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PUBILISHED PI A. S. BiARNES-&
(:INC,(INNATI': AW. DERBY & Co.
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CHRONOGRAPHICAL PLAN OF WILLARD'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES.
IC OF A
INW AND ENLARGED EDITION.
BY EMMA WILLARD.
PUBLISHED BY A. S. BARNES & CO.
CINCINNATI:-H. W. DERBY & CO.
LINES TO EXPLAIN THE TITLE VIGNETTE.
In Union's Chain, within its spell,
FRZEDOM and PACEz and SAFETY dwell;
Nor Lion Force, nor Serpent Guile,
Shall harm the blessed Maids the while.
CITY OF NEW BEDFORD, MASS.,
January 15, 1850.
At a meeting of the SCHOOL CoMMrrrEE, held this evening, it was
Voted, That "WILLARD'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED
STATES," be introduced into the High School, and the several Gram-
mar Schools in the City.
WILLIAM HOWE, SaO-RETAr.
OFFICE OF THE CONTROLLERS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS,
FIRST SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Philadelphia, January 81, 1851.
At a meeting of the CONTROLLERS OF PUBLIC SCHooLs, First District
of Pennsylvania, held at the Controllers' Chamber, on Tuesday, De-
cember 10th, 1851, the following Resolution was adopted:-
Resolved, That "WILLARD'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED
STATES," be introduced as a class book into the Public Schools of
ROBERT J. HEMPHILL, SECRETARY.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849,
BY A. S. BARNES & CO.,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern Dis&ict of
THE leading objects of the author of this work, have been
to give the events of the history with clearness and accu-
racy; with such illustrations of time and place addressed to
the eye, as shall secure their retention in the memory; and,
at the same time, with such an order of arrangement, as will
enable the mind to recall, at need, what i, thus retains. This
we regard-as important, not only with respect to this parti-
cular study; but as rightly laying out the grouna-pian of the
intellect, so far as the whole range of history is concerned.
We have endeavoured to make the book convenient--by
side notes with dates,-by numbered paragraphs of suitable
length fi r reading classes,--and by questions on each para-
graph, placed at the bottom of the page. These questions
are so pum, that youthful teachers may avail hiemserves of
the author's long experience, to acquire a maimtr of ,qies-
tioning, which, while it is not obscure, will yet oblige the
pupil to think, and which will bring into relief prominent
We have, indeed, been desirous to cultivate the memory, the
intellect, and the taste. But much more anxious have we been
to sow the seeds ovirtue,by showing the good in such amiable
lights, that the youthful heart shall kindle into desires of
imitation. And we have been careful to give clear concep-
tions of those deeds, which are proper to imitate; while K,
with regard to bad actions, we have as far as possible, givj .
the result, rather than the detail.
There are those, who rashly speak, as if in despair of the
fortunes of our republic; because, say they, political virtue has
declined. If so, then is there the more need to infuse patri-
otism into the breasts of the coming generation. And what
is so likely to effect this national self-preservation, as to give
our children, for their daily reading and study, such a record
of the sublime virtues of the worthies of our earliest day,-
and of Washington and his compatriots, as shall leave its
due impress ? And what but the study of their dangers and
toils,-their devotion of life and fortune, can make our
posterity know, what our country, and our liberties have
cost? And what but the History of our peculiar, and com-
plicated fabric of government, by which, it may be ex-
amined, as piece by piece the structure was built up, can im-
part such a knowledge of the powers it gives, and the duties
it enjoins, as shall enable our future citizens, to become its
enlightened and judicious supporters ?
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
I. Definitions, &c. 13
II. The Aborigines, 16
PERIOD I. First Discovery-Columbus, &c. 21
I. II. English Discoveries-French, 24
149. III. Spanish Discoveries, Adventures 4nd Cruelties-St.
PERIOD I. Unsuccessful attempt of Gilbert, Raleigh, and others, 33
II. II. First settlement of Virginia, 38
1578. III. Early settlement of Virginia-continued, 42
IV. Virginia-Hudson river--Canada, 45
PERIOD 1. Departure of the Pilgrircs from England and their
III. sojourn in Holland, 51
1620 II. Progress of the Pilgrims from Holland to America, 55
III. The Savages-Massasoit's Alliance-Winslow's Visit
to the Pokanokets, 58
IV. Grand Council of Plymouth-New Hampshire-Mas-
sachusetts Bay, 61
V. The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 63
VI. Rhode Island and its Founder, 5
VII. Connecticut and its Founders, 68
VIII. The Pequod War, t 72
IX. Intolerance of the times-Anne Hutchinson-Rhode
Island-New Hanipshire-Delaware, 76
X. Maryland- Virginia from 1631 to 1641, 8
XI. Massachusetts threatened-the Puritans in England-
Vane-UNION BEGUN, 81
PEIOD I. Virginia-Second Indian Massacre-Bacon's Rebellion, 87
I. II. New York settled by the Dutch-taken by the English, 92
1643. III. Pennsylvania and its Founder, 95
IV. New Jersey-its settlement, and various claimants, 99
V. Miantonomoh-Rhode Island and Connecticut obtain
Charters-Elliot, the Apostle of the Indians, 101
VI. King Philip's War-Destruction of the Narragansetts
and Pokanokets, 104
VII. The Regicides-New Hampshire and Maine-Charter
of Massachusetts annulled, 108
VIII. New York-its Governors-Leisler-Quakers in Mas-
IX. Jesuit Missionaries of France-their Discoveries, 115
X. North and South Carolina-The Great Patent-Mr.
Locke's Constitution, 120
XL French and Indian War, 122
PERIOD I. Sir William Phipps-Cotton Mather- Salem Witch.
II. craft-Schools-Yale College, 127
1692. II. European Politics-Peace of Ryswick, which closes
King William's War-Queen Anne's War soon
III. Fletcher-Piracy-The Jerseys united, and joined with
New York, 133
IV. Pennsylvania-Penn's second visit-Maryland, 135
V. The Huguenots-War with the Spaniards-Tuscaro-
ras and Yamassees, 136
VI. Extension of the French Empire-New France, 140
VII. Controversy in Massachusetts, respecting a fixed salary
for the royal governor, 141
PERIOD 1. Georgia and Carolina engaged in war with the Spa-
I1I. niards of Florida-The Slave Trade-War of the
S17833. French with the Chickasaws, 147
II. Old French War-Capture of Louisburg-French and
English claims to the basin of the Mississippi, 150
III. George Washington-his birth, parentage, and educa-
cation-his conduct in places of trust, private and
IV. Congress at Albany-Convention of governors in Vir-
V. Remainder of the Campaign of 1755-Campaign of 1756,161
VI. Campaigns of 1757 and 1758 163
VII. The Campaign of 1759-Wolfe, 66
VIII. Wars with the Indians, .. 170
1. Causes of the Revolutionary War, 175
PERIOD II. Congress at New York-Repeal of the Stamp Act, 179
1. III. Second attempt to taVm ri -Opposition, 182
1763 IV Seizure of Tea-Boston Port il--Arrival of British
V. Congress at Philadelphia, 188
VI. War approaches-Massachusetts-British Parliament, 190
VII. The War begins by the Battle of Lexington, 193
VIII. Battle of Bunker Hill-Washington commander-in.
IX. Invasion of Canada-Death of Montgomery, 199
X. Washington enters Boston-Disasters in Canada, 203
PERIOD I. Lord Howe attempts pacification-American defeat at
II. Long Island, 209
1776. II. Disasters following the defeat on Long Island, 212
II. American successes at Trenton and Princeton, 216
IV. Difficulties and exertions of Congress--Campaign of
V. Burgoyne's Invasion,-1777, 220
VI. Battle of Brandywine-British in Philadelphia-Ger-
VII. Battle of Monmouth--Seat of War transferred to the
South,-1778, .- 229
VIII. Campaigns of 1779 and 1780-the British conquer the
IX. Arnold's Treason, -
X. Robert Morris-Revolt of the Pennsylvania Line- .
Cornwallis at the South, 9
XI. Campaign of 1781-Battle of Eutaw Springs-Corn-
wallis taken at Yorktown, .243
XII. Vermont-Measures of Peace-Fears and Discontents
of the Army happily quieted, 248
XIII. Depression subsequent to the War-Shays' Rebellion
S-Constitution formed, 251
PERIOD I. Organization of the New Government-The Funding
I.9 System-Party lines strongly drawn, 257
17S9. II. The Moravians-The Indians of the North West, 260
III. America resents the indignities of France-Adams's
PERIOD I. War with Tripoli-Troubles with England and France, 273
II. II. War of 1812-Condition of the Country-Iull's Sur-
1803. render, 279
III. Naval Successes, 282
IV. Campaign of 1813-Massacre of Frenchtown, 285
V. Northern Army-Loss of the Chesapeake-Creek
VI. The Niagara Frontier-Battles of Chippewa and
VII. Washington taken by the British-Baltimore threat-
VIII. British invasion and defeat at New Orleans, 300
IX. Peace with England-Naval combats--War with Al-
X. Internal Improvements-Seminole War, 305
PERIOD I. The Missouri Question-The Tariff-Gen. Lafayette's
III. Visit, 311
1820. II. Black IIawk's War-The Cholera-Nullification, 315
III. The Aboriginal Tribes of the Mississippi go to the Far
West-The Florida War, 319
IV. The Bank Question-The Revulsion.-Van Buren's
Administration-Harrison's Election and Death. 324
V Mr. Tyler's Administration-Mobs-Disturbances in
Rhode Island-- Anti-Rentism-Mormnonism, &c. 328
VI. Texas-Mexico-Causes of Annexation and the Mex-
ican War, 333
VII. Mexican War-Army of Occupation, 3 843
VII. Army of the Centre-General Wool's march-Battle of
Buena Vista, 351
IX. Army of the West-Conquest of New Mexico and Cali-
fornia, -- 357
X. Doniphan's Expedition to Chihuahua-Revolt in New
XI. Scott's Invasion-Vera Cruz-Cerro Gordo, 365
XIL State of the Army-Its march- Contreras Churu-
XIII. Armistice-Molinos del Rey7Chapultepec-Mexico, 374
XIV. Puebla-Huamantla-Atlifco-Treaty of Peace, 379
PERIOD I. Oregon-American California-Capt. Wilkes' Explor-
IV. ing Expedition-Capt. Fremont's Explorations, 387
1848. IL Train of Events by which California became a part of
the American Republic-The Macnamara Project-
Discovery of Gold, 891
III. Taylor's Inauguration-Gloomy Close of the 30th Con-
gress-The Causes of Danger and Trouble, as con-
nected with the Slavery Question, 394
IV. Congressional Eloquence of the First Session of the
Thirty-first Congress, 398
V. The Committee of Thirteen-The "Omnibus Bill"-
Death of Taylor and Inauguration of Fillmore-
Separate Passage of the Compromise Measures-The
Cuban Expedition-Liberia, 401
STUDY OF AMERICAN HISTORY,
TEACHING THE CHRONOGRAPHER.
1. THE large painted chronographer, prepared to accom-
pany this work, is to be hung in full view of the class, and
the teacher furnished with a pointing rod about four feet in
length, black at the end, as the paper of the chronographer
2. The proper use of the pointer constitutes an intelligible
language addressed to the eye. Therefore, the person using
it should use it significantly, and never otherwise, and
should always point in the same manner when he means
the same thing.
3. In teaching the chronographer, when the person point-
ing has occasion to refer to a simple date, which is a point
of time, let him carry the pointer directly to that point, and,
without zigzag motions, rest it there while he has occasion
to speak of that date or epoch. But if he is speaking of a
period of time between two dates or epochs, as, for exam-
.ple, of Period I., let him carry the pointer directly to the
"earliest date (1492), and then move it slowly, and without
waayering, over Period I., stopping exactly at its close
<(178); always, in such cases, carrying the pointer with
the course of time-that is, from left to right.
4. Whenever the teacher is using the pointer, to teach
the chronographer, the pupil must give his eye, his ear, and
his mind; and then the chronographer will, by a mysterious
process of the mind, be formed within, and become a part
of the mind of every attentive scholar--where he may, ever
after, have the plan, and read the principal dates of his coun-
try's chronology. But in order to have the internal chro-
nographer perfect, it is necessary to observe attentively, and
to learn patiently, at various times and in repeated lessons,
the different parts of the one presented to the eye.
5. As sucq0e, in this case, dewnds on the class fixing
their eyes on the chronograJpr, with desire to learn it,
short and lively lessons, in which the ss shall be ques-
tioned as the teacher points, and in w ch all answer to-
gether, will be much better than long and dull ones.
6. Some explanations of the chronographer will, however,
be needed. They will be given here, in connexion with
questions and instructions pn the general subject of chro-
7. The word chronographer literally signifies something
which delineates time. It is composed of two Greek
words-chronos, time, and grapho, to delineate.
8. The picture presented is a chronographer of American
history, because it refers to that history only. It is divided
into two parts. The outer part is composed of several cir-
cular lines, the whole of which, taken together, make up
what is here called the circle of time. It represents the
whole time of the American history ; that is, the complete
succession of years from the discovery of America in 149 k,
to the present day.
9. The inner part of the chronographer is called the hist ,i
tree. Thefour large limbs of this tree represent the four
xiv DESCRIPTION OF THE CHRONOGRAPHER.
parts into which the history is divided. The branches of
these limbs represent epochs of the history. The body and
limbs of the tree are painted wood colour, and the branches
are painted green.
10. An epoch is an important event in any history, which,
having happened on some certain day, or in some one year,
is regarded but as a point in time. These branches, then,
which represent the epochs, meet the circle of time in certain
11. In mathematics, the place where one line meets an-
-other is called a point. iPoints may divide a line; so we
suppose our circull ine of tz)keto be divided,by these points
or epochs, into periods. The word epoch marks the exact
time at which afiy event of history may have happened;
and the wordperiod is here used to denote an unbroken succes-
sion of years, whether few or many.
12. To avoid confusion, remark here, that each of the
four parts of the history has one more epoch than period;
for example, Part I. has four epochs and three periods. It
of course has four branches, and three spaces between them
Parts II. and IV. have also each four branches and three
spaces. Part III. has three epochs and two periods. The
reason of this is, that the same epoch is used for the end of
one period and the beginning of another.
CIRCLE OF TIME.-LINE OF CENTURIES.
13. The outer circumference of the circle of time is the
line of centuries. It represents the three centuries and a
half into which the American history is divided. A century
is a hundred years.
.' 14. All Christian countries reckon time from the birth of
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, which is called the
r Cristian era, or great Christian epoch. In 1850, there will
have been just eighteen centuries and a half from that point
of time. During nearly fifteen of those centuries, America
was unknown to the people of Europe, from whom we are
15. This continent was discovered in 1492, eight years
before the close of the 15th century. Tracing, then, on the
chronographer, from'1492 to 1500, we find eight years only
belonging to the 15th century. From 1500 to ;00 is the
whole of the 16th century; from 1600 to 1700, the 17th
century; from 1700 to -1800, the 18th century; and from
1800 to the parent day, is nearly half of the 19th century:
so that the loACourse of. Amdie.n history is about three
centuries and a ha f. It*waS exactly Iree centuries and a
half in the year 1842.
16. Since the end of the year 1800, we have lived in the
19th century: so, young persons past eighteen are said to
be in their nineteenth year. When the year 1800 had
passed, then eighteen centuries were completed from the birth
of our Saviour, and the time since, and now going on, be-
longs to the 19th century, and will belong to it till the year
1900 is completed.
17. Some persons have disputed whether the dates which
make exact hundreds, such as 1700 and 1800, belong to the
17th and 18th centuries. They say, "As 1701 belongs to
the 18th century, why should not 1700 also?" Now, to
make this matter plain, let us go back to the 1st century.
Teacher. Would 99 years make a century ?
Class. Ninety-nine years would not make a century.
Teacher. When would the 1st century be completed?
Class. The 1st century would be completed at the end
of the 100th year.
Teacher. Would 199 years make two centuries ?
Class. One hundred and ninety-nine years would pot
make two centuries.
Teacher. What year must be added to make two centuries
XVl `UW CRIPTION OF THE CHRONOGRAPHER.
Class. The 200th year must be added to make up the
Teacher. To what century does the date 100 belong ?
Class. To the 1st century, since that century is not com-
pleted till the end of the year 100.
Teacher. To what century does the-date 101 belong?
Class. To the 2d century.
. ,eac9g:SIo what century does the date f~300. loqg .
Clas. To "e 3d; for the 3ds itonly completed '
close of this year. ,
Teacher. To what century jA dt 9iQ0 belong ?
Class. To the 17tb.
Teacher. To wlvt century does the date 1845 belong ?
Class. To the 19th century.
Teacher. You now understand that any date in a century
belongs to a century one higher than the hundreds which
express the date-excepting only those dates which are
expressed by exact hundreds. .Thus, 1704 belongs to the
18th century; 1825 to the 19th; while 1700 belongs to the
17th century, and 1800 to the 18th.
18. Teacher. The graduated part of the circle of time is
called the scale of years. This is first divided, as you see,
by alternate light and shade, into tens of years. Then, by
black lines through the light tens, and white ones through
the black tens, the whole scale is divided into years: so
that, having any given date, you can at once refer it, on the
chronographer, to its proper place. For example, suppose
I ask you, where, on the circle of time, is the place of King
Philip's war, which occurred in 1675 ? First, look for the
large figures which denote the centuries, until the eye catch-
es 1600: then trace along to the right, through 70, until
you reach 75.
*HISTORIC TREE. .
19. The first large limb of the historic tree -represents
. Part I. of the history. Observe the points of intersection of
the first and fourth branches with the graduated circle of time.
Tfhe first point is at 1492, the epoch of the discovery of
SAmerica by Celunibus; and the fourth is 1643 en the
ir Confederacy or Union. took place. This ia:ifmo rtatt
epde*as it marks the ti t e.when several m nies confed-
erated together, thus fayi tgs foundation of our great Fed-
eral Republic. '"' -
20. This FIRST PART, then, extend rom 1492 to 1643.
Its subject, as you read just above 1'ft scale of yeers, is,
THE DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMir; f the different
parts of the country. It occupies, as you see; a century
and a half, viz., eight years of the 15th century, thd whole
of the 16th, and nearly half of the 17th. It extends through
a longer time than either of the other parts of the hiAtory.
There are, however, fewer events in it for the hislH'an to
21. The SECOND PART, as you perceive from the points of
intersection of the extreme branches, extends from 1643,
the epoch of the beginning of the confederacy, to 1763, the
close of the French war. Previously to this war, the Eng-
lish had the government over what has since been called
the United States. By the war they gained dominion over
Canada also-taking it from the French, who had discov-
ered and settled that country. The Second Part of the his-
tory, as you see by the graduated circle, occupies 120 years.
It embraces the last half of the 17th century, and the first
part of the 18th. When we speak by centuries, we do not
pretend to be perfectly accurate. The subject of the Sec,
ond Part is, COLONIZATION-FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
that is, the colonization of this country by the English,
xviii DESCRIPTION OF THE CHRONOGRAPHER.
the wars which our hardy and suffering forefathers -had with
thle natives and the French of Canada.
22. The THIRD PART Of the history is shorter in time than
either of the others, comprising only 26 years in 'the last
half of the 18th century. Interesting events in this part of
the history are more numerous than in either of the other
parts. Its subject is, THE REVOLUTION-in which the
Americans, having been oppressed by the British Govern-
ment, fought ;ie troops which they sent over, and, under
the command of Washington, defeated them, and made the
-United States of America a free and independent nation.
The epoch to which this part extends, is the adoption of the
present constitution' if the United States-1789.
23. The FOVyRT PART extends from the adoption of the
constitutift td the present time. It comprises, to now, in
1845, fifty-six years-the whole time of our free constitu-
tional Government. It occupies the last portion of the 18th
century, and what is passed of the 19th.
24. The pupils, having now learned the general plan of
the chronographer, will be able to answer questions from
it; and while the class are studying the book, the teacher
should give them some exercises every day.
25. To acquire our system of chronology, the description
of the chronographer should not only be well learned, but
the attention of the pupils should be called to it during every
recitation, by requiring them to show to what part of the
plan given, dated events belong.
26. In regard to Geography, as connected with History, it
is no less important that the association of the event, with the
visible representation of its place on the map, should be
giongly made. Hence, the pupils should always be re-
4J4ired to trace on their maps the routes of navigators,
armies, &c., and to show the locations of cities and battle-
fields. The best of all plans in this respect is, for pupils to
draw for themselves, on slates or blackboards, sketches of
the countries of which they study, putting down the places
mentioned in their lessons.
27. The drawing, of the chronographer is also recom-
mended. After the study of a period is completed, let the
pupil draw the part of the circle of time belonging'to that
period. When he has studied a Part, let him delineate that
Part on the circle of time : and so on, till he learns to draw
the whole circle without a model. Having done this, let
him connect with it the Historic Tree, whose branches, like
so many indexes, or hands of a clock, point to the time of
the epochs which they represent.
28. The teacher of this work may, by reading a copy of
the author's larger History on the same plan, be able to re-
late to his class enlarged details and interesting anecdotes
of the characters herein named, of which the limits of this
book did not allow the insertion. Such incidents nota
instruct, but they make scholars love the class-
give them confidence in the knowledge of their t
One important office of the common-school library, is to put
such books into the instructor's hands as shall aid him in
giving his pupils more enlarged views of their subjects of
92 ?87 Longitude 2 West from 77 Greenwich 72
MAP No 1.
WANDERINGS & LOCATIONS
.01C ese Delaw
1 Delaware. Q
40 \ e wares 0
I R)QUOy0 oS A
Len niLe ape
aad l Q U I S b... 3 0
unite and conquer
ALL ECEWlIO Traro,
CHEROKEES Oro 4
B e istas 3~
CV Ll r t! e k s
10 Longitude 1est 5 f romi W ashigto i
Smith showing his Compass.
1. THE subject of this work is the United States of CHAP. .
America; or, as those States are sometimes called, the subjet.
Republic or Nation of America.
What constitutes a nation ? First, there must be a
country, with the natural divisions of land and wate q
second, there must be men, women, and children
inhabit that country; and third, those inhabitants must dii U.
be bound together in one, by living under a common
government, which extends its protection over all, and
which all are bound to obey.
2. To every nation there belongs a history: For
whenever the inhabitants of any large portion of the
earth are united under one government, important pub-
lic events must there have taken place. The record
of these events constitutes the history of that country. Any na-
3. The events of history should always be record- tio,'s
ed, with the circumstances of time and place. To tell history
when events happened, is to give their chronology; to
1. What is the subject of this work What three parts corn-
pose a nation ? 2. What constitutes any nation's history?
3. How should events be recorded ? What is it to give their
14 ONE NATION.
ca. I. tell where they happened, their geography. The history
Connect- of a nation, is therefore inseparably connected with its
ed with geography and chronology. Chronology may properly
itand be called the skeleton of history, geography the base
chron. on which it stands.
4. First, let us inquire, where is the country, of
which we desire to know the history? In the vast
Whetr universe, is a system of planets surrounding a sun,
our hence called the solar system. The third planet from
i.. the sun is called the earth. On the earth's surface,
the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA occupies
a northern portion of .the smaller of two conti-
nents. In extent, it is one of the largest nations of
5. In longitude, the Republic of America ranges
its ati- through sixty degrees, from the Atlantic ocean to the
tude and Pacific. In latitude, it reaches from the Cape of Flo-
toun. rida, in north latitude twenty-five degrees, to British
and Russian America in forty-nine. Thus stretching
through the greater part of the northern temperate
zone, it includes every variety of climate, from the hot
Si- unhealthy swamps of Florida, to the cold mountainous
t.. regions of northern New England, and the north-west-
6. The soil and productions of our country are as
Son. various as its climate. Compared with other countries,
it contains a large proportion of arable land ; and what
is of the utmost consequence to the accommodation
Natural of man, it is well watered. On the whole, it may be
tages. pronounced, one of the most fertile, healthy, and desi-
rable regions of the earth.
A good 7. In observing the United States, there is much to
fogo convince us, that an Almighty, Overruling Providence,
,tion. designed from the first, to place here a great, united
3. Their geography ? Are chronology and geography con.
nected with history? -4. In regard to the universe where, as as-
tronomy teaches, are the United States ? In regard to the earth's
surface, or as regards geography, where is this country ? What
can you say of its extent ? -5. What of its longitude ? Of its
latitude ? Climate ?-6. Soil and productions? Its natural ad.
vantages generally ?-7. Does this region, seem designed for
one great nation, or several small ones ?
RIUcITEOUS GOVERNMENT. 16
people. Although this country, being one nation, is c.
by means of its mighty rivers, well enabled to carry --
its inland productions to the ocean, and thence to fo-
reign markets; yet, if it were divided, like southern
Europe, into different nations, this would not be the case.
8. For this country is not, like southern Europe,
indented with deep bays, gulfs, seas, and channels;
whereby many small nations, can each be accommo-
dated with a portion of the sea-board. If our long Oen-
rivers were owned in part by one government, and in cemrr
part by another, the commerce of the inland nations, d.ii
would be perpetually hampered, by those who owned
the sea-board, and the mouths of the rivers. For they
would be likely to insist on being paid for the use of
their ports; and this would naturally breed quarrels and
blood-shed. This is one reason among many, to
show that the American people should continue to be
ONE NATION; and, in the words of Washington, "frown
indignantly on the first attempt to sever the union."
9. The government of this vast nation, which con- IeA
tains more than twenty-three millions of inhabitants, goe-
is a FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC. It isfederative, because meno
in it there are several separate, independent states, all.
confederated under one head, or general government.
It is a republic, because the rulers are chosen by the should
people. The manner in which they are to be chosen, be under.
and in which they are bound to administer the govern- t od by
ment, is set forth in the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED
STATES. This therefore, should be early learned, and
thoroughly understood by every American.
10. The government of the United States is ac-table
knowledge by the wise and good of other nations, to should be
be the most free, impartial, and righteous government stand
7. Why is it in regard to commerce better for one than for seve-
ral ? What part of the world admits of several small nations, and
why ?- 8. Mention one among many evils, which would result
from dividing this nation into several smaller ones ? What is the
language of Washington on this subject ? -9. How many inhabi.
tants has the United States? What is its form of government
Why federative ? Why a republic ? Where can we learn the
form of government I 10. What is the character of this govern-
1l ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS.
CH.I. of the world; but all agree, that for suah a govern-
-- ment to be sustained many years, the principles of
truth and righteousness, taught in the Holy Scriptures
must be practised. The rulers must govern in the fear
of God, and the people obey the laws.
1. BEFORE the territory of which our history treats,
was inhabited by the ancestors of its present inhabi-
The red tants, it was occupied by another and a different race.
men. The red men were here, when' the European settlers
came; and either as friends or as enemies, for a time
they dwelt contiguous to each other, and their history
2. The aborigines, or natives of the country, were
The by the Europeans, called Indians. As found by the
ohu- earliest settlers, they may be considered under three
pants. general divisions. First, the DELAWARES or ALGON-
quINS ; second, the IROQUOIs, and third, the MOBILIANS.
3. The Delawares, or Algonquins, were formerly
called the Lenni Lenape, and the Iroquois the Mengwe.
Three They have a tradition that, in ancient times, each came,
dsado, though in somewhat different directions, from far dis-
tant western regions. Happening to meet as they ap-
Tradi- preached the Mississippi, they united, and made war
tions of upon the Allegewi, a more civilized people, who inha-
wareand bited the great valley of the Mississippi, and dwelt in
Iroquois. cities. The Allegewi were defeated and fled down the
river. Perhaps the Mobilian tribes were their de-
10. What is necessary to its being permanently sustained t
CHAPTER II. -2. What term is used to distinguish the race
found in this country by our ancestors ? What three general
divisions of them ?-3. Give an account of the tradition of the
two former, respecting the direction from which they anciently
came. Where did they unite ? What more civilized nation did
they find f What happened to this nation I
scendants. Perhaps portions of them went still fur- oH. n.
their south, and were the builders of those cities,---
the ruins of which, have lately been found in Central
4. The Lenape and Mengwe, says the tradition, soon
divided. The former crossed the Alleghany mountains, Del.Ri
explored, and took possession of the sea coast, fixing er the
their chief place of council, or seat of government, on saP of
the Delaware river. This river received from a Euro- the ela-.
pean nobleman the name, which it communicated to w
the Indian confederacy. As this confederacy increased
in numbers, various tribes went off from the parent
stock. But they still looked up to the Delawares, and
gave them, long after, the reverential title of "grand-
6.'Of these branches of the Delaware or Algonquin Powhat
race, the first who figure in the early history of our ans-th
nation, were the POWHATANS, a confederacy of thirty
tribes; so called from their great sachem, Powhatan.
His principal residence was on James river, near the
site of Richmond. His authority extended throughout
the lowlands, and to the falls of the rivers.
6. Farther west, and extending to the mountains, Maho.
were two confederacies, with whom the Powhatans ack--
were at war: the Manahoacks, consisting of eight ht
tribes on the north, and the MIonacans of five, stretch-
ing southerly into Carolina. Afterwards the latter Moas-
changed their name, to that of Tuscaroras, removed -t"",
northerly, and joined the Iroquois. The Yamasees
were in South Carolina.
7. The ./llgonquins of New England next find place
3. What conjectures may be formed respecting their descend-
ants ? 4. According to the tradition what course did the Lenape
take? Where fix their place of council? When they became
numerous what became of the various tribes of their descendants?
What were their sentiments and language towards the Dela
wares? Trace out the course of the Delawares On Map I.-5.
Which of them are first brought into notice ? Whaitfte number
of tribes ? Their principal seat ? How far did j4htI limits ex-
tend ?-6. Give an account of the Manahoacs. 'ifthe Mona-
cans Tell from Map I, which is the mortr herly, the
Manahoacs or Monocans. Where were the Catawi f The Ya.
NEW ENGLAND INDIANS.
cH. n. in our history. The first known, were the Pokanokets
-- or Wanpanoags, which produced the two most remark-
able savage chiefs of New England, the good Massasoit,
The first and his valiant son, King Philip. Their residence was
tribe at Montaup or Mount Hope, near Bristol, in Rhode
8. The government of the sachem extended over
the southern part of Massachusetts, and the eastern of
Rhode Island. A number of tribes of different names
were his subjects; among others the Nausets of Cape
Cod. In 1614, Capt. Hunt, an English ship-master,
1614. who accompanied Capt. Smith in exploring the coast,
use o wickedly seized and carried off twenty-seven of'these
the na- unoffending natives, and sold them in Europe as slaves.
the En- One of them, named Tisquantum, found his way to
glish. England, where he learned the English language, was
kindly treated, and sent back to his country. He was
afterwards of great service to the first English settlers,
Indians Y'9. The PAWTUCKETS made their principal seat upon
of the the Merrimack, near its mouth and extended them-
mack. selves south, until they met the territories of the Mas-
sachusetts. The MASSACHUSETTS were scattered about
the bay, which bears their name. Their territories ex-
tended to the Pawtuckets on the north, and the Po-
kanokets on the south. The authority of their chief
sachem was acknowledged by several minor tribes,
of Ma,- some of whom resided as far west as Deerfield. The
chusett principal person of this confederacy, as found by the
y English, was the squaw sachem, or "Massachusetts
Queen." Her residence was beautifully located on a
hill at Milton, eight miles south of Boston.
10. The NARRAGANSETTS held their chief seat and
the residence of their grand sachem on the island of
7. Learn from the Map what are the principal tribes of New
England, and more particularly from the book, the location of the
Pokanokets. What noted chiefs were there of this tribe? -8.-
What wicked act did an English captain do ? To what Indians I
Did any one taken away return ? -9. What can you say of the
Pawtuckets t Of the Massachusetts t Their principal person I
Her residence T
Canonicut, in the bay which still bears their name.- ca.r.
Westerly they extended to within four or five miles of
the Paucatuck river, where their territories met those
of the Pequods. On the east they joined the Pokano-
kets. Their grand chief, Canonicus, was, when the IndiuM
English arrived, an aged man; and he had associated I-
with him in his government, his nephew, Miantonomoh. "W.t
The commodious and pleasant location of the Narra-
gansetts, appears, in their case, to have abated the na-
tural ferocity of the savage character. *
11. The more barbarous PEQUODS occupied the
eastern portion of Connecticut, their lands meeting those
of the Narragansetts. The residence of their great
sachem, Sassacus, was on the heights of Groton, near
the river then called the Pequod, since, the Thames. ores
The Mohegans, under Uncas, whose seat was where "nticu
Norwich now stands, were subject to the haughty chief
of the Pequods; but they bore his yoke with impa-
tience, and when he made war upon the whites, Uncas
took part against him. The Indians of northern New
England had the general appellation of Taranteens or
12. The New England tribes had, a short time pre-
vious to the settlement of the English, suffered a plague P,.
of unexampled mortality. It was probably the yellow among
fever; for we are told that its victims, both before and the abi.
after death, "(were of the color of a yellow garment."
Not less than nine-tenths of the inhabitants seem, in
some parts of the country, to have been destroyed.
Thus Divine Providence prepared the way for another
and more civilized race.
13. The IROQUOIs, Aengwe or Mingoes, were found
by the earliest settlers in Canada, inhabiting the shores
of the St. Lawrence. At first they appear to have been
10. Give an account of the location of the Narragansetts --
Their grand chief? His associate ? The effects of their position
on their character --11. Describe the position of the Pequods.
Their sachem's name and place of residence. That of the Mo-
hegan sachem.- 12. What remarkable visitation of Providence
occurred among the natives a short time before the English came t
How great a proportion were destroyed -13. How were the
Iroquois found by the discoverer. ot Canada t
20 IROQUOIS AND MOBILIANS.
cH. n. less warlike, than the Hurons or Wyandots, by whom
they were attacked. The Iroquois were driven by
them, from the banks of the St. Lawrence; and dividing
The into five tribes, the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagaw
Nations Oneidas and Mohawks, they spread themselves by de-
en New grees, east of Lake Erie, and south of Ontario, along
York. the romantic waters of northern New York, to which
they have left their bold and harmonious names. The
place of their grand general council, or congress of
chiefs, was at Onondaga.
14. Here they made a stand, and became the most
fearless, subtle, and powerful of savages. They con-
quered the Hurons, fought the Delawares, and put in
,ery fear all the surrounding tribes. Finally, in the con-
powerful tests between France and England, they were courted
by both parties as allies, and dreaded by both as foes.
Of the FIVE NATIONS, the Mohawks were the most
warlike. Their chief seat was at Johnstown, on the
beautiful river, which still bears their name.
15. Of the Mobilians, the most extensive and pow-
erful confederacies were the CREEKS, situated mostly
southern in Georgia; the CHEROKEES in the mountainous region
eonfd- north and west; and the CHOCTAWS and CHICKASAWS,
nearer to the Mississippi.
16. The NATCHEZ have excited much interest on
account of the difference of their language from that
of the surrounding tribes. Natchez, on the Missis-
sippi, marks their location. The SHAWANESE, the na-
tive tribe of Tecumseh, once resided on the banks of
the Suwaney river in Florida. From thence they mi-
grated northward, first to Pennsylvania, and afterwards
13. To what place did they change their location ? What
were the names of each of the Five Nations ? Where was
their general council held? 14. What character did they now
assume ? What nations contend with ? By what nations was
their alliance courted ? Which tribe was the most warlike ?-
Where was its principal seat ? Learn from the map the location
of the Mobilian tribes.-15. Which were the most extensive
and powerful Which are the most northerly ? Which are
partly in Georgia? -- 16. Which near the Mississippi T Whert
are the Shawanese T Which tribe has a language by itself
PROM 1492 TO 1648.
/ 4 ? 7 &A /64 5.
return of Golumbus.
THE DISCOVERY OF 1492 AMERICA BT COLUMBUS,
THE FIRST PATENT GRANTED 1 -.. LANDS IN AMERICA-GIVEN BY 4.
BY AN ENGLISH SOVEREIGN TO 1 .s) ELIZABETH TO SIR H. OILBERT.
First Discovery-Columbus, &c.
1. THOUSANDS of years had elapsed since the crea- P'T. I.
tion of the world, and the inhabitants of the eastern ,,D. .
hemisphere were yet ignorant, that, on the face of the nc. I.
planet, which they inhabited, was another continent of Former
nearly equal extent. Nor did they become acquainted ae: ig-
with this fact by any fortunate accident; but they owed geogra-
its proof, to the penetration and persevering efforts of a phy.
man, as extraordinary, as the discovery which he made.
1. What did the people of the eastern hemisphere know about
this coridnent three hundred and fifty years ago ? Did they learned
its exist nee by accident I
P'T.I. 2. This was CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, a native of
PD. Genoa, born in 1447. He possessed all those ener-
CH. I. getic impulses of the soul which lead to high achieve-
447 ment;' and, with these he combined judgment the most
Birth grave and solid, prudence anid patience the most steady
and rare and unoffending, piety the most devout, and, what
t C ensured his success, the most untiring perseverance
bus. ever manifested by man.
3. Columbus had married the daughter of one of the
Portuguese discoverers, then deceased; whose widow,
finding how eagerly her son-in-law sought such sources
of information, gave to him all the maps and charts
which had belonged to her husband. Marco Polo, a
Venetian, had travelled to the east, and returned with
wonderful accounts of the riches of Cathay and the
island of Cipango, called, generally, the East Indies,
and now known to be China and Japan.
circum- 4. The idea that the earth was round, was ridiculed
c ?a- by most persons at that time; but it was fully believed
tohable by Columbus, on the evidence of its figure, exhibited
nis. in eclipses of the moon. Hence, he believed, that
those rich countries described by Marco Polo might be
found by sailing west; and he formed the design to
lead the way, through unknown oceans.
offer 6. Columbus believed that great advantages would
vi"t to accrue to the nation who should patronize his under-
sveg. taking; and, with filial respect, he first offered his ser-
reigns. vices to his native state, but had the mortification to
find them rejected. IHe then applied to John II. of
Portugal; to Henry VII. of England; and to Ferdinand
and Isabella, king and queen of Spain. But these mo-
narchs could not comprehend his schemes, and would
not encourage them.
2. Who was the discoverer t What was his character t 3.
What woman gave him sources of information ? What traveller
had excited his mind about distant countries ? What countries t
4. In what opinion was Columbus in advance of his contempors.
ries ? Why did he believe in the true figure of the earth t ldw
did lie suppose he could reach those rich countries called the Eas.
*Indies?-5. To whom did Columbus first offer his servioe~s
With what success Whose patronage did he next solii
What sovedign of England ? What sovereigns of Spain t ;:'
6. At the court of Spain, he had spent two years in Pr'.I.
a succession of mortifying repulses; and at length, PD. .
quite discouraged, he was preparing to go to England, ca. i.
when he was recalled by a mandate from Isabella. hey~ ~
Not knowing how to raise the sum of money requisite accepted
for defraying the expenses of the voyage, the excellent b
queen determined to sacrifice her jewels; but this was
prevented by the extraordinary exertions of her minis-
7. Columbus made his first voyage, the most inte- 1492
resting of any in the annals of navigation, in 1492. He cowm-
discovered the first found land of the New World, on covers
the eleventh of October. It was an Island called by th Nw
the natives Guanahani, but to which he piously gave
the name of San Salvador, the Holy Saviour.
8. In his third voyage he discovered the continent sent
on the coast of South America, fourteen months after home in
the Cabots had reached its shores in the north-east. chains.
By the ingratitude of Ferdinand, he was, like a con- De .
demned criminal, sent home in chains. Americus Ves- or_.
pucius, a native of Florence, having made a voyage to fmin the
the New World, received from the public an honor
which belonged to Columbus, that of giving a name to
the continent. ( In 1502, the great discoverer made his He dies
fourth and last voyage, whenhaving returned to Spain, in Va"o
-his patroness, Isabella, being dead, his just claims dis- dpalin
regarded, and himself neglected, he sunk beneath his 1506
sufferings, and died, in the 59th .year of his age.
When the good meet with calamities in this world, it
is pleasant to reflect, that there is a future state, where
they will be fade happy.,
9. Many attempts were now made to show that the
country had been previously discovered. The Welsh Welch
brought fQrward the story of Madoc, son of Owen MadL
6. Who was tRle only one to understand his views or favor them ?
What sacrifice was she prepared to make ? When did Co-
Iambus make his first voyage ? What land did he first discover f
'hen n What name give ?-8. What did he discover in his
Soyage ? Did any persons discover the continent before
l,. How was he treated ? After whom was the continent
SIn what year did he make his last voyage ? What
soon after t From what story did the Welch claim
be the discoverers of the western continent ?
THE NEW WORLD.
Pr i. Gwyneth, who, in the twelfth century, had sailed west,
P'D.I. discovered a country, and afterwards conducted a colo-
Co. in. ny thither, which was heard of no more. If this story
be true, there yet exists no proof, that the region found
10. The Norwegians discovered Iceland and Green-
land, during the ninth century, and tpre established
Nor- colonies. Biorn, or Biron, an Icelander, in a voyage
las to Greenland, during the eleventh century, was driven
south-west in a storm, and found a region which, from
vime- its great number of vines, he called Vineland; but
lnd here, also, proof fails, that the place found, #ad its
locality on the American coast.
Ameria 1. THE principal European nations who first disco-
is con- vered and colonized our county, are
netedr I. The English,
nations II. The French,
rope III. The Spanish,
IV. The Dutch.
1496 2. John Cabot, a native of Venice, had, with his
John and family, settled in England. He and his renowned son,
Sebas- Sebastian, were men of great learning, enterprise, and
bot. ability. By a commission of Henry VII., dated March
5th, 1496, (the oldest American state paper of England)
they had authority to discover and colonize any hea
149g.then countries not before known to Christians.
Discover 3. They sailed from England in May,.1497, and in
1h on- June, discovered the Island of Newfoundland, which
10. From what the Norwegians ?
CHArTER II.-1. What European nations discovered lrti
settled our continent ? 2. Who was John Cabot t W |EV -
bastian t Who gave them a commission and at what time $ LR
What important discovery did they mike
they called Prima Vista. Steering northward, they P'T.I
made the first discovery of the continent, on the coast P'D. L
of Labrador, in latitude about 550. On their return cu. u.
they pursued aloutherly direction for an uncertain
4. Sebastian.'abot sailed a second time,-reached sebs-
Labrador in latitude 580, thence turning southerly, he tian C
became the discoverer of the coast of the United States; covers
along whicil We proceeded.as far as to the southern ourcoast
latitu of. Maryland. .
e French King, FraniL, in 1524, sent out John French
Ver a native of Flore ce, who reached the con- also "m
tinent the Ititude of Wilmington, North Carolina. Ian
His crew looked with wonder upon the wild costume disoer
of the natives, made of the 'skins of animals, and set
off by necklaces of coral and garlands of feathers. As
they sailed northward along the coast, they thought
the"country very inviting, it being covered with green
tree among which were many fragrant flowers. l 4
6. At a fine harbor, supposed to be that of Newport
in Rhode Island, Verrazani remained fifteen days, and
there found the goodliest people he had seen." From yerraa-
thence he followed the north-eastern shore of New England
England, finding the inhabitants jealous and hostile.
From Nova Scotia, he returned to France, and wrote
a narrative of his voyage, which is still existing.
7. James Cartier was the discoverer to whom the
French trace the extensive empire which they possess- 1534.
ed in North America. Cartier, after a prosperous voy- Jam.e
age of twenty days, made Cape Bonavista, the most makes
easterly point of Newfoundland. Saying around the great dis
north-eastern extremity of the island, he encountered covere..
severe weather and icy seas. Then stretching to the
south-west, he discovered, on St. Lawrence's day, the
noble gulf wlhch bears the name of that saint.
3. At what place ? 4. Who discovered the coast of the
united States and how far ?-5. What Italian did the king
France send out Where did he reach our shore -
account did he give of the natives ? -6. What Indiana
tp supposee he encountered at Newport 7. Who was
est jscoverer employed by the French? During Car.
frst Vyage, what *reat discoveries did he make ?
BAD ACTIONS) FROM BAD MEN
PrT.I 8. In 1535, he sailed on a second voyage, entered
PD. I. the gulf of St. Lawrence, proceeded up the river, to
c.ln. fhich he gave the same name, and anchored at an
island, which, abounding in grapes, he named Bacchus
153. Isle, now the Isle of Orleans. He continued his voy-
rtier' age to the Island of Hqchelega, to which he gave the
,cond' name of Mont Real. After a severe winter he return-
voyage. ed in the spring with dreary, accounts of the country.
He, however, named it JVYw France, and it was also
called Canada, but at what time, or whether from -any
significance in the word, is not known.. -
New 9. France now possessed a country in tie New
France. World, through which, flowed a tiver, more majestic
than any in Europe. Francis 'De La Roque, lord of
Roberval, in Picardy, obtained from the king full au-
Histhird thority to rule, as viceroy, the vast territory around the
der Rob- bay and river of St. Lawrence. Cartier was necessary
erval to him, and received the title of chief pilot and catain-
general of the enterprise. The prisons were thrown
open, and with their inmates, Cartier sailed.
S 10. He built a fort near the siteof Quebec, and there
1541. spent a winter, in which he had occasion to hang one
Cartier of his disorderly company, and put several in irons.
Q.ebec. In the spring he took them back to France, just as Ro-
berval arrived with supplies and fresh emigrants. By
him, however, nothing permanent was effected; and
after a year, he abandoned his viceroyalty.
o 11. Coligni, the distinguished high admiral of France
A1mi was the friend of the Huguenots, a name given to
Clnigui the French Projestants. These were objects of such
noil' Ot hatred and fear to the monarchs, that they were plot-
ting their destruction, and when a project was formed
by the admiral to plant with them a colony in America,
it found ready favor. He therefore sent out, under the
command of John Ribault, distinguished as a brave
8. Give an account of his second voyage f What can you say
of the name of the country ? -9. Under whose authority did he
make this third voyage ? What kind of people were broudt
over as colonists ? 10. Did any good result take pi
What can you say of Roberval T-- 1. Who was Coli
Whose friend was he t What project did he contrive tV ft
did he send as leader of the colony ft
and pious protestant, two ships loaded with conscien- Prr. .
tious Huguenots, many of whom were of the best p.D.I.
families in Frantce. Ca. m.
12. They approached land in the delightful clime of St. Hebmild.
Augustine; and, on the first of May, discovered the St. Ft.Ca
John, which they called the river of May. Sailing c i,
along the coast north-easterly, they fixed on Port Royal 1564.
entrance. There they built a fort, and called it Carolina,
a name which is preserved in that of two of our states.
Ribault left there a colony, and returned to France.
13. The commander of the fort provoked a mutiny, coom,.
and was slain. The colonists longed for home. They abadons
put to sea without suitable provisions, and being found
in a famishing state by a British vessel, they were car-
ried to England.
14. The persevering Coligni soon after sent out ano-
ther colony under the worthy Laudonniere. UpQn the 166f -
banks of the river of May, with psalms of thanksgiving, Ft..a
they made their dwelling place, and erected another fort, Florida
called also Carolina. The next year Ribault arrived bt.
with vessels containing emigrants and supplies; and
taking the command, the colony seemed happily
Spanish Discoveries, Adventures, and Cruelties.-St. Augustine.
1. JOHN Ponce De Leon, a Spanish soldier, who had Ponc do
once voyaged with Columbus, had received an impres- .eeks the
sion, common in those times, that there existed in the fo''fu
New World a fountain, whose waters had power to
12. What country did they first reach f Where did they
ouild a fort, and what name give it t 13. What happened after
Ribauh had departed? --14. By whom did Coligni send out
axoier colony ? Where did they build a fort, and what name
gve it ? Who came and for what purpose ?
aArPTErt III.-I. Whq was John Ponce de Leon f What in-
duced him to come to the New World f
1, BETTER TURN BACK, THAN GO ON WRONG.
P'T. I. arrest disease, and give immortal youth; and he set
P'D. i. forth to seek it. On Easter Sunday, called by the
cu. m. Spaniards Pascua Florida, and a little north of the
1512. latitude of St. Augustine,ihe discovered what he deem-
ed, from the blossoms of the forest trees, a land of
flowers. The fountain of life was not there; but
Disco- Ponce took possession of the country in the name of
Fver the Spanish king, and called it Florida.
Florida. 2. The part of South Carolina, in the vicinity of the
Combahee river, was soon after visited by a Spaniard,
named Vasquez De Ayllon. The country was named
Chicora, and the river, the Jordan. De Ayllon invited
the natives to visit his ships,.and when they stood in
crowds upon his deck, he hoisted sail and carried them
off. Thus, torn from their families, they were, as slaves,
Wicked- condemned to ceaseless toil. De Ayllon afterwards
ne of attempted to conquer the country; but the hostility
dve"" of the natives could not be overcome, and numbers of
Ayllo. Spaniards perished in the fruitless attempt.
1528. 3. By another unsuccessful effort, under the adven-
Unsuc- turer Narvaez, to conquer Florida and the adjoining
attempt country, an army of three hundred Spaniards wasted
o ar- away, till but four or five returned.
4. They however insisted that Florida was the rich-
Ferdi- est country in the world; and Ferdinand De Soto,
and do, already famous as the companion of Pizarro, the cruel
conqueror of Peru, obtained a commission from Charles
V. to conquer the country. He sailed, with a con-
1539 siderable force, to Cuba, of which lie had been made
Lands i, governor; and there adding to his army, he landed in
Florida. 1539, at Espirito Santo, in Florida, with six hundred
soldiers; an army greater, and better supplied, than
that, with which Cortez conquered Mexico.
5 6. He expected to find mines and utensils of gold;
1. What country did he discover ? Observe the dates, and
tell w~4ich discovered Florida first, the French just mentioned,
or this Spaniard ? Tell the dates in each case. 2. Give an
account of the expedition of Vasquez de Ayllon. What doyou
think of his conduct I 3. What can you say of Narvaez t---.
What expedition did Ferdinand de Soto undertake I Give u
account of his preparations-his numbers-his place of nd
in America. -5. His objects.
HORRIBLE BIGOTRY OF THE TIMES. 29
and being from time to time deluded by the natives, he rrT I.
pursued these illusions, which ever fled as he approach- PD. I.
ed. He went north, crossed the Alleghany mountains, ca. m.
then marched southerly to Mobile, where he fought a His ob-
bloody battle with the people of a walled city. At jectto
Pensacola he met ships from Cuba, with supplies for
his exhausted army; and too proud to be wise, he
continued to pursue a shadow, rather than retrace a
6. The hope of the precious metals still lured him
on, and he now bent his course to the north-west, and
in latitude 340 he discovered the Mississippi. He con- April54
tinued west until he reached the Wachita, when, be- He dis
coming dispirited, he turned. urse; descendingthat e,
stream to its junction with th i Thence he sissippi.
went down its current; and where gles its
waters with the Mississippi, he died. i's was May 9.
enclosed in a hollow oak, and committed to the broad lI
stream. The officer who succeeded him in command,
conducted the poor remains of the army, down the
7. When the news reached Spain, that Florida had
been colonized by French Huguenots, the cruel mo- dezsent
narch, Philip II., gave to Pedro Melendez de Aviles a from
commission, to take possession of that country, and to pan.
destroy the heretics. Five hundred persons accompa-
nied Melendez, who were men with families, soldiers,
mechanics and priests. Coming upon the coast south
of the French settlement, he discovered the harbor of Sept. 8,
St. Augustine on the day of that saint, and here he laid 1565.
the foundation of the city of ST. AUGUSTINE, the oldest founds
by more than forty years, of any within the limits of St. Au
our republic. gtin
8. The French had received from Melendez the ter-
rible notice, that he had come to destroy every person
5. His route and return to the coast --6. His second route
and great discovery ? Where did he die ? How was his body
disposed of? What became of his army -- 7. What king sent
to destroy the French qplony Whom did he send What
description of persons? and how many accompanied him ? What
t there remarkable about the city which he founded ? 8. What
notice did he give the French I
30 FIRST PERMANENT SETTLEMENT.
P'T. I. who was not a catholic. Ribault, supposing that the
pD. Spaniards'would attack by sea, embarked to meet them.
cn. is: A tremendous storm shipwrecked his whole fleet. The
Sept. 21, Spaniards, meantime, crossed the forest and attacked by
He de- land. Unprepared" and surprised, the defenseless fort
Fort soon surrendered, when all, without distinction of age
oand or sex, were murdered. The shipwrecked mariners
Hugue- were afterwards found, feeble and exhausted, upon the
not&. shore: Melendez invited them to come to him, and
trust to his compassion. They came, and he slew them.
9. When the news of this massacre of nine hundred
French subjects reached the French king, Charles IX.,
he took no notice of it, for so bigoted was he, that he
Aug. 22, wished the entire destruction 8f the Huguenots. Yet
1568. so deep was the f ong the people of France,
kills that thre awards, individuals headed by the
Span- gatlla Gouges, made a descent on the settle-
.iards. ],trd .
ment of Florida, and put to death two hundred Span-
Fit iards. The Spanish colony was thus checked, but it
colony was not destroyed; and it proved to be the first perma-
ta. nent settlement, made by Europeans upon the shores
of our republic.
8. Where was Ribault when Melendez attacked the French
fort ? How did he treat the people in the fort ? How the ship-
wrecked ? -9. Who took vengeance on the Spaniards? In
what manner ? Was the Spanish colony destroyed ? What has
it proved to be ?
EXERCISES ON THE CHRONOGRAPHER.
(Referring to events of Period I., Part I.)
What is the event or epoch which marks the beginning of
this period ? What is its date ? Point it out on the chro-
The Cabots discovered the continent in 1497. Point out
the place of this date on the Circle of Time. Verrazani
sailed along the coast in 1524. Point out on the chronogra
pher this date. Cartier made his two voyages in 1534-35
Point out these years. The time of Cartier's founding Quo
bee was 1541. Show the place of this date.
S Ribault built Fort Carolina, in South Carolina, in 1564.
Laudonniere built Fort Carolina, in Florida, in 1566. Point
to these dates. St. Augustine was founded in 1565. Where
is this date on the chronographer ? At what epoc does thi
period terminate ? Point to its place on the chronographab.
The teacher can select other dates and require the pupils
to locate them on the chronographer.
.A&LaU6iVuu iU tan,, air rx. xzisuerr.
PATENT GRAMTBD BYQUErN ELI- 1578 ZABETH TO *IR H. OILBErT.
LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS 1 1620.1 AT NEW PLYMOUTH.
Unsuccessful attempts of Gilbert, Raleigh, and others
1. QUEEN ELIZABETH, the reigning sovereign of P'T .
England, gave to Sir Humphrey Gilbert,-in 1578, by an PD,. L
open or patent letter, "all such remote, heathen, and cn. i.
barbarous lands," as he should discover in North
America, and of which he should take possession;
these lands not having been occupied before, by any Gib5,.
other Christian power. She vested in him and his patent.
heirs the right of property, and guaranteed that all,who
should settle there,should enjoy the privileges of free
citizens and natives of England. The patentee was to
acknowledge the authority of the sovereign of England,
and pay one-fifth of all the gold and silver obtained.
CHAPTER I.--. From whom did Sir Humphrey Gilbert receive
his patent ? What lands.did it give him ? What rights vest in
him and his heirs ? What guarantee to those who should settle
the country I What enjoin upon the person who received the
A LADY OF THE WOODS
P'T. I. 2. In Gilbert's first attempt to plant a colony, he put
PtD. 1 to sea, but was obliged to return. In his second, he
ciu. I. reached Newfoundland, where he took possession of
59 the country for his sovereign, by raising a pillar in-
to scribed with the British arms. From thence, he sailed
1583. south-westerly, till he reached the latitude of the mouth
tilbe"t of the Kennebec. Here the largest of his three vessels
ages. was wrecked, and all her crew perished.
-) 3. Gilbert now finding it impossible to proceed, set
his face towards England, keeping in the smallest of
his remaining vessels, a barge of only ten tons; for his
generous heart refused to put any to a peril, he was
His himself unwilling to sharget ie passage was stormy,
and but his pious mind B dnd comfort in the reflection
death. which, a JP t reading in the stern of his barge, he
. Sept. 2. uttered to ll companions in the larger vessel; "we
are as near heaven at sea, as on land." In the night,
the lights of his little bark suddenly vanished, and he
was heard of no more.
4. Sir Walter Ralcigh, the brother-in-law of Gilbert,
obtained from Queen Elizabeth, a transfer of his patent.
sle h Raleigh had learned from the unsuccessful emigrants
sends of France, the mildness and fertility of the south, and
and thither he dispatched two vessels, under Philip Amidas,
Barlow. and Arthur Barlow. They approached the shore at
Pamlico Sound, and on landing in Ocracok or Roanoke
Island, they found grapes abundant, and so near the
coast, that the sea often washed over them.
5. The natives were as kindly as their climate and
Beautiful soil. The king's son, Granganimo, came with fifty of
example his people, and received them with distinguished cour-
hospi- tesy. He invited them to hit dwelling at twenty miles
tality. distance on the coast; but when they went, it chanced
lie was not at home. His wife came out to meet them
2. In Gilbert's first attempt what happened ? In his second
how far did he proceed? In what manner take possession 1
What disaster did he meet, and at what place ?-3. What
trait of generosity did he exhibit? What were the last words
/he was heard to utter ?-4. Who obtained a similar patent f
Whom did Sir W. Raleigh send out ? To what place did they
go ? What account did they give of Roanoke Island t 5. What
of the natives ? How did an Indian lady behav.p
RALEIGH'S ATTEMPTS UNSUCCESSFUL.
She ordered some of her people to draw their boat P'T.I.
ashore to preserve it, and others to bring the English- p,D. n.
men on their backs through the surf. She then con- ca. z.
ducted her guests to her home, and had a fire kindled,
that they might dry their clothes, which were wet with
rain. In another room, she spread a plentiful repast
of fish, venison, esculent roots, melons, and fruits. As
they were eating, several Indians, armed with bows
and arrows, entered. She chid them, and sent them
away, lest her visitors should suffer from alarm.
6. When the navigators returned to England, and
made this report to Elizabeth, she was induced to call ueela
the country VIRGINII memorial that the happy names
discovery had been made undergo Virgin queen. This Virgini
name soon became general throughout the coast.
7. Raleigh now found many advent*bis ready to
embark in his project; and in 1585, he fitted out a 1 .51,*-
squadron of seven ships, under the command of Sir shieai-
Richard Grenville, who followed the course of Amidas aer
and Barlow, and touched at the same islands. In one vine.
of these he cruelly burned a village, because he sus-
pected an Indian of having stolen a silver cup. He
then left a colony under Captain Lane, at the island of
Roanoke. The colonists, reduced to great distress for Colonyat
want of provisions, were, the next year, carried to En- Roanoke
gland by Sir Francis Drake, who was returning from a 'd.
successful expedition against the Spaniards in the West
8. Soon after their departure, they were sought by
a ship, which had been sent by Raleigh with supplies;
and afterwards by Sir Richard Grenville. He not find-
ing them, most unwisely left fifteen of his crew to keep
possession of the island, and then returned to England.
Of this small number nothing -was afterwards heard. Fifteen
Probably they were destroyed by the injured and re- men lot.
6. Who gave a name to the country What name f -T.
Whom did Raleigh next send ? When 1' What was done by
Sir R. Grenville ? What can you say of the colony which he
left f-8. What of another small colony
P'T. I. 9. In 1587, Raleigh again sent out a colony of one
p, i. hundred and fifty adventurers to the same island, under
cn. i. Captain White. He soon returned to England to soli-
cit supplies for the colony. Before he departed, his
Secon daughter, Mrs. Dare, gave birth to a female infant, the
Roano e first child of English parents born in America. The
colouy. infant was baptized by the name of Virginia.
10. The attempts made by Raleigh for the relief of
this colony were unremitted, but unsuccessful; and
three years elapsed before he could procure the means N
of sending Captain White to their relief. It was then
too late. Not one remained nor, though repeatedly
Raleigh's sought, has any clue to ,iab fate ever been found.
colony. Appalled and in danger of perishing himself, White
returned, without leaving one English settler on the
shores of America.
4602. 11. In 1602, Bartholomew Gosnold, with thirty-two
,ist N. men, sailed from Falmouth, and steering due west, lie
England. was the first English commander who reached the
country by this shorter and more direct course. IHe
approached the coast near Nahant, then bearing to the
south he discovered and named Cape Cod, which was
the first ground in New England ever trod by English-
12. From Cape Cod he sailed round Nantucket, and
discovered Martha's Vineyard. He then entered Buz-
zard's Bay, and finding a fertile island, he gave it, in
honor of the Queen, the name of Elizabeth. Near its
western shore, on a small island in a lake, he built a
fort and store-house, and prepared to leave a small
Natives colony. But the natives became hostile, and his in-
hle tended settlers would not remain. Having freig hted
his vessel with sassafras root, then much esteemed in
medicine, he hoisted sail and reached England with all
9. What of the second ? What name was given to the firsi na-
tive born English child ? -10. Were attempts made to relieve
this colony ? Does any one know what became of Mrs. Dare,
or her child, or any of the colony ? 11. Give some account of
Gosnold ? Point out on the map his course ? Tell where he ap.
preached. What discoveries he made ?- 12. At what place
did he prepare to colonize t Was he successful in planting a
NORTH AND SOUTH VIRGINIA.
his men, after a passage of five weeks, the shortest then P'T. I.
known. P'D. II.
13. Henry IV., of France, in 1603, granted to the CH. .
Sieur de Monts, the country called Acadia, extending 1603.
from the 40th to the 46th degree of north latitude. Henry
The next year De Monts sailed from France, taking Iv.
Samuel Champlain as his pilot. He entered an exten- Xcadia.
sive bay, called it La Baye Francaise, [Bay of Fundy,]
and on its eastern side, he founded Port Royal. He DeMonta
discovered and named the rivers St. John and St. Croix, 'Por
and sailed along the coast as far as Cape Cod. Royal.
14. The English becoming alarmed at this encroach-
ment on territory w they claimed, James I., the 1606.
successor of Elizabeth, tdid_ the country into two omto
districts nearly equal, granted tbl southern part, or 410 the
first colony of Virginia, included between the 34th and granted
41st degrees, to a company of merchants called the both.
London Company; and the northern or second colony no.
of Virginia, included between the 38th and 45th de- whBv-
grees, to another corporation, called the Plymouth erone
Company. The king vested these companies with a settle-
right of land along the coast, fifty miles each way, and thenth-
extending into the interior one hundred miles from the might
place of settlement. t set
15. The Plymouth Company, in 1607, sent out Ad- in 100
miral Raleigh Gilbert, with a hundred planters, under miles.)
Captain George Popham, the president of the company. settl.
They landed at the mouth of Kennebec river, where ment at
they built and fortified a store-house. The sufferings Kenne
of the colony, through the winter, were severe. They 1601.
lost their store-house by fire, and their president by
death, and the next year returned to England, consider-
ing the country ("a cold, barren, mountainous desert,"
where, in the quaint language of that period, they de
dared, "they found nothing but extreme extremities."
12. What of his voyage in regard to time ? -13. What was
granted to De Monts ? By whom ? What voyage and discove-
ries did he make Who accompanied him? 14. Between
what two companies did the English now divide the country ? -
What names give to each division ? Trace the two divisions on
Map III, unless you draw the Maps, and have one of your own
to exhibit. -15. Whom did the Plymouth company send out t
What was the success of the settlement at Kennebec ?
38 FIRST EFFECTUAL ENGLISH SETTLEMENT.
P'T. I. 16. Thus, after a period of one hundred and ten
PD. I. years, from the time that Cabot discovered North
ca. n. America, and twenty-four years after Raleigh planted
the first colony,there was not, until 1607, an English.
man settled in America.
First settlement of Virginia.
1. IN 1607, the London Company sent out Captain
Christopher Newport, witlWree ships, and one hun-
dred and five men; tongg whom was the navigator,
Gosnold, and Captain John Smith, the Father of Vir-
2. The fleet sailed by the West Indies, and being
Ce- driven north of Roanoke in a storm, an accidental dis-
peake cover was thus made of the entrance of the Chesa-
dsoverd" peake bay, the boundaries of which were now named
1607 Capes Charles and Henry, in honor of the king's sons.
3. The adventurers sailed at once into the bay, and
up the Powhatan river, to which they gave the name
of the James. Upon its banks, fifty miles from its
James- mouth, they fixed their residence, and raised a few
may 1. huts. The place was called Jamestown, an appellation
which it still retains, although nothing now remains
but a few falling ruins.
4. The King of England, James I., had given the
colonists a charter; that is a writing, made like a deed,,
which he signed, and to which the great seal of En-
artae gland was affixed. These written instruments when
isi made for the settlers, in a wise and righteous manner,
gave them privileges which were of great value. But,
in this case, the charter left with the king all the power
to govern the country.
16. In 1607 what might be said of English colonization
CHArTER II.-1. Whom did the-London company send out 1
2. What discovery was accidentally made I 3. What course
did the fleet take ? Where did the emigrants settle I -4 What
is a charter ? Did these emigrants receive a favorable charter
SMITH OBEYS HIS SUPERIORS. 39
6. To the colonists no assurance was given, but the PrT I.
vague promise, that they should continue to be En- pr. 1.
glishmen. Religion was established by law, according CH. n.
to the forms and doctrines of the church of England. No prir-
There was, for the present, no division of property; itege t
and for five years, all labor was to be for the benefit of tler..
the joint stock.
6. The government was to be administered by a
council, nominated by the king, but to reside in the
colony. As soon as the emigrants landed, the council First
was organized. They chose Edward Wingfield, their president
president. They were envious of Captain Smith. He fiwed,
was the proper person tabe their head, because he had smith.
more talents and more zeal for the settlement, than
any other man. But troubles gathered fast, and then
they were glad to have Smith for a leader.
S7. The neighboring Indians soon annoyed the colony
by their petty hostilities. Their provisions failed, and Disaasi
the scanty allowance to which they were reduced, as
well as the influence of a climate to which they were
not accustomed, gave rise to disease; so that the num- Ag. 22.
ber of the colonists rapidly diminished. Sometimes Death of
four or five died in a day, and there were not enough 1607.
of the well, to give decent burial to the dead. Fifty
perished before winter, among whom was the excellent
8. The energy and cheerful activity of Smith, threw
the only light, which glanced upon the dark picture.
He so managed as to awe the natives, and at the same
time to conciliate and obtain from them supplies of Excel-
food; while, among the emigrants, he encouraged the lentman-
faint hearted, and put in fear the rebellious. Winter at ofSmith.
length came, and with it, relief from diseases of cli-
mate, and plentiful supplies of wild fowl and game.
9. The London company, with an ignorance of ge-
ography, which even then was surprising, had given
directions that some of the streams flowing from the
5. How was it about religion ?-property 6. What about
the government ? Who was chosen president ?- 7. What mis-
fortunes befel the colony ? 8. What can you say of the con-
duct of Captain Smith --9. What directions had Smith re-
ceived From whom ?
40 INDIANS CAPTURE SMITH.
P'T. I. north-west should be followed up, in order to find a
P'D. I. passage to the South Sea. Smith was superior tb the
CH. II. company in intelligence, but he knew the duties of a
Smith subordinate; and he therefore prepared to explore the
can obey head waters of the river Chickahominy, which answer-
" well ed as nearly as any one, to their description.
mand. 10. Powhatan, the chief of the savage confederacy
on the waters of the James and its tributaries, had
been visited by the colonists early after their arrival.
His imperial- residence, called from its beautiful loca-
160o. tion, Nonesuch, consisted of twelve wigwams near the
Powhat- site of Richmond. Next to him in power was his
"hid brother, Opechacanough, who was chief of the Pa-
brother. munkies on the Chickahominy. Smith embarked in a
barge on that river, and when he had ascended as far
as possible in this manner, he left it, with the order
that his party should not land till his return; andwith
four attendants, he pursued his objects twenty miles
farther up the river.
11. The Indians who had watched his movements,
fell upon his men, took them prisoners, and obliged
them to discover the track of their captain. He, in
pursuit of game, soon found himself hunted by swarms
Indians of savage archers. In this extremity he bound to his
capture breast, as a shield, an Indian youth, who was with
Smith nim; and then he shot three Indians, wounded others,
and kept the whole party at bay. Attempting to re-
treat to his canoe while yet watching his foe, suddenly
he sank to his middle, in an oozy creek. The savages
dared not even then touch him, till, perishing with
cold, he laid down his arms and surrendered.
12. They carried him to a fire, near which, some of
his men had been killed. By his Indian guide and
,res interpreter, he then called for their chief. Opechaca-
nough appeared, and Smith politely presented to him
his pocket compass. The Indians were confounded at
the motions of the fly-needle, which, on account of the
9. What did he know, and what do 10. Whom had the
colonists visited ? Where ? Who was chief of the Indians on
the Chickahominy ? What was the beginning of Smith's ad-
ventures on that river -- 11. Relate the circumstances of his
mysterious glass, they could see, but could not tou .:h. P'T. I.
lie told them wonderful stories of its virtues, and pro- PD. I.
ceeded, as he himself relates, "by the globe-like figure C". u.
of that jewel, to instruct them, concerning the round-
ness of the earth, and how the sun did chase the night
round about the world continually," by which his au-
ditors were filled with profound amazement.
A 13. Their minds seemed to labor with the greatness
'of the thought, that a being so superior was in their
power; and they vacillated in their opinion whether
or not it was best to put him to death; and as often
changed their conduct. They took him to Powhatan, meut by
thence led him round from one wondering tribe to the sava-
another; until, at the residence of Opechacanough, ge.
these superstitious dwellers of the forest, employed
their sorcerers or powows, for three days, to practice
incantations, in order to learn, from the invisible world,
whether their prisoner wished them well or ill.
14. The decision of his fate was finally referred to
Powhatan. At his residence, that majestic savage re-
ceived him in state, but he condemned him to die.
Two stones were brought and laid before the chief,
and two savages stood with uplifted war-clubs. Smith Ile f"
was dragged to the spot, and his head placed upon the Pocahon.
stones. Pocahontas, a young Indian girl, rushed 't
forward, and with cries and tears begged of Pow-
hatan, her father, to spare him. He refused. She
then ran and knelt beside the victim, and laid her
young head upon his. Then the stern savage relented,
and Smith was saved.
15. Smith having now learned much of the Indians,
their country, modes of warfare, dispositions and lan- 16OS
guage, and having also by his great address and honor- Good
able bearing, won their affection and confidence, his from
captivity proved, under Divine Providence, a means of eil.
establishing the colony.
16. During his absence, however, there had been
12. Of the manner in which he gave the natives a great idea
of his knowledge ? -13. Of their thoughts and behaviour to-
wards him 1--14. Relate the circumstance of his sentence and
deliverance ? -1. What view may be taken of Smith's captivity?
4Z NEWPORT ARRIVES-BAD SETTLERS.
P'T. I. disorder and misrule; and when he returned to James
P'D. I. town he found only thirty-eight persons remaining
CH. HI. The spirits of the people were broken; and all, filled
with despondency, were anxious to leave a country so
State of inhospitable. He prevailed upon them, however, partly
the by force and partly by persuasion, to remain till the
colony. next year; when Newport arriving from England, with
some supplies and one hundred and twenty emigrants,
hope again revived.
1608. 17. During the year 1608, Captain Smith explored
the Chesapeake bay to its head, discovered its fine
streams, and gained new information concerning the
ith native productions and inhabitants of the country. In
ex lores an excursion which he made up the Rappahannock,
theCheg- lie had a skirmish with the Maunahoacks, a tribe de-
apeae' scended from the Delawares, and took prisoner a
%" brother of one of their chiefs. From him he first
heard of the Iroquois, who, the Indian told him,
"( dwelt on a great water to the north, had a great many
boats, and so many men, that they waged war with all
the rest of the world."
18. Immediately on his return he was chosen presi-
dent of the council. He found the recent emigrants
S"goldsmiths and gentlemen." But he promptly gave
Hio dcd them their choice, to labor for six hours a day, or have
wisdom. nothing to eat. lHe represented to the council in En-
gland that they should send laborers; that the search
of gold should be abandoned, and that "nothing should
be expected except by labor."
Early settlement of Virginia-continued.
1. THE London Company had gradually become
enlarged by accessions of men of influence, some of
16. What had happened during Smith's absence? What
was the effect of his return ? I What did Smith explore?
What learn from report ? 18. What happened on his return ?
What course did he take ? What was his advice sent to England I
CHAPTER III.-1. What had been the progress of the London
BIR THOMAS GATES SHIP-WRECKED.
whom were of the nobility and gentry. Without at P'T. 1.
all consulting the wishes, and against the interests of p,D. i.
the colony, they now obtained from the king a new i. im.
charter, by which they were to hold the lands in fee; Gover,-
and all the powers of government formerly reserved muet
to the crown, were hereafter to vest in the company. worse.
'The council in England, chosen by the stockholders,
was to appoint a governor, who was to rule the colo-
nists with absolute sway.
2. The company now collectedfive hundred adven- Newprt
turers, many of whom were men of desperate fortunes sent with
and abandoned characters. They appointed as gover- dred.
nor for life the excellent Lord Delaware, and freitghted
with the emigrants nine ships, of which Captain New-
port was to take the command.
3. As Lord Delaware was not ready to embark with re
the fleet, the admiral, Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir edat
George Somers, were empowered to govern the colony Bermud.
until his arrival. Newport took into his own ship
Gates and Somers. Arriving at thi Bermudas, a ter-
rible storm separated the fleet. The admirals vessel
was stranded on the rocky shores of Bermuda; a small
ketch perished, and only seven of the vessels reached
4. Smith now found himself without authority; and
the three persons who alone possessed it, were per- 1609.
haps in the depths of the ocean. His genius, how- Smith
ever, sustained him; and he compelled to submission head.
the disorderly gallants who had just arrived.
5. Pocahontas repeatedly saved the life of Smith,
and preserved this earliest English settlement from de-
struction. In the various fortunes of the colony, she Native
was its unchanging friend, often coming with her at- kindness.
tendants to bring baskets of provisions in times of
scarcity, and sometimes givingnotice of hostile designs.
1. What did they obtain ? What was the character of the in-
strument obtained? -2. What was the number, and what was
the description of the persons sent out ? What office had Lord
Delaware? What Capt. Newport? I- 3. What was the fate of
Newport's ship? What persons had he on board ? -4. As
neither the governor, or his substitutes were there, what was the
position and conduct of Smith ? -5. What is said of Poca.
" THE STARVING TIME.
'T. 1. 6. At length, an accidental explosion of gunpowder
PD. 1. so injured Smith, that no medical skill there, could
ca. iu properly manage his case; and delegating his au-
Smith thority to George Percy, he returned to England.-
l..ies After his departure, all subordination and industry
Virginia. ceased among the colonists.
7. The Indians, no longer afraid, harassed them,
and withheld their customary supplies. Their stores
were soon exhausted. The domestic animals were
oreat devoured; and, in two instances, the act was perpe-
.,*di, treated of feeding on human flesh. Smith left four hun-
treu. dred and ninety persons. In six months, anarchy and
vice had reduced the number to sixty; and those so
feeble and forlorn, that in ten days more they must all
8. In the meantime, Sir Thomas Gates and his com-
panions, who had been wrecked on the rocks of Ber-
muda, had found there the means to construct a vessel;
and now approaching Jamestown, they anticipated a
happy meeting with their friends. But, instead of this,
but few remained, and they wasted to skeletons. Gates
Depart- was obliged to yield to the universal cry, desert the
are of the settlement, and re-embark with the whole colony. They
colony. departed in the morning, and falling down the stream
with the tide, they described, at evening, near the river's
mouth, three ships. Lord Delaware, their paternal
i10J governor had arrived with supplies; and their hearts
its re- were cheered with the consoling thought that God had
turn. delivered them. And then the residue returned, a
chastened, and a better people.
9. The colony again became flourishing; but in
1611. March, 1611, the governor's health declined, and he
MaSy10 was obliged to leave the country. On the departure
mas Dale of Lord Delaware, Percy was again at the head of af-
riu.. fairs, until the arrival of Sir Thomas Dale, in May.
Although good order and industry now prevailed, yet
G. What now happened to Smith ? What was the conduct of
the colonists? -7. What consequences ensued ?-8. Relate
the circumstances of Sir Thomas Gates arrival ? What was he
obliged to do? Where were the people, and what their feelings
on Lord Delaware's arrival? -9. How long did Lord Delaware
remain in the country I
A BAD MAN MAKES A BAD GOVERNOR.
the state of the colony was not flourishing, and Dale PrT.I.
immediately wrote to England for aid. In less than PD. 1.
four months, Sir Thomas Gates arrived, with six ships ca. IT.
and three hundred emigrants.
10. Pocahontas, after the departure of Capt. Smith, 1613
received Christian baptism under the name of Rebecca; Baptism
and then married John Rolfe, a young Englishman and
of the colony. She went with her husband to Eng- mar-o
land, where special attention was paid her by the king Poca.
and queen, at the instigation of Smith. She had been hontas
told that he was dead; and when he came to see her
she turned away, and for a time could not, or would
not speak. He kindly soothed her, and at length she
addressed him as her father, and recalled the scenes of
their early acquaintance. Having given birth to a son, dath.
she was about to return, when she sickened and died,
at the age of twenty-two. Her son survived and reared
an offspring, which is perpetuated in some of the best
families in Virginia.
1. IN 1617, Captain Argall was made acting gover-
nor of Virginia. Lord Delaware having attempted
to reach the settlement, died on the passage. Argall 1617.
governed with so much rigor, as to excite universal A^rg0l
discontent. Not only did he play the tyrant over the talt.
colonists, but he cheated the company. The rumor
of his oppression made emigration unpopular. By the
influence of the good Sir Edwin Sandys, the benevo-
lent Yeardly was sent over to take his place.
9. On what occasion did their numbers receive an accession f
10. With whom did Pocahontas go to England I What took
olace there ? Whom did she meet and how I Has she left de.
CHAPTER IV.-1. What is here said of Argall t What effect
nad the report of his bad conduct ? Who was sent as governor I
46 FIRST RESPECT PAID TO THE PEOPLE.
P'T. I. 2. Governor Yeardly called the first general assem-
PrT). i. bly which was held in Virginia, consisting of repre-
ci. iv. sentatives, chosen from among the people, who were
to act conjointly with the governor and council ap-
Th first pointed by the company, in all matters of importance.
general The colonists, who, till then, had been nothing more
uIt.rbly. tlhi the servants of the company, were thus raised to
the distinction and privileges of freemen.
3. In this assembly, which met at Jamestown, eleven
boroughs were each represented by two burgesses.
They For this cheering dawn of civil liberty, the colonists
Jamnes- expressed to the company "the greatest possible
town. thanks," and forthwith "fell to building houses and
4. In order to attach the colonists more entirely to
their new settlements, there was, about this time, sent
Young out, by the advice of Sandys, a considerable number
wn as of young women of humble birth, but of u'nexcep-
wives. tionable character, as wives for the young planters.
The price paid for the passage of each was at first one
hundred, and afterwards, one hundred and fifty pounds
of tobacco. To fail of discharging debts so incurred,
was esteemed particularly dishonorable.
5. About this time were introduced also into the
Convcts colony, by order of King James, many idle and disso-
sent to lute persons, then in custody for their offences. They
ny. were dispersed throughout the colony, and employed
6. A Dutch ship from Africa arriving at Jamestown,
slavery a part of her cargo of negroes was purchased by the
corn- colony. This was the commencement of negro slavery
mences. in the United States.
Hudson 7. In 1609, occurred the discovery of the Hudson
River river, which has proved the finest for navigation of any
ed in republican America. Henry Hudson, the discoverer,
2. What important privilege did the people obtain ? Of whom
did the first assembly consist ? 3. Where did they meet ?-
What did they express, and what do ?-4. What was done to
attach them to their new homes? What price was paid ?-5
What unwholesome settlers were introduced? -6. When dia
slavery commence I--7. Who discovered the great river of New
NEW ENGLAND EXPLORED.
was an Englishmen by birth, but was in the service of P'T. .
the Dutch East India Company. The next year, the PD. I.
Dutch sent ships to this river, to open a trade with the cH. ir.
natives; but the Court of England disowned their
claim to the country. The Dutch, however, followed
up their good fortune, and soon erected Forts Orange
and Manhattan, near the sites of Albany and New
8. In 1608, Champlain, under De Monts, conducted 160.
a colony to America, and founded Quebec. Wishing Cham-
to secure the friendship of the adjacent natives, lie plain
consented, the next year, to accompany them on an Quebec.
expedition against the Iroquois, with whom they were
at war. They entered upon the lake which now bears, 1609
in honor of its discoverer, the name of Champlain, Dicov-
and traversed it until they approached its junction Lar
with Lake St. Sacrament, now Lake George. Here, in Chan-
the vicinity of Ticonderoga, a bloody engagement P'n'
took place, in which Champlain and his allies were
9. Captain Smith, after his return from Virginia, ex-
plored the north-eastern coast of the United States
with a trading squadron of two ships. Smith sailed in
the largest, and the other was cofnmanded by Captain smith in
Hunt; before mentioned as having kidnapped twenty- N. ng-
seven of the subjects of Massasoit. Smith accurately an
examined the shore, with its bays and rivers, from the
mouth of the Penobscot to Cape Cod, and having cith
drawn a map, he laid it, on his return, before Prince hunt.
Charles, with a hint, that so beautiful and excellent a
country deserved to bear an honorable name. The
Prince listened to his suggestion, and declared that it
should thereafter be called NEW ENGLAND.
10. The French having established themselves with-
in the limits of the northern colony of Virginia, Capt.
Argall was sent from Jamestown to dispossess them.
7. What was done by the Dutch? Were the English satis-
fied ? What important cities were begun -8. Relate what
was done by Champlain at the North ? -9. In what enterprise
was Captain Smith now engaged ? With whom ? What was
done on Smith's return I
STIHE DUTCH UNDER KING JAMES.
P'T. I. He destroyed Port Royal, and all the French settle-
P'D. I ments in Acadia. On his return he visited the Dutch
cn. zv. at Manhattan, and demanded possession of the country
Argall in the name of the British sovereign. The Dutch
subdues traders made no scruple to acknowledge the supremacy
French of King James, and, under him, that of the governor
Drh. of Virginia.
10. Relate Captain Argall's expedition and its results?
EXERCISES ON THE CHRONOORAPHER.
What event marks the beginning of this period ? What
is its date ? Point it out on the chronographer. Sir Wal-
ter Raleigh obtained a transfer of Gilbert's patent in 1583,
and sent two vessels to the south under Amidas and Barlow.
Queen Elizabeth named the country which they discovered,
Virginia. Point out the place of this date.
Raleigh sent out a squadron of seven ships under Sir
Richard Grenville, in 1585. Point out this date on the chro-
nographer. Both these attempts to colonize the country
were unsuccessful, and Raleigh again sent out a colony in
1587, under Captain White. Show the place of this date.
Gosnold discovered Cape Cod in 1602. What is the place
of this date ? De Monts discovered the bay of Fundy and
founded Port Royal in 1604. Point out this date. The
London and Plymouth Companies were established by James
I., in 1606. Point out the place of this year. Chesapeake
Bay was discovered by Captain Christopher Newport, and
Jamestown founded in 1607.
Captain Smith was taken prisoner by the Indians and res.
cued by Pocahontas the same year. Point out its place on
the chronographer. The London Company obtained a new
charter from James I. in 1608, and Lord Delaware was
appointed governor. Show the place of this year.
Governor Yeardley called the first General Assembly, in
Virginia, in 1619. What is the place of this date? 1Henry
Hudson discovered the Hudson river in 1609. Champlain
under De Monts, discovered Lake Champlain in the same
year. Point out the place of the year. In 1614, Captain
Smith explored the northeastern coast of the United States
which Prince Charles named New England. Point out the
place of the date. At what epoch does this period termi
nate ? What is its date ? Point out its place on the -hrq-
EXERCISES ON THE CHRONOGRAPHER. 49
The teacher can, if he chooses, change the order of the PT. I.
questions and ask, When did Raleigh send out ?" &c.p,
Then say to the pupil, Locate the year." But the author
would not recommend that the pupil's memory should be
severely taxed to remember dates.
MAP N? 3. 1620.
ExhJibiting the grant made
by the Kings of Great Bri--
tain and France during
the early part of the 17th
The Cabin of the May Flower.
The Cabin of the May Flower.
THE LANDING 1620 OF THE PILGRIMS,
THE COMMENCEMENT OF w1643S BY THE UNION OF THE
TILE CONFEDERACY NEW ENGLAND COLONIES.
Departure of the Pilgrims from England, and their sojourn in
1. IN 1592, a law was passed in England, requiring all PrT. i.
persons to attend the established worship, under pen- PD. I.
alty of banishment, and if they returned, of death. ca. i.
Among those who could not conscientiously comply 1,92.
with these exactions, were JOHN ROBINSON and his Robinson
congregation, who lived in the north of England. andhis
They belonged to that sect of the Puritans, or dissent- people.
ers from the church of England, called Separatists.
2. To enjoy their religion, the pastor, and his whole
flock, determined to exile themselves to Holland. But
Ci AITER I.-1. Who were John Robinson and his congrega.
tion ? 2. What was their object in seeking to change their
THE PILGRIM MOTHERS.
P'T.I. this was a difficult undertaking. Once they embarked
,D. II. with their families and goods at Boston, in Lincoln-
cn. i. shire. But the treacherous captain had plotted with
1607. English officers, who came on board the vessel, took
Attempt their effects, searched the persons of the whole com-
.ooIto pany for money, and then, in presence of a gazing
o multitude, led them on shore, and to prison. They
were soon released, except seven of the principal men,
who were detained and brought to trial, but at length
3. Again they bargained with a Dutch ship-master
at Hull, who was to take them in from a common, hard
by. At the time appointed, the women and children
sailed to the place of rendezvous in a small bark, and
160S. the men came by land. The bark had grounded; but
attempt. the Dutch captain sent his boat and took the men from
the strand. But, in the meantime, the authorities of
Hull had notice; and the Dutch commander, at the sight
of a large armed company, having a fair wind, with oaths,
hoisted anchor, and sailed away; although the pilgrims
even wept, thus to leave their wives and children.
4. Behold now these desolate women, the mothers
of a future nation, their husbands forcibly carried off
to sea, while on land an armed multitude are approach-
fitre ing They are taken, and dragged from one magistrate
women. to another, while their children, cold and hungry, and
affrighted, are weeping and clinging around them. But
their piteous condition and Christian demeanor soft-
ened, at length, the hearts of their persecutors, and
even gained friends to their cause.
5. The men, in the meantime, encountered one of
Storm at the most terrific sea storms ever known, continuing
sea fourteen days, during seven of which, they saw neither
sun, moon, or stars.*
At length they all arrived in Holland. They settled
at first in Amsterdam. They did not, however, find
For the use of or after either, which euphony here requires, we have
the authority of Noah Webster, and the usage of the best English writers.
2. What happened on their first attempt ?-3. What on their
second ?-4. What trouble did the women meet with ?-5. What
the men ? When in Holland, where did they first settle?
PECULIARITIES OF THE PILGRIMS.
cause to be satisfied, and they removed to Leyden. P'T.I.
Here, by hard labor and frugal honesty, they lived pD. I.
highly respected; but after a few years they experi- ca.i.
enced evils, which made them think of another removal. Leydes.
6. Not only were their own toils constant and se-
vere, but they were obliged to employ their children,
so that they were necessarily deprived of education, Reason
And the health of the young, often fell a sacrifice to for re-
the length of time and confined positions, in which moval.
they labored. Some died, and some became deformed.
Their morals also were likely to suffer from the ha-
bitual profanation of the sabbath, witnessed around
7. The Pilgrims had heard of America; and in its
wilderness, they believed that they might serve God
unmolested, and found a church, where not only the
oppressed in England, but unborn generations, might
enjoy a pure worship. The Dutch wished them to gntofs
colonize under their government. But they still loved gland.
their country; and they sent agents to England, to pro-
cure, by the influence of Sir Edwin Sandys, a patent
under the Virginia Company.
8. For the encouragement of this company, dis-
heartened by the failures at Chesapeake Bay, Robinson,
and Brewster, the ruling elder of his church, wrote to
Sir Edwin, showing, in five particulars, the difference Letter to
of their motives, their circumstances, and characters, Sir E.
from those of other adventurers. First, "We verily Sandys.
believe the Lord is with us, to whose service we have
given ourselves, and that he will graciously prosper
our endeavors, according to the simplicity of our
hearts therein. Second, We are all well weaned from the
delicate milk of our mother country, and inured to a
strange and hard land, wherein we have learned pa-
tience. The Pil-
9. Third, our people are as industrious and frugal as pecuis a
any in the world. Fourth, We are knit together in a people.
5. Where remove ? In what estimation were they held ? -
G. What reasons had they for another removal ? -7. What for
thinking of America ? What did the Dutch wish ? What moved
the Pilgrims to send agents to England ? 8. Who wrote a let-
ter ? fo whom ? To show what ? Mention the first particular ?
The second 9. The third ? fourth I
THE PARTING AT DELFT-HAVEN.
P'T. I. sacred bond of the Lord, whereof we make great <. m-
P'D. In. science, holding ourselves tied to all care of each other's
ca. i. good. Fifth, It is not with us as with other men, whom
small discontentments can discourage, and cause to wish
themselves at home again. We have nothing to hope
for from England or Holland, and our lives are draw-
ing towards their period."
10. By the aid of Sandys, the petitioners obtained
the patent. But they needed money. To provide
Contract this, their agents formed a stock company, jointly, with
with some men of business in London, of whom Mr. Thomas
London Weston was the principal; they to furnish the capital,
chants. the emigrants to pledge their labor for seven years, at
ten pounds per man; and the profits of the enterprise,
all houses, lands, gardens, and fields, to be divided at
the end of that time among the stockholders, accord-
ing to their respective shares.
11. They then prepared two small vessels, the May-
ug. Flower and the Speedwell; but these would hold only
1620.a part of the company, and it was decided that the
Prepara- youngest and most active should go, and the older,
tion. among whom was the pastor, should remain. If they
were successful, they were to send for those behind;
if unsuccessful, to return, though poor, to them.
12. Previous to their separation, this memorable
church worshipped together for the last time, on an
appointed day, when they humbled themselves by fast-
ing, and "sought of the Lord a right way for them-
selves and their children." When they must no longer
Parting tarry, their brethren accompanied them from Leyden
at Drft- to the shore at Delft-Haven. Here the venerable pas-
tor knelt with his flock upon the ground; and the
wanderers, while tears flowed down their cheeks,
heard for the last time, his beloved voice in exhorta-
tion, and in prayer for them. "But they knew they
were PILGRIMs, and lifted up their eyes to heaven,
their dearest country, and quieted their spirits."
9. The fifth. 10. What did they obtain ? What did they
then need ? HIow contrive to procure it ? 11. What did the
agents then prepare ? Could all go ? Which part was to go I
On what condition did the others remain ? 12. Give an ac
count of their parting ?
THE LEADING MEN
Progress of the Pilgrims from Holland to America.
1. From Delft-Haven, the Pilgrims sailed to South. P'T. .
ampton, in England. Among the leaders of the party
was ELDER BREWSTER, who at this time was fifty-six, CH. n.
but sound in body, as in spirit. JOHN CARVER was Leading
near his age, Deloved and trusted, as he was good and men.
wise. WILLIAM BRADFORD was strong, bold, and en-
during; but withal, a meek and prudent Christian.
Next these in honor, and superior in native endow-
ments, was EDWARD WINSLOW. He was at this time
twenty-six ; Bradford was thirty-two. MILES STAND-
ISii had been in the English army, and was a brave
and resolute officer.
2. After remaining in Southampton a fortnight, the
party put to sea. But misfortunes befalling, they re- sept.6,
turned, left the Speedwell, and finally, to the number prture.
of one hundred, they set sail from Plymouth, in the
solitary May-Flower. On the 6th of September, they
took their last, sad look, of their native shore. After
a stormy and perilous passage, they made land, on the
9th of November, at Cape Cod.
3. The mouth of the Hudson had been selected as
the place of their settlement, and they accordingly Nov.9.
steered southerly; but soon falling in with dangerous at cape
breakers, and all, especially the women, being impa- cod.
tient to leave the ship, they determined to return and
settle on or near the Cape. The next day they turned
the point of that singular projection, and entered the
harbor, now called Provincetown.
4. They fell on their knees to thank the kind Power
who had preserved them amidst so many dangers; and
CHAPTER II.-1. From Holland where did the Pilgrims next
go? Name their leading men. What is said of the first named?
The second? The third? The fourth ? The fifth ?-2. What
happened when they first put out to sea? From what place did
they last depart ? In what vessel ? How many persons ? What
was the length and character of the passage ? What the first
land made ?-3. On what place had they intended to settle
Why did they change their minds?-4. What was their first act
on arriving I
56 OBEDIENCE ESSENTIAL TO THE COMPACT.
P'T.I. then "they did," says.Cotton Mather, "as the light of
rD. Il. nature itself directed them, immediately, in the harbor,
CH. n. sign an instrument, as the foundation of their future
16o2. and needful government;" solemnly combining them-
N",v, I selves into a civil body politic, to enact all such ordi-
si-f.ed nances, and frame all such constitutions and offices, as,
n the from time to time, should be thought most meet and
convenient for the general good; all which they bound
themselves to obey.
5. This simple, but august compact, was the first
of a series, by which the fetters of a vast system of
political oppression have been broken. Upon some
parts of the old continent that system still remains;
building upon the fiction, that sovereigns own the
imprt- world and its inhabitants, having derived all from God;
ant tra s- and that the people are to have only such a measure
acton. of personal freedom, and such possessions, as kings
may choose to bestow. Here was assumed for the
first time the grand principle of a voluntary confede-
racy of independent men; instituting government, for
the good, not of the governors, but of the governed.
6. There were the same number of persons on board
100ofthe the May-Flower as had left England; but one, a ser-
yilgrims. vant, had died; and one, a male child, Peregrine White,
was born on the passage. Carver was immediately
chosen governor, and Standish, captain.
7. No comfortable home, or smiling friends, await-
ed the Pilgrims. They, who went on shore, wanted
through the cold surf, to a homeless desert. But a
Nov. 11. place to settle in must be found, and no time was to bo
They go lost. The shallop unfortunately needed repairs, and
t11 he01 in the meantime a party set out to make discoveries by
n.e land. They found "a little corn, and many graves ;
which and in a second excursion they encountered the chill-
,they ing blasts of a November snow storm, which laid in
o,;ltact. some, the foundation of mortal disease. The country
was wooded, and tolerably stocked with game.
4. What their next step ? For what did they combine into
one body ? To what did they bind themselves ? 5. What may
be said of this compact ? Upon what action are some govern.
ments founded ? What was here assumed ? 6. What number
of persons arrived ? What officers werh chor-on ? -7-. What
can you say of their first arrival ? What had the; to do I What
excursions did they make ?
THE ROCK OF PLYMOUTH.
8. When the shallop was finished, Carver, Bradford P'T. .
and Winslow, with a party of eighteen, manned the PD..m.
feeble bark, and set forth. Steering along the western ca. ,.
shore of Cape Cod, they made, in three days, the inner e120.
circuit of the bay. It was," says one of the number, Dec. 6,
"very cold; for the water froze our clothes, and made "ta al
them many times like coats of- iron." They landed n the
occasionally to explore; and at night, inclosed with s p.
only a slight barricade of boughs, they stretched them-
selves upon the hard ground.
9. On the second morning, as their devotions closed,
they received a shower of Indian arrows; when, sally-
ing out, they discharged their guns, and the savages Dec. 8.
fled. Again they offered prayers with thanksgiving; Aby the
and proceeding on their way, their shallop was nearly Nauset.
wrecked by a wintry storm of terrible violence. After day,
unspeakable dangers, they sheltered themselves under Deto10
the lee of a small island, where, amidst darkness and (larke's
rain, they landed, and with difficulty, made a fire. In Is td,
the morning,they found themselves at the entrance of within
a harbor. The next day was the Sabbath. They rest- harbor.
ed and kept it holy, though all that was dear to them "un. .
depended on their promptness.
10. The next day, the pilgrims landed on the rock
of Plymouth. Finding the harbor good, springs abun-
dant, and the land promising for tillage, they decided dny. .
to settle here, and named the place from that which Pilgri
they last left in England. In a few days they brought Ply-
the May-Flower to the harbor; and on the 25th of 11,u
December they began building, having first divided the
whole company into nineteen families, and assigned
them contiguous lots, of size according to that of the
family, about eight feet front, and fifty deep, to each
person. Each man was to build his own house. Be-
sides this, the company were to make a building of
twenty feet square, as a common receptacle. This was
8. What party set sail in the shallop I What course did they
take t What sufferings encounter ? -9. What happened on
the second morning? Recollect Capt. Hunt, and say if these
Indians had any cause to dislike the English ? Relate what fur-
ther happened, and where the Pilgrims landed ? How did the
spend the Sabbath? 10. On what day and year did the Pi.
grims land on the rock of Plymouth At what time commence
building I How proceed with it How divide the land i
VISIT FROM THE INDIANS.
P'T. i. soonest completed, but was unfortunately destroyed by
P'D. II. fire.
Cn. im. 11. Their huts went up but slowly; for though their
hearts were strong, yet their hands had grown feeble,
through fatigue, hardship, and scanty fare. Many
were wasting with consumption. Daily some yield-
ed to sickness, and daily some sunk to the grave.
Before spring, half of their number, amongwhom were
,sur, the governor and his wife, lay buried on the shore.
ut re Yet they never repined, or repented of the step they
had taken; and when, on the 5th of April, the May-
Flower left them, not one, so much as spoke of return-
April 5 ing to England. They rather confessed the continual
6 21. mercies of a wonder-working Providence,"' that had
carried them through so many dangers, and was ma-
king them, the honored instruments, of so great a work.
NOTE.-The dates in this part of History are of course given according
to Old Style, since New Style was not adopted by the English government
until 132 years after this period. For a clear explanation of this subject,
see the word Style, in Webster's large dictionary.
The Savages-Massasoit's Alliance-Winslow's Visit to the
1. THE Pilgrims had as yet seen but few of the natives,
and those hostile, when Samoset, an Indian, who had
learned a little English at Penobscot, boldly entered
March their village, with a cheerful "Welcome Englishmen."
first He soon came again, with four others, among whom
visit. was Tisquantum, who had spread favorable reports of
the English among his countrymen, .nd was afterwards
of great service as an interpreter.
2. They gave notice that Massasoit, the sachem of
the Pokanokets, was hard by. He appeared on a hill,
The re- with a body of attendants, armed, and painted with
caption gaudy colors. The chief desired that some one should
11. What was their condition during this first winter ? Did
they repine and complain ?
CHAPTER III.-I. Who was Samoset? Tisquantum -2.
What notice did they give ? Who was Massasoit? What did
he do. and what desire?
WINSLOW'S VISITS TO MASSASOIT.
be sent to conferwith him. Edward Winslow, famed for P'T.I.
the sweetness of his disposition and behavior, as well pD. lI.
as for his talents, courage, and efficiency, was wisely oCH. .
chosen. Captain Standish found means to make a
martial show, with drums and trumpets; which gave
the savages wonderful delight.
3. The sachem, on coming into the village, was so
well pleased with the attentions paid him, that he ac- Alliance
knowledge the authority of the king of England, and wit,
entered into an alliance, offensive and defensive, with soit
the colonists, which remained inviolate for more than
4. In July, Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins,
went on an embassy to Massasoit, at Montaup. The
sachem was much pleased, with the present of a red 1621j
coat, from Governor Bradford, who had succeeded Embassy
Carver. The envoys obtained from him an engage-
ment, tlat the furs of the Pokanokets should be sold
to the colony.
6. Massasoit feared the Narragansetts, and was doubt-
less, on that account, desirous of cultivating the friend-
ship of the English. Canonicus, the old hereditary
chieftain of that confederacy, perhaps offended at this gNar
intimacy, or regarding the whites as intruders, medi- threaten.
tated a war against them. This he openly intimated, Jan.
by sending to Governor Bradford, a bunch of arrows,
tied with the skin of a rattlesnake. Bradford stuffed
the skin with powder and ball, and sent it back; and
nothing more was heard, at that time, of war.
6. The next year, news came to Plymouth, that Mas-
sasoit was sick. Winslow taking suitable articles, went
to Montaup. He found the Indians bewailing, and winslow
practising their noisy powows or incantations, around visits the
the sightless chieftain. Affectionately he extended his ckf.
hand and exclaimed, "Art thou Winsnow (He
could not articulate the liquid 1.) "Art thou Win-
snow? But, O, Winsnow! I shall never see thee
2. What was done, and who chosen by the Pilgrims ? 3.
What alliance made ? 4. What visit was afterwards made ?
What trade secured ? 5. What Indians was Massasoit afraid
of? How did their chief threaten the Pilgrims? How did
Governor Bradford reply ?- -6. Give an account of Winslow's
second visit to Massasoit.
60 PRIVATE PROPERTY AND PROSPERITY.
P'T.1. more." Winslow administered cordials, and he re-
p'V.m covered. He then revealed a conspiracy which the
OH. m. Indians had formed and requested him to join. "But
now," said he, "I know that the English love me."
7. Agreeably to Massasoit's advice, that a bold stroke
should be struck, and the heads of the plot taken off,
CAurn the intrepid Standish, with a party of only eight, went
into the hostile country, attacked a house where the
principal conspirators had met, and put them to death.
8. In justice to the Indians, it should be stated,
that they were provoked to this conspiracy, by Mas-
ter Weston's men." These were a colony of sixty
Englishmen, sent over in June, 1622, by Thomas
Weston. Though hospitably received at Plymouth,
w,,tr they stole the young corn from the stalk, and thus
Me. brought want and distress upon the settlers the en-
suing winter and spring. They then made a short-
lived and pernicious settlement, at Weymouth.
Weston was a London merchant, once the friend of
9. Notwithstanding all the hardships, all the wisdom
1624 and constancy, of the colonists, the partners of the
to concern in London complained of small returns; and
1626. even had the meanness to send a vessel to rival them
in their trade with the Indians. Winslow went to
wi England, and negotiated a purchase for himself and
low's .e- seven of his associates in the colony, by which the
g. property was vested in them; and they sold out to the
colony at large, for the consideration of a monopoly
of the trade with the Indians for six years.
10. New Plymouth now began to flourish. For
the land being divided, each man labored for himself
CGoTrn- and his family. The government was a pure democ-
racy, resembling that now exercised in a town meet-
ing. Each male inhabitant had a vote; the governor
T. In what respect did the Pilgrims follow the sachem's ad.
vice ? -8. By whom had the natives been provoked? -9. On
what account did Winslow go to England What bargain did
he make ? To whom did the eight first purchasers sell out ?
And tfr what consideration ? 10. Why did New Plymouth
now flourish I What was their government at first I
THE GRAND COUNCIL. 61
11. Numbers of their brethren of the church at PTr.I.
Leyden came over within the first few years to join the p'D. Ill.
settlement. The people of Plymouth gave a thousand on. iv.
pounds to assist them to emigrate. But the good R6- 1625.
binson was not permitted to enter the land of his hopes eath of
and affections. He died in Leyden, 1625, to the great Ro
grief of the Pilgrims.
Grand Council of Plymouth.-New Hampshire-Massachusetts
1. IN November, 1620, the same month in which
the Pilgrims arrived on the American coast, James I.
issued a charter, or patent, to the duke of Lenox, the
marquisses of Buckingham and Hamilton, the earls of 1620.
Arundel and Warwick, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, and Grand
thirty-four associates; styling them the "Grand Coun- Council.
cil of Plymouth, for planting and governing New sweep.
England, in America." This patent granted them the ing -a
territory between the "fortieth and forty-eighth degrees
of north latitude, and extending throughout the main
land from sea to sea.
2. This territory, which had been previously called
North Virginia, now received the name of New Eng-
land, by royal authority. From this patent were de- North
rived all the subsequent grants, under which, the New V i *i
England colonies were settled. But the persons who New
transacted business for the company, were unacquainted Fogl=a.
with geography, and avaricious. They accordingly
made their grants in an ignorant or dishonest manner;
so that much trouble ensued.
11. Did any of their brethren from Leyden come over ? Did
the good Robinson ?
CHAPTER IV.-1. Of whom did the Grand Council of Ply-
mouth consist ? Of whom receive a charter ? When ? What
was the territory granted them? -2. How was the name
changed ? What was derived from this patent? How was the
business of the company transacted I
62 MORE "t WILDERNESS-WORK."
P'T. I. 3. Sir Ferdinando Gorges had been an officer in the
p,D. I navy of Elizabeth, and a companion of Sir Walter
cH. I. Raleigh. He was ambitious, and perhaps thought
Gorges he should become the duke or prince of some large
and territory. He was the prime mover in getting up
Mo the Grand Couhcil of Plymouth, and was 'made its
President. Similar motives actuated Captain Mason,
and he became its Secretary.
4. Mason procured from the Grand Council the ab-
surd grant of "all the land from the river of Naum-
1621. keag, (Salem,) round Cape Ann, to the mouth of the
March 9, Merrimack, and all the country lying between the two
Patent of 1 0)
Mariana. rivers, and all islands within three miles of the coast."
The district was to be called .Mariana.
5. The next year Gorges and Mason jointly obtain-
ed of the Council another patent of all the lands
1622. between the Merrimack and Kennebec rivers, extend-
charter ing back to the great lakes, and river of Canada."
fand This tract received the name of Lacaonia. Under this
N. H. grant some feeble settlements were made at the mouth
1623* of the Piscataqua, and as far up the river, as the present
ments. town of Dover.
6. The persecution of the Puritans in England con-
Mr. tinued, and Mr. White, a minister of Dorchester, pro-
the pat- jected another colony to America. As early as 1624,
ro of a few persons were established on the site of Salem.
7. Several gentlemen of Dorchester purchased of
the Grand Council in 1628, a patent "of that part of
1621S. New England which lies between three miles north of
rFa t the Merrimack river, and three miles to the south of
for Mass. Charles river, and extending from the Atlantic to the
South Sea." This tract was in part covered by Ma-
8. John Endicot, a rugged puritan, began in Salem,
Tue io- the "wilderness-work for the colony of Massachu-
Sale. setts." Ile brought over his family, and other emi-
grants, to the number of one hundred. Roger Conant
3. Who was Sir F. Gorges ? What person had similar ob
jects ? 4. What patent did Mason obtain ? -5. What patent
did Mason and Gorges obtain jointly ?- 6. Who projected ano.
other colony to America ? Where was a settlement begun 1 -7
What patent was obtained ? 8. Who was the pioneer for the
Bay state ? Where did he begin ? Iow many bring over t
THE BAY COLONY.
and two other persons from New Plymouth, had select- P. i.
ed this spot, then called Naumkeag, for their settle- p,'. m.
ment; and Conant was there, to give, to Endicot and his oc. v.
party, such welcome to the New World, as the desert
forest could afford.
9. The next year, the proprietors in England, ob-
tained of King Charles a charter, confirming the patent
of the Council of Plymouth, and conveying to them
powers of government. They were incorporated by 1629.
the name of the "Governor and Company of Massa- to the
chusetts Bay, in New England." The first general Bay
court of the company was held in England, when they Cm
fixed upon a form of government for the colony, and
appointed Endicot governor.
10. About three hundred persons sailed for America
during this year. A part of them joined Mr. Endicot ChaCes-
at Salem, and the remainder, exploring the coast for a founded.
better station, laid the foundation of Charlestown.
The Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1. A more extensive emigration was now thought
of, than had been before attempted. But an objection The
arose; the colony was to be governed by a council "best"
residing in England. To obviate this hindrance, the sent.
company agreed to form a council of those who should
emigrate, and who might hold their sessions thereafter
ir. the new settlement.
2. On the election, the excellent JOHN WINTHROP
was chosen governor. He had afterwards for his
8. Who was on the spot to receive them ? 9. What did the
proprietors obtain ? Where hold their first court ? Whom make
governor ? 10. How many came over during 1629? Where
did they settle ?
CHAPTER V.--. What objections arose to an extensive emi-
gration ? What was done to obviate it ? 2. Who was chosen
to go over as governor ?
P'T. I. eulogy, a praise beyond that of any other person in
PD. il. the colony. He was," say they, unto us as a mo-
cu.v. their, parent-like distributing his goods, and gladly
1630. bearing our infirmities; yet did he ever maintain the
Fifteen figure and honor of his place, with the spirit of a true
mi.rat gentleman." The company had determined to colo-
nize only their "best." Eight hundred accompanied
Winthrop; and, during the season, seventeen vessels
were employed, bringing over in all, fifteen hundred
3. Winthrop and his friends, found no luxurious
table spread for them in the wilderness; but they freely
gave of their own stores, to the famished and enfeebled
Arrive t sufferers, whom they met. Regarding Salem as suffi-
June. ciently peopled, the newly-arrived, located themselves
without delay, beyond its limits. Their first care,
wherever they went, was to provide for the ministra-
tion of the gospel. Settlements were soon begun, and
churches established at Charlestown, Dorchester, Bos-
ton, Roxbury, Lynn, and Watertown.
4. Unused, as many of these settlers were, to aught
but plenty and ease, the hardships before them, though
1632. borne with a willing mind, were too much for the
Hard- body, especially in the case of women. Many died,
'~d.'- though in the joy of believing. Among these, was the
beloved Arbella Johnson, of the noble house of Lin-
coln. Her husband, Isaac Johnson, the principal of
the emigrants in respect to wealth, felt her loss so se-
verely, that he soon followed her to the grave. lHe
made a liberal bequest to the colony, and died "in
5. Agreeably to the charter which the Company of
1631. Massachusetts Bay had received from the king, the vo-
Af'faif ters agreed that important regulations should be enact-
ent. ed in an assembly of all the freemen. A meeting was
convened at Boston, in October; when Winthrop was
re-elected governor, and Thomas Dudley, who had
2. What his character ? What kind of persons and how many
accompanied him ? 3. What was the conduct of WVinthrop and
his friends ? Where were the first villages and churches ? -4.
What can you say of the hardships endured? Who among
others died ? 5. When was an assembly held in Boston I Who
was chosen to office ?
" THE BEST."
A CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT.
been a faithful steward to the earl of Lincoln, was rT. 1.
chosen deputy-governor. rPD. Im.
6. At the first, the freemen all went to Boston to vote, ca. vi.
every man for himself. The government then was a
simple democracy. But the settlements were soon so ovm-
spread, that some would have to go many miles. They ment
then concluded to choose certain of their number, as is change.
now done in our freeman's meetings, to go to the seat
of government and do their public business for them.
This was changing the government to a representative
democracy. The same change took place in most of
the other colonies.
7. Charles I., the son and successor of James I., was
no less violent in his religious and political despotism; 1635
and emigrants continued to flock to New England. In 3000emi-
the year 1635, not less than three thousand arrived, grate to
among whom, was the younger Henry Vane, afterwards
much known in the history of England.
8. The high manner of Vane, his-profound religious Vane
feeling, and his great knowledge, so wrought in his governor.
favor, that, disregarding his youth, the people rashly 1636.
withdrew their suffrages from the good Winthrop, and
chose him governor, the year after his arrival.
Rhode Island and its first Founder.
1. ROGER WILLIAMS, a puritan minister, had been
driven from England by persecution. When he arrived Feb. 5,
in Massachusetts, lie proclaimed, that the only business 1i31.
of the human legislator is with the actions of man as tolera.
they affect his fellow-man; but as for the thoughts and rot.
6. What kind of government was first in use in the colonies
generally ? To what kind was it changed ? 7. Who succeed-
ed James I., as king of England? Was he less violent in per-
secution? What can you say respecting emigration and emi-
grants ? -- 8. What can you say of Henry Vane ?
CHAPTER VI.-Who was Roger Williams I What now opin.
-ions did he proclaim I
66 JUST PRINCIPLES OF TOLERATION.
P'T I. feelings of his mind, and the acts or omissions of his
pD. I life, as respects religious worship, the only law-gi ver
ca. vi. is God; and the only human tribunal, a man's own
2. The minds of the puritan fathers were troubled
by these new and strange doctrines, which they be
lived would, unless checked, destroy all that they
had suffered so much to establish. Williams, the elo
quent young divine, frank and affectionate, had, how
ever, won the hearts of the people of Salem; and thej
invited him to settle with them as their pastor. Th
1635. general court forbade it. Williams withdrew to Ply
Williams y ,
settled at mouth, where he remained as pastor for two years; an<
Salem. then returned to Salem, where he was again gladly re
ceived by the people.
3. The court punished the town for this offence, by
withholding a tract of land, to which they had a claim.
Williams wrote to the churches, endeavoring to show
the injustice of this proceeding; whereupon the court
alem ordered, that, until ample apology was made for the
disfran- letter, Salem should be disfranchised. Then all, even
chised. his wife, yielded to the clamor against him; but he
declared to the court, before whom he was arraigned,
that lie was ready to be bound, or, if need were, to at-
Wiliams test with his life, his devotion to his principles. The
almshed, court, however, pronounced against him the sentence
4. Winter was approaching, and he obtained per-
mission to remain till spring. The affections of his
people revived, and throngs collected to hear the be-
1636. loved voice, soon to cease from among them. The
authorities became alarmed, and sent a pinnace to con
vey him to England; but he had disappeared.
5. Now a wanderer in the wilderness, he had not,
upon many a stormy night, either 4 food, or fire, ot
company," nor better lodging than the hollow of a
tree. At last, a few followers having joined him, he
2. How did they affect the minds of the Puritan settles!
Relate what happened respecting Williams ? 3. What did the
general court after Salem had twice received Williams ? What
letter did Williams write ? What was the consequence ? 4.
Was the sentence of Williams immediately executed ? S. What
happened now to Williams ?
fixed at Seckonk, since Rehoboth, within the limits of rPT.I.
the colony of Plymouth. Winslow was now governor PD. III
there; and he felt himself obliged to communicate to ca. v.
Williams, that his remaining would breed disturbance He goes
between the two colonies; and he added his advice to to the
tlhat privately conveyed to Williams, by a letter from gansett..
Winthrop, to steer his course to Narragansett Bay."
6. Williams now threw himself upon the mercy of
Canonicus. In a little time he so won upon him, that
he extended his hospitality to him and his suffering
company. He would not, he said, sell his land, but Receives
he freely gave to Williams, whose neighborhood he obl
now coveted, and who was favored by his nephew gi
Miantonomoh, all the neck of land between the Paw-
tucket and Moshasuck rivers," that his people might sit
down in peace and enjoy it forever." Thither they
went; and, with pious thanksgiving, named the goodly
7. By means of this acquaintance with the Narra-
gansetts, Williams learned that a conspiracy was form-
ing to cut off the English, headed by Sassacus, the
powerful chief of the Pequods. The Narragansetts Th
had been strongly moved by the eloquence of Mono- Narr-
notto, associate chief with Sassacus, to join in the I,*t*
plot. They wavered; but Williams, by making a pe- Englih.
rilous journey to their country, persuaded them rather
to unite with the English, against their ancient enemies.
8. Anxious to do good to his brethren, though they
had persecuted him, Williams next wrote to Governor
Winthrop; who, taking the alarm, invited Miantono-
moh to visit him at Boston. The chieftain went, and
there entered into a treaty of peace and alliance with
the English; engaging to them the assistance of the
Narragansetts against the Pequods...Williams founded,
at Providence, the first Baptist Church in America.
5. What advice did he get, and from whom ? 6. To whom
did he apply for shelter ? Could he buy land of the sachem t
Who favored him ? What noble gift did he receive ? -7. What
did Williams learn and what do respecting the Narragansetts 1-
8. What letter did he write ? What church did hli found f
FIRST HOUSE IN CONNECTICUT.
Connecticut and its Founders.
r'T. I 1. THE Dutch and English both claimed to be the
Pr. i original discoverers of Connecticut river; but the former
e. va. lhadl probably the juster claim. The natives along its
The valley were kept in fear by the more warlike Pequods
te d, on the east, and the terrible Mohawks in the west; and
coverers hence they desired the presence of the English, as
2. As early as 1631, Wahquimacut, one of their
sachems, being pressed by the Pequods, went to Bos-
An ini- ton, and afterwards to Plymouth, earnestly requesting
Nation. that an English colony might be sent to his pleasant
Country. Governor Winthrop declined his proposal;
but Edward Winslow, then governor of Plymouth,
favored the project, and visited, and examined the valley.
3. The Plymouth people had been, some time pre-
vious, advised by the Dutch to settle on Connecticut
river; and they now determined to pursue the enter-
prise. They fixed on the site of Windsor, as the place
Dutch fi to erect a trading-house. But the Dutch changed their
at Hart- minds, and were now determined to take the country
or. themselves. They, therefore, erected a small trading
fort, called the house of Good Hope, on a point of land
in Sukeag, since Hartford, at the junction of the Little
river with the Connecticut.
4. The materials for the Plymouth trading-house
October, being put on board a vessel, Captain Holmes, who
1633. commanded, soon appeared, sailing up the river. When
nouth opposite to the Dutch fort he was commanded to stop,
Phleat or he would be fired upon; but he resolutely kept his
sor. course; and the Windsor house, the first in Connecti-
cut, was erected and fortified before winter.
CHAPTER VII.-1. What can you say of the discovery o!
Connecticut Rircer ? What of the natives of its valley 2.
What request was made by one of the sachems ? How was it
received? -3. What did the Dutch advise, and that do
Where did the Plymouth people locate ?1- 4. How proceed in
respect to building ? What can be sail of the house they built f
FIRST SETTLERS OF CONNECTICUT.
6. The Grand Council first patented Connecticut to P'T. I.
the earl of Warwick. That nobleman transferred his rPD. I.
patent to Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brooke, with ca vH .
others. John Winthrop, son of the worthy gover- Patet of
nor of Massachusetts, having been sent to England on conu.
business for that colony, took an agency for the two The
Lords patentees, and was directed by them to build a younger
fort at the mouth of the Connecticut river. throp.
6. The patent granted all that part of New England
which extends "from Narragansett river one hundred
and twenty miles on a straight line, near the shore, to- 1631.
wards the south-west, as the coast lies toward Virginia, Extent of
and within that breadth, from the Atlantic ocean to the the ant
South Sea." These bounds show how little was known
by the Grand Council of the geography of the country.
7. Before Mr. Winthrop's commission was known, 1633,
THOMAS HOOKER and his church had determined to 1635.
leave Newtgwn, since called Cambridge, and plant
themselves upon Connecticut river, in accordance with Hooker
the invitation given by the sachem. They obtained town
for that object, a reluctant permission from the general
court of Massachusetts.
8. Other parties around the Bay were also in. mo-
tion. In August, a few pioneers, from Dorchester se- wnd0
elected a place at Windsor, near the Plymouth trading- Weth-
house; and others, from Watertown, fixed on Pyquag, erfe
9. Having made such preparations as they were able,
a party, intending to be in advance of Hooker, set out Hard-
in October, with their families, amounting in all to enid.
sixty persons, men, women, and children. To pro-
ceed rapidly across a trackless wilderness, through
swamps and over mountains, was impossible; and when
the tedious journey was accomplished, winter was at '
hand; and it set in earlier than usual, and was uncom-
5 Whc gave the patent of Connecticut ? Who was the first
patentee ? To whom did he transfer ? What agent did they ap-
point? What directions give ? -0. What territory did the
patent include ? -7. Where were Thomas Hooker and his
church first settled ? Where did they determine to go I What
right had they to go there ? -8. W haher parties had similar
designs? -9. Give an account of the party who went in ad-
vance of Hooker t
NOBILITY OF SOUL.
P'T. I. 10. After enduring such hardships as human nature
pD. II. shudders to contemplate, most of the party, to save
cin. vi. life, got on board a vessel, and at length reached Mas-
Return sachusetts. A few remained, who lived on malt and
to the acorns. These resolute puritans were not, however,
ay. discouraged, but most of those,who left the settlement
in the winter, returned in the spring with Hooker and
11. Winthrop, in the meantime, commenced building
Fort at the projected fort. A few days afterwards, a Dutch
brook. vessel, which was sent from New Netherlands, ap-
peared off the harbor to take possession of its en-
and trance. The English having by this time mounted two
pulse. pieces of cannon, prevented their landing. They pro-
ceeded to complete the fort, which was named after
the two Lords patentees, Say-Brook.
12. The Pilgrims, in the exercise of their wonted
virtues, now sold their claim to lands in Windsor, to
the people of Dorchester; and the patentees were con-
tent, that the Massachusetts settlement should proceed.
13. Thomas Hooker is regarded as the principal
founder of Connecticut. In him a natural grandeur
of iind" was cultivated by education, and chastened
by religion and adversity. He was commanding and
dignified in his ministerial office; yet,in private life he
looker was generous, compassionate, and tender. So attract-
in Eng- ive was his pulpit eloquence, that in England he drew
land. crowds, often from great distances, of noble, as well
as plebeian hearers.
14. His congregation in England esteemed his min-
istry as so great a blessing, that, when persecution
1633. drove him from his native land, they desired still to be
uee,-hi, with him, although in these "ends of the earth." A
t.n-. portion of his people had preceded him, and were al-
ready settled at Newtown, since Cambridge. As he
landed, they met him on the shore. With tears of
10. Were they discouraged? -11. What happened at the
mouth of Connecticut river ? 12. What peaceable compromise
was made among the various settlers ? 13. Describe the prin-
cipal founder of Connecticut. --14. What showed the affection
ol his people in England Did the church come to America
WISDOM, UNION, AND LABOR.
affection he exclaimed, "Now I live if ye stand P'T. 1.
fast in the Lord!" P'D. m.
15. Associated with Hooker, both in council and c1i. vi.
action, was JoiHN HAYNES, a gentleman of excellent
endowments, of unaffected meekness, and possessed A good
of a very considerable estate. So desirous were the man
people of Massachusetts to detain him, that they made
him their governor; but he would not separate himself
fromn his friend and pastor.
16. Warned by the calamities of the preceding au-
ttunn, Hooker would not delay, although his wife was
so ill, as to be carried on a litter. The company de- June,
parted from Newtown early in June, driving their 1636
flocks and herds. Many of them were accustomed to journey
affluence; but now, they all,-men, women and little hcri-
children,-travelled on foot, through thickets, across derne
streams and over mountains,-lodging at night upon the
unsheltered ground. But they put their cheerful trust
in God; and we doubt not the ancient forest was, night
and morning, made vocal with His praise.
17. At length they reached their destined location,
which they named Hartford. The excellent Haynes
was chosen chief magistrate; and the soil was pur- Good
chased of the natives. The succeeding summer was conduct
one of the utmost exertion. Houses were to be built, and
lands cleared, food provided for the coming winter,
roads made, the cunning and terrible savage to be
guarded against, and, chiefly, a church and state to be
organized. All was to be done,-and all was accom-
plished, by wisdom, union, and labor.
15. Give an account of John Haynes. 16. Describe the
journey of Hooker and his people 17. Where was their
location ? Who was made governor ? How did they get the right
of soil ? What had they to do I By what means did they ac-
complish their undertakings ?
A RIGHTEOUS WAR.
The Pequod War.
rPT. i. 1. THE Pequods were endeavoring to unite the In-
rID.L 1dian tribes in a plot to exterminate the English, espe-
ca. vm. cially those of the colony, named from its river, CON-
NECTICUT. They had sought, as we have seen, the
alliance of their former enemies, the Narragansetts,
but through the influence of Roger Williams, Mian.
tonomoh, the war-chief of that nation, remained true to
1636 the whites. Uncas, the Mohegan sagamore, formerly
Pequods a vassal, and of the same family with Sassacus, was
hostile. now his inveterate foe.
2. The Pequods murdered Captain John Oldham,
near Block Island. They made other attacks, and car-
ried away some prisoners. They cut off stragglers
from Saybrook, and had become so bold as to assault
the fort, and use impudent and threatening language.
Every where they were, or seemed to be, lurking, with
July, purposes of murder. The whole settlement, thus con-
of the stantly excited, was in the feverish condition of intense
cttUers. and continual fear. The people neither ate, slept, or
labored,-or even worshipped God in the sanctuary,
without arms and ammunition at hand.
3. A general court was called on the last of May,
at Hartford. Thirty persons had already been killed,
and the evidence was conclusive that the savages de-
It63'. signed a general massacre. The court, therefore,
The righteously declared war.
dourt 4. The quota of troops from the three towns now
war. settled, shows the rapid progress of the settlement.
Hartford was to furnish ninety men, Windsor forty-
two, and Wethersfield eighteen, making one hundred
and fifty. John Mason was chosen captain. The
CHAPTER VIII.-1 & 2. What causes had the Pequod Indi.
ans given to the Connecticut people, to declare war against them ?
What w.s the condition of the people ? 3. When and where
did the general court meet? What did they do -4. What
troops were to be raised, and how apportioned
THE I'EQUOD NATION ANNIHILATED.
troops embarked at Hartford; sailed down the river and P'T. I.
along the coast to Narrangansett Bay. Miantonomoh ,D. II.
furnished them two hundred warriors, Uncas sixty. cn.vH:.
There were actually embodied of the English, only Route of
seventy-seven, of whom twenty, commanded by Cap- trP
tain Underhill, were from Massachusetts. Guided by Mason.
a Pequod deserter, they reached Mystic, one of the
two forts of Sassacus, at dawn of day.
5. Their Indian allies showed signs of fear, and
Mason arranging them at a distance around the fort,
advanced with his own little army. If they fell, there
was no second force to defend their state, their wives
and helpless children. As they approach, a dog barks,
and an Indian sentinel cries out, "Owannox, Owan- .ay ,
nox!" the English, the English! They leap within Fort at
the fort. The Indians fight desperately, and victory detoy-
is doubtful. Mason then seizes and throws a flaming ed*
brand, shouting, we must burn them." The light
materials of their wigwams were instantly in a blaze.
Hemmed in as the Indians now were, escape was im-
possible; and six hundred,-all who werewithin the
fort, of every sex and age, in one hour perished.
6. The subjects of Sassacus now reproached him
as the author of their misfortunes, and to escape de-
struction, he, with his chief captains fled to the Mo.
hawks; but he was afterwards slain by a revengeful 1637.
subject. Three hundred of his warriors, having burn- eaitoa
ed his remaining fort, fled along the sea-coast. Ma- Fairfield.
son, aided by fresh troops from Massachusetts, pursued
the fugitive savages; traced them to a swamp in Fair-
field, and there fought and defeated them.
7. Nearly one thousand of the Pequods were de-
stroyed; many fled, and two hundred, beside women Th
and children, remained as captives. Of these, some, P,,euod
we are grieved to relate, were sent to the West Indies exuuct.
and sold into slavery. The remainder were divided be-
tween the Narragansetts and the Mohegans. The two
4. Give a particular account of the armament-their number,
-commander, and route. What assistance was received ? 5.
Describe Mason's arrangements-his approach-and the fate
of the Pequods within the fort?--6. Of those remaining ? -
7. How many were destroyed? What was done with the residue
THE FOUNDERS OF NEW HAVEN.
P'T.I. Sachems, Uncas and Miantonomoh, between whom
P. was mutual hatred, now engaged to live in peace.
on. vII. The lands of the Pequods were regarded as conquered
territory, and the name of the tribe was declared ex-
8. The prowess of the English had thus put the
vst natives in fear, and a long peace ensued. All the
thinks- churches in New England commemorated this deliver-
giving. ance, by keeping a day of common and devout thanks-
9. The war had fallen heavily upon the colony.
Their farming and their finances were deranged; but
order and industry restored them. In 1639, they for-
1639. mally conjoined themselves, to be one state or com-
gover- monwealth, and adopted a constitution. This ordain-
ment. ed two annual general courts, at one of which, to be
held in May, the whole body of freemen should choose
tange- a governor, deputy-governor, six magistrates, and other
ments. necessary officers.
10. THEOPHILUS EATON and JOHN DAVENPORT,
1637. puritans oS much distinction in England, were regard-
Found- ed as the founders of the colony of New Haven.
ers of N.
Haven. These two friends collected their associates, and ar-
rived at Boston, July 26th, 1637. Massachusetts was
desirous of securing such settlers, but they preferred
a separate establishment; and seeking a commercial
Arrival station, they explored the coast, fixed on Quinnipiac,
at Boston and in 1638, they moored their vessels in its harbor.
11. The company had made some little preparation
for the settlement the preceding summer, yet many
sufferings were to be endured. The spring was un-
commonly backward; their planted corn perished re-
peatedly in the ground, and they dreaded the utter
failure of the crop; but at length they were cheered
by warm weather, and surprised by the rapid progress
12. The first Sunday after they arrived, they met
7. With their lands ? What two sachems engaged to live in
peace ? On what occasion was the first New England
thanksgiving ? 9. When did they adopt a constitution ? What
can you say of the court held in May ? 10. Who were the
tiunmders of New Haven ? Describe their first operations ? 11.
What was the weather, and their prospects for a crop ?
THE THEOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE.
and worshipped under a large tree, when Mr. Daven- P'T.1.
port preached to them concerning the temptations of p,. I-
the wilderness. Not long after, the free planters sub- ca. ix
scribed, what, in distinction from a church union, they April 18,
termed a plantation-covenant. 1638.
13. Under this covenant they continued until the
next year, when they assembled in a large barn be-
longing to Mr. Newman, formed themselves into a body 1639.
politic, and established a form of government. The Goet
governor and magistrates were to hold annually a
general court, to regulate the affairs of the colony.
Eaton was chosen governor. They purchased their Mr.
lands from the natives, and gave to the place the name governor
of NEW HAVEN.
Intolerance of the times-R. Island-N. Hampshire-Delaware.
1. ANNE HUTCHINSON, a resident of Boston, at this
time advanced religious opinions, so entirely at vari-
ance with those of the Puritan settlers, that a "great
disturbance" arose in the Bay colony. Gov. Vane con-
sidered that whether her opinions were true or false, The the
she had a right to enjoy them herself, and explain ologial
them to others. Mr. Cotton, the minister of Boston, ait
and the most celebrated of all the clergy of Massa-
chusetts, was also, at first, inclined to defend Mrs.
IHutchinson: but the ministers, generally, regarded her
doctrines, not only as false, but, as dangerous to such
a degree, that, if let alone, they would overthrow
both church and state.
2. In this extremity, a synod of ministers was as-
sembled at Boston. Mr. Davenport had opportunely
12. Where did they worshipon the first Sunday? Where enter
into the plantation.covenant f 13. What political arrangements
did they make the next year ?
CHAPTER IX.-1. What caused a disturbance in the colony t
What was Gov. Vane's view of the case? What that of the
clergy generally ? 2. What assemblage was held at Boston I
76 THE FIRST UNIVERSITY OF THE NEW WORLD.
P'T. I. arrived from London, and Mr. Hooker, desirous to pre-
pD. I1. pare minds for political as well as religious union, re.
cI n. crossed the wilderness from Hartford. Mrs. Hutchin.
Mrs. H. son's opinions were unanimously condemned by the
banished. synod; and herself, and the most determined of her
adherents were banished.
3. The unfortunate woman, excommunicated from
the church, became an outcast from a society, which
1638, had but now followed and flattered her. She went
to first to Rhode Island, to join the settlement, which her
1643. followers had there made. From thence, she removed
Mrs. H. with her family to the state of New York, where she
desdtr met death in its most appalling form; that of an In-
dian midnight massacre.
4. One of the earliest cares of the Puritan fathers,
was to provide the means of instruction for their chil-
dren. At the general court in September, 1630, the
1630. sum of four hundred pounds was voted to commence
Mgins a a college building, at Newtown, now called Cam-
coUlge. bridge. In 1638, Mr. John Harvard, a pious divine
1638. from England, dying at Charlestown, left to the college
Mr. ar. a bequest of nearly eight hundred pounds; and grati-
b'lt. tude perpetuated his name in that of the institution.
All the several colonies cherished the infant seminary,
by contributions; regarding it as a nursery, from which
the church and state, were to be replenished with quali-
5. RHODE ISLAND. The most respectable of the
banished followers of Mrs. Hutchinson went south,
1638. headed by WILLIAM CODDINGTON and JOHN CLARKE
rs of The latter had been persecuted as a baptist. By the
Mrs. H. influence of Roger Williams, they obtained from Mi
R. i. antonomoh the noble gift of the island of Aquetneck,
called RHODE ISLAND, on account of its beauty and
fertility. Here they established a government, on the
principles of political equality and religious toleration.
Coddington was made chief magistrate.
2. What was done in regard to Mrs. Hutchinson I 3. What
became of her ? 4. What was done in regard to the education
of the young ? Who was John Harvard ? For what is he re-
membered ? -5. Who gave away the island of Aquetneck ?
To whom ? What name was given to it I On what principles
was government established ?
6. NEW HAMPSHIRE. Another portion of the dis- P'T. I.
ciples of Mrs. Hutchinson, headed by her brother-in-PID. I1I.
law, Mr. Wheelright, went north; and, in the valley ca. ix.
of the Piscataqua, founded Exeter. It was within a 129.
tract of country lying between that river and the Mer- Mr.
rimac, which Wheelright claimed by virtue of a pur- Wheel-
chase made of the Indians. This claim interfered with Indian
that conveyed by patent to Mason and Gorges, and patent.
was accordingly disputed.
7. In the meantime, small, independent settlements,
were made along the water courses, by emigrants from
Massachusetts and the other colonies; but they did not
flourish, for they imprudently neglected the culture of 1641.
their lands,-present necessities being scantily supplied Hamp-
by fish and game. In 1641, these settlements, induced flemete
by a sense of their weakness, petitioned Massachusetts
to receive them under its jurisdiction. The general
court granted their request, and they were incorporated
with that colony.
8. DELAWARE. Gustavus Adolphus, the hero of
his age, projected, in 1627, a colony of his subjectsl16e7-
from Sweden and Finland. About ten years after- and Fins.
wards they came over headed by Peter Minuets, and te on te
settled at Christina Creek, on the west side of the 138a
Delaware, calling that river Swedeland-stream, and
the country, New Sweden.
9. Though this was the first effectual settlement,
yet the Dutch had, in 1629, purchased of the natives
a tract of land extending from Cape Henlopen to the
mouth of the Delaware river. A small colony con-1629.
ducted by De Vries, came from Holland, and settled Duch
near Lewistown. They perished by the savages i o.nat
but the Dutch continuing to claim the country, dis-
sensions arose between them and the Swedish emi-
6. Who founded Exeter ? Where is it? What claim had
Mr. Wheelwright to the land ? Who disputed his claim?-
7. What further may be said of New Hampshire at this
early day ?-8. What eminent person projected a colony to
America ? Where did the Swedes and Fins settle ?-9. Had
there been a settlement of the Dutch near ? What became
of the Dutch colony ?
FOUNDERS OF MARYLAND.
P'T. I. 1. MARYLAND. In 1631, William Clayborne ob-
P,,D. 1 stained from Charles I. a license to traffic, in those parts
crda.. of America, for which there was not already a patent
1631. granted. Clayborne planted a small colony, on Kent
island, in Chesapeake bay,
2. George Calvert, afterwards LORD BALTIMORE,
.Blti-a was of the Roman Catholic faith. To enjoy his religion
patent. unmolested, he wished to emigrate to some vacant
(*Maine tract in America. He explored the country, and then
alled returned to England. The Queen, Henrietta Maria*
fr n daughter to Henry IV. of France, gave to the territory
of thi which he had selected, the name of MARYLAND, and
squ ed Lord Baltimore obtained it by a royal patent.
in 3. He died at London in 1632, before his patent
France) passed to a legal form; but his son, Cecil Calvert, the
second Lord Baltimore, by the influence of Sir Robert
April 15 Cecil, obtained the grant intended for his father. By
6 this patent he held the country from the Potomac to
the 40th degree of north latitude; and thus, by a
mere act of the crown, what had long before been
granted to Virginia, was now taken away; as what
was now granted was subsequently given to Penn, to
the extent of a degree. Hence very troublesome dis-
4. Lord Baltimore appointed as governor his brother,
calvert Leonard Calvert, who, with two hundred emigrants,
ail, sailed near the close of 1633, and arrived at the Poto-
1633. mac early in 1634. Here they purchased of the na-
Arrives tives, Yamaco, one of their settlements, to which was
634. given the name of St. Mary. Calvert secured by this
pacific course, comfortable habitations, some improved
lands, and the friendship of the natives.
1. What was done by William Clayborne? -2. Why did
Lord Baltimore wish to leave England ? Who named his terri-
tory after herself ? 3. Did the first Lord Baltimore receive the
patent ? What did his son obtain? What country did this
patent include ? 4. Who conducted the first colony to Mary
land ? What judiciouS course did he pursue?
TROUBLES IN MARYLAND
5. The country was pleasant, great religious free- PT. I.
dom existed, and a liberal charter had been granted, PD. III
This allowed the proprietor, aided by the freemen, to cn. x.
pass laws, without reserving to the crown the right of
rejecting them. Emigrants accordingly soon flocked
to the province, from the other colonies, and from
6. Thus had the earliest settlers of this beautiful
portion of our country established themselves, without
the sufferings endured by the pioneers of former set-
tlements. The proprietary government, generally so
detrimental, proved here a nursing mother. Lord Bal- ity and
timore expended for the colonists, within a few years, grti-
forty thousand pounds; and they, out of desire to tde.
return some testimony of gratitude," voted in their
assembly, such a subsidy, as the low and poor estate
of the colony could bear."
7. Lord Baltimore invited the puritans of Massa-
chusetts to emigrate to Maryland, offering them free 1642.
liberty of religion." They rejected this, as they did Lord B.
a similar proposition from Cromwell, to remove to the th, pur-
West Indies. tans.
8. The restless, intriguing Clayborne, called the
evil genius of Maryland, had been constantly on the
alert to establish, by agents in England, a claim to the
country, and thus to subvert the government of the 1635,
good proprietary. In his traffic with the natives, he to
had learned their dispositions, and wrought them to 1643.
jealousy. In England, the authority of the long Par-
liament now superseded that of the king. Of this,
Clayborne, and other disorderly subjects of Lord Bal-
timore, took advantage. Thus the fair dawn of this
rising settlement was early overcast.
9. VIRGINIA. In 1621, Sir Francis Wyatt arrived 1621.
as governor, bringing from the company in England a sir
more perfect constitution for the colony. It contained wFatt
5. What inviting circumstances drew emigrants ?--. What may
be said of the proprietary government ? How much did Lord
Baltimore expend for the colony ? Did they testify any gratitude ?
7. What did Lord Baltimore offer the Puntans ? -8. What was
Clavhorne called? What were some of his plans to injure the
proprietor ? 9. Who arrived in Virginia ? What did he brin ?
P'T. I. some seeming concessions to the people, which not
-,D ,i only gratified the settlers, but encouraged emigrants;
ci. x. and a large number accordingly accompanied Governor
Wyatt to the province.
10. This year, cotton was first planted in Virginia,
Cotton and the plentiful coming up of the seeds," was re-
plt guarded by the planters with curiosity and interest.
11. Opechancanough, the brother and successor of
Powhatan, had determined to extirpate the whites, and
A con- regain the country. For this purpose he formed a
spirary. conspiracy to massacre all the English; and during
four years, he was, secretly, concerting his plan. To
each tribe its station was allotted, and the part it was
to act prescribed.
12. On the 22d of March, 1622, at mid-day, they
rushed upon the English, in all their settlements, and
butchered men, women, and children, without pity or
remorse. In one hour, nearly a fourth part of the
1622. whole colony was cut off. The slaughter would have
Indians been universal, if compassion, or a sense of duty, had
ma.re not moved a converted Indian, to whom the secret
was communicated, to reveal it to his master, on the
night before the massacre. This was done in time to
save Jamestown and the adjacent settlements.
13. A bloody war ensued. The English, by their
arms and discipline, were more than a match for the
Indians; and they retaliated in such a manner as left
The the colonies for a long time free from savage molesta-
retaliate, tion. They also received a considerable accession of
territory, by appropriating those of the conquered na-
14. In 1624 the London company, which had set-
1624.tied Virginia, was dissolved by King James, and its
L. Com. rights and privileges returned to the crown. Gover-
and Va. nors were sent over by Charles I. the successor of
a role James, who were oppressive; and the Virginians re-
sisted their authority. Sir William Berkeley was sent
over in 1641. The colonists were, under him, con-
9. What effect had these concessions ? 10. When was cot-
ton first planted in Virginia ? 11 & 12. Give an account of
the Indian massacre ?- 13.. What was done in retaliation? -
14. What became of the London company ? Under whom was
Virginia then ? What can you say of the royal governors ?
MASSACHUSETTS GIVES OFFENSE. bi
firmed in their enjoyment of the elective franchise. P'T. I.
Great harmony prevailed, notwithstanding the assern- PD. II.
bly took a high tone in respect to their political rights; ca. xi.
boldly declaring that they expected no taxes or im-
positions, except such as should be freely voted for
their own wants."
Massachusetts threatened.-The Puritans m England-Vane.-
1. THE English court began to be jealous, that
their colonies, especially that of the Bay, did not in-
tend to be governed by the parent country. They Th
were truly informed by some, who returned dissatis- courtdi-
fled from Massachusetts, that not only was their own pleae
religion established by law, but the use of the Eng- Maw.
lish liturgy was prohibited. Various other charges
were made against the province,-showing that it was
casting off dependence upon the English crown, and
assuming sovereign powers to itself.
2. Much displeased, the king determined that the
colonies should be brought to submission, both in 1634,
church and state; and he made archbishop Laud, famed A -PP'
for his persecuting spirit, chief of a council, which was siners.
appointed, with full powers to govern the colony in all
3. The Grand Council of Plymouth, as it had its
beginning and course, so also it had its end in little
better than knavery. We have seen that its own mem-
bers, Gorges and Mason, and others, had been
its patentees. These persons now wishing to make
14. Under what governor did harmony prevail ? What did
the assembly declare ?
CHAPTER XI.-1. Of what were the British government jea-
lous ? What reports concerning Massachusetts were true ? 2.
What did the king determine ? Who was made chief of a coun-
cil ? With what powers ? 3. On what occasion was the Grand
Council of Plymouth dissolved?
ENGLAND LOSES GOOD CITIZENS.
P'T. I. good certain claims to territory in Massachusetts, gave
pD. II1 up their patent to the crown; petitioning for redress
ca. xi. against that colony, which they asserted had forfeited
Mass.ar- its charter, by exceeding its powers and territorial
4. Willing to humble their unbridled spirits," the
court of king's bench, issued a writ against the indi-
viduals of the corporation of Massachusetts Bay, ac-
Dee. causing them with certain acts, by which they had for-
1634. feited their charter, and requiring them to show war-
charr rant for their proceedings. At a subsequent term, the
annulled. court pronounced sentence against them, and declared
that their charter was forfeited.
5. The rapid emigration to the colonies had attract-
ed the attention of the council, and they had passed
3000 laws, prohibiting any person above the rank of a ser-
come to vant from leaving the kingdom without express per-
land I mission; and vessels already freighted with emigrants
1638. had been detained. But these prohibitions were in
vain; for persecution, conducted by the merciless
Laud, grew more and more cruel; and in one year,
three thousand persons left England for America.
6. Oppression, and perhaps the successful escape
and resistance of their brethren in America, had so
wrought upon the public mind in England, that matters
had now come to open opposition to the government.
In Scotland, Charles had attempted to enforce the use
1640. of the English liturgy. Riots had followed, and the
charles Solemn League and Covenant been made, by which
egaF the Scottish people bound themselves to oppose all
war. similar attempts. Popular opinion became resistless.
Laud's party was ruined, and himself imprisoned;
while the king was engaged in a bloody civil war with
his revolted subjects.
7. Puritanism now reigned in England, and its dis-
ciples had no inducement to emigrate. Nay, some
3. What evil did some of their number do to Massachusetts ?
4. What was done in the king's court respecting the charter of
Massachusetts ? 5. What laws were made respecting emigra-
tion ? What effect had they ? -6. What was now the state of
things in Great Britain ? 7. How did the rule of Puitanism
in England affect emigration to America?
THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE NEW WORLD.
returned, among whom was Governor Vane. The P'T. I.
Long Parliament had begun to rule; and its leaders P,. Il
were desirous to honor, rather than humble New Eng- cu. xi.
land. Cotton, Hooker, and Davenport, were invited
to go to London to attend the celebrated assembly of The long
divines at Westminster. They, however, saw no suf- Parlia-
ficient cause to leave their flocks in the wilderness. nment
England was no longer their country; but that for
which they had suffered, though recent, was already 1642
as dear to these noble" patriots, as the infant to the
8. A UNION was now meditated. Both internal
peace, and external safety were to be secured. An Safety
essential part of the compact made, was the solemn daece
promise of the framers to yield obedience to the pow-
ers thus created.
9. Two commissioners having been appointed by 16
each of the four colonies, Plymouth, Massachusetts,
Connecticut and New Haven, they met at Boston, rtileso
May, 1643, where they drew up and signed the Arti- federacy
cles of Confederation. Rhode Island was not per- oitton
mitted to be a member of the confederacy, unless it
became an appendage to Plymouth. This, that colony
very properly refused.
10. The style adopted was that of the "United Colo-
nies of New England." Their little congress, the first
of the New World, was to be composed of eight commIs.
members, two from each colony. They were to as- to meet
semble yearly in the different colonies by rotation, anually
Massachusetts having, in this respect a double privi-
11. Although this confederacy was nominally dis-
continued after about forty years, yet its spirit remained.
The colonies had learned to act together, and when
common injuries and common dangers again required
7. What honor was paid to three of the New England clergy?
8. \hat objects were to be secured by Union ? What four
colonies sent commissioners to Boston ? What important work
did they perform ? What hard condition was exacted of Rhode
Island ?- 10. What was the style adopted ? Where was the
little Congress of Commissioners to meet ? -11. How long did
this confederacy last I
84 THE GERM OF THE CONFEDERACY.
P'T.I. united action, modes and precedents were at hand
S Hence we regard the Confederacy of the four New
ca. xL England provinces, as the germ of the Federal Union.
11. Why is it regarded as the germ of the Federal Union ?
Compare the third Map with the second, and tell the principal
changes which have taken place in the geography in the course
of the third period of the First Part of the history ? What are
the principal patents which have been given ? Compare the dif-
ferent maps with the history, and tell when the name of Virginia
was first given, and to what extent 9f country it has, at different
times, been applied 1
EXERCISES ON THE CHRONOGRAPHER.
What is the event which marks the beginning of this
period? What is its date I Point it out on the chronogra-
Massasoit visits the pilgrims in 1621, and enters into an
alliance with them. Point out this date on the chronogra-
pher. James I. issued a charter to a company styled the
Grand Council of Plymouth," in 1620. Point out the
place of this date. John Endicot began the settlement of
Salem in 1628. He was appointed Governor of Massachu
setts Bay in 1629. Point out the places of these dates.
Three thousand persons emigrated to New England in 1635.
Point to the place of this date.
Roger Williams founded Providence in 1636. Point out
the place of this date. The Pequods were defeated and
destroyed in 1637. New Haven was founded the same
year. Show its place on the chronographer. The college
at Cambridge was founded in 1630. It took the name of
Harvard in 1638. Point to the place of these two dates.
Lord Baltimore obtained a patent of Maryland in 1631
Point out the place of this year. What event marks the
termination of this period ? What is its date ? Point to its
place on the chronographer.
Let the teacher often repeat general questions, such as-
What is the subject of this part ? Into how many periods
is it divided ? What is the first and last date of your lesson
to-day ? In what century is it ? How much time occurs
between the first and last date ?
FROM 1643 TO 1763.
meeting of Winthrop and the Commissioners.
THE CONFEDERACY OF j16431THE FOUR N. L COLONIES.
THE NEW CHARTER 1692'. oP MASSA.UHETTs.
Virginia-Second Indian Massacre-Bacon's Rebellion.
1. IN 1644, the aged Opechancanough once more P'T. n.
attempted to cut off the scattered white population. P'D. I
As soon as resistance was made, the Indians were ca. I.
struck with panic, and fled. The Virginians pursued 1644
then vigorously, and killed three hundred. The chief Secod
was taken prisoner. He was then inhumanly wound- Indian
ed, and kept as a public spectacle, until he was re- massacre
lived by death.
CHAPTER I.-1. What attempt was made by an Indian chief?
Which, in this case, suffrcd most, the Indians, or the Virgin-
ians ? How many Indians were killed ? How was the chief
P'T.II. 2. Charles I. was beheaded; and Cromwell directed
P'. the affairs of England. He perfected a system of op-
Cn. I. pression, in respect to trade, by the celebrated "Navi-
1649. nation Acts." By these, the colonies were not al-
Charles lowed to find a market for themselves, and sell their
a. be- produce to the highest bidder; but were obliged to
carry it direct to the mother country. The English
Crom- merchants bought it at their own price; and thus they,
well. and not the colonist, made the profit on the fruits of
3. At the same time, these laws prohibited any but
English vessels, from conveying merchandise to the
1651. colonies; thus compelling them to obtain their sup-
Thega plies of the English merchant; of course, at such
tion prices, as he chose to fix. upon his goods. Even free
act traffic among the colonists was prohibited.
4. Charles II. was restored to his father's throne in
1660. Berkeley, after various changes, was exer-
cising, in Virginia, the office of governor. But pros-
1660. pects grew dark. Notwithstanding the loyalty of Vir-
Charles ginia, to none of the colonies had the suppression of
I. the English monarchy wrought more good; and on
none, did the restoration operate more disastrously.
5. The Virginians were divided into two classes.
The first comprised the few persons who were highly
educated, and possessed of extensive domains. The
Aristo- second, and more numerous class, was composed of
peb,- servants and laborers; among whom were some, that
ans. for crimes in England, had been sent to America. A
blind admiration of English usages, was now shown,
in the regulations made by Berkeley, and his aristo-
2. In what year was Charles I. beheaded ? Who then di.
rected the affairs in England ? By what were the colonies op.
pressed ? What were they not allowed to do ? What were they
obiiged to do ? How did English merchants make the profit on
the produce of the colonists ? 3. Of whom were the colonists
obliged to purchase their supplies ? Who would fix the prices ?
Could the different colonies trade freely with each other? 4.
What happened in 1660 ? Who was governor of Virginia
What were the prospects of Virginia ? -5. Describe the two
classes into which the Virginians were divided I What can you
say of Berkeley and his advisers ?
VIRGINIA GIVEN AWAY.
6. The rights of the people were on all hands re- P'T. U.
stricted. The affairs of the church were placed in the PD. 1.
hands of vestries,-corporations who held, and often ci. i.
severely used, the right to tax the whole community. The
The assembly, composed of aristocrats, made them- peopl
selves permanent, and their salaries'large. The right of &eir
of suffrage was unrestrained, but the power of elect- rights.
ing the burgesses being taken away, the meetings of
the freemen were of little avail, for their only remain-
ing right, was that of petition.
7. A shock was now given, by which even the aris-
tocracy were aroused. Charles, with his wonted pro-
fligacy, gave away Virginia for the space of thirty-one Charle.
years. -He had, immediately on his accession, granted gives
to Sir William Berkeley, Lord Culpepper, and others, V~?,,
that portion of the colony lying between the Rappa- fo 31
bannock andPotomac; and now, to the covetous Lord 16yr.
Culpepper, and to Lord Arlington, another needy fa-
vorite, he gave the whole province.
8. On the north, the Susquehannah Indians, driven
by the Senecas, from the head of the Chesapeake, had
come down, and having had provocation, were com- 16'5.
emitting depredations upon the banks of the Potomac. Wash-
John Washington, the great grandfather of the hero of ington.
the revolution, with a brother, Lawrence Washington,
had emigrated from England, and was living in the
county of Westmoreland.
9. Six of the Indian chiefs came to John Washing-
ton, to treat of peace, he being colonel. He wrong-
fully put them to death. "They came in peace," said
Berkeley, "and I would have sent them in peace, K:'l
though they had killed my father and mother." Re- chiefs.
venge inflamed the minds of the savages, and the mid-
night war-whoop often summoned to speedy death the
defenseless families of the frontier.
6. How was it with the rights of the people ? How in church
matters ? How with respect to the assembly ? The right of
suffrage ? 7. What did King Charles give away ? What por-
tion had he granted before ? To whom? To whom was the
whole province now given ? -8. Who was John Washington ?
What Indians were troublesome ? -9. What provocation had
Colonel Washington given them 1 What said Berkeley I
BACON AND HIS PARTY.
P'T. II. 10. The people desired to organise for self defense,
p'D. and in a peremptory manner, demanded for their leader,
cH. I. Nathaniel Bacon, a popular young lawyer. Beikeley
16,6. refused. New murders occurred; Bacon assumed com-
The mand, and with his followers, departed for the Indian
Pole war. Berkeley declared him and his adherents rebels.
Bacon 11. Bacon returned successful from his expedition,
athir. and was elected a member for Henrico county. Popu-
lar liberty prevailed, and laws were passed, with which
Popular Berkeley was highly displeased. Bacon, fearing treach-
liberty ery, withdrew to the country. The people rallied
around him, and he returned to Jamestown, at the head
of five hundred armed men.
12. Berkeley met them, and baring his breast, ex-
claimed, "a fair mark, shoot!" Bacon declared that
he came only for a commission, their lives being in
Berkeley danger from the savages. The commission was issued,
Bacon. and Bacon again departed for the Indian warfare.
Berkeley, in the meantime, withdrew to the sea-shore,
and there collected numbers of seamen and royalists.
He came up the river with a fleet, landed his army at
Jamestown, and again proclaimed Bacon and his party,
rebels and traitors.
13. Bacon having quelled the Indians, only a small
band of his followers remained in arms. With these
he hastened to Jamestown, and Berkeley fled at his ap-
proach. In order that its few dwellings should no
niore shelter their oppressors, the inhabitants set them
James- on fire. Then leaving that endeared and now deso-
brnit by lated spot, they pursued the royalists to the Rappa-
Bacon's hannock,where the Virginians, hitherto of Berkeley's
party, deserted, and joined Bacon's standard. His
enemies were at his mercy; but his exposure to the
S1 night air had induced disease, and he died.
Bacon 14. The party, without a leader, broke into frag-
dies. ments. As the principal adherents of Bacon, hunted
and made prisoners, were one by one, brought before
10. What leader did the people choose ? Give some account
of the first steps in the contention between the people's leader
and the governor 11. Proceed with the account? 12- Con-
tinue the relation? 13. Relate the remaining events, till the
lime of Bacon's death ?- 14. What then happened to his party
and principal followers t
GRAND COUNCIL AT ALBANY.
Berkeley, he adjudged. them, with insulting taunts, to PT. II.
instant death. Thus perished twenty of the best citi- PD. .
zens of Virginia. "The old fool," said Charles II., ca. .
who sent him orders to desist, "has shed more blood
than I did, for the murder of my father."
15. "Bacon's rebellion" was extremely injurious to 1677.
the affairs of the colony in England. A new charter, Lord
which was sent over, was not favorable to the Virgin- per.
ians. Lord Culpepper was made governor for life.
He cared not what he made the people suffer, provided 16S3.
he could gain money for himself. Lord Howard, the Lord
next governor, was of the same stamp. Howa
16. It was at this period, that the Five Nations be-
came very powerful. They had overcome all the sur-
rounding Indians, and menaced the whites. This pro-
duced a grand council at Albany, in which Lord reace
Howard, and Colonel Dongan, the governor of New withthe
York, together with delegates from the northern prov- Nations.
inces, met the sachems of the Five Nations. The
negotiations were friendly; and, in the figurative lan-
guage of the Indians, "a great tree of peace was
17. MARYLAND. Clayborne, in 1645, returned to 164.
Maryland, raised an insurrection, and compelled Gov- Isurrem-
ernor Calvert to fly to Virginia for safety. The rebel- tion in
lion was, however, quelled. The next year, Calvert la-d.
returned, and quiet was restored.
18. The reign of Puritanism in England was disas-
trous to Maryland. Calvert, the governor appointed
by the proprietor, was obliged to surrender the govern-
ment; and the Catholics, after having settled the coun- 1652.
try, were shamefully persecuted in it, by the English Catholics
authorities. Clayborne took advantage of this, and ein""
with one Josias Fendall, made a famous disturbance," their
of which little is now known, except that it involved oi cp
the province in much expense.
19. Lord Baltimore was restored to his rights, by
15. How did Bacon's rebellion affect the colony in England?
What governors were sent over ? 16. What Indians became
powerful ? What council was held ? 17. Who made trouble
Sin Maryland ? 18. What did he take advantage of? Who was
with him ? What is known of Fendall's disturbance?"