• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 About the author
 Principles of small home ground...
 Trees
 Palms for Florida landscapes
 Shrubs in Florida landscape...
 Vines for Florida homes
 Lawns for Florida homes
 Good ground covers for Florida...
 Plant name index
 General index
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002887/00001
 Material Information
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 119 p., <12> p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: <1963>
 Subjects
Subject: Landscape gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins.
General Note: "R July 1963".
General Note: Includes indexes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002887
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001962967
oclc - 01726482
notis - AKD9644
lccn - a 64000560

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    About the author
        Page 2
    Principles of small home ground planning
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
        Page 17
    Trees
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 32b
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Palms for Florida landscapes
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 48b
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Shrubs in Florida landscape plantings
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 72b
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 88b
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Vines for Florida homes
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 104a
        Page 104b
        Page 105
    Lawns for Florida homes
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Good ground covers for Florida homes
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Plant name index
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    General index
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Back Cover
        Page 121
        Page 122
Full Text




LANDSCAPE PLANTS for
FLORIDA HOMES
by
John V. Watkins
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Doyle Conner, Commissioner Tallahassee


ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Since 1926 John Watkins has been on the staff of the University of Florida. During that time he has taught courses in landscape horticulture, plant propagation, tree care and plant materials.
Well known as a flower show judge, lecturer and author, Wat-kins writes on subjects of gardening with a long background of academic and practical experience.
This booklet has been published for the benefit of Florida homeowners who have, in recent years, shown an increased interest in landscaping and beautifying their homes and gardens. We know that you'll find here the answers to many questions concerning the proper practices and sound principles of using landscape plants.
Doyle Conner Commissioner of Agriculture


PRINCIPLES OF SMALL HOME GROUND PLANNING
Landscape plantings in Florida have come of age. Gone are the front yards of clean-swept earth, the hard-packed grass-less backyards, the fenced-in suburban homes. In their places are some of the most effectively planted and expertly maintained small home grounds in the world, and as a result, our state claims some of the most beautiful and home-like communities to be found anywhere in the nation.
In the 1930"s there began a trend in garden planning and building that has led to this near perfection evident in so many Florida home grounds. Due to many complex factors, such as pride of ownership, the garden club movement, the influence of home and garden magazines, and the institutions of higher learning through their extension efforts and the graduation of young people trained in horticulture and in landscape design, Florida has become notably garden conscious.
Most home owners like to putter around in the yard and they find satisfaction in planning, planting and maintaining their own home ground. They have long since learned that gardening is a healthful, engrossing hobby. It is for this ever increasing number of home gardeners that this bulletin has been prepared.
Sound principles in the use of plants are the same whether one lives in Miami or Minneapolis, Tallahassee or Topeka. whether one's properly is large or small, whether the exposure is north or south. It is true that the kinds of plant materials will vary with the region and the spirit of no two gardens will be identical, but fundamental concepts of good planning are the same regardless of locale. A unified, harmonious landscape scene may result from good composition, and this implies that die forms of orderrepetition, dominance, sequence and balance are present. Perhaps it might be well to recall a definition: "Composition is the orderly organization of parts into an harmonious whole." Just as a good painting, a winning flower arrangement or a beautiful interior depends upon the ordered relation of its elements, the successful landscape is the one which is skillfully composed.
Modern Florida homes are usually low and compact and more or less centered on level, rectangular plots, and so, it is best to use landscape plants sparingly, but to choose them carefully. Stiff hedges and ornate beds have no place around today's modem homes.


John Watkins
Bougainvillaea, podocarpus and eugenia combine to make a beautiful
portal planting.


The architecture of the dwelling will influence the disposition and kinds of plants as well as the materials of construction of walls and walks. It is considered good design to project the lines of the house out-of-doors so that they become integral parts of the garden itself. With houses of masonry, major walls may extend to enclose carports, patios, service areas, or game lawns. Here the material, texture and color of the house is repeated harmoniously out-of-doors.
Doors and windows serve as frames for garden pictures that are viewed from within the house, and for this reason they must be considered when arranging the landscape plants.
The public area embraces the ground between the dwelling and the street and serves as a setting for the house. This should be simply planted to present a dignified picture. Usually a few trees or palms to frame and to cast shadows, and a restrained base planting for transition and surface decoration, are all the landscape plants that will be needed. As permanent features, these plants may well be the choicest and most costly in the landscape scheme. It is these plants that create the setting for your home and you can well afford to expend thought upon their selection and time and effort upon their care.
In southern Florida tropical settings are desirable and so palms, yuccas, century plants, flowering tropical vines, euphorbias and cacti are widely employed. Palm shadows cast upon walls and upon the turf contribute to the feeling of the tropics.
For houses which stand upon piers a continuous planting of evergreen shrubs is essential, as the open space below the floor is best hidden. However, when a dwelling is built on a slab just two steps above the ground level a few choice specimens as accents and for wall decoration may be carefully arranged, and in places the house may be allowed to merge into the land, unadorned. Simple, restrained plantings are the vogue today, as there is a trend away from the heavily planted foundations of former years. Many of these older plantings have grown well beyond their allotted space to hide, almost completely, the small houses they once complemented.
In Florida, as elsewhere, there is a notable tendency to use some species too frequently. In the northern section the general use of fast-growing, inexpensive wax privet makes for mediocrity; in the southern part of the state there is a tendency to over-use the ABC planting, namely, aralia, bougainvillea.


and croton. All of these are excellent plants, when planted as strong accents, but they are often employed too extensively.
Growing out of the old backyard which all too often was a catchall for poultry houses, fuel piles, incinerators, garbage cans and other utilitarian items of household equipment, is the largest part of the modern residential property and this is called the outdoor living room or private area. This section assumes the closest relationship with the family and their guests, and it is used for relaxation, for entertaining and for parties.
In its modem development with attractive borders and open central area an outdoor living room is especially useful in Florida where it is possible to spend so much time out of doors. A side of the house with proper base plantings of evergreen shrubbery will serve as one boundary, possibly the garage or ell of the house will become another and the two remaining sides may well be planted with carefully chosen evergreen shrubs. The objective is to create an attractive barrier that will exclude objectionable scenes and assure privacy within.
John Watkins
An attractive outdoor living room enclosed by informal shrubbery borders


Where space permits, the most popular method of enclosing the outdoor living room is an informal shrubbery border that has interesting bays and promontories and planned sequences in foliage color and texture. Perhaps five or seven plants of feijoa might merge into a group of six wax privets, which, in turn, would have as neighbors, four oleanders. The planting distance in this type of layout may be four to six feet each way and the shrubs are set in groups, rather than spotted singly or alternated. The individual plant is subordinated to the total effect in this sort of planting. This simulated hedge row, completely informal or naturalistic, has wide appeal as an enclosing device. In such an arrangement, annuals, perennials and bulbs are set in drifts or beds in the shrubbery bays so that their colorful blossoms, as strong accents, serve as points of interest.
A service area or drying yard is wanted by some home owners, particularly if there are small children in the family. This, die smallest sub-division of the modem suburban property, should be near the driveway, carport and kitchen.
Shrubs are planted to screen the service area from the outdoor living area and the street. The plant materials used to enclose the utility yard must be tall and narrow in habit so that they will occupy a minimum of space. They must be evergreen for permanent effect and they must be resistant to pests, drought and cold, so that maintenance may be kept to the minimum.
The aralia, in its many horticultural forms, is valuable for southern Florida, while wax-myrtle and upright ligustrums are approved in the northern and western parts of the state. Sometimes, hardy, evergreen vines trained on chain-link fences are used to screen the service area.
A backyard compost bin should be a part of every well-planned service area. A fenced bin or walled pit to hold peat, leaves, lawn clippings, peanut hulls, pruned branches, water hyacinths and some manure is a worthwhile investment. The addition of a complete, balanced chemical fertilizer is recommended as an aid to decomposition and to fortify the end product. Garden magazines carry advertisements of special chemicals that are designed to speed the making of artificial manure. As fresh material is added, lightly sprinkle fertilizer on each layer of organic matter and keep the pile moist at all


times. At the end of the first rainy season, it is forked over and the following spring it should be ready for use. In most cities it is possible to buy excellent, ready-made, acid composts from landscape nurseries.
Plant food elements are added by the slow decomposition of compost in the soil, and the environment is favorable for the growth of friendly microorganisms. When organic materials become well blended with the soil plant nutrient elements are held in forms that are readily available to plants. Organic matter acts much like a sponge, absorbing and holding many times its weight in water.
MULCHING
Most of our choicest trees and shrubs grow naturally in forest habitats and for that reason they thrive when their roots are well protected by thick layers of leaves. It is true that some palms and succulents come from desert lands, but, for the most part, the plants Floridians prefer are forest dwellers.
An organic mulch lowers soil temperatures during summertime, and it conserves heat in winter. A mulch prevents wide fluctuations much as does the insulation in the attic of your home. A mulch is very retentive of moisture, yet the fluffy blanket of leaves allows for perfect aeration so that the moisture-to-air relationship is ideal. Furthermore, nematodes do not thrive here and decaying leaves furnish nutrients and vital organic acids. Nut grass, crab grass and other noxious weeds are discouraged by the maintenance of a heavy leaf blanket and if weeds should start they are easily pulled from the loose, airy mantle above the soil.
Most gardeners have good results when they maintain a mulch three or four inches thick. While some writers suggest that rotted mulch be turned into the earth each spring before more is added, I am of the firm conviction that it is more efficient to add fresh material without turning under the old leaves. Deep spading reduces the feeding roots and thus retards the growth of plants.
High temperature, heavy rains, and rapid bacterial action cause organic materials to disappear at an astonishing rate in


Florida and so frequent replacement is needed. After the mulch has been in place for a while the roots will grow up into it and the sudden removal of this material may result in injury to a cherished specimen.
In some sections, drainage is a problem of first moment and adequate provision must be made to draw off water during wet weather. Most garden plants will not tolerate water-logged soil. Roots must have air and when the water table rises the air is forced out and the roots die. Leaf-fall, a hard, knarled condition of the twigs, debility and death may be indications of poor drainage.
BEACH GARDENS
Florida's coastline, the longest of any state in the union, is a favored place for vacation homes and certain sections, on the east and west coasts, are thickly populated. On the Atlantic, houses are on the sand dunes, or immediately behind them and, in some towns the entire strip of palmetto and pine barren between the ocean and the tidewater lagoon to the west is residential property. Gardens unusual, distinctive tropical in feeling and strongly characteristic of the section are a part of these seaside homes.
Gardening on the coast of Florida is as difficult as gardening can be anywhere. The outer steep beach exposed to the full force of the east wind and the Atlantic surf, the ever-present shell that makes the earth alkaline in reaction, locking up vital mineral elements, and the sand, devoid of humus are unsuitable for many inland garden subjects. Fortunately, a dozen or so plants that grow naturally on our sand dunes lend themselves to dramatic tropical compositions. In addition to the species that are native to the coastal sands, several exotics from desert regions will thrive in this environment. Plants from similar environments can make harmonious compositions and their kindred wants reduce maintenance.
On the west coast, dunes arc lower; undefined is the line of demarcation between the shingle and the ridge of sand. Some houses are built directly on the Gulf beach. The wind off the Gulf of Mexico is not as strong as that off the Atlantic Ocean, the air is not so heavily laden with salt. It is generallv conceded that it is a little easier to grow plants on the Gulf than on the Atlantic.


Many dwellings for permanent or seasonal occupancy are built on tidal basins. Although these bodies of brackish water may be known colloquially as rivers, lakes, bays, creeks and bayous, they are, nonetheless, tidewater lagoons. Man-made or natural, they make attractive settings for waterfront homes.
Gardens for waterfront homes may be quite simple, and a few well chosen plants to accent the architecture, groups of palms for framing and background, a lawn and boundary plantings for privacy will suffice. The private area is usually not developed in detail as an off-scape over water is always wanted, so complete enclosure as discussed previously, is not of primary consideration. Axial lines are usually ignored except in the most pretentious gardens. Some beach dwellers are content to have wild front yards more or less sparsely inhabited by native plants such as sea-oats, beach morning-glory and sprawling succulents, but many orderly souls feel that they should have civilized greenswards like those at home.
Ground covers other than grasses come into their own and interesting effects are achieved with succulents such as fig-marigold, artillery plant, peperomia, or mesembryanthemum.
For exotic shrubs and trees, planting holes must be prepared with care. Dig oversized holes and fill with a mixture of hammock soil, peat, leaf mold or compost. A sprinkling of one of the mineral mixtures from the seed store is long-term insurance against shortages of the so-called minor elements. Minor though iron, zinc, copper, manganese, magnesium, and boron may be on fertile soils, major they become in beach sands. In fact, any of the nutritional elements may really become limiting factors for many trees, shrubs and flowers. Choice palms, vines and annuals frequently exhibit the chlorosis, stunted growth and dead tips that are manifestations of mineral deficiencies. Plants growing naturally in soil to which they are endemic will usually get along well without mineral supplements, so this extra precaution is advocated only for exotic plants on alkaline soil or inorganic sand that has been pumped in.
Palms are so much a part of Florida's seascapes that waterfront homes are incomplete without sereval of these decorative tropical trees.


Patio is the Spanish word for courtyard. This court, open to the sky, is surrounded by wings of the house and perhaps a wall on one side. Originally the enclosing walls were erected for protection against intruders as well as to divert the hot, dry winds of southern Spain. Frequently doors from the rooms opened directly on to the patio, and along one or more sides covered walkways were used as means of circulation. Purely utilitarian in earlier days, these roofed walks were long and narrow and were not used as areas for relaxation and entertaining as they are today. Becoming naturally a part of rambling L-shaped or U-shaped houses, the modern room-sized patio is popular as a part of our design for outdoor living.
The house and the garage may form sides, and doors from all rooms may open directly into the patio or into a narrow
Native
Cabbage palm Coconut palm Gumbo-limbo Live oak Mahogany Red bay Red cedar Sea-grape Thatch palm
Exotic
Cajeput Casuarina Crape-myrtle Loquat Pindo palm Rubber tree Sapodilla Senegal date plam Washington palm
Shrubs. Perennials and Vines
Native
Beach morning glory Bumelia tenax Century plant Saw palmetto Sea-grape Sea-oats
Spanish bayonet
Wax-myrtle
Yaupon
Exotic
Cape-honeysuckle
Croton
Hibiscus
Kalanchoe
Natal-plum
Oleander
Pittosporum
Sansevieria
Wedelia
PLANTS FOR BEACH GARDENS Trees and Palms


roofed loggia which is an integral part of it. The fourth side of the modem Florida patio is frequently left open for a water view. Sometimes rolling screens of structural glass may close this open side during cold weather.
Windows and doors may or may not be grilled in present day examples, but they must look across the court to pleasing compositions.
Below are listed essentials for your Florida patio.
Paving: In Florida the following materials are popular for covering the patio floor: Coralline Key Largo limestone, brick, glazed tiles, terrazo. Crab Orchard stone, simulated coral rock or combinations of these. Because of heavy traffic in a small space, grass will not survive, so its best use is in chinks between paving blocks.
Central Feature: A well or similar water feature is authentic, but sometimes a group of palms, a specimen banyan tree or sea-grape becomes the dominant plant of interest. Artesian water, frequently available in coastal areas, can be employed with telling effect as a part of the central feature. City water circulated by a hidden electric pump may bubble in a central pool, and move rapidly down a tiled runnel and return through a closed system.
Potted Plants: Dwarf palms in urns, seasonal bulbs, annuals for winter color and succulents for interesting leaf form are essential accessories. Wall brackets of wrought iron are sometimes installed in groups. Orchids, anthuriums, bro-meliads and other plants are hung in these brackets when they come into bloom. The tenderest, choicest plants will thrive in this little enclosed, air-still area where partial shade, humidity and moisture may be kept at optimum levels.
Shade: A tree whose foliage serves as a sector of living roof to cool a part of the patio and the house, but to allow a sunny corner for chilly days is desirable. This may be a native palm, a picturesque sea-grape or a dramatic gumbo-limbo.
Plants within a patio are for wall decoration, fragrance and color interest and must not encroach too heavily upon the space designed for human occupancy.
Plants for Florida patios must have certain specific characteristics if they are 'o be successful year in and year out.


They should lend a tropical atmosphere, endure restricted growing space, be tolerant of dry soils, full sun, high temperatures, drip from the eaves and, above all, they must be resistant to pests.
Plants that will hug the walls, and never sprawl are the best to use.
Perhaps a small patio might be adequately planted with a palm or two for shade and atmosphere, a pair of flowering vines for wall decoration, a collection of potted plants for color interest and some flowering tropical plants in iron wall brackets. Suitable furniture is needed to complete the patio for human enjoyment.
PLANTS RECOMMENDED FOR FLORIDA PATIOS
Palms
Cabbage palm Coconut Fishtail palm Paurotis palm Pigmy date Senegal date Sentinel palm Yellow palm
Tkopical Vines
Bougainvillea Ceriman Flame vine Golden chalice Hunter's robe Pandorea Philodendron Queen's wreath Rangoon creeper Stigmaphyllon
Groundcovers and Edgings
Dwarf lily-turf
Fig-marigold
Hedera
Pcntas
Peperomia
Pilea
Wedelia
Zoisia
Urn Subjects
Cacti Geranium
Caladium Sansevieria
Euphorbia Amaryllis
Orchids Annuals in season
Calla Bromeliads
Century plant Wandering Jew
FLORIDA'S PUBLIC GARDENS
Floridians are justly proud of their beautiful home landscapes and they boast, too, of the superb public gardens that are major tourist attractions here. Out Route 319 northward from Tallahassee, is one of the South's most beautiful gardens.


Florida Cypress Gardens
Bananas, tropical aroids and palms stamp this scene as typically Floridian.


Through the generosity of Mrs. Alfred B. Maclay, the beautiful plantation, Killearn Gardens, became state property in 1952. Thanks to masterful planning and expert maintenance, this marvelous garden has become one of the most delightful in the nation. Here may be viewed superb plant materials at their mature best. Palms, native flowering trees, massed azaleas and tree-sized camellias are employed with telling effect. In Tallahassee, also is located Florida State University, which is noted for its beautiful campus. Here, excellent well-grown specimens of species that thrive in western Florida are on display. In Gainesville, on the University of Florida campus will be found examples of mature plant materials in approved landscape uses. At all public institutions, persons in charge of the various plant cultures, will be pleased to show visitors around and to answer questions.
In St. Petersburg and in Sarasota are admission gardens in which may be viewed tropical plant materials in specimen status. Toward the center of the state at Winter Haven is renowned Cypress Gardens, noted for spectacular horticultural displays and aquatic shows. Not far away is Bok Tower, a secluded, restful sanctuary, in which may be viewed some excellent arrangements of plant material. On the east coast at Vero Beach is McKee Jungle Garden, a well-known admission garden that is popular with tourists. On U. S. Highway 1 at Stuart will be found Mr. Ed Menninger, The Flowering Tree Man, who will be pleased to show his collection of tropical trees to visiting horticulturists. In Miami, Bay Front Park is famous for tropical landscape plants at their mature best. Down the Homestead road is Florida's most famous arboretum, the Fairchild Tropical Garden. This tropical arboretum on the mainland United States, continuously expanding, is destined to be one of the great botanic gardens of the world. Palms, vines, shade trees and hibiscus, well-grown and carefully labeled, are seen here at their best. At Homestead, the State of Florida maintains a sub-tropical experiment station where excellent examples of carefully labeled Florida trees are featured. Many excellent nurseries in all metropolitan areas will welcome visitors to their grounds.


WATERING
Despite Florida's heavy rainfall, supplementary watering is needed during dry spells in autumn and springtime. Established palms and trees will survive, but lawns, shrubs and flowers will need irrigation to keep them in active, healthy growth. During spring and summer plants need more water than during cold weather when growth is arrested by lower temperatures. Yet it must not be forgotten that water is taken up by roots during cold weather and therefore plants must be supplied with adequate moisture at all times.
Annuals need most attention in the matter of watering and grasses require frequent irrigation for active growth and an attractive deep green color. Italian rye grass winter lawns need unusually large amounts of water.
Permanent underground irrigation systems, that can be controlled by a single, easy-to-reach valve, are desired by every home owner, but lacking this facility, it is desirable to have spigots arranged so that every part of the grounds can be reached by one fifty-foot length of hose.
Not only are sprinklers needed to supply water to all parts of the landscape planting during dry periods, but water under force is helpful in reducing red spider mites and thrips. During sunny, dry weather these pests can be very injurious to azaleas, camellias and other choice shrubs.
It is always better to soak the ground thoroughly than to sprinkle indifferently and often. Light sprinkling encourages shallow rooting whereas heavy soaking encourages the roots to strike deep into the earth. During dry periods which may occur in November-December and March-May, good results are had by weekly soakings when the hose is allowed to run two hours in each place before it is moved along. Good gardeners do not wait for their plants to wilt before irrigating, yet they are cautious not to over-water because they know that excessive soil moisture leaches away soluble nutrients and may cause roots to rot off. Discretion in this, as in all phases of garden maintenance, is needed.
Contrary to widespread opinion, watering gardens in full sunshine is not harmful. If it were fatal, few plants would be growing in Florida. There is less evaporation and water is utilized much more efficiently if it is applied just before






dark, but there is not the slightest danger of burning garden plants by watering at mid day.
PRUNING
In Florida, landscape plants grow very rapidly and for this reason frequent systematic pruning is needed.
For the most part, heading in to preserve natural form, rather than shearing to geometrical shapes, is preferred today. Standard hand primers are used to remove robust shoots well below the contour of the bush. When these heavy growths are severed down close to the ground, multiple growths will push out from latent buds and produce several twigs of normal size. Later these fine twiggy growths should be reduced without regular pattern and in moderation, so that the plant will not display an artificial, barbered look. Pinching, the removal of terminal buds with thumb and forefinger, should be practiced all through the growing season to encourage well-branched, compact plants. When terminal growths become woody and firm, pinching is discontinued to allow flower buds to develop.
The time when shrubs should be pruned will vary with several conditions. In general, it can be said that spring-blooming species should be pruned immediately after flowering. Bridal wreath, abelia, hydrangea, oleander and a host of others fall into this category. Because flower buds are formed during summertime, blossoms will be sacrificed if the plants are pruned in late summer. Crape-myrtle blooms on current season's wood, and it is standard practice to prune this southern favorite after the leaves are shed in the fall.
Coniferous evergreens and broadleaved species that are not grown for their blossoms, should be headed back all through spring, summer and fall when shoots grow out of bounds. Cherry-laurel, wax privet, wax-myrtle, podocarpus and the junipers can be lightly headed back periodically during the growing season so that the plants are kept shapely and compact.
Brown palm fronds should be removed with pruning saw or pole pruner and ladder as soon as possible.
Hedges need frequent shearing from early spring until autumn to keep them tidy and attractive. Hedge shears are accompanied by directions which state that trimming must be done while the new growth is lender and succulent lest the


jaws of the shears be thrown out of alignment. This manufacturer's warning, issued in the interests of their products, is sound horticultural advice as well, because clipped hedges so trimmed will be kept in best possible condition.
PRUNING SHRUBS INJURED BY COLD
Upon occasion, it is necessary to remove parts of plants that have been injured by low temperatures. Ornamental shrubs are not benefited by deferring this work, and so, the job might well be done within a few days after injury has occurred.
Take your pruning shears and nick along a frosted branch until the incision reveals healthy, green inner bark, then, drop somewhat below this point and make a clean, slanting cut. It is good practice to sever injured branches just above a shoot or healthy bud that points away from the center of the plant. For small wood, hand shears are used, for larger branches one should employ a pair of heavy lopping shears, and for members above an inch in diameter, a sharp, well-adjusted pruning saw is the accepted implement.
After pruning is complete, all wounds over two inches in diameter should be covered with tree wound dressing. These modern antiseptic paints are available under several trade names at garden supply stores or they may be obtained by mail order direct from the manufacturers who advertise in the national garden magazines.
Though we regret the devastating effects of frost it cannot be denied that the periodic cutting back which must follow improves the aspect of our gardens as plants are once again brought into proper scale relationship.
TREES
Trees are essential to the successful development of any landscape plan. Careful thought as to suitable kinds is one of the early steps in the development of a landscape planting. Suitable trees may be natives that are already growing on the property or they may be nursery-grown exotic species bought especially for the purpose. Trees relate the house to the garden and the land to the sky and scale relationship must be carefully considered. One must think in terms of mature sizes rather than of the little container-grown specimens that are


bought in nurseries. In Florida, many semi-tropical species grow rapidly and assume gigantic sizes in a comparatively short time. Many of these, too, cast very dense shade under which it is impossible to grow a lawn. These vigorous tropical trees are not suited to residential landscaping and their use must be limited to parks, arboretums and roadside plantings. Mature sizes will be indicated in the descriptive paragraphs which follow.
Shade is essential in Florida because of the large number of bright sunny days. Broadleaved evergreen trees may be chosen if year-round shade is wanted, while deciduous species are best in some positions so that sunlight may be enjoyed during the winter.
As suggested earlier, framing is an important function of trees in landscape design. Trees set toward the property lines on both sides, rather forward of the house, frame the dwelling and its planting to give finish and completeness that can be attained in no other way. For this purpose, small erect-growing, broadleaved, woody trees or palms should be chosen for most homes. Sometimes it is possible to keep existing native trees for these important positions, and in other cases it will be necessary to plant framing trees early in the landscape development.
Two or three somewhat larger evergreen trees set near the rear property line will furnish a background that gives solidarity and definition to the landscape plan. Frequently property may be acquired upon which such trees may be growing.
Hardiness, adaptability to one's soil type, long life, freedom from diseases and insect pests and resistance to strong winds are important considerations when selecting trees for home planting. Some species will be selected for their beautiful evergreen foliage, others will be wanted for their striking blossoms, and there are all-time favorites which are wanted because of the fruits which they bear. Trees discussed in the paragraphs following may not possess all of these characteristics, however, many will serve in the development of the basic landscape plan.
It must be remembered that many trees are protected by law and cannot be dug from the woods without permission of the property owner. Every right-thinking citizen will respect property rights and will ask permission to collect trees before going into a woodland with digging and pruning tools.


Wild trees, growing in competition with their neighbors, have far-reaching roots and it is impossible to dig them with satisfactory, compact root systems. From every aspect it is more desirable to buy trees from a reputable nursery. A nurseryman has transplanted, root-pruned, cultivated, fertilized, sprayed and irrigated his stock and his trees will attain maturity much more quickly than will trees of comparable sizes from the woods. Today, when container-grown stock is so widely available, small trees carefully taken from five quart or three gallon cans are unquestionably most desirable. When one of these is bought at a nursery, the attendant will cut the can so that it is a simple matter to set the tree, with intact, undisturbed root system upon arrival back home. This system of growing landscape material in tin cans also extends the transplanting season in Florida to include every day in the year. While it is considered best to transplant field-grown trees between December and February, container-grown stock with undisturbed roots, is transplanted successfully at any time.
Even before trees are purchased it is a good plan to prepare the planting holes so that locations will be ready for the trees at the right time. Dig holes that are large enough to contain the sizes which you plan to acquire, place the sandy native soil aside and fill the hole with a rich, acid mixture of compost and peat. Into this, mix a couple of handfuls of balanced commercial fertilizer that has been fortified with trace elements. This is long time insurance against deficiencies which may occur upon occasion. When planting trees, whether they be balled and burlapped, bare root or container-grown, be certain that they stand at exactly the same level at which they grew formerly. Too deep planting is harmful in many cases and must be carefully avoided. Allow water to flow in gently from the hose as the soil is shoveled in so that all air pockets may be eliminated and a close contact may be made between the roots and the soil particles. Finish with a saucer-like depression and fill this with water at least once each week that it does not rain.
Newly planted trees have low resistance and so it is recommended that the trunks be protected for the first two seasons. Beginning at the ground level make a spiral wrap upward until the branches are reached. Spanish moss, muslin, or paper may be used and it should be secured at intervals with cord or wire. After leaves emerge the following spring, loosen the wrap or


allow it to disintegrate gradually. This wrapping is good protection against sunscald, excessive drying and borers and it will materially aid trees in recovering from the transplanting operation.
Cutting back to reduce leaf-bearing surface in proportion to the loss of the roots is very important. Head in lateral branches at least half their length; perhaps remove some of the limbs close down to the ground. Do not prune the central leader, but allow the single terminal growing point to maintain its dominance.
Newly planted trees will not need to be fertilized during their first growing season because of the fertility of the soil into which they were set. However, during the following February, and annually thereafter, all trees should be fed systematically.
A mixed commercial fertilizer is applied in punch-bar holes around the tree. Use a heavy crow bar or similar tool to make holes about 10 to 12 inches deep concentrically around the trunk and then fill these holes with fertilizer. The number of holes and the amount of fertilizer to apply will vary with the species, age, soil type and other factors, but, generally speaking, a pound of fertilizer for each inch in trunk diameter might be about right. Of course, the holes should be equally distributed around the tree inside the drip of the branches.
Until shade trees, ornamental citrus and palms are well established, they should be grown in circles that are kept free of grass by frequent cultivation. Ordinarily these rings of cultivated earth may be five to eight feet in diameter, depending upon the species, the size of the individual, the fertility of the soil and other factors.
The best tool to use in keeping these circles free of grass is a sharp, longhandled scuffle hoe, the common goosenecked garden hoe being second choice. During the rainy season, shallow cultivation should be practiced every week or ten days while for the remainder of the year a light hoeing once a fortnight should suffice. So that feeder roots will not be injured, the soil must be flat-hoed, that is, the blade must not be allowed to cut deeper that an inch. Anodier reason for recommending the scuffle hoe is that it serves as a good edger to cut the grass around the periphery of the circle at each cultivation.
It is generally held that mature lawn trees look best when ihey grow out of unbroken turf, therefore grass may be allowed


to encroach gradually so that it grows up to the trunks after five or six years.
Lawn trees should need little pruning, but occasionally it is necessary to remove crowding, crossing or interfering branches or those that have been injured by cold or wind. Sometimes one of two leaders must be reduced so that Y-crotch may be avoided.
Sharp, well adjusted pruning saws, hand shears and loppers are necessary accessories. Smaller branches are headed in with the hand shears, or removed close to the supporting members with the loppers, while the pruning saw is used for larger wood. Always make a preliminary cut about a foot from the supporting member. This will prevent the heavy branch from carrying away a strip of bark when it falls. The final pruning cut, then, is made very close to the trunk. Painting the wound with a tree wound dressing or with paint is strongly recommended. This will help prevent checking and will assist in the exclusion of wood-rot fungi until callus can cover the wound.
Generally speaking, the best time to prune ornamental trees is just prior to spring growth or immediately after blooming.
Spanish moss, which grows so luxuriantly in parts of Florida, is harmful and must be removed annually if lawn trees are to be kept in good condition. This fast growing epiphyte casts heavy shade, forces growth outward and causes many small branches to die. The most satisfactory way to remove Spanish moss is by hand picking but this is laborious, and if there are many large trees, spraying is preferred. Lead arsenate sprayed on at the rate of one-half pound to fifty gallons of water will result in the death of all but about 5 per cent of Spanish moss. The efficiency of this arsenic killer will be increased if a cupful of detergent is added to the spray tank. Obviously, high pressure will be needed to kill moss in tall trees. The disadvantages of spraying for controlling moss are that it is troublesome, expensive and the garlands of dead moss hang in the tree for a long time. On the other hand, the disadvantages of hand picking are obvious and experienced persons know that a heavy infestation of chiggers or red bugs may result from a session of picking Spanish moss out of shade trees!
When fruit trees (oranges, avocados, mangos and pecans) are employed as lawn trees, they must be protected from insects


and diseases just as they are in commercial orchards. Un-sprayed fruit trees will not look thrifty and clean and they cannot bear abundant fruits of good quality. Most home owners cannot maintain equipment and hire help that is needed to apply insecticides and fungicides efficiently to mature fruit trees, so it is strongly recommended that local grove service organizations, nurseries, or tree maintenance companies be engaged to apply spray materials in the approved manner at the correct time. Your county or home demonstration agent or the secretary of the chamber of commerce can furnish names of approved service organizations.
If there is over half an acre in landscaped ground and it is desirable to do the spraying yourself, a wheelbarrow sprayer should be used. Single or double wheeled models with iron rims or rubber tires are available. Hand-operated models are efficient, capable of producing high pressure, they are easy to clean and easy to repair as they have a minimum of working parts. Advanced models have electric motors or gasoline engines to run die pumps.
If the yard is small and you have a yard man, a five-gallon, brass, knapsack-type sprayer will be a good buy, but if you must do your spraying unaided, a stirrup pump is good to have. The spray material is mixed in a water bucket, over the side of which the intake element of the stirrup pump fits. Fairly high pressure and satisfactory breakage of the liquid is obtained with these sprayers. Attachments screwed on to the garden hose will disperse insecticides and fertilizers with minimum effort on the part of the home owner.
Garden supply houses, retail nurseries, seed stores and mail order houses carry sprayers of the types mentioned. In the national garden magazines will be found advertisements of manufacturers of dependable spraying equipment.
Shade trees discussed in the following pages should not need regular spraying except as noted specifically in the descriptive paragraphs.
Trees Especially Recommended for Florida Homes
Acacia (Acacia spp.) 8-50 feet. These showy members of the legume family are noted for the large numbers of bright yellow blossoms and are available at nurseries in several species


and varieties. Mostly semi-tropical acacias must be grown in the southern part of the state.
Propagation is by seeds, as is the case with most legumes.
African Tulip-Tree (Spathodea campanulata)* 75 feet, is admired when its bright, orange-scarlet flowers are produced in sheltered places on Florida's lower coasts. There, it is employed both in dooryard and avenue plantings. The handsome, tall evergreen tree, though native to tropical Africa as the common name suggests, is widely distributed in the American tropics. This is a prominent arborescent member of the bignonia family, which is propagated by cuttings.
Almond (Terminalia catappa) 80 feet, is favored for avenue planting in tropical cities. Its striking horizontal branching, smooth, brownish-gray bark, and stiff, magnolia-like leaves account for its popularity. Principal color is contributed by
Black-Olive(Bucida buceras)
An excellent avenue tree or windbreak for the Miami area.
* Nomenclature follows manual of Cultivated Plants, L. H. Bailey, Macmillian, New York, 1949.


Cajeplt Tree(Melaleuca leucadendra)
A beautiful small tree that is outstanding as a specimen, street tree
or windbreak.


the leaves which turn red before being shed. This leaf fall may be caused in Florida by cool weather, in the Antilles by the excessive droughts which recur regularly. Though there are 100 species in Terminalia, T. catappa is the one most widely seen in the New World tropics. Propagation is by seeds.
Black-Olive (Bucida buceras) 70 feet. The native black-olive is in high favor in southern Florida because of its adaptability and great resistance to strong winds. Small leaves are clustered near the ends of the branches of the symmetrical, round head. As a street tree, windbreak or lawn specimen, this tropical evergreen is highly commended to home owners within its range. Identification may be made by the foliage described above, spikes of small greenish flowers and downy, curved, oval fruits.
Propagation is by seeds.
Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendra) 50 feet. A medium-sized tree of great distinction, the cajeput is a popular lawn specimen in central and southern sections. The thick, multiple-layered bark, the strict habit, the small, narrow leaves and the yellow-white, bottle-brush blossoms all contribute to make this one of our outstanding ornamentals and make identification easy. In some areas this Australian tree has established itself in great cultures which demonstrate its adaptability to conditions in Florida. Other species of bottlebrushes, are popular ornamental trees or shrubs.
All are increased by seeds.
Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) 40 feet. Well known as a beautiful, hardy, evergreen tree, the camphor is satisfactory on fertile soils that do not become excessively dry. Identification is by the camphor smell of crushed leaves. Unattractive yellow foliage and an unthrifty condition may be accounted for by a mineral deficiency in the soil or red spider mites attacking the leaves. Sulphur dust (325 mesh) or syringing with the hose are effective in reducing mites, but these controls are seldom employed for camphor trees. Florida red scale, diose rounded black dots with red centers, frequently attack camphor foliage. A white summer oil at 2%dilution will give good control. This type of scalecide is obtainable at your seed store under the trade name "Volck", "Niagrol", "Linoil" or "Sunoco." Complete


directions for use are printed on the labels. Parathion and malathion are scalecides but because of their toxicity to all animal life, precautions are necessary.
As they cast heavy shade and are voracious feeders, it is usually difficult to maintain a good lawn under healthy camphor trees.
Camphor trees do not transplant readily, and for this reason they are container-grown so they may be moved without disturbing the root systems. Seeds, employed entirely for propaga-
Camphor Tree(Cinnamomurn camphora\ Suitable for any section of Florida.


tion, are sown directly in these containers and the small plants thinned to one to each vessel.
Cassia is a genus of tropical trees rated very high by discerning gardeners. Cassia fistula, 30 feet (the golden shower), is popular in southern Florida. Like so many of the legumes, this tree flowers in early summer and so it is not well known to some winter residents. Grown from seeds, golden shower is easy to come by and well worth growing in frost-free sections. Cassia nodosa, 50 feet, is a beautiful pink flowering tree that has wide usefulness in many lands where it is a favorite door-yard and roadside tree. Perhaps, even more beautiful yet is the gorgeous apple-blossom cassia (Cassia javanica). 40 feet, rated very close to the top of all lists of worthwhile flowering trees.
Rainbow cassia, queen of them all, is a hybrid that is grown from air layers by some specialty nurseries in southern Florida.
This genus, wridi at least 400 species, has a tremendous potential for frost-free areas. In the section on shrubs will be found additional listings in this large plant genus.
Casuarina (Casuarina spp.) 70 feet and more. Adapted to the widest possible range of conditions, the casuarinas are the most numerous trees of southern Florida. C. equisetifolia, 150 feet, the species of open growth, withstands brackish soils and salt spray and is grown extensively near the seashore as clipped hedges, windbreaks and high screens. C. cunning-hamiana, 70 feet, is considered the most hardy and may be grown as far north as Gainesville, yet here it is killed back during most winters. C. lepidophloia, 60 feet, more widely planted than any other species, has an attractive dark green color, dense habit and produces quantities of root suckers. These become troublesome in backyard plantings yet they are used to increase this last kind, while the others are grown from seeds.
Chaste-Tree (Vitex agnus-castus) 20 feet. As a small dooiyard tree, the vitex is quite popular because of its attractive lilac blossoms. The 5-parted, lacy-digitate, deciduous leaves are beautiful during mid-summer when the fragrant 7 inch lavender spikes appear. A related species (V. trifolia


var. variegata), with white-margined, 3-parted leaves is popular as a small tree, shrub or clipped hedge. Vitex may be grown from softwood cuttings during summer. Identification is certain by the lavender spikes which appear in July.
Citrus Trees and their allies (Citrus and Fortunella species and hybrids) are among the most decorative of all of the broadleaved evergreen trees known to horticulture. As shade trees, for backgrounds, framing and as free-standing specimens, the oranges, tangerines, calamondins, kumquats, and their hybrids are widely employed in Florida home grounds plantings. In order that the health and beauty of the trees and the quality of the fruits may be of the best, a careful spray program (as suggested on page 23) is essential.
Citrus trees are usually sold as budded specimens and moved while comparatively small in size. During the winter they are moved with the greatest facility, but small orange trees
Australian-Pine(Casuarina cunninghamiana) This is the hardiest species of Casuarina.


can be successfully transplanted during any month in the year.
It is the custom to grow citrus trees in circles that are kept hoed free of grass. Thus, the trees can be cultivated and fertilized most efficiently. The turf may be allowed to grow close around mature, established calamondins, kumquats and sour oranges that are grown purely as ornamentals. There, fertilizers are placed beneath the sod in punch bar holes.
Cock-Spur Coral Tree (Erythrina crista-galli) 20 feet, is a woody member of the huge legume family which produces trusses of coral-red, butterfly flowers in springtime. Killed by frost, coral trees of all species are recommended for Tampa southward, however, they serve as renewing perennials in colder sections. Coral trees are increased by seeds and cuttings.
Crape-Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), may be seen as a shrub and as a tree in all tropical and semi-tropical regions. Flowering on current growth that elongates after leaves appear in springtime, the huge terminal panicles of white, pink, red or purple florets are bome at the beginning of the rainy season. Widely adapted to many soil types and different climates, this cosmopolitan tree is justly popular. This gardener will agree with the Superintendent of Hope Garden in Jamaica in his statement that the crape-myrtle is one of the finest flowering species for the tropics. Even more spectacular than the Chinese species above is the queen crape-myrtle (Lagerstroemia speciosa) 60 feet, from India and Australia. This is a tree which acquires a height of 60 feet and has upright growth which carries large, rough, deciduous leaves. These, which resemble huge guava leaves, may be as much as a foot in length. The terminal panicles, up to two feet in length, are produced by current growth and are made up of gorgeous, crape-paper blossoms about three inches across.
Powdery mildew may be controlled if the foliage is sprayed with Karathane at very first signs, and continued through the rainy season. Customarily crape-myrtles are headed back during early winter when the leaves shed. This makes for heavy bloom, a compact head and heavy, lush foliage. Suckers which spring up around the trunks during the growing season must be rubbed off while they are still tender. If allowed to remain, these suckers are very untidy and detract from the beauty of otherwise well grown crape-myrtle trees.


Dogwood (Curnus florida) 40 feet. Native to the hammocks of central and northern Florida, the flowering dogwood is well known and widely planted as a lawn specimen. Graceful, beautiful, in flower and fruit, small in size and attractive when not in leaf, this tree is strongly recommended to home owners within its range. Nursery-grown, grafted trees are suggested as the best for planting, and protection of the trunk against borers by wrapping with moss or paper is essential for the first 2 or 3 years until a canopy of leaves is developed.
Frangipanis, American trees or shrubs, which grow to a height of 15 feet, are much planted in tropical lands for their delightfully fragrant flowers. Plumeria rubra has 6-inch broad leaves with conspicuous marginal veins and red, pink or purple blossoms, while Plumeria alba has leaves half as wide, without the heavy veins along the edges, and, as the specific name implies, is typically white-flowered. The thick, fleshy, sausagelike branches support tufts of leaves near their tips and, in summertime, terminal clusters of spicy blossoms. Much planted in dooryards and cemeteries because broken pieces root easily, frangipani is among the most popular of small flowering trees in tropical America.
My first frangipanis came to me years ago from Hawaii when a friend went to a great deal of trouble to secure the succulent, sausage-like cuttings by air mail. Used in the Land of Aloha for making leis, frangipani is thought of perhaps, as an Old World plant, when actually, it is native to our own tropics.
Fringe Tree (Chionanthus virginica) 30 feet. The terminal clusters of glistening white blossoms that appear with, or just before, the leaves in spring are most attractive and account for the popularity of this small native. In the upper part of the peninsula and westward, the fringe-tree is successful when grown in fertile soil. The trees are grown from seeds.
Geiger Tree (Cordia sebestena) 25 feet. This native of the Florida keys is coming into its fair share of popularity with gardeners who live in die Palm Beach-Miami area. Of slender proportions, the Geiger tree has large, rough, opposite leaves that make for coarse texture. The showy orange colored flowers are borne in terminal geranium-like clusters in summertime.


Golden Rain-Tree (Koelreuteria paniculala) 30 feet. Well deserving its common name, this deciduous tree produces clouds of golden blossoms in October when garden color is so welcome. A second show occurs within a month as the seed vessels mature and develop their rosy-red colors. The dissected, compound leaves fall to allow the winter sun to penetrate beneath. Seedlings usually occur in great numbers under fruiting specimens.
Gumbo-Limbo (Bursera simaruba) 50 feet. Because of its bright tan bark that appears just to have been shellacked, and unusual knarled and bent branches, this native tree is highly prized and widely planted as a landscape subject in the Palm Beach-Miami area. Well adapted to this section, the gumbo-limbo is particularly decorative. Propagation is usually by seeds but cuttings, even in huge sizes, root easily.
Hibiscus Trees, in two species, both of which may be as tall as a three-story building, are worth growing near the peninsula's tip. Bodi resist salt and grow in alkaline soils. Mahoe (Hibiscus tileaceous), well established on tropical islands, has reclining branches and heart-shaped leaves like a linden. The single hibiscus flowers open yellow with maroon centers, and turn pinkish before Uiey close at day's end. Velvety fruits with persistent calyces follow. Tree hibiscus (Hibiscus elatus) is said to have larger leaves with longer tips, flowers which are red at first opening, turning dark maroon by twilight. The fruits, according to Hortus, do not have calyces attached, and this is the identifying character.
Holly (Ilex spp.) 15-50 feet. Beloved by all, the holly has come down through the ages as one of the most popular of all evergreen trees. Thirteen species are native to Florida and of these, six are classed as trees. Horticultural varieties of these and several exotic types that grow well here arc offered by nurseries. Good soil of acid reaction, an even supply of moisture are requisites for success. The berries are borne on pistillate trees and, to insure an abundance of fruit, one should be certain that a staminate tree of the same species grows in the neighborhood. Hollies arc protected by law and must not be collected without permission of the property owner. When everything is considered, cutting-grown or grafted, true-to-name.




While and green Bananas with Poinsellias, Bird of Paradise. Water Lilies and Bougain-villea at Cypress Gardens
Formosa Azaleas. Spirea, Liguslrum and Fig Vine at the home of Mrs. George Warren Welch in Gainesville


heavily fruiting trees from a nursery are much superior to those dug from the woods.
Our leading native species is the American holly, Ilex opaca. Some trees hear leaves that have hut one tiny thorn at the tip, while others have leaves that are heavily armed with many spines. The latter type more nearly approaches the traditional English holly, so varieties with armed foliage are most popular for clipping at Christmas time. Horticultural varieties of the American holly that bear spiny leaves are Croonenburg, Lake City, Savannah, Howard and Taber No. 4. East Palatka fruits heavily every year, but as the leaves are almost smooth, this variety does not closely resemble the English holly type. It is free fruiting well down the peninsula and is grown from cuttings taken in May or June.
Another native species of interest is the dune holly, Ilex cumulicola. Thriving on the light sand of interior dunes, this small tree has merit and certainly should be more widely grown. Attractive upright habit of growth, thorny leaves, heavy bearing and the ability to thrive on light sands are characteristics of this good tree. Typically the leaves are quite heavily armed, as is the commercial variety Fort McCoy, but occasionally an individual with almost smooth leaves is found.
The dahoon holly. Ilex cassine, which grows throughout the state, may be classed either as a shrub or a small tree, in cultivation it is usually the latter. This species has long, narrow, unarmed leaves and small red berries that are borne in dense clusters. As the dahoon prefers moist soil and will endure inundation, it is useful in gardens that experience occasional high water.
While the three are the principal tree hollies native to Florida, several oriental species have become popular here. Perhaps the most spectacular of all is the very beautiful, heavy-fruiting Japanese holly, Ilex rotunda. Introduced by the Bureau of Plant Introduction, this striking tree has demonstrated its ability to thrive in our state. Because of rapid growth, its extra heavy clusters of bright red berries and beautiful evergreen foliage, this Japanese holly is one of the most useful of the genus.
Propagation of tree hollies is accomplished by rooting cuttings.
Jacaranda {Jacaranda acutifolia) 50 feet. This is central


Florida's most spectacular flowering tree. In springtime the trumpet-shaped blue flowers make a never-to-be-forgotten display. Native to South America, this large sprawling tree with fernlike, deciduous leaves demands little attention save for careful planting and adequate moisture during the first f<>w years. Jacarandas are grown from seeds.
Jerusalem-Thorn (Parkinsonia aculeata) 30 feet. The lacy foliage, pendulous habit, attractive yellow blossoms and green bark of the Jerusalem-thorn make it quite unusual and attractive. For all parts of the state, this graceful little hardy tree is of great ornamental value and is highly recommended. Germination of the hard, brown seeds is hastened if the seed coat is broken by gently rubbing with fine sandpaper. Sow directly in containers, so that the roots of young trees will not be disturbed in transplanting.
Kapok Tree (Ceiba pentandra) is the standout in tropical locations from the aspect of grandeur. Growing to fantastic heights, with huge buttressed trunks, this giant is spotted at once by all travelers to warm countries. When the leaves are gone clusters of small white or rose flowers appear, later to be followed by the fruits which bear the kapok of commerce. Every tropical metropolis (Miami, Nassau, Havana, Kingston) has its famed ceiba tree that is adequately exploited as a tourist attraction. The mammoth kapok is too large for home plantings and must be restricted to municipal properties where il may assume its mature stature of one hundred twenty-five feet!
Licnum-Vitae (Guaiacum officinale) 25 feet, is a small, slow-growing tree that has foliage of fine texture, a very compact round head, beautiful small blue blossoms and bright yellow fruits. All of these characteristics combine to make the lignum-vitae a tree of great distinction and of more than ordinary usefulness for small residential properties. It is native in Caribbean islands and up into the Florida keys.
Lignum-vitae grows very slowly from seeds.
Lily-Thorn (Catesbaea spinosa) 15 feet. Indigenous to southern Florida, this little tree can be used when fine scale is indicated. The branches are wiry and heavily armed with
sharp spines about an inch in length. In late summer the creamy-white blossoms are produced in profusion. Lily-thorn is grown from seeds.


Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) 30 feet. Over most of the state a favorite dooryard tree is the loquat. The attractive, dark, evergreen leaves, the decorative, delicious fruit and its small size commends the tree to home owners. Easily and quickly grown from seeds, this Chinese fruit tree can be had by everyone.
Unfortunately, loquats are host to fireblight, a disease which may cause branches to die back for a considerable distance. Infected branches must be cut back well into healthy wood by ster-ilized shears as soon as the disease is discovered.
Lychee (Litchi Chinensis) 30 feet. An attractive, round, medium-sized tree which is a fast grower. Symmetrical in growth and makes a dense head. Leaves are shining green above and pale green beneath. Flowers are often a foot long, greenish white without petals. Fruit is most attractive, borne in large colorful clusters. It is a rough-skinned fruit, raspberry red in color and pleasing to the taste. When dried it is the Litchi nut of the Chinese. Grows well in Central and South Florida.
Magnolia {Magnolia grandiflora) 100 feet. Justly famous throughout the South, this native is one of our choicest trees. Evergreen, trim and graceful, the tree is highly desirable at any time of the year, but in springtime, the huge, creamy-white blossoms put the magnolia in a class by itself. Choice varieties are grafted but the species increases naturally by seeds. From Gainesville westward the deciduous oriental magnolias (M. liliflora, M. stellata, M. sotdangeana, and others) succeed if given fertile, acid soils and adequate moisture. Deciduous magnolias are increased by leafy, softwood cuttings taken in June-July.
Magnolias, of all classes, are forest dwellers, and thrive with a thick, spongy blanket of leaves and twigs over their roots. While clean cultivation is satisfactory, an organic mulch is preferred. Most serious pest is magnolia scale, a large, turtle-shelled scale insect that succumbs to 2 percent oil emulsion.
Magnolias may be secured as balled and burlapped specimens from nurseries in late winter and early spring, and moved during that season with complete success.
Mahogany {Swietenia mahogani) 60 feet. The native mahogany is frequently to be seen in the Miami area as a street tree. Although evergreen, the tree does not cast dense shade and lawns can be grown under it quite well. Mahogany produces seeds in great abundance which germinate and grow rapidly.


Mango {Mangifera indica) 50 feet. While essentially a fruit tree, the mango is very ornamental and is much used as a street tree and lawn specimen from Vero Beach around the coast to Tampa. Seedlings will grow easily and rapidly, hut improved varieties, purchased as grafted trees, are strongly recpmmended because of the superior quality of their fruits.
Insects and diseases must be controlled by an adequate spray program (pages 22-23) and a mulch of leaves and grass clippings, and 3 annual feedings are recommended for choice budded stock.
Macnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Jliis is a young specimen of the South's favorite tree.


Mimosa Tree (Albizia julibrissin) 40 feet. The mimosa tree is so much at home here that it has become naturalized. It is popular because of its small size, horizontal branching and attractive, pink, globular blossoms which are borne for a long period each springtime. The graceful, fern-like leaves are produced in March-April. Propagation is by seeds, and growth is rapid even under trying conditions. For the first two or three years, clean cultivation will encourage strong growth. Thereafter, the mimosa tree will succeed in turf.
Mimosa wilt is a serious disease that is becoming widespread in Florida. When trees decline and die, there is nothing to do but to replace them with other species or with wilt-resistant mimosa trees that have grown from root cuttings.
Cottony cushion scale, may, upon occasion, attack trees which lack vigor. Volunteer seedings are found under old trees in great profusion.
Moreton Bay Chestnut (Castanospermum australe) 60 feet. This is a tall tree that has attractive, evergreen, pinnate leaves and showy racemes of yellow flowers in springtime. Highly thought of by those who possess it, the Moreton Bay chestnut should succeed on good soils of acid reaction in warmest sections of the peninsula.
Propagation is by seeds, which incidentally, earn the tree its name, as they are edible when roasted.
Mountain-Ebony. Orchid-Tree (Bauhinia spp.) 6-20 feet. For the warmer sections this spectacular tree is unsurpassed when a small flowering specimen is wanted. All of the species, B. monandra, B. variegata, B. purpurea, and others which are available are well worth growing as lawn specimens for Orlando and southward. Hong Kong orchid tree (B. blakeana), is the most spectacular member of the genus. Small trees from grafts or air layers may be found in specialty nurseries in the Miami area. All have deciduous leaves that are cleft in two parts like the hoofs of cattle, and attractive butterfly-flowers.
Bauhinias are easily grown from seeds, but as they do not transplant readily, it is suggested that the seeds be sown directly in expendable containers so that the small plants can be transported and set without disturbing the roots.
These diminutive trees will not grow thriftily nor will they bloom profusely if heavy turf covers their roots. Clean culti-


vation or a mulch of leaves together with 2 springtime feedings will assure healthy growth.
Oak (Quercus spp.) 100 feet. Several native species have been extensively planted as street, roadside and shade trees. Their complete adaptability is beyond question and they are resistant to disease, insects and drought. Some thirty species, both evergreen and deciduous, are credited to Florida and these range in size from the dwarf running oak to the giants of the hardwood hammocks.
The most desirable species is the live oak (Quercus vir-giniana), identified by deeply corrugated gray bark of main trunk and structural branches and by the thick, rough leaves that are shiny above and downy beneath, with inward rolling edges. This well known tree has the longest useful life of all southern species and does not reach senility and break up when less than fifty years old as may the laurel and water oaks. True, it grows less rapidly than the others, but, given good care, its rate of growth is satisfactory and, at the half-century mark it does not present hazards to public safety and necessitate costly replacement. It is suggested that moss be removed annually either by spraying with lead arsenate or hand picking so that normal growth will not be impaired. This clean-up. together with annual feeding of young live oaks is all the care that is needed.
Trees can be collected from the woods or grown from acorns.
Pine (Pinus spp.). Native to our state and thriving under most trying conditions, the several species of pines are without superiors for home grounds plantings. Where lofty, narrow-topped trees that cast light, broken shade can be used* the native pines will serve well. To break the direct rays of the sun over azalea or camellia beds and for backgrounds, these coniferous trees are unexcelled.
Transplant very small seedlings during midwinter or at the beginning of the rainy season and retain a ball of soil of sufficient depth to encompass all of the far-reaching taproot.
If mature pines exist on your building site, be certain that stout protective barriers of 2-inch lumber be built around them so that it will not be possible for the contractor to pile building materials or drive heaw trucks over the roots close to the


trunks. Unfortunately, many valuable pine trees are fatally injured by construction crews.
Poncam (Pongamia pinnata) 75 feet. One of the best trees for street and windbreak planting because of its strength, this \ustralian tree is highly recommended. Beautiful and fast-growing, the pongam is well adapted to conditions in southern Florida where it seeds abundantly. These produce seedlings easily. Identification is by the drooping branches, pinnate leaves and pinkish, pea-like flowers in pendant clusters.
Redbud (Cercis canadensis) 40 feet. Always popular because of its delightful spring color, this small native tree is widely planted as a front lawn specimen. For the best soil types that occur in northern Florida, the redbud cannot be too highly recommended. The beautiful pink pea-like flowers, which precede the leaves in springtime are well known to all residents of northeni Florida. The trunks of newly transplanted specimens should be wrapped, rings of lightly cultivated earth should surround the trees and an annual application of a balanced fertilizer should be made in punch bar holes as suggested on page 21.
Propagation can be accomplished by sowing seeds, but nursery-grown trees of improved types are grafted.
Royal Poinciana (Delonix regia) 40 feet. This, Florida's most spectacular tree, is tropical in its requirements and is found only in the warmest sections. The lacy, compound leaves appear in springtime, and as the rains commence, the flaming orange-red trusses are produced. To visit Florida's southernmost cities in June-July is a rare treat as then, the flambouyant trees are at their best. Usually increased by seeds, there are color variants from the orange-red type.
Rubber Tree (Ficus spp.) 80 feet. This genus, containing several hundred species, is well represented by many ornamental kinds in tropical Florida. Typical of most species is rapid growth, great size and aerial roots that drop from the larger branches to form multiple trunks. F. benjamina, the weeping laurel, is favored as a beautiful avenue tree; F. elastica, is the huge, big-leafed India-rubber tree; F. religiosa, is the sacred bo-tree. Other interesting and worthwhile species are widely available and much used in southern Florida. All tropi-


cal Ficus trees require much space for full development and are not recommended for small properties. All of the rubber trees are increased by cuttings or by air layers.
Sapodilla (Achras zapota) 50 feet. This is a beautiful evergreen tree native to the American tropics that has found a congenial home and a host of admirers in the Miami area. The brown, sandy-skinned fruits arc edible and latex yields gum chicle from which chewing gum is manufactured. Highly thought of as a lawn specimen or shade tree, the sapodilla is widely planted within its climatic range. It is notably tolerant of salt-laden winds of considerable force.
Trees are easily grown from seeds.
Royal Poinciana(Delonix regia) Southern Florida's most spectacular tree blooms in the summer.
Satinleaf [Chrysophyllum oliviforme) 60 feet. This small native tree is well named because the under sides of the leaves are a soft, glistening, copper color. For the warmest places, this indigene is a distinctive and worthwhile lawn specimen.
Propagation is by seeds.


Sea-Grape (Coccoloba uvifera) 20 feet. Native to the coastal dunes, this stout, much-branched, small tree is frequently seen a- a landscape subject in its native habitat. I ttcrly distinctive in appearance, because of its contorted branching and its stiff, circular, red-veined, 8-inch leaves, the sea-grape exerts a strong tropical influence and is much appreciated in resort areas. Summertime dividend is the abundance of purple fruits which are decorative and excellent for jelly as well.
Propagation is by seeds which are found singly in the purple fruits.
John Wat kins
Robber tree* often have very attractive branching.


42
|)i:i'\im\ii:\t ok \(,i;ici i.ti \iv.
Tabebuia is a genus of American evergreen or deciduous trees to which botanists ascribe a hundred species. Generally producing terminal panicles of trumpet-shaped flowers and behaving well on poor soils that may be deficient in moisture, this large genus of bignoneaceous trees promises much for gardens and municipal plantings in frost-free sections. Best known, perhaps is silver trumpet-tret; {Tabebuia argentea), 25 feet, with stiff awkward branches, deciduous compound leaves and yellow trumpet flowers in showy clusters.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) 75 feet. This massive tropical fruit tree is quite ornamental and is frequently seen toward the tip of the peninsula. The leaves resemble those of the
John Wat kins
Sea-grape is one of Florida's best landscape planN
for *ea*ide planting.


black-locust, the pods contain an acid flesh that is used in ades and sauces.
Propagation is by seeds.
Torreya (Torreya taxifolia) 50 feet. One of the rarest of Florida trees, this member of the yew family, is to be found only in a restricted area on the banks of the Apalachicola River. The cone-shaped crown is made up of drooping branches furnished with sharp, evergreen leaves, which have a distinctive odor when crushed.
PALMS FOR FLORIDA LANDSCAPES
Nowhere in the continental United States is it possible to grow the wide variety of palms that can be successfully cultivated in our state. Mainly tropical in distribution, these graceful trees do much for Florida's distinctively different landscape. Many native and exotic species, varying from dwarfs of a few feet to magnificent trees which attain a height of 100 feet, are widely employed with telling effect in this semi-tropical tourist land. They are appreciated for their full worth, and yet there are thousands of homes that boast no palms, many others that might be enhanced by additional specimens.
Palms may be used in many ways in landscape plantings. Species in varying heights can be so planted as to form attractive groups; they may be used as enframement and background for the home, but the most telling way that palms can be employed is as avenue trees. Tall, clean-growing, single-trunked specimens, planted at 25-30 foot intervals on either side of an avenue make a picture dial is not soon to be forgotten.
TRANSPLANTING
Palms may be transplanted at any time of the year, but the beginning of the rainy season is most favorable. Then, root action is most rapid and the plants rally from the transplanting operation most quickly.
Several weeks before you plan to move a palm, prepare the planting hole as described on page 20.
Palms are transplanted in all sizes from small seedlings to finished landscape specimens; size being limited only by the


11
DEPARTMENT OF \<;KIU l.TI RE
mechanical equipment that is at hand to transport the trees. The size of the root hall is much smaller, in proportion, than that habitually taken with a typical woody tree. In fact. Unroots are chopped a foot or so out from the trunk.
It is well known that palm roots will emerge higher and higher above the crown and, therefore, it is common practice to set palm trees slightly deeper than they grew. Use good judgment as it is easy to plant too deeply. Too shallow planting is dangerous and must be avoided.
When the palm is in place (slightly deeper than it grew) fdl with the fertile soil that was taken from the enriched hole, allow water to flow in from the hose to eliminate air pockets and to make a good contact between the roots and the particles of soil. Finish the job by tramping to firm the soil and then build a saucer around the tree to hold water. Once each week that it does not rain, fill this depression with water.
Because of the drastic reduction in the volume of roots, it is accepted practice to remove the leaves at transplanting time. Tie the uppermost leaf stems around the bud as pro-
Dwarf palms are valuable as patio subjects and lawn specimens.


tection. Every effort must be made not to harm tliis vital structure. When a large palm is felled, it must be guyed so that it does not fall hard and harm the bud.
Palms over eight feet in height should be firmly braced. Three 2 x 4's spiked to the trunk at one end and then firmly .-'cured to "dead men" in the ground are the most satisfactory braces. If these timbers remain in place for about 18 months a heavy root system will have been built to hold the palm against trong winds. Choice exotics may be braced each autumn as routine protection.
AFTERCARE
Young palms will grow rapidly to attain mature landscape size if they are encouraged by proper cultivation and fertilization. As already discussed on page 21 it is a good plan to keep a circle of clean earth around your young trees for the first few years. Cultivate a five-to-seven-foot ring frequently widi a scuffle hoe, allow the hose to run slowly for several hours (all night is better) once a week during dry spells and fertilize in punch bar holes during the growing season.
Palms that have been neglected can usually be reconditioned by filling rotted cow manure into post holes that are dug at intervals around the trunk.
Most palms are particularly resistant to diseases, insects and drought, and once they become established, the lawn can be allowed to grow up around the crown and little routine maintenance is required.
Several species of the genus Phoenix together with the pindo palm are likely to be attacked by the palm leaf skeletonizer. This destructive insect despoils the leaves by its feeding during the warm months. In order that damage may be kept to a minimum, an arsenical spray, benzene hexachioride, or DDT with an adequate spreader should be applied at intervals during the spring months. Fronds that have been made unattractive by the palm leaf skeletonizer should be promptly removed with a pruning saw or pole pruner.
Palms are increased by seeds and by division. As soon as they are ripe, the seeds should be sown in beds, pots or boxes of fertile soil. Cover the seeds to a depth approximating their diameter and cover the whole with one thickness of burlap.


This cloth will conserve moisture and discourage birds and rodents. In winter the seed beds must have full sun, but during the warmer months, they must be protected by cheesecloth or slat shade. At the beginning of the rainy season, the burlap should be renewed so that the seeds will not be washed out of the soil.
Palm seeds vary greatly in the length of'time required for germination. Some will sprout in a few weeks, while others will require as much as one and one-half to two years to come up. It is quite evident, therefore, that close attention is needed until the seedlings are well under way.
Seedlings may be potted shortly after germination; they must be potted before the roots attain much length. Then they may be set individually in earthen flower pots, felt plant bands, wooden boxes or discarded refinery cans. The soil used in these containers should lie a fertile organic mixture of slightly acid reaction.
Coconuts are set in rows and buried only one-half their thickness, the upper portions being fully exposed. Germination should be complete in about five months.
Division is the method of vegetative propagation in which a plant is divided into several units. Species of Phoenix, Chrysalidocarpus, Rhapis and Caryota may be so multiplied when well rooted offsets are seen to be available. If the specimen is in a container, it can be turned out and cut into units with shears or an axe, if it is a lawn specimen, sturdy offsets several years old can be severed from the old tree with the aid of a sharpened leaf from an automobile spring, large chisel or heavy crowbar. The several divisions may be potted or set directly in the garden where they are to grow.
Temperature, although only one factor that limits the distribution of plants, is a very important one. Along the coast from Jupiter to Sarasota, it is possible to grow all but the most tender of tropical palms, as one progresses northward and inland, the list become notably shorter, until, finally, upon reaching the Georgia line, only about a half-dozen species can be recommended as being fully hardy in all winters.
Hardiness is very important as these plants can be considered only as permanent elements in the landscape scheme. Once chosen to serve a definite purpose in a planting, trees must be hardy in all weathers. The following list contains the most popular palms arranged by hardiness zones:


PALMS FOR FLORIDA LANDSCAPES Arranged by Hardiness Zones Group A. Tropical palms for warmest coastal positions. Coconut Sargent palm
Fiji fan palm Sentinel palm
Madagascar palm Silver palm
Merrill palm Plus all of the palms in
Paurotis palm Group B and C
Royal palm
Group B. Half hardy palms for the lower half of the Florida peninsula.
Canary date palm Pigmy date palm
Chinese fan palm Queen palm
Gru-gru palm Senegal date palm
Fish-tail palm Plus all of the palms in
Hispaniolan palm Group C.
Group C. Hardy palms for gardens throughout Florida.
Cabbage palm Rhapis palm
Date palm Saw palmetto
Eropean fan palm Washington palm
Pindo palm Windmill palm
Cabbage Palm (Sabal palmetto)* 80 feet. The hardiest of our native palms, this well known species grows well throughout die state. Tolerant of a wide variety of soil types, salt spray and brackish water, the cabbage palm well deserves its universal popularity. Two exotic species of this genus, 5. causiarum from Puerto Rico and S. umbraculifera from His-paniola are out-sized avenue palms, more tender than our cabbage palms, that are sometimes seen in botanical collections.
Canary Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis) 60 feet. Hardy over the Florida peninsula, this huge pinnate-leaved palm has been widely planted. Because of its massive trunk, low, drooping leaves and its susceptibility to attack by the palm-leaf skeletonizer it is not recommended as a dooryard tree. Until it attains some size its branches interfere with traffic and it cannot be recommended as a street tree. For municipal properties and large acreages its monumental size is well adapted.
* Nomenclature follows Manual oj Cultivated Plants, L. II. Bailey, Macmillan, New York, 1919.


Chinese Fan Palm (Livistona chinensis) 50 feet. This is a beautiful fountain palm that has become popular in Florida gardens because of its attractive leaves and comparatively small size. Enduring a few degrees of frost, mature specimens are to be found in several communities of the upper peninsula. In central Florida, and southward from there, Chinese fan palm is perfectly hardy, well adapted to soils and climate and grows like a native.
The pretty fan-shaped leaves, deeply pleated, and shining green, are displayed in attractive fountain arrangement. The pendulous, once-split leaf segments, bright green leaf-stems with small, green, curved thorns at Uieir edges, and the absence of curling, gray filaments characterize the Chinese fan palm and distinguish it from the more common Washington palm. Furthermore, the Asiatic species has a more slender trunk that is prominently ringed and more heavily furnished with brown fiber around the boots.
In most nurseries, young trees can be bought in egg cans. Because young plants are injured by hot sun, transplants must be protected by a lath- or burlap-screen fitted above the foliage.
Coconut (Cocos nucifera) 100 feet. The native coconut palm with its tall leaning trunk, immense leaves and spectacular fruits lends a tropical aspect that can be equalled by no other plant. As a street tree, lawn specimen or background subject this palm is unsurpassed and. can be recommended without reservation to all who live south of Fort Pierce and Palmetto.
Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) 100 feet. The species that produces the date of commerce is occasionally seen as a single specimen in Florida, but because of the high humidity here, edible dates are rarely produced.
European Fan Palm (Chamaerops humilis). 30 feet. This is Europe's only contribution to Florida's palm flora. Growing naturally in a temperate climate, this'dwarf fan palm will endure temperatures experienced in all sections of Florida.
Although there is only one species of Chamaerops, there are many varieties, some are tine dwarfs, others may attain heights of thirty feet. Foliage variations, too, are notable. There is one characteristic which is constant for Cliamaerops humilis, and that is the habit of producing suckers from the






base of the stem. Though variations in stature, foliage and fruit there may be, European fan palm invariably grows in heavy suckering clumps.
As an urn subject for terrace or patio this dwarf, fine-scale palm is popular, as it can be left outside all winter.
Fruits are produced in Florida, from which young stock can be grown, but an occasional plant to give a friend can be obtained by carefully dividing off a basal sucker that has become well rooted.
Fiji Fan Palm (Pritchardia pacifica) 30 feet. One of the most graceful and distinctive of all, this tropical palm with its beautiful pleated fan leaves folded to wedge-shaped outline is well thought of in southern Florida. Easily injured by cold and by strong winds, the Fiji fan palm must be grown in protected locations.
Fish-Tail Palm (Caryota spp.). Very satisfactory for the lower east and west coasts and for the warmest parts of the ridge section, these distinctive ornamental palms have gained wide popularity for the curiosity of the pinnae which resemble the tails of ornamental gold fishes. Caryota mitis (25 feet), the smaller species suckers readily and may be increased by separating these small offsets. In addition to its value as a garden tree, this species is grown in urns for indoor decoration during the winter tourist season.
Gru-Gru Palm (Acrocomia sclerocarpa) 40 feet. This unusual palm from the American tropics, with its single massive trunk and dense crown of soft, feathery fronds, resembles the well-known queen palm, but it is set apart by the murderous thorns which grow out from the trunk. These vicious spines must be clipped off to a height of seven feet so that all danger of injury is eliminated. Resembling, as it does, the queen palm, and growing to comparable height, the gru-gru may serve well as a free standing specimen, or as a framing tree in the out-of-door living area of a plant enthusiast.
With good care, young plants grow off rather quickly.
Madagascar Palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) 20 feet. As an urn subject and patio plant, this clump-growing, yellow-stemmed palm from Madagascar is extremely popular. Because it requires moist, rich soil and freedom from frost and salt spray, the areca palm is limited in distribution as a garden


plant. Wherever it will grow successfully, however, it is very well liked and is strongly recommended. Identification is positive by the yellow leaf-stems.
Merrill Palm (Adonidia merrillii) 25 feet. In high favor in southern Florida for street and lawn plantings, this exotic species is being substituted for the. larger growing royal palm. The trunk is stoutly erect, tapering toward the top, and strongly ringed, giving much the same effect as the famed royal palm. The medium-sized fruit clusters bear fruits, about an inch in length; these are a bright cherry-red, that glistens in the sunlight to enhance the tropical scene and to appeal strongly to visitors.
In the limestone soils of Florida's tip, growth is eminently satisfactory. As a lawn specimen near a low, rambling house, this small species would be preferred to the massive royal palm. As a framing tree, and for background too, it is equally effective.
Parlor Palm (Neanthe bella) 6 feet. This diminutive, feather-leafed palm has become so popular in southern Florida that nurseries must grow slock rapidly to supply the demand.
Though parlor palms reach a height of 6 feet out of doors under best conditions of growth, container-grown plants are nearer half this size. They grow from a slender, ringed trunk and produce beautiful little feather-leaves widi a dozen opposite pinnae. Narrow, thin, dull green, symmetical in array, diese feather-parts give the palm its charm, which incidentally, is quite universal in its appeal.
Intolerant of direct sun, bright, reflected light and dust-dry sand, this plant is best suited to use in containers in the protection of a patio or screened porch where the environment may be modified to its needs. Apparently, overwatering can be harmful too, as can a soil that is severely acid in reaction.
Paurotis Palm (Paurotis torighti) 30 feet. In high favor for landscape plantings, this clump-growing, fan-leaved palm from southern Florida and the West Indies is found as a specimen in some of Florida's most beautiful gardens. Paurotis palm tolerates alkaline soil, salt wind and poor drainage.
Of easy culture, tolerant of reasonable amounts of salt drift, the principal requirement of the Paurotis palm is freedom from frost.


Most wild cultures have been depleted, but cultivated specimens arc available at some landscape nurseries within the palm's range.
Pigmy Date Palm (Phoenix roebeleni) 7 feet. The best liked ol all dwarf palms, this tiny, feather-leaved species, with petioles heavily armed with sharp spines, has many attractive characteristics. As a pot plant, patio subject or as a part of the landscape planting, the pigmy date is quite worthy of the high esteem in which it is held. A partially shaded spot in which the soil is fairly rich and slightly acid in reaction is to the liking of this plant. This accounts in part for its wide acceptance as a patio subject and as a northside plant in the foundation planting scheme.
Subject to several species of scale insects, the pigmy date should be protected by several applications of a white summer oil during the winter months. Container grown specimens, apparently most prone to scale attack, can be covered efficiently if die foliage is swirled about in a deep container of a 2 percent oil mixture. For individuals growing in the open ground, the oil must be applied by a mechanical sprayer, of course.
Pindo Palm(Butia capitata) Blue-green leaves recurve sharply toward the ground.


52
DEI' \KTY1K\T OK \OKICl ITL'RE
Pindo Palm (Butia spp.) 30 feet. Extremely"hardy, and therefore capable of being grown in all sections, this South American palm can be depended upon to succeed in every garden. The pendant, blue-green leaves arise from stout trunks to arch sharply downward. Because of this low, spreading habit, the pindo palm requires much space and is not adapted for planting along streets, walks or in small dooryards. Very effective in palm groups, however, this type is recommended for parks and estates. Formerly this palm was erroneously known in the nursery trade as Cocos australis. Seeds may require 18 months or more to germinate.
Queen Palm (Arecastrum romanzoffianum) 40 feet. Central Florida's most popular palm, usually called "Cocos plumosa" is a native of Brazil. Wherever citrus will grow successfully, the queen palm is highly recommended as an avenue tree, a lawn specimen, or as a background subject. Here it serves well as a substitute for the royal palm whicb is recommended only for the most nearly frost-free sections.
The beautiful queen palm is central Florida's most popular palm.
Rhapis Palm {Rhapis spp.) 10 feet. This genus is composed of dwarf palms with fine, reed-like canes that form clumps by means of stolons. Very satisfactory as tubbed specimens, patio plants or as a part of the foundation plantings, these hardy little palms can be depended upon throughout Flor-


ida as they are hardy to cold, hut they must he grown in shady locations. Propagation is accomplished by dividing old clumps.
Royal Palm (Roystonea regia) 100 feet. The massive tapering, cement-grey trunks, the clean appearance, the bright green crown shaft, and attractive crown of dark green, pinnate leaves have universal appeal and make this the most popular of all palms within the state. Classic examples of the effective use of the Cuban royal palm as an avenue tree are well known to everyone who has visited in our southern Florida cities. Indigenous to moist, rich soils of Collier County, the Floridian royal palm (Roystonea elata) is best adapted to such locations. Somewhat taller than the Cuban royal, thickened mostly toward the upper part, with shoulder at the top, and fruits that are nearly globular are characteristics which identify our native species. This species is less widely planted as a street tree than the Cuban royal, but it is the one seen at the famed Hialeah racecourse.
Sabal Palms (Sabal spp.). In addition to the native cabbage palm several exotic species of this genus are occasionally seen as specimens. The Hispaniolan palm (5. umbraculifera) and the Puerto Rican hat palm (5. causiarum), both attain heights of 50 feet or so and are characterized by very stout trunks and huge, grayish, fan-shaped leaves. These are striking trees that are effectively employed as specimens or for avenue planting. Sabal peregrina is planted in Key West and the West Indies.
Sargent Palm (Pseudophoenix sargentii) 20 feet. Native to Caribbean islands, possibly, also Florida's keys, this little palm resembles a scale-model royal palm. To 20 feet in height with a ringed trunk only a foot thick, and pinnate leaves that are grayish-green and about 7 feet long. Positive identification is by the branched cluster of orange-red fruits that is sent out among the leaves. Useful because of its small size and moderate growth rate, Sargent palm is recommended for moist, shady locations in the area below Palm Beach and Fort Myers.
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) 3 to 8 feet. The saw palmettos are thought of as noxious weeds by stockmen and farmers, but they do have definite landscape value. When one is building on land on which they grow, clumps can be left to good advantage as they blend in well both as a foundation


,) 1
in I'Mitmknt ok \<;ki<:u.ti uk
Kasha
liov.il palms arc favored for avenue planting in southern Florida.


subject and as a member of die informal shrubbery border. A tree-like form with erect trunk is occasionally found and this makes an attractive fine-scale specimen palm.
Senegal Date Palm (Phoenix reclinata) 20 feet. A leaning palm that grows in large clumps made up of many slender trunks finds wide usage as a patio specimen as well as a lawn tree. This picturesque, easily grown palm, is highly commended for gardens south of Gainesville. Phoenix rupicola which grows with a single slender trunk is a palm of fine scale often used in landscape plantings.
Sentinel Palm (Howea spp.) 35 feet. Formerly called Kentias in the florist trade where tubbed specimens are widely employed for decorating, the two species of Howea have become well known. They are occasionally seen as lawn specimens in the Miami area but they have not been widely planted out of doors in America.
Silvek Palm (Coccothrinax argentata) 25 feet. This slender, fine-scale palm is native to the Bahama Islands, the Florida Keys and adjacent mainland. The very slender trunk is topped by a small head of circular fan leaves 2 feet across which are silvery white beneath. Occasionally used as a landscape specimen in that section, the silver palm is distinctive and unusual. The black fruits of half an inch across, said to be edible, are used for increasing silver palms.
Washington Palm (Washingtonia robusla) 100 feet. This fan-leafed giant of northern Mexico grows very well in Florida's humid climate where it attains a height of nearly one hundred feet. Hardy in the peninsula, tliis monumental tree finds its greatest use for avenue planting. Identification is positive by the harsh thorns which are on both edges of the leaf stalks.
Windmill Palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) 30 feet. This is a slow-growing fan-palm from eastern Asia that grows by an erect trunk which is always clothed with an abundance of black, hair-like fiber, even after the boots slough off. This single, hirsute stem gives the little palm a distinctive appearance that makes it highly acceptable as a free-standing specimen for small home grounds. Sometimes it is worked into informal shrubbery borders for accent. In northern Florida, and in the


extreme western part of the state, where palms are all too seldom used, the windmill palm has value, and grows in several gardens there with telling effect.
Windmill palm is the exception to the rule that palms for northern Florida will grow south too. This Asian species thrives in the northern tier, yet it does poorly in southern sections and is not recommended there. It is rare and, very few nurseries stock the windmill palm.


TREES AND PALMS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS Trees and Palms for Avenue Planting
common name page
African tulip tree.............. 24
Almond ............................ 24
Black-olive........................ 26
Cabbage palm .................. 47
Cajeput ............................ 26
Cassia ........................ 28, 72
Coconut ............................ 48
Dogwood .......................... 31
Holly ................................ 32
Live oak .......................... 38
Magnolia .......................... 35
Mahogany ........................ 35
common name pace
common name page
Mango .............................. 36
Merrill palm .................... 50
Pongam ............................ 39
Queen palm ...................... 52
Redbud............................. 39
Royal palm ...................... 53
Royal poinciana................ 39
Rubber tree...................... 39
Sapodilla .......................... 40
lamannd.......... ................ 42
Washington palm.............. 55
common name page
32 33 34 34 35 35 49 35 35 36 50 37 37 50 51 52 39 52
Acacia .............................. 23
Almond ............................ 24
Black-olive........................ 26
Cabbage palm .................. 47
Cajeput ............................ 26
Camphor .......................... 26
Cassia ........................ 28, 72
Chaste-tree........................ 28
Chinese fan-palm ............ 48
Citrus................................ 29
Coconut ............................ 48
Crape-myrtle .................... 30
Dogwood .......................... 31
European fan palm .......... 48
Frangipani........................ 31
Gru-gru palm.................... 49
Gumbo-limbo.................... 32
Fiji fan-palm.................... 49
( Continued
Holly ...................
Jacaranda ...........
Jerusalem-thorn ...
Lily-thorn ...........
Loquat .................
Lychee.................
Madagascar palm
Magnolia .............
Mahogany ...........
Mango .................
Merrill palm .......
Mimosa tree.........
Mountain-ebony ...
Paurotis palm .....
Pigmy date palm .
Pindo palm .........
Pongam ...............
Queen palm .........
on next page)
Trees and Palms for Lawn Specimens


common name page
Redbud ............................ 39
Fish-tail palm .................. 49
Royal palm ...................... 53
Sapodilla.......................... 40
Sargent palm.................... 53
Satinleaf .......................... 40
common name pace
Sea-grape ........................ 41
Rhapis palm .................... 52
Senegal date palm............ 55
Sentinel palm.................... 55
Silver palm ...................... 55
Windmill palm ................ 55
Trees and Palms for the Seashore
common name page
Almond ............................ 24
Cabbage palm .................. 47
Cajeput ............................ 26
Casuarina ........................ 28
Coconut ............................ 48
Gumbo-limbo.................... 32
Live oak............................ 38
Loquat .............................. 35
Magnolia .......................... 35
Mahoe .............................. 32
Mahogany ........................ 35
common name page
Acacia .............................. 23
Cajeput ............................ 26
Cassia ........................ 28, 72
Chaste-tree........................ 28
Crape-myrtle .................... 30
Dogwood .......................... 31
Frangipani........................ 31
Fringe tree........................ 31
Geiger tree........................ 31
Golden rain-tree................ 32
Jacaranda ....................... 33
common name page
Paurotis palm .................. 50
Pindo palm ...................... 52
Rubber tree...................... 39
Sapodilla.......................... 40
Sargent palm.................... 53
Saw palmetto.................... 53
Sea-grape ........................ 41
Senegal date palm............ 55
Silver palm ...................... 55
Washington palm.............. 55
common name page
Jerusalem-thorn................ 34
Lignum-vitae .................... 34
Lily-thorn ........................ 34
Magnolia .......................... 35
Mimosa tree...................... 37
Moreton Bay chestnut ...... 3"
Mountain-ebony................ 37
Queen's crape-myrtle........ 30
Redbud ............................ 39
Royal poinciana .............. 39
Tabebuia .......................... 42
Flowering Trees


SHRUBS IN FLORIDA LANDSCAPE PLANTINGS
Shrubbery is considered an indispensable part of suburban living today. Through countless successful demonstrations, through the many useful articles in garden magazines, through the work of die garden clubs, and by means of superlative plant material, Floridians have carried this concept through to a state of near-perfection that was not dreamed of two generations ago.
Generally speaking, landscape material can be set about two feet out from the house and drip lines of the eaves are disregarded. When below-floor ventilators are present, in die rear of the house, carry the plants out in small promontories to allow for the circulation of air and the entry of workmen.
No plant should be set closer to a choice specimen than five feet, lest tliis specimen be crowded out of symmetrical shape.
Planting intervals, for best effects in the base planting, should be comparatively short. Semi-dwarf species such as boxdiorn, lime-berry and Kurume azaleas may stand perhaps two feet from their neighbors. More robust growers should never be less than three feet, and when there is no objection to a spotty effect for the first season, a four-foot planting interval may be employed.
Arrange shrubs about on die beds for best landscape effect, mark around the root balls or containers and then turn out the soil and commence to plant. Make certain that shrubs are set no deeper than diey grew. If die plants are container-grown or bare-root, it is easy enough to use the soil line as the depth gauge, but if the stock is balled and burlapped, there is often the tendency to cover the collar of burlap around the crown and, as a result, the shrubs will be set too deep. To avoid this possibility, cut the roll of burlap away and then the surface of the original soil can be seen. Set die shrubs, so diat diis is very lightly covered when planting is finished. Of course, too shallow planting must be avoided.
Finish by firming the soil with your feet and soak the entire bed dioroughly. Run the hose for a couple of hours or so each week diat it does not rain.
For satisfactory growth, lawn grass must be kept out of shrubbery beds. Frequent, systematic edging is necessary during the summer months so that the grass is kept outside the


drip of the outer branches. If this is carefully attended to, danger of injuring shrubs with the lawn mower will be eliminated.
Shrubs will grow^best under a mulch of oak leaves, peat, pine straw or compost. Clean cultivation, with a sharp scuffle hoe is acceptable for the most robust species, yet mulch is preferred for choicer kinds.
An attractive outdoor living room enclosed by informal shrubbery borders.
Because most shrubs that we grow in Florida prefer a slightly acid soil, the beds or planting holes should be well prepared some weeks in advance of planting.
First remove all concrete and mortar that has been left by the contractor. As many small fragments will pass through the tines of a rake, it is recommended that careful hand picking be resorted to in the area immediately around the house that landscape plants are to occupy. The presence of lime-bearing materials will injure many choice shrubs. Next, remove the soil to a depth of a foot or so and replace it with a mixture made up of acid peat, hammock soil and cow manure. As this fertile mixture is shoveled into the shrubbery beds, sprinkle on some commercial fertilizer that is fortified with minor elements.
Shrubs, properly planted, will not need to be fed until their second growing season. Then, during January, apply an acid, balanced commercial fertilizer. Some gardeners broadcast the plant food directly on top of the mulch and wash it


part way through with the hose, but this gardener holds that fertilizer is much more efficiently utilized if it is placed in punch bar holes that extend well within the root zone. Again at the beginning of the rainy season ornamental shrubs should receive a second yearly application of a balanced fertilizer.
Within recent years several fertilizer companies have formulated special mixtures for azaleas and camellias. From experience and observation, these are reliable and to be recommended. Not only are these special acid, slowly available fertilizers very good for azaleas and camellias, but they are recommended for gardenias, hollies, hibiscus, magnolias and all types of choice landscape material.


Allam an da (Allamanda cat hart tea) Huge waxy, yellow flowers are produced the year around.
highly commended.


SHRUBS RECOMMENDED FOR FLORIDA HOMES
Abelia (Abelia grand iflora). Small, shiny foliage, bright crimson twigs, and clusters of white blossoms subtended by pinkish calyces make abelia a very choice shrub. Its best growth is attained in sunny locations in the northern part of the state, where it is accepted as one of the best plants for hedge making.
Hardwood cuttings, lined out in mid-winter should root satisfactorily and grow into landscape material during the second season.
Clean cultivation is usually practiced to keep abelias free from weeds and grass, but these shrubs, like all others, grow well under a mulch of oak leaves, peat or compost.
Spraying is usually not required, but systematic pruning is needed to head in succulent canes that push out in springtime.
Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica). The yellow-flowered ullamandas are among the most colorful and free-growing of the tender flowering shrubs. Vine-like if not injured by cold, or cut back in pruning, these vigorous tropical climbers quickly grow to a large size in the warmer sections. The variety Hen-dersoni, with its huge flaring trumpets of gold is the most popular allamanda and most widely grown.
The true purple allamanda (A. violacea) from Brazil should not be confused with the rubber vine (Cryptostegia), which is sometimes sold under this designation. Allamanda neriifolia has small yellow blossoms and narrow leaves and does not become a vine.
Allamandas are easily increased by cuttings and ordinarily are grown under clean cultivation. Generally, pests and diseases are of little concern, though the plants are killed by frost.
Aralia (Polyscias spp.). Its strict habit, ability to thrive in poor soil and intense heat and its striking foliage of many patterns has made aralia one of southern Florida's most widely planted shrubs. As a narrow, tall hedge or screen where space is limited this tropical shrub serves admirably. Identification is positive by the many prominent lenticels along the stems.
Hardwood cuttings, stuck right where a hedge is wanted, root quickly during the rainy season, pests are no problem, but aralias are very tender to cold.


Azalea (Rhododendron spp.). Throughout the South countless millions of azaleas flower each spring and the fame of these plants has spread to every part of our nation. If one is careful about the preparation of the soil and the growing position, these choice evergreen shrubs can be enjoyed in all sections of our state north of Tampa.
A rich but well drained soil of high organic content, acid in reaction (pH 4.5-5.5), is essential as is broken shade for most light sandy soils. In western Florida on fertile soils when properly mulched with oak leaves, pine straw or compost, azaleas grow quite well in full sun. An abundant supply of moisture that can percolate beyond the root zone is needed if good bloom is expected.
Azaleas are effectively used in bold groups of a single color or grouped for color sequence. As specimen plants and as edgings, certain varieties are very strikingly employed.
Azalea blight or azalea flower spot is a devastating disease which is rather widespread in Florida during certain seasons. Some years azalea blight is non-existent, the next it may be very severe. When the disease is present the blossoms look exactly as though they had been drenched with boiling water. Expanding buds are infected and, as a result, normal bloom is not possible.
It has been demonstrated that complete control is possible when die recommended spray program is followed. Spraying commences as soon as color shows and is repeated every three days until the last blossom is shed. Dithane, zinc sulphate and a spreader may be obtained in a kit that contains the correct amount of each ingredient together with complete instructions for the preparation and application. It is probable that research now in progress will result in the formulation of other materials that will be useful in controlling this virulent disease.
In order that full coverage by fine droplets be obtained, a wheelbarrow or power sprayer must be used. Small hand knapsack sprayers do not atomize the liquid sufficiently. As the fungus lives over beneath the plants the mulch under the azalea bushes must be thoroughly drenched.
Mushroom root-rot occasionally causes the death of azaleas. The organism carried over on oak roots, causes one or two canes in a clump to die gradually, and these are followed by


others over an extended period. Occasionally the typical mushroom growths are found under infected plants. Pruning out the dead branches is of no value in controlling mushroom root-rot. If you are certain that a given plant has died from this cause, other azaleas should not be used for replacement.
The principal pests of azaleas are red spider mites and thrips. Neither will become a problem if azaleas are syringed frequently during dry weather. In the event that red spider mites become established, Kelthane will eradicate them.
Upon occasion azalea defoliator appears. This large caterpillar is controlled by DDT or toxaphene. Azalea galls are grotesque proliferations which occasionally appear and are easily controlled by hand-picking. Be certain that the galls are completely destroyed, to prevent re-infection.
Azaleas of all types have the characteristic of producing heavy, succulent canes during the spring flush, and these vigorous shoots grow out beyond the contour to form that undesirable, two-storied effect. In order that this condition may be avoided the shoots must be pinched before the terminal bud reaches the height of the upper branches. The thumb and forefinger should be used several times during the spring and summer months to execute this simple but necessary act of regulatory pruning. In the event that these strong, irregular shoots were not pinched back while they were succulent, it will be necessary to employ the pruning shears to shape the plants. Azaleas must be pruned before August lest flower buds be sacrificed in the process.
Propagation may be accomplished by taking tip cuttings in June or by wrapping a wounded branch in moist sphagnum moss or by covering a partially cut branch with sandy soil.
Native Azaleas, Rhododendron aiislrinuin, R. canescens and R. serrulatum are protected by law which makes it a misdemeanor to dig plants and cut flowering branches.
Boxthorn (Severinia buxifolia) is one of the choicest shrubs for central Florida. The glossy oval leaves closely packed on fine, thorny branchlets, are supplemented many months in the year by attractive globular jet-black fruits. Much branched, slow-growing, shade-tolerant, amenable to shearing, this citrus-relative is most highly commended to all gardeners


south of Gainesville. Scale insects must be controlled by two annual applications of Volck or malathion and clean cultivation or mulching is accepted.
Boxthorn is usually grown from seeds.
Boxthorn(Severinia buxifolia)
A dense, slow growing, hardy shrub of the citrus family that is excellent for foundation plantings, hedges or specimens.
Boxwood (Buxus microphylla) is one of the very best dwarf hardy shrubs for the northern section. Slow growing, of fine texture and deep green color this broad leaf evergreen is recommended for northside plantings and for shady plant bins. There are several varieties, and Harlan boxwood is said to be more resistant to nematodes than others. A deep organic mulch is advocated, spraying is usually unnecessary.
Brazilian-Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius). Tall screens and windbreaks are effectively formed by planting the attractive red-fruited Brazilian-pepper at six-foot intervals. This husky evergreen is suited to the citrus belt and must be pruned frequently if it is to be kept below tree size. Thrips, which may cause leaves to shed may be controlled by frequent syringing or by a nicotine or rotenone spray. Lawn grasses should


be hoed back from die base of the plants and clean cultivation used to encourage robust growth.
Seeds or cuttings can be planted for new stock, the latter being preferred so that fruiting individuals may be perpetuated.
Bridal Wreath (Spiraea spp.). For Gainesville northward and westward the several species of spirea are popular as garden shrubs, blooming dependably each spring. For masses of glistening white in informal shrubbery borders, these deciduous shrubs are unsurpassed. Pruning must be done just after flowering lest bloom buds be sacrified. A mulch of organic matter over the roots, or hoed earth may be used at the discretion of the cultivator.
Spireas of all types must be grown from softwood or hardwood cuttings.
Aphids, which frequently infest succulent, new shoots, may be controlled by nicotine dust, nicotine spray, or rotenone dust.
Camellia (Camellia japonica). Long considered the aristocrat of shrubs in the South, die japonica has been a part of rural life since antebellum clays. The compact growing habit, the beautiful glossy foliage, and the blossoms that appear in winter and early springtime account in part for the popularity of this attractive shrub.
Like azaleas, camellias require a fertile soil that is acid in reaction and retentive of moisture. In making up the planting holes, the mixture must be acid in reaction. This will be assured by the liberal use of peat and the omission of materials that are known to contain lime. Camellias must always be set at the same level at which they grew originally. Deep planting will result in the decline of vigor and the eventual death of a plant.
Adequate moisture that percolates through the soil is needed. A lack of drainage will result in the loss of roots and this will be manifested above ground by a generally unthrifty condition, leaf-fall, bud-drop, dead twigs and in time, death.
In the peninsular part of the state choice camellias will grow in broken, shifting shade, such as is cast by native pines, palms or the smaller deciduous oaks. On the belter soils of western Florida many beautiful camellias are thriving in full sun.
In any position, an organic mulch is recommended for growing camellias as garden shrubs. Small plants in nursery formation are grown under clean cultivation, but in landscape


plantings a thick mulch of oak leaves or peat is highly recommended by all authorities.
An acid fertilizer, possibly one of die azalea-camellia specials, may be applied in punch bar holes around the plants in January. Ajiother application may be made at the beginning of the rainy season, but it is suggested that no stimulants be given after mid-summer lest the plants go into winter with immature wood and thus be liable to winter injury.
Aphids will cause new leaves to curl downward and then to be malformed permanently, so these pests must be eliminated by spraying with malathion at very first signs.
As with azaleas, red spider mites are occasionally to be reckoned with during dry spells. They can be forestalled by syringing the leaves thoroughly when watering, yet if mites become established, they succumb to sulphur dust. Kelthane used at the rate of a teaspoon to a gallon of water will kill mites. Repeat in two weeks to kill young mites that have hatched in the interim.
Scale insects of several species are forever a menace. Starting in February and again in May and perhaps in September or October, a 1% or a 2% oil emulsion may be applied with a good sprayer. Because the leaves lie close together, shingle-fashion, diligence is needed to get complete coverage. Remember a scale insect must be covered with an insecticide if it is to die. If just a few bushes are in your collection and scale becomes very bad on one of these, a sure way to get a cleanup is to mop the infested leaves with cotton dipped in the 2% oil emulsion spray. Cautiondo not apply oils during very hot or very cold weather.
Under several brand names, these white summer oils are for sale at your garden supply house. Parathion is sometimes effective against certain camellia scales and may be used where there is no danger to humans and higher animals, and malathion, less harmful to humans, is favored by some experts.
Camellia twig blight or dieback is a disease of great concern to fanciers. A leafy twig of current growth wilts and dies and the brown leaves hang in place. Sometimes a large branch may be lost and, upon occasion, an entire plant.


As this is written no preventive measures have been worked out and the best we know to do is to remove infected wood as soon as possible. Use your pruning shears to nick along the branch and when you come to ihe normal, healthy, green inner bark, make a sharp, slanting cut. Be certain to destroy the dead twig and sterilize your shears by dipping in alcohol after each cut, as twig blight is transmitted by pruning tools. The wounds thus made should be mopped with paste of Bordeaux mixture, wettable sulphur, or with a wash of Fermate. Pruning is usually not needed by camellias, yet rampant shoots formed in late summer should be pinched to keep the plants compact.
Yellow mottling has long been observed in camellia foliage and it is of virus origin. It was demonstrated by grafting that seedlings with normal green leaves could be induced to have tip growths that were yellow-spotted. It is widely acknowledged that the presence of this virus will cause flowers of scions worked upon an infected stock to come marbled widi white. This virus apparendy does not impair vigor, but perhaps infected plants are less attractive in the garden than those with typical dark-green foliage. A word of encouragementthe virus is not spread by touch.
Most dyed-in-the-wool fanciers are deeply affected when blossom buds are frozen. In spite of precautions, all too often buds of late varieties will be injured. The over-worked bedspread is of little use and cannot be recommended. A tarpaulin supported by a wooden frame, under which a lantern burns will work, but construction of Uiis type is a big job for a short period each time cold threatens.
For smaller bushes of rare varieties, one could construct pyramids of cheap fiberboard or insulation board. These would nest and could be stored in die garage when not in use. Placed over favorite plants on the afternoon before frost is anticipated, and heated by one-hundred watt bulbs at the ends of extension cords, diey should carry flower buds through for the specialty shows.
In the landscape, the uses of camellias are many. Next to die main doorway, the compact growth and lustrous foliage of camellias can be used to full advantage. Where a pillar-type is wanted, Professor C. S. Sargent or Elena Nobile are desirable. If, because of the architecture, a dwarf, globular form is needed, Aspacia, Bella Roman a, Gaiety and Magnoliae-


flora should be considered. For a heavy mass at the corner of the house, there is upright Herme, Aunt Jetty or Mathotiana.
If there is an expanse of unbroken masonry, surface decoration can be provided by informal, spreading Lady Clare or Gigantea of the japonica group and Mininoyuki and Hinode-gumo of the sasanqua varieties. A dramatic solution to the monotony of an uninteresting plane is an espalier of Camellia sasanqua. This, trained carefully to an exact pattern, can be strikingly effective. Espaliers may be procured from several specialty nurseries. Although sasanquas are usually used in espaliers, japonicas can also be trained to grow in fixed patterns if one begins with young plants.
When espaliers are used, no other plants should be placed too close to them lest they detract from the design's measured beauty.
Under high windows on the utility side of the house, either species may be planted. Among the japonicas best suited to such locations are Donckelaari and Magnoliaeflora while sasanquas give us Hebe, Usu Beni and Hiodoshi.
When camellias are used as neutral fillers under windows or by a screened porch, they may be set about 3 feet apart. Some plants must be given at least 5 feet lest their lower branches be shaded by encroaching shrubs. Espaliers must have 10 feet to themselves.
To define boundaries of formalized settings, clipped hedges of Camellias sasanqua cannot be surpassed. While a double, staggered row of plants at 18-inch intervals is ideal, a single row will serve almost as well. The plants must be pinched frequently to induce thick branching and clipped regularly during the growing season to insure a thick, compact hedge.
Aldiough japonicas can be maintained as clipped hedges, the sasanquas are better because their finer texture makes clipping easier. Briar Rose, Dainty Bess, and Rosea are excellent. Bulbs, spring-flowering perennials, drifts of annuals planted in front of a camellia hedge make an enchanting sight.
Camellias may be used to enclose the service area because they are hardy, evergreen, compact growers that will make a permanent barrier. Now that some of the robust, upright growers may be had at reasonable cost these beautiful shrubs can serve the utilitarian purpose of enclosure, and at the same time, furnish endless blossoms for cutting. In order that unity


Camellias may be grouped to separate one area from another.
Cherry-Laurel(Primus carolinianasheared)
This is a good hedge or specimen plant as it can be kept in any desired shape by shearing.


may be served, plants of one single variety should be selected for the service-area screen. Sarah Frost, T. K. Variegated, Herme and Elena Nobile might be considered for this use, if space is not at a premium; while narrow hedges of tightly clipped sasanqua varieties like Rosea, Texas Star or Dawn would be best where there is but little room for the utility screen.
Cape-Honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis). Orange-red little trumpet flowers make diis well known, vine-like shrub very showy most of die year. As a screen or division plant it serves well because of its adaptability to conditions in lower Florida. Clean cultivation is usual for cape-honeysuckle, and generally, insects and diseases are of no concern. Identification is positive by the toothed pinnate leaves and clusters of orange funnel-shaped flowers and six-inch pods which follow.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.
Cassia (Cassia bicapsularis). Cassia is a sprawling shrub which produces its golden butterflies in October, in northern Florida to be ended by the first frost; in southern Florida to continue to the New Year. Other yellow flowered, shrub-cassias (C. alata, C. bahamensis, C. corymbosa and more) are being widely planted in Florida gardens. Tender to cold, diey die back after frost, yet come back lustily to produce Uieir yellow blossoms again in season. All shrub cassias are increased by seeds and repay hoeing and fertilization with increased flowering.
Century Plant (Agave americana) is not a shrub, but since it is used as such in Florida landscaping it must be included here. Native, resistant to salt and strong wind, tolerant of poorest sandy soils, even those which are strongly alkaline, this succulent perennial has been widely planted diroughout die Peninsular State to enhance the tropical atmosphere. The huge, upright leaves are green or banded in cream and are tipped widi vicious thorns. These must be clipped off as soon as leaves unfurl. There are many other species of century plants, and countless horticultural forms. Tall candelabra flower stalks may be sent aloft after ten to twenty years of favorable growing conditions.
Century plants are increased by suckers which spring up around old plants and by plantlets which develop in the inflorescence.






Cherry-Laurel (Primus caroliniana). Although this plant becomes a good sized tree in our hardwood hammocks, its greatest landscape use is as a shrub. Beautiful, shiny, evergreen leaves are held in good condition the year around and, during springtime, the new growth is especially attractive. As a sheared hedge or as a formal, clipped specimen, cherry-laurel is particularly recommended in northern Florida. Wilted foliage, poisonous to livestock, must not be placed where grazing animals can reach it.
Small plants may be collected in hammocks or they may be grown from seeds.
Cocculus (Cocculus laurifolius). Because its long, oval evergreen leaves are carried well to the ground by the drooping green branches, this shrub is approved by those who admire good landscaping material. For foundation plantings and for screens, this tropical shrub is offered by most central Florida nurseries. Ordinarily cocculus is kept free of grass and weeds by flat hoeing and no pests or diseases are of great importance.
Softwood cuttings root easily in summertime.
Coontie (Zamia floridana) is a native cycad that is admired for its lacy, soft texture and.ils ability to grow in dense shade. Trunkless, coontie sends up its fernlike leaves from the large, subterranean stem. Seeds are used for increase and transplanting is extremely difficult because of the deep, far-reaching roots. Florida red scale is a major pest that must he controlled by several annual sprayings of an oil emulsion.
Copperleaf (Acalypha wilkesiana). Much planted in southern Florida, this large-leafed, fast-growing ornamental is well known to all gardeners in that section. Copperleaf grows easily from cuttings and will succeed in any situation that is not too shady.
As a foundation material it is too coarse, usually gets out of scale, certainly it serves as too strong an accent. The green acalypha with cut and dissected leaves marked with cream-color is A. godseffiana heterophylla.
Crape-Jasmine (Ervatamia coronaria). With its opposite, glossy, evergreen leaves and fragrant white flowers, crape-jasmine is often confused with cape-jasmine. The milky juice easily distinguishes the former, which also has larger, glossier leaves, smaller flowers, less hardiness to cold, and greater toler-


a nee of nematodes in sandy soil than has gardenia. Usually the double-flowered form is grown, and the scent is more marked at night. The petals are ruffled or craped, giving rise to the name crape-jasmine. A sunny location is best for diis fine large shrub, which is best used in borders. Propagation is by softwood cuttings.
Croton (Codiaeum variegatum). The world's most colorful and variable shrub comes into its own in southern Florida. Here, crotons in endless variety, are seen in every conceivable landscape usage. Good taste insists that they are much over used. Their garish, boldly variegated colors demand that they be strong highlights in a green composition.
Crotons are easily grown from cuttings stuck in sand at the beginning of the rainy season.
Eugenia (Eugenia spp.). This is a diverse genus that has several important representatives in soudiern Florida. The pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) is in favor as a hedge material because it shears well and bears delicious and decorative fruits. Brush-cherry (E. paniculata and varieties), is a favorite landscape material that is frequently seen as sheared accent plants in foundation plantings. Both types are carried by southern Florida nurseries.
Eugenias are propagated by seeds and softwood cuttings, and hoeing and mulching will be satisfactory.
Feijoa (Feijoa selloiviana). Hardy throughout our state, diis South American fruit plant is admirable for landscape use as well. The gray-green leaves with whitish under-surfaces make this a good plant for contrast and transition.
Seeds are sown when the fruits ripen in summertime, and seedlings grow very slowly.
Firethorn (Pyracantha spp.). Of all fruiting shrubs that grow in the cooler sections of Florida none is more showy during the winter months than the beautiful fire-thorn. Nurseries supply the kinds that are known to be successful in this area. As large pyracanthas do not transplant well from open ground, it is suggested that small plants in expendable containers be selected.
This member of the rose family may be infected by fire-blight upon occasion and. as a result, an appreciable portion


of a plant may be lost. A mild copper fungicide directed into the open blooms is said to arrest the development of organisms brought in by bees and flies. As recommended for fire-blight in die loquat, the prompt removal of infected wood is imperative. Use a sharp pruning implement to sever the dying member well below the point of apparent infection and paint the wound with sulphur paste or Fermate solution. Remember that the fire-blight organism is carried on pruning tools, so immediate disinfection in alcohol is necessary.
A lace-bug, which attacks fircthorn foliage, will be controlled if a spray containing DDT, malathion or parathion is applied in April, June, and August. Wax scale, though not easy to eradicate completely, can be held in check by two annual applications of a 2% white summer oil or by parathion.
As fircthorns grow very rapidly within their climatic range, pruning is usually necessary. They flower (and.therefore fruit) on current buds that arise from fruiting spurs one year old or older. It is obvious, then, that these handsome shrubs cannot fruit the season after they have been cut to the ground. A system of renewal pruning is advocated to keep firethorns within bounds yet to assure annual displays of the colorful fruits. One or two large canes can be sawed off near the ground one winter, allowing several to remain intact to carry their fruit; then when the new canes arise and develop fruiting spurs, the ones which had been left originally may be discarded.
It is known that firethorns grow best, flower and fruit most satisfactorily when lawn grasses are kept out of the root zone and a mulch of oak leaves or peat moss is used as an insulation against excessive heat and to assure a moist growing medium.
Named varieties are propagated by cuttings, yet seeds wiD germinate well and produce fast-growing young stock.
Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides). Ranking with the camellia, rose and hibiscus, the gardenia has long been a favorite dooryard shrub in the South. Usually grown as a free-standing specimen, this beautiful broadleaved evergreen is much planted by urban and rural homeowners alike.
While botanists place 60 species of subtropical plants of the Eastern Hemisphere within this genus, only 2 are prominent in American horticulture. Gardenia jasminoides, from China, is the species to which belong all forms: those available as cut


flowers in retail shops and those obtainable as landscape shrubs in nurseries and chain stores.
A second species, Gardenia thunbergia, is important because it is used as a root stock for outdoor gardenias in southern Florida, as it resists attack of the rootknot nematode and tolerates the hot, inorganic sands. Quite unprepossessing in appearance and easily killed by low temperatures, this tropical plant serves only as the below-ground portion of southern Florida gardenias.
In its natural habitat in China the gardenia grows in a deep fertile soil that is slightly acid in reaction, retentive of moisture and well supplied with organic matter.
If it is feasible to treat the gardenia plot with a soil fumi-gant in advance of planting it is an excellent plan to do this. Garden supply houses stock chemicals that will kill nematodes and other soil-borne troubles. Patented applicators are furnished when the chemical is bought.
A location in full sun well away from trees or large shrubs is recommended. The north side of a tall building is not the best location because of the absence of sunlight there, nor is the south wall of a building a good location for gardenias he-cause of the excessive heat of summertime and water loss to the sun.
The light, shifting shade cast by tall pine trees is good for gardenias and the fallen needles make an excellent mulch. Open-headed turkey oaks and tall palms cast mild shade in which gardenias grow well.
Gardenias thrive on lake banks if the water level is constant. The plants will be killed, however, by inundation.
A heavy mulch, four to six inches deep, of oak leaves, pine straw, tobacco stems, cane bagasse, peanut hulls or other organic material will be reflected in vigorous growth and heavy flowering. Cultivation should be unncessary under this system. In large nurseries where gardenias are propagated on heavy fertile soil, clean cultivation is used.
In sections where the soil is of poor quality, of alkaline reaction, or infested by rootknot nematodes, it may be desirable to grow gardenias permanently in containers. These may be boxes of cypress, pots, urns, jardinieres or cans. Vessels twelve to fifteen inches across should be large enough to support mature flowering gardenias. Holes for drainage must be in the


bottom to allow the free passage of water, and an inch of neutral silica gravel or broken flower pots should cover the bottom. The growing medium may be composed of peat, cow manure and soil. Because of the prevalence of rootknot nematodes and soil-borne diseases, gardenia soil should be pasteurized by heating to about 160 F. for an hour or so. The containers should be placed upon an off-the-ground support so that infected soil particles will not splash in from the earth.
When a potted gardenia is received at Easter or Mother's Day it should be kept in a cool moist spot. The dry atmosphere inside our houses is unsuitable to its continued welfare. Bud-
In southern Florida gardenias are grafted on Gardenia thunbergia which is resistant to rootknot nematodes.


drop is the first response to an uncongenial environment. Several times a day the foliage may be lightly moistened with the mist from a hand atomizer. The applicator sold with window cleaning fluid is suitable. After the flowering period the potted plant can be plunged in a shrubbery bay or it can be knocked out of the container and planted as a permanent garden shrub.
Sooty mold, well known to everyone who grows gardenias, is a fungus disease that injures by withholding light and preventing gaseous exchange. The leaves become covered by a crusty black film which is most unpleasant. This fungus lives on honey dew from white flies and aphids. A one per cent or two per cent white summer oil will cause the sooty film to roll off within hours after application.
Chlorosis is the manifestation of an abnormal condition. The loss of normal green color so that the veins appear bright green on a yellow field may be due to several causes. In Florida the most outstanding cause of chlorosis is the lack of iron brought about by an alkaline soil. A foliage spray of ferrous sulphate at the rate of a teaspoon to a gallon of rain water widi a half teaspoon of detergent as a spreader will usually work a quick cure. If the soil is not corrected to an acid reaction, however, the foliage will develop chlorosis soon again, brown areas will develop, and the plant will be stunted and unproductive. The only permanent corrective method is to transplant the chlorotic gardenia to a new site that has been prepared with a known acid mixture that contains all necessary mineral elements. Never fertilize gardenias with bone meal, lime or any material that will make soil basic in reaction. Much municipal water in Florida is very alkaline and this, alone, is sufficient to induce chlorosis in potted gardenias.
Chlorosis of similar pattern may be caused by over-watering, low soil temperatures in wintertime and by rootknot nematodes.
In Florida it is customary for specialty nurserymen to sell budded field-grown, balled and burlapped gardenias through chain stores in April. These are excellent plants, well grown, clean, free of rootknot and invariably well furnished with large flower buds. The lifting, transporting, displaying, with attendant sacrifice of optimum environmental conditions, usually results in marked bud-drop. Though consumers are justified in their complaints, nothing can be done, under this system of merchandising, to assure the holding and opening of flower


buds. Gardenias, container grown or those carefully transplanted by the balled and burlapped method early in the winter, should re-establish themselves well in advance of flowering time.
Glory-Bush (Tibouchina semidecandra). Glory-bush is somewhat distinctive in Florida gardens because of its flowers of violet-purple. Upright-growing, hairy-leaved, tender to frost and too tall for foundation plantings, glory-bush is probably best adapted to use in informal shrubbery borders. As a freestanding specimen it will display its large purple blossoms to advantage, as they appear at the tips of the branches. Increase is by softwood cuttings.
Golden Dewdrop (Duranla repens). This large, fast-growing shrub is widely distributed throughout Florida both as a garden plant and as an escape from cultivation. As a background plant for gardens in the citrus belt it is recommended, but it ordinarily attains too great size to be employed as part of a foundation planting. Clean cultivation ordinarily is employed for these cosmopolitan plants as they grow quite well without an organic mulch. Insect pests and diseases are of little concern.
Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis). Sometimes called the Queen of Shrubs, the beautiful rose of China has more universal appeal than any tropical shrub the world around. The graceful habit, beautiful glossy, evergreen leaves and the gorgeous colorful blossoms all contribute to make this shrub a top-flight landscape material. Propagation of most common varieties is by tip cuttings taken during the summer, but rare kinds are grafted upon understocks of the single red or other fast-growing variety. While for commonplace types an occasional hoeing and watering will suffice, choice varieties are set into carefully prepared planting holes and protected by a thick mulch of leaves or peat. Scale insects, mites, and thrips are held in check by spraying with malathion or parathion. Use one tablespoon of die 15% wettable powder in each gallon of water. Becoming widespread throughout Florida is the red-leaf hibiscus (Hibiscus eelveldeanus). This tender African species grows as a straggly shrub to about 8 feet in height and is quickly identified by the smooth red stems and the maple-like, magenta leaves. Flowers, lavender-red with darker eye-zone are produced in late autumn, when the plant is usually killed to the


Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) This is an ideal north-side plant.


ground by frost. Increase is easily accomplished by softwoud cuttings or seeds when available. Credit for identification and first published record of. red-leaf hibiscus must go to Morton and Ledin. in their excellent garden book400 Plants of South Florida.
Known in Florida gardens since earliest history is Confederate-rose (Hibiscus mutabilis). The sprawling, untidy shrub with large hairy leaves, is cultured for the handsome blossoms that open white during autumn mornings, turn pink, and finally red by evening. Sometimes known also as cotton-rose, this, like all hibiscus, is propagated by cuttings.
Rose-of-Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus), that hardy, deciduous shrub of northern gardens, succeeds in upper Florida, thriving particularly in places where the soil is heavy and fertile. Springtime sees the first leaves after winter dormancy, and summertime witnesses the arrival of the white, pink, rose or lavender, single or double, bell-shaped flowers.
Hybrid mallows, involving four species of Hibiscus are admired for their striking white, pink or red blossoms of dinner-plate size. These herbaceous hybrid mallows can be grown on fertile soil of the upper peninsula. Stock can be obtained from nurseries which advertise in garden magazines of national circulation.
Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla). This deciduous flowering shrub from Asia is another of universal appeal. The huge trusses of blue which appear above the attractive shiny leaves in late springtime are very striking. In Florida, this plant is shade-demanding and the best position for hydrangeas, therefore, is a northern exposure. Any cutting back must be done immediately after flowering, else blossom buds will be removed. Aluminum sulphate, which acidifies the soil, makes for blue hydrangeas, and if you want them pink the soil must be limed so that it has a basic reaction.
Propagation is by hardwood or softwood cuttings.
Ilex (Hex spp.). Several small-leaved hollies can be kept to shrub size by careful pruning and these are in high favor as they are handsome plants. The most important is the striking native yaupon (Ilex vomitoria). Because it is so much at home, stands shearing well and bears small, scalloped leaves and beautiful berries in wintertime, the yaupon is unsurpassed for


hedges and sheared specimens. Nursery-grown, fruiting specimens are much more satisfactory than are plants collected from woodlots. Yaupons are protected by a law which makes it a misdemeanor to cut or dig wild plants.
The Japanese holly (Ilex crenata variety convexa) has become very popular for foundation work in northern Florida,
Red-flowered ixora is popular in southern Florida.


but it is not tolerant of adverse growing conditions, so a north-side location and an adequate mulch are held to be necessary for its well-being. Small shining evergreen leaves are closely packed alternately on much-branched, green stems. Numerous black fruits are attractive highlights during fall and winter. This choice landscape plant is grown from cuttings.
The Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta) is another favored landscape subject from Asia that is offered by most nurseries in northern Florida. The variety Burford, with single-thorned. waxy, green leaves and small clusters of large red berries, is the form of Chinese holly most frequently seen in Florida gardens.
Ixora (Ixora coccinea). Garden forms with showy, tubular flowers in shades of red and yellow are seen in the wanner sections. Counted as one of the best ornamentals there, the ixora serves as a hedge, specimen or base planting material.
Likely to display evidences of nutritional deficiencies on sandy calcareous soils in southern Florida, ixoras should be set with care in made-up acid planting holes. A sprinkling of a mineral mixture should be given with the fertilizer in January and June. A heavy mulch of leaves or peat should protect the roots at all times.
Tender tips root in white sand in summer.
Jasmine (Jasminum spp.). This genus furnishes several sprawling evergreen shrubs that are widely employed in landscape plantings. For the colder sections, the flowering jasmine (/. floridum) and the primrose jasmine (/. mesnyi) are excellent, hardy, yellow-flowering shrubs; in die citrus belt the white-flowered star jasmine (/. multiflorum) is often seen as a shrub and as a vine, while in the warmest locations, the fragrant Jasminum gracile (syn. /. simplicifolium) is in high favor. There are many other species, some of which are grown as rare plants by nurseries and plant collectors. All of the jasminer-root readily as cuttings and where canes touch the ground.
Juniper (Juniperus spp.). This is the most dependable genus of coniferous shrubs for Florida. Many beautiful horticultural forms, which will thrive in northern and western sections, are available at the nurseries. One of the best low ground cover forms is the shore juniper (Juniperus conferta) identified by the two white bands on the upper surface of each leaf; an intermediate horizontal grower is the well known Pfitzer's juni-


per (Juniperus chinensis pfitzeriana) identified by outward-pointing branch tips, while one of the very best of the tall evergreens for a sheared accent is the beautiful pyramidal Japanese juniper (Juniperus chinensis columnaris). This can be told by the strong upright trunk and the two types of leaves on every branch.
Star Jasmine(Jasminum multiflorum)
Almost indispensable as a landscape plant in central Florida, it has periodic crops of star-shaped white flowers.
All junipers art: propagated by cuttings and clean culture is usual in most landscape plantings. Red spider mites, which cause browned foliage in dry weather, are controlled by repeated syringing with the hose or by dusting with sulphur at very first signs.
Juniper blight, a fungus disease that causes needles to die out in the heart of the plant, is difficult to control. Frequent applications of a copper-bearing fungicide must be made.
Lantana (Lantanu spp.). So well adapted that it has escaped cultivation, lantana is known by everyone. Sometimes lantanas will fill that difficult sunny garden spot as no other shrub can. Botanically, the red and yellow-flowered shrub is


Lantana camara and the attractive lilac-flowered weeping lan-tana is L. montevidensis. Both will be killed by frost but will recover in springtime.
Lime-Berry (Triphasia trifolia) is a favored landscape plant for southern Florida. Graceful, dense, evergreen, amenable to shearing, this beautiful plant well deserves the high esteem in which it is held by nurserymen and landscape planners. Its susceptibility to rootknot nematode seriously limits its usefulness, however.
Seeds are employed to increase stocks.
Malpighia (Malpighia coccigera) is popular with home owners in southern Florida because of its dwarf habit of growth. It has fine-textured, spiny-toothed, holly-like leaves, attractive rose blossoms, red fruits, and grows quite well in the shade. Most desirable malpighia is "Lowboy," which must be grown from cuttings. Nematode-free soil and constant mulch are requisites for success with all types of this plant. Barbados-cherry (Malpighia glabra) produces its 3-lobed, cherry-like fruits on a taller, more straggly bush and is not widely grown in home grounds beautification.
Nandina (Nandina domestica). West of Live Oak, on rich soils, this decorative ornamental grows to perfection. The many reed-like, erect stems, lacy, compound leaves and hanging clusters of rich, red fruits make this a must-have for gardens within its range. Nandina does not look its best on the open, infertile sands of peninsular Florida.
Seeds germinate slowly, but are used for propagation as are suckers that come from old plants.
Natal-Plum (Carissa grandiflora). This West African fruit plant serves well as an ornamental in die Palm Beach-Miami area where it is favored for ocean-front locations. Its compact habit, horizontal branching, oval, evergreen leaves, beautiful white flowers and decorative red fruits, account for the high favor in which the natal-plum is held. Leathery opposite leaves accompanied by sharp, forked thorns -make identification positive.
Plants are grown from seeds and are available at most landscape nurseries in soudiem Florida. Malathion, parathion or an oil emulsion spray will be needed to control scales and


a heavy mulch of leaves is better-than clean cultivation.
Oleander (Nerium oleander). This cosmopolitan evergreen shrub is too well known to warrant detailed discussion. It is too coarse and fast-growing for foundation planting work. Adapted to almost any soil, resistant to reasonable amounts of salt spray, the oleander, in many attractive colors, is valuable for tall screens and windbreaks. DDT and parathion are effective in controlling the oleander caterpillar which is the principal pest.
Propagation is easily accomplished by cuttings taken at almost any season.
In landscape plantings oleanders are usually kept free of weeds and grass by flat hoeing and seldom are mulches employed. Fertilizer can be applied in January and in June but countless oleanders grow without hand feeding.
WARNING: Oleanders are extremely poisonous, and people have died from breathing die smoke from burning oleander wood. In some cities it is unlawful to burn oleanders, and in all cases, the prunings must be disposed of with caution.
Orange-Jessamine (Murraya paniculata) is identified by the 7 to 9 rhombic leaflets, fragrant, white flowers and red, ovoid fruit. Well adapted to frost-free sections, this citrus-relative is recommended for tall, informal screens, clipped hedges and free-standing specimens. A mulch will make for better growing conditions, and this beautiful plant responds to this extra care.
Seeds germinate well and softwood cuttings strike satisfactorily.
Pitch-Apple (Clusia rosea). Although it is a tree which may grow half a hundred feet in height, this native of the Florida keys is currently used as a shrub by landscape nurserymen in frost-free sections for the curiosity of the huge, leathery, broad-oval leaves. The three-inch pink flowers are followed by greenish-white fruits of about the same diameter, which turn black and split open to discharge die seeds which are used for increase. Mulching and twice-annual fertilization is recommended for pitch-apple.
Pittosporum (PUtosporum tobira). For clipped hedges, particularly near salt water, this attractive broad-leaved ever-


green is liked. In these coastal areas and in western Florida it seems to be especially good, but in some localities pittosporum is prey to Cercospora leafspot. A copper fungicide may keep tlie plants clean if applied three times in spring and summer. Maladiion or parathion must be added to control aphids and cottony cushion scale.
The variegated form is popular as a point of interest in a green composition and it must be increased by cuttings. The green type is grown from seeds in western Florida, from tip cuttings on the peninsula where seeds do not set every year.
Pittosporum(Pittosporum tobira)
This broad-leaved evergreen can be clipped in any desired form.
Plumbago (Plumbago capensis). Because of its small size, compact growth and attractive blossoms of soft blue, this is without doubt, one of Florida's most widely used landscape shrubs. Tender to frost, plumbago comes back rather quickly during springtime warmth. A fertile soil, full sun, an adequate supply of moisture and annual cutting back in early spring are requirements for its success. A white-flowered form is popular as a change from the blue type.
Plumbago is grown from seeds or root cuttings.
Podocarpls (Podocarpus spp.). Among the best narrow-


leafed evergreens that grow in Florida gardens are the several species of Podocarpus. Yew podocarpus (P. macrophylla) as seedlings, or in several garden selections, is the one most widely grown. Serving as accent plants, hedges or screens in every section of our state, this admirable plant justifies its popularity. Podocarpus nagi is characterized by a rigid trunk and evenly spaced, horizontal branches and makes an excellent corner plant. This species also grows from cuttings and seeds. Podocarpus elongata, with its graceful weeping habit, very fine tex-
Podocarpus(Podocarpus macrophylla) (Sheared specimen)
An evergreen that is very desirable for formal plantings as it mav he sheared to any desired form.






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