum..... 65
Hydrangea..... 56 Wax Myrtle .... 66
Ilex...... 56 Wax privet..... 64
Ixora...... 58 Weeping lantana ... 58
Japanese holly .... 56


Species Recommended for Florida Homes
Abelia* C Abelia grandiflora). Small, shiny foliage, bright crimson twigs, and clusters of white blossoms make abelia a very choice shrub. Its best growth is attained in the northern part of the state, where it makes one of the best hedges.
Hardwood cuttings, lined out in mid-winter should root satisfactorily and grow into landscape material during the second season. ,
Clean cultivation is usually practiced to keep abelias free from weeds and grass, but these shrubs, like all others grow-well under a mulch of oak leaves, peat or compost.
Spraying is usually not required, but systematic pruning is needed to head in succulent canes that are pushed out in springtime.
Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica). The yellow-flowered allamandas are among the most colorful and free-growing of the tender flowering shrubs. Vine-like if not injured by cold, or cut back in pruning, these vigorous tropical climbers quickly grow to large size in the warmer sections.
The true purple allamanda (A. violacea) from Brazil should not be confused with the rubber vine, (Cryptostegia), which is sometimes sold under this designation.
Allamandas are easily grown from cuttings and ordinarily are grown under clean cultivation. Generally, pests and diseases are of little concern.
Aralia (Polyscias spp1). Its strict habit, ability to thrive in poor soil and intense heat and its striking foliage of many patterns has made aralia one of southern Florida's most widely planted shrubs. As a hedge or screen this tropical shrub serves admirably.
Hardwood cuttings root quickly during the rainy season.
Azalea (Rhododendron spp). Throughout the South, countless millions of Indian and Kurme azaleas flower each spring and the fame of these plants has spread to every part of our nation. If one is careful about the preparation of the soil and the growing position, these choice evergreen shrubs can be enjoyed in all sections of our state north of Tampa.
A rich, but well drained soil of high organic content, acid in reaction (pH 4.5 5.5) is essential as is broken shade for most sandy soils. In western Florida on fertile soils and properly mulched with leaves, azaleas will grow quite well
* The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used bv Dr. L. H. Bailey in Hortus Second 1941.
' means that more than one species is in common use in Florida.


in full sun. An abundant supply of moisture is needed during periods of drought if good bloom is expected.
Azaleas are effectively used in bold groups of a single color or grouped for color sequence. As specimen plants and as edgings, certain varieties are very strikingly employed.
Azalea blight or azalea flower spot is a devastating disease which is rather widespread in Florida during certain seasons. Some years azalea blight is non-existent, the next it may be very severe. When the disease is present, the blossoms look exactly as though they had been drenched with boiling water. Expanding buds are infected, and as a result, normal bloom is not possible.
It has been demonstrated that complete control is possible when the recommended spray program is followed. Spraying commences as soon as color shows and is repeated every three days until the last blossom is shed. Dithane, zinc sulphate and a spreader may be obtained in a kit that contains the correct amount of each ingredient together with complete instructions for their preparation and application. It is probable that research now in progress will result in the formulation of other materials that will be useful in controlling this virulent disease.
In order that full coverage by fine droplets be obtained, a wheelbarrow or power sprayer must be used. Small hand knapsack sprayers do not atomize the liquid sufficiently. As the fungus lives over beneath the plants, the mulch under the azalea bushes must be thoroughly drenched.
Mushroom root-rot occasionally causes the death of azaleas. The organism carried over on oak roots, causes one or two canes in a clump to die gradually, and these are followed by others over an extended period. Occasionally the typical mushroom growths are found around the base of the plants. Pruning out the dead branches is of no value in controlling mushroom root-rot. If you are certain that a given plant has died from this cause, other azaleas should not be used for replacement.
The principal pests of azaleas are red spider mites and thrips. Neither will become a problem if azaleas are syringed frequently during dry weather. In the event that red spider mites become established, they are easily eradicated by dusting with 300-mesh sulphur. Efficacious, too is the practice of using the hose to tear the webs and literally wash the mites away.
Frequently in springtime, azalea leaf galls appear on new foliage. These grotesque proliferations are easily controlled by handpicking. Be certain that the galls are completely destroyed, to prevent re-infection.


Thryallis(Thryallia glauca)
For southern and central sections, this ornamental shrub is highly commended.


Azaleas of all types have the characteristic of producing heavy, succulent canes during the spring flush, and these vigorous shoots grow out beyond the contour of the plants to branch above and form that undesirable two-storied effect. In order that this condition may be avoided, the shoots must be pinched before the terminal bud reaches the height of the upper branches. The thumb and forefinger should be used several times during the spring and summer months to execute this simple but necessary act of regulatory pruning.
In the event that these strong, irregular shoots were not pinched back while they were succulent, it will be necessary to employ the pruning shears to shape the plants. Azaleas must be pruned before August lest flower buds be sacrificed in the process.
Propagation may be accomplished by taking tip cuttings in June or by wrapping a wounded branch in moist sphagnum moss or by covering a partially cut branch with sandy soil.
Boxthorn (Severinia buxifolia) is one of the choicest shrubs for Central Florida. The glossy oval leaves closely packed on fine, thorny branchlets, are supplemented many months in the year by attractive globular jet-black fruits. Much branched, slow-growing, shade-tolerant, amenable to
Boxthorn(Severinia buxifolia)
A dense, slow-growing, hardy shrub of the citrus family that is excellent for foundation plantings, hedges or specimens.


shearing, this citrus relative is most highly commended to all gardeners south of Gainesville.
Boxthorn is usually grown from seeds.
Brazilian Pepper (Schinns terebinthifolius). Tall screens and windbreaks are effectively formed by planting the attractive red-fruited Brazilian pepper at six-foot intervals. This husky evergreen is suited to the citrus belt and must be pruned frequently if it is to be kept below tree size.
Seeds or cuttings can be planted for new stock.
Bridal Wreath (Spiraea spp). For Gainesville northward and westward the several species of spiraea succeed as garden shrubs, blooming dependably each spring. For masses of glistening white in informal shrubbery borders, these deciduous shrubs are unsurpassed. Pruning must be done just after flowering lest flower buds be sacrificed.
Spiraeas of all types may be grown from softwood or hardwood cuttings.
Aphids, which frequently infest succulent new shoots, may be controlled by nicotine dust, nicotine spray, rotenone dust, or by one of the new shot-gun mixtures that are sold in handy applicators.
Camellia (Camellia japonica). Long considered the aristocrat of shrubs in the Deep South, the japonica has been a part of rural life since ante bellum days. The compact growing habit, the beautiful glossy foliage, and the blossoms that appear in winter and early springtime account in part for the popularity of this attractive shrub.
Like azaleas, camellias require a fertile soil that is acid in reaction and retentive of moisture. In making up the planting holes as described on page 39, extra care must be used for these valuable shrubs to be certain that the mixture in the finished planting holes will be definitely acid in reaction. This will be assured by the liberal use of peat and the omission of poultry manure or other materials that are known to contain lime.
Adequate moisture that percolates through the soil is needed. A lack of drainage will result in the loss of roots and this will be manifested above ground by a generally unthrifty condition, leaf-fall, bud-drop, dead twigs and in time; death.
In the peninsular part of the state, choice camellias will grow best in broken, shifting shade such as is cast by native pines, palms or the smaller deciduous oaks. On the better soils of western Florida, many beautiful camellias are thriving in full sun.


In any position, an organic mulch is recommneded for growing camellias as garden shrubs. Small plants in nursery formation are grown under clean cultivation, but, in landscape plantings, a thick mulch of oak leaves or peat is highly recommended by all authorities.
An acid fertilizer, possibly one of the azalea-camellia specials, may be applied in punch bar holes around the plants in January. Another application may be made at the beginning of the rainy season, but it is suggested that no stimulants be given after mid-summer lest the plants go into winter with immature wood and thus be liable to winter injury.
STAR JASMIME(Jasminiim jmbescena)
almost indispensable as a foundation or landscape plant in central florida. it has periodic crops of star-shaped white flowers and can be grown as a shrub or a vine.
Aphids will cause new leaves to curl and then be malformed permanently, so these pests must be eliminated as soon as they are discovered on the new shoots. Your seedsman will sell you one of the new cardboard dusters that contain a shot-gun mixture that is certain death for aphids. If you prefer you can apply a spray of nicotine or rotenone, or use these in dust form.
As with azaleas, red spider mites are occasionally to be reckoned with during dry spells. They can be forestalled


by syringing the leaves thoroughly when you water during very dry times, yet if they gain a foothold, they succumb to sulphur dust.
Scale insects of three species are forever a menace. Starting in February and again in May and perhaps in September or October, a l'/> or a 2',\ oil emulsion should be applied with a good sprayer. Because the leaves lie close together, shingle-fashion, diligence is needed to get a complete coverage. Remember, a scale insect must be covered with oil if it is to die. If just a few bushes are in your collection and scale becomes very bad on one of these, the surest way to get a cleanup is to mop the infested leaves with cotton dipped in the 2% oil emulsion spray. CautionDo not apply oils during very hot or very cold weather.
Under several brand names, these white summer oils are for sale at your garden supply house.
Camellia twig blight or dieback is the disease which causes camellia fanciers great concern. A leafy twig of current growth wilts and dies back with the leaves still in place. Sometimes large branches may be lost, and rarely, an entire plant.
Chekky Laurel(Primus caroliniana) (Sheared)
This is an exceptionally good hedge or specimen plant as it can be kept in almost any desired shape by shearing.


As this is written, no preventive measures have been worked out, and the best we know to do is to remove infected wood as soon as possible. Use your pruning shears to nick along the branch and when you come to normal, healthy green inner bark, make a sharp, slanting cut. Be certain to destroy the dead twig and sterilize your shears by dipping in alcohol after each cut, as twig blight may be transmitted by pruning tools. The wounds thus made should be mopped with paste of Bordeaux mixture, wettable sulphur, or Fer-mate. Pruning is usually not needed by camellias, yet rampant shoots formed in late summer should be pinched to keep the plants compact.
In the landscape, varieties of Camellia japonica are useful as specimens, as accent plants, for the portal planting and as a dense but informal hedge. Camellia sasanqua, hardier and of more open habit, is a valuable species for the informal shrubbery border.
Many varieties are increased by rooting cuttings but most rare types are grafted.
Cape-Honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis). Orange-red flowers make this well known shrub very showy most of the year. As a screen or division plant it serves well because of its adaptability to conditions in Lower Florida. Clean cultivation is usual for cape honeysuckle, and generally, insects and diseases are of no concern.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.
Lawn ok St. Augustine Grass With Well Grouped Shrubbery
Camellias are beautiful specimens and serve well also as tall, informal screens.


Cherry Laurel (Primus caroHniana). Although this plant becomes a good sized tree in our hardwood hammocks, its greatest landscape use is as a shrub. Beautiful, shiny, evergreen leaves are held in good condition the year around and, during springtime, the new growth is especially attractive. As a sheared hedge or as formal, clipped specimens, the cherry laurel is particularly recommended in northern Florida.
Small plants may be collected in hammocks or they may be grown from seeds.


cocculus (Cocculus laurifolius). Because its long oval evergreen leaves are carried well to the ground by the drooping green branches, this shrub is approved by those who admire good landscape material. For foundation plantings and for screens, this tropical shrub is offered by most ornamental nurseries. Ordinarily cocculus is kept free of grass and weeds by flat hoeing and no pests or diseases are of great importance.
Softwood cuttings root easily in summertime.
Copperleaf (Acalyvha icilkcsiana). Much planted in southern Florida, this large-leafed, fast-growing ornamental is well known to all gardeners in that section. Copperleaf grows easily from cuttings and will succeed in any situation that is not too shady. As a foundation material it usually gets out of scale.
Croton (Codiaeum variegatum). The world's most colorful and variable shrub comes into its own in southern Florida. Here, crotons in endless variety are grown in every conceivable landscape usage. Good taste insists that they are much over used as their garish, boldly variegated colors demand that they be strong highlights in a green composition.
Crotons are easily grown from cuttings stuck in sand at the beginning of the rainy season.
Eugenia (Eugenia spp). This is a diverse genus that has several important representatives in southern Florida. The pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) is in favor as a hedge material because it shears well and bears delicious and decorative fruits. Bush-Cherry, (E. paniculatu and varieties) is a favorite landscape material that is frequently seen as sheared accent plants in foundation plantings. This type is much grown in southern Florida nurseries.
Eugenias are propagated by seeds and softwood cuttings.
Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana). Hardy throughout our state, this South American fruit plant is admirable for landscape use as well. The gray-green leaves with whitish under-surfaces make this a good plant for contrast and transition.
Seeds are sown when the fruits ripen in summertime.
Fire-Thorn (Pyracuntha spp). Of all fruiting shrubs growing in the cooler sections none is more showy during the winter months than the beautiful fire-thorn. Nurseries supply the kinds that are known to be successful in this area. As large pyracanthas do not transplant well from the open ground, it is suggested that small plants in expendable containers be selected.
This member of the rose family may be infected by fire-blight upon occasion and, as a result, an appreciable portion


of the plant may be lost. A mild copper fungicide directed into the open blooms should arrest the development of organisms brought in by bees and files. As recommended for lireblight in the loquat. the prompt removal of infected wood is imperative. Use a sharp pruning implement to sever the dying member well below the point of apparent infection and paint the wound with sulphur or Fermate paste. Remember that the fireblight organism is carried on pruning tools, so immediate disinfection in alcohol is necessary.
A lace-winged fly, which skeletonizes fire-thorn foliage will be controlled if a spray containing DDT is applied in April, June and August. Wax scale, though not easy to eradicate completely, can be held in check by two annual applications of a 2'< white summer oil.
As fire-thorns grow very rapidly within their climatic range, pruning is usually necessary. Pyracanthas flower (and therefore fruit) on current buds that arise from fruiting spurs one year old or older. It is obvious, then that these handsome shrubs cannot fruit the season after they have been cut to the ground. A system or renewal pruning is therefore advocated to assure annual displays of the colorful fruits. One or two large canes can be sawed off near the ground one winter, allowing several to remain intact to carry their fruit: then when the new canes arise and develop fruiting spurs, the ones which had been left originally may be discarded. If one is not interested in fall color, the entire plant may be cut to the ground when it becomes too large.
It is known that fire-thorns grow best, flower and fruit most satisfactorily, when lawn grasses are kept out of the root zone and a mulch of oak leaves or peat moss is used as an insulation against excessive heat and to assure a moist growing medium.
Named varieties are propagated by cuttings, yet seeds will germinate well and produce fast-growing young stock.
Gardenia (Gardenia jaaminoides). The Cape jasmine is an old-fashioned shrub that has been a dooryard favorite in the Lower South for generations. From Orlando northward to the Carolinas this spring-flowering variety grows quite well if it is protected from root-knot by a mulch and from white-fly by an oil emulsion spray. This variety is propagated by cuttings. The winter-flowering form, (G. veitchii of the florists) is grown out of doors in southern Florida grafted on tender, but root-knot resistant, Gardenia thun-bcrtjia. All gardenias are badly attacked by tropical scales


as well as the troubles noted above, so much vigilance is needed to keep the plants clean and healthy.
Golden Dewdrop (Durante, repens). This large, fast-growing shrub is widely distributed throughout Florida both as a garden plant and as an occasional escape from cultivation. As a background plant for gardens in the citrus belt it is recommended, but it ordinarily attains too great size to be employed as a part of a foundation planting. Clean cultivation ordinarily is employed for these cosmopolitan plants as they grow quite well without an organic mulch. Insect pests and diseases are of little concern.
Young plants may be grown from seeds or cuttings.
Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis). Sometimes called the Queen of Shrubs, this beautiful rose of China possibly has more universal appeal than any shrub the world around. The graceful, compact habit, beautiful glossy, evergreen leaves and the gorgeous colorful blossoms all contribute to make this shrub a top-flight landscape material. Propagation of most common varieties by by tip cuttings taken during the summer, but rare kinds are grafted upon under stocks of the single red variety. While for commonplace types an occasional hoeing and watering will suffice, choice varieties are set into carefully prepared planting holes and protected by a thick mulch of leaves or peat.
Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla). This deciduous flowering shrub from Asia is another of universal appeal. The huge trusses of blue which appear above the attractive shiny leaves in late springtime are very striking. In Florida this plant is shade-demanding and the best position for hydrangeas, therefore, is a northern exposure. Any cutting back must be done immediately after flowering, else the blossom buds will be removed. Aluminum sulphate, which acidifies the soil, makes for blue hydrangeas, and if you want them pink, the soil must be limed so that it has a basic reaction.
Propagation is by hardwood or softwood cuttings.
ILEX (Ilex spp). Several small-leaved hollies can be kept to shrub size by careful pruning and these are in high favor as handsome plants. The most important is the striking native yaupon (Ilex vomitoria). Because it is so much at home, stands shearing well and bears beautiful berries in wintertime, the yaupon is unsurpassed for hedges and sheared specimens. Nursery-grown fruiting specimens are much more satisfactory than are plants collected from the wild.
The Japanese holly (Ilex crenata variety convexa) has become very popular for foundation work in northern Florida,


Hibiscus(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
This is a handsome shrub that has many uses in the landscape
scene.
Hydrangea(Hydrangea macrophylla) This is an ideal north-side plant.


but it is not tolerant of adverse growing conditions, so a north-side location and an adequate mulch are held to be necessary for its well being. Small shining evergreen leaves are closely packed on much-branched green stems. Numerous black fruits are attractive highlights during fall and winter. This choice landscape plant is grown from cuttings.
The Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta) is another favored landscape subject from Asia that is offered by most nurseries in the Lower South.
Ixora (Ixora coccinea). Garden forms with flowers in shades of red and yellow are seen in the warmer sections. Counted as one of the best ornamentals there, the ixora excels as a hedge, specimen or base planting material.
Likely to display evidences of nutritional deficiencies on sandy soils of southern Florida, ixoras should be set with care in made-up planting holes. A sprinkling of a mineral mixture should be given with the fertilizer in January and June. A heavy mulch of leaves or peat should protect the roots at all times.
Tender tips root in white sand in summer.
Jasmine (Jasminum spp). This genus furnishes several sprawling evergreen shrubs that are widely employed in landscape plantings. For the colder sections, the flowering jasmine (J. floridum) and the primrose jasmine (J. primu-linum) are excellent hardy shrubs; in the citrus belt the star jasmine (J. pubescens) is often seen as a shrub and as a vine, while in the warmest locations, the fragrant Jasminum gracile (syn. J. simplicif olium) is in high favor. There are many other species, some of which are grown as rare plant novelties by nurseries and plant collectors. All of the jasmines root readily where canes touch the ground.
Juniper (Juniperus spp). This is the most dependable genus of coniferous shrubs for Florida. Many beautiful horticultural forms, which will thrive in northern and western sections, are available at the nurseries. One of the best low ground cover forms is the shore juniper, (Juniperus conferta) an intermediate horizontal grower is the well known Pfitzer's juniper, (Juniperus chinensis pfitzeriana) while one of the very best of the tall evergreens for a sheared accent is the beautiful Japanese juniper, (Juniperus chineyisis sylvestris).
All junipers are propagated by cuttings and clean culture is usual in most landscape plantings.
Lantana (Lantana spp). So well adapted that it has escaped cultivation, the lantana is known by everyone.


Sometimes lantanas will fill that difficult sunny garden spot as no other shrub can. Botanically, the red and yellow-flowered shrub is Lantana camara and the attractive lilac weeping lantana is L. montevidensis.
Lime-Berry (Triphasia trifolia) is a favored landscape plant for southern Florida. Graceful, dense, evergreen, amenable to shearing, this beautiful plant well deserves the high esteem in which it is held by nurserymen.
Seeds are employed to increase stocks.
Nandina (Nandina domestica). West of Live Oak on rich soils this decorative ornamental grows to perfection. The many reed-like erect stems, lacy compound leaves and rich red fruits make this a must-have for gardens within its range. Nandina is not happy in peninsular Florida.
Seeds germinate slowly but are used for propagation as are suckers that come out from old plants.
Natal Plum (Carissa grandiflora). This West African fruit plant serves well as an ornamental in the Palm Beach-Miami area. Its compact habit (horizontal branching, oval evergreen leaves) beautiful white flowers and decorative purple fruits, account for the high favor in which the natal plum is held.
Plants are grown from seeds.
PlTTOSPORUM(Pittosporum tobira) This broad-leaved evergreen shears well.


Oleander (Nerium oleander)- This cosmopolitan evergreen shrub is too well known to warrant discussion excepting to point out that it is too coarse and fast-growing for foundation planting work. Adapted to almost any soil, resistant to reasonable amounts of salt spray, the oleander, in many attractive colors, is valuable for tall screens and windbreaks. DDT has been effective in controlling the oleander caterpillar which is the principal pest.
Propagation is easily accomplished by cuttings taken at almost any season.
In landscape plantings, oleanders are usually kept free of weeds and grass by flat hoeing and seldom are mulches employed. Fertilizer can be applied in January, in June, but many thousands of oleanders grow without hand feeding.
Orange-Jessamine (Murraea exotica). Seven to nine rhomboidal leaflets, fragrant white flowers and red ovoid fruits are characteristic of this large tropical shrub. Completely at home in frost-free sections, this plant is recommended for tall naturalistic screens and for free-standing specimens. A mulch will make for better growing conditions and therefore specimens of this beautiful plant will respond to this extra care.
Pfitzer's Juniper(Juniperus chinensis pfitzcriana)
This low spreading Juniper is excellent for corners or borders. Grows well in central and northern Florida.


Seeds germinate well and softwood cuttings strike easily.
Pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira). For a clipped hedge or sheared specimen, this attractive broad-leaved evergreen is unsurpassed. In coastal areas and in western Florida it seems to be especially good, but in some localities the pittosporum is easy prey to the Cercospora leafspot. A copper fungicide was formerly employed to control this disease;
Oleander(Nerium oleander)
Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the oleander is one of the best materials for a tall informal screen.


possibly the newer Fermate, Karbam or Zerlate will prove as effective, be less troublesome to apply.
Plants are grown from seeds in Western Florida, from tip cuttings in the peninsular where seeds do not set annually.
Plumbago (Plumbago capensis). Because of its small size, compact growth and attractive blossoms of soft blue, tin.- is without doubt, one of Florida's most valuable shrubs. From Marion County southward it is seldom killed by frost and it is commended without reservation. A fertile soil in full sun, an adequate supply of moisture and annual cutting back are requirements for its success.
Podocarpus(Podocarpits macrophyUa maki) (Sheared Specimen)
An evergreen that is very desirable for formal plantings as it may be sheared to any desired form.


Plumbago is grown from seeds or root cuttings.
Podocarpus (Podocarpus spp). Among the best coniferous plants that are grown in Florida gardens are the several species of Podoan-pus. They are hardy, slow-growing, amenable to shearing, tolerant of shade and drought and therefore are useful in a portal planting. Well liked by all, these beautiful Asiatic plants are most highly commended.
A pool adds interest to a landscape plan.
A rockery in a tropical setting.


Tender tip cuttings stuck in white sand in June and July should root in six or eight weeks.
Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherima). Because of its complete adaptability to Florida's soil and climate, because it flowers faithfully for Christmas each year, the poinsettia is widely planted and greatly admired here. The coarse texture, bold color and the temporary character of the plant, suggest that it might be best planted with hardy evergreen shrubbery in the out-of-door living area. In this position the glowing red will show to excellent effect and, when the plants are cut to the ground by cold, their absence will not be apparent.
Single red types are most frequently seen, but the double poinsettia is more in demand now as it is realized that it grows just as easily and the heads are much fuller. Pink or white poinsettias may be grown for contrast, but the true Christmas red will always be the most popular color.
Australian Tree Fern(Alsnphila australis)
In January, leafless stalks are cut into 12-inch lengths and these large cuttings are placed where flowering plants are wanted. As growth is very rapid in warm weather, it is suggested that the tip buds be pinched out in late summer. This will cause the plants to branch and become very compact.
Privet (Liijustrum spp). Scores of species and varieties of privet have been available in the nursery trade over many years and their widespread use has been the inevitable result. The name of wax privet has been erroneously used as


this popular shrub really belongs in the species Ligustrum japonicum. The glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) quickly grows to tree size and its use in foundation plantings should be discouraged as it soon gets out of scale.
In western Florida the small-leaved California privet (L. ovalifolium) serves well as a sheared hedge and for other topiary effects.
All ligustrums can be increased by cuttings, many by seeds, but some nurseries prefer to sell plants grafted on a root-knot-resistant understock.
Silver-Thorn (Elueagnus pun gens). Many horticultural forms of this satisfactory ornamental are offered by nurseries in the Lower South. Great succulent shoots produced in spring and summer must be pruned out at their point of origin to keep the plant within reasonable bounds. For hedges and low formal shapes, the silver-thorn is a top-flight shrub and is highly commended.
Cuttings of softwood are used for propagation.
Snow-Bush (Breynia nivosa). A colorful shrub from the South Sea Islands that is favored in the citrus belt because of its multi-colored leaves. For bright hedges and accent plants it is well adapted.
Snow-bush is grown from root cuttings.
Thryallis (ThryaUis glauca). Attractive yellow blossoms that are produced throughout much of the year have earned a considerable popularity for this fine-scale shrub. In warmer localities Thryallis is completely dependable and serves well as a colorful accent plant.
Small plants may be grown from seeds sown while green or from cuttings taken while they are still quite tender.
Turks' Cap (Malvaviscus grandiflorus). This colorful American clambering shrub is well known to everyone who has visited Florida. Hardwood cuttings can be lined out where a hedge is wanted and they will soon grow to the desired size. Frequent shearing of Turks' cap hedges is needed to keep them within reasonable bounds. Horticultural forms with white or pink flowers and others with variegated leaves are grown by fanciers of rare plants.
Viburnum (Viburnum spp). Beautiful evergreen species of this large genus are much employed in landscape work in central and northern Florida. The larger, Viburnum odora-tissinmm, becomes tree-like on fertile ground and is recommended for screens and background plantings only. The less rampant, Viburnum suspensum can be held in check more


easily by frequent pruning, and this species is good in base plantings, particularly for large homes and public buildings.
Viburnums grow easily from layers, hardwood cuttings and softwood tips.
Wax-Myrtle (Myrica cerifera) Few native shrubs enjoy more widespread landscape use than does this cosmopolitan southern bay-berry. Available in most damp flatwoods, the clumps should be cut back to the ground when they are lifted for moving into one's garden. Permission of the owner to collect wild plants is sought by all right-thinking persons.
Annual pruning back of current wood in July or August is advocated in order that wax-myrtle borders may be kept down to reasonable heights. Native to hammock locations, this species succeeds best when mulched. Commercial fertilizer should be supplied during the second and third seasons after planting, thereafter, wax-myrtles on most soils should not require fertilization.


SHRUBS SUGGESTED FOR DIFFERENT USES Shrubs for Portal Plantings
north page south page
Abelia......45 Boxthom..... 48
Azalea......45 Eugenia ... 54
Bush cherry ... 54 Jasmine ----- 58
Camellia ----- 49 Limeberry..... 59
("berry laurel 53 Plumbago..... 62
Ilex......56 Podocarpus ... 63
Jasmine ----- 58
Juniper.....58
Pittosporum 61
Podocarpus 63
Silverthorn 65
Viburnum ----- 66
Shrubs for Foundation Plantings
north page south page
Abelia......45 Boxthorn..... 48
Azalea......45 Eugenia ----- 54
Camellia ----- 49 Feijoa ------ 54
Cherry laurel 53 Gardenia..... 55
Feijoa ------ 54 Hibiscus..... 66
Gardenia ----- 55 Ixora ------ 58
Hydrangea ----- 56 Jasmine ----- 58
Ilex ------ 56 Lantana ----- 58
Jasmine ----- 58 Limeberry..... 69
Juniper ----- 58 Natal plum 59
Nandina.....59 Orange jasmine 60
Pittosporum 61 Plumbago..... 62
Podocarpus ... 63 Podocarpus ... 63
Privet......64 Privet...... 64
Silverthorn 65 Snow bush 66
Viburnum.....65 Thryallis..... 65
Shrubs for Clipped Hedges
north page south page
Abelia 45 Aralia...... 45
Cherry laurel 53 Boxthorn..... 48
Ilex......56 Cocculus..... 54
Juniper.....58 Copperlcaf ----- 54
Pittosporum 61 Eugenia ----- 54
Podocarpus 63 Ixora ------ 58
Privet......64 Limeberry..... 59
Silverthorn 65 Natal plum 59
Viburnum.....65 Podocarpus 63
Privet...... 64
Snow bush 65


Shrubs for Naturalistic Enclosures
north page south page
Azalea ------ 45 Aralia ----- 45
Bridal wreath 49 Brazilian pepper 49
Cherry laurel 63 Cape honeysuckle 52
Feijoa ------ 64 Cocculus ----- 64
Firethorn ----- 64 Copperleaf ----- 64
Ilex ------ 56 Eugenia ----- 54
Oleander ----- CO Feijoa ------ 64
Pittosporum ... 01 Golden dewdrop 56
Privet ------ 64 Hibiscus ----- 56
Viburnum ----- 65 Lantana ----- 68
Wax myrtle C6 Natal plum 59
Oleander ----- 60
Orange jasmine 60
Privet ------ 64
Turk's cap ----- 65
Wax myrtle ... 66
Shrubs as Free-Standing Specimens
north page south page
Azalea......45 Allamanda ----- 45
Camellia ----- 49 Cape honeysuckle 52
Firethorn.....54 Copperleaf ----- 64
Gardenia.....55 Croton...... 64
Hydrangea 56 Gardenia ----- 65
Jasmine ----- 58 Hibiscus ----- 56
Nandina.....59 Ixora ------ 58
Podocarpus 63 Snow bush 65
Thryallis..... 65
Shrubs for Showy Flowers or Fruits
north page south page
Azalea- ----- 45 Allamanda- 45
Bridal wreath 49 Cape honeysuckle 52
Camellia ----- 49 Gardenia 55
Firethorn ----- 54 Golden dewdrop 66
Gardenia ----- 55 Hibiscus ----- 56
Hydrangea 56 Ixora ------ 58
Ilex ------ 66 Jasmine ----- 68
Jasmine 68 Lantana 58
Nandina ----- 59 Natal plum 59
Oleander ----- 60 Oleander ----- 60
Podocarpus .... 63 Orange jasmine 60
Privet......64 Plumbago..... 62
Viburnum.....65 Thryallis..... 65
Turk's cap- 65
Shrubs for the Seaside Garden
north page south page
Ilex ------ 56 Aralia ----- 45
Juniper ----- 58 Brazilian pepper 49
Pittosporum ... 61 Cape honeysuckle 52
Wax myrtle 06 Lantana ----- 58
N'atal plum 59
Oleander ----- 60
Podocarpus ... 63
Wax myrtle ... 66


VINES FOR FLORIDA HOMES
No home planting is. quite complete without a few vines. The exceedingly large number of plants that come under this classification are useful to tropical horticulturists in softening architectural lines, adding brilliant splashes of exotic color, for screens, for shade and as ground covers where grass will not grow. There are many beautiful evergreen sorts, some of which are colorful during the tourist season, others that are wanted for their cool, year-around greenness and a few deciduous sorts that change with the seasons. Some cling to masonry, others twine around trees, or wire supports while among their number are sprawlers that must be supported by tying.
The line of demarcation between shrubs and vines is never clear cut. Sometimes, for example. Bougainvillaea and Wisteria are sheared standards (shrubs) while, at the same time, they are very popular as coverings for arbors and pergolas (vines). Algerian ivy is employed as a vine at one home, while next door it is strictly a ground cover that is never allowed to rise above six inches in height.
In this bulletin, and its companion, Flowers for Florida Homes (No. 59), several plants have already been discussed in other sections that can be used as vines as well. Space does not permit a discussion of all vining shrubs and herbs that grow in Florida, so it is our plan to choose a dozen and a half of the best landscape species.
In planting vines, if one employs the same cultural practices that are discussed on pages 37 and 38, success with any of the following species, within their climatic ranges is assured.
Algerian Ivy (Hedera canariensis)For densely shaded locations, as under large evergreen trees and on northside chimneys, no plant is better than Algerian ivy. Employed with telling effect in our western counties, this refined, hardy, evergreen vine has endless possibilities and is recommended most highly. Cultivation is out of the question, of course, and by its habit of growth, the parts of the plant, that lie on the ground and take root, hold fallen leaves to form a perfect mulch.
Ivy used as a groundcover or for wall decoration should receive a balanced plant food in January. Broadcast the fertilizer and wash it in with the hose at once.
1 The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used by Dr. L. H. Bailey in Hortus Second 1941.


Bleeding Heart (Clerodendrum thomsoniae). Deep green foliage and attractive white and red blossoms make this plant a universal favorite. The twining green stems need a sturdy permanent trellis for support and a heavy mulch is suggested to encourage best growth.
Blue Bells (Clytostoma callistegiodesj. For northern Florida one of the most satisfactory evergreen vines is this member of the Bignotiiuceae formerly known as Bignonia speciosa. When supported by a strong metal trellis, this robust liana will quickly form an impenetrable green wall that is attractive the year around. Beautiful lavender blossoms are borne profusely in springtime. Cultivation and spraying are unnecessary and a single spring feeding should adequately nourish this well adapted flowering vine.
Bougainvillaea (Bougainvillea spp).- Southern Florida's most beloved vine is well known to all. A brilliant stem of crimson lake sprawling across a white masonry wall is a garden scene that will live in one's memory forever. The dozen or more varieties that are offered by nurseries are all worthwhile as every color and habit of growth has its place. For best garden effect it is felt that the purple and magenta kinds should not be planted close to the red, pink and terracotta varieties. A spray of DDT applied in early spring should control the caterpillar which habitually riddles bougainvillea leaves.
Pruning, needed to keep the vines within reasonable limits, must be clone directly after flowering. Regular pinching of terminal growths thereafter is suggested to keep your plants compact.
Fertilizer may be applied in punch bar holes in December, March and June. Clean cultivation is standard practice, though Bougainvilleas will benefit from a heavy organic mulch.
cacti (Many genera as Cereus, Hylocereus, Heliocereus, Epiphyllum, etc.). These rain-forest cacti that are found widely distributed in the American tropics are ever-popular ornamental vines for the warmer sections. Many forms are arborescent, epiphytic, and cling to palms or masonry walls by means of tough aerial roots. These thrive in the high humidity, heavy rainfall, acid, organic soils of southern Florida and are not to be confused with the western desert forms that will not succeed out of doors here.
Much prized for their colorful exotic blossoms and the tropical atmosphere that the plants create, these vines are very useful landscape plants.
-spp means that more than one species is used in Florida gardening.


Hylocerem undatus is much cultivated and is probably the plant best known as "night-blooming cereus." Species of Epiphyllum, the orchid cacti, produce some of the most spectacular blossoms known to the plant world.
Carolina Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens). There is no native vine that is more charming than this dweller of our hardwood hammocks. Easily transplanted to one's garden, the twining, red stems, beautiful, evergreen leaves and fragrant golden blossoms are certain to please. When used to cover a small arbor, the garage gable-end or to fall across a doorway, the Carolina yellow jessamine is unsurpassed.
Cat's Claw Vine (Doxantha unguis-cati) is a fairly hardy evergreen climber that bears brilliant yellow blossoms in springtime. The claw-like tendrils enable this species to cling to any surface but the smoothest masonry. Rapid-growing and therefore, adapted to large expanses, the catclaw vine is certain to succeed south of Gainesville.
Ceriman (Monsteru deliciosa). This spectacular tropical fruit vine creates an exotic effect and is frequently planted by palm trunks or masonry walls in the Miami region. The monstera is injured by cold, but otherwise, it is quite easily grown within its climatic range.
Confederate Jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides). For northern Florida no flowering vine surpasses the Confederate jasmine. Hardy, slow-growing, evergreen, dependably producing fragrant white blossoms every spring, this plant is unexcelled for arbors, porches, screens and as a covering for steep slopes.
The twining brown stems should have strong permanent support unless the plant is employed as a groundcover. Scale insects may be kept under control by spraying semi-annually with a 2'i white summer oil and the health of this shallow rooted vine will be insured if a mulch of leaves is provided.
Creeping Fig (Ficus pumila). For the upper peninsula, here is a good covering for masonry walls. This hardy, tenacious, evergreen climber needs annual pruning to head in large fruiting branches that stand out from the wall and make an untidy appearance. Occasionally the creeping fig is utilized as a cover for barren ground.
Flame Vine (Pyrostegia ignea). Central Florida's famous flame vine is so well known that little need be said about its effectiveness and adaptability. Rigorous pruning after flowering is needed to keep this tropical creeper in check.


72
HKI'AIJT.MKNT OF ,\( i UK VI/1TKE
Because of its unusual orange color, perhaps it is best not to combine flame vine with blossoms of red or pink.
Hunter's Robe (Scindapsis aureus). No planting would be complete in tropical Florida without its palm decorated by this showy arum-ivy. This spectacular gold and green climber is much admired for its exotic effect and therefore, it is widely planted. This plant has long been sold by nurseries, chain stores and flower shops under the name Pothos, which is now held to be invalid.
Queen's Wreath (Petrea volubilis) is a liana from tropical America that produces quantities of lilac- or white-flowered panicles during summertime. Unusually showy and easily grown, queen's wreath is recommended for the Miami area.
Rangoon Creeper (Quisqualis indica) like queen's wreath is a summer bloomer that is much admired for its showy flowers. A rapid-growing, clambering plant that will quickly cover a trellis or small building, the Rangoon creeper will succeed from Tampa southward.
Rose (Rosa spp). Although roses are fully discussed in the companion bulletin (No. 59) they must be mentioned here as they are among the most beloved of all ornamental vines. Many varieties, well adapted to the Florida climate, may be trained on trellises, arbors, pillars or espalier against the house. Rose foliage will be free of black spot if it is covered with sulphur dust (300 mesh), Bordeaux mixture, copper A, a Fermate spray or one of the new rose formulations that your seedsman sells. High pressure assures good coverage, so essential in apply a fungicide.
Renewal pruning is practiced to eliminate old, barren canes fhat no longer flower heavily.
Stephanotis (Stephanotis floribunda). This is a choice twining vine with shining leathery leaves and fragrant white, funnel-form flowers that can be successfully grown in the warmer sections. This is the same stephanotis that florists use extensively in wedding bouquets.
Thunbergea (Thunbergia spp) is an extremely variable genus that contains many popular ornamentals. The sweet-clock-vine (Thunbergia fragrans) bears perfumed white blossoms IVi inches in diameter; Black-eyed Susan (T. alata) is an herbaceous vine, sometimes grown as an annual, that is covered with creamy, purple-throated flowers during summertime. The sky-flower (T. grandiflorus) is a rampant tropical liana that bears huge blossoms of blue or white. This plant requires much heading in or it soon submerges every-Lhing that it can cover.


Winter Creeper (Euonymus fortunei). Many varieties of this species are favorite hardy vines in the north and some succeed in extreme western Florida. As an attractive accent on a smooth masonry wall or as a beautiful groundcover, the winter creeper will serve well.
Scale insects, of several species, seriously interfere with the well being of winter creeper in the Deep South. Semiannual applications of an oil emulsion spray, under high pressure, should give a satisfactory control.
Wisteria (Wisteria sinensis). Well liked by everyone, this graceful flowering vine has long been a garden favorite in northern Florida. Showy racemes of blue or white flowers are produced before the leaves in March. Encouraged to climb into native pines, sheared as standards, employed to cover pergolas, the wisteria is certain to be a success and is most highly endorsed.
VINES FOR SPECIAL USES Vines with Showy Flowers
common name page common name page
Bleeding heart 70 Flame vine 71
Blue bells ----- 70 Queen's wreath 72
Bougainvillaea 70 Rangoon creeper 72
Cacti......70 Rose......72
Carolina yellow jessamine 71 Stephanotis 72
Cat's claw vine 71 Thunbergia 72
Ceriman ----- 71 Wisteria ----- 73 Confederate jasmine 71
Vines for Tropical Atmosphere
common name page common name page
Bougainvillaea 70 Hunter's robe 72
Cacti......70 Queen's wreath 72
Ceriman ----- 71 Rangoon creeper 72
Flame vine 71 Stephanotis 72
Vines as Groundcovers
common name page common name page
Algerian ivy 69 Flame vine 71
Carolina yellow jessamine 71 Winter creeper 73 Confederate jasmine 71
Vines for Masonry Walls
common name page common name page
Algerian ivy 69 Creeping fig 71
Cacti......70 Winter creeper 73
Ceriman ----- 71


Climbers like this tropicalaroid are widely grown in the Palm Beach Miami area.


LAWNS FOR FLORIDA HOMES
A good lawn is indispensable as a setting for one's home and it is usually the first element of the landscape scheme to be developed. In the Gulf Coast region it is possible to build permanent lawns quickly and to keep them quite presentable throughout the year.
In Florida there are three major lawn grasses, Bermuda, Centipede and St. Augustine. Several other grasses and non-grass ground covers play effective but minor roles. Among these are Carpet grass. Zoysia, Dichondra, Ophiopogon and Liriope. Each has its strong points and its staunch admirers and each is capable of making a well-nigh perfect greensward under good management.
The beginning of the rainy season is the best time to start or to renovate a lawn because the warm weather, abundant rainfall and high humidity make for rapid growth. Indeed, a lawn planted about the middle of June may cover completely before autumn.
Adequate facilities for irrigation are essential. If an underground sprinkler system is out of the question, hose bibbs should be available at one hundred foot intervals so that a revolving sprinkler on the end of a fifty-foot hose will cover efficiently.
If your soil is not particularly fertile, it should be enriched by plowing under a three-inch blanket of compost, rotted manure, muck, peat or woods earth. Level your yard reasonably well and soak it with your lawn sprinkler.
There are many ways of setting grass. Possibly the method that gives quickest results is to set 6- or 8-inch square sods every foot or so, over the entire surface. If this involves too much expensive labor and hauling, one may set sprigs or runners and still have a perfect lawn by autumn. Stretch a line lengthwise of the area to be planted and drop sprigs, either rooted or unrooted, every 8 to 10 inches along the line. Next, with a notched lath or broom-stick, thrust the basal or rooted end of the grass well into the earth, then use your planting stick to pack the soil firmly into the planting hole. You will soon learn to plant each shoot in two quick thrusts. Next, move your line ten inches at each end and plant another row.
Another favored way is to open a furrow with a garden plow, drop cuttings or small sods into this trench and then cover by turning the furrow back.
Be sure to soak the yard as soon as you have finished planting and then let your sprinkler do the job every third day that it does not rain.


Weeds and annual grasses will appear to compete with your newly set lawn. Use a scuffle hoe or garden plow with an eight-inch weed blade to work between the rows. Probably two weedings will be sufficient.
Mowing is most beneficial and as soon as your stand is heavy enough, run over it with the mower. This will encourage the runners and, at the same time, it will help keep the annual grasses in check.
Never rake the clippings from your lawn, and, if you can leave the oak leaves in place until they rot, your grass is certain to benefit. It is good horticulture to allow as much organic matter as possible to decay and return to the soil and raking is to be discouraged. Untidy? Yes, for a short while, but nothing but good can result from the practice.
Next autumn and before the rains start the second summer, be certain that the lawn has sufficient moisture. Remember that young grass is 90 per cent water. A balanced commercial fertilizer should be applied at the end of the first winter to prepare the grass for lush growth when warm weather comes.
Good stimulants to use at the beginning of the second rainy season are the well-known nitrogenous fertilizers sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda. The former is usually given preference because it tends to leave an acid reaction in the soil. Two or three pounds per 1,000 square feet can be applied once every six weeks or so when an old lawn seems to be in need of plant food. Your grass will not be burned if you can put the chemical on just before a rain, or if you will wash it in well with the hose.
Mole crickets are sometimes troublesome in certain sections. In a very short time the burrowing of these ravenous insects can ruin a perfect lawn. When you first see the small mole-like burrows make plans to apply a poison bran bait. Mix 5 pounds of bran, 4 ounces of paris green, one pint of molasses and water to make the bait crumble, but not enough to make it bind into a doughy mass.
Spread the bait late in the afternoon and repeat when you discover burrows. This bait will kill poultry and birds so be certain the necessary precautions are observed.
Spiking, the driving of holes into areas that have become hard-packed by traffic, is an approved practice. Use a special spiking tool or improvise your own by driving some spikes through a piece of two by ten, and then fasten an upright handle to this. Such a home made implement can be entirely satisfactory in making perforations in packed earth. If peat is broadcast and watered into these spike holes, the grass will be greatly benefitted.


Sometimes as a part of routine management, St. Augustine turf is topdressed and golf greens of Bermuda are always so treated in springtime. Builders' sand is sometimes used on St. Augustine lawns, peat, muck or compost is employed when turf has been badly worn down by many feet. Top-dressing together with summer stimulation and all renovation procedures should be completed shortly after the summer rams begin.
Much has been written since the war about the new chemical weed killers. The so-called hormone weed killer, 2-4D, definitely will kill weeds when it is employed according to directions. Don't forget that shrubbery will be killed by the drift, so apply 2-4D only on still days. In Florida, centipede grass growing in full sun was browned by 2-4D applied exactly according to directions, but recovery was prompt.
Centipede grass is the most popular of all lawn grasses in Florida. This tenacious, poor-land perennial is strictly a starvation species, as it thrives on a maximum of water and a minimum of plant food. 'Large irregular patches of yellow arc likely to appear in centipede lawns that arc well fed and well watered. This is a nutritional trouble caused by the lack of iron and may be corrected by spraying the yellow patches with copperas. This material (ferrous sulphate to your druggist) should be stirred into a watering can at the rate of one teaspoon to two gallons of water. These two gallons will cover about five square feet, possibly. One application should be enough each season.
There is a most alarming tendency for centipede grass to die out in irregular patches in lawns that have been particularly well fed for a few years. This apparently is different
A good lawn is indispensable as a setting for the home.


from the iron chlorosis noted above and plant pathologists are not positive to the cause and cure. They recommend, however, that the dead grass be dug out, the soil treated with a sterilizing agent, dug very deeply, and replanted.
If centipede lawns be fed rather less than the usual recommendations little trouble will be experienced. Over-anxious home makers who treat their lawns the best are first to experience this dread dying out conditions.
Perhaps Florida's most beautiful lawns are those of St. Augustine grass. When properly managed, this lush, broad-leaved evergreen species is difficult to surpass. This lover of shade and moist, fertile soil graces many of the South's most beautiful homes.
During hot dry weather chinch bugs cause much trouble. The so-called bitter blue stemmed strain is not immune to these insects, but perhaps it recovers from their ravages more quickly. A nicotine dust or spray must be used as soon as the first yellowing blades indicate the presence of these tiny black and white insects.
Bermuda is the third lawn grass that is of major importance in Florida. Contrary to popular opinion, this species requires a fairly fertile soil and behaves well only when it is grown in full sun, well fed and heavily watered. The many excellent golf greens all over our state demonstrate beyond question that this fine grass is capable of forming a perfect turf.
Lawn of Bermuda Grass This grass will form a perfect turf with good care.


Because flower heads are produced all spring and summer, it is necessary to mow Bermuda more frequently than any other lawn grass. Set the mower so that it will cut low and use it at least once each week during growing weather. In this way your lawn will not mow brown as it is bound to do if you wait several weeks between cuttings. It is true that this grass requires more mowing and edging than the others but, at the same time, it does not suffer at the hands of insects nor is it subject to diseases or nutritional difficulties.
A native species of great merit for large informal lawns, is carpet grass. Revelling in broken shade and a moist and fertile soil, this indigene requires less attention than any other ground cover. One feeding in the spring and one or two mid-summer mowings to prevent the appearance of the tall, three-parted flower spikes, should be sufficient to maintain a carpet grass lawn.
During recent years Zoysia has come into some prominence as a lawn grass for the Deep South. This attractive narrow-leaved running grass resembles Bermuda and the same management should mean success for this evergreen species from the East Indies. No doubt Zoysia will be planted much more widely as stock becomes available, but its tendency to die out, leaving large patches of brown is very discouraging. As this is written, we have no recommendation for preventing this condition.
Italian rye grass is widely used to make a bright green lawn during the winter months. The seeds may be sown during the first cool days in autumn. A great deal of water is required and rye grass will be presentable only when it is fed frequently; possibly once each winter month. Set the mower so that it cuts very low and trim your rye grass at least once every ten days to keep it tidy and prevent seeding.
Dichondra is a native, round-leafed herm that seldom exceeds an inch or so in height. Many lawns support this creeping perennial as a weed, but in tourist sections it is in favor as a lawn-making material. Dichondra may be grown in all sections and may be tramped upon and mowed without injury. Alternaria leaf spot is a disease that attacks this perennial at times and may become very serious. Little is known about its life history and control.
Ophiopogon and Liriope are members of the lily family that are top-flight groundcovers for densely shaded spots. Under evergreen trees, between buildings, for shady planting strips, either of these tenacious perennials will serve well. They should not be mowed nor should they be employed if there is an appreciable amount of traffic.


The Bougainvillaea, Podocarpus and Eugenia combine to make a beautiful portal planting.


FOUNDATION PLANTINGS
The following pages with illustrations show plantings for different types of houses.
Plants have been selected to harmonize with the size and architecture of the house. Substitutions may be made of course, as these sketches are simply suggestions.
Careful attention must be given to proper fertilization, pruning, watering and possible renovation after several years' growth.
Good effects are not obtainable unless the plants are robust, and thrifty in growth with abundant foliage.
Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN CENTRAL
1 Primrose Jasmine or 1 Boxthorn or Plumbago
Abelia
SOUTHERN 1 Jasmine gracile or Thryallis glanca


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Pittosporum
2 Wax Privet
3 Primrose Jasmine or Bridal Wreath
CENTRAL
1 Pittosporum
2 Hibiscus
3 Jasminum gracile or Plumbago
SOUTHERN
1 Natal plum
2 Pitanga
3 Limeberry


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTH ICRX CENTRA I.
1 Climbing Roses or 1 Flame Vine Creeping Fig 2 Plumbago or
2 Azaleas or Abelia Snow Bush
SOUTHERN
1 Bougainvillaea Crimson Lake
2 Crotons, assorted varieties
PORChr


suggested plantings for different sections of florida
NORTHERN
Spanish Bayonet Azalea
Sheared Yaupon Century Plant Camellia
CENTRAL
1 Spanish Bayonet
2 Crotons
3 Podocarpus (Sheared)
4 Century Plant
5 Ixora
SOUTHERN
1 Spanish Bayonet 2- Crotons
3 Australian Pine (Sheared)
4 Century Plant
5 Copperleaf


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Wax Privet
2 Abelia
3 Cabbage palm
CENTRAL
1 Hibiscus
2 Star Jasmine
3 Queen Palm
SOUTHERN
1 Natal Plum
2 Jasminum gracile
3 Royal Palm


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida NORTHERN CENTRAL
1 Climbing: Rose
2 HvdianRea
3 Bridal Wreath
4 Zamia
5 Rhapis Palm
<> Primrose Jasmine
1 Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
2 Copperleaf Ixora
4 Zamia
5 Fishtail Palm (> Boxthorn
SOUTHERN
1 Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
2 Plumbago
3 Croton
4 Ixora
5 Royal Palm
6 Jasminnm grarile


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Camellia
2 Viburnum suspensum
3 Cherry Laurel
' 'EXTRA L
1 Goklcn Dew Drop
2 Star Jasmine
3 Podocarpus
SOUTHERN
1 Hibiscus
2 Limeberry
3 Eugenia


V---


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Primrose Jasmine
2 Abelia
3 Azalea
4 Pindo Palm
CENTRAL
1 Star Jasmine
2 Wax Privet
3 Allamanda
4 Queen Palm
SOUTHERN
1 Natal Plum
2 Orange Jasmine
3 Copperleaf or Eugenia
4 Coconut Palm


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Climbing Roses or Wisteria
2 Azalea
3 Abelia
4 Yaupon (Sheared)
CENTRAL
1 Confederate Jasmine
2 Pittosporum
3 Plumbago
4 Eugenia (Sheared)
SOUTHERN
1 Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
2 Hibiscus
3 Croton
4 Casuarina (Sheared)


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida NORTHERN CENTRAL
1 Japanese Juniper (Sheared) 1
2 Carolina Jasmine or Wisteria 2
3 Abelia or Nandina 3
4 Azalea 4
5 Cherry Laurel 6
6 Camellia 6
Cajeput (Sheared) Climbing Ruse Primrose Jasmine Azalea
Golden Dew Drop Poinsettia
SOUTHERN
1 Eugenia
2 Bougainvillaea
3 Wedelia
4 Limeberrv
5 Natal Plum
(J Pigmy Date Palm


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
CENTRAL
1 Podocarpus
2 Pfitzer's Juniper
3 Confederate Jasmine or Climbing Ruse Washington Palms
1 Cocculus
2 Silver Thorn
3 Rangoon Creeper Queen Palms
SOUTHERN
1 Aralia
2 Croton
3 Bougainvillaea Coconut Palms


Suggested I'lantinys for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN'
1 Primrose Jasmine
2 Abelia
3 Adam's Needle
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet
CENTRAL
1 Star Jasmine
2 Tecomaria
3 Coontie
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet
SOUTHERN
1 Copperleaf
2 Euphorbia or Sansevieria
3 Wedelia
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Cherry Laurel
2 Virburnum suspensum
3 Bridal Wreath
4 Abelia
Creeping Fig on wall and house
CENTRAL
1 Hibiscus
2 Azalea
3 Cocculus
4 Lantana
Climbing Fig on wall and house
SOUTHERN
1 Aralia
2 Croton
3 Limeberry
4 Tecomaria


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Abelia
> Pindo Palm
:i Native Pine
4 Bed of Annuals or Roses
CENTRAL
1 Snow Bush or Plumbago
with Ficus repens on house
2 Queen Palm
3 Native Pine with Allamanda
4 Med of Annuals or Roses
SOUTHERN
1 Mixture of Crotons, or Hibiscus
2 Royal Palm
8 Coconut Palm with Hibiscus
4 Bed of Annuals


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN
1 Rhapis Palm
2 Cabbage Palm
3 Nandina
4 Carolina Jasmine
CENTRAL
1 Queen Palm
2 Pigmv Date Palm
3 Natal Plum
4 Bougainvillaea
SOUTHERN
1 Coconut Palm
2 Pigmy Date Palm
3 Limeberry
4 Bougainvillaea


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN E Golden Dew Drop
1 2 Azalea, pink Azalea, white Azalea, pink Wax Privet 6 7 Queen Palm Fishtail Palm Acrocromia Palm
3 1 9 Hibiscus
5 Pittosporum
6 Camellia SOUTHERN
7 Podocarpus Pindo Palm 1 Wax Privet
9 Cedrus deodara L> 3 Cestrum Croton
CENTRAL 4 5 Copper Leaf Golden Dew Drop
1 Plumbago 6 Pigmy Date Palm
o Plumbago 7 Coconut Palm
3 Thryallis Sentinel Palm
l Wax Privet Senegal Date Palm


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida
NORTHERN CENTRAL
1 Virburnum suspensum 1 Hibiscus or Boxthorn
2 Bridal Wreath or Abelia 2 Plumbago or Thryallis
SOUTHERN
1 Natal Plum
2 Croton


INDEX
Landscape Plants for Florida Homes
Abelia ------ 45 Flowering jasmine 58
Acacia...... 11 Frangipani 16
Acrocomia 31 Fringe tree 16
Algerian ivy 69 Foundation plants
Allamanda- 45 illustrated 81-97
Annatto ... n Gardenia 5.3
Aralia...... 45 Geiger tree 16
Areca palm 31 Glossy privet 64
Azalea ------ 45 Golden dewdrop 56
Blackburn palm 35 Gum ------ 23
Black olive..... 12 Gumbo-limbo 16
Blue bells..... 70 Hibiscus..... 50
Bo tree..... 23 Holly ------ If.
Bougainvillaea 70 Hunter's robe 72
Boxthorn ----- 48 Hydrangea ----- 56
Brazilian pepper 49 Ilex ------ 56
Bridal wreath 49 Ixora...... 58
Bush cherry 54 Jacaranda 17
Cabbage palm 31 Japanese holly 56
Cacti ------ 70 Japanese juniper 58
Cajeput ----- 12 Jasmine 58
Calamondin 15 Jerusalem thorn 17
Camellia ----- 49 Juniper ----- 58
Camphor..... 12 Kumquat..... 15
Canary date palm 31 Lantana ----- 58
Cape honeysuckle 52 Lawns ------ 75
Carolina yellow jasmine 71 lily-thorn..... 17
Cassia ----- 14 Limeberry ----- 59
Casuarina ----- 14 Lipstick tree 11
Cat's claw vine 71 Live oak ----- 20
Ceriman..... 71 Loquat..... 17
Chaste tree 15 Magnolia ----- 18
Cherry laurel 53 Mahogany ----- 18
Chinese fan palm 32 Mimosa ----- 19
Citrus ------ 15 Mountain ebony 20
Chinese holly ... 58 Moreton Bay Chestnut 19
Cocculus..... 54 Mulching ----- 41
Coconut ----- 32 Nandina ----- r,:i
Confederate jasmine 71 Natal plum 59
Copperleaf..... 54 Oak ------ 20
Crape myrtle 15 Oleander ----- 60
Crape myrtle. Queen's 15 Orange ----- 15
Creeping fig 71 Orange jasmine 60
Croton...... 54 Orchid tree 20
Cultivation, trees 6 Palms ------ 27
Date palm..... 32 Paurotis..... 33
Dogwood..... 16 Pfitzer's juniper 58
Eugenia ----- 54 Pigmy date 33
European fan palm 32 Pindo palm 33
Fan Palms..... 32 Pine...... 20
Feeding trees ... 6 Pittosporum 61
Feijoa ------ 54 Plumbago ----- 62
Ficus ------ 23 Podocarpus 63
Fiji fan palm 33 Poinsettia ----- 64
Firethom ----- 54 Pongam..... 21
Fishtail palm 33 Puerto Rican Hat palm :'.5
Flame vine 71 Privet ------ 64


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