Article Title: Report of the Secretary of State to the President of the United States. Pickering on the Ellicott survey, as mentioned above.
Author:
Published in: Minerva Mercantile Evening Advertiser
Place of Publication: New York, NY
Publication Date: 6/20/1797




P A P E R S
Which accompanied the President's message of the 12th inst. on Spanish affairs.
R E P O R T
Of the Secretary of State to the President of the United States, of the proceedings of ANDREW ELLICOTT, esq. Commissioner for running the boundary line between the United States, and East and West Florida.DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
June 10, 1797. The Secretary of State respectfully reports to the President of the United States, the substance of the information received the 8th inst. from Andrew Ellicott Esquire, the commissioner of the United States, appointed to run the boundary line between their territory and his Catholic Majesty's Colonies of East and West Florida.
Although Mr. Ellicott left Philadelphia, September 1796, to proceed by the Ohio and Missisippi rivers, to the Natchez, the place appointed by the treaty with Spain, at which the Commissioners of the two governments were to meet, yet owing to the lowness of the waters of the Ohio, he did not reach its mouth until the 19th day of December ; two days after which both the Ohio and Missisippi were almost frozen over. On the 21st January, the ice began to give way, and thair store boat arriving on the 28th, they proceeded on the 31st for the Natchez. On the 21st February, Mr. Ellicott received a letter (No. 1) from his Catholic Majesty's government, Gayoso de Lemos, dated the Natchez the 17th February, mentioning the information he had received of his approaching arrival, attended by a military guarded some woodsmen, and desiring that the troops might be left about the mouth of Bayon Pierre ; assigning for his reason, that thereby every unforeseen misunderstanding between the troops of the two powers would be prevented. With this request from views of accommodation, Mr. Ellicott complied. Bayon Pierre about 60 miles above the Natchez.
On the 24th February, Mr. Ellicott reached the Natchez, and immediately by a letter acquainted governor Gayoso, of his arrival. The governor on the same day returned as answer. (No.2.) The day following they had an interview, and fixed on the 19th of March to proceed down the river to Clarkesville, near which it was supposed the line should commence. The Monday following, February 27th Mr. Ellicott wrote a letter (No.3.) to the baron de Carondelet, his Catholic Majesty's governor-general of Louisiana, and the Commissioner named by the Court of Spain, for ascertaining the boundary line, to inform him of his arrival at the Natchez, as the commissioner of the United States. The baron's answer, (No.4.) dated March 1st was received the 9th and on the same day Governor Gayoso waited on Mr. Ellicott, and informed him that the Baron, in consequence of interesting concerns below, had declined to attend, and that the whole business had devolved on him. Ellicott expressed his satisfaction, because he expected that he, governor Gayoso, would be immediately ready to proceed. The governor answered," No time shall be los t; but I fear I shall not be ready by the 19th ; and although the baron declines acting on account of the business which demands his constant attention at Orleans, he is nevertheless desirous of having an interview with you ; and for that purpose had ordered a galley to be fitted up for your use and accommodation to New Orleans.',Mr. Ellicott considered that the third article of the treaty with Spain, required the commissioners for running the boundary line to meet at the Natchez ; and that being then at his post, it was his duty to remain there, until the Spanish commissioner should be ready to proceed with him to the place where the line should commenceand therefore he declined the baron's invitation.
On the 27th of February, Mr. Ellicott encamped at the upper end of the town of Natchez, about a quarter of a mile from the fort occupied by the Spanish troops ; and two days after hoisted the flag of the United States. Upon this he received a verbal message from Governor Gayoso, by his aid, Major Minor, desiring the flag might be taken down, which Mr. Ellicott declined doing. The request was not repeated. Here Mr. Ellicott began his astronomical observations, and found the hill on which he was encamped to be in latitude 31 0. 33' 46", or about 39 miles north of the south boundary of the United States.
In this situation, Mr. Ellicott was told alarming stories about the unfavorable disposition of the Indians, under an idea that the United States were their destruction. The whole settlement was warming with them; and they frequently went about his camp with drawn knives. For his own safety he frequently issued provisions to them. Thus critically circumstanced, he, on the 11th of March, wrote to Governor Gayoso the letter, No. 5, to which he received the answer, No.6. But in the mean time, Mr. Ellicott had sent an express to the commanding officer of his escort (consisting of only 25 men) which in complaisance to the governor's first request, he had left sixty miles up the river, to come down directly to the Natchez.And being determined not to counteract this order, he on the [13th,] wrote to governor Gayoso, the letter No.7, proposing Bacon's landing , about a mile below his camp, for the station of his escort ; but before this letter was sent, he had an interview with the Governor, who undertook to prove the propriety and necessity of the whole party from the United States going down to Clark's place, and closed his reasoning by observing, That if the escort did land at the Natchez, he should consider it as insult offered to the king his master. Mr. Ellicott then telling the governor, that he should send him immediately an answer in writing, observed, That the desire which was constantly manifested to drawn him from that place, (Natchez) appeared very singular, as it was designated in the late treaty with his Catholic majesty and the United States, as the place of meeting for the commissioners ; and therefore, that he should reject every proposition that was intended to draw him from his present situation, until the commissioner and surveyor on behalf of the crown of Spain, were ready to proceed to business.
To which the governor replied, " Sir, you either mistake my meaning, or I have expressed myself very badly, I do not want you to leave this place, but on the contrary, I am desirous for you to take up your residence in my house ; you will live there much more comfortably than in a tent." Mr. Ellicott said, that his tent was much more agreeable than a palace ; for in his camp he enjoyed an independence characteristic of the nation he had the honor to represent. The next morning, Mr. Ellicott sent his letter No.7, and the same day received the governor's answer, No.8, expressing his entire satisfaction with Mr. Ellicott's sentiments as uniformly agreeing with his own, in every thing which could combine the mutual interests of the two nations.
The evening following (March 15th) Mr. Ellicott's escort arrived at the landing and the next day went down to the place he had proposed for their station.
The officer of the escort having found in the settlement a number of deserted from the American army, took them up. This occasioned some verbal communications between governor Gayoso and Mr. Ellicott, the former desiring the deserters might be dismissed. Mr. Ellicott thereupon proposed this arrangemen t: That such deserters from the army of the United States as came into that country, and took the protection of the Spanish government prior to the time fixed by the treaty for the evacuation of the posts, should, for the present, remain unmolested ; but that such as had come to that country since that time should be liable to be taken and detained.
About the time Mr. Ellicott's escort arrived, the principle part of artillery was taken out of the fort and carried to the landing, and every appearance made of a speedy evacuation ; but on the 22d of March, great industry was used in carrying cannon back to the fort, which were immediately remounted. This gave great alarm to the inhabitants of the district, who generally manifested a desire of being declared subjects of the United States, and at once to renounce the Spanish jurisdiction. In order to quiet the minds of the inhabitants, and to be able to give them some reasons for the governor's conduct, which now began to be considered as hostile to the United States, Mr. Ellicott on the 23d of March, wrote the letter No.9. which was followed by a note, No.10, to which he received the governor's answer 11. This answer containing information that the important business of running the boundary line should soon be commenced, and an assurance that nothing could prevent the religious compliance with the treaty. Mr. Ellicott expressed his satisfaction in his letter to the governor, No.12.
It being now reported, that the American troops would be down in a few days, the governor sent by his aid, to Mr. Ellicott, an open letter from the governor directed to captain Pope, who, it was said commanded those troops, informing him, that for sundry reasons it would be proper, and conducive to the harmony of the two nations, for himself and the detachment under his command to remain at or near the place where the letter should meet him, until the posts should be evacuated ; and as every preparation was making for that purpose, the delay would be put for a few days, when he would be happy to see him at the Natchez. This proposal to captain Pope, the governor, in his letter, No.13, desired Mr. Ellicott to second. Upon reading the letter, Mr. Ellicott observed to major Minor, that it was impossible for him to join in the governor's request to capt. Pope, as it was well known to him (Mr. Ellicott) that instead of evacuating the posts, they were making them more defensible. However, Mr. Ellicott said he would write a letter to the officer commanding the detachment, and requested major Minor (as he was to be the bearer of the governor's letter to the Walnuthills) to take charge of it ; to which he had no objection. This letter is No. 14.
On the 28th of March, the governor issued the proclamation No.15, bearing the date of March 29, and another, No.16, bearing the same date, with the avowed object of quieting the minds of the inhabitants ; but they produced the contrary effect. As soon as the governor discovered this, he requested two gentlemen of the settlement, to inform Mr. Ellicott, that he, the governor in chief, the baron de Carondelet, to have the artillery and military stores expeditiously removed from the forts, which were immediately to be given up to troops of the United States upon their arrival. Great pains were taken to inculcate this report ; but it did not remove suspicions. In order, therefore to obtain a direct explanation,Mr. Ellicott, on the 31st of March, wrote to the governor, the letter No. 17, inclosing two paragraphs, No. 18, of an address he had received from a number of respectable inhabitants of the district. The governor's answer, No. 19, of the same date, confirmed every suspicion, as it contained an explicit declaration, that his general had given him positive orders to suspend the evacuation of the posts, until the two governments should determine, whether the works were to be left standing or to be demolished ; and until, by an additional article to the treaty, the real property of the inhabitants should be secured ; agreeably to his proclamation, in which the governor thought proper to tell the inhabitants, that negociations were on foot between his Catholic Majesty and the Unites States, for the adjustment of that and other matters.It may not be improper to remark, that no such negociation has existed ; and that this is the first time that these objections to the evacuation of the posts have been heard of. This peremptory declaration of governor Gayoso requires no comment.
Mr. Ellicott says, that which the exception of about eight persons, including some officers, all the inhabitants of the Natchez district (within the limits of the United States) are desirous of coming under their jurisdiction, and to have a government established there, similar to that north-west of the river Ohio. My enquiries enable me to add,that the population amounts to near four thousand souls.
Mr. Ellicott further informs, that he has not only reason to believe, but it is certain that many grants for lands in that district, have been given out by the officers of the government of Louisiana, since the ratification of the late treaty, and that their surveyors are now executing their surveys.
On the 14th April, when Mr. Ellicott was folding up dispatches, he received from governor Gayoso the letter, No.20, of that date, complaining of the inlistment of persons in that district, as an infringement of the rights of his Catholic Majesty ; and requesting that the persons inlisted might be discharged : to which Mr. Ellicott immediately returned the answer, No.21 ; observing that the matter required investigation ; but assuring governor Gayoso, that he would be careful neither to infringe the rights of the subjects of his Catholic Majesty, nor willingly suffer those of the citizens of the United States to be infringed.
The bearer of Mr. Ellicott's dispatches informs me, that before he had left the Natchez, they had heard that two gun boats were preparing at New Orleans to bring up reinforcements : and since his arrival I have received information, which connected with this detail of facts is entitled to belief.That about the 10th of May, three large boats full of troops, besides a party by land, set off from New-Orleans for the Natchez. It was added for the purpose of driving off the continental troops that had taken possession, agreeably to the late treaty.
TIMOTHY PICKERING.
(No. 1)Manuel Gayoso de Lemos to the hon. A. Ellicot.

SIR.
SOME gentlemen that left you at the mouth of the Ohio, have informed me of your approaching arrival here, and that to attend you on your commission you bring a military guard and some woods-men.
It is with pleasure, that I propose myself the satisfaction of seeing you here, and to make your acquainance.
Though I do not conceive that the least difficulty will arise respecting the execution of the part of the treaty in which you are an acting person ; yet, as we are not prepared to evacuate the posts immediately, for want of the vessels that I expect will arrive soon, I find it indispensable to request you to leave the troops about the mouth of Bayon Pierre, where they may be provided with all their necessaries which you can regulate on your arrival here. By this means, every unforseen misunderstanding will be prevented between his Majesty's troops, and those of the United States ; besides, it is necessary to make some arrangements previous to the arrival of the troops on which subject I shall have the honor of entertaining you when we meet.
I embrace this opportunity to assure you of the satisfaction I feel in being appointed to act in concert with you, though your first interview is to be with the General in Chief of this Province.

I have the honor to be,
with the highest consideration,
Sir,
Your most humble,
and obedient servant,
MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.Natchez, Feb. 17, 1797.
(Copy.)
The Hon. A. ELLICOTT. (No. 2.)Baron de Carondelet to the hon. A. Ellicott. Natchez, 24th Feb. 1797.

SIR, BY your favor of this day, delivered to me by Mr. Nolan, I learn with pleasure, your arrival at this post, in the character of your Commissioner in behalf of the United States, to ascertain the boundaries between the territories of his most Catholic Majesty and the said United States.
I have the honor to be,
with the highest respect.
Sir,
Your most humble servant,
MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.(Copy.)
The Hon. A. ELLICOTT. (No. 3.)Honorable Andrew Ellicott, to the Baron de
Carondelet. Natchez, Feb. 27, 1797.

SIR, IT is with pleasure I embrace this opportunity of informing you of my safe arrival at this place, as Commissioner in behalf of the United States, for ascertaining the boundaries between the territories of his most Catholic Majesty and those of the United States.
The polite manner in which I have been received at the posts on the Missisippi, now in the possession of his most Catholic Majesty, demands my thanks and gratitude, and am in hopes that a similar conduct will be observed on our part.
I have the honor to be, c. c. ANDREW ELLICOTT.(Copy.)
The BARON DE CARONDELET. (No. 4.)
(TRANSLATION.)New Orleans, March 1st, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR,
I HAVE received with great satisfaction, your friendly letter of the 27th of February last ; in consequence of which, I congratulate you on your arrival in this country in the character of Commissioner on the part of the United States, to run the dividing line between the territories of his most Catholic Majesty, and the U. States. You likewise did me the favor to mention with what kindness and attention you were received at the different posts, as well as by the whole Government under my direction ; and from the general principles of your nation, I have no doubt but the same conduct will be observed on the part of the United States.
God guard you,
Most excellent Sir.
BARON DE CARONDELET.ANDREW ELLICOTT, Esq.(No. 5.)Hon A. Ellicott, to Manuel Gayoso de Lemos. Natchez, March 11, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, THE conduct of the Indians yesterday and last night, owing principally to their constant state of intoxication, renders it absolutely necessary, in my opinion, to have recourse to my militray escort for protection. The discipline of our army is such, that you may rest assured, none of the inconveniences mentioned in your first communication to me, are to be apprehended from the escort's being stationed at this place on our part.And as the attendance of the guard forms a part of the treaty now carrying into effect between his most Catholic Majesty and the United States, which I am authorized to declare will be observed by the nation I have the honor to represent, with good faith and punctuality, I must request the favor of you to withdraw your objections against my escort's joining me at this place as soon as possible.
I am, c. c.ANDREW ELLICOTT.
(Copy.)
His Ex'cy MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS. (No. 6.)Manuel Gayoso de Lemos to the hon. A. Ellicott. Natchez, March 12th, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, THIS morning I had the pleasure to receive your amicable communication, dated yesterday. I give you my sincere thanks for having established this form of intercourse, as it will make our business more easy, and indeed it is more conformable to the sincere friendship we have contracted.
In answer to your said letter, I will remark, that such conduct of the Indians is not customary here ; I foresaw that it would happen from the moment you shewed a desire of having your colours flying, before all the transactions were terminated ; knowing the Indians as well as I do, this was the reason of the objections I offered the moment I saw it hoisted, for otherwise I know it very well, that it is frequently used by the representatives of my nation in a foreign county ; it's even done in Spain by foreign Consuls.
I am sorry you should have experienced any inconveniency from this particular circumstance, and that urged by such effects to wish to have by you your escort. I have not the least objection that it should be called, from its actual station ; but as it is my duty, and that I am answerable for the tranquility of the country that is entrusted to my charge, I must propose to you a method that will answer every good and satisfactory purpose. Had not you been unluckily stopped on your voyage to this country, you would have had immediately the General of the Province here, to begin the operation of demarking the divisory line between the territories of his Catholic Majesty and those of the United States of America. He had every necessary preparation to attend to the business ; but since the time he had a right to expect the Commissioners of the United States, the war with England has taken place, and his cares thereby increased, yet he expected to have had it in his porwer to come to meet you at Daniel Clarke's, Esq. which place is near the point of the 31 0, but he has found it impossible, as it would oblige him to make too long an absence from New Orleans ; therefore, it is myself that will have the honor to accompany you on that important commission, on behalf of his Catholic Majesty. This is the moment when I am in want of every individual thing, both for my person, and for the attendants of the commission, tho' the Geometer and other officers that are to be employed, are already on their way from New Orleans, and will stop at Clarkesville, where I shall go myself as soon as my equipage arrives from the capital : but this will inevitably take some time, therefore the plan that I wished to arrange with you, will be to make Loftus's Cliffs, our point of re-union. This place is a short distance from Clarkesville, and it is a very healthy situation ;there I will send every thing concerning the Spanish commission ; and that will be the most convenient place to establish, for a while, your head quarters, under your military escort. By adopting this measure, you will have your people together, and the most distant disagreeable occurrence avoided, as I am positively confident that some would happen by the conjunction here, as you propose. It is true, that by the treaty an escort is supposed, and even recommended to each commission, but it is to be on the line, and not at a distance from it where it would interfere with other business ; therefore I feel sensibly hurt that it is out of my power to consent in the landing of the troops in this place, tho' I have not the objection on their going directly to Loftus's Cliffs.
I have given the most positive orders to prevent the Indians getting liquor ; and to their interpreter I have given the strictest charge to be always in sight, and to-morrow I expect that they will remove to some distance from hence.
I have the honor to be, with the highest respect and esteem,
Your most affectionate friend,
And humble servant, MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.(A true copy.)
D. GILLESPIE, Secretary.
The honorable ANDREW ELLICOTT. (No. 7.)Hon. A. Ellicott to Manuel Gayoso de Lemos. Natchez, March 13th, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, YOUR favor of yesterday was handed to me in due time, which would have been answered sooner, had not the storm last night prevented me from writing in my tent.Your letter, as well as many circumstances which have come to my knowledge, contain fresh proofs of your desire to promote good order and harmony in this part of the country. But, sir, I cannot suppose that any inconvenience could possibly arise, or the peace of this settlement be disturbed by the arrival and landing of the escort which I left at Bayon Pierre : If I did suppose the contrary, I trust that I should be one of the last persons to propose the measure. In my opinion, the escort which accompanied me, is as much bound to observe good order in this country, as the troops of his Catholic majesty. This is not an opinion of the day, it has uniformly been mine ever since I left the seat of our government : In consequence of which, immediately upon my entering the Missisippi, I issued a standing order, that when any of our party, the military included, should be at any place where the jurisdiction was exercised by his Catholic majesty, the laws and usages of that government should be observed and submitted to in the most pointed manner. The escorts by the spirit of the treaty, are intended for our mutual protection against stragling hostile Indians, and the preservation of our stores.This appear to be their whole business.
As I hope that mere punctilios may never interrupt our friendship, and the conduct of the Indians having become more peaceable since the night before last, I am less anxious for the escort's being stationed at my present encampment : I would, therefore, to prevent any disturbance or misunderstanding, propose that the officer who commands the escort which accompanied me to Bayon Pierre, be directed to proceed down the river to Bacon Landing, from whence he may come to this place, and procure such necessaries as he may be in want of for the ensuing season.
As this is the place designated by the treaty for our meeting, and making our arrangements for carrying on the business, I conceive there would be an impropriety in my leaving it till your excellency is ready to join me in fixing the first point of latitude.
I am, c. c. ANDREW ELLICOT.(Copy.)
D. GILLESPIE, Secretary.Note.The last two paragraphs were added after having had a private conversation with the governor. (No. 8.)Manuel Gayoso de Lemos to the hon. A. Ellicott. Natchez, 14th March, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, I DO myself the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your favor, dated of yesterday, and am very happy to find, that our sentiments uniformly agree in every thing that can combine the mutual interests of our nations, and I pledge you my honor and friendship, that every step of my conduct shall be guided by this principle, impressed in me by my duty and by the very particular attachment I have for you.
I have the honor to be, with the greatest esteem and affection,
My dear sir,
Your most humble obedient servant,
MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.
(Copy.)
D. GILLESPIE, Secretary.The honorable ANDREW ELLICOTT. (No. 9.)Hon. A. Ellicott to Manuel Gayosos de Lemos. Natchez, March 23rd, '97.

MY DEAR SIR, THE re-mounting of the cannon at this place at the very moment when our troops are daily expected down to take possession of it, the insolent treatment which the citizens of the United States have received at the Walnut Hills, and the delay in the business upon which I came, concur in giving me reason to suppose, that the treaty will not be observed with the same good faith and punctuality by the subjects of his Catholic majesty, as it will be by the citizens of the United States. I hope your excellency will give such an explanation of the above, as to remove my doubts and apprehensions, which, I am afraid have been too justly excited.
I am, c. c.
HIS excellency
Manuel Gayoso de Lemos.(To be continued.)



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Article Title: Report of the Secretary of State to the President of the United States. Pickering on the
Ellicott survey, as mentioned above.
Author:
Published in: Minerva Mercantile Evening Advertiser
Place of Publication: New York, NY
Publication Date: 6/20/1797




PAPERS
Which accompanied the President's message of the 12th inst. on Spanish affairs.
REPORT
Of the Secretary of State to the President of the United States, of the proceedings of ANDREW
ELLICOTT, esq. Commissioner for running the boundary line between the United States, and East
and West Florida.DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
June 10, 1797. The Secretary of State respectfully reports to the President of the United States, the
substance of the information received the 8th inst. from Andrew Ellicott Esquire, the commissioner of
the United States, appointed to run the boundary line between their territory and his Catholic
Majesty's Colonies of East and West Florida.
Although Mr. Ellicott left Philadelphia, September 1796, to proceed by the Ohio and Missisippi rivers,
to the Natchez, the place appointed by the treaty with Spain, at which the Commissioners of the two
governments were to meet, yet owing to the lowness of the waters of the Ohio, he did not reach its
mouth until the 19th day of December; two days after which both the Ohio and Missisippi were almost
frozen over. On the 21st January, the ice began to give way, and thair store boat arriving on the 28th,
they proceeded on the 31st for the Natchez. On the 21st February, Mr. Ellicott received a letter (No.
1) from his Catholic Majesty's government, Gayoso de Lemos, dated the Natchez the 17th February,
mentioning the information he had received of his approaching arrival, attended by a military guarded
some woodsmen, and desiring that the troops might be left about the mouth of Bayon Pierre ;
assigning for his reason, that thereby every unforeseen misunderstanding between the troops of the
two powers would be prevented. With this request from views of accommodation, Mr. Ellicott
complied. Bayon Pierre about 60 miles above the Natchez.
On the 24th February, Mr. Ellicott reached the Natchez, and immediately by a letter acquainted
governor Gayoso, of his arrival. The governor on the same day returned as answer. (No.2.) The day
following they had an interview, and fixed on the 19th of March to proceed down the river to
Clarkesville, near which it was supposed the line should commence. The Monday following, February
27th Mr. Ellicott wrote a letter (No.3.) to the baron de Carondelet, his Catholic Majesty's
governor-general of Louisiana, and the Commissioner named by the Court of Spain, for ascertaining
the boundary line, to inform him of his arrival at the Natchez, as the commissioner of the United
States. The baron's answer, (No.4.) dated March 1st was received the 9th and on the same day
Governor Gayoso waited on Mr. Ellicott, and informed him that the Baron, in consequence of
interesting concerns below, had declined to attend, and that the whole business had devolved on him.
Ellicott expressed his satisfaction, because he expected that he, governor Gayoso, would be
immediately ready to proceed. The governor answered," No time shall be los t; but I fear I shall not be
ready by the 19th ; and although the baron declines acting on account of the business which
demands his constant attention at Orleans, he is nevertheless desirous of having an interview with
you ; and for that purpose had ordered a galley to be fitted up for your use and accommodation to
New Orleans.',Mr. Ellicott considered that the third article of the treaty with Spain, required the
commissioners for running the boundary line to meet at the Natchez ; and that being then at his post,
it was his duty to remain there, until the Spanish commissioner should be ready to proceed with him
to the place where the line should commenceand therefore he declined the baron's invitation.
On the 27th of February, Mr. Ellicott encamped at the upper end of the town of Natchez, about a






quarter of a mile from the fort occupied by the Spanish troops ; and two days after hoisted the flag of
the United States. Upon this he received a verbal message from Governor Gayoso, by his aid, Major
Minor, desiring the flag might be taken down, which Mr. Ellicott declined doing. The request was not
repeated. Here Mr. Ellicott began his astronomical observations, and found the hill on which he was
encamped to be in latitude 31 0. 33' 46", or about 39 miles north of the south boundary of the United
States.
In this situation, Mr. Ellicott was told alarming stories about the unfavorable disposition of the Indians,
under an idea that the United States were their destruction. The whole settlement was warming with
them; and they frequently went about his camp with drawn knives. For his own safety he frequently
issued provisions to them. Thus critically circumstanced, he, on the 11th of March, wrote to Governor
Gayoso the letter, No. 5, to which he received the answer, No.6. But in the mean time, Mr. Ellicott had
sent an express to the commanding officer of his escort (consisting of only 25 men) which in
complaisance to the governor's first request, he had left sixty miles up the river, to come down directly
to the Natchez.And being determined not to counteract this order, he on the [13th,] wrote to governor
Gayoso, the letter No.7, proposing Bacon's landing , about a mile below his camp, for the station of
his escort; but before this letter was sent, he had an interview with the Governor, who undertook to
prove the propriety and necessity of the whole party from the United States going down to Clark's
place, and closed his reasoning by observing, That if the escort did land at the Natchez, he should
consider it as insult offered to the king his master. Mr. Ellicott then telling the governor, that he should
send him immediately an answer in writing, observed, That the desire which was constantly
manifested to drawn him from that place, (Natchez) appeared very singular, as it was designated in
the late treaty with his Catholic majesty and the United States, as the place of meeting for the
commissioners ; and therefore, that he should reject every proposition that was intended to draw him
from his present situation, until the commissioner and surveyor on behalf of the crown of Spain, were
ready to proceed to business.
To which the governor replied, " Sir, you either mistake my meaning, or I have expressed myself very
badly, I do not want you to leave this place, but on the contrary, I am desirous for you to take up your
residence in my house ; you will live there much more comfortably than in a tent." Mr. Ellicott said,
that his tent was much more agreeable than a palace ; for in his camp he enjoyed an independence
characteristic of the nation he had the honor to represent. The next morning, Mr. Ellicott sent his
letter No.7, and the same day received the governor's answer, No.8, expressing his entire satisfaction
with Mr. Ellicott's sentiments as uniformly agreeing with his own, in every thing which could combine
the mutual interests of the two nations.
The evening following (March 15th) Mr. Ellicott's escort arrived at the landing and the next day went
down to the place he had proposed for their station.
The officer of the escort having found in the settlement a number of deserted from the American
army, took them up. This occasioned some verbal communications between governor Gayoso and
Mr. Ellicott, the former desiring the deserters might be dismissed. Mr. Ellicott thereupon proposed
this arrangement t: That such deserters from the army of the United States as came into that country,
and took the protection of the Spanish government prior to the time fixed by the treaty for the
evacuation of the posts, should, for the present, remain unmolested ; but that such as had come to
that country since that time should be liable to be taken and detained.
About the time Mr. Ellicott's escort arrived, the principle part of artillery was taken out of the fort and
carried to the landing, and every appearance made of a speedy evacuation ; but on the 22d of March,
great industry was used in carrying cannon back to the fort, which were immediately remounted.
This gave great alarm to the inhabitants of the district, who generally manifested a desire of being
declared subjects of the United States, and at once to renounce the Spanish jurisdiction. In order to
quiet the minds of the inhabitants, and to be able to give them some reasons for the governor's
conduct, which now began to be considered as hostile to the United States, Mr. Ellicott on the 23d of
March, wrote the letter No.9. which was followed by a note, No.10, to which he received the
governor's answer 11. This answer containing information that the important business of running the
boundary line should soon be commenced, and an assurance that nothing could prevent the religious






compliance with the treaty. Mr. Ellicott expressed his satisfaction in his letter to the governor, No.12.
It being now reported, that the American troops would be down in a few days, the governor sent by
his aid, to Mr. Ellicott, an open letter from the governor directed to captain Pope, who, it was said
commanded those troops, informing him, that for sundry reasons it would be proper, and conducive to
the harmony of the two nations, for himself and the detachment under his command to remain at or
near the place where the letter should meet him, until the posts should be evacuated ; and as every
preparation was making for that purpose, the delay would be put for a few days, when he would be
happy to see him at the Natchez. This proposal to captain Pope, the governor, in his letter, No. 13,
desired Mr. Ellicott to second. Upon reading the letter, Mr. Ellicott observed to major Minor, that it was
impossible for him to join in the governor's request to capt. Pope, as it was well known to him (Mr.
Ellicott) that instead of evacuating the posts, they were making them more defensible. However, Mr.
Ellicott said he would write a letter to the officer commanding the detachment, and requested major
Minor (as he was to be the bearer of the governor's letter to the Walnuthills) to take charge of it; to
which he had no objection. This letter is No. 14.
On the 28th of March, the governor issued the proclamation No. 15, bearing the date of March 29,
and another, No.16, bearing the same date, with the avowed object of quieting the minds of the
inhabitants ; but they produced the contrary effect. As soon as the governor discovered this, he
requested two gentlemen of the settlement, to inform Mr. Ellicott, that he, the governor in chief, the
baron de Carondelet, to have the artillery and military stores expeditiously removed from the forts,
which were immediately to be given up to troops of the United States upon their arrival. Great pains
were taken to inculcate this report; but it did not remove suspicions. In order, therefore to obtain a
direct explanation,Mr. Ellicott, on the 31st of March, wrote to the governor, the letter No. 17, inclosing
two paragraphs, No. 18, of an address he had received from a number of respectable inhabitants of
the district. The governor's answer, No. 19, of the same date, confirmed every suspicion, as it
contained an explicit declaration, that his general had given him positive orders to suspend the
evacuation of the posts, until the two governments should determine, whether the works were to be
left standing or to be demolished ; and until, by an additional article to the treaty, the real property of
the inhabitants should be secured ; agreeably to his proclamation, in which the governor thought
proper to tell the inhabitants, that negotiations were on foot between his Catholic Majesty and the
Unites States, for the adjustment of that and other matters.It may not be improper to remark, that no
such negotiation has existed ; and that this is the first time that these objections to the evacuation of
the posts have been heard of. This peremptory declaration of governor Gayoso requires no
comment.
Mr. Ellicott says, that which the exception of about eight persons, including some officers, all the
inhabitants of the Natchez district (within the limits of the United States) are desirous of coming under
their jurisdiction, and to have a government established there, similar to that north-west of the river
Ohio. My enquiries enable me to add,that the population amounts to near four thousand souls.
Mr. Ellicott further informs, that he has not only reason to believe, but it is certain that many grants for
lands in that district, have been given out by the officers of the government of Louisiana, since the
ratification of the late treaty, and that their surveyors are now executing their surveys.
On the 14th April, when Mr. Ellicott was folding up dispatches, he received from governor Gayoso the
letter, No.20, of that date, complaining of the inlistment of persons in that district, as an infringement
of the rights of his Catholic Majesty ; and requesting that the persons insisted might be discharged : to
which Mr. Ellicott immediately returned the answer, No.21 ; observing that the matter required
investigation ; but assuring governor Gayoso, that he would be careful neither to infringe the rights of
the subjects of his Catholic Majesty, nor willingly suffer those of the citizens of the United States to be
infringed.
The bearer of Mr. Ellicott's dispatches informs me, that before he had left the Natchez, they had heard
that two gun boats were preparing at New Orleans to bring up reinforcements : and since his arrival I
have received information, which connected with this detail of facts is entitled to belief.That about the
10th of May, three large boats full of troops, besides a party by land, set off from New-Orleans for the
Natchez. It was added for the purpose of driving off the continental troops that had taken possession,






agreeably to the late treaty.
TIMOTHY PICKERING.
(No. 1)Manuel Gayoso de Lemos to the hon. A. Ellicot.

SIR.
SOME gentlemen that left you at the mouth of the Ohio, have informed me of your approaching
arrival here, and that to attend you on your commission you bring a military guard and some
woods-men.
It is with pleasure, that I propose myself the satisfaction of seeing you here, and to make your
acquainance.
Though I do not conceive that the least difficulty will arise respecting the execution of the part of the
treaty in which you are an acting person ; yet, as we are not prepared to evacuate the posts
immediately, for want of the vessels that I expect will arrive soon, I find it indispensable to request you
to leave the troops about the mouth of Bayon Pierre, where they may be provided with all their
necessaries which you can regulate on your arrival here. By this means, every unforseen
misunderstanding will be prevented between his Majesty's troops, and those of the United States;
besides, it is necessary to make some arrangements previous to the arrival of the troops on which
subject I shall have the honor of entertaining you when we meet.
I embrace this opportunity to assure you of the satisfaction I feel in being appointed to act in concert
with you, though your first interview is to be with the General in Chief of this Province.

I have the honor to be,
with the highest consideration,
Sir,
Your most humble,
and obedient servant,
MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.Natchez, Feb. 17, 1797.
(Copy.)
The Hon. A. ELLICOTT. (No. 2.)Baron de Carondelet to the hon. A. Ellicott. Natchez, 24th Feb.
1797.

SIR, BY your favor of this day, delivered to me by Mr. Nolan, I learn with pleasure, your arrival at this
post, in the character of your Commissioner in behalf of the United States, to ascertain the
boundaries between the territories of his most Catholic Majesty and the said United States.
I have the honor to be,
with the highest respect.
Sir,
Your most humble servant,
MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.(Copy.)
The Hon. A. ELLICOTT. (No. 3.)Honorable Andrew Ellicott, to the Baron de
Carondelet. Natchez, Feb. 27, 1797.

SIR, IT is with pleasure I embrace this opportunity of informing you of my safe arrival at this place,
as Commissioner in behalf of the United States, for ascertaining the boundaries between the
territories of his most Catholic Majesty and those of the United States.
The polite manner in which I have been received at the posts on the Missisippi, now in the
possession of his most Catholic Majesty, demands my thanks and gratitude, and am in hopes that a
similar conduct will be observed on our part.
I have the honor to be, c. c. ANDREW ELLICOTT.(Copy.)
The BARON DE CARONDELET. (No. 4.)
(TRANSLATION.)New Orleans, March 1st, 1797.






MY DEAR SIR,
I HAVE received with great satisfaction, your friendly letter of the 27th of February last; in
consequence of which, I congratulate you on your arrival in this country in the character of
Commissioner on the part of the United States, to run the dividing line between the territories of his
most Catholic Majesty, and the U. States. You likewise did me the favor to mention with what
kindness and attention you were received at the different posts, as well as by the whole Government
under my direction ; and from the general principles of your nation, I have no doubt but the same
conduct will be observed on the part of the United States.
God guard you,
Most excellent Sir.
BARON DE CARONDELET.ANDREW ELLICOTT, Esq.(No. 5.)Hon A. Ellicott, to Manuel Gayoso de
Lemos. Natchez, March 11, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, THE conduct of the Indians yesterday and last night, owing principally to their
constant state of intoxication, renders it absolutely necessary, in my opinion, to have recourse to my
militray escort for protection. The discipline of our army is such, that you may rest assured, none of
the inconveniences mentioned in your first communication to me, are to be apprehended from the
escort's being stationed at this place on our part.And as the attendance of the guard forms a part of
the treaty now carrying into effect between his most Catholic Majesty and the United States, which I
am authorized to declare will be observed by the nation I have the honor to represent, with good faith
and punctuality, I must request the favor of you to withdraw your objections against my escort's joining
me at this place as soon as possible.
I am, c. c.ANDREW ELLICOTT.
(Copy.)
His Ex'cy MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS. (No. 6.)Manuel Gayoso de Lemos to the hon. A. Ellicott.
Natchez, March 12th, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, THIS morning I had the pleasure to receive your amicable communication, dated
yesterday. I give you my sincere thanks for having established this form of intercourse, as it will make
our business more easy, and indeed it is more conformable to the sincere friendship we have
contracted.
In answer to your said letter, I will remark, that such conduct of the Indians is not customary here ; I
foresaw that it would happen from the moment you shewed a desire of having your colours flying,
before all the transactions were terminated ; knowing the Indians as well as I do, this was the reason
of the objections I offered the moment I saw it hoisted, for otherwise I know it very well, that it is
frequently used by the representatives of my nation in a foreign county ; it's even done in Spain by
foreign Consuls.
I am sorry you should have experienced any inconveniency from this particular circumstance, and that
urged by such effects to wish to have by you your escort. I have not the least objection that it should
be called, from its actual station ; but as it is my duty, and that I am answerable for the tranquility of
the country that is entrusted to my charge, I must propose to you a method that will answer every
good and satisfactory purpose. Had not you been unluckily stopped on your voyage to this country,
you would have had immediately the General of the Province here, to begin the operation of
demarking the divisory line between the territories of his Catholic Majesty and those of the United
States of America. He had every necessary preparation to attend to the business ; but since the time
he had a right to expect the Commissioners of the United States, the war with England has taken
place, and his cares thereby increased, yet he expected to have had it in his power to come to meet
you at Daniel Clarke's, Esq. which place is near the point of the 31 0, but he has found it impossible,
as it would oblige him to make too long an absence from New Orleans ; therefore, it is myself that will
have the honor to accompany you on that important commission, on behalf of his Catholic Majesty.
This is the moment when I am in want of every individual thing, both for my person, and for the
attendants of the commission, tho' the Geometer and other officers that are to be employed, are






already on their way from New Orleans, and will stop at Clarkesville, where I shall go myself as soon
as my equipage arrives from the capital : but this will inevitably take some time, therefore the plan that
I wished to arrange with you, will be to make Loftus's Cliffs, our point of re-union. This place is a
short distance from Clarkesville, and it is a very healthy situation ;there I will send every thing
concerning the Spanish commission ; and that will be the most convenient place to establish, for a
while, your head quarters, under your military escort. By adopting this measure, you will have your
people together, and the most distant disagreeable occurrence avoided, as I am positively confident
that some would happen by the conjunction here, as you propose. It is true, that by the treaty an
escort is supposed, and even recommended to each commission, but it is to be on the line, and not at
a distance from it where it would interfere with other business ; therefore I feel sensibly hurt that it is
out of my power to consent in the landing of the troops in this place, tho' I have not the objection on
their going directly to Loftus's Cliffs.
I have given the most positive orders to prevent the Indians getting liquor; and to their interpreter I
have given the strictest charge to be always in sight, and to-morrow I expect that they will remove to
some distance from hence.
I have the honor to be, with the highest respect and esteem,
Your most affectionate friend,
And humble servant, MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.(A true copy.)
D. GILLESPIE, Secretary.
The honorable ANDREW ELLICOTT. (No. 7.)Hon. A. Ellicott to Manuel Gayoso de Lemos. Natchez,
March 13th, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, YOUR favor of yesterday was handed to me in due time, which would have been
answered sooner, had not the storm last night prevented me from writing in my tent.Your letter, as well
as many circumstances which have come to my knowledge, contain fresh proofs of your desire to
promote good order and harmony in this part of the country. But, sir, I cannot suppose that any
inconvenience could possibly arise, or the peace of this settlement be disturbed by the arrival and
landing of the escort which I left at Bayon Pierre : If I did suppose the contrary, I trust that I should be
one of the last persons to propose the measure. In my opinion, the escort which accompanied me, is
as much bound to observe good order in this country, as the troops of his Catholic majesty. This is
not an opinion of the day, it has uniformly been mine ever since I left the seat of our government : In
consequence of which, immediately upon my entering the Missisippi, I issued a standing order, that
when any of our party, the military included, should be at any place where the jurisdiction was
exercised by his Catholic majesty, the laws and usages of that government should be observed and
submitted to in the most pointed manner. The escorts by the spirit of the treaty, are intended for our
mutual protection against stragling hostile Indians, and the preservation of our stores.This appear to
be their whole business.
As I hope that mere punctilios may never interrupt our friendship, and the conduct of the Indians
having become more peaceable since the night before last, I am less anxious for the escort's being
stationed at my present encampment : I would, therefore, to prevent any disturbance or
misunderstanding, propose that the officer who commands the escort which accompanied me to
Bayon Pierre, be directed to proceed down the river to Bacon Landing, from whence he may come to
this place, and procure such necessaries as he may be in want of for the ensuing season.
As this is the place designated by the treaty for our meeting, and making our arrangements for
carrying on the business, I conceive there would be an impropriety in my leaving it till your excellency
is ready to join me in fixing the first point of latitude.
I am, c. c. ANDREW ELLICOT(Copy.)
D. GILLESPIE, Secretary. Note.The last two paragraphs were added after having had a private
conversation with the governor. (No. 8.)Manuel Gayoso de Lemos to the hon. A. Ellicott. Natchez,
14th March, 1797.

MY DEAR SIR, I DO myself the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your favor, dated of






yesterday, and am very happy to find, that our sentiments uniformly agree in every thing that can
combine the mutual interests of our nations, and I pledge you my honor and friendship, that every
step of my conduct shall be guided by this principle, impressed in me by my duty and by the very
particular attachment I have for you.
I have the honor to be, with the greatest esteem and affection,
My dear sir,
Your most humble obedient servant,
MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS.
(Copy.)
D. GILLESPIE, Secretary.The honorable ANDREW ELLICOTT. (No. 9.)Hon. A. Ellicott to Manuel
Gayosos de Lemos. Natchez, March 23rd, '97.

MY DEAR SIR, THE re-mounting of the cannon at this place at the very moment when our troops are
daily expected down to take possession of it, the insolent treatment which the citizens of the United
States have received at the Walnut Hills, and the delay in the business upon which I came, concur in
giving me reason to suppose, that the treaty will not be observed with the same good faith and
punctuality by the subjects of his Catholic majesty, as it will be by the citizens of the United States. I
hope your excellency will give such an explanation of the above, as to remove my doubts and
apprehensions, which, I am afraid have been too justly excited.
I am, c. c.
HIS excellency
Manuel Gayoso de Lemos.(To be continued.)




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