Article Title: Seminole War. Documents Continued. Another two full pages of letters, including responses from Spanish Gov. Marot of West Florida, dealing with Jackson's pursuit of the war against the Seminoles in Florida.
Author:
Published in: National Intelligencer
Place of Publication: Washington, DC
Publication Date: 12/15/1818




WASHINGTON.
Monday, December 14.
We have, to the exclusion of every thing else, to-day concluded the publication of the documents relating to the Seminole war. They are sufficiently long ; but we have no doubt our readers will thank us for having published them.
We stated, a few days ago, the number of days' work which had been executed by the detachment of the Army at Plattsburgh, within the last year. At Sackett's Harbor, the men have been hitherto employed in building barracks at that place. By the order of General Brown, which we have copied to-day, it will be seen that the Army is about to be employed, in that quarter also, by direction of the Executive, in the construction of an important military road.
A correspondent, who has seen Mr. Williams's motion to reduce the Army, and who was contemporaneously reminded of the defective organization of the militia of the United States, suggests, that the latter should, in the order of things, be made efficient, before the former is made inefficient. Perhaps our correspondent is right. We hope, whatever happens, that the present session will not pass over without an attempt to give uniformity to the organization of the militia, and to impart to it a character of energy and precision.
SEMINOLE WARDOCUMENT IS CONCLUDED.
(Enclosure in Gen. Jackson's letter, published in our last.)HEAD QUARTERS, Division South,
Fort St. Marks, April 27, 1818.
After I left this post for St. Juan, to disperse and destroy the mutual enemy of Spain and the United States, a small schooner with men and supplies arrived from Pensacola, and was taken possession of and detained by my officer left in command. This vessel has been liberated with all her effects, excepting some clothing of the U. States, accompanied with an invoice, and which has been detained, as supposed to be part of that taken on board the boats within the territory of this republic, in which Lieut. Scott, of the United States army, with his command, were so inhumanly massacred.
I regret being compelled to state to you, that from the papers and other proofs, taken at St. Juan's, the quantity of American cattle found at St. Marks and purchased by me from the Commissary of the post, and the intercourse kept up between this post and the hostile Indians, there is too much ground to believe that the Indians have been encouraged, aided and abetted by the officers of Spain in this cruel war against the United States. Proof positive exists that the Indians were supplied with ammunition by the late commandant of St. Marks. The United States clothing being found on board of a vessel in the employ of the government of Spain, sailing from Pensacola direct for this port, compels me to call on you for a statement in what manner you came possessed of said clothing. The good understanding that so happily exists between his Catholic Majesty and the United States, formed just ground to believe that his agents would have discountenanced this cruel and savage war against the citizens of this republic. Spain, too weak to comply with her treaties with the United States, or chastise her own savage subjects waging war against a friendly nation, it was scarcely to be believed that her officers would have been detected in aiding and abetting the enemy, assisting with the intelligence of our movements, and purchasing the property depredated of us. America, just to her treaties, and anxious to maintain peace with the world, cannot and will not permit such a savage war to be carried on in disguise any longer. Asylums have been granted to the persons and property of an Indian foe (fugitives from the territory of the United States.) Facilities deemed by me necessary to terminate a war, which, under existing treaties, should have been maintained by Spain, for feeding my troops and liberating the subjects of Spain imprisoned by the Indians, have all been denied by the officers of this Catholic Majesty. All the facts prove the unjust conduct of Spanish agents in Florida. It cannot be longer tolerated, and, although a republic fond of peace, the United States know her rights, and at the expense of war will maintain them.
ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. Com. Don JOSE MASOT, Governor of Pensacola. HEAD QUARTERS, Division of the South. Adjutant General's Office, Fort Gadsden, Appalachicola River, 3d May, 1818.
Sir : I have the honor to report, that the army under the immediate command for of Major General Andrew Jackson took up the line of march on the 26th day of March last, with eight days rations, and lay in advance of this post about six miles on the 29th at Ochlochaway river, when nineteen canoes were made, and the principal part of the army crossed by 8 o'clock, P.M. On this evening Brevet Major Twiggs, of the 7th Infantry, was detached with one company and about two hundred warriors, with orders to advance on an Indian village called Tallahassee, and surprise it at day break. On this near approach, he dispatched a party to ascertain its situation, who reported it evacuated some days before; on the morning of the 31st he entered the village, having previously sent out parties to reconnoitre ; two of the enemies were made prisoners, one of whom made his escape from the Indians before he was brought into camp. The army passed the village about 12 o'clock, and encamped near Mickasuky, when intelligence was received of the approach of a detachment of mounted volunteers, from Tennessee, under the command of Lieut. Colonel Elliot, near four hundred stong. On the morning of the 1st of April, the army formed and halted under their arrival, when they were ordered to form the advance of each flank, with captains Russel and Evans's companies, as spies, with captain John Gordon. The army now advanced within 1 1/2 miles of Kinghajah's Town, when a number of Indians were discovered herding cattle in the margin of a large pond. The general ordered the right and left columns to advance, with a view of cutting off their retreat, and the same time instructed the advance light company, under Major Muhlenberg, the guard, Major Nicks, together with the small companies composing his life guard, under Captains Dunlap and Crittenden, to advance, in support of the spies, in the event of a general engagement. The spy companies commenced the attack, and a brisk running fire was kept on both sides for some minutes, when the enemy divided, the spy companies pursuing those on the right, and Lieutenant Colonel Elliot, having turned their flank, became generally engaged, and bore them over to the left column, under the command of Lieut. Col. Mitchell, within half gun shot of each other, when they were assailed by both flanks and would all have fallen, had not the volunteers taken up the impression (from the similarity of dress) that some of the friendly warriors had reached in pursuit of the enemy, which occasioned the firing to cease for a short time, when a number made good their retreat into the swamp; Captain Crittenden's company being on horseback, was unable to reach the head of Lieutenant Colonel Elliot's column, when they dismounted and operated against the enemy. Major Muhlenberg's company, the advanced guard, and Captain Dunlap's company, being on foot was not able to reach the scene of action in time. The right column of Georgia militia on nearing the pond filed round it, and Col. King, with his regiment, was ordered to advance through it to support the column of horse, should it be found necessary, which was executed by the Colonel with great promptness. The conduct of the officers and soldiers engaged on this occasion, was, in every respect, praiseworthy. Our loss, one man of Captain Andrew's company killed and four of Captain Evans's company of Tennessee volunteers wounded. The reports give 14 killed and several wounded of the enemy, and four women prisoners, from whom we learned, that three hundred warriors had advanced from the town to aid those engaged, and, on seeing the advance of an army, fled precipitately. The army now advanced upon the town (which was found deserted) and on reaching the square, discovered a red pole planted at the Council House, on which was suspended about fifty fresh scalps, taken from the heads of extreme age, down to the tender infant, of both sexes, and in an adjacent house, near three hundred men, which bore the appearance of having been the barbarous trophies of settled hostility for three or four years past.
The army continued the pursuit to a large pond of water, which is eight miles in length, varying in width from 600 to 4000 yards, and from two to five feet deep ; through which the army passed, when the approach of night induced the commanding general to draw off his troops. On the succeeding morning, brevet Maj. Gen. E. P. Gaines, with a large command, was ordered to pass the lake or pond, and attack the other towns ; but which he found abandoned by the enemy ; the red pole was again found planted in the square of Fowl Town, barbarously decorated with human scalps, of both sexes, taken within the last six months from the heads of our unfortunate citizens. Gen. McIntosh, who was with Gen. Gaines, routed a small party of savages near Fowl Town, killed one Negro and took three prisoners, on one of whom was found the coat of James Champion, of Capt. Cummings' company, 4th regiment of infantry, who was killed by the Indians on board of one of our boats descending the river the relief of Maj. Muhlenberg ; this coat, with nearly all Capt. Cummings' company's clothing, was lost on board of Lieut. Scott's boat when he and his party were massacred on the 30th of November last. The pocket book of Mr. Leigh (who was murdered at Cedar Creek on the 21st January last) was found in Kinghajah's Town, containing several letters addressed to the deceased, and one to General Glasscock. About one thousand head of cattle fell into our hands, many of which were recognized by the Georgia militia as the brands and marks of their citizens. Near three thousand bushels of corn was found, with other articles useful to the army. Upwards of three hundred houses were consumed, leaving a tract of fertile country in ruin ; where these wretches might have lived in plenty, but for the infernal machinations of foreign traders, if not agents. The army remained at this point until the morning of the 5th, when the march was resumed for St. Marks, before which it arrived on the evening of the 6th ; and, after communicating with the commanding officer, took possession of that fortress on the following morning. Capt. M'Keever, of the navy, having sailed for St. Marks with some vessels, containing supplies for the army, was fortunate enough to entice on board his vessel in the river, Francis or Hillishajo and Homathlamicco, hostile chiefs of the Creek nation, and whose settled hostility have been severely felt by our citizens. The commanding general had them brought on shore, and ordered them to be hung, as an example to deter others from exciting these deluded wretches to future scenes of butchery. A man of the name A. Arbuthnot was also taken on the arrival of the army, and placed in close confinement.
The troops having again received eight day's rations and a garrison detached for Fort St. Marks, the army marched on the 9th of April, destined for Suwany. On the morning of the 12th, the officer of the day reported, that the centinels had heard the lowing of cattle and barking of dogs during the night ; from which the General was induced to send a runner to General McIntosh, who encamped a short distance in rear of the army, with instructions to have the country below examined. In the mean time, the army moved slowly in advance. General McIntosh dispatched Major Kanard, with a party, who returned to him a runner, reporting the discovery of a hostile party too strong for his little band of warriors. McIntosh moved against them with his whole force. A small detachment of different companies of the Tennessee volunteers, under Colonels Dyer and Williamson (they having joined the army on the evening of the 10th,) were left at our encampment to search for horses ; and, on hearing the report of Major Kanard, formed themselves into a company, under Captain Bell, who was with them, and moved to attack the enemy, whom they found near a large swamp, endeavoring to move off. A spirited engagement ensued, which resulted in the death of thirty-seven, and six men and ninety-eight women and children prisoners, and our loss three killed and four wounded of the friendly Indians. The only woman, out of seven, whose life was spared at the massacre of Lt. Scott, was here recaptured by Major Kanard. General McIntosh individually killed three of the enemy, and captured one. The little band of Tennessee volunteers acted on this occasion as becomes their character. At the commencement of the action the army was halted, and a runner dispatched to inform General McIntosh that any aid he might deem necessary, would be afforded, and that the army would remain until his arrival, which was not until we encamped for the night.
The enemy abandoned a number of horses, hogs, corn, and about 600 head of cattle. The army moved on the morning of the 13th, and on the succeeding day our spies surprized a camp, consisting of two men, a woman, and two children. One of the men was killedthe other, with a small boy, slightly wounded, and the woman, unfortunately, not being distinguished in the swamp, received a wound, of which she died.
At three o'clock, P.M. on the 26th, the army arrived at a large pond, within 6 miles of Bowlegs' Town, on Suwany River, where a few Indians, well mounted, discovered our advance. An attempt was made to overtake them ; but the enfeebled state of our horses rendered it impracticable. Under these circumstances, the General deemed it advisable to make the town by a forced march, not allowing the enemy time to cross the river and destroy their supplies. The manner of attack having been previously arranged, the army moved rapidly, until arriving near the arranged, the army moved rapidly, until arriving near the large which flanks the town when the troops changed position, conformably to previous orders, and moved forward. The left flank, composed of Colonel Williamson's regiment of Tennessee volunteers, at the head of which a force of Indian warriors, under (now Colonel) Kanard soon came in contact, and warmly engaged the Indians and Negroes ; whilst the right flank, composed of Col. Dyer's regiment of Tennessee volunteers, with a like force of warriors, under Gen. McIntosh, advanced near the river, to prevent the enemy from crossing. The centre advanced in excellent order, and under the expectation of having to combat with the strength of these towns, and the fugitives from Mickasuky ; but on reaching Bowleg's Town, found it abandoned. The left flank, from the nature of the ground they had to traverse, and Colonel Kanard not adhering entirely to the route designated, drove the Indians and negroes, (about 300) into the river, before the right flank could occupy the desired position. The report give 11 killed, and 3 prisoners on the field ; and it is believed many were killed and drowned in swimming the river, it being nearly 300 yards wide. Colonel Kanard had 13 wounded, but one dangerously. About 2700 bushels of corn were obtained in the towns and neighboring swamps ; near 90 head of cattle, and a number of horses. Our centinels, on the night of the 17th, took prisoners two white men (Ambrister and Cook,) and one negro, who had just returned from Arbuthnot's vessel, at the mouth of Suwany. From the latter we obtained a letter written by A. Arbuthnot to his son, in which he enumerates the army of the United States, under the General's command, and requests him to inform his friend Bowlegs, that resistance would be fruitless against such an overwhelming force, and to make over the river with all dispatch ; admonishing his son, at the same time, to remove and secret every thing which could be removed. From Cook we learned, that this letter was read to the negroes and Indians, when they immediately commenced crossing their families, and had just finished as we entered their towns. Upwards of three hundred houses were here consumed , the most of which were well built, and somewhat regular, extending near three miles up the river. On the morning of the 18th, General Gaines was ordered , with a select command, and a number of warriors, under General McIntosh, to cross the Suwany river, in pursuit of the enemy, but found, on advancing about six miles, that they had dispersed in every direction, from the numerous trails, and too far advanced to overtake them, his commands being short of supplies. A detachment of the warriors having advanced some distance, fell in with a small party of the enemy, killed three warriors, took some women and children, and five negroes. On the same morning, Lt. James Gadsden, aid-de-camp to the Commanding General, descended the Suwany river to its mouth, with Captain Dunlap's and a few of Capt. Crittenden's companies of the life guard, and a small detachment of regulars, and captured, without difficulty, the schooner of A. Arbuthnot, which had brought supplies of powder and lead to the Indians and Negroes, settled at Suwany. This vessel afforded the means of transporting our sick back to St. Marks. On the evening of the 20th, General Glasscock was ordered, at his request, to march his brigade by Mickasucky to Hartford, in Georgia, and Captain Bell ordered to muster them out of service, and the army moved about 3-4 of a mile, preparatory to its return. On the 24th, General McIntosh was ordered to proceed direct to Fort Scott, on Flint River, and an order furnished him to the commanding officer to muster his warriors out of service.
The army reached Fort St. Marks on the 25th, having marched 28 miles on that day ; and we were agreeably surprized in finding Lt. Gadsden had arrived safely that evening, from the mouth of Suwany. On the 26th, a special court was ordered for the trial of A. Arbuthnot and Robert C. Ambrister ; which court on the documents and evidence adduced, sentenced the first to be hung , and the latter to be shot. They were accordingly executed on the morning of the 29th. The army moved encamped four miles from St. Marks, on the evening of the 28th, and arrived at Fort Gadsden on the 2d inst. the General having previously detached a garrison of two hundred men, under the command of Brevet Major Fanning, to occupy Fort St. Marks, I have only to add, that this army has borne hardships and privations to a great extent, in a manner becoming soldiers and citizens of a nation proud of their liberties. The Assistant Topographical Engineer will furnish a topographical report of the country through which the army operated ; and I refer you to the enclosed sketches for information of our order of movement.
And have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
ROBERT BUTLER, Adj. GenBrig. Gen. DANIEL PARKER, Adj. and Insp. Gen.
(TRANSLATED COPY.)
PENSACOLA, 18th MAY, 1818.
Most Excellent sir: On the 10th inst. I received your excellency's letter of the 27th of April last, informing me that some articles of the clothing, used by the troops of the United States, and supposed to be part of those taken in the boat in which Lieut. Scott and his escort were so inhumanly murdered, were found in a small schooner, dispatched from this port for that of Apalache, with provisions.
Your excellency enquires of me, in what manner these articles came in my possession ; and you further state, that you feel yourself obliged to inform me that the documents and the proofs found in St. Juan ; the detection of American cattle, found in St. Marks ; and the correspondence carried on between this post and the hostile Indians ; are sufficient to create a belief, that they were armed and incited to this cruel war against the United States, by the Spanish officers.
Your excellency adds, that there exist positive proofs that the Indians were supplied with munitions by the last commander of St. Marks ; and you conclude by saying that an asylum has been granted here to the persons and property of the Indians, who are enemies to the United States, and fugitives from the American territory ; and that these proceedings, and the refusing to allow the passage of provisions for your troops, prove the unjust conduct of the Spanish Agents in the Florida.
I shall answer the charges alleged in their proper order, with candor, and without evasion or reservation.
The first complaint made by your Excellency is relative to the articles of clothing found on board schooner Maria, and which have been detained on the supposition, that they are the property of the United States.
Part of the articles, as is proved by copy, No.1. were purchased at New Orleans, in the month of May, last year, part came from the Havana, and part were purchased in this place. All this is established. The charge is, of course, done away ; and your Excellency's question is satisfactory answered.
The succeeding one is more serious, and relates to the course observed of late by the Governor of St. Marks.
I immediately required of him an account of his conduct, and he made the communication found in copy No. 2. However, as your excellency affirms that you posses positive proofs of the misconducts of this officer, I must, as a necessary consequence, entreat you to submit them to me, that, the fact being established, I may inflict on him deserved punishment. I assure your excellency, with the sincerity natural to me, that he has acted in entire opposition to his instructions, and, that, if your excellency will transmit the proofs I request, he shall be brought before a council of war, and punished with all the severity his transgressions deserve ; but your excellency will be just enough to allow, that the Spanish government cannot be responsible for the misconduct of its Agents, when it neither upholds them, therein, nor suffers their malpractices, being ascertained, to pass unpunished.
The last complaints of your excellency have a personal and direct application to myself, and are relative to the asylum granted to the persons and property of the fugitive Indians ; and to the passage of provisions up the Escambia. It is easy for me to remove these charges, and, I think, your excellency will be satisfied with a short and true relation of facts.
With respect to the Indians, your excellency has assuredly been misinformed, as, although it is true that some remained here, the greater part of them were women and children, who procured a subsistence by furnishing the inhabitants with wood, fish, and other trifling objects, and were here before the present war with the Seminolesothers now and then assembled, on account of the war, but in very small numbers ; as, when I had them collected, in compliance with the proposition made by Major Young, they altogether amounted to eighty-seven, and, assuredly, these few unarmed and miserable men were not hostile to the United States. The continual passing of American citizens from the frontier to this people, who traveled alone and unarmed among them, without being, at any time, insulted or molested in their persons or property, is a proof of this.
With respect to the passage of provisions up the Escambia, I have not hitherto prevented it, but, on the contrary , have facilitated it, so far as I was able, and my limited powers have permitted, even to the compromising of myself, for, being only a subordinate officer, I could not consent to it, as it is unauthorised, but I took the responsibility on myself, in consideration of existing circumstances ; and so I stated to your excellency in my letter of the 15th of last month, which I wrote to you by Major Perrault, and to which I refer you, in support of my assertion. Now, that the free commerce of this people, with those of the interior is declared admissible by higher authority, there will, in future, be no difficulty in allowing the merchants to transport from hence to Fort Crawford, and other forts on the frontier, as well by water as by land, whatever provisions and effects they may need or desire ; by which means, these posts will, readily, be provisioned, and your excellency will be satisfied.
I think I have answered your excellency's letter satisfactorily, and in a manner which can leave no doubt of the sincerity of my intentions, and which evinces my desire to contribute, so far as depends on me, to the good understanding existing between our respective governments.
God preserve your excellency many years. JOSE MASOT
His excellency, ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. of the army of the United States TRANSLATED COPY.
It having come to my knowledge that you have passed the frontiers with the troops under your command, and that you are in the territory of this province of West Florida, which is subject to my government, I solemnly protest against this procedure as an offence towards my Sovereign, exhorting you, and requiring of you, in his name, to retire from it, as, if you do not, and continue your aggressions, I shall repel force by force.
The consequence in this case will, doubtless, be the effusion of blood, and, also, an interruption of the harmony which was hitherto reigned between our respective nations ; but, as the repeller of an insult has never been deemed the aggressor, you will be responsible both to God and man, for all the fatal consequences which may result.
God preserve you many years. JOSE MASOT.The commander of the American troops
A copy of this protest was addressed to General Andrew Jackson, and sent by a Spanish officer, meeting the American army, shortly after it had passed the Escambia river.
J. GADSDEN, Aid de CampHead the Quarters, Division of the South,
Port Montgomery, June 2.
SirIn a communication to you of the 5th of May, I detailed at length the operations of my army up to that period. Leaving a strong garrison of regulars in Forts Scott and Gadsden, I resumed my march with a small detachment of the 4th regiment of infantry, one company of artillery and the effectives of the Tennessee volunteers, the whole not exceeding twelve hundred men, to fulfill my intentions communicated to you, of scouring the country west of the Appalachicola river. On the tenth of May my army crossed that river at the Ocheese Village, and after a fatiguing, tedious and circuitous march of twelve days, mislead by the ignorance of our pilots, and exposed to the severest of privations, we finally reached and effected a passage over the Escambia. On my march on the 23d May, a protest from the Governor of Pensacola was delivered to me by a Spanish officer, remonstrating in warm terms against my proceedings, and ordering me and my forces instantly to quit the territory of his Catholic Majesty, with a threat to apply force in the event of a non-compliancethis was so open an indication of a hostile feeling on his part, after having been early and well advised of the object of my operations, that I hesitated no longer on the measures to be adopted. I marched for and entered Pensacola , with only the show of resistance, on the 24th of May. The Governor had previously fled to Fort Carlos de Barrancas, where it is said he resolved upon a most desperate resistance ; a correspondence ensued between us, accompanying this, marked A, detailing my wishing and demanding that Pensacola and its dependencies be occupied with an American garrison. The packaged marked B, are documents substantiating the charges in part against the conduct of the Spanish Governor having knowingly and willingly admitted the savages, avowedly hostile to the United States, within the town of Pensacola. The peaceable surrender of the fort at the Barrancas was denied; I marched for, and invested it on the evening of the 25th of May, and on the same night pushed reconnoitering parties under its very guns. On the morning of the 26th, a military reconnoissance was taken, and on the same night a lodgment was made under the fire from the Spanish garrison, by Capt. Gadsden of the Engineers, aided by Captains Call and Young, on a commanding position, within three hundred and eighty-five yards of the Spanish works, and a nine pounder mounted ; a howitzer battery was simultaneously established on the capital of, and within seven hundred and fifty yards of the Fort. At day light on the 27th, the Spanish garrison opened their artillery on our batteries ; a parley was sounded, a flag sent in, and the surrender of Fort Carlos De Barrancas again demanded : the favorable positions obtained were pointed out, the inutility of resistance urged. Anxious to avoid an open contest, and to save the effusion of blood, the same terms previously offered were again tendered. These were rejected, and offensive operation recommended. A spirited and well-directed fire was kept up the greater part of the morning, and at intervals during the afternoon. In the evening a flag was sent from the Spanish Commandant, offering to capitulate, and a suspension of hostilities was granted until 8 o' clock the next day, when the enclosed articles of capitulation, marked C, were signed and agreed to. The terms are more favorable than a conquered enemy would have merited, but, under the peculiar circumstances of the case, my object obtained, there was no motive for wounding the feelings of those whose military pride or honor had prompted to the resistance made. The articles, with but one condition, amount to the complete cession to the United States of that portion of the Floridas, hitherto under the government of Don Jose Masot.
The arrangements which I have made to secure Pensacola and its dependencies, are contained in the General Orders, c. marked D. I deemed it most advisable to retain, for the present, the same government to which the people had been accustomed, until such time as the Executive of the United States may order otherwise. It was necessary, however, to establish the revenue laws of the U. States, to check the smuggling which has been carried on successfully in this quarter for many years past ; and to admit the American merchant to an equal participation in trade, which would had been denied under the partial operation of the Spanish commercial code. Capt. Gadsden was appointed by me collector, and he has organized and left the department in the charge of officers in whom the greatest confidence may be reposed.
Though the Seminole Indians have been scattered and litterally so driven and reduced, as no longer to be viewed as a formidable enemy, yet, as there are still many small marauding parties, supposed to be concealed in the swamps of the Perdido, Choctawhatchy, and Chapouly, who might make occasional and sudden inroads on our frontier settlers, massacring women and children, I have deemed it advisable to call into service for six months, if not sooner discharged, two companies of volunteers rangers, under Capts. McGirt and Boyles, with instructions to scour the country between the Mobile and Appalachicola rivers, exterminating every hostile party who dare to resist and will not surrender, and remove with their families above the 31 degree of latitude.
The Seminole War may now be considered at a close tranquility again restored to the southern frontier of the United States, and, as long as the cordon of military posts is maintained along the Gulf of Mexico, America has nothing to apprehend from either foreign or Indian hostilities. Indeed, sir, to attempt to fortify or protect an imaginary line, or to suppose that a frontier on the 31 degree of latitude, in a wilderness, can be secured by a cordon of military posts whilst, the Spanish authorities were not maintained in the Floridas, and that country lay open to the use and excitement of any enemy, is visionary in the extreme. On the immutable principle, therefore, of self-defence, authorized by the law of nature and of nations, have I bottomed all my operations. On the fact that the Spanish officers had aided and abetted the Indian enemy, and thereby became a party in hostilities against us, do I justify my occupying the Spanish fortresses. Spain had disregarded the treaties existing with the American government, or had not power to enforce them. The Indian tribes within her territory, and which she was bound to keep at peace, had visited our citizens with all the horrors of savage war. Negro brigands were establishing themselves when and where they pleased, and foreign agents were openly and knowingly practicing their intrigues in this neutral territory. The immutable principles of self-defence justified, therefore, the occupancy of the Floridas, and the same principals will warrant the American government in holding it until such time as Spain can guarantee, by an adequate military force, the maintaining her authority within the colony.
A topographical sketch of the country from Appalachicola to Pensacola Bay accompanies this. Captain Young will prepare, as soon as practicable, a topographical memoir of that part of the Floridas, on which my army has operated, with a map of the country. Capt. Gadsden is instructed to prepare a report on the necessary defences of the country, as far as the military reconnoissances will permit, accompanied with plans of the existing works, what additions or improvements are necessary, and what new works should, in his opinion, be created, to give permanent security to this important territorial addition to our republic. As soon as the report is prepared, captain Gadsden will receive orders to repair to Washington City with some other documents which I may wish to confide to this charge.
At the close of a campaign which has terminated so honorably and happily, it gives me pleasure to express my approbation generally of the officers and soldiers, of every species of corps, which I have had the honor to command. The patience with which they endured fatigue and submitted to privations, and the determination with which they encountered and vanquished every difficulty, is the strongest indication of the existence of that patriotic feeling, which no circumstances can change, and that irresistible ardor in the defence of their country, which will prove her strength and bulwark under any exposure. I should do violence to my feelings, if I did not particularly notice the exertions of my Quarter Master General, Col. George Gibson ; who, under the most embarrassing of circumstances, relieved the necessities of my army, and to whose exertions was I indebted for the supplies received. His zeal and integrity in this campaign, as well as in the uniform discharge of his duties since his connection with my staff, merits the approbation and gratitude of his country.
With respect, yours, c. ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. Com The Hon. J. C. CALHOUN, Sec'y at War. HEAD-QUARTERS, Division of the South,
On the line of March, May 23d, 1818
Sir : The southern frontier of the United States has, for more than twelve months, been exposed to all the horrors of a cruel savage war. A party of outlaws and refugees from the Creek nationNegroes who have fled from their masters, citizens of the United States, and sought and asylum in Florida, and the Seminole Indians inhabiting the territory of Spain, all uniting, have raised the tomahawk, and, in the character of savage warfare, have neither regarded sex or age : helpless women have been massacred, and the cradle crimsoned with the blood of innocence. The United States, true to their own engagements, and confiding in the faith of Spain to enforce existing treaties, never entertained a doubt but that their atrocities would early attract the attention of the Spanish government, and that speedy and effectual measures would have been adopted for their suppression. Under this persuasion, a cordon of military posts was established, to give immediate protection to such of our frontier settlers as were peculiarly exposed, and strict injunctions issued to the American officers, to respect the territory of Spain, and not to attempt operations within its limits. These instructions were most scrupulously observed, and, notwithstanding the inactivity of the American troops had encouraged the Indians to the more daring and outrageous acts of violence against our citizens, the government of the United States was still disposed to respect the territory of Spain, and confide in the ability of the Spanish government to execute existing treaties, until advised through you, that, with every disposition, the Spanish authorities had not the power of controlling the Indians in Florida ; that their acts, of late, were viewed as equally hostile to the interests of Spain as those of the United States ; that Spanish subjects were not exempted from the evils of which we complained, and that the Negro establishments on the Appalachicola and St. Juan rivers, were founded by British agents, contrary to the will of Spain. These representations determined the president of the United States to adopt effectual measures to restore tranquility to the southern frontier in the American Republic ; and, pursuant to his orders, justifiable by the immutable laws of self-defence, I have penetrated through Florida ; reduced to ashes the Seminole villages ; destroyed the magazines of provisions ; beaten their warriors whenever they hazarded a contest ; dispersed some and expelled others across the river.
In the course of my operations, it became necessary to visit the Spanish fortress of St. Marks. Entering the territory of Spain, to fight her battles, to relieve from bondage her subjects, and chastise and Indian tribe, whom she acknowledged, under existing treaties, she was bound to preserve at peace with the United States, I had every reason to expect that the American army would have been received as friends, and every facility afforded to ensure success to operations so interesting to both governments.
My expectations have not been realized. It has been reported to me, direct from you, that Fort St Marks had been threatened by the Indians and negroes ; and you expressed serious apprehensions, from the weakness of the garrison and defenceless state of the work, for its safety. From other sources to be relied on, the same information had been furnished me. It became necessary, therefore, to anticipate the movements of the enemy, and amicably to get possession of a work, the dislodging the enemy from which, might cost me much precious blood.
On entering St. Marks, evidence of the duplicity and unfriendly feelings of the commandant evinced itself. I found that the gates of his fort had been thrown open to the avowed savage enemies of the United States ; that councils of war had been permitted to be held within his own quarters, by the chiefs and warriors ; that the Spanish store-houses had been appropriated to the use, and were then filled with goods belonging to the hostile parties that cattle, knowingly plundered from the citizens of the United States, had been contracted for, and purchased by, the officers of the garrison, from the Spanish thieves ; that foreign agents had free access within the walls of St. Marks, and a Mr. Arbuthnot, condemned and executed as the instigator of this war, an inmate in the commandant's family.
From this fort was information afforded the enemy of the strength and movements of my army, by the said Arbuthnot ; the date of departure of express noted by the Spanish commissary, and ammunition, munitions of war, and all necessary supplies, furnished.
On my return from my operations east, your letter was received, positively refusing to permit (unless exorbitant duties were paid) any provisions passing up to the American fort on the Escambia. Connected with this strong indication of an unfriendly disposition on your part, I have, from the most unquestionable authority, that the city of Pensacola has, for some months past, been entirely under the control of the Indians ; that free ingress and egress in permitted to the avowed savage enemy of the United States ; that supplies of ammunition, munitions of war, and provisions, have been received by them from thence ; that, on the 15th of April last, there were no less than 500 Indians in Pensacola, many of them known to be hostile to the United States, and who had but lately escaped my pursuit. The late massacre of 18 individuals on the Federal road, was committed by Indians direct from their return to Pensacola, who were received by you, and transported across the bay, to elude the pursuit of the American troops. The Americans returning, the savages were permitted to return. An Indian wounded in pursuit by a party, for having killed a citizen of the United States, was openly, in the sight of many Americans, received by you, and every comfort administered. Such practices, if authorized by the King, would justify me in open hostilities. Disposed, however, to believe that it was one of the unauthorized acts of agents, I deem it politic and necessary to occupy Pensacola, and the Barrancas, with an American garrison, until the Spanish government can be advised of the circumstances, and have force sufficient to maintain, and agents disposed to enforce, existing treaties.
(Continued to the fourth page.)
This is the third time that the American troops have been compelled to visit Pensacola, from the same causes. Twice had the enemy been expelled, and the place left in quiet possession of those who permitted the irregular occupancy. This time it must be held until Spain has the power and will to maintain her neutrality.
This is justified on the immutable principles of self-defence. The government of the United States is bound to protect her citizens ; but weak would be all its efforts, and ineffectual the best advised measures, if the Floridas are to be free to every enemy, and , on the pretext of policy or necessity, Spanish fortresses are to be opened to their use, and every aid and comfort afforded.
I have been explicit, to preclude the necessity of a tedious negotiation. My resolution is fixed, and I have strength enough to enforce it. My army now occupies the old Fort St. Michael, commanding Pensacola. If the town and the Barrancas peaceably surrendered, an inventory of all the property, ammunition, arms, c. shall be taken by officers appointed by both parties, and the amount receipted for by me, to be accounted for by the American government. The property of Spanish subjects shall be respected, their religion and laws guaranteed to them; the evil government. The property of Spanish subjects shall be respected ; their religion and laws guaranteed to them, the civil government permitted to remain as now established, subject to the control of the military authority of the United States ; the ingress and egress open to all individuals ; commerce free to the subjects of Spain, as usual ; and the military furnished with transportation to Cuba.
If the peaceable surrender be refused, I shall enter Pensacola by violence, and assume the government, until the transaction can be amicably adjusted by the two governments. The military in this case must be treated as prisoners of war.
The proof reporting the accusation against your official station will justify this procedure.
In reply to your communication of the 22d inst. I have only to observe, that the clothing detained will be a subject for future friendly settlement.
How far the Indians, permitted to remain in the neighborhood of Pensacola, were friendly disposed to the citizens of the United States, is tested by the late massacre committed by them on the Alabama.
The Red Ground Chiefs, Muldecory and Holmes, avowedly hostile to the United States, were but lately seen in Pensacola, and a body of Indians descried a few days ago in the vicinity of the Barrancas, in presence of several Spanish officers.
By a reference to my communication of the 25th of March, you will see how far I have been the aggressor in the measure protested against. You are there directly advised of the objects of my operations, and that every attempt, on your part, to succour the Indians, or prevent the passage of my provisions in the Escambia, would be viewed in no other light than as an hostile act on your part.
You have done both, and exposed my troops to the severest privations, by the detention, occasioned by the exaction of duties on any provisions and vessels in Pensacola. You have, therefore, been the aggressor, and the blood which may be shed by an useless resistance, on your part, to my demand, will rest o your head : before God and man you will be responsible.
This will be handed to you by my aid-de-camp, Capt. Gadsden, by whom an answer is expected.
ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. Comd'g Don JOSE MASSOT, Governor of Pensacola. HEAD-QUARTERS, Divisions of the South,
Pensacola, May 24, 1818
Sir : the enclosed communication was forwarded to you by my aid de camp, Capt. Gadsden, last evening ; not finding you, however, in Pensacola, its delivery was delayed.
I have entered Pensacola to provision my troops. I have only to add, that an immediate compliance with my demand is expected. Resistance on your part, would be a needless sacrifice of men.
ANDREW JACKSON,
Major General Commanding Don JOSE MASSOT, Governor of Pensacola,
at Fort St. Charles, Barancas.
TRANSLATED COPY.
Fortress of St. Charles of Barrancas, 24th May, 1818. Most Excellent sir : I received at 10 o'clock this morning, the two communications of your excellency of the 23d, and of this day.
As I have, in nine of the 18th instant, satisfactorily answered all the charges your excellency alleges in the former, I shall only add, with respect to the Indians, that I notice your excellency is greatly misinformed, as the circumstances to which you refer, are, for the most part, unfounded, in proof of which, I will state, that the only two Indians I have found, since the peace negotiated by me, on the delivery of the eighty-seven to major Young, are two who are in the prison, with three women and children. I ought to inform you, that, long before the movement of your excellency, I have given orders at Apalache, that the Seminole Indians should not be succoured, even had placards posted up in Pensacola for the same purpose ; passing over without notice only some unfortunate beings, who, from, time immemorial, had furnished the people with wood , as I have stated.
Your excellency lays to my charge the blood which may he shed by my refusal to deliver up the province, as your excellency requests, which I shall never do, nor can I, without covering myself with dishonor, at the close of my long military career. I am firmly persuaded your excellency would, in my case, do the same, as you would not venture to stain the honorable laurels with which you are adorned.
No nation, whatever, may be its motives, can violate the territory of another, especially when no demands have previously been made of its government.
Your excellency has violated the Spanish territory in Apalache, by taking possession of that fort, and pulling down its flag, when you could have adopted more conciliatory measures, which would, more and more, have cemented and strengthened the good understanding subsisting between our respective governments.
On the 21st of the present month, by your excellency's orders, Don Pedro Philibert and other inhabitants remained prisoners, in their houses, on their parole of honor. Today at eleven o'clock, before Capt. Gadsden arrived at Pensacola, your excellency's army entered, and made prisoner, on parole, Don Pedro de Alba, the interpreter, (who translated your before named communications, and who is the bearer of these) and, I believe all the military ; and of course broke up the seven posts (puntos) stationed with the same number of officers , and two chiefs, for the maintenance of the tranquility of the place.
These facts being incontrovertible, I ask, who but your excellency will be responsible for the blood that may be shed ; as you declare in your letter, that you are about to take possession of Pensacola and Barrancas? I protest, before God and man, that my conduct is blameless, and that my ardent desires are, as they ever have been, to contribute to the peace and tranquility of our respective nations ; for, besides the sincerity of my intentions, I have in view the Message of the President to the Congress of the U. States, on the 25th of March last, its tenor assured me that no aggressions were to be expected from the troops of the said Sates. Such, however, this province has unfortunately suffered from the operations of your excellency in Apalache and Pensacola.
I expect, from the generosity of your excellency, first, that you will set the officers and troops which garrisoned Pensacola at liberty ; and that, after supplying your army with provisions, you will shortly evacuate the territory of this province, and not carry on a partial war against West Florida, at a time when our nations are in profound peace.
Lieut. Col. Don Lui Piemas, temporary commandant of Pensacola, is duly authorized to exercise my functions and to receive the communication of your excellency, which he faithfully remit to me, and to which I will give the promptest answers, to be transmitted to you through the bearer of this, the Interpreter, Don Pedro de Alba. Finally, if, contrary to my hopes, your Excellency should persist in your intention to occupy this fortress, which I am resolved to defend to the last extremity, I shall repel force by force, and he who resists aggression can never be considered an aggressor.
God preserve your excellency for many years. JOSE MASOT
His excellency A. Jackson,
Maj. Gen. Com. The army of the United States QUARTERS, Division of the South, Pensacola, May 25, 1818.
Sir : The accusations against you are founded on the most unquestionable evidence. I have the certificate of individuals who, on the 22d instant, at or near the little Bayou, counted 17 Indians in company of several Spanish officers.
I have only to repeat, that the Barrancas must be occupied by an American garrison, and again to the terms offered, if amicably surrendered. Resistance would be a wanton sacrifice of blood, for which you and your garrison will have to atone. You cannot expect to defend yourself successfully, and the first shot from your fort must draw down upon you to vengeance of an irritated soldiery. I am well advised of your strength, and cannot but remark upon the inconsistency of presuming yourself capable of resisting an army which has conquered the Indian tribes, too strong, agreeably to your own acknowledgment, to be controlled by you. If the force which you are now disposed wantonly to sacrifice, had been wielded against the Seminoles, the American troops had never entered the Floridas.
I applaud your feelings, as a soldier, in wishing to defend your post ; but when resistance is ineffectual and the opposing force overwhelming, the sacrifice of a few brave men is an act of wantonness, for which the commanding officer must be accountable to his God.
ANDREW JACKSON,
Maj. Gen. Commanding Div. South Don JOSE MASSOT, Com. Barrancas.
TRANSLATIONS
Copy of a Note of the commander of West Florida to Major Young, at the Encampment, Banks of the Escambia.
Pensacola, 27th April, 1818.
Sir : Your notes of the 27th, dated Encampment on the Escambia and Fort Crawford, accompanying the proclamation which you were pleased to enclose, were delivered to me at 3 o'clock this afternoon, by an artificer, a man of color, whose speedy return not allowing me to present to answer them in detail, I shall merely state, that the small number of peaceful Indians who were in this place and its vicinity retired on the 26th, at the dawn of which day several of them, both women and children, were killed by the troops of the United States. As it is not my purpose to investigate the motives of this act, or of the violation resulting from it, I shall only say, that, in compliance with my duty, I shall give an account of the whole proceeding to my superior ; and, in the mean time, I hope you will allow no further hostilities to be committed on this territory, on any pretence whatever. If the Indians should give any further cause of complaint, I trust you will inform me of it, that they may receive due punishment, should that depend on my authority. If there are any Indians still remaining within this territory, I will have them sought for and informed of your letter, and advise you of the result. I can assure you, both under my hand and on my word, that the information, as stated in your letter, of the aggressions committed by the Indians, is the first I have had of them ; for, at the time I agreed to the return of the escort referred to, I had no knowledge of any others than those who were concerned in the attack on Lieut. Eddy. I repeat to you the assurance, that my wishes and efforts are wholly directed to preserve the peace happily subsisting between our governments. In a full confidence in your favorable sentiments, I beg leave to offer you my respectful salutations
God preserve you many years. JOSE MASOT
To Maj. W. Young, Commanding
The American troops on the Escambia PENSACOLA, 30th April, 1818.
Copy of a note from Jose Masot, to Maj. W. Young.
SIR : In consequence of the request expressed in your letter of the 27th inst. I assembled the Chiefs of the Upper Creeks, at the villages of Colomni, Canaan, Cowale, and Forsatche ; and communicated to them the contents of your letter. They all replied, that they had for a long time been very miserable and wretched, without shelter or home ; that, by the counsel of a good friend, they had at length found one ; that they had listed attentively to it, and accepted with gratitude the offers you had made them. These Indians are about 87 in number, including women and children. They agreed to divide themselves into three parties, and set out on their march, as soon as I receive your answer, which I thought it would be prudent for them to keep ; and that, when you were informed of their resolution, you would give the necessary orders for their safe progress, and avoiding any reencounter with the Chactaws, who, if not seasonably apprized of the circumstances, might attack them, in which case the pacific arrangements in which we both take so strong an interest would be entirely defeated. Opahihola, an Alibaman Chief, on account of his advanced age and infirmities, for, the present, remain here with his family. I have given orders for his relief, and pledge myself for his good behaviour. You will always find disposed, sir, to promote any measure conclusive to the mutual interests of our two countries, which may, at the same time, be in conformity with existing treaties. I offer you the renewed assurances of my respect, and I pray God to preserve you.
JOSE MASOT, To Major White Young. True copies of the letter and documents deposited in the archives of this command.
PENSACOLA, 2d MAY, 1818.
In the absence of the Secretary (by indisposition.)
A true copy.
BUENAVENTURA DUBREUIL.
I certify, that, on the 23d of May, 1818, being on the bayou, which enters Pensacola bay, 1 1-2 miles from the town, I saw at the ferry, on the road to Barrancas, a number of Indians, I think about 17, in company with four Spanish officers. The officers were carried over, and the boat returned to ferry over the Indians. I saw one boat landed on the side next the Barrancas. The Indians concealed themselves in the bushes on discovering us.
RICHARD BRICKHAM. Witness, T. Cross, Lieut. Infantry.

I certify that I was in the boat with Brickham at the place and time mentioned in the above certificate ; that I saw several Indians in company with four Spanish officers. The officers were ferried over with one Indian. I did not see the Indians ferried over ; they concealed themselves on discovering us.
JOHN BONNER, his x mark. Witness T. Cross, Lieut. Infantry.
Witness to both certificates,
Wm. S. Fulton, Private Secretary Commanding General.
We certify, that, being in Fort St. Charles, Barrancas, on the 28th of May, 1818, in the afternoon, soon after the American troops took possession of the work, and as the Spanish troops were marching out, we saw an Indian carried out by some Spanish soldiers ; he was laid on the back, to be put on board a boat ; he was wounded in the leg or thigh, and, had every appearance of having been engaged in the defence of the fort.
WM. RUSSELL, Capt. Spies.
JAS. S. BELL, Captain 1st Reg't T. V. Md. G. M. Witness, Wm. S. Fulton, Private Sec'y Com'g General. Fort Montgomery, June 2d, 1818.
I certify, that between the 5th and 17th of May, 1818, whilst at Fort Gadsden, on the Appalachicola river, I was informed by a Mr. Larua, and Beneto Gassea, both citizens of, and at that time direct from, Pensacola, that at the time of their departure thence, there were 500 Indians in and about Pensacola : and, I further certify, that, on my arrival at Pensacola, on the 23d of May, I was informed by Mr. Streets, and other citizens of that place, that on the 22d, which was the day before my arrival, Holmes, (a noted Red stick) with his party, had left Pensacola to proceed to the Choctawhatchy, for safety, having been for several days previous in town.
All which I certify on honor.
WILLIAM HAMBLYWitness, Wm. S. Fulton, Private Secretary to Commanding General.
I do hereby certify, that during my long residence on the river Appalachicola, my knowledge of the Indian language, and my intimate acquaintance with the different chiefs, gave me many opportunities of knowing, through them, the advices given them from time to time, by the governors of West Florida, hostile to the United States. In the year 1812 or 1813, I saw a letter from the governor of Pensacola to the late chief of the Seminoles, Thomas Perryman, advising him to collect his forces, and join, his upper town brethren, who, he said, had come to a determination to rise in arms, and shake off the American yoke ; he would supply them in arms and ammunition, and he said he was sure, that in less than a month their fathers and protectors, the Spaniards, would have a sufficient army in the field to aid and protect them. Not long after I saw this letter, a large party of Indians went down to Pensacola, where they received a large supply of ammunition and some arms. It was but shortly after this, when they attacked and destroyed the garrison of Fort Mims. This was the commencement of the first Indian war. On the 13th of December last, when at my plantation on the Appalachicola, I was made a prisoner by a party of Seminole Indians, and was taken up to the Ochusee Bluff, in company with Mr. Doyle, who was made a prisoner with me. They kept us here three days, during which time they were busily engaged in some transports, which were then ascending the river to Fort Scott. From thence they took us to the Mickasuky, when the Indians informed me that they had been told by the commandant of St. Mark, that war was declared between Spain and the United States. From this place we were carried to the Suwaney, when Kenhager, principal chief of the Seminoles, told me, that we had been taken and robbed by order of Arbuthnot, and brought there to be tried by him. Shortly after we reached this, Arbuthnot arrived from Providence, when we were tried, and sentenced by said Arbuthnot to be tortured. This sentence was not put into execution, from the friendly interference of Mr. Cook, clerk to Arbuthnot, and the negro chief Nero. We were then conducted back to the Mickasukys. Then Kenhager went down to the fort of St. Marks, to consult the commandant if he would take us as prisoners to be held at his order. They held a council among the neighboring chiefs, and on the fifth day he returned, and ordered us to be conducted down next morning. We arrived at St. Marks on the 12th of February at night ; the Spanish officers received us kindly, but the commandant did not forget to remind us, that we were still prisoners, and marked out that night the limits of our prison, which they rigidly kept during the time of our stay. Next morning, the first thing that presented itself to my view was my saddle horge, which had been taken from me by the Indians ; he was in the possession of the commissary. I mentioned it to the commandant, but he said that he bought him of an Indian, and he could do nothing in it. A few days after, in the course of conversation, I mentioned it to the Spanish doctor ; he assured me that two thirds of the property taken from us by the Indians had been bought by the commissary, and others, in the fort. The plundered property taken from Georgia was every day readily bought by the commandant and others. I knew one instance of an Indian making an engagement with the commandant for cattle that he was then going to plunder, and in 14 or 15 days he brought them in and sold them. On our first arrival at St. Marks, we had, by the help of a friendly Indian, conveyed intelligence to our friends in Pensacola of our situation, and they sent us on a small vessel to effect our escape. At her arrival, the commandant said to us, that he had no objection to our getting out of the power of the Indians, but that he should first demand a written obligation that we should never return to that country, nor hold communication, directly or indirectly, with the United States' government, or any of her officers. This being settled, we left St. Marks on the night of the 28th March, and joined Capt. McKeever in his gun boats, in the bay of Appalachicola ; on the 30th ultimo returned with him to St. Marks, where we joined Gen. Jackson on the 6th of April.
Given under my hand, this 24th July.
WM. HAMBLY
We, the undersigned, do hereby certify, that, at the capture of Fort St. Marks, East Florida, by Maj. Gen. A. Jackson, on the 7th April, 1818, there were some cattle purchased on account of the United States, and turned over to us, which, we are of an opinion had been driven from the frontiers of Georgia, (a part of them at least) and we were strengthened in our opinion, by a number of officers and men from Georgia offering to swear to a number of them, as the property of their neighbors and friends. Given under our hands at Fort Gadsden, this 3d of May, 1818.
JACOB R. BROWN,
Acting Contractor's Agent U.S. army.
PETER CONE, Asst. Com'y. We, the undersigned officers and men of the Georgia militia, in the service of the United States, do hereby certify, that we were at Fort St. Marks, East Florida, at the time of its capture by Maj. Gen. A. Jackson, on the 7th of April, 1818, and saw some cattle that were purchased on account of the United States, from the Spanish authorities, which we were ready to swear to as the property of our friends and neighbors in Georgia. Given under our hands, at Fort Gadsden, this 3d of May, 1818.
ANDREW F. FRAZER, Capt. DAN F. SULLIVAN, G. M. S. Fort Gadsden, 3d May, 1818.
Sir : After the occupancy of Fort St. Marks with American troops on the 7th April last, it became my duty to take charge of some goods found in one of the public stores.
These goods were pointed out by the Spanish commandant, who, through Mr. Hambly, as interpreter, separated several of the articles, claimed as his own private property, and designated others as the property of Francis, or Hillis Hago, and Arbuthnot, a British agent or trader : an inventory of these were taken, and deposited with the American officer left in command at Fort St. Marks. With respect, c.
D. E. TWIGGS, Bvt. Maj. 7th Inf.
I certify that I acted as an interpreter in the transaction above alluded to, and two separate parcels of good were designated by the Spanish commandant of St. Marks as belonging to Hillis Hago and Arbuthnot.
W.M. HAMBLY.
FORT GADSDEN, MAY 2, 1818.
Sir : We beg leave to submit to you the following statement of facts. On 13th December, 1817, we were violently torn from our settlements on the Appalachicola river, by number of Indians, headed by Chenubby, a chief from the Fowl Town tribe, carried to Mickasuky and delivered to Kenhajah, King of the Mickasukians. Kenhajah carried us to the Negro towns on Suwany, and thence to the Spanish fort at St. Marks, to the commandant of which he delivered us as prisoners captured under the orders of a Mr. Arbuthnot, reported to us as a British Agent. At St. Marks we were treated as prisoners, and not permitted to wander beyond the walls of the garrison.
Whilst at that post, the ingress and egress of the Indians, hostile to the United States, was unrestrained , and several councils were held, at one of which, Kanhajah, King of the Mickasukians, Francis or Hillis Hago. Hamathlemeco, the chief of Autesses, and the chief of the Holemies, all of the old red stick party, and Jack Mealy, chief of the Ochewas, were present.
When it was reported that the chiefs, and that warriors were entering Fort St. Marks, for the purpose of holding a council, Hambly represented to the commandant the impropriety of permitting such proceedings within the walls of a Spanish fortress, the officer of which was bound to preserve and enforce the treaties existing between the King of Spain and the United States : he replied to Hambly, with some degree of warmth, observing, that it was not in his power to prevent it. On the Indians coming into the fort, at their request we were confined. The council was held in the commandant's quarter s: he, the commandant, was present, but strictly forbade the intrusion of any of the officers of the garrison.
The Indians were in the habit of driving to Fort St. Marks, and disposing of cattle to the commandant and other Spanish officers. While at that post, three or four droves were brought in, acknowledged by the Indians to have been stolen from the citizens of the United States, and purchased by the Spanish officers.
We were present at most of these contracts, and Hambly often referred to, as an interpreter between the purchaser and seller.
Chenubby, a Fowl town Indian, once applied to Hambly to mention top the commandant, that he was about visiting the frontiers of Georgia, on a plundering expedition, and wished to know whether he would purchase the cattle brought in. A contract was entered into; and Chenubby soon after brought in and disposed of eleven head of cattle to the Spanish commandant of Fort St. Marks.
These same cattle were those purchased by you from the commandant as his private property.
WM. HAMBLY. EDM'D. DOYLE.
FORT GADSDEN, MAY 3, 1818.
Sir : In conversation with the commandant of Fort. St. Marks, on the subject of having that work occupied by an American garrison, I had occasion to notice the aid and comfort that the hostile party of Indians had received as reported from him ; and that it was well known no small supplies of ammunition had been received from that quarter. In reply he stated, that his conduct had been governed by policy ; the defenceless state of his work, and the weakness of his garrison compelled him to conciliate the friendship of the Indians, to supply their wants, to grant what he had not the power to deny, and to throw open, with apparent willingness, the gates of his fortress, lest they should be forced by violence.
That he had been repeatedly threatened by Indians and negroes, and that his security depended upon exhibiting an external friendship. After Fort St. Marks was occupied by the American troops, a black man and Spanish soldier was reported to me as having been arrested clad in the American uniform, recognized as part of the clothes of the 4th and 7th regiments, captured in the boat commanded by Lt. Scott, in ascending the Appalachicola river.
In explanation, the commandant observed, that his soldiers and the Seminole Indians were in the habit of trading with each other, and that this negro, with others of his garrison, had received his permission to purchase some clothing reported to have been brought in by the Indians.
Respectfully, c. JAMES GADSDEN; A. D. Camp
Maj. Gen. A. Jackson, Com. S. D. U. S. army. HEAD QUARTERS, Division of the South,

Fort Montgomery, June 2d, 1818.
Sir : The Seminole war having terminated, I deem it politic and advisable to send to Washington John Blunt and his Indians comrades, who have acted as pilots to me during the late campaign. John Blunt is a Tuckabatchee Indian, has long been friendly to the United States, and in consequence of his opposition to the Red Stick Party, during the Creek war, was drawn down upon himself their vengeance during the late contest. His settlement being in a exposed situation on the Appalachicola river, he was early attacked by the Seminoles, his property destroyed, and his family rifled from him. Alone he escaped, and fled to Fort Scott; where, joining the American standard, he has proved himself a most zealous friend and faithful pilot, to this period. In justice to him, I am bound to state, that to his correct knowledge of the country, and zealous attachment to the cause in which we were engaged, am I measurably indebted for the success of the present campaign.
Mr. Hambly accompanies John Blunt. Mr. H. is a Spanish subject by birth, and has long bee a resident as a trader, on the Appalachicola river. In consequence oh his attachment to the American cause, and his active exertions to check the hostile feelings of those Indians, disposed to war against the United States, he drew down upon himself and family their vengeance. He was forcibly taken from his house at an early period of the war, his property, goods and negroes taken from him, and he violently transported from Mickasuky, Suwany and St. Marks, until finally relieved by Capt. McKeever, of the American navy. Since that period he has been attached to my army as Indian interpreter. You will find him an honest and faithful friend to our government, and valuable for the information which he can afford of Spanish policy and intrigue. He is well acquainted with all the transactions of foreign agents in this country, of their practices, c. and how far encouraged by the Spanish authority, c. With respect, c. ANDREW JACKSON,
Major General Commanding. The Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Sec. of War.[ Here end the documents, of which we have published the whole series, except the field report of the American force at Pensacola, not deemed material ; the proclamation of General Jackson, Col. Butler's General Order, and the articles of capitulationall of which have been already published in our papers.]



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Article Title: Seminole War. Documents Continued. Another two full pages of letters, including
responses from Spanish Gov. Marot of West Florida, dealing with Jackson's pursuit of the war against
the Seminoles in Florida.
Author:
Published in: National Intelligencer
Place of Publication: Washington, DC
Publication Date: 12/15/1818




WASHINGTON.
Monday, December 14.
We have, to the exclusion of every thing else, to-day concluded the publication of the documents
relating to the Seminole war. They are sufficiently long ; but we have no doubt our readers will thank
us for having published them.
We stated, a few days ago, the number of days' work which had been executed by the detachment of
the Army at Plattsburgh, within the last year. At Sackett's Harbor, the men have been hitherto
employed in building barracks at that place. By the order of General Brown, which we have copied
to-day, it will be seen that the Army is about to be employed, in that quarter also, by direction of the
Executive, in the construction of an important military road.
A correspondent, who has seen Mr. Williams's motion to reduce the Army, and who was
contemporaneously reminded of the defective organization of the militia of the United States,
suggests, that the latter should, in the order of things, be made efficient, before the former is made
inefficient. Perhaps our correspondent is right. We hope, whatever happens, that the present session
will not pass over without an attempt to give uniformity to the organization of the militia, and to impart
to it a character of energy and precision.
SEMINOLE WARDOCUMENT IS CONCLUDED.
(Enclosure in Gen. Jackson's letter, published in our last.)HEAD QUARTERS, Division South,
Fort St. Marks, April 27, 1818.
After I left this post for St. Juan, to disperse and destroy the mutual enemy of Spain and the United
States, a small schooner with men and supplies arrived from Pensacola, and was taken possession of
and detained by my officer left in command. This vessel has been liberated with all her effects,
excepting some clothing of the U. States, accompanied with an invoice, and which has been detained,
as supposed to be part of that taken on board the boats within the territory of this republic, in which
Lieut. Scott, of the United States army, with his command, were so inhumanly massacred.
I regret being compelled to state to you, that from the papers and other proofs, taken at St. Juan's, the
quantity of American cattle found at St. Marks and purchased by me from the Commissary of the
post, and the intercourse kept up between this post and the hostile Indians, there is too much ground
to believe that the Indians have been encouraged, aided and abetted by the officers of Spain in this
cruel war against the United States. Proof positive exists that the Indians were supplied with
ammunition by the late commandant of St. Marks. The United States clothing being found on board
of a vessel in the employ of the government of Spain, sailing from Pensacola direct for this port,
compels me to call on you for a statement in what manner you came possessed of said clothing. The
good understanding that so happily exists between his Catholic Majesty and the United States,
formed just ground to believe that his agents would have discountenanced this cruel and savage war
against the citizens of this republic. Spain, too weak to comply with her treaties with the United
States, or chastise her own savage subjects waging war against a friendly nation, it was scarcely to
be believed that her officers would have been detected in aiding and abetting the enemy, assisting
with the intelligence of our movements, and purchasing the property depredated of us. America, just
to her treaties, and anxious to maintain peace with the world, cannot and will not permit such a
savage war to be carried on in disguise any longer. Asylums have been granted to the persons and






property of an Indian foe (fugitives from the territory of the United States.) Facilities deemed by me
necessary to terminate a war, which, under existing treaties, should have been maintained by Spain,
for feeding my troops and liberating the subjects of Spain imprisoned by the Indians, have all been
denied by the officers of this Catholic Majesty. All the facts prove the unjust conduct of Spanish
agents in Florida. It cannot be longer tolerated, and, although a republic fond of peace, the United
States know her rights, and at the expense of war will maintain them.
ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. Com. Don JOSE MASOT, Governor of Pensacola. HEAD
QUARTERS, Division of the South. Adjutant General's Office, Fort Gadsden, Appalachicola River, 3d
May, 1818.
Sir : I have the honor to report, that the army under the immediate command for of Major General
Andrew Jackson took up the line of march on the 26th day of March last, with eight days rations, and
lay in advance of this post about six miles on the 29th at Ochlochaway river, when nineteen canoes
were made, and the principal part of the army crossed by 8 o'clock, P.M. On this evening Brevet
Major Twiggs, of the 7th Infantry, was detached with one company and about two hundred warriors,
with orders to advance on an Indian village called Tallahassee, and surprise it at day break. On this
near approach, he dispatched a party to ascertain its situation, who reported it evacuated some days
before; on the morning of the 31st he entered the village, having previously sent out parties to
reconnoitre ; two of the enemies were made prisoners, one of whom made his escape from the
Indians before he was brought into camp. The army passed the village about 12 o'clock, and
encamped near Mickasuky, when intelligence was received of the approach of a detachment of
mounted volunteers, from Tennessee, under the command of Lieut. Colonel Elliot, near four hundred
stong. On the morning of the 1st of April, the army formed and halted under their arrival, when they
were ordered to form the advance of each flank, with captains Russel and Evans's companies, as
spies, with captain John Gordon. The army now advanced within 1 1/2 miles of Kinghajah's Town,
when a number of Indians were discovered herding cattle in the margin of a large pond. The general
ordered the right and left columns to advance, with a view of cutting off their retreat, and the same
time instructed the advance light company, under Major Muhlenberg, the guard, Major Nicks, together
with the small companies composing his life guard, under Captains Dunlap and Crittenden, to
advance, in support of the spies, in the event of a general engagement. The spy companies
commenced the attack, and a brisk running fire was kept on both sides for some minutes, when the
enemy divided, the spy companies pursuing those on the right, and Lieutenant Colonel Elliot, having
turned their flank, became generally engaged, and bore them over to the left column, under the
command of Lieut. Col. Mitchell, within half gun shot of each other, when they were assailed by both
flanks and would all have fallen, had not the volunteers taken up the impression (from the similarity of
dress) that some of the friendly warriors had reached in pursuit of the enemy, which occasioned the
firing to cease for a short time, when a number made good their retreat into the swamp; Captain
Crittenden's company being on horseback, was unable to reach the head of Lieutenant Colonel
Elliot's column, when they dismounted and operated against the enemy. Major Muhlenberg's
company, the advanced guard, and Captain Dunlap's company, being on foot was not able to reach
the scene of action in time. The right column of Georgia militia on nearing the pond filed round it, and
Col. King, with his regiment, was ordered to advance through it to support the column of horse,
should it be found necessary, which was executed by the Colonel with great promptness. The
conduct of the officers and soldiers engaged on this occasion, was, in every respect, praiseworthy.
Our loss, one man of Captain Andrew's company killed and four of Captain Evans's company of
Tennessee volunteers wounded. The reports give 14 killed and several wounded of the enemy, and
four women prisoners, from whom we learned, that three hundred warriors had advanced from the
town to aid those engaged, and, on seeing the advance of an army, fled precipitately. The army now
advanced upon the town (which was found deserted) and on reaching the square, discovered a red
pole planted at the Council House, on which was suspended about fifty fresh scalps, taken from the
heads of extreme age, down to the tender infant, of both sexes, and in an adjacent house, near three
hundred men, which bore the appearance of having been the barbarous trophies of settled hostility for
three or four years past.






The army continued the pursuit to a large pond of water, which is eight miles in length, varying in
width from 600 to 4000 yards, and from two to five feet deep ; through which the army passed, when
the approach of night induced the commanding general to draw off his troops. On the succeeding
morning, brevet Maj. Gen. E. P Gaines, with a large command, was ordered to pass the lake or pond,
and attack the other towns ; but which he found abandoned by the enemy ; the red pole was again
found planted in the square of Fowl Town, barbarously decorated with human scalps, of both sexes,
taken within the last six months from the heads of our unfortunate citizens. Gen. Mclntosh, who was
with Gen. Gaines, routed a small party of savages near Fowl Town, killed one Negro and took three
prisoners, on one of whom was found the coat of James Champion, of Capt. Cummings' company,
4th regiment of infantry, who was killed by the Indians on board of one of our boats descending the
river the relief of Maj. Muhlenberg ; this coat, with nearly all Capt. Cummings' company's clothing,
was lost on board of Lieut. Scott's boat when he and his party were massacred on the 30th of
November last. The pocket book of Mr. Leigh (who was murdered at Cedar Creek on the 21st
January last) was found in Kinghajah's Town, containing several letters addressed to the deceased,
and one to General Glasscock. About one thousand head of cattle fell into our hands, many of which
were recognized by the Georgia militia as the brands and marks of their citizens. Near three
thousand bushels of corn was found, with other articles useful to the army. Upwards of three hundred
houses were consumed, leaving a tract of fertile country in ruin ; where these wretches might have
lived in plenty, but for the infernal machinations of foreign traders, if not agents. The army remained
at this point until the morning of the 5th, when the march was resumed for St. Marks, before which it
arrived on the evening of the 6th ; and, after communicating with the commanding officer, took
possession of that fortress on the following morning. Capt. M'Keever, of the navy, having sailed for St.
Marks with some vessels, containing supplies for the army, was fortunate enough to entice on board
his vessel in the river, Francis or Hillishajo and Homathlamicco, hostile chiefs of the Creek nation, and
whose settled hostility have been severely felt by our citizens. The commanding general had them
brought on shore, and ordered them to be hung, as an example to deter others from exciting these
deluded wretches to future scenes of butchery. A man of the name A. Arbuthnot was also taken on
the arrival of the army, and placed in close confinement.
The troops having again received eight day's rations and a garrison detached for Fort St. Marks, the
army marched on the 9th of April, destined for Suwany On the morning of the 12th, the officer of the
day reported, that the centinels had heard the lowing of cattle and barking of dogs during the night;
from which the General was induced to send a runner to General Mclntosh, who encamped a short
distance in rear of the army, with instructions to have the country below examined. In the mean time,
the army moved slowly in advance. General Mclntosh dispatched Major Kanard, with a party, who
returned to him a runner, reporting the discovery of a hostile party too strong for his little band of
warriors. Mclntosh moved against them with his whole force. A small detachment of different
companies of the Tennessee volunteers, under Colonels Dyer and Williamson (they having joined the
army on the evening of the 10th,) were left at our encampment to search for horses ; and, on hearing
the report of Major Kanard, formed themselves into a company, under Captain Bell, who was with
them, and moved to attack the enemy, whom they found near a large swamp, endeavoring to move
off. A spirited engagement ensued, which resulted in the death of thirty-seven, and six men and
ninety-eight women and children prisoners, and our loss three killed and four wounded of the friendly
Indians. The only woman, out of seven, whose life was spared at the massacre of Lt. Scott, was here
recaptured by Major Kanard. General Mclntosh individually killed three of the enemy, and captured
one. The little band of Tennessee volunteers acted on this occasion as becomes their character. At
the commencement of the action the army was halted, and a runner dispatched to inform General
Mclntosh that any aid he might deem necessary, would be afforded, and that the army would remain
until his arrival, which was not until we encamped for the night.
The enemy abandoned a number of horses, hogs, corn, and about 600 head of cattle. The army
moved on the morning of the 13th, and on the succeeding day our spies surprised a camp, consisting
of two men, a woman, and two children. One of the men was killedthe other, with a small boy, slightly
wounded, and the woman, unfortunately, not being distinguished in the swamp, received a wound, of






which she died.
At three o'clock, PM. on the 26th, the army arrived at a large pond, within 6 miles of Bowlegs' Town,
on Suwany River, where a few Indians, well mounted, discovered our advance. An attempt was made
to overtake them ; but the enfeebled state of our horses rendered it impracticable. Under these
circumstances, the General deemed it advisable to make the town by a forced march, not allowing the
enemy time to cross the river and destroy their supplies. The manner of attack having been
previously arranged, the army moved rapidly, until arriving near the arranged, the army moved rapidly,
until arriving near the large which flanks the town when the troops changed position, conformably to
previous orders, and moved forward. The left flank, composed of Colonel Williamson's regiment of
Tennessee volunteers, at the head of which a force of Indian warriors, under (now Colonel) Kanard
soon came in contact, and warmly engaged the Indians and Negroes; whilst the right flank,
composed of Col. Dyer's regiment of Tennessee volunteers, with a like force of warriors, under Gen.
Mclntosh, advanced near the river, to prevent the enemy from crossing. The centre advanced in
excellent order, and under the expectation of having to combat with the strength of these towns, and
the fugitives from Mickasuky ; but on reaching Bowleg's Town, found it abandoned. The left flank,
from the nature of the ground they had to traverse, and Colonel Kanard not adhering entirely to the
route designated, drove the Indians and negroes, (about 300) into the river, before the right flank
could occupy the desired position. The report give 11 killed, and 3 prisoners on the field ; and it is
believed many were killed and drowned in swimming the river, it being nearly 300 yards wide. Colonel
Kanard had 13 wounded, but one dangerously. About 2700 bushels of corn were obtained in the
towns and neighboring swamps ; near 90 head of cattle, and a number of horses. Our centinels, on
the night of the 17th, took prisoners two white men (Ambrister and Cook,) and one negro, who had
just returned from Arbuthnot's vessel, at the mouth of Suwany From the latter we obtained a letter
written by A. Arbuthnot to his son, in which he enumerates the army of the United States, under the
General's command, and requests him to inform his friend Bowlegs, that resistance would be fruitless
against such an overwhelming force, and to make over the river with all dispatch ; admonishing his
son, at the same time, to remove and secret every thing which could be removed. From Cook we
learned, that this letter was read to the negroes and Indians, when they immediately commenced
crossing their families, and had just finished as we entered their towns. Upwards of three hundred
houses were here consumed , the most of which were well built, and somewhat regular, extending
near three miles up the river. On the morning of the 18th, General Gaines was ordered , with a select
command, and a number of warriors, under General Mclntosh, to cross the Suwany river, in pursuit
of the enemy, but found, on advancing about six miles, that they had dispersed in every direction, from
the numerous trails, and too far advanced to overtake them, his commands being short of supplies.
A detachment of the warriors having advanced some distance, fell in with a small party of the enemy,
killed three warriors, took some women and children, and five negroes. On the same morning, Lt.
James Gadsden, aid-de-camp to the Commanding General, descended the Suwany river to its
mouth, with Captain Dunlap's and a few of Capt. Crittenden's companies of the life guard, and a small
detachment of regulars, and captured, without difficulty, the schooner of A. Arbuthnot, which had
brought supplies of powder and lead to the Indians and Negroes, settled at Suwany This vessel
afforded the means of transporting our sick back to St. Marks. On the evening of the 20th, General
Glasscock was ordered, at his request, to march his brigade by Mickasucky to Hartford, in Georgia,
and Captain Bell ordered to muster them out of service, and the army moved about 3-4 of a mile,
preparatory to its return. On the 24th, General Mclntosh was ordered to proceed direct to Fort Scott,
on Flint River, and an order furnished him to the commanding officer to muster his warriors out of
service.
The army reached Fort St. Marks on the 25th, having marched 28 miles on that day ; and we were
agreeably surprised in finding Lt. Gadsden had arrived safely that evening, from the mouth of Suwany
On the 26th, a special court was ordered for the trial of A. Arbuthnot and Robert C. Ambrister; which
court on the documents and evidence adduced, sentenced the first to be hung , and the latter to be
shot. They were accordingly executed on the morning of the 29th. The army moved encamped four
miles from St. Marks, on the evening of the 28th, and arrived at Fort Gadsden on the 2d inst. the






General having previously detached a garrison of two hundred men, under the command of Brevet
Major Fanning, to occupy Fort St. Marks, I have only to add, that this army has borne hardships and
privations to a great extent, in a manner becoming soldiers and citizens of a nation proud of their
liberties. The Assistant Topographical Engineer will furnish a topographical report of the country
through which the army operated ; and I refer you to the enclosed sketches for information of our
order of movement.
And have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
ROBERT BUTLER, Adj. GenBrig. Gen. DANIEL PARKER, Adj. and Insp. Gen.
(TRANSLATED COPY)
PENSACOLA, 18th MAY, 1818.
Most Excellent sir: On the 10th inst. I received your excellency's letter of the 27th of April last,
informing me that some articles of the clothing, used by the troops of the United States, and
supposed to be part of those taken in the boat in which Lieut. Scott and his escort were so inhumanly
murdered, were found in a small schooner, dispatched from this port for that of Apalache, with
provisions.
Your excellency enquires of me, in what manner these articles came in my possession ; and you
further state, that you feel yourself obliged to inform me that the documents and the proofs found in
St. Juan ; the detection of American cattle, found in St. Marks ; and the correspondence carried on
between this post and the hostile Indians ; are sufficient to create a belief, that they were armed and
incited to this cruel war against the United States, by the Spanish officers.
Your excellency adds, that there exist positive proofs that the Indians were supplied with munitions by
the last commander of St. Marks ; and you conclude by saying that an asylum has been granted here
to the persons and property of the Indians, who are enemies to the United States, and fugitives from
the American territory ; and that these proceedings, and the refusing to allow the passage of
provisions for your troops, prove the unjust conduct of the Spanish Agents in the Florida.
I shall answer the charges alleged in their proper order, with candor, and without evasion or
reservation.
The first complaint made by your Excellency is relative to the articles of clothing found on board
schooner Maria, and which have been detained on the supposition, that they are the property of the
United States.
Part of the articles, as is proved by copy, No.1. were purchased at New Orleans, in the month of May,
last year, part came from the Havana, and part were purchased in this place. All this is established.
The charge is, of course, done away ; and your Excellency's question is satisfactory answered.
The succeeding one is more serious, and relates to the course observed of late by the Governor of
St. Marks.
I immediately required of him an account of his conduct, and he made the communication found in
copy No. 2. However, as your excellency affirms that you posses positive proofs of the misconducts
of this officer, I must, as a necessary consequence, entreat you to submit them to me, that, the fact
being established, I may inflict on him deserved punishment. I assure your excellency, with the
sincerity natural to me, that he has acted in entire opposition to his instructions, and, that, if your
excellency will transmit the proofs I request, he shall be brought before a council of war, and punished
with all the severity his transgressions deserve ; but your excellency will be just enough to allow, that
the Spanish government cannot be responsible for the misconduct of its Agents, when it neither
upholds them, therein, nor suffers their malpractices, being ascertained, to pass unpunished.
The last complaints of your excellency have a personal and direct application to myself, and are
relative to the asylum granted to the persons and property of the fugitive Indians ; and to the passage
of provisions up the Escambia. It is easy for me to remove these charges, and, I think, your
excellency will be satisfied with a short and true relation of facts.
With respect to the Indians, your excellency has assuredly been misinformed, as, although it is true
that some remained here, the greater part of them were women and children, who procured a
subsistence by furnishing the inhabitants with wood, fish, and other trifling objects, and were here
before the present war with the Seminolesothers now and then assembled, on account of the war, but






in very small numbers ; as, when I had them collected, in compliance with the proposition made by
MajorYoung, they altogether amounted to eighty-seven, and, assuredly, these few unarmed and
miserable men were not hostile to the United States. The continual passing of American citizens from
the frontier to this people, who traveled alone and unarmed among them, without being, at any time,
insulted or molested in their persons or property, is a proof of this.
With respect to the passage of provisions up the Escambia, I have not hitherto prevented it, but, on
the contrary , have facilitated it, so far as I was able, and my limited powers have permitted, even to
the compromising of myself, for, being only a subordinate officer, I could not consent to it, as it is
unauthorised, but I took the responsibility on myself, in consideration of existing circumstances ; and
so I stated to your excellency in my letter of the 15th of last month, which I wrote to you by Major
Perrault, and to which I refer you, in support of my assertion. Now, that the free commerce of this
people, with those of the interior is declared admissible by higher authority, there will, in future, be no
difficulty in allowing the merchants to transport from hence to Fort Crawford, and other forts on the
frontier, as well by water as by land, whatever provisions and effects they may need or desire ; by
which means, these posts will, readily, be provisioned, and your excellency will be satisfied.
I think I have answered your excellency's letter satisfactorily, and in a manner which can leave no
doubt of the sincerity of my intentions, and which evinces my desire to contribute, so far as depends
on me, to the good understanding existing between our respective governments.
God preserve your excellency many years. JOSE MASOT
His excellency, ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. of the army of the United States TRANSLATED
COPY
It having come to my knowledge that you have passed the frontiers with the troops under your
command, and that you are in the territory of this province of West Florida, which is subject to my
government, I solemnly protest against this procedure as an offence towards my Sovereign, exhorting
you, and requiring of you, in his name, to retire from it, as, if you do not, and continue your
aggressions, I shall repel force by force.
The consequence in this case will, doubtless, be the effusion of blood, and, also, an interruption of the
harmony which was hitherto reigned between our respective nations ; but, as the repeller of an insult
has never been deemed the aggressor, you will be responsible both to God and man, for all the fatal
consequences which may result.
God preserve you many years. JOSE MASOTThe commander of the American troops
A copy of this protest was addressed to General Andrew Jackson, and sent by a Spanish officer,
meeting the American army, shortly after it had passed the Escambia river.
J. GADSDEN, Aid de CampHead the Quarters, Division of the South,
Port Montgomery, June 2.
Sirin a communication to you of the 5th of May, I detailed at length the operations of my army up to
that period. Leaving a strong garrison of regulars in Forts Scott and Gadsden, I resumed my march
with a small detachment of the 4th regiment of infantry, one company of artillery and the effective of
the Tennessee volunteers, the whole not exceeding twelve hundred men, to fulfill my intentions
communicated to you, of scouring the country west of the Appalachicola river. On the tenth of May
my army crossed that river at the Ocheese Village, and after a fatiguing, tedious and circuitous march
of twelve days, mislead by the ignorance of our pilots, and exposed to the severest of privations, we
finally reached and effected a passage over the Escambia. On my march on the 23d May, a protest
from the Governor of Pensacola was delivered to me by a Spanish officer, remonstrating in warm
terms against my proceedings, and ordering me and my forces instantly to quit the territory of his
Catholic Majesty, with a threat to apply force in the event of a non-compliancethis was so open an
indication of a hostile feeling on his part, after having been early and well advised of the object of my
operations, that I hesitated no longer on the measures to be adopted. I marched for and entered
Pensacola , with only the show of resistance, on the 24th of May. The Governor had previously fled to
Fort Carlos de Barrancas, where it is said he resolved upon a most desperate resistance ; a
correspondence ensued between us, accompanying this, marked A, detailing my wishing and
demanding that Pensacola and its dependencies be occupied with an American garrison. The






packaged marked B, are documents substantiating the charges in part against the conduct of the
Spanish Governor having knowingly and willingly admitted the savages, avowedly hostile to the
United States, within the town of Pensacola. The peaceable surrender of the fort at the Barrancas
was denied; I marched for, and invested it on the evening of the 25th of May, and on the same night
pushed reconnoitering parties under its very guns. On the morning of the 26th, a military
reconnaissance was taken, and on the same night a lodgment was made under the fire from the
Spanish garrison, by Capt. Gadsden of the Engineers, aided by Captains Call and Young, on a
commanding position, within three hundred and eighty-five yards of the Spanish works, and a nine
pounder mounted ; a howitzer battery was simultaneously established on the capital of, and within
seven hundred and fifty yards of the Fort. At day light on the 27th, the Spanish garrison opened their
artillery on our batteries ; a parley was sounded, a flag sent in, and the surrender of Fort Carlos De
Barrancas again demanded : the favorable positions obtained were pointed out, the inutility of
resistance urged. Anxious to avoid an open contest, and to save the effusion of blood, the same
terms previously offered were again tendered. These were rejected, and offensive operation
recommended. A spirited and well-directed fire was kept up the greater part of the morning, and at
intervals during the afternoon. In the evening a flag was sent from the Spanish Commandant, offering
to capitulate, and a suspension of hostilities was granted until 8 o' clock the next day, when the
enclosed articles of capitulation, marked C, were signed and agreed to. The terms are more
favorable than a conquered enemy would have merited, but, under the peculiar circumstances of the
case, my object obtained, there was no motive for wounding the feelings of those whose military pride
or honor had prompted to the resistance made. The articles, with but one condition, amount to the
complete cession to the United States of that portion of the Floridas, hitherto under the government of
Don Jose Masot.
The arrangements which I have made to secure Pensacola and its dependencies, are contained in
the General Orders, c. marked D. I deemed it most advisable to retain, for the present, the same
government to which the people had been accustomed, until such time as the Executive of the United
States may order otherwise. It was necessary, however, to establish the revenue laws of the U.
States, to check the smuggling which has been carried on successfully in this quarter for many years
past; and to admit the American merchant to an equal participation in trade, which would had been
denied under the partial operation of the Spanish commercial code. Capt. Gadsden was appointed
by me collector, and he has organized and left the department in the charge of officers in whom the
greatest confidence may be reposed.
Though the Seminole Indians have been scattered and literally so driven and reduced, as no longer
to be viewed as a formidable enemy, yet, as there are still many small marauding parties, supposed to
be concealed in the swamps of the Perdido, Choctawhatchy, and Chapouly, who might make
occasional and sudden inroads on our frontier settlers, massacring women and children, I have
deemed it advisable to call into service for six months, if not sooner discharged, two companies of
volunteers rangers, under Capts. McGirt and Boyles, with instructions to scour the country between
the Mobile and Appalachicola rivers, exterminating every hostile party who dare to resist and will not
surrender, and remove with their families above the 31 degree of latitude.
The Seminole War may now be considered at a close tranquility again restored to the southern
frontier of the United States, and, as long as the cordon of military posts is maintained along the Gulf
of Mexico, America has nothing to apprehend from either foreign or Indian hostilities. Indeed, sir, to
attempt to fortify or protect an imaginary line, or to suppose that a frontier on the 31 degree of
latitude, in a wilderness, can be secured by a cordon of military posts whilst, the Spanish authorities
were not maintained in the Floridas, and that country lay open to the use and excitement of any
enemy, is visionary in the extreme. On the immutable principle, therefore, of self-defence, authorized
by the law of nature and of nations, have I bottomed all my operations. On the fact that the Spanish
officers had aided and abetted the Indian enemy, and thereby became a party in hostilities against us,
do I justify my occupying the Spanish fortresses. Spain had disregarded the treaties existing with the
American government, or had not power to enforce them. The Indian tribes within her territory, and
which she was bound to keep at peace, had visited our citizens with all the horrors of savage war.






Negro brigands were establishing themselves when and where they pleased, and foreign agents were
openly and knowingly practicing their intrigues in this neutral territory. The immutable principles of
self-defence justified, therefore, the occupancy of the Floridas, and the same principals will warrant
the American government in holding it until such time as Spain can guarantee, by an adequate
military force, the maintaining her authority within the colony.
A topographical sketch of the country from Appalachicola to Pensacola Bay accompanies this.
Captain Young will prepare, as soon as practicable, a topographical memoir of that part of the
Floridas, on which my army has operated, with a map of the country. Capt. Gadsden is instructed to
prepare a report on the necessary defences of the country, as far as the military reconnoissances will
permit, accompanied with plans of the existing works, what additions or improvements are necessary,
and what new works should, in his opinion, be created, to give permanent security to this important
territorial addition to our republic. As soon as the report is prepared, captain Gadsden will receive
orders to repair to Washington City with some other documents which I may wish to confide to this
charge.
At the close of a campaign which has terminated so honorably and happily, it gives me pleasure to
express my approbation generally of the officers and soldiers, of every species of corps, which I have
had the honor to command. The patience with which they endured fatigue and submitted to
privations, and the determination with which they encountered and vanquished every difficulty, is the
strongest indication of the existence of that patriotic feeling, which no circumstances can change, and
that irresistible ardor in the defence of their country, which will prove her strength and bulwark under
any exposure. I should do violence to my feelings, if I did not particularly notice the exertions of my
Quarter Master General, Col. George Gibson; who, under the most embarrassing of circumstances,
relieved the necessities of my army, and to whose exertions was I indebted for the supplies received.
His zeal and integrity in this campaign, as well as in the uniform discharge of his duties since his
connection with my staff, merits the approbation and gratitude of his country.
With respect, yours, c. ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. Com The Hon. J. C. CALHOUN, Sec'y at
War. HEAD-QUARTERS, Division of the South,
On the line of March, May 23d, 1818
Sir : The southern frontier of the United States has, for more than twelve months, been exposed to all
the horrors of a cruel savage war. A party of outlaws and refugees from the Creek nationNegroes
who have fled from their masters, citizens of the United States, and sought and asylum in Florida, and
the Seminole Indians inhabiting the territory of Spain, all uniting, have raised the tomahawk, and, in
the character of savage warfare, have neither regarded sex or age : helpless women have been
massacred, and the cradle crimsoned with the blood of innocence. The United States, true to their
own engagements, and confiding in the faith of Spain to enforce existing treaties, never entertained a
doubt but that their atrocities would early attract the attention of the Spanish government, and that
speedy and effectual measures would have been adopted for their suppression. Under this
persuasion, a cordon of military posts was established, to give immediate protection to such of our
frontier settlers as were peculiarly exposed, and strict injunctions issued to the American officers, to
respect the territory of Spain, and not to attempt operations within its limits. These instructions were
most scrupulously observed, and, notwithstanding the inactivity of the American troops had
encouraged the Indians to the more daring and outrageous acts of violence against our citizens, the
government of the United States was still disposed to respect the territory of Spain, and confide in the
ability of the Spanish government to execute existing treaties, until advised through you, that, with
every disposition, the Spanish authorities had not the power of controlling the Indians in Florida; that
their acts, of late, were viewed as equally hostile to the interests of Spain as those of the United
States ; that Spanish subjects were not exempted from the evils of which we complained, and that the
Negro establishments on the Appalachicola and St. Juan rivers, were founded by British agents,
contrary to the will of Spain. These representations determined the president of the United States to
adopt effectual measures to restore tranquility to the southern frontier in the American Republic; and,
pursuant to his orders, justifiable by the immutable laws of self-defence, I have penetrated through
Florida ; reduced to ashes the Seminole villages ; destroyed the magazines of provisions ; beaten






their warriors whenever they hazarded a contest; dispersed some and expelled others across the
river.
In the course of my operations, it became necessary to visit the Spanish fortress of St. Marks.
Entering the territory of Spain, to fight her battles, to relieve from bondage her subjects, and chastise
and Indian tribe, whom she acknowledged, under existing treaties, she was bound to preserve at
peace with the United States, I had every reason to expect that the American army would have been
received as friends, and every facility afforded to ensure success to operations so interesting to both
governments.
My expectations have not been realized. It has been reported to me, direct from you, that Fort St
Marks had been threatened by the Indians and negroes ; and you expressed serious apprehensions,
from the weakness of the garrison and defenceless state of the work, for its safety. From other
sources to be relied on, the same information had been furnished me. It became necessary,
therefore, to anticipate the movements of the enemy, and amicably to get possession of a work, the
dislodging the enemy from which, might cost me much precious blood.
On entering St. Marks, evidence of the duplicity and unfriendly feelings of the commandant evinced
itself. I found that the gates of his fort had been thrown open to the avowed savage enemies of the
United States ; that councils of war had been permitted to be held within his own quarters, by the
chiefs and warriors ; that the Spanish store-houses had been appropriated to the use, and were then
filled with goods belonging to the hostile parties that cattle, knowingly plundered from the citizens of
the United States, had been contracted for, and purchased by, the officers of the garrison, from the
Spanish thieves ; that foreign agents had free access within the walls of St. Marks, and a Mr.
Arbuthnot, condemned and executed as the instigator of this war, an inmate in the commandant's
family.
From this fort was information afforded the enemy of the strength and movements of my army, by the
said Arbuthnot ; the date of departure of express noted by the Spanish commissary, and ammunition,
munitions of war, and all necessary supplies, furnished.
On my return from my operations east, your letter was received, positively refusing to permit (unless
exorbitant duties were paid) any provisions passing up to the American fort on the Escambia.
Connected with this strong indication of an unfriendly disposition on your part, I have, from the most
unquestionable authority, that the city of Pensacola has, for some months past, been entirely under
the control of the Indians ; that free ingress and egress in permitted to the avowed savage enemy of
the United States ; that supplies of ammunition, munitions of war, and provisions, have been received
by them from thence ; that, on the 15th of April last, there were no less than 500 Indians in
Pensacola, many of them known to be hostile to the United States, and who had but lately escaped
my pursuit. The late massacre of 18 individuals on the Federal road, was committed by Indians direct
from their return to Pensacola, who were received by you, and transported across the bay, to elude
the pursuit of the American troops. The Americans returning, the savages were permitted to return.
An Indian wounded in pursuit by a party, for having killed a citizen of the United States, was openly, in
the sight of many Americans, received by you, and every comfort administered. Such practices, if
authorized by the King, would justify me in open hostilities. Disposed, however, to believe that it was
one of the unauthorized acts of agents, I deem it politic and necessary to occupy Pensacola, and the
Barrancas, with an American garrison, until the Spanish government can be advised of the
circumstances, and have force sufficient to maintain, and agents disposed to enforce, existing
treaties.
(Continued to the fourth page.)
This is the third time that the American troops have been compelled to visit Pensacola, from the same
causes. Twice had the enemy been expelled, and the place left in quiet possession of those who
permitted the irregular occupancy. This time it must be held until Spain has the power and will to
maintain her neutrality.
This is justified on the immutable principles of self-defence. The government of the United States is
bound to protect her citizens ; but weak would be all its efforts, and ineffectual the best advised
measures, if the Floridas are to be free to every enemy, and , on the pretext of policy or necessity,






Spanish fortresses are to be opened to their use, and every aid and comfort afforded.
I have been explicit, to preclude the necessity of a tedious negotiation. My resolution is fixed, and I
have strength enough to enforce it. My army now occupies the old Fort St. Michael, commanding
Pensacola. If the town and the Barrancas peaceably surrendered, an inventory of all the property,
ammunition, arms, c. shall be taken by officers appointed by both parties, and the amount receipted
for by me, to be accounted for by the American government. The property of Spanish subjects shall
be respected, their religion and laws guaranteed to them; the evil government. The property of
Spanish subjects shall be respected ; their religion and laws guaranteed to them, the civil government
permitted to remain as now established, subject to the control of the military authority of the United
States ; the ingress and egress open to all individuals ; commerce free to the subjects of Spain, as
usual ; and the military furnished with transportation to Cuba.
If the peaceable surrender be refused, I shall enter Pensacola by violence, and assume the
government, until the transaction can be amicably adjusted by the two governments. The military in
this case must be treated as prisoners of war.
The proof reporting the accusation against your official station will justify this procedure.
In reply to your communication of the 22d inst. I have only to observe, that the clothing detained will
be a subject for future friendly settlement.
How far the Indians, permitted to remain in the neighborhood of Pensacola, were friendly disposed to
the citizens of the United States, is tested by the late massacre committed by them on the Alabama.
The Red Ground Chiefs, Muldecory and Holmes, avowedly hostile to the United States, were but
lately seen in Pensacola, and a body of Indians described a few days ago in the vicinity of the
Barrancas, in presence of several Spanish officers.
By a reference to my communication of the 25th of March, you will see how far I have been the
aggressor in the measure protested against. You are there directly advised of the objects of my
operations, and that every attempt, on your part, to succour the Indians, or prevent the passage of my
provisions in the Escambia, would be viewed in no other light than as an hostile act on your part.
You have done both, and exposed my troops to the severest privations, by the detention, occasioned
by the exaction of duties on any provisions and vessels in Pensacola. You have, therefore, been the
aggressor, and the blood which may be shed by an useless resistance, on your part, to my demand,
will rest o your head : before God and man you will be responsible.
This will be handed to you by my aid-de-camp, Capt. Gadsden, by whom an answer is expected.
ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. Comd'g Don JOSE MASSOT, Governor of Pensacola.
HEAD-QUARTERS, Divisions of the South,
Pensacola, May 24, 1818
Sir : the enclosed communication was forwarded to you by my aid de camp, Capt. Gadsden, last
evening ; not finding you, however, in Pensacola, its delivery was delayed.
I have entered Pensacola to provision my troops. I have only to add, that an immediate compliance
with my demand is expected. Resistance on your part, would be a needless sacrifice of men.
ANDREW JACKSON,
Major General Commanding Don JOSE MASSOT, Governor of Pensacola,
at Fort St. Charles, Barancas.
TRANSLATED COPY
Fortress of St. Charles of Barrancas, 24th May, 1818. Most Excellent sir : I received at 10 o'clock this
morning, the two communications of your excellency of the 23d, and of this day.
As I have, in nine of the 18th instant, satisfactorily answered all the charges your excellency alleges in
the former, I shall only add, with respect to the Indians, that I notice your excellency is greatly
misinformed, as the circumstances to which you refer, are, for the most part, unfounded, in proof of
which, I will state, that the only two Indians I have found, since the peace negotiated by me, on the
delivery of the eighty-seven to majorYoung, are two who are in the prison, with three women and
children. I ought to inform you, that, long before the movement of your excellency, I have given orders
at Apalache, that the Seminole Indians should not be succoured, even had placards posted up in
Pensacola for the same purpose ; passing over without notice only some unfortunate beings, who,






from, time immemorial, had furnished the people with wood , as I have stated.
Your excellency lays to my charge the blood which may he shed by my refusal to deliver up the
province, as your excellency requests, which I shall never do, nor can I, without covering myself with
dishonor, at the close of my long military career. I am firmly persuaded your excellency would, in my
case, do the same, as you would not venture to stain the honorable laurels with which you are
adorned.
No nation, whatever, may be its motives, can violate the territory of another, especially when no
demands have previously been made of its government.
Your excellency has violated the Spanish territory in Apalache, by taking possession of that fort, and
pulling down its flag, when you could have adopted more conciliatory measures, which would, more
and more, have cemented and strengthened the good understanding subsisting between our
respective governments.
On the 21st of the present month, by your excellency's orders, Don Pedro Philibert and other
inhabitants remained prisoners, in their houses, on their parole of honor. Today at eleven o'clock,
before Capt. Gadsden arrived at Pensacola, your excellency's army entered, and made prisoner, on
parole, Don Pedro de Alba, the interpreter, (who translated your before named communications, and
who is the bearer of these) and, I believe all the military ; and of course broke up the seven posts
(puntos) stationed with the same number of officers , and two chiefs, for the maintenance of the
tranquility of the place.
These facts being incontrovertible, I ask, who but your excellency will be responsible for the blood that
may be shed ; as you declare in your letter, that you are about to take possession of Pensacola and
Barrancas? I protest, before God and man, that my conduct is blameless, and that my ardent desires
are, as they ever have been, to contribute to the peace and tranquility of our respective nations ; for,
besides the sincerity of my intentions, I have in view the Message of the President to the Congress of
the U. States, on the 25th of March last, its tenor assured me that no aggressions were to be
expected from the troops of the said Sates. Such, however, this province has unfortunately suffered
from the operations of your excellency in Apalache and Pensacola.
I expect, from the generosity of your excellency, first, that you will set the officers and troops which
garrisoned Pensacola at liberty ; and that, after supplying your army with provisions, you will shortly
evacuate the territory of this province, and not carry on a partial war against West Florida, at a time
when our nations are in profound peace.
Lieut. Col. Don Lui Piemas, temporary commandant of Pensacola, is duly authorized to exercise my
functions and to receive the communication of your excellency, which he faithfully remit to me, and to
which I will give the promptest answers, to be transmitted to you through the bearer of this, the
Interpreter, Don Pedro de Alba. Finally, if, contrary to my hopes, your Excellency should persist in
your intention to occupy this fortress, which I am resolved to defend to the last extremity, I shall repel
force by force, and he who resists aggression can never be considered an aggressor.
God preserve your excellency for many years. JOSE MASOT
His excellency A. Jackson,
Maj. Gen. Com. The army of the United States QUARTERS, Division of the South, Pensacola, May
25, 1818.
Sir : The accusations against you are founded on the most unquestionable evidence. I have the
certificate of individuals who, on the 22d instant, at or near the little Bayou, counted 17 Indians in
company of several Spanish officers.
I have only to repeat, that the Barrancas must be occupied by an American garrison, and again to the
terms offered, if amicably surrendered. Resistance would be a wanton sacrifice of blood, for which
you and your garrison will have to atone. You cannot expect to defend yourself successfully, and the
first shot from your fort must draw down upon you to vengeance of an irritated soldiery. I am well
advised of your strength, and cannot but remark upon the inconsistency of presuming yourself
capable of resisting an army which has conquered the Indian tribes, too strong, agreeably to your own
acknowledgment, to be controlled by you. If the force which you are now disposed wantonly to
sacrifice, had been wielded against the Seminoles, the American troops had never entered the






Floridas.
I applaud your feelings, as a soldier, in wishing to defend your post; but when resistance is ineffectual
and the opposing force overwhelming, the sacrifice of a few brave men is an act of wantonness, for
which the commanding officer must be accountable to his God.
ANDREW JACKSON,
Maj. Gen. Commanding Div. South Don JOSE MASSOT, Com. Barrancas.
TRANSLATIONS
Copy of a Note of the commander of West Florida to MajorYoung, at the Encampment, Banks of the
Escambia.
Pensacola, 27th April, 1818.
Sir :Your notes of the 27th, dated Encampment on the Escambia and Fort Crawford, accompanying
the proclamation which you were pleased to enclose, were delivered to me at 3 o'clock this afternoon,
by an artificer, a man of color, whose speedy return not allowing me to present to answer them in
detail, I shall merely state, that the small number of peaceful Indians who were in this place and its
vicinity retired on the 26th, at the dawn of which day several of them, both women and children, were
killed by the troops of the United States. As it is not my purpose to investigate the motives of this act,
or of the violation resulting from it, I shall only say, that, in compliance with my duty, I shall give an
account of the whole proceeding to my superior; and, in the mean time, I hope you will allow no
further hostilities to be committed on this territory, on any pretence whatever. If the Indians should
give any further cause of complaint, I trust you will inform me of it, that they may receive due
punishment, should that depend on my authority. If there are any Indians still remaining within this
territory, I will have them sought for and informed of your letter, and advise you of the result. I can
assure you, both under my hand and on my word, that the information, as stated in your letter, of the
aggressions committed by the Indians, is the first I have had of them ; for, at the time I agreed to the
return of the escort referred to, I had no knowledge of any others than those who were concerned in
the attack on Lieut. Eddy. I repeat to you the assurance, that my wishes and efforts are wholly
directed to preserve the peace happily subsisting between our governments. In a full confidence in
your favorable sentiments, I beg leave to offer you my respectful salutations
God preserve you many years. JOSE MASOT
To Maj. W Young, Commanding
The American troops on the Escambia PENSACOLA, 30th April, 1818.
Copy of a note from Jose Masot, to Maj. W Young.
SIR : In consequence of the request expressed in your letter of the 27th inst. I assembled the Chiefs
of the Upper Creeks, at the villages of Colomni, Canaan, Cowale, and Forsatche ; and
communicated to them the contents of your letter. They all replied, that they had for a long time been
very miserable and wretched, without shelter or home ; that, by the counsel of a good friend, they had
at length found one ; that they had listed attentively to it, and accepted with gratitude the offers you
had made them. These Indians are about 87 in number, including women and children. They agreed
to divide themselves into three parties, and set out on their march, as soon as I receive your answer,
which I thought it would be prudent for them to keep ; and that, when you were informed of their
resolution, you would give the necessary orders for their safe progress, and avoiding any reencounter
with the Chactaws, who, if not seasonably apprized of the circumstances, might attack them, in which
case the pacific arrangements in which we both take so strong an interest would be entirely defeated.
Opahihola, an Alibaman Chief, on account of his advanced age and infirmities, for, the present,
remain here with his family. I have given orders for his relief, and pledge myself for his good
behaviour. You will always find disposed, sir, to promote any measure conclusive to the mutual
interests of our two countries, which may, at the same time, be in conformity with existing treaties. I
offer you the renewed assurances of my respect, and I pray God to preserve you.
JOSE MASOT, To Major White Young. True copies of the letter and documents deposited in the
archives of this command.
PENSACOLA, 2d MAY, 1818.
In the absence of the Secretary (by indisposition.)






A true copy.
BUENAVENTURA DUBREUIL.
I certify, that, on the 23d of May, 1818, being on the bayou, which enters Pensacola bay, 1 1-2 miles
from the town, I saw at the ferry, on the road to Barrancas, a number of Indians, I think about 17, in
company with four Spanish officers. The officers were carried over, and the boat returned to ferry
over the Indians. I saw one boat landed on the side next the Barrancas. The Indians concealed
themselves in the bushes on discovering us.
RICHARD BRICKHAM. Witness, T Cross, Lieut. Infantry.

I certify that I was in the boat with Brickham at the place and time mentioned in the above certificate;
that I saw several Indians in company with four Spanish officers. The officers were ferried over with
one Indian. I did not see the Indians ferried over; they concealed themselves on discovering us.
JOHN BONNER, his x mark. Witness T Cross, Lieut. Infantry.
Witness to both certificates,
Wm. S. Fulton, Private Secretary Commanding General.
We certify, that, being in Fort St. Charles, Barrancas, on the 28th of May, 1818, in the afternoon, soon
after the American troops took possession of the work, and as the Spanish troops were marching
out, we saw an Indian carried out by some Spanish soldiers ; he was laid on the back, to be put on
board a boat; he was wounded in the leg or thigh, and, had every appearance of having been
engaged in the defence of the fort.
WM. RUSSELL, Capt. Spies.
JAS. S. BELL, Captain 1st Reg't TV. Md. G. M. Witness, Wm. S. Fulton, Private Sec'y Com'g
General. Fort Montgomery, June 2d, 1818.
I certify, that between the 5th and 17th of May, 1818, whilst at Fort Gadsden, on the Appalachicola
river, I was informed by a Mr. Larua, and Beneto Gassea, both citizens of, and at that time direct from,
Pensacola, that at the time of their departure thence, there were 500 Indians in and about Pensacola
: and, I further certify, that, on my arrival at Pensacola, on the 23d of May, I was informed by Mr.
Streets, and other citizens of that place, that on the 22d, which was the day before my arrival,
Holmes, (a noted Red stick) with his party, had left Pensacola to proceed to the Choctawhatchy, for
safety, having been for several days previous in town.
All which I certify on honor.
WILLIAM HAMBLYWitness, Wm. S. Fulton, Private Secretary to Commanding General.
I do hereby certify, that during my long residence on the river Appalachicola, my knowledge of the
Indian language, and my intimate acquaintance with the different chiefs, gave me many opportunities
of knowing, through them, the advices given them from time to time, by the governors of West Florida,
hostile to the United States. In the year 1812 or 1813, I saw a letter from the governor of Pensacola
to the late chief of the Seminoles, Thomas Perryman, advising him to collect his forces, and join, his
upper town brethren, who, he said, had come to a determination to rise in arms, and shake off the
American yoke ; he would supply them in arms and ammunition, and he said he was sure, that in less
than a month their fathers and protectors, the Spaniards, would have a sufficient army in the field to
aid and protect them. Not long after I saw this letter, a large party of Indians went down to Pensacola,
where they received a large supply of ammunition and some arms. It was but shortly after this, when
they attacked and destroyed the garrison of Fort Mims. This was the commencement of the first
Indian war. On the 13th of December last, when at my plantation on the Appalachicola, I was made a
prisoner by a party of Seminole Indians, and was taken up to the Ochusee Bluff, in company with Mr.
Doyle, who was made a prisoner with me. They kept us here three days, during which time they were
busily engaged in some transports, which were then ascending the river to Fort Scott. From thence
they took us to the Mickasuky, when the Indians informed me that they had been told by the
commandant of St. Mark, that war was declared between Spain and the United States. From this
place we were carried to the Suwaney, when Kenhager, principal chief of the Seminoles, told me, that
we had been taken and robbed by order of Arbuthnot, and brought there to be tried by him. Shortly
after we reached this, Arbuthnot arrived from Providence, when we were tried, and sentenced by said






Arbuthnot to be tortured. This sentence was not put into execution, from the friendly interference of
Mr. Cook, clerk to Arbuthnot, and the negro chief Nero. We were then conducted back to the
Mickasukys. Then Kenhager went down to the fort of St. Marks, to consult the commandant if he
would take us as prisoners to be held at his order. They held a council among the neighboring chiefs,
and on the fifth day he returned, and ordered us to be conducted down next morning. We arrived at
St. Marks on the 12th of February at night; the Spanish officers received us kindly, but the
commandant did not forget to remind us, that we were still prisoners, and marked out that night the
limits of our prison, which they rigidly kept during the time of our stay. Next morning, the first thing
that presented itself to my view was my saddle horge, which had been taken from me by the Indians;
he was in the possession of the commissary. I mentioned it to the commandant, but he said that he
bought him of an Indian, and he could do nothing in it. A few days after, in the course of conversation,
I mentioned it to the Spanish doctor; he assured me that two thirds of the property taken from us by
the Indians had been bought by the commissary, and others, in the fort. The plundered property
taken from Georgia was every day readily bought by the commandant and others. I knew one
instance of an Indian making an engagement with the commandant for cattle that he was then going
to plunder, and in 14 or 15 days he brought them in and sold them. On our first arrival at St. Marks,
we had, by the help of a friendly Indian, conveyed intelligence to our friends in Pensacola of our
situation, and they sent us on a small vessel to effect our escape. At her arrival, the commandant
said to us, that he had no objection to our getting out of the power of the Indians, but that he should
first demand a written obligation that we should never return to that country, nor hold communication,
directly or indirectly, with the United States' government, or any of her officers. This being settled, we
left St. Marks on the night of the 28th March, and joined Capt. McKeever in his gun boats, in the bay
of Appalachicola ; on the 30th ultimo returned with him to St. Marks, where we joined Gen. Jackson
on the 6th of April.
Given under my hand, this 24th July.
WM. HAMBLY
We, the undersigned, do hereby certify, that, at the capture of Fort St. Marks, East Florida, by Maj.
Gen. A. Jackson, on the 7th April, 1818, there were some cattle purchased on account of the United
States, and turned over to us, which, we are of an opinion had been driven from the frontiers of
Georgia, (a part of them at least) and we were strengthened in our opinion, by a number of officers
and men from Georgia offering to swear to a number of them, as the property of their neighbors and
friends. Given under our hands at Fort Gadsden, this 3d of May, 1818.
JACOB R. BROWN,
Acting Contractor's Agent U.S. army.
PETER CONE, Asst. Com'y We, the undersigned officers and men of the Georgia militia, in the
service of the United States, do hereby certify, that we were at Fort St. Marks, East Florida, at the
time of its capture by Maj. Gen. A. Jackson, on the 7th of April, 1818, and saw some cattle that were
purchased on account of the United States, from the Spanish authorities, which we were ready to
swear to as the property of our friends and neighbors in Georgia. Given under our hands, at Fort
Gadsden, this 3d of May, 1818.
ANDREW F FRAZER, Capt. DAN F SULLIVAN, G. M. S. Fort Gadsden, 3d May, 1818.
Sir : After the occupancy of Fort St. Marks with American troops on the 7th April last, it became my
duty to take charge of some goods found in one of the public stores.
These goods were pointed out by the Spanish commandant, who, through Mr. Hambly, as interpreter,
separated several of the articles, claimed as his own private property, and designated others as the
property of Francis, or Hillis Hago, and Arbuthnot, a British agent or trader : an inventory of these
were taken, and deposited with the American officer left in command at Fort St. Marks. With respect,
c.
D. E. TWIGGS, Bvt. Maj. 7th Inf.
I certify that I acted as an interpreter in the transaction above alluded to, and two separate parcels of
good were designated by the Spanish commandant of St. Marks as belonging to Hillis Hago and
Arbuthnot.






WM. HAMBLY
FORT GADSDEN, MAY 2, 1818.
Sir :We beg leave to submit to you the following statement of facts. On 13th December, 1817, we
were violently torn from our settlements on the Appalachicola river, by number of Indians, headed by
Chenubby, a chief from the Fowl Town tribe, carried to Mickasuky and delivered to Kenhajah, King of
the Mickasukians. Kenhajah carried us to the Negro towns on Suwany, and thence to the Spanish fort
at St. Marks, to the commandant of which he delivered us as prisoners captured under the orders of
a Mr. Arbuthnot, reported to us as a British Agent. At St. Marks we were treated as prisoners, and
not permitted to wander beyond the walls of the garrison.
Whilst at that post, the ingress and egress of the Indians, hostile to the United States, was
unrestrained , and several councils were held, at one of which, Kanhajah, King of the Mickasukians,
Francis or Hillis Hago. Hamathlemeco, the chief of Autesses, and the chief of the Holemies, all of the
old red stick party, and Jack Mealy, chief of the Ochewas, were present.
When it was reported that the chiefs, and that warriors were entering Fort St. Marks, for the purpose
of holding a council, Hambly represented to the commandant the impropriety of permitting such
proceedings within the walls of a Spanish fortress, the officer of which was bound to preserve and
enforce the treaties existing between the King of Spain and the United States : he replied to Hambly,
with some degree of warmth, observing, that it was not in his power to prevent it. On the Indians
coming into the fort, at their request we were confined. The council was held in the commandant's
quarter s: he, the commandant, was present, but strictly forbade the intrusion of any of the officers of
the garrison.
The Indians were in the habit of driving to Fort St. Marks, and disposing of cattle to the commandant
and other Spanish officers. While at that post, three or four droves were brought in, acknowledged by
the Indians to have been stolen from the citizens of the United States, and purchased by the Spanish
officers.
We were present at most of these contracts, and Hambly often referred to, as an interpreter between
the purchaser and seller.
Chenubby, a Fowl town Indian, once applied to Hambly to mention top the commandant, that he was
about visiting the frontiers of Georgia, on a plundering expedition, and wished to know whether he
would purchase the cattle brought in. A contract was entered into; and Chenubby soon after brought
in and disposed of eleven head of cattle to the Spanish commandant of Fort St. Marks.
These same cattle were those purchased by you from the commandant as his private property.
WM. HAMBLY EDM'D. DOYLE.
FORT GADSDEN, MAY 3, 1818.
Sir : In conversation with the commandant of Fort. St. Marks, on the subject of having that work
occupied by an American garrison, I had occasion to notice the aid and comfort that the hostile party
of Indians had received as reported from him ; and that it was well known no small supplies of
ammunition had been received from that quarter. In reply he stated, that his conduct had been
governed by policy ; the defenceless state of his work, and the weakness of his garrison compelled
him to conciliate the friendship of the Indians, to supply their wants, to grant what he had not the
power to deny, and to throw open, with apparent willingness, the gates of his fortress, lest they should
be forced by violence.
That he had been repeatedly threatened by Indians and negroes, and that his security depended
upon exhibiting an external friendship. After Fort St. Marks was occupied by the American troops, a
black man and Spanish soldier was reported to me as having been arrested clad in the American
uniform, recognized as part of the clothes of the 4th and 7th regiments, captured in the boat
commanded by Lt. Scott, in ascending the Appalachicola river.
In explanation, the commandant observed, that his soldiers and the Seminole Indians were in the
habit of trading with each other, and that this negro, with others of his garrison, had received his
permission to purchase some clothing reported to have been brought in by the Indians.
Respectfully, c. JAMES GADSDEN; A. D. Camp
Maj. Gen. A. Jackson, Com. S. D. U. S. army. HEAD QUARTERS, Division of the South,







Fort Montgomery, June 2d, 1818.
Sir: The Seminole war having terminated, I deem it politic and advisable to send to Washington John
Blunt and his Indians comrades, who have acted as pilots to me during the late campaign. John
Blunt is a Tuckabatchee Indian, has long been friendly to the United States, and in consequence of
his opposition to the Red Stick Party, during the Creek war, was drawn down upon himself their
vengeance during the late contest. His settlement being in a exposed situation on the Appalachicola
river, he was early attacked by the Seminoles, his property destroyed, and his family rifled from him.
Alone he escaped, and fled to Fort Scott; where, joining the American standard, he has proved
himself a most zealous friend and faithful pilot, to this period. In justice to him, I am bound to state,
that to his correct knowledge of the country, and zealous attachment to the cause in which we were
engaged, am I measurably indebted for the success of the present campaign.
Mr. Hambly accompanies John Blunt. Mr. H. is a Spanish subject by birth, and has long bee a
resident as a trader, on the Appalachicola river. In consequence oh his attachment to the American
cause, and his active exertions to check the hostile feelings of those Indians, disposed to war against
the United States, he drew down upon himself and family their vengeance. He was forcibly taken
from his house at an early period of the war, his property, goods and negroes taken from him, and he
violently transported from Mickasuky, Suwany and St. Marks, until finally relieved by Capt. McKeever,
of the American navy. Since that period he has been attached to my army as Indian interpreter. You
will find him an honest and faithful friend to our government, and valuable for the information which he
can afford of Spanish policy and intrigue. He is well acquainted with all the transactions of foreign
agents in this country, of their practices, c. and how far encouraged by the Spanish authority, c. With
respect, c. ANDREW JACKSON,
Major General Commanding. The Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Sec. of War.[ Here end the documents, of
which we have published the whole series, except the field report of the American force at Pensacola,
not deemed material; the proclamation of General Jackson, Col. Butler's General Order, and the
articles of capitulationall of which have been already published in our papers.]




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