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Title: Costumes of America
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002775/00001
 Material Information
Title: Costumes of America
Physical Description: 96 p., <8> p. : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: C.G. Henderson, & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: C. G. Henderon & Co., No. 164 Chestnut Street
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1852
 Subjects
Subject: Costume -- Juvenile literature -- North America   ( lcsh )
Costume -- Juvenile literature -- Central America   ( lcsh )
Costume -- Juvenile literature -- South America   ( lcsh )
Indians -- Clothing -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indians -- Social life and customs -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Juvenile literature -- Central America   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Juvenile literature -- South America   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
 Notes
General Note: Wood engravings: title-page vignette, illustrated plates, text illustrations.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue: <8> p. at end.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002775
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224782
oclc - 32354228
notis - ALG5050
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Back Cover
        Page iii
        Page 106
    Copyright
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Main
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Advertising
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Spine
        Page 107
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COSTUMES
OF

AM I ER I A.


C. G. HENDERSON & CO.,
No. 164 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELEIA
1852.
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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1852,
BY 0. G. HENDERSON & CO.,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court )f the United States,
in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
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PREFACE.

OUR young people mntybe ippsed to be comp
tively ignorant of tb grieatt. qety ations and
tribes, who inhabit ths opr Alawran *.q o iupet. In '
their minds, Indians, colored people, and white people,
make up the three great classes; their ideas of the
subordinate varieties are rather vague and confused.
%v)


1





i PREFACE.

We have endeavored in this little volume, by deli.
eating many different varieties of people, and giving
little sketches of their history, to give a more definite
form to juvenile ideas on this subject. Our chief ob-
ject is to excite an interest in the subject, and raise
a curiosity, which may be gratified in after life, by
the perusal of more elaborate works on ethnography.








































































































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NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.


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osflSf OF nMEI A.


NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN.
Or the many tribes of Indians who
once possessed all North America, but
few now remain. This remnant, howr
ever, is still divided into many 'tribes,
who differ greatly in figure and costume.
Their dress in their wild state, when
unacquainted with the white people,
consists of the skins of animals, killed in
the chace, such as the deer, the bear,the
moose, the bison, the fox, and .he suir




COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


rel. These they ornament very prettily
with porcupine's feathers, and such bright
colored dyes as they can obtain from
wild vegetables. Some of their robes are
ingeniously embroidered with the brilliant
feathers of wild birds.
When they become acquainted with
the white traders, they exchange their
furs for blankets .and broad cloth; and
lay aside the bbw and arrow to learn the
use of the rifle. There are in the country
west of the Mississippi river, many tribes
of Indians, who remain in their original
wild state, having, scarcely any know-
ledge of the whites, and still using bows,
arrows, and spears in the chase and in
war. The figures represent a group of
Indians, of the Fox and Sac tribes, in
their native costumes.

















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NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN SQUAW.








NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN SQUAW.

THE Indian woman is called a squaw;
the Indian child a papoose. The women
perform the labors of the field, planting
corn and beans, and whatever they cul-
tivate. They also have all the domestic
care of the rude cabins in which they
live, the Indian man performing the oc-
cupations of hunting and war.
While at work, the woman carries her
infant in a small wooden cradle lashed
on her back. Her lot is hard as is the
case among all savage nations. Our
North American Indians have been much
censured for their treatment of women.
(11)




lZ COSTUMES OF AMERICA.
But Mr. Catlin, who has lived much
among them, thinks that no more labor
is put upon them than is absolutely ne-
cessary, considering the poverty and des-
titution of the Indians. In their wild
state all must work in order to live.
The women wear blankets, tunics,
drawers, moccasins, made of dressed or
undressed skins of the deer and other
animals, and some of their garments are
very beautifully wrought with embroidery
of porcupine quills, richly colored.




























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MEXICANS.


THE people who live in Mexico are di-
vided into four classes; native Spaniards,
persons of Spanish descent born in Mex-
ico, mixed castes, and Indians.
The Mexicans of the higher classes are
rich in lands and money, ind live in
great splendor. They are fo4jof dance
ing and gambling. Some of,~4 in have
incomes, from their estates g iPaines of
silver or gold, amounting to)j #,million
a year. These people dresq "i.'l hly
and gaudily, displaying mor w qw '
and brighter colors in thqiclothes than
Europeans.
(15)





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


The lower classes imitate this splendor
of dress as far as they can. But the
lowest class, farm laborers and miners,
called peons, dress very meanly, their
condition being about the same as that
of slaves.





























































































































































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MEXICAN INDIANS, GOING TO MARKET.
*









MEXICAN INDIANS,


(GOING TO MARKET.)
THE Indians of Mexico are the descend-
ants of the original possessors of the
country. They resemble our Indians in
feature and form. They are far more
numerous than the whites; but are ~ld
in subjection, and compelled to live in
villages by themselves, where they are
governed by their nativeechidfs, descend-.
ants of the ancient AMec nobles: They
pay a tax to the government.
them are rich. They live by agricultui
and some of them excel in manufactures,
(19)





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


especially that of ornaments and toys.
They are very fond of flowers, and love
to employ themselves in painting and
carving, imitating skilfully any models
which are furnished for them.
In their manners these Indians are
grave and gloomy. They are silent and
affect an air of mystery. They are ex-
tremely ignorant and their present want
of instruction is attributed to the ex-
tinction of the Aztec priesthood, their
ancient instructors, for which nothing
has been substituted by the Spanish
priests, in the way of general education.
The figures represent an Indian farmer
%pd his wife going to market.




























































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MEXICAN INDIANS, RETURNING FROM MARKET!



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MEXICAN INDIANS,


(RETURNING fROM MARKET.) '
THE market place in the..Git~~fx-
ico is thronged Indiana, wbH there
expose the prodpif their industry for
sale. Many bringtlheir commodities on.
their backs.. Others in canoes by the
canal, which lead, to the lake of Chalco.
Fine vegetables, typicall fruits, fowls,
turkeys, ducks, wild birds alive, corn,
milk, butter, young kids pigeons, hareg,
rabbits, fish, tortoises, frogs and lizards,
beef, mutton, and pork, form the cargoes
of the hundreds of boats which pass
(23)
O j





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


through the canal to market every
morning.
Besides provisions, the Indians dispose
of wool, cotton, coarse cotton cloth, ma-
nufactured skins, and it is an amusing
scene to witness them.collected in large
parties with'their children seated on the
ground enjoying their frugal meals. Like
other Indians, however, they are addicted
to drinking and gambling, and the neigh-
borhood of the market is infested with
shops where prits are sold; and it often
happens that the husband, after getting
drunk and losing his money, vents his
ill humor by beating his wife.


24












































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IJAYTIANS.








HAYTIANS.


HAYTI, or St. Domingo, is one of the
largest of the West India island. It was
discovered by Columbus, colonized by the
Spaniards, and afterwards by the French;
but in 1791 the French Convention de-
clared the slaves of the colonies free,
and they destroyed or expelled their
masters, and French St. Domingo became
an independent negro republic, which
soon changed to a military-despotism.
The sovereign Solouque is now called
emperor.
The country is in a wretched state. Its
commerce and industry are dwindled to
(27)




28 COSTUMES OF AMERICA.
almost nothing. The people are poor
and indolent, although they possess one
of the most fertile and delightful islands
in the whole world. It is true that des-
potism affords little encouragement to
industry; because the government can
seize the property of the subject at plea-
sure; but it is the natural indolence of
the negro which makes him neglect labor
and submit to a wicked and bad govern-
ment. Our picture represents a soldier
of the emperor and his family.




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CHILIANS.








CHILIANS.

CHIU, like Perui .was brought unler
the Spanisl yoke, ii Pizarro's time, al-
though a portiqq of the country, has al*
ways remained independent,. under its
original possessors, the Indians.
The Chilians of the higher classes are
courteous, polite; kind hearted, ignorant,
fond of diversion, superstitious, and ad-
dicted to quarreling among themselves.
A fondness for ardent spirits ijsthe chief
cause of this last trait. The ladies
often can neither read nor write; but
Mrs. Graham and Captain Hall, who
visited the county, both unite in prcia-
(31)





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


ing their natural talents and the un-
studied grace of their manners.
Our engraving, which represents the
costume of the higher class, exhibits the
fondness for a showy style of dress.
The situation of Chili, on a narrow
strip of land, between the Andes and the
Pacific )Ocean, makes it liable to frequent
earthquakes, and in the cities, on this
account they are fond of living in houses
of only one story. These are built of
stone or brick in the old Moorish style,
with a court-yard in the centre. The
walls are solid and thick, the apartments
are spacious, well furnished, and often
richly gilded.



















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CHILIAlNS. .
(PaoNs.)
IN Chili, as in the other parts of A
rica settled by the Spanards, te -
ing classes are called e The-~ yar
chiefly of the Indianrm -xed races,
and perform the dutielaborers,
porters, mechani-, a c piers, er
bearers (Tamne*e.) These in the picture
are couriers, crossing the Andes. One
of them )u QBeerve, hbFi 'his hand a
cord to which three ll arr $ttached
This is a weapon cs.id the bola, based
all ovr Soutif America. When a pet
r' (35)




36 a TUM Of AJERICA.
wishes to useI t, le hois one ball in his
hand an4 swing' the others with a rapid
motion over hi.li'ad till i has acquired
considerable toiientum, when he dis-
charges it with great precision at the
object. In tbis way he hits the legs of
the llama, or vicugna, -or even the horse
of a egy. The balls wind found the
legs' of itWanimal and cause him to fall;
and before ehe can ext*ate himself, the
peon is upn him with his swoid or spear.
The dwellings of t, peons are rude
tents, the wa~ being of .stakes crossing
each other, and fantexed with thongs or
hetmp twine; t~ roof of aincdhes plas-
tere& with :m~n and covered with palm
leaves. These are called ranchos.
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COLUMBIANS.


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COLUMBII
IN the northern p' of Sohuh Amedica
is the country called Columbia, once a
province of Spain, and now-independent.
Like Mexico, its population is: JN
the larger pr portion beingtInd-i ),
are laborers and hunteram~.hivWk tl
RiardA and Creoles 4 planter
traders.
Our picture abews1em to advantgc.
Here inte forernd you sea e
-plapter in alght Spani hire,
tqJbe plimn with his Biros& briam
Sstrw hat, siooking his pipe tq kig
hiw To his right hand isoaie_
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40 COSTUMES OF AMERIOA.
who has adopted a mixture of the ele-
gant costume of Andalusia and, that of
an English lady.. She has her embroid-
ered dress and ample shawl, and the
coquettish straw hat and ribande. In
the distance, the condition of the In-
dians is happily illustrated by the figure
of oneof those peters employed ia carry,
ing trvellers oveithe mountains on their
backsa They are called tamenes. These
* Indians wear little clothing of any kind.
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PER~UYIANSI.


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PERUVIANS.

THE Peruvians, Creole descendant; of
the Spaniards, are a very' insigiDfiant
race of men, destitute of all energy both
bodily and mental. Their agriculture i e ,
conducted by Indipns, and-tbeir um--
merce which is extegive, is in hands
of foreign s. Thq ladies act much
more conspicuous part. They are fond
of admiration, and far fromjiecreet in
their behaviour. 'IJheir dpess consists of
the saga, a lig heJlct wn fitted close
to the.frame, anah. : mito, a large loose
cloak of black sik gauze, which is
wrapped rou4 even the face. Under
(43)

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COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


thi disguisemthy. sally forth and amuse
themselves by addressing their friends
without being known by them, mixing
with the crowd to view whatever exhibi-
tion is going forward" and many other
indiscretions.
Gaming prevails among both sexes to
Sdestructiive extent and families are
very ill managed. the Peruvians in
the cities are very courteous, humane,
hospitable, and generVus. Iin the coun-
try these amiable qualities are united
with equal mirth and much greater
simplicity.





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PER IVIAN INDIANS.

TH: Indians, or native Peruvians, are
still over all Peru, the most numerous
class. -They have always been a mild,
harmless race since the days of Pizar
They haye .small features, littlefeet, well
turried limbs, slbek, co-irse, black hhr,
and scarcely any beard. They live i
miserable huts, but they neg ct noneans
of improving their condition. are
ers, and make ma 1 IuL
fai ith slig' materials.
them have madeil p cher's dwlasw
ywr Teir wol re virtuous and dis-
cret,; atdKin A war of indepiwndence,
(47)

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48 'cOSTUMES Of AXEIOA.

some of the m ip sbhwed great courage.
They retain tli'deepest and most won-
derful recollection of the Great Inca,tand
in all the remote districts aninally cde-
brate his deathly a sort of rude trage-
dy, accompanied by the most melting
strains of psic. -
Onr engravlg represents Indian wo-
men of the higher class in their holiday
dresses.






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BRAX^ANS.
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BRAZILIANS.
Or the three millions of inhabitants in
the empire of Brazil, pnqbalf are negroeso
bond and free, one fourth whites, a one.
fourth mulattoes. hbe 8aves on abtaih-
ing their om e re admitted to equal
rights witfaI e whites. Many of thet
are officers in the army and membersof.
the legisal~ re; and others are scattered
through l classes of society. .
Of the Brazilian character report
not speak very favorably. T e
consist, it a great means hadvet
turers, often of inferior b haVe
theivie of amassing
pursue a titaic
(51)




J I
52. porTUmis OF AMICA.
partaking more of peddling and retail
habits tban of aziy liberal principles of
trade* Many of the- fee negroes and
nfIlattoes seem to ,hve a good deal of
the scquadrel bout them. The ladies
have lea libertythan in' urope, and do
not make the very best use of what they
have. The charges against them seem
often too sweeping; but fo6i the con-
current testimony of travellers, they rank
'lower than those of Europe, andhave not
theaame graces, either of attire or man-
ners. Mrs Graham, however, observed a
warmth of domestic affection which she
never sawequalled, unless in som, e of the
Highland liuis, which showed itself ra-
ther unluckily by marri wit
Forbidden degrees.. ^- ,
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THE'India i Brad a' a
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state than th 9. iA hpmq..'.
They have -. L i rmte
any shapewit i" po.paltion,
but have alwgs re r ro-
gress of civilj:tiptO of
their foreSjk iThe 1
deed, fro*-the Portug e.. e 6scapty
portion taiment. But th~~~ve never
attempted the tami imas, or the.
planting of s~t solely on
Sthespontaneou ait the earth, the
roots which they cairdig up, an4 the
(55)
S. .
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56 'rxMEzs oF AMERICA.
ganme.brought down by the aitow, which
they shoot with mnarvellous dexterity,
taking an almost unerring aim atthe
distance of forty or fifty yards.
To render their arrows more fatal, they
steep their points in a vegetable poison,
prepared -by themselves, called wourali,
whdth is ePy actip, causing almost in-
stant death. The.Lndiau n the picture
uses a very long bow, and discharges the
arrow by lying on his back and bending
the bow with his feet, a practice peculiar
to the Indians of Brazil.

























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flTUPINAMBAS.
f :l in i
Taapiaiemba aore ttam t power-
fl tribe of independent In-ians in Brazjl.
They live on the borders of the river Ja-
guaridei the country of Ilheos, and evei
extended to the neighborhood of Rio Ja-
neiro, in early tines. They are a strong
active race. They iaint their bodies
with red, black, and blu colors; wear
mantles and coronets of feathers, and a
singular circular ornament of feathers on
the back. .
Like the Boto pierce the
lower and inamet in it as Dament of
bone. I~3~ pierce holes in their
(59)


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60 COSTUME OF AMERICA.

cheeks. Their arms are the bow and
arrows, a heavy war-club, the spear and.
the tomahawk.
They are brave and cruel in war, and
not only sacrifice prisoners but eat them.
They worship many gods and believe in
the immortality of the soul. Their chiefs
tre invested with powers similar 1o those
of the North American Indians, and they
have many very curious and barbarous
customs peculiar to themselves






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Tins is one of the wildest and ia
barbarous of the Indian tribes of l'
,Theyhitually go about alm
naked, sometimes entirely..V
their ba s, live in huts mad
leaves, elep -in gras# hammooks,
subsist on.wild fruits and the-produce of
their rude hunting., A more miserable
and degraded race men, scarcelyexists
in the world. *
Mr. Marray thus descrbei t r mode
of disfiguring their fa TeBotoooudos,
who inhabit the ba&k smtlm&nts of
Porto Seguro,e have a aVorite mode of
S(63)
IS.s U '





m QOST,3M-OP AMtIC
ornamenting themselves y vAat is called
the botoqw. Thisconsistsof large pieces
of wood pendent from the ears and the
under lips, to which they are fastened by
holes bored for that purpose. The result
is, thdt the ears are stretched till they
hang'down, like wings, sometimes to the
shoulder; while the lip is made to pro-
jectknd half the lower teeth'is protruded
in the processes of eating.and speaking.
They sometimes also paint themselves
frightfully, the body black* and the face
red. able to strike terror into their
enemies., The Furies, Patachesa,. h
caries, with sundry other tribes, of 1 ne
and aspect equallye uncouth, have the
same general character, *ith sundry fan
tastic peculiarities belonging to each.








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COROADOS.


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COROADOS.


THIS was an important tribe of Brazi-
lian Indians in former times, who have
now dwindled away to a mere handful.
They were very courageous, not attack-
ing their enemies by ambuscades, like
many other tribes, but meeting them in
the open field, and fighting with indo-
mitable courage. They bravely resisted
the Portuguse invaders till the year 160,
when they were beaten in a grand pitched
battle, and driven from the plains of Ouc-
takazes, their own fertilecountry, to the
forests of Minas, where they encountered
the tribe of Coropos and subdued them.
(67)






68


COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


But when they had lost the hope of re-
turning to their own beautiful fields, and
were compelled to live in thick forests,
they cut off the long hair which had for-
merly distinguished them from other
tribes, and although they carefully pre-
served their ancient name of Ouctakazes
among themselves, they received from
the Portuguese that of Coroados, or
crowned Indians, in allusion to the new
style of dressing their hair.

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GUAOHOS.








GUACHOS.


THE Guachos, who inhabit the wide
surface of the Pampas, in Ta Plata, and
appropriate the numberless herds that
roam over them, are a very singular race.
Some travellers hold them as downright
savages; but Captain Head isures us,
that they are oftwp of good birth, and
very estimable perbns. The Guacho is
at ones the most active and the most in-
dolent of mortals. He will scour the
country whole days at full gallop, break-
ing wild horses, or chasing the jaguar or
the ostrich; but once alighted anid heated
on the skeleton of a horse's head, nothing
can induce him to move. He considers
(71)





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


it a degradation to set his foot to the
ground; so that, notwithstanding a ge-
neral vigor almost preternatural, the
lower limbs are weak and bent, and he
is incapable of walking to any distance.
His dwelling is a mud cottage, with one
apartment, and so swarming with insects,
that in summer, all the family, wrapped
in skins, sleep in the open air. All
round is a desert, with the exception of
the corral, or circular spot, enclosed by
stakes, into which the cattle are driven.
Neither grain nor vegetables are cul-
tivated, nor is the cow made to yield milk.
A certain portion become robbers; and
Captain Head does not consider it safe
to meet a party without a display of
three pistols ready cocked.


*


72















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INDIANS OF BUENOS AYRES.








INDIANS OF BUENOS AYRES.
BUENOs AxYE receives its name (Good
Airs) from its salubrious climate. It is
situated on the river de la Plata, south
of Paraguay. Its plains, called Pampas,
abound in wild horses and cattle, which
are caught with the lasso and bolas, by
the wilf people, called Guachos. The
air is said to be so puie that beef dries
without putrifying and without sak; and
the chief exports of the country are hides
and dried beef. A horse or cow may be
bougl4 for half a dollar in this country.
Fish and fruits are equally abundant
and cheap.
(75)





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


The Indians on the borders of Buenos
Ayres are very fierce, excellent horsemen,
and skilful in the use of their long lances.
They are independent, and often make
inroads on the towns and villages peopled
by the descendants of the original Spa-
nish colonists of the country.
Nevertheless some of these Indians of
the Pampas settle in the Spanish towns,
and become mechanics or shopkeepers.
Our engraving represents an Indian
shopkeeper, with his little stock of bri-
dles, feathers, salt, and woollen cloth.







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PARAGUAY INDIANS.


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PARAGUAY INDIANS.


PARAGUAY is situated between the Pa-
rana and Paraguay rivers, on the south
side of Brazil. It was settled by the
Spaniards, and was formerly a province
of Buenos Ayres. The most curious
thing about the country is 4he way in
which the Indians have been brought
into complete subjection, and accustomed
to regular pursuits of agriculture and
manufactures. This was first effeted
by the Jesuit missionaries, who got poah
session of the whole country, had ~rty
missions, a seat of government, forts and
armies. They excluded all Europeans
(79)





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


except Jesuits, and monopolized the com-
merce and agricultural products of the
country.
After the Jesuits were deprived of their
power, the Indians fell under the domi-
nion of the dictator Francia, who ob-
served the same policy. Since his death
the government is a military despotism
with republican forms. The Creoles and
Indians who compose nearly the whole
population are very quiet, industrious
people, who have learnt the arts of agri-
culture and manufactures; and yield a
Obedience to the government. Their
pful and docile character is attributed
in great measure, to the religious in-
struction and careful training of their
former masters, the Jesuits.


80













































4

































URAGUAY INDIANS.








0
URAGUAY INDIANS.

THa Indians of Uraguay live in a very
simple and rude style. The most re-
markable tribe is that"-of l arruas, a
tribe originally naked and it4iy barba-
rous, like the Botocoudos, but, unlike
them, conquered and partially civilized
by the Spaniards. In their half civilized
state they prefer such employment as
suit their wild habits. They are peons,
shepherds, herdsmen, couriers, catchers
of wild oxen and horses with the bolas
and lasso, and very ofe ,Aighway robbers.
They wear very liotp clothingg, and
subsist, like the Guachos, chiefly on
(83)




0 T


84 COSTUMES OF AMERICA.
beef, wild fruits, and roots. Our engrav-
ing represents their imperfect kind of
cookery, a very rude way of roasting
beef before a fire. They have a superior
way of baking it, by wrapping it in a
piece of raw hide, and putting it in an
impromptu ve~, a hole in the ground
filled with hot coals.
They are very faithful and adroit
guides for travellers; and perform the
hunting and cooking necessary on a jour-
ney through the interior. But when the
Charrua guide has conducted the tra-
veller to his journey's end, and fulfilled
his contract, and got his pay, he feels
quite at liberty to rob the same traveller
if he should meet him in a favorable spot
afterwards.





















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PATAGONIANS.








PATAGONIANS.


THE Patagonians have been repre-
sented by travellers as men of gigantic
stature. The truth appears to be that
they have enormously large heads and
shoulders, and long bodies, with short
and small legs, so that when mounted
on horseback, they look like giants. But
their ordinary stature is from five to six
feet.
They dress in robes made of the skins
of the guanaco, the fox, and other animals.
These robes are ornamented with red
figures. Under the robe is a tunic also
made of skins. Their long black hair is
(87)





88 COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


often tied up with a leather or woollen
string.
SThey are naturally indolent, but fond
of hunting. They are great gluttons,
and especially fond pf butter, oil, and
fat. Their arms are thebow and arrow,
a short javelin and the bolas.
The laborious occupations of the house-
hold are all performed by the women;
the men priding themselves on being
only hunters and warriors.
Their houses are built of stone and
wood, with a water* proof roof of skins.
They are only ten or twelve feet long and
six feet wide. The fire is in the middle
of the floor. These people are a distinct
nation from the Fuegians, of whom we
are next to give an account.






























































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INDIANS OF TERRA DEL FUEGO.








INDIANS OF TERRA DEL FUEGO.

ALL travellers unite in representing
the Fuegians as the most miserable of
the human species. They have large
heads, prominent cheek bones, flat nose,
and a good natured expression of coun-
tenance. They are of low stature, and
badly formed. They smear their bodies
with charcoal, red ochre, and seal oil, a
practice which renders them. hideous in
appearance, and very offensi, to the
smell. They wear robes made of the
skin of the guanacoor the seal, and they
go nearly naked, notwithstanding the
severity of the climate.
(91)





COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


Their dwellings are in the form of a
sugar loaf, and built by driving stakes
in the ground and tying them together
at the top. The fire is built in the mid-
dle of the floor, and the place is always
full ofsmoke. "
They use skilfully the bow and arrow
and the sling. Their canoes are about
fifteen feet long and three feet wide, built
of small branches of trees bent into a
curve and united with the tendons of
animals and bands of leather. The wo-
men row these canoes. They live mostly
on fish *d seals, and they are strongly
suspected of cannibalism, and are charged
with killing their old women when pro-
visions groW scarce.


92



















































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ESQUIMAUX.








ESQUIMAUX.

THE Esquimaut live in Greenland, aid
the northernmost parts of North America.
They dwell, during the. summer, in tent
made of seals' sns. graving e-
presents the interiorfo4 of these tents,
with an tin"fix family. In wint
they construct.tents of snow, which are
warm and commodious. They live on fish
and the flesh of the seal, and make their
garments of the skifs of thb seal bears,
foxes, and sable. r ,
The Esquimaux are enormous eaters,
and they are quit indifferent as to the
quality of thej food. Some of Captain
-(95)
Av"


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96


COSTUMES OF AMERICA.


-. *


Parry's stories of t'eir feats, in the way
of devouring raw-poA'and swallowing
train oil, are almost ineeflible.
They pursue the seal fishery in canoes
of a simple construction. They are
sturdy.beggars and adait thieves, and
when powerf~4 enough in, numbers, they
frequent yii th# .-st's crews of
voyagers, il purpose of robbing
them. Frequent. ines8iJ'of this kind
occurred during the latepiring expe-
ditions of Captaihs PAr, io "Is, and
Franklin. "
The severity of the climate in all the
Arctic regions, has an effect on the sta-
ture of the people. Their average height
is said to be only four feet six inches.





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EN? A TNO










tuntrat took &' .tuq Iart out,

No, 16 CHNU? STIBT,


URDK*t BARRIUES EUSaUU.
PH I.ADELPH IA




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