Front Cover
 Front Matter
 State markets solving farmers'...
 The cattle industry
 Show them things
 What the future farmers of America...
 Florida's agricultural trend
 Florida's agricultural and other...
 Protecting the public
 Crops for future increase...
 Relationship of Florida and Latin...
 Back Cover

Group Title: New Series Bulletin - State of Florida. Department of Agriculture ; no. 100
Title: Agricultural trends of the day
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002878/00001
 Material Information
Title: Agricultural trends of the day
Series Title: <Bulletin> New Series
Physical Description: 71 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahasse Fla
Publication Date: <1938>
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May 1938".
General Note: "Addresses on pertinent problems pertaining to Florida agriculture and economics."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002878
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001962962
oclc - 28539361
notis - AKD9639
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    State markets solving farmers' problems
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The cattle industry
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Show them things
        Page 13
        Page 14
    What the future farmers of America mean to Florida
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Florida's agricultural trend
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Florida's agricultural and other advantages
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Protecting the public
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Crops for future increase in production
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Relationship of Florida and Latin America
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Back Cover
        Page 72
Full Text

New Series Number 100 May. 1938

Agricultural Trends

Of The Day


Commissioner of

Department of Agriculture

-.". "... .Comm. ." .'.


By Nathan Mayo

By Nathan Mayo

By Nathan Mayo

By Nathan Mayo

By L. M. Rhodes

By Phil 8. Taylor

By T. J. Brooks

By T. J. Brooks

State Capitol, Tallahassee

; I 12

State Markets Solving Farmers' Problems

Commissioner of Agriculture

Being a farmer, I am deeply impressed with the difficulty
a farmer faces when selling his products. Very few farmers,
especially if they practice proper diversification of crops,
produce a sufficient quantity of any one thing to warrant the
use of proper sales efforts. Even the largest farms seldom
have sales departments. Sales expense in manufacturing and
other producing industries seldom averages less than 10 to 15
per cent of the sales value of the products. As the sales value
per unit of farm products is low, a similar percentage would
not provide the necessary return needed to direct farm produce
to the best markets. Furthermore, a farmer's daily occupation
on the farm, away from business contacts, does not give him
the opportunity to keep in close touch with the markets.
Various public agencies are providing sources of valuable
information which are available to the farmer, and the radio
has become of great value, but on the whole, the farmer sells
his produce in a market where the buyer is much better
advised than is he. The results are inevitable. The farmer
year in and year out does not get his share.

Organization is necessary. It is particularly necessary
among farmers who want to play safe and do not put all their
eggs in one basket. A larger grower of cotton, fruit, hogs, or
grain may be able to make satisfactory arrangements for
selling his crop, but on the average even he can be helped by

The idea of pooling sales has been one of the arguments for
farmers' cooperative associations. Here and there you can find
such associations that have been successful, but uniform
success does not seem to be the rule. Americans are indepen-
dent in their thought and action, and the farmer is probably

From an address delivered before the thirty-ninth annual convention of the
Association of Southern Agricultural Workers In Atlanta, Georgia. Feb. 3, 1938.


the most independent of all Americans. By and large, he just
will not work under rules laid down by somebody else, even
though they may be laid down by a majority of an organi-
zation of which he is a member. His daily work on the farm
prevents his keeping in constant contact with the work of the
association. I believe in cooperatives and am always happy to
see them successful, but I am aware of the fact that their
complete success is doubtful. On the other hand, the fair-
dealing broker is a useful citizen. There are many brokers
who earnestly want the farmer to obtain good prices. Many
work on a commission basis. The more the farmer gets for his
produce the more they make.
There is another element in the marketing of farm products
that must be taken into consideration. To a large extent the
farmer, as well as the broker, is a gambler. They both gamble
on the weather. A good season means a good crop but prob-
ably a low price. A poor season means a poor crop and
probably a high price to those in sections which have been
favored by nature. Since the farmer generally wants money at
harvest time, the broker is able to buy with the hope that the
price will rise after the bulk of the crop has been sold. On the
other hand, consumers of farm products, such as retail stores
and manufacturing enterprises, desire stability of price beyond
everything else.
The hope of finding a partial solution of the marketing
problem has enticed me during the fifteen years I have been
commissioner of agriculture of Florida. I appreciate the diffi-
culty of devising a system which will work to the benefit of
the individual farmer, the cooperative association, and of the
square-shooting middle-man, at the same time assisting in
stabilization of prices for the benefit of retailers and other
The idea of providing meeting places for the seller and
buyer, where the producers can pool their produce and where
the buyer can obtain a sufficient quantity when he wants it,
is the idea that has been uppermost in my mind. It is not new.


There have been farmers' markets since history began. There
have been fairly operated and successful privately-owned
farmers' markets, but if the state is to help at all, it would
seem that public-owned and controlled markets, where private
operations can take place, would be the best type of market to
promote. With this idea in view, I urged the 1925 legislature
to provide authority making public markets possible in our
state. The measure approved provided that counties could
build such markets and authorized them to borrow money for
this purpose. A state marketing board consisting of the gov-
ernor, commissioner of agriculture, and the commissioner of
markets was created in 1929 for the purpose of promoting
and guiding county markets. This plan, however, did not seem
to take hold. Only one county took advantage of the new law
and established such a market.

In 1933 the law was amended, giving the marketing board
the right not only to promote and guide the operation of
county markets, but also to construct, equip and operate state
markets. A provision was placed in the amendment whereby
any surplus funds after regular expenditures from the inspec-
tion fund could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately we
were not able to secure enough money from such a surplus to
progress very far in the construction and equipment of sub-
stantial markets. We did not make any great advance until
the Roosevelt administration set up relief agencies. After it
had done so, we obtained a FERA project to construct the
first State Farmers Market, at Sanford. This was financed in
a number of ways. The county and state subscribed cash and
things of value, such as real estate. The state inspection fund
was able to supply a moderate amount of money, and the
FERA supplied the labor.

The Sanford market was such a success that when the WPA
succeeded the FERA, we presented a program for five more
markets to be financed in a similar manner. These five markets
have been built at Live Oak, East Palatka, Ocala, Wauchula,
and Chipley, and all of those which have been in operation for
any appreciable length of time have also proven to be success-



Farmers' Wholesale Market at Palmetto

11 I.




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ful. Since then additional market projects have been sub-
mitted, several of them have been finished, others are under
construction by the WPA. The newer ones are located at
Tallahassee, Branford, Starke, Bushnell, and Plant City. Appli-
cations have been filed for others at Goodno, Arcadia, Holly
Hill, and Marianna.
We are feeling our way while construction is proceeding
with alacrity, since we are anxious to use Federal assistance
while it is available. Actual operation set-up is being worked
out cautiously.
Every market we have is a little different from the others.
At Sanford, for instance, we lease platform space largely to
cooperatives and brokers, with our market manager acting as
umpire. At the Wauchula market, the market master is an
auctioneer. Everything which comes on the floor of that
market is sold at auction and paid for in cash. Tallahassee is
strictly a livestock auction market. At Ocala we not only have
a vegetable shed for private sale but also cold storage and
a modern abbatoir, which we have been successful in leasing
to one of the large meat-packing companies. At Chipley we
constructed a creamery, thus supplying an outlet for surplus
milk available in that territory. Palmetto, East Palatka,
Bushnell, and Starke will be vegetable markets, Plant City, a
strawberry and vegetable one. We have a tobacco auction at
Live Oak, which when additions are complete will probably
be the largest in the Southeast. At Branford we have a
small market for auctioning turkeys during season. Bonifay,
Arcadia, and Goodno will be livestock markets, and Pensacola
will be a collection point at which farmers will sell largely to
retail stores serving that city.

Since we have much native handicraft skill in the state,
principally among the women, since Florida entertains thou-
sands of fastidious buyers during our tourist season, and since
Florida-made novelties are in demand, we are making an
experiment in helping these people market their products. We
are assisting novelty shops in Panama City, St. Augustine, and


Largo; are directing the affairs of one at Melbourne; and are
constructing an elaborate "shop" in Holly Hill. These shops
do not compete with privately-owned stores, but act as intro-
ductory sales agencies planned to introduce new things which
we hope will eventually be handled by private agencies.
The state board acts in a supervisory capacity and directs
cooperation between markets, keeping each advised of prices
and other conditions in the other markets, installing systems
of sales and bookkeeping, perfecting plans of operation, and
arranging advertising of the entire system. Actual manage-
ment of individual markets, from the time they are first
planned, is in the hands of local committees selected by the
board. All responsibility and authority possible is placed in
these committees so that the markets are local markets oper-
ated with as little state supervision as possible.
Every market which has operated for a reasonable length
of time has been successful. The law authorizing the creation
of the marketing board and giving it authority to construct
and operate markets, prohibits this board from operating them
at a profit. It also prohibits the board from subscribing any
money for operation. The result is every market must carry
itself financially, and they have all found means of doing it.
We believe we will eventually arrive at a system which will
help solve problems faced by the farmer, the cooperative, the
broker, the retail store, manufacturer and consumer. We
believe we can devise the movement of farm products that the
farmer will get his share of the eventual price.

The Cattle Industry

Commissioner of Agriculture

Cattle since their introduction by the Spanish discoverers of
Florida have provided her families with the necessities for a
well-rounded existence. This industry at present represents an
investment of some one hundred and forty million dollars, and
directly or indirectly furnishes employment and sustenance for
approximately one-tenth of her population. It has made much
progress in the past few years. This has been done by the
importation and in-breeding of selected, high quality stock,
thus raising the breed standard of Florida cattle; improved
range and pasture development and the application of modern
herd management and business-like methods in the raising
and marketing of beef and dairy stock.
The state has thirty-five million acres of land; seventeen
million acres are off the tax books representing twenty per cent
of the state's total taxable property and forty-nine and three-
tenths per cent of the total land area.
Of the land area, two million acres are in cultivation, two
million acres are adopted to beaches and pleasure resorts, and
about three million acres rich in silicon that might be used
in glass manufacture or other industrial uses. The remaining
acreage of approximately twenty-eight million acres are
adopted to the production of cattle.
At the present time there is one million two hundred thou-
sand head of cattle, five thousand of which are pure-bred or
high-grade beef-type. There is ample room for expansion of
the local industry as the state is producing about forty per
cent of her present beef supply.
There are twenty-seven cattle markets in Florida, Alabama
and Georgia accessible to the Florida producer. The meat-
packing industries in these three states have invested fifteen
million dollars in packing and processing plants. Florida,
therefore, has ample market outlet to care for her needs
during the next five years.


Dairy Cattle in Dade County

Show Them Things

Commissioner of Agriculture

The best way in the world to sell Florida to worthwhile
people is to show them things which Florida has that other
states do not have.
This is the reason for featuring Florida at fairs, exhibits
and exhibitions. That is sound reasoning, too. Unless we give
people the information about Florida, they never can imagine
what this state holds in the way of beauty, resources, riches,
and potential gains.
People do not react in the same way from the same things,
and no one can judge for another where he wants to live or
ought to live. So our opportunity lies in bringing folks to the
state by rail, auto, ship, and aeroplane and letting them make
up their own minds right on the ground, whether or not they
are to live in Florida.
After these people are here, mid-winter fairs and festivals
do a wonderful job showing them Florida's productivity and
advantages. Many of these expositions have become nationally
known to the large number of people throughout the nation
who have seen them and spread this knowledge.
Florida's exhibit at the New York Exposition in 1939 will
be a good investment. Without conscious effort, all who view
the impressive exhibits which Florida makes at home and
abroad, go away with a richer knowledge. That knowledge will
play its part in the days to come in furthering continued
development in this state.

Farmers' Wholesale Market at Sanford

What the Future Farmers of America
Mean to Florida

Commissioner of Agriculture

Professor Frank Williams, Future Farmers of Florida, and
Radio Audience:
The future farmers of Florida will mean more to the state
economically than any other part of our citizens. Unless we
can have a prosperous producing population we cannot hope
to have a prosperous state. The soils of the earth are our
dependence for existence. The more we know about how to
use it the lighter will be the burden of life. While there has
been an exodus from the farm, there must always remain a
sufficient number of farmers to feed and provide the raw
materials for clothing or the nation must perish. Other indus-
tries can exist only as they are furnished with the staff of life.
Any kind of business that is as important as this deserves
the very best attention and support that can be given. Mastery
of the elements has been man's task since the first inhabitants
tilled the soil. With nearly two billions of people now on this
planet and only a very small per cent of it that can be utilized
for producing the things which we must have or perish, it
behooves us to seek out the best means of getting the best
results from the part that can be cultivated.
With modern means of transportation and universal trade
in all commodities it is possible for one to grow a crop that
will be used on the opposite side of the world. This renders it
possible for us here in Florida to have the whole world for a
market the whole year round. Many of our crops will keep for
any length voyage. Most of our crops are marketed when they
are scarcest in other parts of our country.
The successful farmer is the top-notcher. Those of you who
are getting the technique of farming will be able to weather
Delivered over the WRUF radio station, Oalnesville. Florida. May 3. 1938.

Farmers' Wholesale Market at Pompano


the storm of adversity and depression when others are on
government relief. Prosperity and success on the farm mean
more than the mere production of crops. Farming is a business
the same as merchandising or managing a factory, mine, rail-
road, bank, or other business. Farm management is a part of
the subject of your studies in preparing for a future farmer.
The future farmers of Florida and all other states will have
in the ranks both successes and failures; but the object in
having vocational education in the high schools is to lessen
the percentage of failures. The outstanding successes are being
picked out by other countries to lead the way in showing their
farmers the best methods of handling the soil and the products
grown therefrom. Brazil came to Florida and hired Dr. Rolf
of the University to go to that country and teach agriculture.
Russia went to Montana and hired Mr. Campbell, the most
outstanding wheat grower, to go to Russia and show how to
install mass production in wheat growing on the great plains
of Russia. When he asked about the salary he was to get
they said, "Write your own checks; we will indorse them."
It is not often such an offer is made to anyone, much less a
farmer. Right now there is a search being made in Florida
for a graduate of the agricultural college of the State Uni-
versity who will fill the requirements for a representative.
He must have been reared on a farm, graduated from the
Florida University, and specialized in agriculture, and added
to this he must have a personality that makes for good
If every farmer in America were a graduate from the voca-
tional agricultural school, a graduate from an agricultural
college, and cHose farming as a preference to other vocations
I believe that few if any of them would ask for relief. Unless
a man chooses the kind of business that he likes there is little
chance for him to be an outstanding success. The man who
hates his task cannot do his best. As a rule, the knowledge
one has of a subject determines his interest in it. The more

Farmers' Wholesale Market at Wauchula



you learn about the science and the art of agriculture the more
interest you will have in it. We like to do the things that we
know how to do. Your training will naturally bring you to see
the merits and beauties of your life work.
The economic future of Florida is more in your keeping
than in the keeping of any other group of citizens. There is
more dependent on the agriculture of the future than on any
other one of the varied industries of the state. If agriculture
is to thrive anywhere it should surely do so here where we
have such a variety of crops and these together covering
every day in the year as a possible source of income. While
large fortunes have seldom been made farming, fewer people
have starved on the farm than in any other vocation. There is
a security and peace of mind possible on the farm that does
not belong to any kind of wage-earning occupation. Although
about two-thirds of the workers of America are wage-earners,
there is always the possibility of something happening to put
one out of employment. The anxiety that results from this
feeling takes a lot of the joy out of living.
In conclusion, let me congratulate you on the fact that you
will be masters of the business that you have chosen and not
slaves to its uncertainties. I want also to congratulate the
state of Florida that a generation of well-informed and enthus-
iastic farmers is to be a controlling element in the citizenship
of the future. You are the anchor of the ship of state, the
refuge of safety in time of distress, and the hopes of future
security amid the fluctuations of social welfare.

Farmers' Wholesale Market at Ocala

Florida's Agricultural Trend

Commissioner of Agriculture

The various industrial activities of a country are inter-
related and interdependent. The greater the variety of re-
sources the more complicated the interlocking dependency.
The seventy fruits and sixty vegetables present problems
of production and marketing. The timber, mineral, naval
stores, fisheries, factories, commerce, and merchandising
combined call for talent and energy of a broad scope and
refined technique.
The improved practices and agricultural trend of the pres-
ent are devoted largely toward economy in cultivation and
North Florida is devoted to general farming, lumbering, and
naval stores. Central Florida is the heavy fruit- and vegetable-
growing section. South Florida produces the same crops as
Central Florida and adds quite a number of tropical and
sub-tropical crops that are conducive to highly-specialized
farming. These rare crops are marketed mostly in the winter
and are limited in production.
There is a decided trend toward increased acreage of these
special crops. Anyone prefers producing the things that have
the least competition. However, in most cases the rare crop is
marketed at a disadvantage for lack of a general demand.
A market has to be sought or created by advertising.
It has been demonstrated that Dade County can produce
two hundred varieties of special crops. Other parts of South
Florida can do the same.
Already there is a sugar industry. Two factories grow their
sugar cane and manufacture sugar to the limit of govern-

Before Rotary Kiwanis and Lions Club, Leesburg, Fla.. May 26, 1938.


mental allowance. These are in the Everglades. Train loads of
green beans go North during the winter months from around
Lake Okeechobee. East of the Everglades there are orchards
of avocados, pears, mangoes, papayas, and pineapples, for
which there has already been found ample markets.
Because of the researches in chemistry, many crops have
found a large field of uses. The humble peanut has become an
important crop since it has been found that it has a hundred
commercial uses. By-products of citrus pulp and peels made
into cow feed, sixteen kinds of distilled spirits from the juice
-are adding to the demand of the fruit. Honey is found to
have a hundred uses as a food and possesses qualities that
render it preferable to other sweets.
Tendency to use machinery instead of older methods of
cultivation is evident in the prairie sections. Truck and fruit
growing do not lend themselves to tractor farming as is done
in the small-grain growing states.
Livestock, dairy cattle and poultry raising are increasing
faster in Florida at present than in any other state. Thorough-
bred cattle have increased a hundred per cent in the last three
years. Dairying has reached the point of supplying home
consumption of fresh milk for the first time in the history of
the state.

"The production and sale of livestock have stimulated agri-
cultural operation and played an important part in its progress
since Abraham's flocks grew and multiplied. During the many
centuries in which the livestock industry has played such an
important part in the economic welfare of mankind, it has
increased as a total world's business from the few roving
herds and flocks to a gigantic industry of two billion head of
greatly improved livestock, with an approximate value of
$25,000,000,000 for the livestock, and as much more for land,


fences, corrals, and other necessary equipment. This is a little
more than one head of livestock each for the entire population
of the world.
"Livestock products, meat, etc., imported and exported
among the different countries of the world, amount to eighty
billion pounds, not to mention meats produced for home con-
sumption in these different countries.
"I quote these colossal figures just to give some idea of the
magnitude of the world's livestock industry.
"Speaking more directly of Florida's livestock, the latest
and most authentic records available indicate that we have
approximately one million two hundred thousand head of beef
cattle or range cattle, and ninety-one thousand dairy cattle in
Florida, valued at $23,500,000.
"Conservative estimates, based on careful surveys place the
value of pasture and range fences, corrals and dipping vats at
$10,000,000; dairy cattle and dairy equipment, including land,
at $11,000,000; a total of $44,000,000. When we add to this the
value of twenty-eight million acres of land used for ranges
for beef cattle, even at $2.00 per acre, we have an investment
of $100,000,000 in the cattle business of Florida. From this
industry we have a gross annual income for beef, veal, dairy
products and by-products of $20,000,000.
"Florida consumes one hundred and fifteen million pounds
of beef and veal and produces forty-three million pounds. So
we have a potential home market for seventy-two million
pounds of beef and veal. But while the beef we produce is
equal in number of pounds to thirty-seven and one-half per
cent of our total consumption, seventy-five per cent of our
total production is fair and common grades. Therefore, one of
the tasks before us is to produce better quality of beef and
veal, and we are doing this with gratifying rapidity.
"We also have thirty markets accessible to the cattle- and
hog-raisers of Florida, whereas we had none in 1914. But we


still market eighty-three per cent of our hogs and sixty per
cent of our cattle from October 1 to March 1, or during these
five months we feed these markets, and during the other seven
months we starve them by marketing only seventeen per cent
of our hogs and forty per cent of our cattle. One of the tasks
before us is an adjustment of supply of cattle and hogs to the
regular requirements of the markets throughout the entire
We are still behind in the products of poultry and eggs.
However, this industry bids fair to supply home demands in
another two years.
The lodging accommodations of the state are greater than
ever before and more tourists visited Florida during the last
season than ever before, even at the height of the boom. It is
easier to grow fruits and vegetables and feed them to visitors
than to ship them North to take chances on precarious
markets. This peninsular state is becoming more and more
the winter rendezvous of people from all other states.
Long staple cotton was stamped out by the boll weevil, but
since a method has been devised to combat the weevil the
growing of long staple cotton is coming back. The state grew
five thousand bales last year and forty thousand acres have
been planted this year. This will furnish enough seed to plant
all the acreage needed next year. It brings three times as much
as short staple cotton.
We might as well recognize the fact that changes are taking
place in the agricultural world as well as in the industrial
world. Cotton has represented one-ninth of the acreage planted
to crops in the United States. The participation of American
cotton in foreign consumption has dropped from sixty per cent
to thirty per cent. Our annual domestic consumption decreased
from twenty-four and one-half pounds per capital in 1910 to
twenty pounds in 1935. And this, in spite of the fact industrial
uses for cotton had increased enormously, the loss had been
in use of cotton in the home.


Cotton faces competition in the form of rayon, wool, silk,
jute, linen, etc. Rayon reached the enormous production of
one billion pounds in 1935 and in 1937 it reached one and a
quarter billion an equivalent of three million five hundred
thousand bales of cotton. Rayon can be made from various
substances -timber, corn stalks, hemp, flax, ramie, and
bamboo. Anything that yields a large per cent of cellulose will
make cloth or paper.
Long staple cotton will stand more competition than short
staple, and it can be grown satisfactorily only in parts of three
states South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.
Chemistry is making a new world in many respects. There
are a number of things that we use every day that waited all
these thousands of years for someone to learn how to make
the best use of them.
The chemical conversion of farm crops dates back to 1845
when gun-cotton was made. Celluloid, rayon, smokeless pow-
der, plastics, and literally thousands of things made today
from farm products were unknown a few years ago.
Nevertheless, machines that take the place of workers elim-
inate millions of customers of these same products. The three
billion dollars which Congress is to appropriate is intended to
take care of those out of work in the regular channels of
Losses suffered by farmers amount to unbelievable figures.
Not counting dust storms, floods, fires, hail, and frosts, there
are six thousand species of insects that cost growers, it is
estimated two billion dollars annually. Thirty-four insect
species cause a known damage of nine hundred million dollars.
Add to this, noxious weeds and plant diseases and we have
over six billion dollars.
Insecticides are a necessary part of the farmers' equipment
in modern agriculture. It is the one effective method of conr-
batting the insect world,


The trend of agriculture is toward a greater mastery of the
forces of agricultural production. And, strange to say, one of
the major problems is getting farmers to cooperate in the
things that require group action to be effective.
No matter how many opportunities are offered, unless we
avail ourselves of them we are no better off than those who
have no opportunities. When the fruit and vegetable growers
are willing to consolidate their power and use it effectively,
the handling of crops from field to market will accomplish
wonders. If we never learn that lesson we shall continue to
lose millions annually.
The only excuse for government at all is the advantage of
cooperation. Any class of vocation that competes with itself
is at a disadvantage. Some day, somehow, Florida will meet
the requirements and stand out as a leader in all that it takes
to achieve distinction in the galaxy of states.

Florida's Agricultural and Other Advantages

State Marketing Commissioner

Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Guests, Officers and Members of
the National Exchange Clubs, Ladies and Gentlemen:
I am delighted to be with you, not because of anything I
may be able to say, but because of you to whom I am to speak.
I am familiar in some measure at least with the purposes,
objectives, services, ideals, accomplishments, and personnel of
your organization. And I esteem it an especial privilege to
speak to the representatives of an organization whose pur-
poses are so noble, whose ideals are so lofty, whose objectives
are so worthy, and whose services are so unselfish and
I congratulate you on the progress you have made in the
various fields of your endeavors, and feel that Florida, and
Tampa, is especially favored by your meeting among us.
Florida, with its progress in agriculture, manufacturing,
health, wealth, education, and recreation, is indeed blessed
with a very favorable environment. It is destined to become an
area of tremendous economic activity.
Florida is a finger of land five hundred and thirty-six miles
long, running down into tropical seas, fanned by the cool
breeze of the Gulf Stream along its eastern and southern
shores, and splashed by the waters of the Gulf of Mexico along
its western shore line. Its area is, in round numbers, thirty-
eight million acres- thirty-five million acres in land and
three million acres in water.
Its agricultural and horticultural operations are scattered
from the Perdido River on its western border, to the lime
groves of Monroe County, a distance via Alabama and Georgia
line and Atlantic Ocean of nine hundred miles.
Before the National Exchange Clubs at their annual meeting at Tampa,
Florida. October 18. 1937.



.i" ii"N

t was

Main Office of State Marketing Bureau


There are seventy-two thousand eight hundred and fifty-
seven farms which are increasing in number at the rate of
one hundred and fifteen farms per month. There are on these
farms more than one hundred kinds of productive soils, on
which are growing practically every crop known to temperate,
semi-tropical and tropical zones.
Approximately one hundred of our crops are commercial;
about one-third of that number are shipped in car-lots. Accord-
ing to daily accurate records kept by the State Marketing
Bureau, Florida produced during the 1936-37 season equivalent
to one hundred and sixty-three thousand cars of fruits and
vegetables with a gross value of one hundred and eight million
dollars. Equivalent to one hundred and two thousand eight
hundred and twenty-seven cars were citrus fruits, with a gross
value of sixty-eight million eight hundred and thirty-eight
thousand dollars.
The total agricultural investment in Florida is approxi-
mately eight hundred million dollars. Its gross income during
1936-37 season was one hundred and sixty million dollars.
Florida producers invest annually in its growing, packing
and marketing operations, eighty million dollars. The agricul-
tural income increases ten per cent per annum. This means
that ten years hence our farms and groves will yield us pro-
ducts valued at more than three hundred million dollars. At the
present time, the income from our agriculture is one hundred
dollars per capital for our entire population.
We export more than one hundred million dollars' worth of
food products per annum and import fifty-five million dollars'
worth; so we have a balance of forty-five million dollars. Total
sale of all agricultural products amounts to one hundred and
forty-five million dollars.
Since Florida has approximately ten million acres of land
suitable to various kinds of farming, and agriculture is the
basis of our wealth, we have vast undeveloped business ahead
in connection with our agriculture.
We have abundant moisture, more sunshine than any other
section of our country, and more growing days. We are access-


ible to the great consuming centers and can move our products
by rail, boat, or motor truck. In fact, we are in the happiest
latitude and longitude agriculturally, exactly parallel with the
land that the Lord said should flow with milk and honey.
During the past ten years our manufactured products have
had a range in annual value of from as low as one hundred
and sixteen million dollars to as high as two hundred and
sixty-seven million dollars, or an approximate average annual
value of one hundred and ninety-one million dollars.
With the promise of a great increase in the manufacture of
paper, cattle feed from citrus waste, from canning factories,
packing houses and cull fruits, also Celotex and other building
material from the waste from sugar mills, corn stalks, oat
straw, etc., the increase in sugar and tobacco manufacturing,
as well as all kinds of forest products, the total value of our
manufactured products may easily amount to three hundred
million dollars within ten years.
Our fish and other seafoods, with better distribution, adver-
tising, and greater demand, should give us an income of
twenty-five million dollars per annum.
Our phosphate, pebble, gravel, coquina, kaolin, and other
minerals can yield us another twenty-five million dollars if the
demand is sufficient and market good.
Florida has ninety-five million dollars invested in wood
manufacturing plants; all forest products, raw and manufac-
tured, amount in value to one hundred and twenty-five million
dollars a year.
During the season of 1936-37 there were approximately two
million visiting tourists in Florida, who left a gross revenue
in the state estimated at from three hundred million to five
hundred million dollars.
Southern resorts from Asheville, N. C., to Miami, Fla., are
making preparations to entertain three million tourists during
the coming winter season, who are expected to spend one
billion dollars. This is based on average estimates by the
American Automobile Association, chambers of commerce,


railroads, airlines and resort operators. They estimate that
each visitor will spend three hundred dollars; and that two
million two hundred and twenty-five thousand will come to
Florida and spend in the state six hundred and sixty-six
million five hundred thousand dollars. I feel sure that the
state's revenue from winter visitors will be no less than
five hundred million dollars.
With improved facilities for traveling, our wonderful hotels,
restaurants, beaches, fishing, hunting, and other recreation,
and our matchless climate, and a continuation of our effective
advertising, we should have an average of three million visitors
and a gross revenue from them of seven hundred and fifty
million to one billion dollars by the year 1946.
The more than two thousand wholesale and twenty thousand
retail establishments in Florida, and insurance companies -
fire, life and accident professional men and government
employees, etc., have an income of more than one billion
dollars. There are other miscellaneous sources of income of
approximately twenty-five million dollars.
This means that our annual gross income in Florida is one
billion eight hundred and ninety-six million dollars. Some
government estimates have placed the annual gross income of
our one million six hundred and six thousand eight hundred
and forty-two people at one billion nine hundred and thirty
million dollars and our net income per capital at four hundred
and ninety dollars. The total wealth of the state is estimated
at three billion three hundred million dollars.

Our population has increased sixty-six and two-thirds per
cent in fifteen years, leading all the South and all the states
except one in percentage of increase in population, and all
Southern states in per capital wealth except one.

Florida can supply the raw material for the following manu-
factured products: glassware, chinaware, insulation materials,
canned goods, creameries, phosphate mills, cotton goods, tile,
fillers, paper roofing, cement, furniture, porcelain, vegetable
hair, fish products, buttons, leather, awnings, tents, dairy


Where Market News Bulletins are Printed-"For Sale, Want and Exchange"


products, fertilizers, poultry products, and all kinds of soft
and hard wood products.
Florida is within forty-eight hours of ninety per cent of the
people of the United States. Commodities shipped to and from
every quarter of the globe enter and leave Florida ports. The
trade between North and South America now aggregates two
million two hundred and fifty thousand dollars a day. Florida
ports are the logical places for exchange of much of these
Health is an asset and means efficiency. Our health is
excellent, and our death rate low. Our climate is neither too
hot nor too cold suitable to both pleasure and work. Many
of our visitors who come here to play, invest here and remain
to live as citizens.
So it is very probable that another ten years will increase
our population in Florida to two million five hundred thousand
people with an annual income of three billion dollars, and the
value of Florida property from the present estimate of three
billion three hundred million dollars to more than four billion
five hundred million dollars.
Florida is larger than New York, Massachusetts, and Rhode
Island combined, and is greater in area than Denmark, Bel-
gium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.
It has an area of fifty-eight thousand six hundred and sixty-
six square miles, four thousand four hundred of which are
water consisting of beautiful bays, crystal springs, majestic
rivers and thousands of lakes, the largest of which has a
greater area that the state of Rhode Island.
We believe Florida is one of the most delectable lands on
God's footstool. It has fertile lands capable of producing foods
for millions. It has an all-the-year-round climate. It has won-
derful roads, schools, churches, beaches, and all kinds of recre-
ational and transportation facilities. It is accessible by land,
water and air to the population of the western hemisphere and
the markets of the world.
Here in this marvelous land of opportunity, progress and
enchantment the home-seeker can find his goal, the tourist his


playground, the invalid his restoration and refuge, the sports-
man his rendezvous, the yachtsman his silvery race track, and
the citizen his horn of plenty. The dairyman, stockman, fruit-
man, trucker, poultryman, and general farmer, manufacturer
and professional man can find an abundant opportunity.
It is the queen of American commonwealths. There is no
closed season on straw hats and palm beach suits and you can
swim, fish and eat strawberries in January. And you are
welcome as a visitor and are invited to become a citizen, and
enjoy its wonderful material realities, and become imbued
with the spirit of eternal spring.

Protecting the Public

Supervising Inspector

The only valid reason for any regulatory measure is public
need. If all men were honest we should not need locks and
keys; if all drivers were careful we should not need signal
lights. This need for public protection is nothing new under
the sun. Thousands of years ago old Father Moses instituted
a very fine system of sanitary regulations. The Bible not only
shows effective control of sanitation but discloses weights and
measures regulation by the men of old.
It is interesting to note that during the formative period of
our nation little if any stress was placed upon regulatory
measures. Pioneers used to outdoor environment had little
need for sanitary restrictions. Food, as a rule, was produced
near at hand. Game and fish were plentiful and the transpor-
tation of meats, fruits and vegetables from field to market
was negligible.
As population shifted to urban centers the food supply
became more and more subjected to decay and deterioration.
This forced the enactment of regulatory measures.
It is a long jump from the methods of Moses to the compli-
cated and far-reaching machinery necessary to cope with the
needs of this modern day. Here in Florida our people probably
have only a hazy realization of the efforts which are being
made to protect them against short weight, substitution, low-
grade and health-injuring products. Let us enumerate:

(1) Florida's law on this subject follows substantially the
Federal statute. It prohibits the sale of products that are
inedible and deleterious to human health. It provides appro-
priate penalties for misbranding and adulteration. It requires
a truthful statement as to the contents of the package and as
to the net weight. It prohibits the use of undeclared artificial
coloring, or the use of any drug or substance in a food product




* N




New Agriculture and Chemistry Building




for the purpose of deception or fraud. It establishes standards
of purity and prohibits the addition of water or other adulter-
ants above a reasonable proportion. It might be of interest to
the reader to know that in recent years the Inspection Bureau,
in conjunction with the State Chemist, has uncovered, con-
trolled and suppressed many obvious frauds, nostrums and
quackeries which were being perpetrated upon innocent people
within the state. One notable example consisted of a bread
highly advertised as a "sure cure" for all forms of constipation
and kindred ailments. This product, under laboratory exami-
nation, was found to contain a liquid ingredient secretly added
at the bakery to give it the appearance of whole wheat bread
and possibly to produce a laxative effect. The bread itself
carried less roughage than is required of good whole wheat
bread and was, therefore, a fraud on its face. The promoters
of this scheme had sold numerous bakeries the franchise for
its production, charging some of them more than a thousand
dollars for the privilege of putting out as perfect a swindle as
had plagued Florida people for many a day.

(2) In the realm of canned foods we perhaps protect a
larger number of people than elsewhere, since all homes patro-
nize the canner. Our field men send in hundreds of samples
from warehouses, from the shelves of retail merchants and
from canneries themselves which are examined by the food
chemists who report as to their color, the proportion of solids
to liquids, their general condition as to edibility and also the
appearance and condition of the container. The chemists'
reports also consider the claims made on the label in connec-
tion with the actual condition of the contents of the can and
if the claims made are not substantiated by what is found in
the can, the product may be reported as misbranded and the
manufacturer held responsible. This protects the housewife
against deception in trade and promotes the practice of truth-
telling among canners, wholesalers, retailers and advertisers.
Inspectors looking over retail and wholesale stocks are author-
ized to seize and destroy cans that show signs of being unduly

A; ..

Food and Drug Laboratory


swollen or which have developed leaks indicating probable
spoilage of the contents.
(3) Perhaps one of the most protective factors under our
pure food work is the examination of packages of food to
determine correct weight. It is surprising to note the tendency
to carelessness and even to downright "chiseling" on the part
of some manufacturers and retailers in the detail of putting
into each package prepared ahead of sale exactly the correct
amount for which it is sold. Here again we run into a human
weakness that traces back to Biblical times, for the Good Book
itself makes reference to short weight and pronounces con-
demnation upon those who are guilty of selling their customers
goods which do not weigh as claimed. All over Florida our
inspectors have repeatedly required grocers to empty packages
of sugar, rice, potatoes and other staple groceries which had
been prepared for the usual Friday and Saturday rush to refill
these packages so that each would weigh the amount shown
on the container. It is not an uncommon thing for our men to
report finding piles of sugar wrapped in paper bags, each bag
labeled "5 lbs." which, when carefully weighed, were found
to really contain only four and three-fourths pounds. Needless
to say, the grocer was forced to open every package and add
enough sugar to bring the weight up to five pounds. That is
all we can do under Florida law. We could not condemn the
scales, as we do not have a weights and measures law in
this state.
Aside from its work under the pure food law the Inspection
Bureau enforces the statutes on eggs and poultry. On poultry
we have not gone very far due to our lack of facilities and
funds. Grades and standards are being established and we
hope to make very much more progress within the next year.
We have reason to be proud of the results accomplished
with our egg law. In the past, Florida was a dumping ground
for the products of the Northern and Western states, and even
for foreign nations, with the gates wide open and few if any

Gasoline Inspection Truck


restrictions on quality or condition. For years Florida pro-
ducers and consumers alike suffered because the state exer-
cised no police power over such importations. Happily, the
progressive poultrymen, aided by Commissioner Mayo and
forward-looking members of the Legislature, secured the
enactment of an egg law requiring the declaration of certain
facts regarding eggs, hitherto not required. The features of
this law may be listed as follows: It requires those who handle,
weekly, one case or more of eggs, either of their own produc-
tion or which may have been purchased from others, to secure
from the Commissioner of Agriculture a certificate as a dealer.
This certificate is issued free of charge but obligates the hold-
er to obey the law and its rules and regulations. It then be-
comes the duty of the certificate holder to purchase correct
labels for use on the particular kind of eggs which he may
handle. If he handles Florida eggs only he will purchase "Flor-
ida" case labels. If he is a dealer who sells eggs purchased in
another state he will use a "Shipped" label, or if his products
are "Cold Storage" eggs or "Processed" eggs he will buy labels
accordingly. His labels cost four cents each and are good for
one case of thirty dozen. Those who put out eggs in half-case
lots may purchase for two cents a half-case label, while those
who prefer to sell their eggs in cartons may do so by purchas-
ing carton labels which may be had in books of three hundred
for sixty-three cents from the Inspection Bureau at Talla-
hassee. Prior to distribution of eggs to retail outlets, labels
must be filled in with information showing the state of origin
of the eggs, the date when packed, the size and the grade,
together with the name of the packer. This label enables the
merchant and the consumer to ascertain the truth about the
age and the actual condition of the eggs, which is of very real
advantage, as every housewife will appreciate.

Appropriate penalties are provided for violation of the
statutes and dealers caught selling eggs contrary to the law
are subject to revocation of their certificate and prosecution
in court.


The Octane Machine that Determines the Knock-Producing Quality of Gasoline

~, $


*, a

*0 t

( 0


Someone has said that mankind will soon cease to walk.
At any rate we seem to be fast becoming a motorized people.
The horse and buggy days, sweetly romantic though they
were, have been definitely left behind as we have sped onward
at the wheel of our motor car. Now whether it be a Rolls Royce
or a humbler Plymouth, Chevrolet, or Ford, every one of us
is interested in motor fuels. Years and years ago Florida
passed a gasoline inspection law, back in the days of the
Model T when twenty-five miles per hour was plenty fast and
fifty miles an hour was suicide. That gasoline law is still on
our statute books despite efforts which have been made repeat-
edly to repeal it. True, we nave endeavored to modernize our
methods of control and have done so with some success.
Not until the State Department of Agriculture, through the
completion of a new laboratory, was enabled to add modern
equipment, did we begin to get ready to cope with gasoline in
a way that would count.
That brings up the Octane machine. Who knows what that
is? Not many of us. Anyway, scientists tell us (in the 1938
Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume X, Page 53) something
about Octane: "Recently the so-called Octane number scale
was adopted. The Octane number of the gasoline is the
percentage of Octane in the particular blend of Octane and
Heptane which is just equal in knocking tendency to the
particular gasoline when tested in the standard engine. Today
most gasoline is distributed in definite Octane number grades
and automotive and aircraft engines are designed to operate
on fuels so numbered." So, whether we like him or not, it looks
as if Sir Octane is riding right in the car with us. In fact, he is
under the hood and we had better get acquainted with the
old boy. Down in the basement of our new State Department
of Agriculture building we have installed the latest piece of
mechanism for the testing of gasoline which is commonly
known as the "knock-rating engine." This apparatus is ap-
proved by the National Bureau of Standards at Washington,

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Stock Feed Laboratory


S"/ I


D, C., and has the happy faculty of telling the truth about
the octane quality of gasoline.
Acting on the information derived from this unprejudiced
and non-political fact-finder, the Commissioner of Agriculture
has under consideration a regulation under which all retail
pumps selling gasoline in the state of Florida shall declare,
either by legibly worded placard or through properly defined
coloring of the gasoline itself, the true and correct grade of
the motor fuel being sold therefrom, this grade to be previ-
ously determined by the Octane and other scientific tests.
Why should this be done? The answer is obvious: The public
is entitled to know the truth about what it buys. Should
Florida take this forward step it will be keeping pace with
other progressive states, several of which now require pub-
lic declaration of grade or quality, by signs, color designa-
tions or otherwise, on every pump retailing gasoline.
To prevent the more common forms of deception and fraud
in the gasoline trade, the Florida Department of Agriculture
now has in the field three traveling laboratories, with a fourth
under contract, each equipped with apparatus for analyzing
gasoline samples and each truck manned by two competent
chemists. We have divided the state into three districts with
a little more than four thousand retail tanks in each dis-
trict It will be the job of these trucks to visit each county
in their district where the local inspector will be required
to draw samples from every retail tank in the county for
analysis by the truck. The daily quota of each truck will
be thirty samples and we hope under this daily schedule to
obtain complete coverage of the state every six months, thus
making a test of the gasoline sold by every retail gasoline
station in the state of Florida twice a year. Dishonest station
operators sometimes yield to temptation and add kerosene to
their gasoline. Kerosene can be bought at six cents to ten cents
a gallon with no state tax. and most cars will burn about ten
to fifteen per cent of kerosene mixed with the gas without a
great deal of difficulty. This adds to the profit of the crooked
retailer but constitutes an obvious fraud upon the general
public, violates the law and will, of course, damage the engine


bWqFls rw ON


Fertilizer Laboratory


ii r


of the motor car. Our truck laboratories very frequently find
cases of adulteration, whereupon the local inspector seizes and
confiscates the gasoline and the case is turned over to the
proper authorities for handling in the courts. In addition to
control of the quality of gasoline, our field men periodically
make examination of every pump in the state to determine
the accuracy of its measurement. If found delivering short,
the inspector either adjusts the pump or locks it up, thus
preventing customers from being defrauded. Our Department
is working to eliminate every obsolete and inaccurate piece of
gasoline-dispensing equipment from the service. Meetings are
being held with pump manufacturers for frank discussion. We
have recently required the re-installation by all pump-makers
of an automatic interlock on meter-operated computing pumps.
This ingenious little piece of mechanism, which forces the
operator to clear the dial after each sale. was part of the
original meter-operated computer pump but manufacturers,
for some reason, suddenly withdrew it without notifying our
Department. On and after July 1. 1938, this essential pro-
tective feature will be functioning on .1ll pumps of this type in
the state, which, by the way. is about the last word in modem
gasoline equipment, giving the consumer not only the utmost
guarantee of correct measure but also computing correctly the
amount of his purchase and showing it on the dial.

Few of us know that over eight thousand brands of com-
mercial fertilizers are being used by Florida growers. Last
year these growers purchased for citrus, vegetable and field
crops between four and five hundred thousand tons of com-
mercial fertilizers, for which they paid about fifteen million
dollars. The dairymen and stockmen of the state bought from
two to three hundred thousand tons of commercial feeds, for
which they paid several million dollars. Over three thousand
brands of commercial feed are registered with the Department
of Agriculture.
The state fertilizer and feed laws both require registration
annually and tagging of each bag or package with the official

I 7-

~~~~~Lat I4~i

Insecticide Laboratory




tag showing the guaranteed analysis of the product exactly as
it is registered in the office. Field inspectors draw samples
both of fertilizer and feed and these are sent to the state
chemist's laboratory for testing. Should a sample prove defi-
cient, that is, below the guarantee as registered, the lot of
feed or fertilizer from which it was drawn is promptly with-
drawn from sale. This affords protection both to the dealer
and to the buying public. Special samples may be drawn by
purchasers of fertilizer and feed and analyzed by the state
chemist if directions set forth in the laws are carefully
Some years ago the Florida Legislature enacted a statute
known as the "Florida Milk and Milk Products Law," designed
to bring about better conditions in the dairy industry. This
measure made provision for sanitary regulation of dairies,
milk equipment and dairy products, established standards for
milk, cream, butter and all dairy products and gave to the
Commissioner of Agriculture authority for enforcement of the
Act. As a result, the sanitation of Florida dairy plants has
shown marked improvement and the quality of Florida milk
has steadily improved until today it is said that one may
purchase Florida milk with every degree of confidence in its
purity and healthfulness. Economically, the law has been a
blessing since the production of Florida cows now supplies all
of our fluid milk and most of the cream used in the state. We
still import the larger part of our butter, but it is hoped that
with the coming of better pastures and improved methods of
production, together with a larger distribution of good pro-
ducing cows over the state, we shall soon begin to catch up
with our demand for butter and possibly for cheese.
The Legislature of 1937 enacted a statute bringing under
control insecticides and fungicides, a field which had long
been overlooked in this state. Under the terms of the Act the
Commissioner of Agriculture and the State Chemist were
made the enforcing agents. Registration of all manufacturers


Citrus Control Laboratory


of insecticide was required at an annual registration fee of
one hundred and twenty-five dollars. An additional fee of two
dollars and a half is collected for each separate brand put out
by a manufacturer. The Act requires very definite declaration
on the label of the inert and the active ingredients, prohibits
false or misleading statements, designs or device appearing
on the package or label, or its branding so as to deceive the
purchaser, or its sale if below the guaranteed analysis appear-
ing on the label. The state chemist is required by the Act to
make two laboratory tests each year of each brand of regis-
tered insecticides and fungicides. If such tests show the
products to be out of line with the guaranteed analysis, their
sale shall be immediately prohibited.
It is confidently expected that this new Act, although not
perfect, will prove of very considerable benefit to Florida
users of insecticides and fungicides, a constantly increasing
number of people.
Have you heard that "we are all going to the dogs"? Well,
at any rate the sale of dog food seems to point that way.
Statistics show that the volume of dog food sold now exceeds
any other canned product even our well-known friend,
canned milk. It is not uncommon for Miami, Jacksonville or
Tampa to receive several carloads of dog food in one shipment.
Following other states and upon advice of our Attorney
General, Florida has established standards for dog food and
now requires its registration as a commercial feeding stuff.
The law as to registration applies both to the canned article
which is largely meat, and to the dry article, which is largely
a cereal product.
Definitions and standards for canned dog food have been
established by a number of states; those for Florida fix a
minimum protein content of six per cent, a minimum fat
content of two per cent, and fix the moisture and fiber content
maximum at seventy-five per cent and one and one-fourth
per cent respectively. All canned dog food to be sold in this
state must bear label giving the name and address of the

Citrus Fruit Research and Control Laboratory

- .T- -- MA


manufacturer, the brand name, guaranteed analysis, net
weight, and the ingredients. In beginning this work it is
recognized that we are pioneering. In all probability changes
will need to be made at the end of the first year or two.
The biggest crop which comes from Florida's soil is its
citrus. The annual value is variously estimated from fifty to
seventy-five million dollars. Long ago it became apparent that
the shipment of immature fruit to our early markets was a
menace to the entire industry. To reap the harvest of good
prices while the buying public was hungry for oranges and
grapefruit, some of our shippers yielded to temptation and
rushed unripe citrus on the market which should have re-
mained in our groves for many weeks. Wrestling with this
problem, Florida Legislature began to place inspection require-
ments upon outgoing shipments. Through the years and with
varying success, we have had packing house inspection, grove
inspection for arsenic spray and, latterly, road guard inspec-
tion along our highways and at shipping points. This service
has not entirely corrected the abuses, but it has minimized
them. It has been extremely difficult, for instance, to agree
upon a law whose standards were acceptable to growers in all
parts of the fruit belt. Diversity of opinion also has developed
regarding the opening and closing seasons for inspection and
the degree to which inspection should be applied. Frosts and
freezes, droughts and storms, have combined to render our
control problem more difficult. From an economic standpoint
we have been faced with a constantly mounting wave of
competition from other producing areas, some of which have
been shipping fruit of excellent quality.
Undoubtedly, we have gained ground in our attempts to
better the citrus industry through legislative and regulatory
control. We shall need additional legislation from time to time
but above all we shall need the development of a broader, more
unselfish spirit among the fruit men themselves. Unless the
growers of the fruit, the packers of the fruit and the shippers
of the fruit subordinate individual desires to the common
good, we shall not see the industry of Florida reach the
ultimate in quality or in financial returns.

Crops for Future Increase in Production

BY T. J. BRooKS"
Assistant Conmmissioner of Agriculture

Mr. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen:
As the word "horticulture" includes all manner of crops
grown on the farm, it is a very inclusive subject. Of course
the most of you are primarily interested in the crops that
you are now growing and only academically interested in the
things that might be grown. Thinking that perhaps this is a
somewhat neglected field. I have chosen as my theme "Crops
for Future Increase in Production."
Take a few of our esculent crops: Sweet potatoes will grow
almost everywhere in Florida. They are a universally-used
food. A great per cent of them rot every year. There are other
uses for this crop than eating them. There is a factory now
operating in Mississippi where four hundred and twenty thou-
sand pounds of starch are made annually from sweet potatoes.
They can also be dehydrated and used. In 1935 imports of
arrowroot. cassava. sago and tapioca amounted to two hundred
and thirty-one million four hundred and thirty thousand
The cassava is grown in this state and used for hog feed.
Mixed with other feed. it is a worthwhile crop. But it is also
used for human food. Many people in South America eat bread
made from the cassava. It is also useful for making tapioca,
and tons of it are imported for this purpose. There is another
use for which there is a tremendous demand. It makes a good
glue and the United States government uses many tons of
glue on the back of postage stamps. Why do we not grow
more cassava and supply factories without importing from
other lands?
The artichoke is a root crop that can be grown in about as
many countries and on as many different kinds of soil as any
crop. The Federal Bureau of Home Economics says it is
Delivered at the annual Convention of State Iortlcultural Society. Orlando.
April 12. 1938.


similar in food value to the white potato. Every part of the
plant has its use either as human food, stock food, forage, or
for manufactured articles. The stems and leaves can be used
as forage. It can be used to smother out obnoxious weeds and
grasses. The tubers make a better quality of alcohol than
beets. As a food the artichoke can be used baked, boiled, fried,
in casserole, in salad, in soup, or puree.

It has been demonstrated that two hundred different kinds
of fruit can be grown in the extreme southern part of the
state. As to how many of them can be made to yield in com-
mercial quantities and on a paying basis is yet to be seen.
No doubt many of them can be developed to profitable food-
producing crops. We are now producing on a commercial scale
papayas, avocados, mangos, guavas, and other tropical fruits.
There is room for a large increase in the production of tung
oil in this state. It is one thing we can increase without fear
of over-production. It will require hundreds of thousands of
acres of tung groves to supply the demand in the United
States for tung oil. It is a promising source of revenue to
hundreds of growers in the near future.

One of the sure things for Florida is the return of long
staple cotton. It is the only kind of cotton that can compete
with foreign cottons of all kinds and with other fiber-bearing
plants. So long as we can keep the boll weevil out of it there
is profit in growing cotton at twenty to thirty cents per pound.
Our only trouble at present is in making enough to attract
the big buyers of long staple lint. It is another crop of which
we cannot grow an over-supply. We produced five thousand
bales last year.
Florida is just beginning to demonstrate how well culti-
vated pastures can be provided for cattle and as a result the
cattle industry is forging ahead rapidly. We have an all-
year-round grazing climate and the task before us is to have
an all-year-round growing pasture. More should be done along
this line.


There are old crops in other countries and other parts of
the United States but which are new to Florida, in a commer-
cial sense. We should at least test out a lot of new crops and
if found adapted to this state we certainly should launch
into their production on a large scale. The growing of some
crops depends entirely on the facility with which they can
be handled and prepared for the market. The process of
manufacturing some articles determines the feasibility of
growing them. Competitive markets are an important part
of the problem of determining the advisability of plunging
into a new field of agricultural production. This fact is
true of all kinds of business.
Food, clothing and shelter are said to be the prime neces-
sities of man. The question of food and clothing is essen-
tially agricultural. Shelter is all inclusive as to a place to
live. There are certain crops that furnish the raw materials
for all manner of clothing. Originally the skins of animals
and certain crude kinds of fiber garments were used as cloth-
ing. In quite early times, even the very ancient peoples be-
gan the use of various kinds of fiber which were woven by
hand in primitive machines. Later complicated machines were
invented which handle silk, cotton, hemp, flax, ramie, etc.
For ages, all fibers were prepared for weaving by hand;
cotton fiber had to be picked from the seed by hand;
silk was handled by an elaborate and expensive process;
flax, hemp and ramie were plants whose fibers were in the
stalk and not in a boll or produced by a worm. The slow,
tedious processes of obtaining the fibers from stalks made
them poor competitors with cotton when cotton gins were
invented. This crop could be produced in greater amounts
and of better quality in the southern part of the United
States than elsewhere until the American cotton dominated
the cotton markets of the world.
Now that other countries are growing it in large quan-
tities and with cheaper labor than we have had since ante-
bellum days, "king cotton" no longer rules from the U. S.


throne. Egypt, Central Africa, India, Russia, Brazil, Para-
guay, China and the Argentine are strong competitors.
It has been demonstrated that ramie will grow well in
Florida. If, and when a machine or a process or a combination
of the two is invented that will efficiently and economically
separate the fiber from the stalk without damaging the
fiber it will enter the textile field as a strong competitor
of cotton, flax, hemp. wool, silk and rayon. It is now claimed
by several inventors that this feat has been accomplished,
but as yet we lack satisfactory commercial demonstration
to justify a final conclusion. We have the first commercial
ramie factory in Florida which takes the raw ramie and
prepares it for the loom, or for paper mills. If we are to hold
our own in the fiber market it will be in the utilization of
other fibers than short staple cotton. Any attempt to peg
the price of short staple cotton will pyramid surpluses and
defeat the purpose in the end. The price of raw fibers is
set in world markets and we cannot peg prices except at home
nor can we reduce acreages in foreign lands. Ramie can be
produced at less than half the cost of cotton and the fiber
can be had of any desired length; its durability far exceeds
that of cotton and can be put to almost any use that cotton
is used for. It is potentially a future crop for Florida.
Other fiber-bearing plants have been experimented with
and are thought to have possibilities as commercial crops
if methods of handling could be devised that would master
the problem of getting it ready for the looms economically and
in proper condition. Among these we may mention sanse-
vieria and cotine. Nothing definite has been done in the way
of commercializing these plants.
Fabrics and many other things can be made from any sub-
stance that yields a large percent of cellulose. This is the
principle upon which was founded the rayon industry, the
production of which has reached the equivalent of 3,500,000
bales of cotton.
Two things can be grown in Florida which yield more than
90 per cent of cellulose-a certain variety of castor bean


and a certain kind of bamboo. In both cases it is the stalk
that is utilized. Neither of these have been commercialized
as yet but can be. Why not?

Florida has a wide range of native plants that have a speci-
fic use. One classification of these plants is under the head
of drug plants. Dr. B. V. Christensen of the State University
has done much in locating medicinal plants and disseminat-
ing knowledge on this subject. There is an immense demand
for certain drug plants and many of them grow wild in this
state and many can be cultivated and a regular trade estab-
lished with the big drug manufacturers and compounders of
the country. This field of agricultural production is prac-
tically untouched. There is already a fairly good trade on
wild deer tongue. It is only one of the many plants that show
commercial possibilities.

Chemurgie science is discovering new uses for many crops.
This will tend to take care of surpluses. It will also open
markets for crops hitherto thought to be of very limited value.
The peanut crop has gone far beyond the volume that it was
grown a few years ago. Its many uses have stimulated the
demand. Soy beans are another example. Corn, cotton seed,
sweet and white potatoes are also included.

Some European countries are ransacking the uttermost
parts of the earth to find plants which they can import and
grow somewhere in their possessions. Florida has imported
the major part of the fruits and vegetables which she now
grows, both for home use and for the world markets. More of
this can be done.

Conservation is not outside the scope of the study of the
farmer, no matter what kind of farming he may be doing. The
Federal Government is taking an active part in the conserva-
tion of all resources. The tremendous waste that has been


allowed in the recent past is really alarming. The methods
of conservation are, in the main, proper handling of soils
from the following angles: Erosion, improvement crops, main-
taining crops and farm engineering. Other forms of conserva-
tions are destruction of pestiferous insects, weeds and grasses,
favoring insectivorous birds and animals, adapting crops
to soils, conserving moisture, drainage and irrigation.

There is a direct relationship between soil and civiliza-
tion. Chemistry first revolutionized metallurgy, physics, cook-
ing, medicine and the plastic arts. It is now helping to guide
the farmer in the management of the soils. Bio-chemistry
includes health, culture and wholesome living. A new prob-
lem is looming up and challenging man for mastery: The de-
pendence of human longevity on soil content.

The human organism can live without some of the elements
which it needs. In this case, however, there is less power of
resistance to disease than there would be if all the minerals
and vitamins are in the foods which the human organism
needs. The vegetables and meats which furnish the foods of
mankind must have these elements or the human organs are
deprived of essentials. Each vegetable, fruit and meat that is
edible is supposed to have in it certain elements, but they,
like the human body, will live without some of these essen-
tials. This being so, one may eat good food, well prepared
and still be slowly starving for want of certain minerals or
vitamins. Even stockmen are feeding cattle prepared minerals
to supplement the regular feeds that are given livestock and
getting splendid results.

With these facts brought home to the public the manu-
facturers of commercial fertilizers are advertising formulas
that contain the regular nitrogen, phosphorus and potash and
many other minerals which should be in the plants that are
to be grown for foods and feeds. All soils do not have some
of the essentials other than the three that have been de-
pended on for all crops.


It is also true that the human organism can live with in-
gredients in it that should not be in it. There is no need for
nicotine but the system can accommodate itself to it to a
degree that buzzard will not eat the carcass of one heavily
charged with it. The human system does not need an over-
dose of alcohol or morphine but it will live with a considerable
amount of either one in it.

The problem to solve is to have a balanced soil, to get a
balanced crop to have a balanced food for man and a balanced
feed for stock. If this were worked out perfectly, perchance
the "allotted life" of three score and ten might be doubled.



je l.


Relationship of Florida and Latin America

Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture

Latin America includes the continent of South America,
Mexico, Central America and the West Indies.
The reason why there is a peculiar relationship between
these countries and Florida is that Florida is the peninsula
state extending farthest south from that part of North Amer-
ica which comprises the United States. This location makes
a large part of the State semi-tropical in climate and puts it in
direct line between North and South America for ocean-going
The United States has an area of 3.026,700 square miles.
South America has an area of 7,570,000 square miles.
The United States has a population of 126,000,000.
South America has a population of approximately 75,000-
(The areas and populations of the other Latin countries
are not included in this data.)
The meridional line from New York City south leaves
ninety-five per cent of the South American continent east of
it. A line due South from Miami would only touch the most
western extremity of South America for a short distance.
Two-thirds of South America is within the tropical zones.
Notwithstanding this fact, South America has the largest
area of temperate climate in the tropical zones of any conti-
nent. This is due to the elevations extending the entire length
of the continent from north to south. The Andes Mountains
have snow-capped peaks on which the snow never melts.
Taken as a whole the winters are much warmer and the sum-
mers much cooler than in the temperate zone of North Amer-
Delivered to the Tourist Club of Miami under the auspices of the Dade County
Chamber of Commerce.




South America is as rich in natural resources as any con-
tinent on the globe. It abounds in commercially valuable for-
ests, in various minerals, in fertile soils suited to agriculture,
in unmeasured possibilities in the production of general field
crops, fruits, vegetables and rare specialties. It has great
water-power possibilities. It is the least developed of any of
the continents. This development will eventually take place.
The question is, WHO WILL DO IT?
Before the World War European countries were leading in
the development of commerce, finance, transportation and
industries. Since the war there has been a decided change
toward American interests. In 1913 the total tonnage between
South America and Europe was five times that between South
America and the United States. In 1932 it was only four
times as much. The United States now has more than half
the tonnage of the Western Coast of the continent. The total
foreign trade of South America aggregates $3,000,000,000
and approximately half of this is with Argentine. The total
for the U. S. with all countries in 1927 was $10,000,000,000.
With the rapidly increasing population by immigration
and the almost unlimited water-power possibilities, large in-
dustrial plants are being built and the railroads are being
stocked with electric engines. Commerce is increasing enor-
mously and those nations first on the ground are getting the
major part of this international business.
How should Florida come into the picture? Just as all suc-
cess is accomplished-by going after it with determination.
I do not wish to make any invidious comparisons, but simply
to illustrate what I mean let us note a few facts: In 1935 Los
Angeles had the second heaviest tonnage of all the ports of
the United States-4,890,635. One-fourth of this amount was
with Central and South America. That one-fourth is equal
to the entire tonnage of Miami for the same year. It is nearer
from Miami to any port in Central America or South Amer-
ica than from Los Angeles. The farthest port in South Amer-
ica from either Miami or Los Angeles is Buenos Aires. The
distance from Tampa is 4,400 miles. The distance from Miami


is 4,200 milbs and the distance from Los Angeles is 6,142
miles. Why is it that the Pacific Coast ports of the United
States do more trading with Latin America than the Atlantic
ports? They do not. But the Pacific Coast has three main
ports-Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle, and the At-
lantic Coast has a dozen, but if Florida had the materials
that Latin America wants, the nearness of Miami to southern
markets would mean cheaper freight costs and an advantage
in trade. It would mean developing industries here to furnish
the materials for this growing trade.
A study should be made of the needs and the wants of
South American people and then get ready to supply those
needs and wants. We can either do this or lose the trade that
awaits the most enterprising of customers. Let me illustrate:
Years ago a large concern manufacturing shirt collars sent
agents to South America to take orders. They were successful
in obtaining the orders on condition that the method of num-
bering them be changed to the method in vogue in those
countries. The manufacturers turned down the orders rather
than cater to this simple requirement. European collar-mak-
ers got the trade. In certain parts of that country the men
want pants with stripes running around the legs like the
stripes on a zebra, instead of up and down the legs as we want
them. No looms in this country were making cloth in the
pattern these people wanted and none would make cloth of
that pattern-Europeans made it for them. Quite a lot of the
merchandise shipped to South America has to be transported
for many miles on burros from the ports to the interior.
Packages must be small enough to accommodate this mode
of transportation. Some of our shippers refuse to recognize
this and ship in large boxes which cannot be handled. Other
countries make inquiries concerning this item and pack their
goods accordingly-they get the trade.
We should have regular shipping schedules of passenger
and freight service between Florida ports and Latin America,
including all major South American ports. A great deal more
shipping is carried on with the Atlantic than with the Pacific
ports of South America. We are in line to reach the ports of


both the Atlantic and the Pacific ports at a shorter mileage
than any other country north of the Gulf of Mexico or trans-
Atlantic country.
Twenty-two of the leading ports of Florida had a foreign
and domestic tonnage in 1935 of 10,221,095. The value of this
tonnage was $337,266,559. This means that Miami had a little
more than one-tenth of the tonnage of the twenty-two ports.
The growth in business in Florida is due to domestic condi-
tions more than to foreign trade. Comparing the export trade
of the United States in 1935 with the ten-year period from
1921 to 1930 there was an annual loss of $900,000,000. This
decline was due mainly to the efforts of foreign countries to
supply their own needs at home. Much of the pre-war trade
is lost forever. But we have opportunities to increase our
trade with Latin America more than with any other part of
the world.
The subject of tariff legislation has been the football of
politics from the beginning of our government. It has been
treated both as a national issue and as a local issue. Of late
years Florida has been vitally concerned about the schedules
on products grown in this state. It is claimed by some that the
United States has the largest free list of any nation in the
world. It is also claimed that the cost of production of both
farm crops and manufactured articles is highest in the United
States of any country in the world. How do these two things
affect the people as a whole in this country? High cost of
production make home markets attractive to foreign pro-
ducers and we cannot buy from others without curtailing
our own output.

In the last four years Mr. Hull has persuaded 17 nations,
from Cuba to Czechoslovakia, to join in our trade agreements
program. Last year our exports to these agreement coun-
tries had increased 45 per cent over the 1934 low, and to
non-agreement countries 25.9 per cent. Imports from agree-
ment countries has increased 45.2 per cent, and from non-
agreement countries 51.3 per cent.


Florida's foreign trade for 1932 was reported as $23,746,-
648; for 1933, $29,869,241; 1934, $34,359,056; 1935, $50,778,-
463; 1936, $58,394,025; 1937, $70,000,000.

Of the seventy million dollar total for 1937, exports were
valued at fifty million dollars and imports at twenty million
dollars. Three leading exports were remarked as phosphate
rock, scrap iron and rosin. Three principal imports were to-
bacco, newsprint, paper and coffee.

Another phase of this subject is that we are now more
than ever a creditor nation. High tariff in a creditor nation
is self-contradictory. Still another phase of this problem
is that embargoes against imports and economic isolation
mean regimented economy. If we are to be self-contained we
must regulate production and distribution. No people enjoy
being told that they MUST do so and so. But when things
go wrong, when economic maladjustment brings depression,
somebody is selected as the one to blame and it is usually
the government. Clamors are made for help when the cause
for the need of help was self-imposed-refusal to be regu-

In trying to work out these problems we are brought face
to face with a condition that we cannot ignore-the effect
of the competition that is sure to be offered to this country
by Latin America. This is the other side of the question as
to the relationship of Florida to Latin America. The advan-
tage to this country in financing and developing South Amer-
ica is perfectly apparent. If we do not do it someone else
will. We need not hold off for fear of the inevitable compe-
tition. But there is another factor entering into this problem
that is well worth our while to study-the difference in the
national, racial, social and political life of the Latin American
Republics and that of the United States. I may say in short
that if and when South America is developed, it will be
done by a small per cent of the present population and by
immigrants from Europe and the descendants of Europeans.


I will quote a paragraph from the November, 1937, issue
of LIFE magazine:
"Brazil, on whose vast plateau several hundred million
people could live in plenty, is called by scientists 'the most
valuable piece of property owned by a European race.' Brazil
is also called 'a colossal human failure.' Brazilians are a
charming people but incurably lazy. The original Portuguese
conquistadors did not bring their wives, married Indian abori-
gines and the their descendants added the blood of Negro
slaves to the strain. The mixture did not work." Frank G.
Carpenter in his voluminous writings on South America bears
the same testimony to the laziness and indifference of the
mongrel population. The upper classes in all Latin American
countries look down on the aborigines and the mixed element
of the population. This shunted element has little social,
business or political standing. This is always the case with
mixed races. We of the United States have the same situation
in the case of the Negro, the Mongolian and the Indian, where-
ever they constitute a large part of the population.
When these discrimination are made it always aggra-
vates the economic conditions. South America is cursed with
the most extreme economic maladjustment. Land monopoly
is worse there than in any other part of the world. In no
independent country are the best lands and the best industrial
plants owned by foreigners as in Latin America. The English
and the Germans had the vantage ground in all South Amer-
ica up to the World War. They still have a predominating
position. Recent investments of capital from the United
States are making it possible to shift the tide of commerce
through American channels. This is the point that should be
studied. Our Consuls stationed in various parts of South
America should be able to furnish information that would
show opportunities for American enterprise. One thing that
was so long neglected was the establishing of banks in the
commercial centers of all those countries. If Florida banks
were represented in these ports by other banks, either as
independent correspondence banks or as owned by the Florida


banks, it would furnish a means of tying up business relay.
tionship between the two countries.
The Pan-American Peace Conference was a splendid ges-
ture. It was attended by statesmen and not by business men.
Whether we need a business men's conference or not we need
men throughout Latin America that can speak the Spanish
and the Portuguese languages. All Latin America speaks
Spanish except Brazil and it speaks Portuguese. This differ-
ence of language is the greatest barrier between the two
Americas. But European nations differ in languages and yet
transact billions of dollars' worth of business with each other
One more thought: How are we going to handle the ques-
tion of difference in standards of living and the difference
in wages when we become strenuous competitors in the grow-
ing of crops and the manufacturing of articles of commerce.
Hundreds of cotton mills are already running in Brazil. Labor
is cheaper both in the growing and the manufacturing of
cotton. Cheap ocean transportation puts them in touch with
the great cotton spinning markets of the world. The largest
cotton growers of Texas have moved their operations to
Brazil already. Of the 200,000,000 acres planted in cotton
throughout the world only 35,000,000 are in the U. S. Meat-
packing houses are in operation in the Argentine. Sheep and
cattle can be raised much cheaper in Argentine than in the
United States.
So there are two sides to the future relationship of Florida
and Latin America. In furnishing the Southern Republics with
the materials for industrializing their countries there is
prospect of millions of profits. But when the industrialization
is complete there Is a situation much like deliberately build-
ing up a business which is sure to become a dangerous com-
The great men are not all dead, nor the great problems all
settled. There will always be a need for the brightest minds
that can be had to settle questions of science, of economics
and government. The fact that so much has been done in


the past worth while encourages us to have faith in the pro-
gressive possibilities of accomplishments in the future. The
only reason that the skyline of American cities is different
now from what it was before the Europeans came across the
Atlantic is the difference in the kind of thinking done by the
Europeans and their descendants and the kind of thinking
that was done by the aboriginal Americans-the Indians. The
success of the United States in its relationship with Latin
America, and all the world, will depend on the kind of think-
ing that is done now and in the future by those who will be
the business men and the statesmen of the future.


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