• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Foreword
 Dairying in Florida
 Favorite dairy dishes
 Index to recipes
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Title: Dairying in Florida and favorite dairy dishes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002318/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dairying in Florida and favorite dairy dishes
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Physical Description: 94 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shaw, Alex G
Shoemaker, Jack
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1957
 Subjects
Subject: Dairying -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cookery (Dairy products)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Alex G. Shaw and Jack Shoemaker.
General Note: "June, 1957."
General Note: Includes index to recipes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002318
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2776
ltuf - AMT3735
oclc - 45005681
alephbibnum - 002567440

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Dairying in Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Favorite dairy dishes
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Index to recipes
        Page 94
    Back Cover
        Page 95
Full Text


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA

and

FAVORITE DAIRY DISHES


-WWI E-IF I I
AR 10 1969 STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Agriculture
F'AS. Univ. of Florida Nathan Mayo-Commissioner


TALLAHASSEE


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BULLETIN NO. 118-JUNE, 1957


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA

and

FAVORITEE FLORIDA DISHES


By Alex G. Shaw
Chief Dairy Supervisor
and
Jack Shoemaker
Director Bureau of Immigration
Department of Agriculture


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, COMMISSIONER


TALLAHASSEE










FOREWORD


About the year 1000 A. D., the Norsemen sailed west from
Norway across the Atlantic Ocean and reached the lands of
Iceland, Greenland and later, what may have been a part of
our New England shore. These early explorers brought dairy
and beef cattle with them and the milk and cheese they made
were traded to the Indians for furs.

Many years later, when Columbus discovered America, cattle
were again introduced to American shores and the Spanish
colonists took their cattle with them wherever they went in
this. country. And as some of the settlements here began to de-
cline, the Spanish turned loose their cattle before they returned
to the West Indies.

Again in 1611, the English settlers brought cattle with
them to Jamestown, Va., and the Dutch brought more than
100 head of livestock with them when they arrived on Man-
hattan Island in 1725.

After the Revolutionary War. people began to hear more
about the land west of the Apalachians and long wagon trains
moved across the valleys, always westward, and with them
moved long lines of cattle, both beef and dairy. And with the
rise in popularity of the territory of Florida, people began
looking toward the South and many families brought cattle
along to furnish meat and milk and milk products.

This was the real beginning of the dairy industry in Florida.
































Dairy cattle need plenty of shade and water







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
Dairying in Florida has undergone many changes in the
past few years and has developed into one of the largest in-
dustries in the State. Those who have not been closely asso-
ciated with the dairy industry will find many new methods in
production and equipment.
I'here were very few cows in the State in 1900 and very
little interest in dairying even in the larger cities of the State
until 1910. The Jacksonville Ordinance was the first city ordi-
nance regulating the production and handling of fluid milk to
be put in force. The first State Law dealing specifically with
the dairy industry was passed in 1929.
Ity 1920 the industry had begun to grow and there were
abo t 70,000 dairy cows in the State with a production of about















Holstein dairy cattle are invading the South


12,000,000 gallons per year. Each year others became inter-
ested and by 1930 there were about 75,000 dairy cows with a
production of about 25,000,000 gallons per year.
Prior to 1930 many dairymen and plant operators imported
large quantities of fluid milk and cream. Since 1932 very
little fluid milk has been imported into the State except for
use by the Military Personnel. It is true large quantities of
sweet cream and some milk are imported each year with the
amount depending upon the State's tourist business.




































dream of a good dairyman







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The State imports large amounts of butter, milk powder,
condensed milk, cream, cheeses and evaporated milk. There
are no figures available to make a rough estimate as to the
amount of milk that would be necessary to make the State
self-sustaining in by-products. There are some folks who
claim it will never come to pass because it will always be an
expensive operation in both production and processing. This
creates a market problem because when surplus of fluid milk
arises there are no manufacturing markets to absorb the over-
flow. Producers prefer not to produce enough milk to supply
alli that is needed to meet the peak demand during the tourist
season for fear of a large surplus after the season is over.
This makes it necessary to import an amount equal to about
twp per cent of the normal supply. About two million gallons
of 40 percent cream and about seven million pounds of cottage
cheese is imported annually, while the State dairymen make
approximately four million pounds of cottage cheese each year.
in 1940 there were about 110,000 dairy cows with a pro-
du tion of about 57,750,000 gallons of milk per year. The
co mercial dairies were recognized about 1942 as those dairy-
men milking six or more cows. There were approximately
1200 commercial dairies at that time milking 85,000 to 90,000
cows, which was estimated to be a little more than half of
th total number of dairy cows in the State. Many commercial
dairies have been consolidated since the War and today we
have about 914 commercial dairies. In these dairies there are
about 162,883 cows with a production of about 80,000,000
gallons per year. The dairy industry, with a production valued
in excess of 63 million dollars annually, has grown into the
third largest agricultural occupation in the State, which has
be4n conservatively estimated to represent a billion dollar
industry. Florida is unique in that this huge industry repre-
sents Grade A milk for fluid or packaging purposes only,
whereas other states would include a large amount of manu-
fadturing milk, which is produced without any control or super-
vision of any kind as far as sanitation is concerned.
The owners of dairy farms and their employees whose liveli-
hood comes from Florida dairy farms are estimated to include







4 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A modern Milk Plant in Florida


about 10,000 persons with an annual payroll of over 25 million
dollars. Hundreds of others make their living indirectly from
the industry through furnishing dairy feeds, supplies, equip-
ment and various services such as veterinarians and other
dairy specialists.

The best available records indicate that the milk processor-
distributors employ about 5,000 persons with a payroll of about
15 million dollars. The ice cream manufacturers have an addi-
tional payroll of two million dollars and over 1,000 employees.

The amount of land devoted to dairy farming is estimated
at approximately 190,000 acres, or about 200 acres per farm.
The invested value is conservatively estimated at $250 per acre
or approximately 50 million dollars. These dairies have an esti-
mated 163,000 cows with an approximate average value of
$200 or a total value of 32 million dollars. The equipment and
supplies on these farms would account for several million dollars
of additional investments. From these figures it can be easily
seen that the dairy industry has a great stake in the economy







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 5


of the State when one takes into account the investments,
payroll and sales.
Dairying in Florida is a full-time occupation, which may
seem strange to some who are not familiar with the system
used in this State. To clarify the verbal picture of dairying
the following terms may be of some help:
A milk producer is anyone who owns, operates a dairy farm
and offers his milk or milk products produced by him to
any firm or plant for processing for resale to the public in
a package form. All of this milk must be produced under
the supervision of the Department of Agriculture and be of
a grade that can be used for bottling or packaging purposes.
A milk producer-distributor is any person who owns, operates
a dairy farm and offers his milk or milk products produced
and processed by him for sale to the public in package form.
A processor is anyone who does not produce milk or milk
products, but purchases milk or milk products from a pro-
ducer for the purpose of preparing for resale to the public
in package form by the different acts of processing, such as,


A modern refrigerated delivery fleet







6 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


pasteurization, cooling, packaging, etc. The plants are gen-
erally dual-purpose plants that processes both milk and milk
products and frozen desserts. The operation of these plants
must comply to all rules and regulations for Grade A pro-
cessing plants.
A distributor is anyone who offers milk or milk products
in package form for resale to the public, and who is not a pro-
ducer, producer-distributor or processor. All products sold by
him must be processed by a milk plant that complies with all
the rules and regulations covering processed Grade A milk and
milk products.

At one time animals and poultry on a farm were there for
several reasons. First, they consumed the surplus of farm pro-
duced products; second, they fertilized and built up the fer-
tility of the farms by the production of a large volume of
manure, rich in humus, organisms and fertilizing elements
including a few very important minor elements; third, most
of the animals and poultry produced a very much needed
revenue.

Cattle, both dairy and beef, and horses consumed large
amounts of roughage that otherwise would have gone to waste.
Hogs, sheep and poultry consumed large amounts of surplus
grain. The producer had a choice of selling his products as
such or, if the price is not attractive as such, he could feed
it to produce milk, beef, pork, lamb or poultry products. This
gave him a two price margin to work on and choose that which
appeared to be the most profitable. This system automatically
created a broadminded individual who operated an all-round
general purpose business.
The development of power machines for each operation on
the farm has created a specialist who donates his interest and
study to one operation. Today, we have dairy specialists, beef
specialists, hog specialists, sheep specialists, poultry specialists,
flower and garden specialists. Agriculture has become the
mecca of specialists. The State Universities and Experimental
Stations have a specialist for each subject or project.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 7


A green feed harvester


Agriculture today, regardless of type, is geared to power
machines and volume production. The best of land for grow-
ing so many tons of milk per acre must be just as good as
the land the specialized crop farmer uses. The days of using
poor cheap land for producing milk are gone forever. The
main research project in dairying today is to find ways and
means of producing more pounds or tons of milk per acre
from less number of cows per acre. There are also a number
of other projects involving pasture improvement, better and
cheaper feeds and insect and disease control measures. It is
important that a dairy herd has good management, supply of
good quality roughage, good water, and plenty of shade. Grain
is the most expensive part of a ration; therefore, the more
high quality roughage in the form of pasture, silage, and avail-
able hay; the cheaper will be production costs. There should
be a generous supply on hand for a full twelve months not
just for a few months. When it is dry, make hay; when it is
wet, make ensilage.
Florida has a wide variety of pasture grasses, hay and silage







8 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Pasture brought to the cows


material. Some of the pasture grasses and legumes are white
clover, crimson clover, alfalfa, alice clover, hairy indigo, coastal
bermuda, Suwannee bermuda, pangola, bahias, St. Augustine,
carpet, para, rescue, kudzu, velvet beans, cow peas and pea-
nuts. For silage, such crops as sorghum cane, corn and millet;
for grain, such crops as oats, vetch, rye, wheat and corn
thrive well.

Growing these crops depends upon the type of land, moisture
and location in the State. The County Agent or State Experi-
ment Station can supply you with information as to soil tests,
what crops are most suitable to the specific locality as well
as proper land preparation and fertilizers to use.
Good roughage plus a balanced ration, aboundant supply of
water and shade in hot weather will make dairy production
profitable. There are different ways of getting roughage into
the cows, such are, hauling the cut grass to the cow instead
of pasturing it; however, it makes no difference how the cow
gets it as long as it is cheap and there is enough of it. There
are a lot of different methods of producing hay, such as, hay







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 9


Napier grass, a good soiling crop, grazing crop, or it may
be used for silage


A good crop of corn ready for the silo

































Good permanent pastures are essential in the dairy business







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 11


Sorghum, a good silage crop


Millet is an excellent green feed







12 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A good grade of silage


driers of a variety. There has been developed a machine for
every hard job on the dairy farm.
To produce the energy necessary for the production that
would brand a good cow a profitable cow, the cow needs the
proper fuel to develop that energy. Hay, silage and pastures
are the best and cheapest forms, but these should be supple-
mented with enough balanced grain ration to bring that cow
to her peak production at the most economical diet. Feed is
considered about one-half of the cost of production, so feed
costs should be watched carefully.


DAIRY CATTLE
The Jersey breed originated in the Isle of Jersey and is
the predominating cow in the herds in the State. She pro-
duces milk with more than five per cent butterfat. The fact
that she predominates most herds may be due to her past
record of having helped to fight the battle against insects,
diseases, poor feed, poor management, hot weather and still







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 13


survive. She deserves credit for having done her part in the
long struggle to overcome the many difficulties of the past
that have been eliminated.

The Guernsey breed originated on the Isle of Guernsey and
produces milk of about five per cent butterfat. These cows
have become popular and are playing a big part in building
up Florida's dairy industry. Her popularity is due a great
deal to the natural yellow color imparted into her milk. The
Guernseys have shown their ability to make themselves at
home in this State and are fast becoming more important in
the total milk supply.

The Holstein breed originated in the Province of Frieland
located in the northern part of the Netherlands and they pro-
duce milk of three and five-tenths per cent butterfat. The
Holsteins are beginning to invade the South and are gradually
taking their place in many herds. When the producer learns
to handle these cattle and produces the proper kind and amount
of roughage, they will be an important source of the State's
milk supply.

The Ayrshire breed originated in Scotland and produces a
milk of about four per cent butterfat. These cows are about
equal and are gradually pushing into a good many herds,
but they like the Holsteins will neet to wait until the average
producer learns how to manage them and produces a satis-
factory feed program to their liking to take their place in
the production of the best of the dairy herds.

The Brown Swiss originated in Switzerland and produces a
milk of about four per cent butterfat.

The replacement problem has been a very expensive thing
with Florida producers. With improved pastures, roughage,
herd management, and artificial insemination and control of
diseases and insects, it has become an important phase of
dairy production. The dairy world moves forward on the feet
of little calves.







14 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A Jersey Cow


A Jersey Bull







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 15


A Guernsey Cow


A Guernsey Bull







16 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A Holstein Cow


A Holstein Bull







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 17


A Brown Swiss Bull


A Brown Swiss Cow







18 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


.A"


An Ayrshire Cow


An Ayrshire Bull







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 19


This brings up the question about bulls. Today, there are
very few bulls on producing farms. The answer may be to
let the specialist breeder of purebred cattle produce the bulls
from which will come the semen to be used by the average
farmer to bring about a superior, high-producing, profitable
grade milk cow. By using Dairy Herd Improvement Associa-
tion or any method of checking his herd first of production
and then culling out the boarders, a dairyman can build up
a herd that means success as a milk producer.
It must be kept in mind that cows also produce considerable
in the way of by-products. Bull calves may be vealed or grown
out as steers; excess heifer calves may be sold to other pro-
ducers. The cow adds considerable fertility to the farm soil
because of her ability to consume large amounts of roughage.
She produces about 10 to 12 tons of manure per year.
Farmers can get the best by using good sires and good herd
management and by raising all the herd replacements. The
State Extension Dairyman and County Agent can be of val-
uable service by helping him in obtaining and maintaining a
profitable herd, more and better home grown roughage and
pastures, and better grain feeding practices.
Calf raising is usually left to the Northern farmer because
of the cost involved. Florida farmers, especially in the southern
part, buy first calf heifers and find they are money ahead.
Where calves are raised they must be either pastured or housed
100 feet from the milking barn. Since the use of artificial
breeding has become so popular there has been more of a
tendency toward raising herd replacements.


This dairy barn is made of cement block with a metal roof


~i;a







20 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


DAIRY BARN CONSTRUCTION

The mild climate of Florida is favorable to simple barn
construction. The original barns were constructed, due to the
mild climate, for maximum amount of ventilation. In other
words no thought was given to making dairy barn walls and
columns to accommodate windows; however, in many of the
dairy barns built in the last two years the walls and columns
have been so placed to allow windows to be installed.
With the exception of a couple of months out of the year
the weather is mild; however, there are about two months
that milking in an open barn is a hardship.















The roof on this barn, made of cement block, is
galvanized iron
Barns in Florida for the most part are all concrete with
the exception of roofs, although, in some parts of the State
the walls, floors and even roofs are poured concrete.
All floors should be concrete with a pitch of 1 inch to every
10 feet. All manure is washed with the pitch of the barn into
a concrete sluice way, which runs away from the barn into a
low area for evaporation. This area is then fenced off so
cattle will be kept out.
The floor dimensions are standard 31/2 feet for mangers,
5 feet for the platform for the cow to stand on, 31/2 feet
between stanchions and 6 feet from gutter to outside wall. The
gutter should be 4 inches to 6 inches deep. In the case of a
double line stalls 10 feet is required between gutter to gutter.
The size of the milk room has been increased in the last







I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 21


A cement walk from cow lot into barn helps knock much
of the dirt off the cows' feet, preventing it being carried
into the barn







22 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


This shows lot and lane arrangements of a large operation


two years for the installations of farm tanks. There should
be three feet around all farm tanks for easy cleaning.
All dairy barns are required to have paper towels and soap
in barn, paper towels in milk room where farm tanks are
installed, three compartment washsink, necessary brushes and
cleansers (soap and detergents), two spigot outlet in barn-
one for hose connection and one for hand washing-, and a
metal table for storage of milk implements and dry storage
for all rubber parts.
If cans are used, a metal can rack is necessary and all barns
must be painted at least once a year and milk rooms as often
as necessary. Milk houses must have both screened and solid
doors which must face away from the barn. A cement lane
must lead from the barn to the door of the milk room.
All feed rooms must be sealed tight and have a self-closing,
tight door that opens into the barn. All mangers must be
constructed so as to be easily washed and drained after each
milking. In other words no feed is allowed to stand in mangers
or barns except during milking. All holding lots must be
located a distance of 100 feet with cement lanes leading from
the holding lots to the barns.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 23


Some of the requirements listed above are not required in
any other state, but it has been found they tend to improve
dairy operation and cut down time spent in the barn by
operators.
Dairy barns in Florida vary in size from 6-cow barns to
320-cow barns. In no cases are cows allowed to stay in barns
overnight. Some of the larger dairies have an additional barn
built for sick cows or maternity cases. These usually consist
of a cement frame barn with mangers, stanchions and washing
facilities.
Some of the larger dairies have found that a feed-mixing
mill helps to give a more balanced feed and a financial saving
in some cases. The result has been that some of the feed rooms
are larger than all other buildings put together and enables
the farmer to buy feed in carload lots and cut down one of
his biggest overheads. The dairymen furnish a house, milk,
water and electricity in addition to paying a salary of $50


Different types of silos found in Florida include concrete,
upper left; tile, center; metal, upper right; metal, lower
left; and pit silo, lower right

































Aerial view of a dairy farm, showing cross-fence pastures for rotation purposes







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 25


Scenes of trench silos used in Florida







DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


to $100 for a six-day week for help where it is necessary. The
cost of feed and the expense of help are two reasons why the
price of milk has been kept at a high level.

Some farms have conventional type milking barns where
cattle are contained for feeding, prepared for milking, milked
and turned back to pasture. The milk being conveyed to the
milk house by human effort. These milking barns may vary
in size from a capacity of six cows to as many as 300.

A large herd may be fed and milked in this type of barn
by turning in and out a number of shifts; however, it may
become very inefficient because of the amount of time lost.
The milking parlor type barn is popular with small and
medium sized herds. There are two types in use; the stall
type, which seems to be the most popular, and the walk-
through type. They vary in size from two to as many as
12-cow stalls. These parlor type barns are designed to elimi-
nate stooping and are very efficient and satisfactory if properly
operated. The milk is conveyed to the milk house by manual
methods or pipelines in these operations.


A stack silo of napier grass







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 27


Here's a ground silo built by scooping up land on either
side and piling into two parallel ridges with silage resting
on ground

Speed is one of the objects of the parlor and this cannot
be accomplished by feeding and preparing to milk in the parlor.
A convention stanchion type barn of sufficient size to keep
the parlor working at top speed arranged so as to synchronize
with the parlor is necessary. All feeding and preparation for
milk should be done before the cow goes to the parlor. Stimu-
lation with warm chlorine water and fast milking should be
performed in the parlor.

It was found a number of years ago that milk could be con-
ducted from the cow direct to the milk house through pipe-
lines. This operation was carried out mostly by three stall
parlors. The milk was carried directly over surface coolers or
into ten-gallon milk cans. These pipelines were generally short
and were taken down for cleaning after each usage. Since it
was discovered that milk could be conveyed through long lines
by vacuum and delivered at most any point desired, it was
also found that by connecting two lines together, they could
be washed and sterilized by circulation methods instead of


























































F.ot'ngs 4%rCu yd 1-3 -4 Ml,
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2t Cu-yd--ond STATE OF FLORIDA
3 Cu yd. 9ravl PPenr
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Approved barn plan and bill of materials







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 29


Dairy cattle relaxing after a full meal on this
improved pasture


being taken apart for cleaning after each usage. This infor-
mation brought into use stainless steel and glass pipelines.

Today, large stanchion barns holding from a hundred to
300 or more cows at a time are built especially for and equipped
with modern pipeline installation. Florida is one of the leaders
in this type of operation. The proprietor likes it because it is
a paying investment. Labor likes it because it makes his work
easier and more pleasant.

A large per cent of the milk in Florida is produced by this
method today and in a short time, it is possible all milk in
the State will be produced by one of the pipeline methods.
These pipeline units are set up to pull a vacuum on ten-gallon
cans setting in cold water box coolers. The pipeline system
caught on fast with large producers because it was fast and
a labor saver. The washing powder and bactericide people got
busy and developed a method of washing and sterilizing pipe-







30 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Cattle feeding on a rich field of Crimson clover
in North Florida


lines regardless of length by circulating methods that save
many hours of labor and obtained better results.

There was one objection to pipelines by some producers who
wished to test and feed by production and butterfat records.
This system was very inconvenient and unsatisfactory to those
using the old method of hand operation. Recently a metering
device has been developed for the accurate weighing of each
cow's milk and for taking a drip sample of each sow's milk
for butterfat test. Some thought is in the planning for a
meter device synchronized with the milk meter that will feed
the cow automatically in the proper proportion to the amount
of milk she gives.
The quality of milk in Florida is unexcelled because it is
obtained from healthy cows by healthy people. All cows must
be tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis once a year. All







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 31


a S -. LIY ,....LU.Y*. .tt a


tia


7'i ~ P '; :


__ r -a-


;-y

-;~

LWA.Y d:


Here are two shots of registered Jerseys grazing on a
common bahia pasture


-,ddmw --ftar

































Cows grazing White Dutch clover, a good winter pasture in many parts of Florida







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 33


Proper sanitation increases consumption of milk and
milk products


people processing the finished product must have health cards.
From a bacteriological viewpoint it is unexcelled because the
bacterial counts are kept very low and the different undesir-
able organisms are kept under control. Chemically, the average
milk of the State rates higher than other states because of a
long established custom of furnishing a milk rich in butterfat.
When this is a common practice it is natural to have high
solids not fat with a high mineral content.
Flavors of milk are very important because most consumers
judge milk by its flavor. Florida milk has a clean, rich, re-
freshing nutty flavor. This flavor is due largely to its high
butterfat and solid ,not fat content, and also the type of
feed used.
The clean sanitary conditions under which milk is produced
keeps sediment to a minimum. All barns are open the year
round for fresh air; floors, mangers, walls and in many cases
/&ilings are cement and are scrubbed twice daily. All cows
before milking are washed and sanitized. The milkers must
wear clean clothes. Handwashing facilities and flush toilets
are provided for all personnel.


II
r






34 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Washing the cow before milking


All commercial milk in Florida is taken from cows by
milking machines and a large amount by machines and pipe-
lines, which makes for a closed system. Within a short time
all milk in Florida will be handled in stainless steel or glass
pipelines, large storage tanks on the farms and transported
by large transport-truck tankers. This system practically elimi-
nates the possibility of barn odors, cow odors, silage odors,
etc., and keeps the sediment content to a minimum.
The quality of milk in Florida is outstanding due to low
bacteria counts, lack of off-flavors, and low sediment content.
This has been accomplished by the use of farm tanks, milk-
ing machines, and pipeline milking, which provides a closed-
system protection from dust and insects with fast cooling and
storage at a low temperature. Tank trucks have helped by
providing fast refrigerated transportation from farm to city
plants. Improvements are being made in this type of equip-
ment at a rapid pace.
The production of field crops and pastures has been improved
by new and better types of fertilizers. The field of minor
elements has played a large part in the successful growing of
crops that could not be grown without them.








35 dAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Attaching the milking machines to the cow's teats







36 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Irrigation has been an important link in the pasture and
crop program. Light aluminum pipe has made it possible to
irrigate large acreage that was not possible before.
The many new powerful fungicides and insecticides have
made it possible to control fungus diseases of crops and in-
sects that destroyed field crops and pastures, as well as para-
sites that stunted animals and in some cases caused death.
Tuberculosis, brucellosis and mastitis are under the control
of the State Livestock Board in cooperation with the federal
government agencies. An outstanding piece of control work
has been done in Florida on the control of diseases in dairy
herds.
The enforcement of the Milk, Cream and Milk Products Law,
and the Frozen Desserts Law, is administered by the State
Department of Agriculture. This work is carried on in coopera-
tion with the State Board of Health, City and County Health
Departments.
Anyone interested in engaging in the production or process-
ing of milk and milk products including frozen desserts should
contact a State Dairy Supervisor of the Dairy Division of
the State Department of Agriculture. Anyone interested in
the production of field crops, pastures, building silos or any
farm problem dealing with the reduction in the cost of feed
production should contact/his County Agent.
Milk is said to be nature's most perfect food, but some
authorities claim they can improve upon its values by the
addition of different vitamins and minerals. Milk is drawn
from the cow's udder by hand or milking machines and when
taken from a healthy cow is free from pathogenic organisms
or very few in number.
The milk is cooled immediately to less than 50 degrees F
and is generally pumped into a large tank mounted on a
truck, which transports the milk to the plant for processing.
The milk is again pumped into large holding tanks where it is
stored at a low temperature until ready to be pasteurized and
bottled or packaged.
Pasteurization has become necessary because milk and milk
products are ideal food for bacteria as well as humans. These
bacteria may be pathogenic because cows have diseases that
affect humans, and the people that produce and handle the






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 37


milk may contaminate the milk with pathogenic organisms
from diseases they may have. Pasteurization is the heating of
every particle of milk to a determined temperature and hold-
ing at that temperature for a definite amount of time. There
are two recognized processes, one of which the milk is heated
in a vat to 143 degrees F and held for 30 minutes, then cooled
and bottled or packaged. The milk is stored in cold storage
at 35 to 40 degrees F and distributed to stores and homes at
not more than 50 degrees F. The second method of pasteuri-
zation is the short-time high temperature process whereby the
milk is heated usually from 161 to 165 degrees at a minimum
time limit of 16 seconds.

BULK CONVERSION
The advent of the farm tank and farm tank pick-up truck
was the most unexpected revolution that has ever occurred
in the milk business. When the first model tank was made
and exhibited, it was so ridiculed that it was almost forgotten.
But when it's real value to the industry became apparent it
spread over the entire country at such a rapid rate manu-
facturers could not fill their orders.
The first farm-owned tanks were mounted on trucks and
owned by large operators. The milk was pumped from pipe-
lines through plate or over open surface coolers into the tank
on the truck. When full, it was taken to the milk plant. This
operation was so expensive that the little operator could not
afford it, but the manufacturers came to his rescue with the
farm tank located in the milk house operated by pipelines
or manual.
These tanks were of different sizes so that the small and
large operators were taken care of; they were of different
shapes and came refrigerated with direct expansion or cold
water. The latest development was to install large tanks that
were connected direct to the milking pipelines; the milk being
drawn into the tanks by vacuum thereby eliminating pumping.
Before deciding to go to the farm tank and bulk milk
pick-up truck, there should be close cooperation between the
plant and all producers. The plant will have to make changes
in receiving; they may be interested in financing the tanks
and help in the selection of a particular tank. A survey should
be made to determine what the change to tanks will cost, what










"'W. q I


Tr A


JER
Ila u A


Various types of modern tank trucks which transport milk from farm to the plants


~I


~rrsba~

a,







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 39


size, the costs, how much will be saved over the can system
by both parties. Electrical supply should be investigated as
to the amount available and the cost. The costs of hauling,
as to whether roads and barnyard in bad weather will permit
the use of heavy tank trucks, whether the plant intends to pay
a premium for tank milk and as to whether the plant will
permit an increase in the production per farm.
The indications, after a number of markets have used this
system for more than a year, are that it is very satisfactory
to all parties concerned. The quality of milk has improved
more by the elimination of cans than any one improvement
ever made in the milk business. The bacteria counts have not
only improved, but undesirable types of bacteria that effected
the quality of milk have been eliminated.
Poor flavors and sediment have been practically done away
with since discontinuing the use of tin cans. Tin cans in bad
condition have caused more milk to be dumped and held down
the consumption of milk and milk products by causing un-
desirable flavors than any other fault to be found in milk
or milk products. The bulk tank has certainly been a revolu-
tion from a public health point of view. There are 603 bulk
milk tanks, 175 tank trucks and 253 pipelines operating in
Florida now.


Short time high temperature pasteurizer







0






*


r(z

Vr

h~e~~ 0


Complete up to date processing plant







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 41


MILK PLANTS

There are about 150 milk plants operating in the State of
Florida that process and distribute about 90 per cent of the
milk in the State. These plants are what is known to the in-
dustry as combination plants. That is, they process both fluid
milk products and frozen desserts. All frozen desserts must
be a pasteurized product. It is estimated that about 98 per
cent of the milk in the State is pasteurized. The milk process-
ing plants are rated among the best in buildings, equipment,
methods and delivery fleets in the country.

Permanent buildings of masonry construction, tile floors and
walls are the usual materials used. All equipment is stainless
steel, which meets the latest sanitary regulations. There is
very little fluid milk that is not pasteurized by the latest short-
time high-temperature method. A large per cent of by-products
is pasteurized by the batch, 30-minute holding time method.
All milk products are required to be packaged and sealed by
machine. Glass bottles are used to a limited extent with most
markets demanding 100 per cent paper. All dispenser milk
must be filled by machine and stainless steel cans are used.
Cottage cheese is required to be packaged by machine.

Many plants process and distribute many different products,
such as, pasteurized milk, homogenized milk, Vitamin D milk,
Multi-Vitamin milk, skimmed milk, lot-fat milk, chocolate milk,
chocolate milk drink, buttermilk, sweet cream, sour cream,
cottage cheese, yogurt and frozen desserts.

Most delivery vehicles are of the closed type, insulated and
a large number are refrigerated. A major portion of milk
sales is wholesale through stores of different kinds. A large
volume of milk is sold through refrigerated 5-gallon can dis-
pensers, especially in restaurants. All packages must be labeled
to show state of production, name and address of dairy or
plant, and true contents of the package.







42 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Showing sterilizing and pipe line hook up to farm tank


Receiving room picturing dump tank, drop tank, scale and
hand washer







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 43


Two types of bottle fillers and cappers
Top is for glass bottles while lower cut shows paper cartons







44 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


FROZEN DESSERTS

One of the outstanding developments in Florida has been
the rapid growth of the small retail drive-in type of frozen
desserts manufacturer. Florida can well be proud of her
retail outlets for frozen desserts because they fulfill the last
word in sanitation by construction, equipment and methods.
The buildings are attractively designed of masonry and tile
construction and equipped with modern stainless steel equip-
ment, washing and sterilizing facilities and adequate cold stor-
age. The quality of their products are assured by the use of
100 percent pasteurized mixes. These small operators are a
proud family of individualists that serve the public frozen
desserts to their liking. There are about 550 of these estab-
lishments that use millions of pounds of dairy products during
the year. The annual production of frozen desserts is over
18,000,000 gallons.
Plain ice cream, like vanilla, must contain not less than 10
percent butterfat, not more than 50,000 bacteria per cc, not
more than 10 coliform per cc, and not less than 1.6 pounds
of food solids per gallon to comply with the State Frozen Des-
serts Law. Most ice creams are higher than 10 percent butter-
fat, some as high as 16 percent butterfat. It will contain from
eight to 12 percent solid not fat, 14 to 16 percent sugar or
other form of sweetening agent, and about one-half of one
per cent of stabilizer.
The processor will start with a base of whole fresh milk,
when available, and balance this with sweet cream, condensed
milk or powdered milk, sugar and stabilizer to the formula
he wishes to use. The milk products used are the same as
used by the average consumer in other forms. The sweetening
agent whether it be different sugars, syrups, honey or a mix-
ture is the same as served on the table of the average family.
The stabilizer may be of different origins, but all accomplish
the same purpose and are on sale at most grocery stores in
one form or another.
All components of a frozen desserts formula must comply
not only with State Pure Food and Drug regulations but with
Federal regulations.
After all components have been decided upon and assembled,
they are put into a vat pasteurized and heated to a tempera-
ture of at least 160 degrees F for a period of 30 minutes. It







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 45


is then homogenized, cooled and stored in large holding tanks
until frozen. The product at this point is known as frozen
desserts mix and is ready to be frozen. This mix is drawn
into smaller tanks where flavor is added and pumped through
a continuous freezer, where freezing takes place and air is
incorporated so that the finished product is about twice the
volume of the mix. The frozen ice cream is placed in cold
storage at below zero temperatures to harden before it is
put on the market.
Other frozen desserts, such as fruit, nut ice cream, ice milk
and sherbets are processed by the same methods. The main
difference being in the kind and amount of ingredients used.


FLORIDA MILK COMMISSION
The 1953 Legislature changed the membership of the Florida
Milk Commission to (1), three consumers, not connected with
the milk industry; (2), a producer of milk; (3), a distributor
or producer-distributor of milk; (4), the Commissioner of Agri-
culture, or his designate; and (5), the State Health Officer,
or his designate. The Commission still consists of seven mem-
bers which are appointed by the Governor of the State of


Inspectors make a check on milk packaging operations










NUTRIENT MATERIALS SUPPLIED BY A


DAIRY PRODUCT*


MILK
Whole Milk

Chocolate Drink

Nonfat (Skimmed) Milk

Cultured Buttermilk

Sweetened Condensed Milk

Evaporated Milk

Dried Whole Milk

Nonfat Dry Milk Solids

Plain Malted Milk

Chocolate Malted Milk


t AVERAGE SERVING
Milk
Fat Quantity

%
3.7 1 glass (8 fl. oz.)

2.0 1 glass (8 fl. oz.)

0.1 1 glass (8 fl. oz.)

0.5 1 glass (8 fl. oz.)

8.5 1 tablespoon

7.9 '/ cup

26.4 4 tablespoons

1.1 4 tablespoons

7.9 3 tablespoons

5.8 3 tablespoons


Grams Calories Fat


240

240

240

240

20

126

28.35

28.35

28.35

28.35


gm
156 8.9

185 4.8

79 0.2

88 1.2

61 1.7

173 10.0

141 7.5

103 0.3

120 2.2

117 1.6


CREAM
Table or Coffee Cream

Whipping Cream

Cultured or Sour Cream

Half and Half


20.0 I tablespoon

35.0 1 tablespoon

18.0 2 tablespoons

10.0 4 pint


BUTTER
Salt Butter-2% added salt 80.5 1 pat or 2 tsp 10 73 8.1 0.1

Unsalted Butter 80.5 1 pat or 2 tsp 10 73 8.1 0.1

ICE CREAM
Vanilla Ice Cream 12.0 quart 90 187 10.8 3.6

Chocolate Ice Cream 12.0 / quart 90 198 10.8 3.1

SHERBET
Orange Sherbet 1.2 quart 136 194 1.5 1.5

COTTAGE CHEESE
Creamed Cottage Cheese 4.0 H/ cup 75 81 3.0 11.6
%3% added salt
Uncreamed Cottage Cheese 0.5 s cup 75 68 0.4 14.6
%% added salt
Uncreamed Cottage Cheese 0.5 / cup 75 69 0.4 14.8
No added salt

CHEESE
American Process Cheese 31.0 1 ounce 28.35 107 8.8 6.4

American Cheddar Cheese 32.3 1 ounce 28.35 111 9.2 6.7

Cream Cheese 34.0 1 ounce 28.35 97 9.6 2.0

*Legal minimum fat and total solids content of many dairy products are established by state and local regulations. These values
may vary from those presented in this table.
**In plain milk 4 I.U.
***In fortified evaporated milk, the vitamin D content is stated on the label.


Protein


7.9

7.9

1.5

8.6

7.6

10.3

3.6


15

30


31 3.0

51 5.3

63 5.4

144 12.0


0.3

0.8


~











SERVINGS OF VARIOUS DAIRY PRODUCTS



(Courtesy National Dairy Products Corporation)


COMPOSITION
d.re- t Calcium Phosphorus Sodium
drate Solid,


gm gm mg
11.0 29.5 290

24.2 12.0 264

11.3 21.1 281

9.6 22.1 278

10.1 13.6 53

12.3 32.6 315

10.8 27.5 261

14.7 27.5 367

21.3 27.5 93


mg
216

223

211

216

41

237

207

272

249


28

126

116

148


Vito ntin


Vitamin
A

I.U.

353

202

10

50

67

418

315

13


Thiamine

mg
.01

.89

.10

.10

.01

.07

.10

.10


.08

.45

.42

.57


Vitamin
Niacin

mg I.U.
.34 100 (Vit. D)--

.35 2

.35 0

.35 0

.04 1

.23 4 *

.20 3

.31 0


23.2 27.5 57 176 122 -



0.6 4.0 14 14 5 126 T .02 .01 1

0.5 6.1 12 14 5 221 T .02 .01 2

1.0 7.6 30 27 9 221 .01 .05 .02 2

5.2 21.6 130 108 54 605 .05 .19 .12 5



0 8.2 2 /2 80 342 0 0 0 3

0 8.1 2 2 T 342 0 0 0 3



18.9 34.2 128 105 90 454 .03 .17 .09 5

22.1 36.9 103 105 90 454 .03 .19 5



43.8 47.2 57 45 27 63 T .04 1



1.9 17.4 74 124 221 125 .02 .20 .01 -


1.5 17.6 73 143 221 15 .02 .23 .01 -


1.5 17.1 73 143 15 15 .02 .23 .01 -




0.5 17.0 196 213 425 360 .01 .14 .07 3

0.5 17.9 247 173 198 385 .01 .14 .07 4

0.5 12.5 170 26 94 627 .03 .04 .03 4


indicates data locking. NOTE: 1 gram (gm) = 1000 milligrams (mg)


indicates trace only.
.U. International units, equivalent to U.S.P. units.


1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 grams
tsp = teaspoon


----







48 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Florida. The Governor also appoints the administrator of the
Commission.
The Florida Milk Commission cannot supervise an area in
the State of Florida unless they are petitioned to do so by a
representative group of producers supplying milk within a
marketing area. This is basic, and it is left entirely up to the
producer of milk, whether or not the Commission can super-
vise the area. The Florida Milk Commission has six established
areas under its supervision. These areas cover 56 Counties
in the State of Florida, thus the Florida Milk Commission
supervises approximately 65 percent of all milk produced
and sold in Florida.
Public hearings are conducted in each area, where cost of
production, processing and distribution are submitted under
oath, and from such evidence, the Commission determines the
minimum prices paid farmers for milk in any given area,
and the minimum price for milk and other dairy products to
consumers.
The expense of operating the Florida Milk Commission is
borne entirely by the dairy industry. The distributors and


Inside view of Florida's mobile milk laboratory operated
by Department of Agriculture and which makes quick
scientific analyses of milk and milk products







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 49


producer-distributors are required to purchase annual licenses
for their operations; truck licenses for all trucks operated (with
the exception of one) and licenses for each of their drivers.
In addition the distributor and the producer-distributor pay a
tax of 1/10 of 1 cent per gallon on all Class I milk sold, and
on the milk equivalent of cream sold.
The 1953 Act imposed a tax of 1/10 of 1 cent per gallon
on all Class I milk produced by the dairy farmer-this tax
to be collected by the distributor and forwarded to the Com-
mission with their monthly remittance.
The Law was amended to exempt milk sold to school lunch
rooms and charitable organizations and military use.

MOBILE LABORATORY
The object of the Mobile Laboratory is to act as a screen-
ing laboratory for the main Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Laboratory of Tallahassee; to be of service to the industry
and cooperate with other enforcement agencies. The Depart-
ment of Agriculture is charged with the enforcement of defini-
tions and standards of identity set-up under the Milk, Cream
and Milk Products Law and the Florida Frozen Desserts Law.
This laboratory is equipped with Mojonnier and Gerber Tester
for determining fats and total solids of all milk and milk
products. The Cryoscope is used for detecting the addition of
water to milk, which is a fraudulent practice. The acid tester
is used for checking the acidity of all milk and milk products.
The bacteriological equipment includes autoclaves, hot air ster-
ilizers, incubators, microscopes, necessary glassware and other
equipment necessary for complete bacteriological examinations.
The trailer is air-conditioned and has a refrigerator, hot and
cold water, distilled water, both gas and electricity, cupboards,
storage space with formica table tops.
This laboratory is equipped and staffed so as to perform
any and all tests to determine as to whether any milk or
milk products is satisfactory for human consumption.
Bacteriological examination by the plate method, microscopic
method, and coliform method are made at regular intervals.
In addition to checking equipment and methods of processing,
all milk and milk products are examined to see whether they
have been properly pasteurized by use of the Phosphatase Test.
Milk and milk products are subjected to butterfat test, solids,







50 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


not fat, total solids and acidity determination. Special tests,
such as, for determining added water, reconstructed milk and
the addition of fats other than butterfat are also performed,
and frozen desserts are checked to see that they contain the
proper amount of food solids per gallon.
All tests are performed by graduate bacteriologists and chem-
ists using standard method procedures.



THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF DAIRY SCIENCE

The Department of Dairy Science is a part of the Agricultural
Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture, University
of Florida, at Gainesville, Florida. The dairy facilities are
divided into two separate units, the Dairy Research Unit and
the Dairy Products Laboratory.
The Dairy Research Unit is located 11 miles north of Gaines-
ville on 1200 acres of land. This modern Dairy Research Unit
includes a barn with 79 stanchions and complete laboratory
facilities to conduct research in the Dairy Husbandry field.


Milk pasteurization and processing equipment at the
University of Florida







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE A51


A herd of over 250 cows, Jerseys, Holsteins and Guernseys,
provide animals for research in feeding, management and the
production of milk. The milk produced on this farm is utilized
in experimental work and in teaching in the field of Dairy
Products Manufacture.

The Dairy Products Laboratory is centrally located on the
campus of the University of Florida. It houses equipment for
the processing of milk and the manufacture of ice cream, con-
densed milk, cheese and other dairy products. Complete facili-
ties are available for research and teaching in the filed) of
dairy products. The Dairy Products Laboratory processes all of
the milk and manufactures all of the ice cream and other dairy
products sold to Food Service Units on the University of
Florida campus. Part-time employment is provided for several
students in the manufacturing laboratories, which in addition
to the experience they gain, provides them with an income
while attending school. Short courses and conferences are off-
ered each year covering all phases ofD-'airying, including pro-
grams for dairy plant operators, sanitarians, herdsmen, labora-
tory workers and dairy farmers.


THE FUTURE

The future milk business will see fewer, but larger proc-
essing plants. These plants will distribute their products over
a large area covering hundreds of miles. All products pur-
chased will be packaged in paper or large tanks. All small
items, such as butter, cheese, yogurt, sour cream, and sweet
cream will be purchased from the by-products manufacturer
packaged ready for resale.

All fluid products used will be pumped through meters into
large storage tanks and from there metered out in the right
proportions for the products to be processed. All will be pas-
teurized by the high temperature short time methods and all
frozen desserts will be frozen by continuous methods.

A large per cent of the clean-up will be by in-place cleaning
and most of the other cleaning will be accomplished by me-
chanical methods. New equipment, paved roads and modern







52 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


refrigerated transportation is changing the entire milk business
rapidly.

Producers like the plants will be less in number, but much
larger than at the present time. The small farm dairy pro-
ducer will be a thing of the past. It is possible that the herds
may become so large that all ideas of raising feed or replace-
ments of the herd will be eliminated. The fact is there are
some herds in the State that have reached that stage already.

In other words the idea of factory production has invaded
dairy production as well as other branches of agriculture.
Factory thinking has already been injected into the produc-
tion by pipeline milking, cold-wall cooling, storage tanks, vacuum
storage tanks, farm pick-up bulk tank trucks, in-place clean-
ing, conveyor methods of feeding large numbers of cattle in
a short time, and the use of artificial breeding of cattle.

This means a large capital outlay and unless a considerable
reduction is made in the cost of production, Florida will re-
main in fluid milk production only depending on other states
for supplements of milk in the short period and all of its
by-products.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 53


FAVORITE DAIRY DISHES


By LENA E. STURGES


Assistant Food Conservation Specialist
State Home Demonstration Office

The diets of many Florida families are low in calcium, and
three-fourths of the calcium in our country's food supply comes
from milk. Milk is also a rich source of riboflavin and protein
as well as other vitamins and minerals. It is very difficult to
supply the body's need for calcium and riboflavin without using
milk.
From infancy through the teens, it takes a great deal of
calcium to meet the needs of a growing body. Research has
shown that adults and older people also need milk each day.
Calcium is needed for healthy bones and teeth. The B-vitamin,
riboflavin, is essential for healthy skin and nerves and helps
the body cells use other nutrients carried by the blood. Protein
builds and repairs all tissues in the body.

Following are recommended daily needs of milk for the vari-
ous age groups:

Children-3 to 4 cups (112 pints to 1 quart)
Teen-Agers-1 quart or more
Adults all ages-2 or more cups (1 pint or more)
Expectant mothers-4 or more cups (1 quart or more)
Nursing mothers-6 cups (112 quarts)

Milk products, such as cheese and ice cream, and prepared

References:
Nutrition Up to Date, Up to You-U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Getting Enough Milk-U. S. Department of Agriculture, Home and Garden
Bulletin No. 57.
Egg Dishes for Any Meal-Leaflet No. 261, U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture.




54 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA

00NF FURNISHING THE SAME
FOUUU AMOUNT OF 6LCt&i

AS ONE QUART OF MILK


28 ORANGE


~ ~


39 ,


ATOESA








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 55


dishes made with milk can provide a part of this quota. Skim
fresh milk, dry non-fat milk solids, and buttermilk provide
calcium without fat, and may be used by those people who have
a problem of weight control.


If you are a "calorie counter," the following table
you the calories in milk and milk products:


shows


Fresh Fluid whole Milk
Fresh Fluid Skim Milk
Buttermilk
Half-and-Half
Chocolate-flavored dry milk
Malted Milk Beverage
Evaporated milk-diluted equal water
Nonfat dry milk

Ice Cream
Milk sherbet
Cheddar Cheese
Cottage Cheese, not creamed


1 cup (1/2 pint)
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup (4 T. powder to
1 c. water)
%1 cup
1/ cup
1 oc. (1-inch cube)
1/2 cup


In the interests of a healthy mouth and attractive smile,
members of the Florida State Dental Society, which includes
members in good standing of the American Dental Association,
advocate the regular daily consumption of fresh milk and milk
products, as well as regular dental examinations.


MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
IN MAIN DISHES

SCRAMBLED EGGS

Melt 2 tablespoons butter in a skillet or double boiler. Beat
6 eggs slightly and add 3/ cup milk and season with 2/. tea-
spoon salt and 1/8 teaspoon pepper. Cook slowly over low heat
and stir carefully until creamy.

DEVILED TUNA AND EGGS


3 shelled hard cooked eggs, sliced
1 7-oz. can grated tuna
3 tablespoons butter or margarine
3 tablespoons flour
1 teaspoon salt


1 teaspoon dry mustard
/2 teaspoon pepper
2 cups milk
1 teaspoon minced onions
1 teaspoon worcestershire sauce







56 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


.Heat oven to 350 F. Combine eggs and tuna in 1 quart
casserole. In sauce pan melt butter, stir in flour, salt, mustard
and pepper. Slowly add milk and cook, stirring until thickened.
Add onion and worcestershire sauce. Pour over eggs and tuna.
Cover and bake from 15 to 20 minutes, or until bubbly.

CHEESE FONDUE


4 eggs, well beaten
2 cups hot milk
2 cups soft bread crumbs


% to % lb. cheese (grated)
1 tablespoon butter
Salt to taste


Beat eggs. Mix milk, bread crumbs, cheese and butter. Stir
into beaten eggs. Pour into well-greased shallow pan and bake
in 350 F. oven for about 25 minutes. Serve at once.

MEAT LOAF


1% lbs. ground beef
% cup milk
% cup dry milk
1 egg
Vz cup cracker crumbs


11/2 teaspoon salt
I4 teaspoon pepper
1 teaspoon dry mustard
1/2 cup chopped green pepper
% cup chopped onion


Set oven at 350 F. Mix ingredients. Line loaf pan with
waxed paper and spread mixture in pan. Bake for 1 hour. Re-
move from oven and let stand 10 minutes before removing
from pan.

JUICY BURGERS


1 lb. hamburger meat


1 cup milk


Heat heavy skillet, cover with a thin shaking salt. Drop
spoonful of meat mixture on pan. Flatten and cook until brown.
Turn only once. This takes longer to brown than regular ham-
burgers.

FISH SHORTCAKE


2 tablespoons chopped onion
2 tablespoons butter or margarine
1 cup flour
2 cups hot milk
1 cup grated cheese


1/2 cups flaked tuna, salmon, or
other cooked fish
1/ teaspoon salt
Pepper
Hot biscuits or cornbread








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 57


Cook onion slowly in the fat until tender. Blend in the flour.
Add milk slowly, stirring constantly, and cook until thickened.
Add cheese and fish. Season with salt and pepper. Reheat,
stirring occasionally. Serve on hot biscuits or cornbread. Four
servings. 1/ cup milk per serving, plus almost 1/4 cup milk
value from cheese.

Fish Potpie. Prepare fish mixture as above. Pour while hot
into a greased baking dish, top with unbaked biscuits, and
bake at 4250 F. (hot oven) 35 to 45 minutes.



EGG, CHEESE, POTATO SCALLOP

1 cup thin white sauce 1 cup shredded cheese
1 tablespoon minced parsley 4 to 6 hard-cooked eggs, sliced
2 or 3 medium-size cooked potatoes, Salt and pepper
sliced Soft breadcrumbs

Combine white sauce and parsley. Place alternate layers of
potatoes, cheese, and eggs in a greased baking dish, sprinkling
each layer lightly with salt and pepper. Add the white sauce.
Top with breadcrumbs. Bake at 3750 F. (moderate oven) 15
to 20 minutes. 4 servings. 1/ cup milk per serving, plus about
2 cup milk value in the cheese.


SCALLOPED HAM WITH NOODLES

2 tablespoons cooking fat or oil 2 cups cooked noodles
3 tablespoons flour 3 cups ground cooked ham
Salt to taste % cup dry breadcrumbs
3 cups hot milk

Heat the fat or oil, blend in flour and salt; gradually add milk
and cook until thickened, stirring constantly. Make alternate
layers of noodles and meat in a shallow baking dish, pour on
the sauce, sprinkle breadcrumbs over the top. Bake at 375' F.
(moderate oven) about 20 minutes. 6 servings. 1/2 cup milk
per serving.
For Variety. Use cooked beef in place of ham; or use maca-
roni in place of noodles.








58 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

WITH VEGETABLES

5-MINUTE CABBAGE


3 cups milk
2 quarts shredded cabbage
3 tablespoons flour


2 tablespoons melted butter or
margarine
1/2 teaspoon salt
Pepper


Heat milk; add shredded cabbage and simmer for about 2
minutes. Mix flour with melted fat and add a little of the hot
milk. Stir this mixture into the cabbage and cook for 3 or 4
minutes, stirring constantly. Season with salt and pepper and
serve at once. Six servings. One-half cup milk per serving.

WHITE SAUCE FOR VEGETABLES

(Blends well with cooked onions, peas, carrots, new potatoes, cauliflower)
3 tablespoons flour cup grated cheese, if desired
3 tablespoons fat Salt and Pepper to taste
1% cup milk

Stir fat and flour together in sauce pan. Add milk and cook
5 minutes, stirring constantly. Add salt and pepper. Add grated
cheese to hot sauce.

QUICK CREAMED POTATOES


4 cups diced raw potatoes
1 cup minced onion
2 teaspoons salt
cup boiling water


1/2 cup milk
cup grated American cheddar
cheese
Pepper


Cook potatoes, onions and salt in boiling water in covered
saucepan for 10 minutes. Uncover, simmer, stirring occasionally.
Add milk, cheese, and pepper. Heat to serve.

CORN PUDDING


2 eggs, beaten
1 cup soft breadcrumbs
2 tablespoons melted butter or
margarine
2 cups milk


2 cups cooked, drain whole-kernel
corn
teaspoon salt
Pepper







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 59


Combine eggs, breadcrumbs, fat, milk, and corn. Season with
salt and pepper. Pour into a greased baking dish, and set in a
pan of hot water and bake at 350 F. (moderate oven) 50 to
60 minutes or until set. Serve at once. Six servings. One-
third cup milk per serving.


MILK IN HOT BREADS

SPOONBREAD


3 cups milk
1 cup cornmeal
11/2 teaspoon salt


2 tablespoons butter or margarine
3 eggs, beaten


Combine the milk, cornmeal, salt, and fat. Cook over boiling
water, stirring constantly, until thickened. Gradually add corn-
meal mixture to beaten egg. Pour into a greased baking dish
and bake at 3750 F. (moderate oven) for 45 to 60 minutes or
until set. Serve at once. Six servings. One-half cup milk per
serving.

WAFFLES


21/ cups sifted flour
21/ teaspoon baking powder
% teaspoon salt
11/ tablespoon sugar


3 eggs, separated
1Y2 cups milk
3 tablespoons melted cooking fat or
oil


Sift dry ingredients together. Beat the egg yolks and whites
separately. Combine egg yolks, milk, and melted fat or oil. Mix
with the dry ingredients, stirring only until batter is smooth.
Beat egg whites until stiff but not dry and fold into the batter.
Bake in hot waffle baker. Makes 6 waffles. 1/4 cup milk per
serving.


MILK IN DESSERTS

LEMON SPONGE PUDDING


% cup sugar
14 cup flour
1/ teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon melted butter or
margarine


1i cup lemon juice
% teaspoon grated lemon rind
2 eggs, separated
11/2 cups milk







60 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Mix together sugar and flour. Add salt, fat, lemon juice, and
lemon rind. Beat egg yolks and add milk. Combine with sugar
mixture. Beat egg whites until stiff but not dry, and fold into
the mixture. Pour into greased custard cups or a baking dish,
and set in a pan of hot water. Bake at 350 F. (moderate oven)
for 40 to 45 minutes. Six servings. 1/ cup milk per serving.


BAKED CUSTARD

3 cups milk 3 or 4 eggs, beaten
% teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon vanilla
6 tablespoons sugar Nutmeg

Heat the milk over boiling water. Add salt and sugar to
beaten egg. Gradually add the milk to the egg mixture. Add
the vanilla, and pour into custard cups. Sprinkle lightly with
nutmeg. Place custard cups, in a rack if you have one, in a
pan of hot water, and bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) 25
to 35 minutes or until the custards are set (when the point of a
silver knife comes out clean). Serve either hot or cold in the
custard cups. If desired, top custard with a spoonful of jelly
just before serving.

Caramel Custard.-Omit sugar and nutmeg and add 1/ cups
caramelized sugar-melt 2/3 cup granulated sugar in frying pan
over low heat; stir constantly until melted and a rich brown.
Add 2/3 cup hot water and continue to stir over heat until
smooth and slightly thickened. If desired, place 2 or 3 slices
of peaches in bottom of custard cup before pouring in plain
or caramel custard mixture.


BREAD OR RICE PUDDING

3 cups milk 1/3 cup sugar (increase to 1/ cup
2 cups soft bread crumbs when using rice)
or 1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cups cooked rice 2 or 3 eggs, beaten
1 tablespoon fat

Heat the milk over boiling water. Add bread crumbs or rice
and fat. Add sugar and salt to beaten eggs, then gradually
add milk mixture. Pour into a greased baking dish, set in a







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 61


pan of hot water, and bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) 1
hour or until set.
For Variety.-Add 1/ cup raisins or 1 teaspoon vanilla before
baking, or serve with a jelly or orange sauce.


SOFT CUSTARD
3 cups milk 2 to 4 eggs, beaten
1/ cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla
U4 teaspoon salt Cinnamon or nutmeg

Heat the milk over boiling water. Add sugar and salt to
beaten eggs. Gradually add the milk to the egg mixture. Cook
over hot, not boiling water, and stir constantly until the mix-
ture coats the spoon. Remove from the hot water at once. Cool;
add the vanilla and sprinkle a little cinnamon or nutmeg on
each serving.
As a Sauce.-A soft custard made with 2 eggs or 4 egg
yolks makes a nice sauce for fruit, flavored gelatin, cake, or
pudding.


Milk makes tasty desserts







62 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


FLOATING ISLAND

Use the soft custard recipe above. When using 4 eggs, save
out 2 or 3 egg whites and make a custard of the remaining
ingredients.
With 2 eggs add 1 tablespoon cornstarch, with 3 eggs add 2
teaspoons cornstarch to the ingredients for soft custard. Sep-
arate eggs and proceed as follows:
Mix sugar, cornstarch, and salt. Add the hot milk and cook
over boiling water, stirring constantly, until mixture thickens.
Cover and cook 15 minutes longer. Gradually add the milk mix-
ture to the beaten egg yolks. Cook over boiling water, stirring
constantly, for 2 to 3 minutes. Remove from water at once,
cool, and add vanilla.
Top each serving with a meringue made from the egg whites.
Beat the whites with a few grains of salt until stiff, but not
dry. Gradually add 2 tablespoons sugar for each egg white,
beating well after each addition. Pile lightly on a greased
baking sheet in 6 large or 12 small mounds. Bake in a moderate
oven (3250 F.) 10 to 15 minutes or until set and browned.
Place on custard hot or cold.
Another way to cook the beaten egg white is to drop mounds
of it on simmering water. Cover and cook 10 to 15 minutes
or until set. Remove from water immediately.

ORANGE HARD SAUCE

1 6 oz. can concentrated orange 11/3 cup powdered sugar
juice (3/ cup) % cup dry milk solids
% cup margarine or butter

Blend ingredients in order listed. Beat until fluffy. Makes a
little over a pint. Serve over cake, cookies, gingerbread.

OTHER MILK RECIPES
(Courtesy of National Dairy Council)

OYSTER STEW
1 pint oysters '1 teaspoon salt
6 tablespoons butter Dash pepper
1 quart milk, scalded Paprika







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 63



Drain and save liquor from oysters. Melt butter in saucepan,
add oysters, and cook slowly until edges begin to curl. Add
oyster liquor, hot milk, salt, and pepper. Pour into bowls and
top with paprika and extra butter. Serves 6.


CREAM OF CHEESE SOUP


2 tablespoons minced onion
4 tablespoons butter
4% tablespoons flour
2 cups milk
2 cups chicken stock or bouillon


1/2 pound sharp American cheese
cup minced, cooked carrot
% cup minced, cooked celery
Chopped parsley


Fry onion in butter until tender but not brown. Blend in
flour and heat until bubbly. Add milk and chicken stock and
cook until sauce boils and thickens, stirring constantly. Remove
from heat and add grated cheese. Stir until melted. Add cooked
vegetables, heat thoroughly. Top with chopped parsley. Serves 6.


CHEESE STRATA


12 slices day-old bread
6 slices American cheese
4 eggs
2% cups milk


14 teaspoon dry mustard
1Y2 teaspoons salt
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
Dash pepper


Trim crusts from bread and arrange 6 slices in bottom of a
12 by 7-inch baking dish. Cover with cheese, then with remain-
ing bread. Beat eggs, add remaining ingredients and pour over
bread. Let stand 1 hour and bake in a moderately slow oven,
325 F., 1 hour. Serve with tomato sauce if desired. Serves 6.


DeLUXE MACARONI AND CHEESE


2 cups broken macaroni
2 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon flour
% teaspoon dry mustard
1 teaspoon salt


Dash pepper
2 cups milk
2 cups grated American cheese
cup buttered crumbs


Cook macaroni in 2 quarts boiling, salted water until tender,
about 10 minutes; drain and pour into a buttered 11/-quart
casserole. Meanwhile, melt butter in saucepan over low heat.
Blend in flour and heat until bubbly. Add seasonings and milk







64 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


and cook, stirring constantly, until sauce boils and thickens.
Remove from heat and stir in grated cheese. Pour sauce over
macaroni, stirring so that all macaroni is coated with sauce.
Cover with buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate over, 3500
F., for 20 minutes. Serves 6.

CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP
2'/2 cups cooked tomatoes 1 bay leaf
1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons butter
1/s teaspoon pepper 3 tablespoons flour
2 teaspoons sugar 2 cups milk
1/ cup chopped onion
Combine tomatoes, seasonings, onion, and bay leaf and sim-
mer 10 minutes; strain. Melt butter in saucepan over low heat.
Blend in flour and heat until bubbly. Add tomato pulp and
cook until sauce boils and thickens, stirring constantly. When
ready to serve, stir heated tomato sauce into cold milk and
heat. Serve immediately. Serves 4 to 6.


CHEESE SOUFFLE
4 tablespoons butter 11/2 cups milk
4 tablespoons flour 2 cups grated American cheese
1 teaspoon salt 6 eggs, separated
14 teaspoon dry mustard

Melt butter in top of double boiler over direct heat. Blend in
flour and seasonings and heat until bubbly. Add milk and cook,
stirring constantly, until sauce boils and thickens. Place pan
over hot water and stir in cheese. Blend in well beaten yolks
from eggs. Cool sauce slightly. Beat egg whites until stiff but
not dry. Fold sauce slowly into egg whites. Pour into an un-
greased 2-quart casserole and bake in a slow oven, 300 F., for
about 11/4 hours, or until a knife inserted near the center comes
out clean. Serve immediately. Serves 6.


SCALLOPED POTATOES
2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons grated onion
2 tablespoons flour 2 cups milk
1 teaspoon salt 4 cups sliced, raw potatoes
1/ teaspoon pepper







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 65


Melt butter in a saucepan over low heat. Blend in flour and
seasonings and heat until bubbly. Add grated onion and milk,
and cook until sauce boils and thickens, stirring constantly.
Place half of potatoes in a buttered 11ll-quart casserole. Pour
half of sauce over potatoes, lifting potatoes with a fork so all
are covered with sauce. Repeat using remaining potatoes and
sauce. Cover and bake in a moderate oven, 3500 F., for 30
minutes; uncover and continue baking about 30 minutes, until
potatoes are tender and top is browned. Serves 6.
Variations: Add 1 cup grated cheese to sauce; add cooked,
cubed meat such as ham, roast pork or beef, corned beef or
dried beef.


VICHYSSOISE


4 or 5 leeks, or
11/ cups sliced onions
4 tablespoons butter
3 cups thinly sliced potatoes
1 cup hot water
4 chicken bouillon cubes


3 cups hot milk
1 teaspoon salt
1/ teaspoon pepper
1/s teaspoon paprika
1 cup cream
2 tablespoons chives or parsley


Cut roots and tops from leeks, leaving 2 inches above white
part; cut in thin slices. Melt butter in a saucepan; add leeks
and cook slowly until tender but not brown. Add sliced potatoes,








66 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


hot water, and 1 chicken bouillon cube. Cover and cook over
medium heat until potatoes are tender. Press leeks, potatoes,
and liquid through a sieve. Dissolve 3 remaining bouillon cubes
in hot milk. Combine with puree and seasonings. Add cream.
Serve hot or chilled, topped with chopped chives. Serves 6.

DEVILED SHRIMP


2 teaspoons minced onion
14 cup butter
1 teaspoon paprika
1 teaspoon prepared mustard
teaspoon salt


Dash cayenne
% cup flour
2 cups milk
1 tablespoon lemon juice
2 cups cooked shrimp


Saute the onion lightly in butter. Add seasonings and grad-
ually stir in the flour. Add milk and cook until sauce boils and
thickens, stirring constantly. Add lemon juice and cooked,
cleaned shrimp. (To cook shrimp, plunge into boiling, salted
water and cook for about 15 to 18 minutes.) Heat and serve
over steamed rice, chow mein noodles or in scallop shells.
Serves 6.

WELSH RABBIT


4 cups grated American cheese
% cup milk
teaspoon dry mustard


11/2 teaspoons Worcestershire
sauce
2 eggs, beaten


Melt cheese in the top of a double boiler over very low heat,
so water is hot but not boiling. As cheese softens, stir in milk
gradually, until sauce is smooth and well blended. Add season-
ings. Stir in beaten eggs and continue cooking over very low
heat until mixture thickens, stirring constantly. Serve at once
over toast. Serves 6.

STUFFED BAKED LUNCHEON POTATOES


6 large baking potatoes
1 to 11/ cups hot milk
2 tablespoons butter
/s teaspoon pepper
2 teaspoons salt


1 cup grated American cheese
2 cups minced, cooked ham or
leftover meat
3 tablespoons minced parsley


Bake potatoes. When done, cut a slice off the top of each
anrl -foop out centers. Mash potatoes, add hot milk, butter,







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 67


seasonings, and cheese and beat until light and fluffy. Fold in
minced ham and parsley. Fill potato shells. Place potatoes on
baking pan and bake in a moderate oven, 350 F., for 30 minutes
or until hot and lightly browned. Serves 6.

CORN CHEESE BAKE


1 No. 2 can (21/2 cups) cream-
style corn
% cup milk
1 cup cracker crumbs
2 tablespoons grated onion


3 tablespoons pimento
1 cup grated American cheese
V2 teaspoon salt
Dash pepper
2 tablespoons butter


Combine corn and milk. Stir in remaining ingredients, except
butter. Pour into a buttered 11/-quart casserole; dot with but-
ter. Bake in a moderate oven, 350 F., for about 30 minutes,
until lightly browned. Serves 6.

CHICKEN A LA KING


1 cup sliced, fresh or canned
mushrooms
4 tablespoons butter
4 tablespoons flour
teaspoon salt
2 cups milk


2 cups diced, cooked chicken
1 teaspoon onion juice
% teaspoon pepper
1/ cup pimento strips
Patty shells or toast points


Fry mushrooms in butter until lightly browned. Blend in
flour and salt and heat until bubbly. Add milk and cook, stir-
ring constantly, until sauce boils and thickens. Add chicken,
onion juice, and pepper and heat thoroughly. Remove from
heat, add pimento, and serve in patty shells or on buttered toast
points. Serves 6.

CREAMED DRIED BEEF IN CELERY SHELLS


% cup sliced mushrooms
4 tablespoons butter
4 tablespoons fl6ur


/s teaspoon pepper
2/2 cups milk
1 4-oz. package dried beef


If fresh mushrooms are used, saute in butter over low heat,
about 5 minutes, until tender. Add flour and pepper and blend.
Gradually add milk, and cook until sauce boils and thickens,
stirring constantly. Add dried beef that has been shredded. If
canned mushrooms are used, add them to cream sauce with
shredded dried beef. Heat and serve in celery shells. Serves 6.








68 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


CELERY SHELLS

Pastry % teaspoon celery seed
Make your favorite pastry using 11/ cups flour. Add celery
seed to pastry and mix well. Roll out to 1/8-inch thickness and
cut into 4 inch rounds. Fit rounds over back of muffin pans
and trim edges to fit. Prick well with fork and bake, pastry
side up, in hot oven, 425' F., for 15 to 18 minutes, until lightly
browned. Makes 6 shells.

SOUR CREAM CABBAGE

1 medium head cabbage 2 teaspoons vinegar
2 tablespoons butter 1/2 teaspoon sugar
2 tablespoons minced onion % teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon flour Dash pepper
1 cup sour cream Paprika

Cut cabbage into 6 wedges and cook until just tender in boil-
ing, salted water. Melt butter in a saucepan over low heat.
Add onion and cook until tender but not brown. Blend in flour
and heat until bubbly. Stir in sour cream, vinegar, and season-
ings except paprika, and cook until thickened, stirring con-
stantly. Pour sauce over cabbage. Sprinkle with paprika.
Serves 6.

SPINACH CHEESE SQUARES

2 cups cooked spinach 1/ teaspoon pepper
4 tablespoons butter 2 cups milk
1 tablespoon minced onion 1 cup grated American cheese
4 tablespoons flour 2 eggs, slightly beaten
1 teaspoon salt Hard-cooked egg wedges

Drain spinach well and chop. Melt butter, add minced onion
and cook over low heat until tender. Add flour and seasonings
and blend. Add milk and cook until sauce boils and thickens,
stirring constantly. Add cheese and stir until blended. Com-
bine sauce, beaten eggs, and spinach. Turn into a buttered
8-inch square pan. Set in a shallow pan of hot water and bake
in a moderate oven, 350 F., for about 30 minutes or until
firm. Cut into serving squares. Garnish with hard-cooked egg
wedges, if desired. Serves 6.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 69


FROZEN FRUIT SALAD


2 cups creamed cottage cheese
13 cup mayonnaise
2 tablespoons sugar
1 cup diced pineapple
1 cup diced, peeled orange


14 cup chopped maraschino
cherries
2 tablespoons cherry juice
1/3 cup chopped pecans


Sieve cottage cheese. Combine with mayonnaise and sugar
and stir until well blended. Fold in fruit, cherry juice, and
nuts. Freeze in refrigerator tray at coldest temperature until
solid. Slice and serve on lettuce. Serves 6.


SOUR CREAM COLE SLAW


4 cup sour cream
V4 teaspoon dry mustard
3 tablespoons sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
Dash pepper


3 tablespoons vinegar
4% cups shredded cabbage
2 tablespoons minced onion
Lettuce cups


Blend sour cream, seasonings, and vinegar. Pour over cab-
bage and onion and mix well. Serve in lettuce cups. Serves 6.


RASPBERRY ICE CREAM PIE


1%/ cups fine graham cracker
crumbs
1/4 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon


/s teaspoon salt
%1 cup butter, melted
1 quart vanilla ice cream
1 pint fresh or frozen raspberries


Blend fine cracker crumbs with sugar, cinnamon, and salt.
Blend in melted butter. Line a 9-inch pie pan with mixture,
pressing firmly to fit pan. Bake in a moderate oven, 350 F.,
about 8 minutes; cool. Fill pie shell with a layer of ice cream;
top with a layer of raspberries, sweetened to taste. Add an-
other layer of ice cream. Garnish top with raspberries. Serve
immediately. Serves 6.

PINE-CO SUNDAE

1 No. 2 can pineapple chunks 1 quart vanilla ice cream
/4 cup shredded coconut








70 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Drain pineapple, reserving juice for fruit drinks or sauces.
Roll pineapple chunks in coconut, coating all sides; chill. Spoon
ice cream into sherbet dishes or on large serving plate or bowl,
and surround with "pine-cos." Serves 6.

SWISS SALAD


2 quarts mixed salad greens
(lettuce, endive, watercress)
3 medium-sized tomatoes
1/ cup cucumber slices
1/4 cup sliced green onion


% cup diced, cooked ham, tongue
or corned beef
1 cup julienne strips Swiss or
American cheese
Lemon French dressing


In a salad bowl, pull salad greens into bite-sized pieces. Add
tomato wedges, cucumbers, onion, meat, and cheese. Toss to-
gether lightly with enough French dressing to coat ingredients.
Serve at once. Serves 6.

COTTAGE CHEESE RING SALAD


1% envelopes
(1% tablespoons) gelatin
%/ cup cold water
3 cups cottage cheese, sieved
1% teapspoons salt
1% teaspoon paprika
Dash cayenne


3 tablespoons lemon juice
3/ cup light cream
3 cups mixed, diced fruits
(bananas, oranges, unpeeled
red applies)
1/2 cup mayonnaise or salad
dressing


Sprinkle gelatin on cold water; dissolve over hot water. Com-
bine cheese, seasonings, lemon juice, cream, and dissolved gel-
atin; mix well. Turn into 1-quart ring mold which has been
rinsed in cold water. Chill until set. Unmold on salad greens.
Fill center with diced fruit. Serve with mayonnaise or salad
dressing. Serves 6.

CHOCOLATE POTS DE CREME


2% squares unsweetened chocolate
3 cups milk
% cup sugar


1/4 teaspoon salt
5 egg yolks
% teaspoon vanilla


Melt chocolate in a little milk in top of double boiler, over
hot water. Add sugar, salt, and remaining milk; cook until
chocolate is completely melted. Remove from heat and slowly
stir into beaten egg yolks. Return to double boiler; cover and







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 71


cook at simmering temperature for 15 to 20 minutes or until
pudding thickens, stirring occasionally. Remove from heat,
stir in vanilla. Pour into custard cups or serving dishes and
chill. Serve cold with cream or milk. Serves 6.

INDIVIDUAL STRAWBERRY ALASKAS

Sponge cake, 1-inch thick 1/2 cup sugar
4 egg whites 1% teaspoon vanilla
Dash salt 1 pint strawberry ice cream
Cut four 31.-inch squares of sponge cake. Place cake squares
on 2 thicknesses of heavy brown paper on a baking sheet. Beat
egg whites with salt to a soft foam. Continue beating, adding
sugar a tablespoon at a time, until meringue stands in peaks.
Add vanilla. Cut ice cream brick lengthwise then crosswise,
making 4 cube-shaped pieces. Place 1 cube of ice cream on
each piece of cake so cake extends at least 1/2 inch beyond each
side of ice cream. Spread meringue quickly over entire surface
of ice cream and rim of cake. Bake in a very hot oven, 450 F.,
for 3 to 5 minutes or until lightly browned. Serve immediately.
Serves 4.

CHOCOLATE CRUNCH SUNDAE

21/2 squares chocolate /2 teaspoon vanilla
1/2 cup milk 14 cup crunchy peanut butter
% cup light brown sugar 1 quart vanilla ice cream
Shave chocolate into small pieces and heat with milk, over
very low heat, until chocolate is melted, stirring constantly.
Beat with rotary beater until smooth. Add sugar and cook over
low heat until mixture bubbles. Add vanilla; cool. Stir in peanut
butter. Serve over ice cream. Serves 6.

COCOA

6 tablespoons cocoa 1/ cup water
% teaspoon salt 4 cups milk
6 tablespoons sugar 1/2 teaspoon vanilla
Combine cocoa, salt, and sugar. Stir in water and boil 2 or
3 minutes, stirring constantly. Add milk and heat just to boiling.
Add vanilla and serve. Serves 6.








72 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


MOCHA PUNCH


3 cups milk
1 cup double strength coffee, chilled
1 quart chocolate ice cream
1/2 teaspoon almond flavoring


1/4 cup sugar
Few grains salt
1/2 pint cream, whipped
14 teaspoon grated nutmeg


To prepare punch, pour milk and coffee into cold punch bowl;
add half of the chocolate ice cream, and stir until partially
melted. Add flavoring, sugar, and salt; blend. Fold in whipped
cream and remainder of the ice cream. Sprinkle lightly with
nutmeg. Serve immediately. Serves 12.

COTTAGE CHEESE CAKE


2 cups zwieback crumbs
2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons sugar
2 cups dry cottage cheese
1% cups cream
1 tablespoon flour
1 cup sugar


1/ teaspoon salt
1/ teaspoon nutmeg
3 eggs, separated
Grated rind of Y2 lemon
1/2 teaspoon vanilla
14 teaspoon lemon extract


Blend zwieback with softened butter and 2 tablespoons sugar.
Press all but 1/4 cup of mixture firmly against bottom and
sides of a 9-inch spring form pan. Press dry cottage cheese
through a sieve. Combine cheese with remaining ingredients
except whites of eggs, and mix well. Beat egg whites until stiff
but not dry and fold into batter. Pour into crumb-lined pan
and sprinkle top with remaining zwieback crumbs. Bake in a
moderately slow oven, 325' F., for about 1 hour, or until custard
is set in center and delicately browned. Serves 8.


BUTTERSCOTCH PIE


1 9-inch pastry shell
6 tablespoons butter
1 cup dark brown sugar
% cup boiling water
3 tablespoons cornstarch
2 tablespoons flour


1/2 teaspoon salt
2 cups milk
3 eggs, separated
1 teaspoon vanilla
6 tablespoons granulated sugar


Melt butter in pan over low heat. Add brown sugar and cook
until foamy, stirring constantly. Stir in boiling water and








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 73


remove from heat. Mix cornstarch, flour, and salt in top of
double boiler. Stir in milk. Add brown sugar sirup and cook
over direct heat until it boils and thickens, stirring constantly.
Remove from heat and stir a little of the mixture into beaten
egg yolks. Then blend egg yolks into hot mixture and cook
over hot water for 5 minutes longer; add vanilla. Cool. Pour
into baked pastry shell. Beat egg whites until stiff, adding sugar
a tablespoon at a time during beating. Spread on pie and bake
in a moderately slow oven, 325 F., for about 15 minutes or
until browned. Serves 6.


BANANA MILK SHAKE


4 cups milk
4 bananas, mashed
2 tablespoons lemon juice
% teaspoon cinnamon


Dash salt
3 tablespoons sugar
1 pint vanilla ice cream


Combine ingredients in a mixer or bowl and mix well. Pour
into glasses and serve immediately. Serves 6.


HOT ALMOND EGG NOG


6 eggs, separated
% teaspoon salt
% cup sugar
6 cups milk, scalded


1 tablespoons almond flavoring
1 tablespoon vanilla
Few grains nutmeg
Slivered almonds


Beat egg yolks until light; add salt and sugar; blend. Add
hot milk and flavorings. Beat egg whites until stiff; fold into
mixture. Pour into cups. Sprinkle with a few grains nutmeg
and slivered almonds. Serves 6.


CHEESE AND BACON DOUBLE DECKERS


12 slices toast
% cup butter
12 slices American cheese


6 tomato slices
Salt
12 bacon slices


Spread toast with butter. Cover six slices with cheese; broil
until cheese melts. Remove and top with remaining six slices
of toast, double-decker fashion. Put slices of peeled tomato on








74 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


top of toast, salt, and then top with cheese. Broil until cheese
begins to soften. Place 2 strips of partially cooked bacon on top.
Place under low broiler heat until cheese is thoroughly melted
and bacon is crisp. Makes 6 double-decker sandwiches.

STRAWBERRY MERINGUE GLACE

3 egg whites 1/2 teaspoons vanilla
1/4 teaspoon salt 1 quart strawberry or vanilla ice
114 cups sugar cream
11/2 teaspoons vinegar 1 pint sweetened strawberries

Beat egg whites until frothy, add salt and continue to beat
until the mixture will stand in soft peaks. Add sugar, a table-
spoon at a time, alternately with the vinegar, beating thoroughly
after each addition. Continue to beat after all has been added
until very stiff and dry. Add vanilla and blend. Pile meringue
on a lightly-greased baking sheet in six or eight mounds, making
an indentation in the top of each with the rounded side of a
large spoon. Bake in a slow oven, 275' F., for 1 to 11/4 hours,
or until crisp but not browned. Remove from baking sheet and
cool. (Meringues should be soft inside.) To serve, pile ice
cream in the center of cooled meringues and top with sweetened
strawberries. Serves 6 to 8.

MEXICAN RAREBIT

2 tablespoons butter 2 eggs, slightly beaten
3 tablespoons chopped green pepper % teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon finely chopped onion 1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
3 tablespoons flour Few grains cayenne
11/ cups milk 2 cups diced American cheese
2 cups cooked tomatoes (1/2 pound)

Melt butter in top of double boiler; add green pepper and
onion and cook together over low heat until tender but not
browned. Blend in flour. Add milk slowly, stirring constantly
and cook until sauce is smooth and thickened. Heat tomatoes;
gradually stir tomatoes into thickened sauce. Add a little of
this hot mixture to beaten eggs combined with seasonings and
mustard, then stir egg mixture into sauce. Place over hot
water, add finely diced cheese and cook until cheese melts,
stirring to blend. Serve hot on buttered toast, cornsticks or
cornbread. Makes 6 servings.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 75


TOP O' THE MEAL CASSEROLE


2 cups cooked rice
1 / cups leftover diced pork
2 tablespoons minced onion
1 cup cooked peas, corn, or celery
1/ teaspoon salt
%/ teaspoon pepper


3 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour
2 cups milk
1 cup grated cheese
/2 cup bread crumbs
2 tablespoons butter


Combine rice with meat; add onion, vegetable, and seasonings.
Melt 3 tablespoons of butter, blend in flour; add milk slowly,
stirring constantly, and cook until smooth and thickened. Re-
move from heat and add cheese, stirring until smooth. Add part
of rice mixture to buttered casserole. Cover with half cheese
sauce; add remainder of rice mixture and then cheese sauce.
Sprinkle with crumbs and dot with 2 tablespoons of butter.
Bake in a moderate oven, 3500 F., for 45 to 50 minutes. Makes
6 servings.

SWISS STEAK WITH SOUR CREAM GRAVY


1% pounds round steak
(thick slice)
1/ cup flour
14 cup butter


1% cup water
2 teaspoons salt
1 cup thick sour cream


Wash steak with damp cloth; pound flour into it with meat
mallet or edge of saucer. Saute in butter until brown. Pour
water over meat and add salt; cover and simmer for 11/2 hours,
or until tender, adding additional water if needed. Blend sour
cream with gravy just before serving. Serve over meat piping
hot. Makes 4 servings.

SPICED MILK

Add cinnamon, nutmeg, or your favorite combination of spices
to milk, or half and half. Serve hot or cold over apple cobbler.

LEMON BREAD PUDDING


1Y2 cups milk, scalded
1Yz cups dry bread cubes
2 eggs, separated
2 tablespoons melted butter


% cup sugar
14 teaspoon salt
Grated rind and juice of 1 lemon
1 teaspoon vanilla







76 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Combine scalded milk with bread cubes and set aside to cool.
Beat egg yolks slightly and add melted butter, salt, and sugar.
Add cooled milk mixture, lemon juice, grated rind and vanilla.
Blend well. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites and pour into
greased casserole. Set in a pan of hot water and bake in a
moderate oven, 3250 F., for 45 minutes, or until a silver knife
inserted in the center comes out clean. Makes 6 servings.


SAVORY RICE AND EGG LUNCHEON DISH

2 tablespoons chopped onion 1/2 teaspoons salt
2 tablespoons butter 1/2 cup rice
11/2 cups milk 4 slices tomato
11/ cups water Salt and pepper
1 tablespoon beef extract 4 eggs

Saute onion in butter for 5 minutes in a 9-inch skillet; do
not brown. Add milk, water, beef extract, and salt and heat to
boiling; add the rice. Cover and simmer over low heat for 45
minutes or until rice is tender; stir frequently during cooking.
The liquid will be almost entirely absorbed and if too dry, more
milk may be added. Make 4 deep hollows in the rice and place
a slice of tomato in each; season with salt and pepper and break
an egg on top of each slice. Cover and cook over very low heat
for 7 to 10 minutes until eggs are of desired doneness. Serve
immediately from the skillet in which food was cooked. The
eggs may be poached separately if desired. In this case, put
the tomatoes on top of rice the last few minutes of cooking.
Makes 4 servings.


BRUSSELS SPROUTS WITH CREAMY EGG SAUCE

1 quart Brussels sprouts 1/ teaspoon pepper
1/ cup butter 2 cups milk
1/ cup minced onion 3 shelled, hard-cooked eggs
/4 cup flour Toast points
1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons minced parsley

Remove outer, wilted leaves from sprouts. Cut off stem ends.
Wash and soak in salted water (2 tablespoons salt to 1 quart
water) 1/2 hour. Drain. Cook in boiling salted water about 15







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 77


minutes or until tender. Drain, keep hot. Cook onion in butter
until tender; add flour and seasonings; blend. Add milk, stir-
ring constantly, and cook until smooth and thickened. Cut eggs
into halves, lengthwise. Remove yolks. Cut whites into quarters
or eighths and add to sauce. Arrange sprouts on toast points.
Top each with egg sauce and sprinkle with yolk of egg which
has been pressed through a sieve. Garnish with minced parsley.
Makes 6 servings.


MEAT BALLS IN BUTTERMILK SAUCE


1 pound ground beef
1/2 cup bread crumbs
1/ cup diced onion
1/ cup milk


1 teaspoon salt
Vs teaspoon pepper
3 tablespoons butter


Combine all ingredients except the butter; shape into 8 meat
balls and brown on all sides in melted butter. Remove meat balls
from skillet and keep hot.


BUTTERMILK SAUCE


/4 cup butter
1/ cup flour
2 tablespoons sugar
1Y2 teaspoons dry mustard


2% cups buttermilk
1 egg, beaten slightly
1 teaspoon salt
1/ teaspoon pepper


Add butter to drippings left in skillet; add flour that has
been mixed with sugar, dry mustard, and seasonings; blend
thoroughly. Gradually add buttermilk while stirring; cook over
low heat until sauce is smooth and thickened, stirring constantly.
Stir some hot sauce into beaten egg; return to skillet and cook
2 to 3 minutes more. Pour sauce into a well-greased 11/2 quart
casserole; add meat balls and bake uncovered in a slow oven,
3000 F., for 30 minutes. Makes 4 servings.

BUTTER-BREAD PUDDING


6 slices day-old bread
1/2 cup butter, melted
4 eggs
1/2 cup sugar
1/ teaspoon salt


1 teaspoon vanilla
1 quart milk
% cup seedless raisins
/2 teaspoon cinnamon







78 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Toast bread lightly on both sides and cut each piece into 3
strips. Place the strips in a rectangular baking dish (12" x 8"
x 11/"), and pour the melted butter over them. Repeat, making
second layer of buttered toast. Beat eggs slightly, add sugar,
salt, vanilla, and 1 cup of the milk. Scald rest of milk and stir
into egg mixture. Pour over bread in baking dish, and cinna-
mon, pushing bread down until it starts to absorb liquid. Bake
in a slow oven, 3000 F., for 50 to 60 minutes, or until a sharp
knife inserted in the center comes out clean. Be careful not
to overbake. Serve warm or cold, with cream if desired. Makes
6 servings.


MEAL-IN-ONE CASSEROLE

% cup uncooked rice 14 cup butter
1 cup diced cooked carrots 1/ cup flour
1 pound ground beef 2 cups milk
/2 cup milk 1 tablespoons chopped onion
/3 cup bread crumbs 1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon salt

Cook rice in rapidly boiling, salted water until tender. Mix
meat with 1/2 cup milk, bread crumbs and 1 teaspoon salt. Form
in balls the size of a walnut. Brown meat in melted butter.
Remove meat from pan; add flour and blend well. Add milk,
stirring constantly and cook until gravy is smooth and thick-
ened. Add onion, 1 teaspoon salt, cooked carrots and meat.
Press rice around sides of buttered baking dish. Pour meat mix-
ture in center. Bake at 350 F. for 30 minutes. Makes 6
servings.


CHEESE-BROCCOLI SOUP

1 1-pound bunch broccoli 2 teaspoons salt
3 tablespoons butter % teaspoon pepper
2 tablespoons finely minced onion 1/ teaspoon paprika
3 tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
4 cups milk 1 cup shredded American cheese

Prepare broccoli. Cook in an inch of boiling, salted water
(1/, teaspoon salt to 1 cup water) for about 15 to 20 minutes,
or until tender. Sieve or chop fine and measure (there should
bout 11/2 cups). Melt butter in saucepan, add onion and







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 79


cook until tender. Blend in flour, add milk, stirring constantly,
and cook until smooth and thick. Stir in broccoli, seasonings
and Worcestershire sauce. Add cheese and stir until melted.
Serve in warm soup bowls, with a sprinkling of shredded cheese
on top. Makes 6 servings.


CREAMED POTATOES IN BOLOGNA CUPS
1' cup butter 2 cups milk
1/ cup flour 4 cups diced, cooked potatoes
1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons minced chives
%1/ teaspoon pepper % pound large bologna, sliced

Melt butter in saucepan over low heat, blend in flour and
seasonings. Add milk, stirring constantly and cook until smooth
and thickened. Add diced, cooked potatoes and chives. Do not
remove casings from sliced bologna. Heat slices gently in
greased skillet until they curl into cups. Fill each with creamed
potatoes and chives. Makes 6 servings.

APPLE FLOATING ISLAND

2 cups milk /8 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons cornstarch 1 teaspoon vanilla
6 tablespoons sugar 11% cups apple sauce
2 eggs

Scald milk in double boiler. Combine cornstarch and 4 table-
spoons of sugar. Separate eggs. Beat yolks; add to cornstarch
mixture, and blend. Gradually add some of the scalded milk
to egg yolk mixture. Add mixture to remaining milk in double
boiler and cook 5 minutes, or until thickened. Remove from
heat; add salt and vanilla. Chill. Beat egg whites until stiff;
add 2 tablespoons of sugar gradually, beating thoroughly. Fold
chilled apple sauce into the chilled pudding before serving. Top
with spoonsful of meringue; sprinkle with cinnamon or nutmeg.
Makes 6 servings.

CORN CHOWDER
14 pound salt pork 3 cups milk
1 large onion, sliced 2 cups cream style corn
4 potatoes, sliced 1 teaspoon salt
2 cups water 4 teaspoon paprika
6 soda crackers







80 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Cut salt pork into cubes and brown in large saucepan. Re-
move salt pork and drain off all but about 2 tablespoons fat.
Add onion and cook until yellow; add potatoes and water and
cook until potatoes are soft. Stir in crackers which have been
soaked in milk; add corn, salt, and paprika. Heat to simmer-
ing. Just before serving sprinkle crisp salt pork over top.
Makes 6 servings.

MOCK CHICKEN LEGS, CREAM GRAVY

11/2 pounds veal 2 eggs, beaten
1 pound lean pork 8 wooden skewers
11/4 teaspoons salt 3 tablespoons butter
14 teaspoon pepper 1/4 cup flour
11/2 cups cracker crumbs 2 cups milk

Cut meat into 1-inch cubes. Place five pieces on each stick
alternating first veal, then pork. Roll legs in cracker crumbs,
dip in egg, and again in cracker crumbs. Melt butter in heavy
frying pan; add chicken legs and brown. Add about 1/4 cup
water, cover and simmer over low heat. Add extra water, if
needed to keep legs from sticking. Cook until meat is tender
-about 1 hour. Chicken legs may be browned on top of stove
and then baked in 3250 F., oven for 45-60 minutes. Makes 8
servings.
To make gravy, remove chicken legs; add 2 cups milk. Put
flour in covered jar with just enough milk to make a smooth
paste (1/ cup). Shake until free from lumps; add to liquid in
frying pan, stirring constantly. When thickened, add more
milk if necessary and cook to proper consistency. Serve over
hot, baked potatoes.

MEAT AND VEGETABLE PIE AU GRATIN

1/ cup butter 2 cups diced cooked ham, veal or
14 cup flour beef
2 cups milk 2 cups cooked carrots
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 cups cooked potatoes
14 pound sharp American cheese

Melt butter, blend in flour, add milk and cook over low heat
until thickened, stirring constantly. Add salt and cheese and
stir until cheese is melted. Combine cheese sauce with diced







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 81


vegetables and meat. Pour into buttered casserole, top with
buttered crumbs. Bake in a moderate over, 3500 F., for 45 min-
utes. Makes 6 to 8 servings.



EGGNOG PIE


1/3 cup cornstarch
1/2 cup sugar
1/ teaspoon salt
2 cups milk, scalded
3 egg yolks


1/ teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon vanilla
3 egg whites
6 tablespoons sugar
1 baked 9" pie shell


Mix cornstarch, sugar and salt in top of double boiler; add
scalded milk and stir to blend. Cook over direct heat until
thick and smooth, stirring constantly. Beat egg yolks, stir in
a little hot mixture, blend and add to remaining mixture in
double boiler. Cook over boiling water 3 minutes, stirring con-
stantly. Remove from heat, add nutmeg and vanilla. Beat egg
whites until light; add sugar gradually and beat until stiff.
Fold meringue into the filling and pour into pie shell when cool.
Serve topped with whipped cream if desired. Makes 6 servings.




ASPARAGUS A LA GOLDENROD


14 cup butter
6 tablespoons flour
2 cups milk
Salt and pepper to taste


1 cup cottage cheese
Cooked asparagus, (24 to 30 stalks)
6 slices buttered toast
3 hard-cooked eggs


Melt butter in saucepan over low heat, add flour and blend.
Add milk and cook and stir until the sauce is smooth and thick-
ened. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Fold cottage cheese
through the mixture and heat. Arrange asparagus on hot but-
tered toast. Cover with cheese sauce and garnish each serving
with half a hard-cooked egg, sliced. Serve at once. Makes 6
servings.







82 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


SEAFARER'S CHEESE SOUP

2 tablespoons butter Dash Tobasco sauce
2 tablespoons flour *1 61/2-ounce can tunafish, drained
1/ teaspoon salt and flaked
Few grains pepper 1 tablespoons minced chives or
4 cups milk parsley
1/2 pound shredded American cheese

Melt butter in saucepan over low heat and blend in flour,
salt and pepper. Add milk slowly stirring constantly and cook
until sauce is smooth and thickened. Add cheese; stir until
melted. Add Tabasco sauce and fish. Heat. Garnish with chives
or minced parsley. Makes 4 servings.


BUTTER SAUCE

Blend in double boiler; 14 pound (1 stick) butter, 1 cup
sugar, 1/2 cup heavy cream, dash of salt. Stir over hot water
till smooth and hot. Add 1 teaspoon vanilla or other flavoring.
Serve hot. Makes 11/2 cups.


APPLE RICE PUDDING WITH BUTTERSCOTCH MERINGUE

1 cup uncooked, white rice 3 cups milk
6 medium apples, thinly sliced 2 egg yolks
1 teaspoon salt 2 egg whites, beaten
1 cup sugar 4 tablespoons brown sugar
1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon vanilla

Wash rice and cook in saucepan with 1 quart boiling water
and 1 teaspoon salt for 10 minutes; drain. Place half the apple
slices in a buttered 2-quart casserole. Blend together salt,
sugar and cinnamon and sprinkle 1/. of mixture over apples;
add 1/2 of the rice and remainder of the apples and sprinkle
with second 1/3 of sugar mixture; top with remaining rice and
sugar mixture. Pour in milk which has been blended with
beaten egg yolks. Cover and bake in a slow oven, 3000 F., for
about 2 hours, stirring occasionally with fork, adding extra
milk, as needed. Uncover and cook 30 minutes longer to brown.

* 1 cup cooked flaked fish, shrimp, crabmeat or lobster may be substituted
for tuna.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 83


To make meringue; beat egg whites until they stand in peaks;
add brown sugar, a tablespoon at a time, beating between each
addition and continue beating until very stiff. Fold in vanilla.
Spread on the pudding and return to oven for 20 minutes, or
until lightly browned. Cool. Serve with ice cream or cream.
Makes 6 to 8 servings.


CHEESE EGG FLOAT


3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
1 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt


1 tablespoon onion juice
/2 teaspoon celery salt
6 eggs
1 cup grated sharp cheese


Melt butter in saucepan over low heat; blend in flour. Add
milk slowly, stirring constantly and cook until sauce is smooth
and thickened. Pour into flat buttered baking dish. Break eggs
and drop on surface; sprinkle with grated cheese. Bake in
moderate oven, 350 F., for about 10 minutes, or until eggs
are done to desired degree and cheese is nicely toasted. Serve
on hot buttered toast. Makes 6 servings.


SPANISH CHEESE FONDUE


1/2 cup semi-cooked minced onion
14 cup semi-cooked minced green
pepper
1 cup semi-cooked mushroom caps
1 cup whole kernel corn
1 cup canned tomatoes
3 tablespoons butter
11/ cups milk


2 cups soft bread crumbs
11% cups shredded American cheese
1 teaspoon salt
%/ teaspoon paprika
Dash of pepper
1 tablespoon butter, melted
3 eggs, separated


Combine the vegetables and the 3 tablespoons of butter; heat
thoroughly; divide mixture into 6 individual baking dishes or
place all in one large buttered casserole. Keep in warm place
until Cheese Fondue mixture is ready for baking. Pour milk
over bread crumbs and let stand until milk is absorbed. Add
cheese, seasonings, melted butter and well-beaten egg yolks,
mixing lightly. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites. Turn into
the individual baking dishes or large casserole on top of the
vegetable mixture. Bake in a moderate oven, 3500 F., for 30







84 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA



to 45 minutes or until delicately browned and firm to the touch.
Serve at once. If prepared in individual baking dishes, turn
out on serving plates upside-down. Makes 6 servings.


LIVER COUNTRY STYLE


6 slices bacon
1 pound sliced liver
2 tablespoons flour
1 teaspoon salt


1/8 teaspoon pepper
2 cups milk
1/ cup buttered bread crumbs


Cut bacon in squares, fry until crisp. Remove bacon. Roll
liver slices in flour and brown in bacon fat. Add flour, salt and
pepper, stirring until smooth. Gradually add the milk and cook
until thick and smooth. Place alternate layers of liver, bacon,
and gravy in a buttered casserole; top with buttered crumbs
and bake in a moderate oven, 350 F., about 45 mintues. Six
servings.


TUNA CHOWDER


1 large onion, diced
3 tablespoons butter
4 cups diced potatoes
1 cup diced carrots
1 cup diced celery
2 teaspoons salt


2 cups boiling water
4 cups milk, scalded
1/s teaspoon pepper
1 7-ounce can tuna
1 tablespoon flour


Cook onion in butter until tender. Add potatoes, carrots,
celery, 1 teaspoon salt and the water; cook until vegetables
are tender. Add scalded milk, remaining seasonings and the
tuna fish. Thicken with butter that has been blended with
flour. Six servings.


BEEF SCALLOPINI WITH RICE


11/2 pounds lean beef
'/2 cup flour
2 teaspoons salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper
1/ cup butter
1/2 cup diced onion


1/2 cup water
1 cup diced celery
2 cups milk
% cup cooked mushrooms
3 cups cooked rice
1 cup grated cheese







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 85


Cut beef into 11/, inch cubes. Roll lightly in part of the
flour with 1/2 teaspoon salt and dash of pepper. Cook onion in
butter until tender; remove, brown beef in skillet. Stir in
water, onion, celery, and seasonings. Cover and simmer about
1 to 11/2 hours, add water if needed. Blend remaining flour
with milk; add to meat, stirring constantly until smooth and
thickened. Add mushrooms. Blend grated cheese into cooked
rice. Serve over rice. Six servings.

POLKA DOT PUNCH
6 tablespoons honey 6 cups cold milk
1% teaspoons cinnamon 3 teaspoons vanilla
% teaspoons ginger 1 pint vanilla ice cream
% teaspoon nutmeg Sliced gum drops
Few grains salt

Blend honey, spices and salt. Add cold milk and vanilla; stir
until well bended. Turn into cold glasses. Top with ice cream
and garnish with gum drops. Six servings.

BANANA STRAWBERRY FLOAT

% cup mashed bananas 5 cups cold milk
% cup mashed strawberries 1 pint vanilla ice cream
/4 cup sugar 6 whole strawberries
Dash salt

Blend bananas and strawberries with sugar and salt. Add
cold milk and stir to blend. Pour into tall glasses and top with
ice cream. Garnish with whole berries and serve. Makes 6
servings.

ORANGE EGG NOG
2 eggs, separated 1 quart milk
1 can frozen concentrated orange 3 tablespoons sugar
juice Grated orange rind

Combine egg yolks, orange concentrate and one tablespoon of
sugar, mixing well. Beat egg whites until they will hold a
soft peak; beat in the remaining 2 tablespoons of sugar grad-
ually. Fold egg whites into egg yolk mixture. Divide evenly
in 4 tall glasses. Fill glasses with milk. Sprinkle top with
grated orange rind. Serves 4.




DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 87


PINEAPPLE RICE CREAM


i/ cup rice
2/2 cups milk
/3 cup sugar
14 teaspoon salt
1 pound marshmallows, cut in


small pieces
12 cup crushed pineapple
1/2 cup candied cherries, cut in half
/2 cup whipping cream
1/ teaspoon almond extract


Cook rice, sugar, salt and milk until rice is soft. Take from
heat and cool until chilled. Add marshmallows, fruit, flavoring
and stiffly whipped cream. Pile into sherbet or parfait glasses
and garnish with cherries or nuts, if desired. Serve very cold.
Serves 6.

PEEK-A-BOO MAPLE PUNCH


4 cup maple flavored sirup
11/ teaspoons cinnamon
1/s teaspoon salt
1 pint vanilla ice cream


6 cups cold milk
Chocolate bits
Maraschino cherries
Whole cloves


Blend maple sirup, cinnamon, salt, and cold milk, using rotary
beater. Pour into chilled glasses or mugs. Dip six round ice
cream balls. Make a face on each using chocolate bits for eyes,
maraschino cherry slices for mouths, and whole cloves for
noses. Spoon remaining ice cream into glasses and top each
glass with one of the ice cream faces. Serves 6.








88 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


SELECTED MILK STATISTICS


FLUID MILK AND CREAM


WHOLE MILK EQUIVALENT


Country
1 Finland
2 Norway
3 Sweden
4 New Zealand
5 Switzerland
6 Canada
7 Austria
8 UNITED STATES
9 Ireland
10 Denmark
11 United Kingdom
12 Netherlands
13 Australia
14 West Germany
15 Belgium


CHEESE


Country
1 Switzerland
2 Norway
3 Sweden
4 France
5 Italy
6 Netherlands
7 Denmark
8 Belgium
9 United Kingdom
10 West Germany
11 UNITED STATES
12 Canada
13 Finland
14 New Zealand
15 Australia


Pounds
653
522
487
466
458
436
405
400
371
368
344
329
279
263
210



Pounds
17.9
17.8
16.8
16.7
16.0
15.8
14.6
11.3
9.4
9.3
7.8
6.6
6.6
6.1
5.2


Country
1 New Zealand
2 Finland
3 Ireland
4 Sweden
5 Australia
6 Canada
7 Norway
8 Switzerland
9 Denmark
10 Belgium
11 United Kingdom
12 UNITED STATES
13 West Germany
14 France
15 Austria


BUTTER

Country
1 New Zealand
2 Ireland
3 Finland
4 Australia
5 Belgium
6 Sweden
7 Canada
8 Denmark
9 West Germany
10 France
11 United Kingdom
12 Switzerland
13 Austria
14 Norway
15 UNITED STATES


In terms of whole milk equivalent of all dairy products, New
Zealand surpasses all other nations in per capital consumption
of dairy foods. In 1955, the rate of consumption was equivalent
to 1,591 pounds of whole milk. People of Finland, Ireland,
Sweden and Australia consumed dairy foods at rates exceeding
1,000 pounds of whole milk. With a per capital utilization of
698 pounds, the United States ranked 12th in 1955.


Pounds
1,591
1,543
1,325
1,102
1,069
937
931
924
907
853
714
698
690
658
648



Pounds
44.9
43.7
35.8
31.0
24-1
24.0
20.6
18.7
15.2
14.8
14.7
13.9
10.5
9.3
8.9







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 89


Northern Europeans are the world's leading consumers of
fluid milk and cream. Rates of consumption of fluid products
in Finland and Norway, for instance, are from 30 to 60 per
cent higher than in the United States.
Butter is a food identified primarily with the higher level
of economic well-being associated with Western civilization.
Among these countries, however, per capital of butter is sig-
nificantly higher than in the United States. Residents of New
Zealand and Ireland, for example, consume nearly five times
as much butter per person as do Americans.
Europe leads all other areas of the world in per capital con-
sumption of cheese. Rates of use in many of these countries
are twice as high as in the United States.
Americans drank 822 million more pounds of fluid milk
in 1956 than they did in 1955 as a result of a two-quart per
person increase in the consumption of fluid milk last year.

New records were set for both cheese and cottage cheese
consumption. Ice cream was purchased at a rate nearly double
the 1935-39 average. Butter consumption in 1956 dropped a
tenth of a pound, but this figure was still second highest of the
last five years.
These facts were announced by the National Dairy Council
with the publication of its annual statistical study, "How
Americans Use Their Dairy Foods." According to the publication,
the specific quantities of various dairy foods consumed per
person in 1956 as compared with 1955 were:


Product 1955 Per Capita 1956 Per Capita
Consumption Consumption
Fluid milk 142 qts. 144 qts.
Fluid cream 47 lbs. 47 lbs.
Cheese (exclusive of cottage) 7.8 lbs. 8 lbs.
Cottage cheese 4.4 Ibs. 4.5 lbs.
Ice cream 15.3 qts. 15.6 qts.
Butter 8.9 lbs. 8.8 lbs.
Evaporated and condensed milk 16.0 lbs. 15.5 lbs.
Dry whole milk .25 lbs. .26 lbs.
Nonfat dry milk 5.5 lbs. 5.0 lbs.




90 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


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GROWTH, VIGOR,
Je7ANOJD 000D HEALTH


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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 91



On the production side, milk production in 1956 was 748
pounds of milk for each man, woman and child in the United
States. The dairy foods consumed last year were processed and
manufactured from an average 699 pounds of milk per person.
This left a surplus of 49 pounds per person, one pound per
person less than in 1955 and 22 pounds per person less than
the peak surplus of 71 pounds per person in 1953-an improve-
ment of 31 %.





The following table summarizes the utilization of the total
U. S. Milk supply during 1956 as compared with 1955:


Item


1956


Fluid milk and cream'
Butter
Cheese
Ice cream and other
frozen dairy products2
Evaporated milk
Condensed milk
Dry whole milk


Total milk production


million per cent
pounds of total

64,937 51.7
31,482 25.0
13,648 10.9


8,450 6.7
5,453 4.4
804 .6


125,698 100.0


million per cent
pounds of total

63,504 51.6
30,837 25.0
13,518 11.0


8,160 6.6
5,490 4.5
807 .6
812 .7


123.128 100.C


'Includes milk used on farms where produced.
2Net milk used.








PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MILK

Total and Per Person, United States


Milk
Production
(million
pounds)
89,240
100,158
101,205

103,624
109,412
119,828
117,697
116,814
112,671
116,103
116,602
114,681
114,671
120,221
122,094
123,128
125,698


Production
Per Person
(pounds)
783
814
795

803
828
856
832
810
768
778
769
743
730
753
752
745
748


Consumption
Per Person
Milk Equivalent
(pounds)
790
808
789

791
807
777
775
758
714
724
731
705
691
682
691
698
699


Year
1925
1930
1935
1935-39
average
1940
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956


(1935-39-100)
Production
Per Person
86
97
98

100
106
116
114
113
109
112
113
111
111
116
118
119
121


Indexes
Total
Production
98
101
99


100
103
107
104
101
96
97
96
93
91
94
94
93
93


Consumption
Per Person
100
102
100

100
102
98
98
96
90
92
92
89
87
86
87
88
89







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 93


The North Central regions annually produce about one-half
of the nation's supply of milk. In 1956, for instance, produc-
tion in the East North Central region made up 30 per cent of
the total supply. Output in the West North Central region rep-
resented 22 per cent of the annual total. Atlantic Coastal regions
supply about 25 per cent of the national output, with the North
Atlantic region producing over two and a half times the quantity
of the South Atlantic region. The Western and South Central
regions each make up a little over a tenth of the national
output of milk.



Shifts in Milk Production, by Regions, 1940 to 1956

Milk Production Change in production
Region 1940 1956 between 1940 and 1956

billion pounds billion pounds per cent

North Atlantic 17.4 22.2 4.8 27.6
East North Central 30.6 37.3 6.7 21.9
West North Central 27.7 27.6 -.1 -.4
South Atlantic 6.6 9.2 2.6 39.4
South Central 14.5 14.6 .1 .7
Western 12.6 14.8 2.2 17.5
United States 109.4 125.7 16.3 14.9



Milk for fluid consumption is customarily produced relatively
close to market. Consequently, the largest absolute increases
in production have occurred in the East North Central and
North Atlantic regions where urban populations have been
greatly expanded during the last 15 years. The South Atlantic
states have experienced the most rapid rate of growth of milk
production, however, with about 40 per cent more milk being
produced in 1956 than in 1940. A slight decrease in output
occurred in the West North Central region during the last
decade and a half. The net effect of these shifts in production
has been an increase of nearly 15 per cent in the nation's output.








94 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


INDEX TO RECIPES


Apple Floating Island ---------
Apple Rice Pudding with
Butterscotch Merinque -----
Asparagus A La Goldenrod ---
Baked Custard --
Banana Milk Shake ------
Banana Strawberry Punch --
Beef Scallopini with Rice ...--
Bread or Rice Pudding --------
Brussels Sprouts with Creamy
Egg Sauce --
Butter Bread Pudding ---------
Butter Sauce --
Butterscotch Pie ---
Cheese and Bacon Double
Deckers --
Cheese Broccoli Soup -
Cheese Egg Float ---
Cheese Fondue
Cheese Souffle
Cheese Strata ----
Chicken A La King ---
Chocolate Crunch Sundae --
Chocolate Pots De Creme -----
Cocoa --------------
Corn Cheese Bake ------
Corn Chowder ------
Corn Pudding -----------
Cottage Cheese Cake -----..---
Cottage Cheese Ring Salad --
Creamed Dried Beef in Celery
Shell -.. -----
Creamed Potatoes in Bologna
Cups -------------
Cream of Cheese Soup ----.--
Cream of Tomato Soup ......----
DeLuxe Macaroni and Cheese
Deviled Shrimp --------------
Deviled Tuna and Egg ---------
Egg, Cheese, Potato Scallop -
Eggnog Pie --------
Fish Shortcake ----
Five-Minute Cabbage --
Floating Island
Frozen Fruit Salad ---
Hot Almond Eggnog .........----


79 Individual Strawberry


82
81
60
73
85
84
60

76
77
82
72

73
78
83
56
64
63
67
71
70
71
67
79
58
72
70

67

79
63
64
63
66
55
57
81
56
158
62
69
73


Alaskas -----
Juicy Burgers -----
Lemon Bread
Lemon Sponge Pudding -
Liver Country Style --
Meal-in-one Casserole --
Meat and Vegetable Pie Au
Gratin
Meatball in Buttermilk Sauce
Meat Loaf
Mexican Rarebit ----
Mocha Punch ----
Mock Chicken Legs, Cream
Gravy -----
Orange Eggnog
Orange Hard Sauce ---
Oyster Stew -----
Peek-A-Boo Maple Punch .---
Pineapple Rice Cream -
Pine-Co Sundae
Polka Dot Punch ---
Quick Creamed Potatoes .--.-
Raspberry Ice Cream Pie .----
Savory Rice and Egg Luncheon
Dish ------
Seafarer's Cheese Soup ..
Scalloped Ham with Noodles-.
Scalloped Potatoes --
Soft Custard
Sour Cream Cabbage ----------
Spanish Cheese Fondue ------
Spiced Milk ----
Spinach Cheese Squares ------
Spoon Bread
Strawberry Merinque Glace--.
Stuffed Baked Luncheon
Potatoes ------
Swiss Salad
Swiss Steak with Sour Cream
Gravy
Top 0' the Meal Casserole ...-
Tuna Chowder ----
Vichyssoise ------
Waffles
Welsh Rabbit -----
White Sauce with Vegetables_


page

















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