• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Florida poultry and eggs: Market...
 Prices of poultry and eggs
 Per capita production and consumption...
 Pointers on egg marketing...
 Eggs produced on Florida farms...
 Chickens raised by counties,...
 Dozens of eggs produced by...
 Measuring the air cell
 U. S. and Florida grades for...
 Specifications for official United...
 Tentative U.S. standards for classes...
 Tentative U.S. standards for classes...
 Cooperative poultry sales
 Size of the poultry industry in...
 Averages from reports of commerical...
 Tentative U.S. standards for classes...
 Annual value of poultry meat and...
 Poultry and livestock by count...
 Poultry and egg prices - Jacksonville,...
 Index
 Florida and U.S. standards for...






Group Title: New series
Title: Marketing eggs and poultry in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002858/00001
 Material Information
Title: Marketing eggs and poultry in Florida
Series Title: New series - Florida State Dept. of Agriculture ; 112
Physical Description: 63 p. : ill. (some col., folded), map ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Risher, F. W. ( Francis Washington )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: FloridaState Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1945
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Eggs -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.W. Risher.
General Note: "November, 1945."
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002858
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3174
ltuf - AMG4632
oclc - 41670834
alephbibnum - 002459277
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Florida poultry and eggs: Market hints
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Prices of poultry and eggs
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Per capita production and consumption of eggs, chickens, and turkey, United States, 1910-43
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Pointers on egg marketing methods
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Eggs produced on Florida farms (by dozens)
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Chickens raised by counties, 1939
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Dozens of eggs produced by counties
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Measuring the air cell
        Page 24
        Page 25
    U. S. and Florida grades for eggs
        Page 26
    Specifications for official United States standards for quality of individual shell eggs
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Tentative U.S. standards for classes and grades for live poultry
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Tentative U.S. standards for classes and grades for dressed chickens
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Cooperative poultry sales
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Size of the poultry industry in Florida
        Page 45
    Averages from reports of commerical egg producers
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Tentative U.S. standards for classes and grades for dressed turkeys
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Annual value of poultry meat and eggs, U.S.
        Page 52
    Poultry and livestock by counties
        Page 53
    Poultry and egg prices - Jacksonville, Tampa, Miami
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Index
        Page 64
    Florida and U.S. standards for individual eggs
        Page 65
Full Text
fr65b6


NIE*W SERIES No. 112


EGGS


MARKETING

AND POULTRY
IN FLORIDA


\OVIMBILR. 1945


13B)
F. \\. FISHER, SPECIALIST
Florida State Malrketing Bureau




STATE DEPARIMIENI OFl A(RICULTLREI
NATHAN MAYO. CO:MMISSIONaR
TA LLAITASSI.Hi, FLORIDA





NEW SERIES No. 112


MARKETING

EGGS AND POULTRY
IN FLORIDA


NOVEMBER, 1945


B)
F. W. RISHER, SPECIALIST
Florida State Marketing Bureau




STATL DEPARrTENT Ot AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, COMMISSIONER
TALI.LAHASSHE, FLORIDA





















Acknowledgments
The writer has used material published from
time to time by the IFlorida State Marketing
Bureau and the U. S. departmentt of .\gricul-
ture. especially the statistical informant ion given
herein. 'The .\Aricultural lExtension Division
of the Ulniversivt of Florida has been veir gen-
crous in suplplyin- much material on feed prices
and other sub)iects. Without the material col-
lected from these sources it would not have
been possible to write this bulletin. To my
fellow workers, thanks also for their assistance.





MARKETING

Florida Poultry and Eggs

MARKET HINTS

Good quality eggs is not an accident but the result of careful
management. \Vhen an egg is laid by a normal, healthy hen it is a
perfect food, provided she has had a balanced ration and good water
from clean vessels.


GOOD PRODUCTION PRACTICES
1. Keep strong, healthy, vigorous stock.
2. Gather eggs twice a day.
3. Cool the eggs before casing. Pack small end down. Hold in a
cool, moist place like a cellar free from strong odors.
4. Never produce fertile eggs except for hatching.
5. Prevent dirty eggs by having clean nests and clean houses. Con-
fine layers when yards are muddy.
6. Feed properly.
7. Cull out hens laying thin shelled or misshaped eggs.


GOOD MARKET PRACTICES
1. Always grade or sell to some one who will grade and pay for eggs
on a graded basis.
2. Pack eggs in clean, strong cases with new flats and fillers.
3. Sell eggs twice a week or more often if economically possible.
4. Candle eggs before shipping and eliminate defective eggs. Get a
copy of the Florida Egg Law.
5. Pack one color to the case.




6. Keep very large or thin shelled eggs at home. They often break
in transit.
7. Make the package neat and attractive.

MARKET AIDS

1. The Florida Egg Law and Poultry Law aid by establishing
standards and grades.
2. The Bonding Law, requiring dealers to secure performance bonds,
protects poultrymen from bad accounts.
3. Government purchase on graded basis of surplus eggs helps in
educating producers and trade in value of grades.

FLORIDA POULTRY STATISTICS


Pounds of fryers produced-Conmlercial Plants
Value of fryers produced
Number of head of poultry & turkeys on farms
Value of poultry and turkeys on farms
Dozen of eggs produced
Value of eggs produced
Pounds chickens produced on farms
Value of chickens produced
Total value of turkeys, poultry and eggs


1944
10,000,000
$ 3.300.000
3.400.000
$ 3,700.000
-.-.. 18,300,000
...-... $ 7,260.000
10,862,000
$ 3.978.000
.. $17,438,000


U. S. POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTION. 1944
Poultry meat produced on farms, pounds .- --.. 3,410,000,000
Poultry meat produced by broiler plants-.. -..-.- 691,000,000
I'. S. Dozens of eggs produced 4.604,000.000
Value of all Poultry meat produced $ 905,470,000
Value of eggs produced $1,656,106,000
The total egg production of the United States would fill 155,870,000
(155.8 million) egg cases holding 30 dozen eggs each: or if 400 cases
\were loaded in each refrigerator car it would require 389,700 cars to
hold one year's egg production, and almost as many more cars to haul
the poultry meat produced annually.




PICEI(l*S OF" l~I)MITRY AND) EGG;S


'i c fack, 'm t I II, ii kt -,- d p lr I il i d I\ tl-11 rd-
SIMLIV Mark-otiii Ihirutil. 1,thc na urnic q4 "ojtl~i4Iit. Itrict I., tilt. rutail
Sturcs, as rul(irtIci 1) p1 on lllccr anti 1uciur~s untICI tinatkutda. u
price (loct" wit riujrit~ilt ,I I IYpl ici;lar cti dcaics pricT ciliCc it i' ,It
averat-c. lhuirc ?il i t ,it it\t I- t i It..irc :k, \\ c~l :I, ti ~
I'hic pricc, ;I, rtjm tul i.: thu !:,.\ tilt- u IT-ca Art :rllu .i lil Ct 1,. \ liInc
supplyt :i c iij4;4l\ nl I ;tgs a 11in buI ng ( I ;l I \\(-]I ;Il bi \ rn..u d i~1m f, 1w


eggs( and p4 ittttr Y Ili jacts, ct\ Illc at iriuc ItI I Iw 1, w th lia ct L. N\ )il ,


thu Iofi i ll f tr nt 7 t t 1,2u III l ot t k l' 111,114 1th j ri t Ct .C I








-11iiitt, tu l1 ant Vru-i i k f L: tI all. I c. niat l uLai, ini!tl
:1Ck tIi 1yk .iit 1 Int I vt tci h tiil'lr \fr u r t ul



be cront rc ,f 11\\;1\ If t rit- pr ick. If rlv C iiit.i" i d (.".L: i-; i n c
ittIla, filercf lit (I ti llt lt li tlt. scl; ft : (l that il d itiakc .
s, I( )it t! ic 1, wal I,!-- -, liI tccr w i 1 i im p, -,,.! )c Cll it L' ;I glrvat(












th andr a It mlt 1 S l : I I r It\- t t i t L'r. \ il -t I cI ii F tI a Ii C II 11 S nt tS

rei t tii t and C ttilll :L i iI -tilt r.\ la\\ T i c I I I k-I a i t-itii
T ] i crc i II I ;I n -n :iiar vt at III v lillu pl-ic. It- 1liall




THE CARE OF EGGS ON THE FARM

In order to pr,,duce quality eggs for the market it is necessary to
pr iperly care for their on the farm. for quality eggs are produced by
healthy hens, in clean quarters, fed the right kind of feed with plenty
of pure water to drink. When these conditions are met it is then neces-
sary to gather the eggs often and allow them to cool in trays or wire
hackets before packing them in hie egg crate. The best temperature to
hold eggs at is somewhat l, lo 70' and above freezing. Not many
fanners can keep them cool unless they provide a special egg room or
cellar. In many places they have found that iceless refrigerators are
very cood. and a.; :hey are ea.s to con-truct, most any farmer could
buildl ne for keeping egg in until time to market. In tests in Massa-
chusetts it was found that eggs list weight twice as fast when held at
85 as compared t those kept t at ; ttemperattre of 65. One hundred
Ipr clnt of these egg~ grade I Falncv ti tirst day but when held at
grocer. store teimplieratzire. around S5 for 9 days. only 8 c ,or 8 out
of i 0. grade 1 I l;iitc. "'Fayncv" in this case was the equivalent of
I,'. S. \.\.

:COMPOSITION OF EGGS

Ie l- torage nmiii or cellar should he free from miu-ty or strong
lodrs, and the air should he moist, for rellmembier the eggs are com-
p sed of approximately (t,."I ; \water and the shell is porous. which
all. \\ \aporatioii if held in a dr\. hot r,.m. Other elements and
their percentage of the wh ole egg are a.s follow,;: Shell or calcium,
11.2'(. protein 11.8(7,, fat Q0.W/%, ash .9%.

Ne\w tats and tillers should l e u'ed since ,ol, soiled fillers an d flats
spoil tie appearance of the .eggs and often cause them to get dirty
and are responsible for nany nbroken eggs.


(;RAI)E AM) DISTANCE FROM MARKET

In mtid- uminnr 14. .)0 cases of eggs arriving in the New York
market were graded in a recent test to see what effect distance from
the market and source of origin had on egg quality. It was found
that the nearby e-g. graded from .81 to as higli as 03%- U. S. Grade
A to (ralde .\.\ \\hlle those coming from states like 'einsylvania.
Washingtmon. irginia, I'tal and Tennessee gr'raded out 65%0 to 75%o




A to AA. and those from the Cornbelt states graded from 5%o to 12%
A or AA.
There is no use to produce quality eggs unless they are sold to dealers
who buy on a grade and quality basis, and advertise the good qualities
of nearby eggs to the housewife and give her an identified product.
When eggs are sold direct to the consumer, a regular delivery must be
maintained, otherwise the customer \\ill get eggs from someone who
can be depended on.


SHELL TREATING, OR PROCESSING EGGS

The shell treating of eggs, to keep down shrinkage or evaporation
of the contents of the eggs. is becoming a commonplace and practical
method of the preserving of the original egg quality.
The eggs are dipped into a colorless, tasteless, odorless mineral oil
that is kept at room or close to 85' temperature. Before eggs are shell
treated they should be candled to remove low quality eggs, for while
shell treating preserves quality, it will not make good eggs out of poor
quality eggs.

HATCHERIES FURNISH MARKET FOR EGGS

From a rather small industry in 1934. commercial hatcheries have
grown to one of major importance. In 1934 poultrymen purchased
28% of the chix the\ raised from commercial hatcheries and hatched
72% of their chix at home either under the old lien or in home incu-
bators. By 1944 more than 90o of all chix raised were purchased
from commercial hatcheries. This alone has increased the average
number of eggs laid per hen for she no longer has, to take time off for
three weeks to set and hatch her chix: neither does she have to spend
about ten weeks more of her time raising her brood. It is estimated
that the hatcheries of the United States furnished poultrymen with
close to 650.(X)0.000 (six hundred and fifty million) baby chickens
in 1944.

DRIED EGG MARKET

Within the past live \ears the drying of eggs in the United States
has grown from an infant industry to a full grown, husky over-size
one. For example, in 1941 there were 16 egg drying plants operating
in the United States; by 1944 the number had increased to 121. The





demand for concentrated food for the Armed Services and lend lease
and relief feeding caused this expansion, for it saved much needed
shipping space, as a pack of dried eggs weighing ten pounds is equal
to about a case of 30 dozen. The production of dried eggs in the U. S.
in 1940 was 7.487.000 pounds, or the equivalent of something like
700,000 cases of eggs; the 1944 production of dried eggs was about
320,742,000 pounds. To produce this it took close to 32.000,000 cases
of eggs of 30 dozen each.

DRIED EGGS FOR ICE CREAM MAKING
To find a market for this production after the war is going to be
a real problem. The Government, in order to help poultrymen keep
this outlet for eggs. has conducted some studies on the use of dried
eggs in ice cream manufacturing with these results-that dried eggs
improve the whipping quality of the mix; cuts down the time to make
the cream; increases the food value, smoothness and stiffness, and
makes ice cream more resistant to melting. There can be used 1 to 2
percent of egg solids in the mix.
There is produced each year lately in the U. S. two billion pounds
of ice cream (2,000.000,000 lbs.) If eggs are used generally as recom-
mended up to 11/'o of the mix, this would provide a market for 20
million pounds of dried eggs, or 2,000,000 cases.

MARKETING EGGS
The majority of eggs from the large commercial poultrymen, who
live near the centers of population in Florida, are delivered direct to
grocery stores, cafes, hotels, and to the wholesale buyers. Some of the
smaller producers have egg routes where they deliver to the consumer,
but this requires a lot of time and expense; although the price received
is higher it nets them very little above that received by those who sell
in large quantities for a lower price. Several cooperative poultry as-
sociations have developed in Florida the last few years and are render-
ing a real service.
These associations hold regular meetings at which production and
marketing problems are discussed, and the best methods for handling
these problems are adopted and put into practice.
They aid their members by securing markets, for as a rule dealers
-prefer to deal with those who can furnish volume and quality products
on a year-round basis.




TRUCK BUYERS
Many of the poultry men who live a good way from the market sell
to truckers who make from one to two calls per week to pick up eggs.
These truckers pay several cents under the market for eggs, most of
them require poultrymen to sort their eggs to size and color. There
are a few poultrymen who ship eggs to city buyers by express, these
are also graded to size and color. Nearly all the larger dealers buy on
a graded and candled basis: this has done much to improve the quality
of Florida eggs.
In some sections however, the small farm flock owners still sell to
the county merchant on an ungraded basis. These eggs are very
heavily discounted at all times on the Florida market, and can only
be sold to a very cheap class of trade at a very much lower price. Most
market improvements nlust come among the small producers for a
careful study and analysis of the 1935 United States census shows
that the flock o\ner who has 2(') hens and less produces 53% of the
Florida egg supply. More than 50% of all eggs are produced in the
four months-February, March. April and May.
However the successful commercial poultrymen try to reverse this
by bringing their pullets into production in September, to take advan-
tage of the higher prices that usually prevail for eggs in the fall and
early winter months.

ROLLING STORE
The Rolling Store had come into Irominretce before the war. This
is usually a truck with a special body built on it to carry drygoods,
groceries, tinware, household supplies like sipoons. knives, forks, cook-
ing oil and kerosene. These stores roll up to the farmer's front door
and barter with him for eggs and poultry. lard, and other farm products,
paying for them with anything the farmer's wife chooses from the stock
of goods. The store travels over the same route at least once a week.
Increased production of eggs in this war has made possible some in-
crease in domestic per capital consumption despite large noncivilian
uses. Normally eggs used for hatching purposes account for most of
the differences between domestic production and consumption of eggs.
Annual consumption of chicken and turkey usually has been equivalent
to annual production. Increased chicken supplies in recent years have
resulted from relatively favorable prices for eggs as well as for chick-
ens. Turkey prices have been favorable but the supply of hatching eggs
has been a limiting factor in turkey production.





PER CAPITAL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF EGGi, OHIOKENS,

AND TURKEY UNITED STATES, 1910- 43

EGGS CHICKENS a TURKEY a
Per capital Per capital Per capital

Pro- Consump- Pro- Consump- Pro- Consump-
duction tion b duction tion b duction tion b
Year Number Number Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds


1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919

1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

1940
1941
1942
1943 c
1944


322
345
327
318
310
327
311
294
294
319

306
312
329
343
333
332
349
357
353
342

349
342
320
311
300
291
297
321
317
326

330
345
394
440
423.


a Dressed weight.
b Consumption 1941-43 applies to civilian population only.
c Tentative estimates chased on preliminary indications as of
September 1943.





New York City
Egg Prices
Nearby Hennery
White Specials
Cents per Dozen





94.1


46,.3
4t;.9
49).1

31..

4.,
3Tl."


Now York
Hens
Prices


Florida
Heavy Hens
Jacksonville
Quote Prices


247-

7. 1




24.01

25.r3

22;.9

1%.7



-.1;


Jacksonville
White Egg Quote
Yearly Average
Price
Cents per Dozen
40.1

4 '.%

44 4

4 :

40.11
40.4
1L.5
3.5.5

3-'3..
23 7




4 7.

47,,


Jacksonville
Quote Price
Fryers



3'..1

3 4
4,.3
41.1
37.4



:1

21.01



2.:.; 1
2'7 4
31 *I
309


Year


7 Whid],..h*l. IPm-.-,




POINTERS ON EGG MARKETING METHODS
A state-wide effort is being made by the Florida Poultry Council to
increase the production and marketing of quality eggs, and to teach
the consumers how they may be sure to recognize good quality in eggs.
The Poultry Council is composed of representatives from the various
branches of the industry, such as, the Poultry Extension Service of the
University of Florida, the Home Economics Department, The Voca-
tional Teachers, the Egg Inspection Bureau of the Department of
Agriculture, The State Poultry Association, the egg dealers and other
agencies.
Thousands of dollars are lost annually by Florida wholesale and
retail dealers through the improper handling of eggs, poor refrigera-
tion, improper storage humidity, keeping eggs too long at a high tem-
perature before selling.
A committee, from the nmerican Institute of Poultry Industries,
made a study of retail stores and concluded (conservatively) that the
annual depreciation (April to October) was a dollar ($1) per case.
This loss occurs after the last candling or in the retail store and is the
cause of much consumer complaint. The question arises-What can
the wholesalers and packers do to prevent this deterioration? If a
distributor is willing to place his eggs under private brands in a store
without facilities for keeping them properly, what is the retailer to
conclude ?
When eggs were kept in open wire baskets (Massachusetts) at gro-
cery store temperature of 85' they lost weight 2% times as fast as the
eggs held at 65'.

HOW TO KEEP EGG QUALITY IN STORES
1. Keep eggs at a temperature about 55' to 65'. this will prevent
sweating.
2. Keep eggs in fairly humid place and away from strong odors.
3. Display eggs in a refrigerated show case to preserve freshness.
4. Sell stock at least twice a week.
5. Buy candled and graded eggs.
The hen delivers a good egg. Do You?
Every egg you ship or sell must be fit for human consumption.




BETTER EGGS BRING MORE MONEY
WHY EGGS SHOULD BE CANDLED
and Graded As to Quality and Size
1. Candling provides a fixed standard for quality.
2. Places a premium on eggs from the careful producer, places the
penalty where it belongs.
3. Makes possible a fair price to the careful producer.
4. It leads to general improvement in quality.
5. It conforms to law.
6. It saves freight.
The egg is a perishable food product like milk and meat. No farmer
or dealer would think of storing fresh killed meat without chilling it
thoroughly and then putting it through a preserving process. For this
reason a cooling tank is an adjunct to every dairy. But because we
cannot see the nature of the interior of the egg (because of the shell)
many poultry men and egg operators handle eggs as though they were
so many bits of stone. I.ike milk and meat, eggs spoil quickly if held
at a temperature much above 70.
There is no good reason for anyone eating poor quality eggs. The
percentage of poor quality eating eggs when laid are small. The de-
fects being principally meat spots or blood clots.

TO EGG BUYERS AND SHIPPERS
Do you realize that your business will be larger, your profits greater,
and your products more uniform if you-
I. Buy eggs on a quality graded basis.
2. Candle carefully.
3. Pack a uniform attractive package.
4. Hold in a chilled room.
5. Handle carefully to avoid breakage.
6. Ship often to avoid staleness.
7. Load properly to prevent breakage.


WHAT THE CONSUMERS WANT
1. Eggs that are clean and free from stains, uniform in color.
2. Iarge size. around 24 oz. per dozen.




3. Clean, neat, strong, attractive packages.
4. A white that is reasonably firm when broken out of shell.
5. A yolk that stands up well.
6. White free from blood and meat spots.
7. Mild odor and sweet flavor.
In marketing eggs remember that good appearance opens the con-
sumers pocketbook and that good quality will keep it open.

DIFFERENT CHANNELS OF TRADE
Most eggs from chicken farms are used for human consumption,
however, there is a considerable amount used by incubator men for
hatching purposes. Eggs to be used by hatcheries usually come from
fans where some variety of purebred chickens are raised and where
high production is maintained: for these eggs a premium is paid the
producer.
Some duck eggs are used for table purposes, however, this trade is
limited to certain areas in large cities. The bulk of duck eggs are used
by poultrymen and hatcherymen for hatching ducklings, either to be
sold as young ducklings or to replace those culled out and sold as ma-
ture birds.
During the last few years quite a demand has arisen for turkey
eggs to be set in incubators to supply poults to specialized turkey farms
where they are reared by artificial methods. While the turkey egg
can be eaten. very few are as they bring too high a price because of
scarcity and demand for incubation.
The guinea egg finds its way into trade channels often mixed with
eggs from general farms where poultry is raised.
Practically the only commercial geese eggs are those used for incu-
bation and some that may get into consumptive channels along with
other eggs.
Guinea eggs and chicken eggs are the only two that can be shipped
in the regular 30 dozen case. Because they are larger size, duck eggs.
turkey eggs. and geese eggs require the use of special fillers in the egg
case.





THE NEW FLORIDA EGG LAW


l'his law requires eggs to be sold according to five ( 5) weight grades :
Jumib. Extra large. Large. Medium, and Small. It also adopted the
Federal Standards as official Florida Standards of Quality. There are
four qualities. namely:

FANCY OR GRADE AA--This is the highest table quality and
eggs of this grade are suitable for every use, especially for soft boiling,
poaching, or for use in the semi-raw state.

GRADE A-Eggs in this grade are next to the highest quality eggs
and represent the best grade of table quality eggs ordinarily obtainable
at retail stores. Eggs of this quality are suitable for all table purposes.
Even for soft boiling and poaching. they are satisfactory to most peo-
ple. They are suitable for cooking in all dishes.

GRADE B-Eggs of this grade are third quality and represent only
fair table eggs. although the bulk of eggs in commercial trade chan-
nels are of this grade. They are best suited for frying, as scrambled
eggs with bacon, and for ordinary cooking. They are not generally
suited for poaching or soft boiling.

GRADE C-Eggs of this grade are the lowest or fourth quality of
edible eggs and suited primarily for use in cooking and baking.
Florida has adopted the national plan for flock improvement, and
the Livestock Sanitary Board mantatains a poultry veterinarian at
Tallahassee. It is his task to help accredit flocks or keep them up to
certain standards of quality and pass on their health condition.












County




Ilradford
Ilrevard
Itroward

Calhoun
Charlotte
Clitrusl

('olier
Columbia
I ).-k d
I )cSoto
IDixie
Duvral
Ektcambia


Franklin
( .adgqlen
cGilchrist


Hmtilton
H1:ardee
HI'ndr v
Ilernando
Hig~hlatnds
Ilillstorough
Holmes

Indinn River
.Jakson
.. ITfermon
Lafayette
Luke

I ,r'on

1,ilbrty
Madison

Marion
Martin
Motnroe
":144:111


EGGS PRODUCE) ON FLORIDA FARMS

(By Dozens)

U. 8. Eggs Produced
Census 1939
1919 1929 1932 1934
290.S,66 415,861 3<6,000 309,000 1,240,133 $ 310.371

51,727 116.235 109,000 53,000 65,657 16,415
22,243 71,394 64,000 34,000 18:5,292 46,483
210,271 166,3169 165.000 144,000 187,232 37,714
64,746 115,811 59,000 75,000 331,664 97,950
17,439 81,853 301,000 94,000 441,708 132,512
58,113 100,795 69,000 58,000 614.433 153,608
19,370 36,000 12,000 56,060 16,818
18,336 80,694 (60,000 19,000 45,528 11,379
73,089 247,001 353,000 67,000 109,576 27,392
--100 51,000 1,770 226,800 56,687
144,709 253,798 168,000 242,000 671,965 136,986

97,2.5 276,709 1.397,000 5,5,000 1.234,451 363,777
S184,316 82.739 350.000 40,000 114,208 28,602
30,842 5.776 36.000 45,400 9,079
169,601 888.360 1.653,000 630,000 1,129,478 531,929
112.415 253,790 516,000 243,000 168,466 42,116

29,673 64.166 99.000 71,000 10,701 2,477
734 5.022 62,000 2,000 148,070 49,284
163,492 262,082 296,000 277,000 361,365 72,659
138,120 138,000 44,000 146,028 33,008
-- 104,222 113,000 65,000 29,265 7,316
---- 8.211 2,000 6,400 60,147 15,036

121.980 123,679 282,000 116,000 167,160 41,089
241.245 101,000 129,000 428,833 108.208
30.352 500 8.000 30,472 7,548
55.713 121.415 64,000 117,000 93.583 24.357
103,427 291.000 190.000 264.475 72,204
511.906 1.085.797 3,4100,000 680,000 2,303.025 599,104
142,l0; 21 4.33' 299,000 200,000 283,285 70.635
5- .97' 13.00o 35.000 17,525 4,454

397,201 467.094 475,000 359.000 633.568 126,642
168,982 219,194 103.000 125,000 163,007 35,794

96,633 111,710 11,000 36,000 133,803 26,780
134,001 376,697 373,000 270,000 441,390 110,349
56,790 1111,898 220,000 123,000 347,140 94,537
125,036 216,878 425,000 142,000 352,728 71,316
83,244 115,651 138,000 121,000 226,970 45,390
8,277 45.210 21,000 36,000 204,350 40,774

205.861 251.552 256.000 233.000 461,899 95,458
90.200 189.015 180.000 118,000 240,128 79,490
235,743 675,184 700.000 583,000 509,890 140.871
S79.393 62.000 6,400 30,420 7,855
5,214 2,041 2,000 1,440 5.825 2.038
66,487 786.272 539.000 582.000 884,084 245,468







(GG(S PlO()IDI(CEI) ON FIA)IDII)A FARMS (Continued)

I Blv Dozeils)

U. S. Eggs Produced
Census 1939
County 1919 1929 1932 1934
Okaloosa 12-... 3 137,123 51.000 1('11" 197.99 39,599
Okerecho,.ee %.i4 29.41 I 55.i,00 1 -.n' 3'.*' 14 10,777
Oranger 1'T.297 39,73 s 115.uO 71I...iu 1114.'22 38,369
Oseola .45 %6,;6;;; 29'.i; 612.11 96.944 29,951
Palm IBeach lo9,59 I :0,792 297,000 1411.0111 26;0. 17 80,240
Pasco 136;,609 515,744 259,000 *i,l;!04' 766,2 0 194,157
Pinellas 14l.!0,0 329,900 321,000 178,100 150,816; 49,934
Polk 2;7, 1.r14 697,927 1,319,000 55l,000 1,600,827 405,960
Putt liilin 119,0(2 .4(!I,100 840,000 264l,00(0 372,406 90,80
St. Johllns 52,1.12 !4.l,l.48 157,000 17:,00(0 157,303 39,405
St. Lucie ;,1.116 57,197 5,000 1.1 fl10 5.5,303 19,761
Santa Rosa 75.702 1 .i 2 ,.0 1 2l. iil '.. 241.,532 60,382
Sarasota -- 42.44t 1 12.010 2s,.' 43,1472 10.970
Seminol,. .5.,14!# 170.7,;9 275.11001 25;.,i 1*.549 47.479
Sumtur 1 1.994 17 1.94(1 71,01 !.,.'"1" 26-;.242 57,194
Suw:aln.c 27 .7'.2 7 *1 .27 342'."', 14 .., 3';5.413 91,354
Taylhr ...7 ..115 24'1.'""' 2,001 75G61 15,171
Uniin 21' ,7;2 1 .7., 7i*. "r 2110.2,'' 46,135
Volusix 229.!*3 '27~.4 ml.1111 .-,14.,0(0 265,. 06 79,740
Wakull:a krl,9 i'.:; t 2'..'5 36;.0(i0 33,804 6,760
Waltonl 101:1332 17s.2's 52.i4,nii 1 I l,0( 192,637 49,589
Washinlgton 109.3:118 26,241 1.1,1li 1413,100 351,484 73,851

22,804,17.4 $5,796,447








County
.Al.ich ua
Itaker

Irallfr rI
I'r."a r
Srll. ar
S";il t.. tin

I "'ar i

".11l*.r
Sla iit bl.t

I pal.-



I' In I' ll i
I'r;t aklln




I laerslen



It Highlands
4;,ilf
Ifauiitlt 'ii
II. lrol..
llrn.lri




Indian Ri'.cr



I akI

l,' Voll
I.llh'rlv

Sa n il
Ma ri-n
.a irl in

M .nr *.
a I:* a't

Ia an re
a;.l -- ..




flrancr
Pinella .
Polk
Piitin in

St. I.iile
Snnmii I IHI
Snralsiitn


Suiwannr
Ta vlor
U'nio*n
lnl'.n
va ninsla
Waktlla
Walton
Washilmnaton

Total


CHICi(KENS HAISEI) B1 C()LNTIES, 1939

Number

I :.;22:






l .**

1.3 :*


217,71
*:, .13 i




93.|,i3:s



73,. 5


2,.194
2 *.'24







I 45.34


... 97, 58
:17,025
5 3,31t
1 3.19 I
20,262
9q.034
47..04





4 *4O
1.1;
2.'>


2 G. 93 1




S0,362






74.411
932.499
11.91.


10.2341
1.EI.736
243.4%11
4 .14 .42%l
53.462


Value
$ 63,114
b.lji
:,1.3


1,368








5,7,2
S.04s



23,5S99
24,41
4:,..l7

2.;,137



11,569





14,762
14,161
1,542
26,311
21,.lli'
31.31V
164.4"



72.617


4 X,9!'2
811,512
26,054
21,Z54
10,131







31.312
18. 51
152.44
2'.R.6 3 1


2.:.X0




21.214

.4. 4ll
12372.70,1
3,.774

1,4.21
I5.,491

10.41;




s1.i2
St5.4
t.29.<














:iT


10v ,"Ou a.;*:,io 'O~ a~
~~1'1 i .
a BAR-.



VRANK' ra- FAY O




LEVIi ..........









LAKE(
HZa PALM.
L.(end cC* Sgaa.



Urt .









IA C
A. ?OTO







1 dot i 2000 chicken
PI~LL~) ~~.' rOI D A 0*9D

0: ':'Ot ~

i-. SP





DOZENS OF EGGS PRODUCED) BY COUNTIES
( Each (lot 21,0(XM (Iozeni


I I











SAT T A,

ASAWA LK
GN fASOSNO NSA

0u L O N N. Hf6I s o LT O l



F~ FRANK 'r F P rPC LAY ST
~ E~...OH
tRW- APUT-









.rANA. .C~ OKE T
L

MARIOlj~'N vYV














0
-rkey J ~ cln LALKE USI





Va,, a Z0/7 ",9 PSCO S










C R
PIELU~\ILS E L
PtNELAJ BOR P 0 L K A III

(-AA- OKEE
HARDE H, HO"
IEEI

PAA 50TO
SO.1. AR



HENDRYr P A L k'




COLLIER


0 D A D
N I
A3
0
E





MEA.SUiltING TIlE AIR( CEI.I

The air cell is tsuallh at the large end of the egg. .\s the shell is
porous, the size of tihe air cell is increased Iy eaporation. The depth
of the air cell when in its natural position. is the distance from the end
of the egg to the level of an imaginary line drawn through the lower
edges of the air cell % here it toItlles the shell.
A simple cnethld fi measuring the leCpth of the air cell with rea-
sunahle accuracy consists in pacing the air cell gauge over the big end
of the egg when it is held in front of the chandler. When the air cell is
abnormally located, as at the sile, it is necessary to estimate its depth.
In conunercial candling of eggs it is not necessary to measure the
depth of the air cell of every egg. An experienced chandler soon fixes
in his mind the measurements of the air cell or the difference in stand-
ards of pqality. It is only the qluestioiiallc eggs that needle to -e nmeas-
ured.




AIR CELL GAUGE
Place over large end of egg before
the candle to measure depth of the
air cells.

I II AA VPKCIAL
U. g. A K TrnA
\a. it 8TWfAR

*

S*S
S *




.
e





PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION OF AN
EGG CANDUNG BOOTH

Ot KCO M Wli UJU Or r CuUUEp A CCaOnOcsl
u oaulMlnT or apc4culsu





CHAMPIONN BOYS EGG JUDGING TEAM,
FLORIDA STATE FAIR.


Nval Sisson Alfred Snmoak


M. I,. chapmann
Prin. Anthony H. S.


Jim Keen Paul Kinard


S. AND FLORIDA GRADES FOR EGGS
In order to have a yardstick to measure egg quality, tlie following
standards of qualities fo individual eggs have been adopted by the
L'. S. lBureau of Agricultural J'comimiics. T'licv have not 1benl put
into practice yet by the large city Market l'oards. however, some
dealers on every market recognize them and handle eggs so graded.
Besides tlie quality factors, live sizes are recognlizced under each grade.

Tentative U. S. Weight C(lasses for Consumer (rades for Shell Eggs
Minirmumn Weight for
Size or Minimum Net Minimum Net Weight Individual Eggs at
Weight Weight per Per 30 Dozen tantl per Dozen
Clnas I Dozn (Ounces) (Pounds) ()Ounceesq
JUIMO 28 .5 27
EXTRA ,ARG;E 2; 4.. 25
LA R; E 24 45 23
MEDI UM 21 40 20
8MAI,I, 18 34 15




SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS
FOR QUALITY OF INDIVIDUAL SHELL EGGS
(1) U. S. Standards for quality of individual eggs with clean un-
broken shells.
U. S. Standards for quality of individual eggs with clean un-
broken shells shall be as follows:
1'. S. GRADE \A The shell must be clean, unbroken and
normal. The air cell nust not exceed 1/8 inch in depth and
may be regular or slightly wavy. The yolk outline may be
slightly defined. The yolk must be free from defects or blem-
ishes visible before the candle. The white must be clear and
firm.
U. S. (G;1 A The shell must be clean, unbroken and nor-
mal. The air cell must not exceed 2/8 inch in depth and may
be regular or slightly wavy. The yolk outline may be fairly
well defined. The yolk must be practically free from defects
or blemishes visible before the candle. The white must be
clear and reasonably firm.
U. S. Gi.\tE B The shell must be clean and unbroken, but
may be slightly abnormal. The air cell must not exceed %/
inch in depth and may show total movement not in excess of
% inch. If the air cell is small (not over 2/8 inch in depth), it
may be free. The yolk outline may be well defined. The
\olk inma show definite but not serious defects visible before
the candle. The white must be clear but may be slightly weak.
U. S. GRADi C The shell must be clean and unbroken but
mav be abnormal. The air cell may be over 3% inch in depth
and may Ie Iubbly or free. The yolk may be plainly visible
and aplpar dark. The yolk may show clearly visible germ
development, but no blood due to such development. It may
show other defects that do not render the egg inedible. The
white may be weak and watery. Small meat spots or blood
clots may be present.
(2) I'. S. Standards for quality of individual eggs with dirty un-
broken shells.
U. S. Standards for quality of individual eggs with soiled.
stained. or dirty shells shall be as follows.
I. S. .i(;IIT D)IRTY Individual egg that has not more than
one-eighth ( ',) of the shell surface slightly stained, slightly





soiled, or slightly dirty but without loose adhering dirt and
of the interior quality of U. S. Grade B or better shall be
classed as U. S. Light Dirty.
U. S. DIRTY Individual egg with more than one-eighth
(1/8) of the shell surface stained, soiled, or dirty, or with less
than one-eighth (1/8) of the shell surface stained, soiled, or
dirty to such an extent that it is more than slightly stained,
slightly soiled, or slightly dirty, or any egg with slightly
stained, slightly soiled, or slightly dirty shell and of the in-
terior quality of U. S. Grade C shall be classed as U. S. Dirty.
(3) U. S. Standards for quality of individual eggs with checked or
cracked shells.
U. S. Standards for quality of individual eggs with checked or
cracked shells shall be as follows:
U. S. CHECK Individual egg with either clean or dirty
shell that has an open crack or break in the shell but with the
shell membrane unbroken and with no leakage of the shell con-
tents shall be classed as U. S. Check.
U. S. LEAKER Individual egg with either clean or dirty
shell that has an open crack or break in the shell and shell mem-
brane and with the contents exuding or free to exude through
the shell shall be classed U. S. Leaker.
EXPLANATION OF TERMS
The Official United States Standards for Quality of Individual Shell
Eggs are applicable to eggs that are the product of the domestic chick-
en hen and are in the shell.
TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF SHELL
1. CLEAN A clean shell is one that is free from foreign mat-
ter and from stains or discolorations that are readily visible. Eggs with
only very small specks or stains may be considered clean, if such eggs
are not present in sufficient number in a package to detract appreciably
from its appearance. Eggs that show traces of processing oil on the
shell are considered clean when classified as "processed." or "shell
treated." unless the shell is otherwise soiled.
2. LIGHT DIRTY A light dirty shell is one that shows slightly
stained or slightly soiled areas that are readily visible but without ad-
hering dirt that could be readily detached and that do not affect more
than 1/S of the shell surface.
3. DIRTY A dirty shell is one that has stained, soiled, or dirty




spots of considerable size that may affect more than 1/8 of the shell
surface, or that has less than tI of the shell surface stained, soiled, or
dirty to such an extent that it is more than slightly stained, slightly
soiled, or slightly dirty.
4. UNBROKEN An unbroken shell is one that is free from actual
checks or breaks.
5. CHECKED OR CRACKED A checked or cracked shell is one that
has an actual break in the shell but where the shell membrane is un-
broken and there is no exuding of contents from the egg.
6. LEAKER A leaker is an egg in which the shell and shell mem-
brane are broken to the extent that the egg contents are exuding or are
free to exude through the shell.
7. NORMAL -A normal shell is one that approximates the usual
shape and that is of good even texture and strength and free from dis-
tinct ridges, rough areas, thin spots or other conditions not common
to good shells. Slight ridges and rough areas that do not affect mate-
rially the shape, texture and strength of the shell are permitted.
8. SLIGHTLY ABNORMAL- A slightly abnormal shell is one that
may be somewhat unusual in shape or that may be somewhat faulty in
texture or strength. It may also show distinct, but not pronounced,
ridges, thin spots, or rough areas.
9. ABNORMAL An abnormal shell is one that may be decidedly
misshapen or that may be decidedly faulty in texture or strength or
that may show pronounced ridges, rough spots, or other defects.
10. DEi'TIH OF AIR CELL- The depth of the air cell, when in its
natural position, is the distance from the large end of the egg to the
plane passing through the egg at the point where the lower air cell
membrane touches the shell.
11. REGULAR A regular air cell is one that retains a fixed posi-
tion in the egg and that shows a practically even, smooth outline with-
out any movement when the egg is twirled.
12. SLIGHTLY WAVY A slightly wavy air cell is one that retains
a practically fixed position in the egg but shows a slight movement, not
to exceed /8 inch, at any one point where its lower shell membrane
touches the shell.
13. MOVEMENT NOT IN EXCESS OF 3/ INCH -An air cell that
shows a total movement not in excess of Y% inch from the line where
its lower shell membrane touches the shell.
14. BUBBLY AIR CELL A bubbly air cell is one that has several





rather small bubbles within or beneath it. that give it a bubbly appear-
ance.
15. FREE AIR CELL -A free air cell is one that moves freely
about in the egg. Such an air cell will seek the uppermost point in the
egg, no matter in what position the egg may be held.
TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF THE YOLK
16. OUTLINE SLIGHTLY DEFINED A yolk, the outline of which,
when viewed before the candle is indistinctly indicated and tends to
blend into the surrounding white.
17. OUTLINE FAIRLY WELL DEFINED- A yolk, the outline of
which, when viewed before the candle, is discernible but that has not
become definite and distinct.
18. OUTLINE WELL DEFINED A yolk, the outline of which,
when viewed before the candle, is quite definite and distinct.
19. PLAINLY VISIBLE A plainly visible yolk is one that has a
definitely discernible outline before the candle and that may appear
dark.
20. FREE FROM DEFECTS OR BLEMISHES VISIBLE BEFORE THE
CANDLE A yolk that, when viewed before the candle, shows no
spots or areas on its surface indicating the presence of germ develop-
ment or other defects or blemishes.
21. PRACTICALLY FREE FROM DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES VISIBLE
BEFORE THE CANDLE A yolk that, when viewed before the candle,
may show very slight blemishes within the yolk shadow.
22. DEFINITE BUT NOT SERIOUS DEFECTS VISIBLE BEFORE THE
CANDLE A yolk that may show definite spots or areas on its surface,
when viewed before the candle, indicative of defects but with no defi-
nite indication of germ development or other pronounced or serious
defects or blemishes.
23. OTHER SERIOUS DEFECTS A yolk that shows well developed
spots or areas of a character that constitute serious defects or blemishes
but do not render the egg inedible.
24. CLEARLY VISIBLE GERM DEVELOPMENT A development of
the germ spot on the yolk of a fertile egg that has progressed to a point
where it is plainly visible before the candle, as a rather definite, deeper
colored circular area, or as a distinct spot on the yolk, with no blood in
evidence.
25. BLOOD DUE TO GERM DEVELOPMENT Blood caused by devel-
opment of the germ in a fertile egg to the point where it is visible before
the candle. Such eggs are classified as inedible.





26. BLOOD CLOTS (BLOOD NOT DUE TO GERM DEVELOPMENT) -
Spots or clots of blood usually on the surface of the yolk but some-
times floating in the white. If they are small (not over 1/ inch in
diameter), the eggs may be classed as U. S. Grade C. If larger and/or
showing a diffusion of blood in the white surrounding them, the eggs
should be classified as inedible.

TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF THE WHITE

27. CLEAR A clear white is one that is free from discoloration
or from any foreign bodies floating in it. Prominent chalazae should
not be confused with foreign bodies, such as meat spots or blood clots.
28. FIRM A firm white is one that is sufficiently thick or viscous
to permit but limited movement of the yolk from the center of the egg
when it is twirled. A firm white should have a consistency not lower
than the white shown in No. 2 of the Van Wagenen Chart of Broken-
out Eggs.
29. REASONABLY FIRM A reasonably firm white is one that has
a reasonably good viscous condition but not as strong a condition as a
firm white. A reasonably firm white permits the yolk to move some-
what more freely from its normal position in the center of the egg and
thus to approach the shell more closely when the egg is twirled. A rea-
sonably firm white may, therefore, cause the outline of the yolk to be
fairly well defined. A reasonably firm white should have a consistency
not lower than the white shown in No. 3 of the Van Wagenen Chart.
of Broken-out Eggs.
30. SLIGHTLY WEAK A slightly weak white is one that has lost
its firm or even its reasonably firm condition, has become less viscous
and is not as clearly differentiated from the thin white when the egg
is broken out. It should have a consistency not lower than the white
shown in No. 4 of the Van WVagenen Chart of Broken-out Eggs.
31. WEAK AND WATERY A weak and watery white is one that
is thin and generally lacking in viscosity and that, therefore, permits
the yolk to move freely from its normal position in the center of the
egg and to approach the shell closely when the egg is twirled. It may
have a consistency lower than the white shown in No. 4 of the Van
Wagenen Chart of Broken-out Eggs.
32. SMALL BLOOD CLOTS OR SMALL MEAT SPOTS Spots or clots
of blood usually on the surface of the yolk but sometimes floating in the
white. These blood clots may have lost their characteristic red color
and appear as small spots of foreign material commonly referred to as




meat spots. Such blood clots or meat spots are incorporated in the egg
during its formation as, or after, the yolk leaves the ovary. Such blood
spots are not due to germ development.
33. BLOODY WHITE An egg, the white of which has blood dif-
fused more or less generally through it. Such a condition may be
present in new-laid eggs. Eggs with bloody whites are classed as
inedible.

GENERAL TERMS
34. No GRADE Eggs of possible edible quality that fail to meet
the requirements of an Official or Tentative U. S. Grade or that have
been contaminated by smoke, chemicals, or other foreign material that
has seriously affected the character, appearance or flavor of the eggs
are classed as "No Grade."
35. Loss Eggs that are inedible, smashed, contaminated or con
training bloody whites, large blood spots or large or unsightly meat
spots, or other extraneous or foreign material are classed as "Loss."
36. INEDIBLE EGGS Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cos-
metic Act, eggs that are filthy, putrid, or decomposed, or otherwise
unfit for food in whole or in part are adulterated. Eggs of the follow-
ing descriptions are classed as inedible: black rots, white rots, mixed
rots (addled eggs), sour eggs, eggs with green whites, eggs with stuck
yolks, moldy eggs, musty eggs, eggs showing blood rings, eggs con-
taining embryo chicks (at or beyond the blood ring state) and any
other eggs that are filthy, decomposed or putrid.










Quality
Facto



Shell


iMay be plainly
visible (19)): Mayl
Outline slight-iOutllne fairly appear dark (19);
ly de flne well defined Outline well de- May show clearly
C16); Fre(17); Prac- fined (18); May visible germ devel- Sa
Yolk from defects tically free show definite but opment (24) but
or blemishes from defects not serious defects no blood due to G:
(20). or blemishes (22). such development;
(21). May show defects
that do not render
it inedible (23).
Clear (27); May
be weak and
Clear (27);Clear (27); Clear (27); May watery (31);Small
White Reasonably be slightly weak meat spots or
Firm (28) Firm (29). (30). small blood clots
may be present
_(32).


ime as Same as Same as
U. S. U. S. U. S.
trade B Grade C Grade C


SUMMARY OF UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR QUALITY OF INDIVIDUAL SHELL EGGS
figuress in parentheses refer to paragraph number of Explanation of Terms in pages 24 to 28)
-SPECIICATIONS POR EACH QUAZ.TTT FACTOR
S V. Grade ad e rade U. S. Grade U. radeGrad U. S. rightI U.1 U U. I U. 8.
r AA A B Dirty Dirty Check Leaker
nClean (1) Un-Clean (1), U -Clean (1), 1 Clean (1) or Clean (1) or
Clean (1) U lean (1) Un-Clean (1), n- an (1), Un- Unbroken Unb r oken dirty condl-dirty condl-
broken (4),b n broken (4):, ; May broken (4); May (4); Ma (4); May tlon (2 &3); tlon (2 & 3)
be slightly ab alor hnave ignt have dirty Cracked butM a y b e
Normal (7). Normal mal (8) be abnormal (9) dirty condi con di 1to n not leakng cracked and
tion (2). (3). (5). leaking (6).
2/8 inch or % inch or less In
i% nch or less less In depth depth (10); May May be over s
in depth (10); (10); Regu- show total mov.- inch in depth (10);| Same as Same as Same as Same as
(11) lar (11); mnt nott over 1 ,U. S. U. S. U. S. U. S.
Regular ()lar '(11) orm n n May be bubbly or Gde Gade C GradeC Grde
or Slightly S1 i g h t I y Inch (13); If small Grade B Grade C Grade C Grade C
Wavy (12). Wavy (12). (not over 2/8 inch) free (14).
Smay be free (15).
.V fl' t j-ldlf


Same as
U. S.
Grade C





TENTATIVE U. S. STANDARDS FOR CLASSES AND
GRADES FOR LIVE POULTRY
Specifications for Tentative U. S. Standards for Individual Birds
U. S. No 1 Must be vigorous and free from external evidence of
disease. Must be well-fleshed and fairly well-feathered. Must be soft-
ineated, if of a class in which soft meat is a requirement. Must be fair-
ly well covered with fat; in this connection, proper consideration should
be given to age and sex. May have slight, but not serious defects or
serious deformities. Serious scaly legs not permitted. Consieralble
abdominal fat allowed in fowl.
U. S. No. 2 Any edible birds below the quality of U. S. No. 1
Grade. Free from external evidence of disease or other conditions that
might render the bird unwholesome for human food. May include
healthy birds, of thin ilesh, or lacking in fat covering, or only par-
tially feathered. May have serious defects. or serious deformities.
REJECTS All birds below U. S. No. 2 Grade, or showing external
evidence of disease or other conditions, such as extreme emaciation or
badly crippled, that might render the bird unwholesome for human
food.

Specifications for Tentative U. S. Wholesale Grades for Live Poultry
L:. S. No. 1 Each lot of live poultry must contain not less than
90 percent of birds of the quality of U. S. No. 1. the balance to be U. S.
No. 2, provided no individual containers in the lot shall have more
than 15 percent U. S. No. 2 Grade birds and shall contain no Rejects.
U'. S. No. 2 Each lot of live poultry shall consist of U. S. No. 2
birds or better and shall contain no Rejects.
No GRADE Lots of poultry containing Rejects shall be classed as
"No Grade."
NOTE All poultry having excessive feed in the crops shall be con-
sidered overcroppedd" and may be subject to dockage. "Excessive"
feed shall be interpreted to mean not more than an average of (a) 1
ounce of feed in crops of birds weighing not more than 211 pounds, (b)
2 ounces of feed inl crops of birds (except turkeys) weighing more
than 213/ pounds. (c) 3 ounces of feed in crops of turkeys.
TENTATIVE U. S. CLASSES FOR LIVE POULTRY
CHICKENS:
BROILERS Young, soft-meated chickens of either sex with tender
skin, smooth bright shanks, and flexible breastbones.







FRYERS- Young, soft-imeated chickens of either sex with tender
skin, smooth bright shanks, and flexible breastbones. Maximum
weight 4 pounds.
ROASTERS Young. soft-meated chickens of either sex with tender
skin and smooth bright shanks. Breastbones somewhat more rigid
than in broilers and fryers but with some remaining flexible cartilage
over the end.
CAPONS Young, soft-meated, unsexed male chickens, showing
practically no comb development.
STAGS Young male chickens with somewhat toughened flesh and
considerable hardening of the breastbones. Combs may be well devel-
oped and spurs may show considerable, but not full, development.
Stags show, in general, an intermediate condition of flesh and sexual
development between roasters and cocks.
FoW. Mature female chickens with hardened breastbones. This
includes all female chickens that have produced eggs or that have lost
the soft flesh condition characteristic of young chickens. The fact
that some fowl may be roasted by special or prolonged cooking is not
sufficient grounds for classifying them as roasting chickens.
COCKS (OLD ROOSTERS) Mature male chickens with toughened
flesh, and hardened breastbones.

TURKEYS:
YOUNG HEN TURKEYS Young, soft-meated female turkeys, with
tender skin. (Usually less than 1 year old).
YOUNG TOM TURKEYS--Young, soft-meated male turkeys, with
tender skin. May show slight pIouchy condition of breast. (Usually
less than 1 year old).
OLD HEN TURKEYS Mature female turkeys, with toughened flesh.
May have coarse or dry skin and patchy areas of surface fat. (Usually
more than 1 year old).
OLD TOM TURKEYS Mature male turkeys, with toughened flesh.
(Usually more than 1 year old).

DUCKS:
YOUNG DUCKS Young, soft-meated ducks of either sex, bills not
completely hardened, easily dented windpipes, feathers may not be fully
developed and so may have a somewhat downy appearance.
OLD DUCKS Mature ducks of either sex, with toughened flesh.
hardened bills, and hardened windpipes.





GEESE:


youngg or old. either sex.

GUINEAS:

YOUNG GUINEAS YOUng, soft-meated guineas of either sex.
OLD GUINEAS Mature guineas of either sex with toughened flesh.

SQUABS:

Extra soft-ineated, immature pigeons of either sex.

PIGEONS:

Mature pigeons of either sex with toughened flesh.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN THE TENTATIVE U. S.
STANDARDS FOR GRADES FOR LIVE POULTRY

VIGOROUS Birds having bright eyes and healthy appearance.
WELL-FLESHI-ED- Birds which, for their class, show normal flesh
covering over breast and thighs. Bones fairly well-covered.
FAIRLY \WELL-COVERED \VIT'r FAT Birds which, for their class,
show reasonable amount of fat in feather tracts, and some fat on back.
FAIRLY WELL-FEATHERED Feathers covering all parts of the
body quite thoroughly, except, bare backs permitted if not badly sun-
burned or scabby. May show a moderate number of pinfeathers, that
may be scattered over all parts of the body.
DEFORMITIES Dented, notched, or slightly crooked breastbones,
slightly crooked backs or slightly misshapen wings or legs.
SERIOUS DEFORMITIES-- Hunchbacks, crooked breastbones ol
other definite deformities.
SLIGHT DEFECTS--Scratches, slight bruises, slight breast blisters
or calluses, excessive abdominal fat or slight scaly legs.
SERIOUS DEFECTS Large skin bruises, flesh bruises, severe breast
blisters, heavy calluses, serious scaly legs, one broken wing bone with!
out fever, or slightly crippled.
UNWHOLESOME- Evidence of disease or other conditions tha*
would render the bird unsuitable for human food.





SUMMARY OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR TENTATIVE U. S.
STANDARDS FOR CLASSES AND GRADES
FOR LIVE IPOLTRY



INDIVID AL BIRDS


Grade Factor

VIGOR
FREEDOM FROM
DISEASE

FLESHING

CIIARACTER OF)
FIESII

FAT

FEATHERING

DEFECTS

DEFORMITIES

SCALY LEG
ARIDOMINAI FAT
IN FOWL


U. S. No. 1

'Must he vigorous

No external evidlence

Fairly well fleshed
Soft- mated (if of a class
where soft i meat is a re-
quiremnnt).
Fairly well covered consid-
ering age and sex.

Fairly well feathered


U. S. No. 2

.MIay show lack of vigor hut
Must he healthy.

SNo external evidence.

May let poorly fleshed.

.MaIy he poor quality flesh
iut must be edible.
Mily be lacking in fat cov-
ering.
May be only partially
feiatlered.


Slight defects permitted. Serious defects permitted.
Slig h t deformities per- Serious deformities per-
mitted. Illitted.


Slight scaly leg permitted

('onsidier:ble allowed


Serious sealy leg permitted.

Permitted.


TENTATIVE U. S. STANDARDS FOR CLASSES AND GRADES
FOR DRESSED CHICKENS

Tentative U. S. Classes for Dressed Chickens
According to Age, Sex. and Weight

YON(; BIRDS

BROILERS YOungl chickens, approximately eight to twelve weeks
old, of either sex, of marketable age. hut not weighing over 21. pounds
and sufficiently soft menaed to be cooked tender by broiling.
FRYERS Young chickens. approximately thirteen to twenty weeks
old. of either sex. weighing more than 21'; pounds. but not more than
31, pounds, and suffiicently soft-meated to be cooked tender by frying.
RoASTERS Young chickens, approximately five to nine months old,
of either sex, weighing over 31 pounds and sufticientl' soft-meated to
be cooked tender by roasting.
STAGS Young male birds of any weight, with flesh slightly dark-
ened and toughened and with comb and spur development showing the
bird to be in a state of maturity between roasting chickens and cocks.




CAPONS I 'nssxed male birds weighing over 4 i>ounds, usually
seven to ten months old, and with soft and tender flesh.

Oi.D BIRDS

Fowl. OR STI\\NG ( CHICKINS Mature female birds of any age
or weight.
CocKS Mature male birds of any age or weight, with darkened
and toughened flesh.


According to Method of Plucking. restingg, Finishing.
Chilling, and Packing

PLUCKING

Scr.imr Chickens that have been immnersed in scalding water
before plucking. usually at a temperature of 170 to 1800 F.
S sml -scI.\.ni Chickens that have been immersed in hot water
before plucking. usually at a temperature of 125' to 130' F.
DRY -i'.i-CKEi Chickens that have been plucked dry: that is, with-
out immersing in water.
DRESSING

)R.\WN Chickens from which h the entrails are removed.
UlNIlAV Chickens from which the entrails are not removed.

FINISHING

MII.K -F)- (Chickens with skin and tlesh bleached by feeding mill,
in the ration and with muscle fiber softened by fatty deposits through
out the connective tissue. The usual period of milk-feeding is fron
six to ten days.
GRAI.N 1i:. Chickens that show no marked evidence of milk-
feeding.
CHILLING G

FRESH DRESSED Chickens that have not been hard chilled or
frozen.




1FRESHI HARD-CHILLEID-Fresh dressed chickens that have been
hard chilled or frozen, but have not developed any appearance of cold
storage stock and show no evidence of deterioration from freezing and
have not been held at low temperature for more than sixty days.
STORAGE Chickens that have been held at a low temperature for
more than sixty days or that show evidence of deterioration from freez-
ing. regardless of length of time held.

PACKING
DRY Chickens that have been packed dry and cooled without ice
coming into direct contact with the carcasses.
IcED Chickens that have been packed in direct contact with ice.

Tentative U. S. Standards for Grades for Dressed Chickens

U. S. GRADE ;\\ Commercially perfect specimens of any class.
U. S. GRADE \ The second highest grade of dressed chickens.
U. S. GRADE B The third highest grade of dressed chickens.
U. S. GRADE C Edible dressed chickens below the grade of L'.
S. Grade B, except such as are specifically excluded by the general grad-
ing requirements or by the detailed specifications for U. S. Grade C.




SPECIFICATIONS FOR TENTATIVE U. S. STANDARDS FOR GRADES FOR il)K~sa1
BROILERS, FRYERS AND ROASTERS

U. S. Grades Quality Specifications for Individual Birds
Young soft-me:nted bird, full-fleshed, well bled, well dressed :and free of pinfeathers. No flesh or
skin bruises :illow\ed :and only slight skin abrasions or discoloration pIermiitted, none of which
I'. S. GR {ADi AA shall lie on lte breast. Crooked breast or other deformities not allowed. A broken or disjointed
wing above the wing above the wing tip or a broken or disjointed leg not permitted. No torn
skin permitted whether sewn or not. The crop must le empty and clean. Must be dry picked
or semi-scalded and dry packed.
Young soft- heated bird, well fleshed, well bled, well dressed, and practically free of pinfeathers.
No flesh bruises except very slight on back or wings and only very slight skin bruises, abrasions
or discolorations permitted, none of which shall be on the breast. (rooked breasts or other de-
formiites not allowed. One broken wing above tile wing tip pIertittied in broilers and fryers.
Sif thie bone does not protrude through the flesh and if there is no appreciable bruise or blood
clot. Broken legs not permitted except that tlhe shanks may be broken. Slight sewn tears per-
i fitted on thle banck inld wings, but no sewn tears permitted onl tle breast or fleshy part of the
earcalss. Open tears not permitted. The crop must be empty iand cle-n but alln entire crop
I completely and properly removed through a small incision ait the back or sine of the neck per-
mitted. Must be dry picked or semi-scalded.
Young soft-ineated third, fairly well fleshed. Must lie fairly well dressed and fairly well bled.
lMay show n few scattered pinfeathers over the entire crass. Slight llesh or skin bruises,
:alrasiolns or discoloration permitted, but not more than three such defects, if on the breast.
SAbrasions over two inches in diameter not permitted and tears over two inches in diameter not
allowedd unless properly sewn. Dented or lightly crooked breast bone or other slight deformi-
ties permitted. One broken wing or one broken leg in the flesh permitted, if hone does not pro-
trude through the flesh and if not showing excessive bruise or blood clot. The crop must be
emplty land clean, but an entire crop completely and properly removed permitted.
Young bird. poorly fleshed. May show evidence of poor bleeding and have numerous pinfeathers
over the entire carcass. Abrasions and discoloration permitted. Hunchback or other de-
1. S. GRADE C formities allowed, if bird is fairly well fleshed. Bird badly bruised, so as to make an appre-
ciable part of the carcass inedible, or bird showing evidence of disease or other condition that
renders it unwholesome for human food not permitted.






SPECIFICATIONS FOR TENTATIVE U. S. STANDARDS FOR GRADES FOR DRESSED

CAPONS, STAGS AND COCKS


U. S. Grade


Classes






Capons


U. S. Grade AA


U. S. (;Grde .A


U. S. Grade B1


U. S. Grade 0l

U. S. Grade A


U. S. Grade B


U. S. Grade C


I'. S. Grade A


U. S. Grade B


U. S. Grade C


Young caponized male bird, otherwise conforming to thle speciiications for U. S. .Grade AA
roaster.
Young caponized male bird, otherwise conforming to the specifications for U. S. Grade A
ro:istcr.
C'ponized male bird that may show slight evidence of incomplete caponizing, otherwise
conforming to the specifications for U. S. Grade B roaster.
C'poniized Ima1e bird that inly show evidenclI of incoimpllete ecaponizillg, otherwise con-
fornlling to the specifications for U. S. Grade C ro:tster.
Young male bird showing considerable maturity, flesh slightly tough, spurs developing
but soft, and otherwise conforming to the specifications for I'. S. Grade A roaster.
Young male biird showing considerable maturity, flesh slightly tough, spurs developing
but soft, and otherwise conforming to the specifications for U. S. Grade B roaster.
ioung male bird showing considerable maturity, tlesh slightly tough, spurs developing
but soft, and otherwise conforming to tile specifications for U. S. Grade C roaster.
.Mature male bird with toughened and coarse grained flesh and otherwise conforming to
the specifications for U. S. Grade A roaster.
.1Mture male bird with toughened d and coarse grilled I :ls 1l nd otherwise conforming to
thle specifications for U. S. Grade B roaster.
Mature male bird with toughened and coarse grained flesh and otherwise conforming to
I the specifications for U. S. Grade C roaster.


Stags







Cocks




























Fryers in batteries, Fryer Farm, Jacksonville, Duval County, June 29, 1940.

COOPERATIVE POULTRY SALES

These sales, for all classes of poultry and turkeys, are conducted in
co-operation with County and Home Agents, Vocational Agricultural
Teachers, Railroad officials and other interested parties. Wherever
farmers have a surplus and are co-operatively minded, the Poultry
Marketing Specialist of the State Marketing Bureau has been holding
these sales. Sometimes a poultry car is run from one point on the
railroad to another until filled, other times a dealer will send a truck
and buy at one or two points.

These sales are sold to some poultry dealer on a bid a week in ad-
vance, then these prices are advertised. When the day of the sale
arrives, the farmers bring their poultry and it is weighed and graded
and the cash paid on the grounds at the time of delivery.
These sales have proven popular, especially among the turkey pro-
ducers. for often times the prices received at the car are as good as
those being paid delivered to the large markets.







la': iv% car- :ii :,h, Xir I .itr rc .irc j-,i:tv a fv%' q'f tlicc that catrr %
(oil dressing ojtli ait bIT ill tn (dil? n ti, liteihij..g blcrilerand ir '1 vc-.'r
*Ir tI lww plant, iic1rr l cciltcrs q'i c tii!:i.1ti 'Ti 0 i toIr l Shiijritig
!1ts'. 'ice thcrc js :xi ad'! I p'r tit :. 1we 4.uiinc' b.\ 11tt611Z .:It. po'tr\ iicait
lfrt t.l.C I ' ( '. 'Inc iu.'. Oh 1Ii:, .! I I 1 a, (TCll it-Up f' \Cr
.and itill'. ,'rc-sc I -r v'. ccrx r.irIO.



Tre a! 'IC'vvci: qllni: d. a *i --:I al ctr i ''.'.nls prrv I lc :: ph I hoil

ii.lk STIaIlliCI lilsll. S1\1 c if I;al ]rI )t ()f; 1:1)tiual expcscl.
It IS CstlliV.I at tar Cit C. II"lic ..iI cl br-o'cr p'htlant, pr' 'hicc cl '' III
I O.(Mx.~I1 P ~un-' I* 'i ;~iv nie.r* ;jr .\ear. 'PIChr !'tIe~lr ;It-of.
the 1'. S. pr. .'.nt iii P) 1044 :ii ri<. rDIi 0-) in!' o Ip. 'It",rjl
meat and the farmers and regular lIxillt rymtiei produced itw cn* than"
745.(ol).( N) head! of live p' itr rv ,f all kindIs and de;criptl ii,. i


THE~ Tt IIKEY %IARKkFT
I riidtictioi ()f turTke vs iii i'huriiii h11asctitaihlv increased ever v yeal
for the last thirce I -r j' rr ar-I. ( archin! v-t iliatc. in! icate that El. i)rirla
jw1111 \Tit r n rai't aivi ll.\ aim '- I rc' f' 'r the niarkve'


'i'1v (Crop (Cvli'nIs 44th i F1id 'r lh I)ejuirllent of Ag\rictilture ',iiow\S
that the tlie lcadliri. nrk o r 'rluin c'ing, jt i aiiied in 1irder 'f ju
portanc. .arv r- n...12c ak'' anl I afa.%ette
Jk-cau.,e of thc carl pjrinig and I lic I ig gro'.' Ing ceaonu the I-. hn' Ia
ttrkeys alrc finisher I eakl IiCr ini tihe fall t I an those grown in OthI er sec
tions. Their quality is miicxceIledl lit fact most leaderss prefer the~ill
to turke'.s frtor .'ther se''i.lxcati-v if their -iiicrior juialit% andI
finish. and] fea:nirc tic iact iTI their a0, hiat the.\ carry In i e t
Thaniksgi ving and Chr is tmas, Fl. rida pe;Linti fed t urkeys.
Turkey p)rices. thi' inghI highzl e'. ery%\.here the Is~t few '.ear'i. t hose
receive'! byv El. .r: I f.irr:Tlers. 'Ti'.a rifle.! Iv'. ra! kccxiv o er th' 'se
secured by pri Ninccrt inl 4otheliv 's I-k!.h'itcthe ifc- that Flo ridat
offers, no doibit, thle best inarket f. *r turkcys, product ion is not nearly
upi to consnimpt ive demiandi'l aui thiotu-anils of dlressed turkeys are ini-


COMMERCIAL BROILER I'M )DUt :TH )N




ported each year to supply the trade. The fact that this good market
exists in Florida is responsible for the production of turkeys increas-
ing in recent years despite the depression.

KILLING AND DRESSING POULTRY
The farm method of killing for home use is to chop off the head.
This will not do in case of killing for the market for the head is left on,
as evidence the bird was in good health when slaughtered.
A simple method of killing consists of looping a cord around both
legs and hang with head down: another is to use shackles made of wire
to hold the legs. The head is grasped with the left hand, the mouth
opened and the jugular vein is cut at the base of the skull with a long.
narrow blade of a sharp knife. This produces free bleeding and results
in a better quality.
The most popular method of removing the feathers is to use the semi-
scald process, whereas dry picking was once used. The proper tem-
perature for semi-scalding is about 125 to 1280 Fahrenheit. The
birds are held in the water for one quarter to a minute, depending on
the class of poultry. more recent development is the paraffine
method of picking. This consists of dipping the rough picked semi-
scalded chicken into a vat of melted parafline; after which the chicken
is immediately dipped in cold water to set the paraffine, then the feath-
ers are peeled off with the paraftine. This takes off most of the feathers,
however, it is necessary to have the pinfeathers plucked by hand.

POULTRY AND EGGS IMPORTED INTO FLORIDA
(12 Months Period)
Records of the inspection service of the Florida Department of Agri-
culture show that trucks hauled into Florida in 12 months, 4,061,010
dozen eggs valued at $812,000, and 3,610,503 pounds of poultry valued
at $541.000, or a total value of $1.353.375.45.
During the year June 6th. 1940, to June 5th. 1941. the Market
Bureau of the Florida Department of Agriculture kept records on the
Tampa market and found that there were received 29,342 cases of
Florida produced eggs. 28,134 cases of shipped-in eggs and 14,835
cases of storage eggs. Florida broilers received. 44.231 pounds. other
states 783 pounds: Florida fryers 165.776 pounds, other states 152,-
655 pounds: Florida hens 166.289 In)unds, other states 135,981 pounds:
Florida turkeys 29,(064 pounds, other states 2,623 pounds.




T'EN LEAI)ING POULT 'URY STATES


SJune, 1944)
Rank Stnte Number Layers
1 Iown 28,255,000
2 Texam 23,706,000
3 Minlneiota 21.145.(H0
4 Missouri 19,571.000
5 Illinoii 1s,317,000
6 Ohio 16,262,000
7 PennMylvalnin 15,396,000
8 California 14.494,000
9 Wis onsin 14.23Q,000
10 Kannas 13.710,o00

SIZE OF THE POULTRY INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA
Some kind of poultry is found on 42.700 farms. These poultry
farms produced, according to the L. S. Department of Agriculture.
18,300,000 dozen eggs in 1944, and there were raised on these farms
at the same time somewhere near 4.000,000 chickens. The number of
head of chickens kept on fans for breeders were 3,400.000 head.
In addition the commercial broiler plants produced 10.000,000
pounds of poultry meat in Florida. I. S. broiler plants turned out
close to 500.000,00),0 pounds.
The value of poultry and turkeys and eggs produced in Florida in
1044 was estimated to be approximately $14,864,000. If Florida )eo-
ple consume anywhere near the average number of eggs per capital for
the United States. which is placed by authorities at 350 eggs, it is
necessary to import many eggs each year. We know that there are
many imported, for one \ear the city of Miami alone imported 93 cars,
and no records were available to show how many came into the city by
truck from out of the State. Many authorities estimate the importance
of poultry and eggs for normal consumption costs Florida people any-
where from six to eight million dollars.






AVERAGES FROM REPORTS OF COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCERS
DAILY EGG PRODUCTION PER 100 LAYERS. FIRST IAY OF MONTH

5 SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES U. S. ). A.
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Juno July Aug. Bopt. Oct. Nov. Dec.
36.4 53.61 58.7 58.0 5(1.7 47.5 41.4 35.6 3:0.8 32.0 33:.:!
41.3 44.0 54.* 5,. 58.7 5..2 530.4 38.9 32.9 32.2 33.5 31.7
:t5.o 42.4 51.; .57.0 57.9 52.5 46.7 40.. 34.9 33:.2 33.5 34.5
.;. 4;.4 3.4 5 .1 57. 1.7 45.1 39.2 3:3.; 3 3 .2 31. 33.6
5..I 46;.40 51.4 59.1 56.2 2. 0 45.1 11.i 37.8 33.5 36.u 37.u
10.2 47.3 .l6.7 1i.3 57.9 52.3

EGG PRICES

MONTHLY AVERAGES FROM REPORTS OF COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCERS
25.1 26.7 Is0. 1S.8 1S.9 -20.1 22. 25.0 2-." 30.2 32.6 32.3
2"i. 23.0 22.0 22."" 24.5 2S.0 31.1 32.7 35:.t 36.9 40.7 39.1
311,5 32.0 28.6l 28.5 28.6 30.2 34.11 38.3 41.2 4.13 45.6 140.7
4.1.3 38.4 3: .2 3m.7 40.1 11.3 15.1 47.1 11.7 53.3 54.0 51.4
13.01 37.4 34.2 32.41 31.0 3:3.3 37.1 40.4 43.4 4%.1 52.S 54.0
4 .9 43.11 :3 .9 4i.1 41.3

PRICES RECEIVED CII(CKENS PER POL1ND
10.0 16.6 16.2 16.1; 16.8 17.7 1.1i.S 16.3 15.0 15.1 15.8 16.3
16i.0 16.1 1.41 17.2 I8.7 1H.2 18.3 18.5 17.8 17.9 18.L
18.9 20.2 190.4 210.1 20.5 21.3 21.5 21.7 22.11 21.01 22.3 23.7
24.9 2;.4 2L7.' 29.5 2S.6 2'.7 29.2 27.4 2S.1 27.7 27.6 27.4
20_.:1 26.7 27.; 27.0 2S.1 27.s 27.4 26.3 25.6 2;.6; 27.0 27.
27.t 2,;.4 29.7 30.t0 30.6

PAID FOR SCRATCH GRAIN PER 100 LBS.
No vt a; labhi 1.75 1.87 1.88 1.84 1.79 1.74 1.82 1.78 1.80 1.78
1.75 1.73 1.77 1.S5 1.88 1.97 1.9s 1.99 2.0u 2.02 2.06 2.10
2.19 2.20 2..23 2.20 2.22 2.21 2.23 2.27 2.2. 2.24 2.29
2.39 2.46l 2.56 2.63 2.71 2.74 2.84 2.92 3.00 3.03 3.10 3.14
3.18 3.17 3.15 3.21 3.33 3.33 3.33 3.2S 3.24 3.16 3.16 3.11
3.07 3.09 3.11 3.13 3.14


11112

11044



1105
11) 11
1912
1943
1944
1945


1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
19145





PRICES PAID FOR LAYING MASH PER 100 POUNDS
Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1940 Not ornilable 2.46 2.47 2.44 2.43 2.35 2.33 2.32 2.33 2.38 2.37
1941 2.40 2.36 2.39 2.44 2.45 2.41 2.57 2.61 2.74 2.76 2.82 2.89
1942 2.90i 3.02 3.07 2.99 3.05 3.01 3.07 3.07 3.07 3.06 3.08 3.14
1943 3.20 3.25 3.29 3.35 3.36 3.42 3.56 3.51; 3.67 3.73 3.76 3.85
1944 3.87 3.86 3.86 3.91 3.92 3.9.1 3.92 3.90 3.4 3.77 3.76 3.73
1945 3.73 3.73 3.77 3.78 3.74



QUOTATIONS ON 100 POUNDS OF SCRATCH (;GRAINS

JACKSONVILLE MARKET

S 1941 2.15 2.13 2.11 2.19 2.20 2.29 2.30 2.33 2.43 2.45 2.45 2.43
t 1942 2.53 2.55 2.45 2.45 2.45 2.45 2.5 2.45 2.45 2.45 2.45 2.51
1943 2.60 2.65 2.81 2.88 2.93 2.95 2.98 3.05 3.05 3.3 3.25 3.31
1944 3.35 3.35 3.30 3.35 3.38 3.38 3.30 33.26* 3.15* 3.10* 3.12* 3.16"
1945 3.23* 3.25* 3.30* 3.29* 3.24* 3.23*
'Equal parts of oats and whea.t.



QUOTATIONS ON 100 POUNI)S OF EGG MASH

JACKSONVILLE MARKET

1941 2.89 2.84 2.81 2.89 2.90 2.94 3.08 3.13 3.25 3.30 3.30 3.31
1942 3.46 3.55 3.57 3.60 3.60 3.60 3.60 3.60 3.60 3.60 3.63 3.71
1943 3.79 3.80 3.80 3.76 3.75 3.76 3.84 3.90 3.90 3.95 4.05 4.16
1944 4.20 4.20 4.20 4.25 4.28 4.30 4.30 4.30 4.24 4.18 4.13 4.12
1945 4.10 4..155 4 .15 4.15 4.15 4.15





HIGHEST TO LOWEST MONTHLY EGG PRICES BY YEARS


1940
IHighest December
Second October
'Ihird November
Fourth September
Fifth August
Sixth January
Seventh July%
Eighth February
Ninth June
Tenth May
Eleventh April
Lowest March
1933
Highest December
Second October
Third November
Fourthi September
0 Fifth August
Sixth January
Seventh July
Eighth May
Ninth FePbruary
Tenth Ju.1Ine
Eleventh April
Lowest March
1927
II highest November
Second October
Third December
Fourth September
Fifth Ja .nuairy
Sixth August
Seventh February
Eighth July
Ninth June
Tenth April
Eleventh March
Lowest May


1939
38.2 November
36.4 October
36.3 December
34.5 January
31.7 August
31.4 July
28.8 September
26.8 February
23.5 June
21.2 Mav
20.8 April
20.7 M,'rch


1932
34.4 December
33.0 November
32.0 October
31.4 September
25.5 January
23.5 August
22.9 July
17.3 June
17.0 March
16.3 February
15.5 April
15.5 3May
1926
55.0 October 6,
52.1 November 61
50.4 January 5'
49.0 December 57
47.6 September 51
41.4 August 44
35.9 February 42
33.9 July 41
29.7 JuneI 36
29.2 April 34
28.0 May 32
27.9 March 31


1938
33.9 December
32.4 November
30.9 October
30.8 September
29.6 August
29.1 January
2h.8 July
24.3 February
23.0 June
22.6 May
21.9 April
21.6 March


19:
35.2 Nove
32.6 Octol
31.5 Decec
28.2 Septe
26. 5 lJanu
25.0 Augu
21.0 July
18.3 Marc
18.0 Febr
16.5 April
15.5 June
14.7 May
1925
2.2 December
.0 November
'.2 October
7.1 Januaryv
.8 September
.4 August
.1 February
.6 July
i.1 June
I. April
!.5 May
.3 March


1937 1936
40.1 November 39.6 December
36.8 October 38.1 November
36.3 December 38.0 October
36.3 September 37.2 September
32.8 August 33.0 August
32.5 July 30.1 January
31.5 January 29.8 July
26.2 February 27.5 February
25.7 June 25.8 June
25.0 April 25.5 May
22.3 March 25.1 March
22.2 May 24.2 April


31 1930
mber 38.0 January
)er 37.5 October
rnber 33.0 November
number 32.0 December
ary 32.0 September
st 28.5 February
25.0 August
h 23.0 July
uarv 22.0 March
22.0 April
21.0 June
20.0 May
1924 1
67.0 November 66.2 N
65.6 December 64.9 )(
64.0 October 62.0 O(
56.8 September 52.1 Se
55.2 January 47.4 Ja
48.- February 44.6 Ai
45.3 August 43.6 Jui
44.4 July 39.0 F(
38.6 June 32.5 Ju
33.5 May 28.5 M
30.3 March 26.6 A
30.2 April 25.8 M:


923
november
ceni her
etober
'ptember
inuary
ugust
ily
1b)ruary
lie
arch
april
ay


1935
43.4 December
41.9 October
38.4 September
37.5 November
34.0 January
:13.5 August
31.9 February
31.2 July
25.7 June
24.1 May
23.5 April
22.9 March


1929
November
October
December
September
August
January
.Tuly
March
February
June
May
April


1934
40.6 December
39.3 November
19.0 October
37.0 September
35.8 August
35.6 January
31.8 July
31.5 February
26.8 June
26.3 AMay
24.9 April
23.0 March


1928
55.3 November
54.1 October
54.0 December
45.2 September
43.2 January
42.2 August
39.3 July
35.1 June
34.5 February
33.7 March
30.2 April
29.2 May


1922 1921
59.3 November 62.8 January
58.0 October 55.0 November
56.3 December 53.9 December
49.8 September 52.8 October
49.6 January 48.0 September
42.6 February 40.7 February
39.5 August 37.5 August
36.0 July 37.5 July
33.8 June 34.7 March
30.0 April 29.4 June
29.5 May 28.3 April
29.0 March 26.5 May






.9 _


(olumbia County Poultry Association Study andi Practice Egg Grading




TENTATIVE U. S. STANDARDS FOR CLASSES AND GRADES
FOR DRESSED TURKEYS

TENTATIVE U. S. CLASSES FOR DRESSED TURKEYS

According to Age and Sex
YouLNG. H .lS:- CFemale birds usually less than one year old. soft-
nmeated with flexible breastlonie.
Yo'xN(; TOMs-.Male birds usually less than one year old, soft-
meated witl flexible breastbonle.
OLD HErNS- .M1ature female birds more than one year old. with
toughened flesh and hardened breastbone.
OLD 'T.'s Mature male birds more than one year old, with
toughened flesh and hardened breastbone.


According to Method of Plucking, Dressing, Finishing,
Chilling and Packing
PLUCKING


SCA.LED Turkeys that have been immersed in scalding water
before plucking, usually at a temperature of 1700 to 1800 Fahrenheit.
SEMI-sCAL.DED- Turkeys that have been immersed in hot water
before plucking. usually at a temperature of 1250 to 130' Fahrenheit.
DRY-PLUCKED- Turkeys that have been plucked dry; that is, with
out immersing in water.
I)RESSING
DRAWN\ Turkeys from which the entrails are removed.
UNDRAWN Turkeys from which the entrails are not removed.

FINISHING
MILK FED Turkeys with skin and flesh bleached by feeding milk
in the ration and with muscle fiber softened by fatty deposits through-
out the connective tissue.
GRAIN-FED T'urkevs that how no marked evidence of milk feed





CIIILLING


FRESH l)RiSSE:n- -Turke\s that have not been hard chilled or
frozen.
FRESH HAR,-CIIILLE) Fresh dressed turkeys that have been hard
chilled or frozen, but have not developed any appearance of cold stor-
age stock, and show no evidence of deterioration from freezing and
have not been held at low temperature for more than 60 days.
STORAGE Turkeys that have been held at a low temperature for
more than 60 days or show evidence of deterioration from freezing,
regardless of time held.

PACKING

DRY- Turkeys that have been packed dry.
ICED Turkeys that have been packed in ice.

Tentative U. S. Grades for Dressed Turkeys

U. S. Grade AA Commercially perfect specimens of any class.
U. S. Grade A The second highest grade.
U. S. Grade B--The third highest grade.
U. S. Grade C Edible birds below the grade of U. S. Grade B,
except such as are 'pecifically excluded by the detailed specifications for
U. S. Grade ('.









ANNUAL VALUE OF POULTRY MEAT AND EGG U. S.

Cash receipts from farm marketing: Total all farm marketing and poultry and poultry products, 1925-29 average,
1935-39 average, 1940-44.


Chickens


Mil. dol.
341
213


Oommerial
Broilers


Mil. dol.

39


Beceipts
from
Poultry
Turkey and Poultry
Products
*


Mil. dol.

63


Mil. dol.
1,091
812

809
1,107
1,652
2,450
2,301


Cash
Beceipts
from all
Farm
Marketing
Mil. dol.
10,937
7,937

8,340
11,157
15,316
19,252
20,228


'Includes other poultry.
tPreliminary.


Year


Bggs


Mil. dol.


1925-29 av.
1935-39 av.

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944t


465
658
1,005
1,426
1,336





POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK BY COUNTIES


Alachua
Baker
Bay .
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
(harlotte
Citrus
Clay .
Collier
Columblia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escanmbia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gllehrlst ..
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee .....
Hendry .......
Hernando
Highlands
Hllsboro
Holmes .
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Ree
Leon
Ievy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Os'Cela
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Pultnam
St. Johns
St. Lurle
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Waltion
Washington


(From 1940 United States Censns)
AllU
Cattle Swine
23,537 26.6941
7,252 5-,4s0
2,364 2,'0 7
8,572 6,532
10.713 776
.0o61 1 ;0
5., 2: -.i
3,731 5"12
6,134 3,,3 9
14.74!' 4,5-6
3.25. 466
... 10, 75 11,044
11.976tf 3,022
25,692- 2,614
13,753 7142
9,5'72 5,75.y
7,731 7,030
11,754 525
1,2161 260
7,019 15,xs5
7.0SS 10,151
36 ,43 2. 72
531 1.045
7,75,1 13.123
20,339 7.365
14,764 2,357
5.3SC6 6.710
29.020 1,09l
S2.520 6.510
7,231 17,647
3.237 242
15,,77 36.439
7.,S7 14,725
5.96S 12.8 10
3,195 1,330
4,13S 1,193
6.119 7,745
19.904 22.55:,:!
2.357 3,flo,;
!.961 22.. 11
10.1oI 3.73"
19,111 20.937
1,677 357
176
7,362 4.9f6o
5,440 9. 11
14,19" 1.645
7.531 1.777
36.967 91.S9
6,614 1.111
12,292 5,1 4
5,228 1.50W
44.463 4,970
S,055 4.421
n1.33C 3.91
9.329 179
6.736 12,f61
10.4S6 1,S91
3,747 1.37
14,955, 9,499
12.351 32.16;5
11.079 9.952
5.740 5.121
.6;03 2.2 1
2.379 4.335
5.53S 9,511
9,210 11,450

721.015 4S1,010


Dairy
Cows
3,116
22b
627
424
506
4,506
523
65
330
5.6
13S
2,474
9.544
750
209
5.,S07
3,2 s5
4SS
13
2,071
96S
176
97
19
872
182
685
167
9,318
2,630
284
5,746
1,443
503
723
644
3.059
834
262
2.805
1.119
2.655
INS
121
1,245
1,495
41S
2.39X
545
3.0S4
1,052
2,834
3.434
705
746
370
2.060
392
476
948
3,240
585
773
1.759
215
1.654
1,975

104,352


Chickens
78,134
10,526
4,826
27,131
14,576
19,770
12.353
3,063
4,10S
13,227
1,060
68,978
54,947
18.751
7,499
90,904
34.534
6,091
1.209
40,422
19,754
9.203
2,691
21,930
34,074
2,497
26,728
20,021
149,495
45,135
4.944
91,696
30.324
18,488
43,679
10,274
27,039
33,839
10.503
59.6S6
16.033
69,717
2,681
926
116.237
23.295
4.936
40.095
11,543
27,666
61,382
29,696
83,336
29.621
22.340
6.292
32.972
4.516
20,573
27.087
61.208
14.275
25,02S
41.556
5,507
41,476
34,381

2,029,176







(01 I['RY AND) EGG PRICES JA..;KSNVILE. TAMPA. MIAMI

Simple Average Jobbing Prices, Standard Whlie Eggs, Heavy Breed

IHins and Fryers, by Monllh, for Years Shown.

JACKSONVILLE (January 1921 December 1944 I


WHITE EGGS IStandard


Apr. May
31.3 30.5
29.4 28.13
29.5 29.01
25.8 28.5
33.5 30.3
34.1 32.5
29.2 27.9
29.7 28.2
29.2 30.2
27.0 27.0
22.0 20.0
15.5 14.7
15.5 17.3
19.8 20.1
241.9 26;.3
22.9 24.1
25.5 24.2
22.3 25.0
21.9 22.1;
211.S 21.2
25.2 28.4
31.4 31.4
38.4 43.0
37.0 38.2


June
31.9
34.7
33.8
32.5
38.6
36.1
29.7
33.4
33.7
27.0
21.0
18.3
16.3
23.5
26.-
25.7
25.8

23.0
23.5
31.2
34.7
43.6
41.4


July
42.7
37.5
39.5



33.9

30.11
3o;.5



25.0
21.0,
22.9
21.l0
:31.5
:1.1.
31.9
30 .1

29.1

31.8
390.5
46.9
45.2


Aug. Sept. Oct.
47.19 50.0 59.4
3:1.5 52.4 55.1
42.0; 49.8 5l.3
13.4; 52. 1 l2.0
-18.4 55.2 114.0
-14.4 51.S l2.2
41.4 49.11 52.1
41.7 48.3 54.8
43.2 45.2 54.1
3;4.9 3:1.2 415.4
2L' .5 32l.0 37.5
25.0 28.2 3:1.5
25.5 31.4 33.011
31.j; 36;.04 3S.
3"5.6; 3).0 39.3:l
34.0 37.5 38.1
33.0 37.2 38. I
32.8 36l.3 361.3
29.;6 2.S 32.1t
.1i.7 34.5 3 !1.4
39.2 11.4 42.41
45,.0 46i.1 48.0
51.0 54.8 58.0
50.3 55.1 58.(6


Nov.
64.8
ti2.8
59.3
6l6.2
65.6
(5.0
55.0

53.0
55.3
43.9
:8.0
32.6'
32.0
40.0
37.0
41.9
39.(i
36.8
:33.9
36.3
44.5
48.0U
57.0
59.9


Yearly
Dec. Av.
60o. 4S.1
53.9 40..;
58.0 42.x
64.9 .14.4
617.0 48.3
57.1 15.9
50.4 40.11
48.5 40.4
34.0 41.5
40.9 35.5
33.0 27.9
35.2 23.5
34.4 231.7
41o.0 29.3
40.ti 32.6
43.4 32.3
38.0 31.2
40.1 30.7
30.9 27.4
38.2 29.2
42.2 34.5
48.0 :19.7
53.6 47.0
59.0 47.0


Year
19221

1923
1924
1925
^ 1921;
1927
1924
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933:
1934
193.-.
1931;
1937
1938
1939
1940(
1941
1942
1943
1944


Jan.
74.3
18.0
49.1;
47.4

57.2
17.6
4N.11
412.2






2:1.5
47.1




26:1.5


29.8
3:2.5
341.8
3:11.4

40.0
47.6
49.3





HENS (Heavy breed)

Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Av.
1921 33.6 32.6 31.7 29.3 26.9 26.3 25.1 26.2 30.3 31.8 26.0 26.0 28.8
1922 26.0 26.0 26.7 25.5 25.4 24.0 24.0 24.0 27.5 26.0 26.0 26.0 25.6
1923 2i26.0 26.0 2.25.0 23.0 23.0 20.0 21.1 24.7 26.0 24.3 24.7 24.2
1924 27.8 26.0 26.4 26.0 27.0 25.1 24.0 26.06 29.4 30.0 28.6 27.8 27.1
1925 31.6 29.2 29.7 28.0 28.0 26.6 25.9 29.0 30.0 31.1 28.1 29.3 28.7
1926 30.7 30.2 32.5 31.8 31.9 30.0 30.0 29.7 31.0 31.0 30.2 31.1 30.7
1927 30.0 30.0 29.8 29.1 29.0 24.7 23.7 25.6 26.0 26.0 25.0 25.0 26.9
1928 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 24.5 23.0 21.9 21.1 23.9 27.2 25.5 24.5 24.3
1929 24.8 26.4 28.8 28.8 27.4 29.3 28.0 29.0 31.2 29.5 29.5 29.8 28.5
1930 29. s 30.0 28.5 27.5 26.6 24.5 22.5 22.6 23.0 22.8 23.0 23.0 25.3
S 1931 23.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 .0 3.0 22.0 21.0 20.0 21.5 23.0 22.5 22.0 22.0
1932 20.5 18.6 18.7 19.0 17.5 16.1 14.5 14.5 15.5 16.7 71.0 14.4 16.9
1933 13.2 13.5 13.0 14.7 14.1 13.1 13.0 14.6 15.8 16.7 15.4 14.0 14.3
1934 14.3 15.5 16.0 15.5 18.8 16.0 15.7 14.8 16.6 17.2 17.8 17.5 16.1
1935 17.5 17.8 18.3 18.0 18.0 18.7 18.2 18.4 19.3 21.0 21.7 20.6 19.0
1936 20.0 19.9 19.5 20.3 20.8 20.5 20.9 20.7 20.2 19.6 19.6 18.7 20.1
1937 18.7 19.3 18.6 18.5 19.0 19.5 16.8 16.0 17.5 18.7 20.2 20.7 18.6
1938 20.1 19.0 19.9 19.7 19.0 19.3 19.4 18.7 20.2 20.2 21.0 21.2 19.8
1939 21.4 20.7 20.4 21.1 19.3 18.8 17.8 18.2 16.9 16.9 17.9 15.3 18.7
1941, 16.2 16.7 17.5 17.5 17.1 16.2 15.5 16.1 16.5 18.5 17.8 17.2 16.9
1941 17.6 18.1 19.0 19.9 19.8 20.8 20.7 20.5 21.1 21.5 23.0 23.1 20.4
1942 23.9 22.8 23.0 23.6 23.2 21.5 21.0 21.8 24.9 26.5 26.5 27.8 23.9
1943 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.4 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.8
1944 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.5 29.2 28.4 27.6 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.5





FRYERS (Heavy breed)

Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Av.
1921 39.1 39.7 46.9 49.5 46.6 35.0 31.2 30.3 :4.0 35.5 29.1 29.0 37.2
1922. 29.0 29.5 38.4 40.0 40.0 35.5 31.5 29.0 31.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 32.6
19.3 2*9.5 31.0 36.5 37.0 39.8 36.7 30.0 30.0 33.0 32.4 31.0 31.0 33.1
19!24 32.7 36.6 37.8 42.0 42.5 37.4 32.7 30.7 34.1 33.0 31.5 34.3 35.4
19.25 41.4 44.0 45.6 45.9 43.7 39.4 36.0 35.0 38.0 39.0 37.0 38., 40.3
1.,1, 43.5 48.0 49.7 50.0 48.3 8.3 37.8 35.3 35.0 3.5.0 35.3 37.1 411.1
1927 .12.0 45.0 4.5.0 .16.3 43.0 36.1 31.. 30.0 30.0 31.1 33.1 :15.8 37.4
1928 37.0 36.2 38.9 39.0 39.0 38.1 341.5 31.2 33.11 35.3 36.3 35.7 36.3
1929 36.0 36.2 39.1 42.8 37.7 37.3 31.0 31.1 35.10 34.2 36.1 3:6.8 36.1
1930 33.1 32.9 33.6 36.7 32.7 32.8 24.5 27.4 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 30.9
1931 30.0 31.0 37.0 40.0 37.0 35.0 29.0 27.0 27.5 26.0 24.5 24.. 30.6
1932 24.4 23.2 27.1 26.8 23.9 23.5 18. 17.3 1 18. 18.7 17.3 14.9 21.0
1933 14.6 20.4 22.2 24.3 22.1 18.0 15.4 16.1 17.0 17.0 11.7 1.1 18.2
1934 17.6 20.2 23.9 25.2 24.9 22.5 20.1 18.7 19.7 20.0 20.5 20.5 21.2
1935 21.5 24.3 26.1 25.9 22.8 23.1 21.2 20.3 21.0 22.4 23.2 24.5 23.0
1936 25.5 25.6 27.0 27.2 25.7 25.5 23.1 22.6 22.3 21.2 20.5 20.0 23.7
1937 22.) 24.0 24.1 27.0 24.1 25.3 25.5 24.5 25.8 27.1 26.7 27.7 25.4
198 25.8 24.6 27.2 27.8 24.0 21.8 20. 21. 22.9 22.9 23.0 23.6 23.8
1930 23.4 "21.6 21.9 24.8 22.0 21.8 22.5 21.9 21.0 22.0 22.3 22.1 22.3
1940 22.0 21.8 22.8 22.6 24.3 23.2 21.4 20.5 21.5 21.9 20.8 21.5 22.0
I 1 21.8 22.4 23.8 24.3 23.0 22.8 22.8 22.2 22.6 23.0 23.9 24.0 23.1
1942 24.1 23.7 24.2 25.6 26.8 27.5 27.4 27.5 29.0 30.5 30.5 31.4 27.4
1943 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.4 30.6 30.(i 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.6 31.0
1944 30.6 30.6 30.6 31.0 32.6 31.8 31.1 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.6 30.9
(Continued)




I:;.'': I. ii .1:.: liii ij: iii;


--;---1


. ... .


I


rcJ^ Yrsf.A 18


S '* : * .- . .. .. .... ... .. -... .. -


.. ." . .._... :...... . .. .




i: '-( "' 1 :1 f : i. .. :".... ::: .. :. ..
T - .-_ 4 --1- -- --T
i -





. T. .. .--- -- -F--. --. -- -- -- .. -~~...'.~ --





.. . I .. -
,I I . .
I ... . .A..... ..4 F.............

I U, .t


. i nr ; 1 :! ;.. ......:.. ::r- : .


-m








... .... ...
-- .:... ........
:': ;:: ::: ......... ......... ..::..
::" i ... :::I:.. ... ......... ::1::
ji NY: ... .... ..

: .. ..... :::: ::: ... II: ... .... .... ....:r::


.. i .. ... ... ... ..
.. : :... ... ..

::.:............. .... .... .. .::

.:1..: .:i: i~ii ':'::::::::::::':::l:::tjij ::i~iiiL..., Llii!Tillfii i;iii t::-ill: ... .... .. ii

. . . . . .::r:::c: .. .. ...... ..: ::.....
"" """ ..1. : .:r~:: .-. .:1::: ::.:::1::.::..... .. .. .. .... .... .... ....:::r:::l:::::: l.;;::: i~




... . - 1.. ..:.... ... ....
..... ...... .. .. ."
::::-: : .::: ::::::-I"':.::'r-:':::1:::..:::::::: "' """" :::::::ii. ....... .... ....ifii .









:t.: ..-. : ...I::: ... ..... .... . .. ..... ....iiiiii ::: I:: ... .. ... .. .... .1::




.. ::, ...... ... :: iji ::; ::11::11: 1:. ... ...... ...:::11:



.... ... ... :: ....














~O (.. .. lo oT

'IT


_; iU .t i .


..... ....
ZI.

14-
g I-i-ii I 4|!1l||I





r -U
^iilli~liijiiii


-77711 77147771-77


| l lti;t
I1~~~~ f I :t l


ili!fIir~


--:-( tf


M .-,-


i-C-rt : :ii;! -1


-, --"


i--'ttr---11 -tlJ -- 1--~1---:-t+ftitttrr


h-,rittt
**i-T)4-+f *


h- + -H I 4 : -H.


-t--I r r 'iT'rrt









POULTRY AND EGG PRICES JACKSONVILE, TAMPA, MIAMI

(Continued)

TAMPA (January 1, 1930 December, 1944)


WHITE EGGS I Standard)


Mar. Apr.
28.6 28.4

22.1 20.7
18.7 15.6
16.0 16.2
21.1 21.4
24.3 25.0

25.3 24.4
25.0 25.3
23.1 24.2
22.1 23.4
21.5 22.1

24.2 26.0
31.2 33.0
39.0 43.0
37.1 37.0


May
26.6
19.5
15.1
17.6
22.2
25.5

24.8
24.4
25.7
23.4
22.3
28.4
32.4
43.0
38.6


June
30.9
20.5
18.2
17.4
26.4
26.0
26.3
26.7
27.3
25.0
24.2

32.0
35.5
43.1
40.6


July Aug. Sept.
31.3 33.4 39.6
25.1 35.5
21.5 25.4 29.2
24.3 27.1 34.5
30.5 33.0 40.1
30.9 35.0 41.2
34.0 35.0 37.4
31.3 33.8 38.4
32.8 35.1 37.3
30.5 29.0 31.6
29.5 32.5 35.9

27.5 40.0 51.1
41.0 46.1 47.3
47.1 51.3 55.0
44.3 50.5 52.2


Yearly
Nov. Dec. Av.
45.3 36.7 35.7
37.1 28.3 27.3
35.1 37.4 24.7
33.7 37.4 25.5
41.9 42.2 31.4
39.0 41.2 33.1
41.6 41.5 32.9
40.9 40.0 31.8
38.2 41.1 31.9
35.8 32.5 28.6
37.1 38.6 30.2

45.1 43.5 35.2
49.0 49.0 40.7
57.3 53.8 48.3
60.0 59.1 47.1


Year
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
19360
1937
1938
1939
1940

1941
1942
1943
1944


Feb.
37.6
22.0
18.3
18.6
27.3
32.6

31.3
27.6
27.8
24.5
29.2
26.2
33.2
40.1.
40.5






lIENS (Heavy breed)


Year
193"

193 1
1932
111:12
19,33
1934
1935

193:16
1937
193%
1939
19441
1941
19142
194:1
19144


Jan. Feb.
35.2 33..

28.0 28.o
24.1; 24.11
201.4 1'.6l
17.'' I;.1
15.0 15.%

24.5 24.0
19.7 20.8
23.5 23.1
19.1t 17.4
17.1 17.1

17.5 18.9
24.5 24.0
28.. 29.5
27.4 27.4


Mar.
32.5

28.0
25.0)
15.0
15.0
17.0

23.9
21.5
22.5
17.9
17.3

18.9
23.1
29.1
27.4


Apr. May
29.8 26.5

27.5 25.7
23.3 23.2
15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0
17.0 17.0

23.0 23.5
21.2 190.
22.6 22.2
17.9 17.5
18.0 17.0

19.5 19.0
24.4 24.3
29.4 29.4
27.4 29.6


June
26.0

26.4
25.0
15.0
15.0
17.0
23.2
19.4
20.5
17.3
16.5

20.2
22.5
27.4
28.4


July
L6.41

25.4
25.0

15.0
17."0

25.1
20.0
21.3
16.9
14.,S

21.0
22.3
27.4
27.4


Aug. Sept.
2;.0 27.2

2 3 15.0
23.1 21.))
15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0
20.2 23.5

22.1; 21.9{
20.5 22.8
1gR.8 19.1
16t.1 16.6
14.7 16.8

20.5 21.1
22.0 23.9
27.4 27.4
27.1 27.4


Oct.


24.1
21.0
16.0
15.0
23.5

21.6
2:1.2
19.:3
17.2


23.0
26(.0
27.4
"7. 4


Nov.


25.0
21.0
17.ti
15.0


19.61
22.8
18.5
16.4
17.5

23.7
26.0
27.4
27.4


Dec. Av.
*2..0 2%*.9

25.0 2l.2
21.0 2:1.1
17.0 16.0
15." 15.2
24.2 19.2

18.5 22.1;
22.4 21.1
19.1 20.S
16.6 17.2
17.5 1 f.7

24.0 20.11
26.l) 24.1
27.4 2..2
27.4 27.7













Year
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944


FRYERS (Heavy breed)

May June July Aug.
36.3 35.6 34.0 31.9
33.2 31.0 31.0 *
25.0 25.0 25.0 23.1
22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0
17.0 17.8 20.5 22.5
25.5 26.4 25.5 26.2
26.5 26.5 26.5 28.0
27.3 25.2 24.5 25.3
25.4 21.0 20.8 19.0$
18.6 19.8 19.3 18.2
21.3 22.4 18.6 17.9
19.7 20.7 22.2 22.5
26.7 27.0 27.6 29.0
31.1 30.9 30.9 30.9
33.1 31.9 30.9 30.9


Jan.
35.5
34.5
25.0
29.8
18.0
22.5
26.5
21.1
25.4
19.1
21.5
19.2
25.8
33.0
30.9


Feb. Mar. Apr.
35.5 36.0 37.7
33.8 35.0 35.9
25.0 25.8 25.0
21.0 22.0 22.0
17.5 17.0 17.0
22.5 25.4 25.5
26.5 26.5 26.5
23.0 25.6 28.7
24.2 27.7 28.0
17.3 19.8 20.8
19.5 19.3 21.5
20.2 21.4 22.0
24.0 23.5 25.3
31.5 31.6 31.9
30.9 30.9 31.2


Sept.
32.8
28.5
21.0
22.0
22.5
25.5
24.6
26.4
20.7
18.6
19.4
22.7
29.9
30.9
30.9


Nov. Dec. Av.
33.5 33.5 34.6
25.8 25.0 30.8
21.0 31.0 24.4
18.6 18.0 21.8
22.2 23.5 19.8
25.5 25.5 25.1
21.5 21.8 25.3
27.8 27.3 25.8
20.5 23.0 23.0
19.1 19.0 18.9
19.7 19.4 20.0
23.7 24.0 21.8
31.0 31.0 27.7
30.9 30.9 31.3
30.9 30.9 31.2





MIAMI (January 1, 1939 -June 30. 1943)

WH ITE EK(;(S San.lard.

193I :35.1 27.3 24.1 25.11 24.119 1 n a v i I ; l :, : 3. :17.2 :!i.5 36.5 :11.5
11141 :3 .5 t35.3 2i 25.8 .5.5 25.8 3.8 :35.o 38,.4 .13:.1 '0.0 42.91
1941 :t%.: :11.7 28.! 29..11 :11..; 34.1 .;ix.; 41..i3 43. 1 15.'' 47.% 48.0
1942 43.1 41.1 33:1.11 3 .. : (.0 4;2. 7 ( 49 1 .', 2 .".2 44 4
1943 "'2.. 44." 42.0' 44.. 44.. 4i..

IENS I(Htal breetl

S1939 24.5 23.l.l 24.1; 1 .23.3 5 1 a v: i I I 21.7 2 .11 2:1..5 '22 23.2
1940 22. 22.'' 22.4"0 2. 22(' 2 1 22'' 2 22.:; 22.'' 2..5 2t.1 2:1 4 22.4
1941 .''. 2.1.11 2:.0 23." 23-1 2 4." .;.. 2'.' 2 .I 2;.o 2.-"..5 2*. 24.4
!942 2'7. '- -7.1 :3'.o 0.1 :1.' :S .' .-'.' ... 1:2.. S.2. 2..'4,0 2 .
S 1914:1 2-.4 2M8.411 28.11 28.0 2 .41 28.41

FRYERS (il eavy breed

1211 24.: 24. 7 ;i'' 2 .' 231.4 I' n : \ l:. i I 21 1. 2 5. 24. 2'.'A 24.-
114' 2.1.5 22'.9 2..' 23.'' 23.' 2:3.'' 2.'' 24 *. 25.'' 24.1 24.') 24.0' 23.'*
194 3 25.1p 25.01 27.1' 26.5 215.1 25.0 2.' 25.. 25.( 25.1 2.6.1 27.11 25.1;
11942 30.11 ; .:1(1 .(4l l. ; 14.0 :12.0l :l15.l ) 15.ili ;.1 :17.11 :17.11 l.l :L32.0 :1:,l.l
1!4:1 32.'' :l-2. :1'2.0 :12.1' 32.11 3: 2.i

C I'riling pirires in effrrt.
S uotliations tri'imiiorarily ,lism ntlinued in August 193l1.
S A gll iiust Sllt 131I8 through Jlianuiinr, 1 11, iluniilitiolnl Ibaiis dI on l'n% ilig illntlnid 4 f selling pritve's of p|l iltrv. Tuminlli ninrk't
onilly.
In complllaring qiuotied pIrierre for thl last Vyer with previnull yllarl tIhe r.'iadllr niust rreilmlnber prier crilinlag werrl in lefflet.
and for this reason them' pirira'i may not represtnt a true pictuire. since in aunny instances there was a strong demand and
prices would have no doult responded iby going up further.





INDEX
PACE
Annual Value Poultry. Meat and Eggs 52
Better Quality Eggs Bring More Money 15
Care of Egg--Composition of Eggs 8
Chickens Raised by Counties 20
Cooperative Poultry Sales 42
Commercial Broilers-Turkey Market 43
Chilling and Packing 51
Chart-Fryer Prices 57
Chart-Egg Prices 58
Chart-Monthly Egg Prices 59
Different Channels of Trade 16
Diagram of Candling Room for Eggs 25
Eggs in Ice Cream Making-Marketing Eggs 10
Egg and Poultry Prices-Florida-New York 13
Eggs Produced by Counties 18-19
Egg Grading-Air Cell Measure 24
Explanation of Grade Terms for Shell 28
Explanation of Grade Terms for Air Cell 29
Explanation of Grade Terms for Yolk 30
Explanation of Grade Terms for the White 31
Egg Prices-Tampa 60
Florida and U. S. Poultry Statistics 6
Florida Map-Showing Chickens by Counties 21
Florida Map-Showing Eggs Produced by Counties 22
Florida Feed Prices 47
Fryer Prices-Tampa 62
General Terms .. 32
Geese, Guineas, Squabs, Pigeons 36
High to Low Prices by Months 48
Killing and Dressing Poultry-Importations 44
Market Hints-Practices 5
Methods of Plucking, Dressing, Finishing 38
Map Showing Turkey Producing Area 23
New Florida Egg Law 17
Prices of Poultry and Eggs--How Arrived At 7
Per Capita Consumption of Eggs, Chickens. Turkeys 12
Pointers on Egg Marketing Methods .14
Packing 39
Prices from Farm Reporter--Eggs, Poultry, Feed 46
Picture Columbia County Poultry Association 49
Poultry and Livestock by Counties 53
Price.-Florida Eggs 54
Prices-Florida Hens 53
Prices-Florida Fryers 56
Prices: Hens, Fryers, Eggs-Miami 63
Poultry Prices-Tampa 61
Shell Treating Eggs-Hatcheries-Dried Egg Market 9
Standards of Quality for Individual Eggs 27
Summary Chart 33
Summary of Grade Terms for Live Poultry 37
Specifications-Grades-Standards-Dressed Fryers 40
Specifications-Grades-Standards-Dressed Capons 41
Size of Florida Poultry Industry ..... 45
Standards for Dressed Turkeys 50
Truck Buyers, Rolling Stores 11
Tentative U. S. Grades and Classes Live Poultry 34
Turkeys, Ducks 35
U. Sand Florida Egg Grades 26




- s .0 . .
V- FI*)RDRh OR VNTDIVIDU tL


U. S. -raile: AA A B
QL AITY FACTORS MINIM1I %


1. Shell Clean: unbroken; normal.

2. Air rell a inch or less in depth; regular or
slightly wavy.

3. 1colk Outline slightly defined; free from
defects or blemishes.


4. White Clear; firm.


Clean; unbroken; normal.

2/8 inch or less in depth; regular or
slightly wavy.

Outline fairly well defined; practically
free from defects or blemishes.


Clear; reasonably firm.


Clean; unbroken; may be slightly ab-
normal.
% inch or less in depth; may show
total movement not over % inch; if
small (not over 2/8 inch) may be
free.
Outline well defined; may show defin-
ite but not serious defects. -'-


Clear; may ie slightly weak.


Clean; unbroken; may be abnormal.

May he over % inch in depth; may
be bubbly or free.

May be plainly \ i.ilIh : may apmar
dark; may show clearly visible germ
development but no blood due to such
development; may show defects that
do not render it inedible.
Clear; may be weak and watery; small
meat spots or small blood clots may
be present.


VAN WAGENEN CHART FOR BROKEN OUT EGG


TO1' VIEW




BROKEN
OIT







SIDE VIEW






Area Covered


0


-K-;'


Small


Moderate


Yolk Round and upstanding


Large amount, standing very well
around yolk


Round and upstanding


Large amount, standing up well around
yolk


Somewhat flattened


Medium amount, flattened


Very flattened, breaks easily

Small amount


Small amount Medium amount


Thick If hire


Wide


Very wide


Thin White Small amount


Large amount




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs