• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Introduction
 The Sioux
 The Camanches
 Apache Indians
 The Kickapoos
 The Sacs
 The Crow Indians
 Cherokees, Choctaws, and Creek...
 The Seminoles
 Winnebagoes and Menomonies
 Greenlanders
 Esquimaux
 Hunters of the west
 Mexicans
 Mexican soldiers
 Mexican Indians
 Peruvians
 Chilians
 Brazilians
 Brazilian family going to...
 Travelling to Brazil
 Diamond washers of Brazil
 Indians of Brazil
 Buenos Ayreans
 The Gauchos
 Indians of the Pampas
 Indians of Paraguay
 Patagonians
 The Patcherais or Fuegians






Group Title: Illustrated juvenile library
Title: The people of America
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002748/00001
 Material Information
Title: The people of America
Series Title: Illustrated juvenile library
Physical Description: 128 p. : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Darley, Felix Octavius Carr, 1822-1888 ( Illustrator )
Lewis Colby & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Lewis Colby & Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1853
 Subjects
Subject: Indians -- Social life and customs -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Juvenile literature -- South America   ( lcsh )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1853   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1853
Genre: Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
General Note: Caption title: Stories, the people of America.
General Note: Frontispiece signed by Darley (Felix?).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002748
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002235900
oclc - 03536909
notis - ALH6364
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    The Sioux
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The Camanches
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Apache Indians
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The Kickapoos
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The Sacs
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    The Crow Indians
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Cherokees, Choctaws, and Creeks
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The Seminoles
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Winnebagoes and Menomonies
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Greenlanders
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Esquimaux
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Hunters of the west
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Mexicans
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Mexican soldiers
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Mexican Indians
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Peruvians
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Chilians
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Brazilians
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Brazilian family going to church
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Travelling to Brazil
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Diamond washers of Brazil
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Indians of Brazil
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Buenos Ayreans
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    The Gauchos
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Indians of the Pampas
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Indians of Paraguay
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Patagonians
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    The Patcherais or Fuegians
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
Full Text






CIsokj b72. 97

Adelphi Ac
BROO


B0 1439


,ademy


brary,


RInB








































IM CAThIN THU PA&lIn,














THE

PEOPLE

OF

AMERICA.


NEW YORK
LEWIS COLBY & CO.




















Entered according to Act or Congress, in the year 153,

BY LEWIS COLBY & CO.

in the Clerk's Ofee of the Distrit Court of the United Stales,
in and for the he Southern D ct of New York.







STORIES,


THE PEOPLE OF AMERICA.
Ts Aboriginies of all America are
called Indians, because Columbus when
he sailed in search of the Western World
expected to reach the Indies. These In-
dians were divided into many nations and
tribes; some of which are now extinct.
Among those who have delineated and
described the Indians most happilyis Mr.
George Catlin, who travelled among the
western tribes some years since and
painted the portraits of many of their
chiefs.






THE SIOUX.


AMONG the various tribes of Indians
formed in the western part of the territory
belonging to the United States, the most
powerful is the Sioux. This name which
was originally applied to them by the
French, is a general one and comprehends
a confederacy of several tribes of which
those called the Dahcotahs form a part.
They live on the lands west of the
Upper Mississippi country, retaining their
original savage customs, religion and
superstitions; and they are very nume-
(6)
































SIOUX.







sioux. 9
rous, numbering some five thousand war-
riors, besides the women and children.
They are men of large stature, and they
retain the old Indian dress and arms.
Furs, feathers, and deer-skin leggins, are
in use among them, and the bow and
arrow, spear and shield, compose a part
of their arms, although many of them
have muskets.







THE CAMANCHES.


Tars tribe of Indians inhabits the bor-
ders of Texas; and is the most formidable
enemy of the Texans and Mexicans. The
Camanches are fine horsemen. They
hunt the bison with bow and arrow and
spears; and their horsemanship renders
them all the more formidable to the white
people on the frontiers, in their rapid in-
cursions on the plantations, towns and
villages. They enter a village at full
gallop, spear the men, women and child-
ren, plunder the houses, and depart in a
(10)





























A CAMANCHE INDIAN.







THE CAMANCUHS. 13
few hours driving away the cattle and
horses, and all this is accomplished so
quickly that there is no time to send no-
tice to any military post for the purpose
of obtaining assistance.







APACHE INDIANS.


THE Apache Indians live on the borders
of New Mexico. They are a very fierce,
roving tribe, a sort of American Arabs
whose hostility seems directed against all
white men. They are the terror of those
caravans of travellers who carry rich
stores of goods from the United States to
Santa Fe in New Mexico.
Sometimes they extend their maraud-
ing excursions to the villages of New
Mexico and even to the far distant settle-
ments of California. When they make
(14)





































APACHE INDIAN.








captives of the inhabitants, they kill them
on the spot, or carry them into slavery,
or keep them for ransom.
The troops of the United States sta-
tioned at Fort Leavenworth frequently
attack these robbers and treat them with
great severity.







THE KICKAPOOS.


MR. CATLIN thus describes the Kicka-
poos. The Kickapoos are at present but
a small tribe, numbering six or eight
hundred, the remnant of a once numerous
and warlike tribe. They are residing
within the state of Illinois, near the south
end of Lake Michigan, and living in a
poor and miserable condition, although
they have one of the finest countries in
the world. They have been reduced in
numbers by whiskey and small-pox, and
the game being destroyed in their country,
(18)



















IL


1.







THE KICKAPOOS.


they are exceedingly poor and dependent.
In fact, there is very little inducement
for them to build houses and cultivate
their farms, for they own so large and so
fine a tract of country, which is now com-
pletely surrounded by civilized settle-
ments, that they know, from experience,
they will soon be obliged to sell out their
country for a trifle, and move to the West
This system of moving has already com-
menced with them, and a considerable
party have located on a tract of land
offered to them on the west bank of the
Missouri river, a little north of Fort
Leavenworth.







THE SACS.


AMoxG the tribes in the Far West which
were visited by Mr. Catlin are the Sacs
or Sanks. They live on the Upper Mis-
souri; and are nearly in the same origi-
nal, wild state in which all the American
Indians were at the time of the discovery
of America. Mr. Catlin thus describes
the way in which they hunt the buffalo.
The poor buffaloes have their enemy, man,
besetting and besieging them at all times
of the year, and in all the modes that
man in his superior wisdom has been able
(22)















-4


SACS HUNTING THE BUFFALO IN DISGUISE.


~Q~2~_~








to devise for their destruction. They
struggle in vain to evade his deadly shafts.
when he dashes along the plains on
his wild horse-they plunge into the snow-
drifts where they yield themselves an
easy prey to their destroyers, and they
also stand unwittingly and behold him,
unsuspected, under the skin of a white
wolf, insinuating himself and his fatal
weapons into close company, when they
are peaceably grazing on the level prai-
ries, and shot down before they are aware
of their danger.







THE CROW INDIANS.


MR. CATLIN thus speaks of the Crow
Indians. No tribe of Indians on the con-
tinent are better able to produce a pleas-
ing and thrilling effect in showy scenes,
nor any more vain, and consequently
better prepared to draw pleasure and
satisfaction from them. than the Crows.
They may be justly said to be the most
beautifully clad of all the Indians in these
regions, and bringing from the base of
the Rocky Mountains a fine and spirited
breed of the wild horses, have been able
(26)











































mm-A







THE CROW INDIANS. 29
to create a great sensation amongst the
Minatarees, who have been paying them
all attention and all honors for some days
past
From amongst these showy fellows who
have been entertaining us and pleasing
themselves with their extraordinary feats
of horsemanship, I have selected one of
the most conspicuous, and transferred
him and his horse, with arms and trap-
pings, as faithfully as I could to the can-
vass, for the information of the world, who
will learn vastly more from lines and
colors than they could from oral or written
delineations.







CHEROKEES, CHOCTAWS, AND
CREEKS.
MR CATLIN gives the following pleasant
account of the Cherokees in their new
home in the west. Their number is
twenty-two thousand. Living in the vi-
cinity of, and about Fort Gibson, on the
Arkansas, and seven hundred miles west
of the Mississippi river, are the once very
numerous and powerful tribe who in-
habited a considerable part of the state
of Georgia, and under a treaty made with
the United States government, have been
removed to those regions, where they are
(30)




































r-~ -


A CHEROKE INDIAN.


:,-= ..


m







CHEROKEES, CHOCTAWS, AND CREEKS.


settled on a fine tract of country; and
having advanced somewhat in the arts
and agriculture before they started, are
now found to be mostly living well, cul-
tivating their fields of corn and other
crops, which they raise with great success.
I have travelled pretty generally through
the several different locations of this in-
teresting tribe, both in the western and
eastern divisions, and have found them,
as well as the Choctaws and Creeks, their
neighbors, very far advanced in the arts;
affording to the world the most satisfac-
tory evidences, that are to be found in
America, of the fact, that the Indian was
not made to shun and evade good ex-
ample, and necessarily to live and die a
brute.






THE SEMINOLES.


THE Seminoles have lived in Florida
from a very early period. It is supposed
that they, and the Creeks, Cherokees, and
Choctaws are the same people who so
successfully resisted the attempts of the
early Spanish invaders to conquer their
country. In later times they have waged
war with the United States with more
obstinacy and perseverance than any
other tribe. The few of them which re-
main in their country after their pro-
tracted wars with the whites are the only
(34)

























c:..


A TATTOOED SEMINOLE.







A TATTOOED SEMINOLE.


remains of the Southern Indians who
have not been removed to the west of the
Mississippi. Their valor has been greatly
aided in the defence of their country by
the swampy character of the country,
which makes it impossible for regular
troops to follow them into their fortresses
and strong-holds among the ever-glades.
The practice of tattooing which we here
represent is very ancient among them,
being shown in the drawings made by
the early French settlers in Florida.







WINNEBAGOES AND MENOMONIES.
SCALPING a dead or wounded enemy
seems always to have been a practice with
all the North American Indians. The
Winnebagoes and Menomonies still prac-
tice it, Mr. Catlin saw many of these
Indians at Prairie du Chien. He thus
speaks of them: Prairie du Chien is the
concentrating place of the Winnebagoes
and Menomonies, who inhabit the waters
of the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers, and
the chief part of the country lying east
of the Mississippi, and west of Green Bay.
(38)































A WINNEBAGO WARRIOR







WINDEBAGOES AND MENOMONIES.


The Winnebagoes are the remnant of
a once powerful and warlike tribe, but are
now left in a country where they have
neither beasts or men to war with; and
are in a most miserable and impoverished
condition. The numbers of this tribe do
not exceed four thousand; and the most
of them have sold even their guns and
ammunition for whiskey. Like the Sioux
and Menomonies that come in to this
post, they have several times suffered
severely with the small-pox, which has
in fact destroyed the greater proportion
of them.







GREENLNDERIS.


TnE Greenlanders inhabit that large,
cold, desolate region on the east side of
Baffin's Bay. Their country is very barren
and gloomy. It was discovered and
settled by a colony from Denmark, more
than five hundred years ago, and there
were Christian churches and civilized
people settled there. But they seem to
have perished long ago; the present in-
habitants are poor savages, differing but
little from the Esquimaux who live on the
opposite side of the bay.
(42)































GREENLANDERS HUNTING SEALS ON THE ICE.


~is








They have but little food save what is
obtained by hunting and fishing and in
these pursuits they are skilful. Our en-
graving represents a Greenlander hunting
seals by creeping along on the ice and
stabbing them with a spear.


-~


__r5







ESQUIMAUX.


Tes Esquimaux live in Labrador, and
the other cold regions in the northern
part of America visited by Captains Parry,
Ross, and Franklin; and it is to the ac-
count of these hardy voyagers that we are
chiefly indebted for our knowledge of their
manners and customs. The cold climate
in which they live compels them to dress
in furs, to live in snow houses, or huts of
skin, and to subsist almost entirely on
animal food. The quantity of meat, fish,
and train-oil, which an Esquimaux will
(46)



















-a--- -s


ESQUIMAUX CHILDREN DANCING.







ESQUIMAUX.


swallow at a meal
They are very fond
dress them prettily
them to dance, as
fish.


is almost incredible.
of their children, and
y in furs and teach
well as to hunt and


4







HUNTERS OF THE WEST.


OF all the people of America there is
no more remarkable class than the
hunters of the west. These men adopt
the wild life of Indian hunters; but are
generally hostile to the Indians. Their
passion for hunting as pursuit is intense;
and they range over the wide region be-
tween the Mississippi and the Rocky
Mountains, pursuing the bison, the prong
horn antelope, and the Rocky Mountain
Sheep, but chief of all, the beaver, whose
fine fur always commands a high price,
(50)
































s--- ~r


- ~- -








and thus furnishes them with the means
of replenishing their stock of ammunition;
and enjoying a grand frolic and drinking
bout. Their great delight is to be hunting
in the woods and prairies; and when
they visit the settlements, to sell their
furs, they quickly spend their money in
ammunition and spirits; and then gladly
return to the wilds again.
Mr. Irving, in his "Astoria," gives a
graphic account of these hunters.







MEXICANS.


THE Mexicans are of a good stature,
generally exceeding rather than failing
short of the middle-size, and well-propor-
tioned in all their limbs; they have good
complexions, narrow foreheads, black
eyes, clean, firm, regular, white teeth;
thick, black, and glossy hair. Their skin
is of an olive color. There is scarcely a
nation upon the earth in which there are
fewer persons deformed, and it would be
more difficult to find a single hump-
backed, lame, or squinting man, amongst
(54)





























~- zr~-e-


MEXICANS AT AN INN







MEXICANS. 07
a thousand Mexicans, than among a hun-
dred of any other nation. Their appear-
ance neither engages nor disgusts; but
among the young women of Mexico, there
are man vy r fair and beautiful. The
Mexicans have ever been moderate in
eating, but their passion for liquors is
carried to the greatest excess.


S- P

*-tVP^^!^e 4wv'r'ndt49Yr97f^__







MEXICAN SOLDIERS.


TuH Mexican Soldiers, in the recent
war with the United States showed con-
siderable courage, as is very apparent
from the great numbers of them that were
killed in battle. Their misfortunes in the
war are attributed to the want of gene-
ralship and courage in the officers.
The cavalry is said to be very efficient;
and as they dress in rich, beautiful and
showy uniforms, they make a very hand-
some appearance on parade.
In the battle of Buena Vista, they are
(58)














~~







MEXICAN SOLDIERS. 61
said to have done good service; and no-
thing but the indomitable bravery of Ge-
neral Taylor, and the firmness and ac-
tivity of his officers and men, saved ouI
army from utter ruin.







MEXICAN INDIANS.


TuE Mexican Indians arc, of course, the
descendants of those valiant Aztecs, who,
under Montezuma and Guatimozin, so
nobly resisted the invasion of the Span-
iards under Cortez. But they are wofully
degenerated since the conquest Igno-
rant and bigoted they submit to the con-
querors without a murmur, and their
condition is little better than that of
slaves.
They retain still, however, their ancient
fondness for flowers, gay dresses and fine
(62)



































MEXICAN INDIANS IN HOLIDAY DRESS.







MEXICAN INDIANS.


shows; and in this latter respect the gor-
geous processions of the Catholic church
gratify their taste. They are ingenious
in the imitative arts. They work skil-
fully in gold and silver; and make beau-
tiful models, in clay and wood, of the
national costumes. They are addicted
like all the American Indians to the
grossest intemperance.







PERUVIANS.


AMONG the native nations of South
America, the Peruvians are the most in-
teresting, having, in some instances, ad-
vanced nearer to civilization than the
Mexicans already described. The Llama,
or small camel, had been rendered sub-
servient to their industry; and their
buildings erected of stone still remain,
while of the earthen edifices of the Mex-
icans, the ruins have perished. The his-
tory of the Peruvian monarchs cannot be
depended on: the government of the In-
(66)






























IPEIUVIAN INDIANS.








eas was a kind of theocracy, and the in-
habitants revered a divine descent, not
claimed by the Mexican monarchs. The
religion of the Peruvians was that of love
and beneficence, while the Mexicans, in
their cruel rites, seem to have been in-
fluenced by the fear of some malignant
deities. Sacrifices of the smaller animals,
and offerings of fruits and flowers, formed
the chief rites of Peruvian superstition.
The captives taken in war were not im-
molated but inst instructed in the arts of civi-
lization. The Peruvians had advanced
far before the Mexicans in the necessary
arts of life. Manures and irrigation were
not unknown, though a kind of mattock
formed the chief instrument of agricul-
ture. Their weapons and ornaments dis-








played no small degree of skill, particu-
larly in cutting and piercing emeralds. It
is much to be regretted that superstition
led them to sacrifice numerous victims on
the death of a chief, and a favorite mo-
narch was sometimes followed to the
tomb by a thousand slaughtered servants.
Though Peru is situated within the
torrid zone, it is not so annoyed with heat
as the other tropical climates; and though
the sky is generally cloudy, shielding the
natives from the perpendicular rays of
the sun, it is said that no rain ever falls;
but the genial and nightly dews descend
on the ground and refresh the plants and
grass that in many places are luxuriantly
fertile.
In the vicinity of Lima there are many
































PERUVIAN LADIES








gold and silver mines.
part of South Americ


Peru is the only
ca which produces


quicksilver; it is found in whitish masses
resembling ill-burnt bricks.
The country was conquered many years
ago, by the Spaniards, under Pizarro and


Almagro, and
until recently.


was a Spanish province
It is now a republic.







CHILIANS.


TUE Chilians resemble the Peruvians
and Mexicans in manners and habits, the
civilized portion of all the inhabitants of
South America being chiefly descended
from Spaniards. There is the same native
courteousness, politeness, kindness of
heart, ignorance, extravagant love of di-
version, abject superstition, and propen-
sity to quarreling. This last passion,
which among the lower orders is fed
chiefly by a resort to grog shops, is alleged
by Mr. Proctor to be more prominent
(74)



































.--


CHILIAN GENTRY.








than among other Americans, and often
productive of bloodshed. The ladies
often can neither write nor read; but
Mrs. Graham and Captain Hall join in
praising their natural talents, and the un-
studied grace of their manners. Mr. Cald-
cleugh conceives the general deportment
of those in the higher ranks to be almost
unexceptionable.
The habitations of the lower ranks in
Chili are of the most rude and primitive
construction: the walls merely of stakes
crossing each other, and fastened with
thongs, or hemp twine; the roofs, which
must resist the rain, composed of branches,
plastered with mud and covered with
palm leaves. These, on both sides of the
Cordillera, are called ranchos. The name








of houses is assumed, where the walls
are built of brick, which is easily formed
in almost all the environs of Valparaiso,
by merely digging out the clay, watering,
treading, and then drying it in the sun.
The walls are solid and thick; the apart-
ments spacious, well furnished, and often
richly gilded.
The negro population of Chili has
never been numerous, and the slaves have
always been employed for domestic pur-
poses, and treated with much kindness,
the laws of the country being very favor-
able to them. In 1811, a law was en-
acted, declaring free after that period all
children of slaves born in Chili; and in
1825, the number of slaves was so far
diminished, that it was thought expedient











to abolish slavery altogether. Santiago,
the captial of Chili, is situated in a
richly wooded plain, at an elevation of
two thousand six hundred feet above the
sea, which renders the climate agreeable
and salubrious. Its aspect is irregular
and picturesque.







BRAZILIANS.


BRZIL is an empire, ruled by an em-
peror of Portuguese descent. Colonized
by Portugal in the sixteenth century, it
became independent but a few years
since. As the Brazilians often emancipate
their negro slaves and allow them to be-
come free citizens of the empire, the
population has become mixed, and the
highest offices in the army and navy as
well as in the civil departments are often
filled by negroes and mulattoes.
The empire is very large although a
(82)






























BRAZILIAN GENTRY.







BRAZILIANS. 85
great part of it is still unreclaimed forest
inhabited by the original savage inhabi-
tants. Nearly the whole, from soil, cli-
mate, and communications, is capable of
being brought, at some future and distant
period, into full improvement.







BRAZILIAN FAMILY GOING TO
CHURCH.
THE Brazilians, being descended from
the Portuguese, who are strict Catholics,
still adhere to the religion of the Catholic
church, and are very attentive to the
forms and ceremonies prescribed by their
priests. Dressed in their best apparel,
they resort punctually to early mass, and
when that is over, they are very ready to
participate in all the pleasures and
amusements which are permitted to the
members of that communion. Agricul-
(861





























A BRAZILIAN FAMILY GOING TO CHURCIL







A BRAZILIAN FAMILY GOING TO CHURCH. 89
ture is exercised in Brazil upon valuable
products, and in fertile soils, but in a
very slovenly manner.
Our engraving represents a Brazilian
family on their way to church.







TRAVELLING IN BRAZIL


THE Spanish and Portuguese Amen
cans are by no means sparing of the labor
of their servants and slaves. The Tamenes
of Mexico and Colombia are noticed by
the historian Robertson. They carried
men in a sort of chair on their backs, the
rider sitting at his ease and facing back-
wards.
Our engraving represents one of the
modes of travelling in Brazil. It repre-
sents a lady carried in a sort of hammock
by two slaves. This must be rather an
(90)





























A MODE OF TRAVELLING IN BRAZIL.







TRAVELLING IN BRAZIL 93
uneasy mode of riding, not to be com-
pared with the palanquin of Hindoostan,
or the sedan chair formerly used in En-
gland. Of the Brazilian character report
does not speak very favorably.
They are, on the whole, a good set of
people; hospitable, liberal, and open-
hearted.







DIAMOND WASHERS OF BRAZIL
THE diamonds of Brazil are a source of
wealth more brilliant than gold, but less
productive. The principal diamond
ground is in a circuit of sixteen leagues
round Tejuco, in the district of Serro do
Frio. The trade has been monopolised
by the government; and, as usual in such
cases, has been conducted at a very great
expense. Not less than one hundred and
fifty thousand dollars annually is said to
be expended in officers, negroes, ma-
chinery, and instruments. All proprietors
(94)
































GOLD WASll jS.







DIAMOND WASHERS OF BRAZIL


resident near the spoteagerly proffertheir
negroes at a very low rate; to which pro-
ceeding it is alleged that sinister mo-
tives frequently impel them. The dia-
monds of Brazil are found in a situation
similar to that of the gold, among por-
tions of alluvial earth. Of all the deposi-
tories of diamonds, the most celebrated
is the river Jiquitonhonha which flows
nearly as broad as the Thames at Windsor.
When worked, the channel is turned aside
either by canals or pumps, and the earth
from the bottom dug out







INDIANS OF BRAZIL


TnE Indians in Brazil are in a much
more uncivilized and unpromising state
than in the Spanish settlements. They
never have been incorporated in any
manner or shape with the European
population, but have always retired be-
fore the progress of civilization into the
depths of their forests. They have bor-
rowed, indeed, from the Portuguese some
scanty portion of raiment. But they
have never attempted the taming of
animals, or the planting of grain; they
(98)









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