• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 The future of Florida
 Florida the nation's foremost industrial...
 This is Florida
 Ten keys to Florida
 Opportunities in Florida
 Information on Florida
 Florida state government
 Exports of farm products from the...
 What does agriculture include?
 Farming and foreign trade
 Now and yesterday
 Trade with Latin America
 Florida pine: A great, growing...
 Florida received $1,472,412,000...
 Country of origin of the foreign...
 1945 State census - tabulated by...
 Florida State population census...
 Down south
 Florida's future
 A special report: Florida's production...
 Back Matter














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida today and tomorrow
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002282/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida today and tomorrow
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 48 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1946
 Subjects
Subject: Economic conditions -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "February 1946."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002282
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2683
ltuf - AKD9741
oclc - 28589353
alephbibnum - 001963059
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PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    The future of Florida
        Page 5
    Florida the nation's foremost industrial laboratory and proving ground
        Page 6
        Page 7
    This is Florida
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Ten keys to Florida
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Opportunities in Florida
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Information on Florida
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Florida state government
        Page 19
    Exports of farm products from the United States
        Page 20
    What does agriculture include?
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Farming and foreign trade
        Page 23
    Now and yesterday
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Trade with Latin America
        Page 27
    Florida pine: A great, growing all-purpose industry of the State
        Page 28
    Florida received $1,472,412,000 of nation's war contracts
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Country of origin of the foreign white stock, by nativity, for Florida
        Page 32
        Page 33
    1945 State census - tabulated by counties
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Florida State population census 1945: Population of cities and towns
        Page 36
    Down south
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Florida's future
        Page 39
        Page 40
    A special report: Florida's production of agricultural perishables in relation to the development of air freight
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Back Matter
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text
/ k


e e eUefa e e e e e e e e e e S e e n e
te'e~IIUI~e.II -Ce e e e f e


BUI.I ETIN NO. 128


FEBRUARY, 1946


FLORIDA


Today and Tomorrow















Issued by
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

NATHAN MAYO, Cominiissioner
TALLAHASSEE
.i .l


S/ I '











FLORIDA


Today and Tomorrow















Issued by
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NATHAN MAYO, Commi11ssonler


TALLAHASSEE









PREFACE


The success of any business depends on the relationship
of cost to income. In farming the cost of production is
measured against the sale price of the commodities. Cost
of production depends on the fertility of the soil, seasons,
and the efficiency of machinery and labor. Sale price is
controlled by the growing of things the public demands,
supplying the market evenly and not over-supplying at
one time, and the cultivation of customers. Farm manage-
ment and agricultural economics include the whole pro-
gram.
Farming practices can be handicapped byR^adverse laws
governing the economics of marketing and even of pro-
duction. Tariff regulations affect the value of farm crops
the same as the output of factories, forests, and mines.
Trade relations arbitrarily set can make or break any busi-
ness that enters the channels of international trade.
The industrial possibilities of this state are just begin-
ning to be manifest and realized by the business operators
throughout the country. The TEN KEYS TO OPPORTUN-
ITY IN FLORIDA are mentioned and a few examples of the
progress made in different phases of development. We in-
vite you to participate in this proving ground for the
future.
The Florida of today forecasts the Florida of tomorrow.
With the possibilities for future development, and the
means at hand to begin a new era after the greatest of all
wars, we are to be congratulated on the general good for-
tune that America has had in escaping the terrible calami-
ties that have overtaken most of the countries of the eastern
hemisphere.
Florida has as much to be thankful for as any of our
48 states.















THE FUTURE OF FLORIDA


Judging by the past and present prospects this state
should have a greater future than all its past. The climate
we have always with us; the proximity of Latin America
is permanent; trade with those countries is certain to be
greater in the future than ever before; transportation is
better than at any previous period; timber and minerals
are south of us that we do not have; the eastern hemisphere
has been devastated by global wars while the western has
not. For this reason the nations of the west are not as
bankrupt as the nations of the east; Florida's production
of fruits, vegetables, and output of factories are sure to
increase; the tourist trade will increase and the trade inci-
dent thereto augment the economic resources of the state.
For particulars concerning future possibilities write to
this Department for Fudture Possibilities in Florida, volumes
one and two.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA

THE NATION'S FOREMOST INDUSTRIAL
LABORATORY AND PROVING GROUND

Florida produces winter-grown vegetables and fruits on
400,000 acres, enough to ship at the rate of 23 carloads an
hour every hour of the year, day and night.
Florida's 40,000 citrus groves produce up to 78,000,000
boxes of citrus fruit annually, valued at $190,000,000 in
1944. Florida's 3,000,000 acres in farms and groves pro-
vide a variety of farm products ranging from cotton, to-
bacco and grains to tropical fruits and vegetables, which
combine to give a farm income of $300,000,000 a year.
Florida has 2,000,000 cattle. Florida's mineral resources
are valued at $20,000,000 in annual output, and Florida's
fisheries market fresh fish, shrimp, turtles, and sponges
valued at over $20,000,000 annually. Florida's forests oc-
cupy 19,000,000 acres and yield an annual production of
lumber, pulp wood, and naval stores having a value of
$65,000,000.
Some Things FLORIDA Has


Population - - -
Cattle -
Area of Stare in square miles
Land area (square miles) -
Water area (square miles)
Acres in cultivation - -
Miles of coastline - -
Income from timber - -
Income from farms - -
Income from mining - -
Income from fisheries -
Income from factories -
Income from tourists - -
Bank clearings - - -
Imports - - -
Exports - - -
Railroad tonnage -
Kilowatts of water generated
Kilowatts of fuel generated -


- - 2,369,166
- - 2,000,000
- - 58,666
- 54,861
- - 3,805
- - 3,000,000
- - 1,200
- - $ 65,000,000
- - $ 280,000,000
- - $ 20,000,000
- - $ 20,000,000
- - $ 300,000,000
- - $ 300,000,000
- - $2,000,000,000
- - $ 20,000,000
- - $ 121,842,000
- - 100,000,000
- - 50,000,000
- - 160,000,000






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 7

Florida's output of manufactured products in numerous
factories reaches an annual valuation of $300,000,000, and
industrial activities extend over a wide range from ships
and paper to cigars, foods, and novelties. As an example
of recent industrial progress in Florida, five large pulp
mills for manufacture of kraft paper and containers have
been established. Thousands of acres of sugarcane have
been developed to supply two sugar mills, one at Clewiston
in the Everglades, and one at Fellsmere. Canning factories
put up 500,000,000 cans annually. Florida's permanent
population is 2,247,000 with an increase of more than
1,000,000 during the winter season. Florida is today the
nation's foremost industrial laboratory and proving ground
for progressive industrial organizations seeking to develop
new products to better serve mankind.






8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


THIS IS FLORIDA

Florida Is-
The Tourist Slate DeLuxe

More than a million visit
us each year and the num-
ber constantly increases.

Sightseeing,
Sea bathing,
Motoring and boating
without ice or snow;
Sport fishing and hunting;
Races;
Eating fresh fruits and
Vegetables
all the year round; and
Resting in the open air in
Comfort,
hold many here
permanently.

Within the last 10 years
Florida has increased faster
in population than any
other state.


THIS IS FLORIDA

Florida Is-
An Agricultural State

On 2,500,000 acres of cul-
tivated land we grow 60
different kinds of vege-
tables and 70 kinds of fruit
commercially. We produce
on an average of 25 cars of
these products every hour,
day and night, 24 hours
every day in the year.

Since the war the price of
fruits has been so good that
the government placed a
ceiling on it.

We have 2,000,000 cattle
and the number is increas-
ing more in percentage
than in any other state.





FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW


THIS IS FLORIDA

Florida Is-
An. Industrial State

Its manufactured annual
output is over $300,000,-
000.

The diversity of kinds of
industry accommodates al-
most anyone interested in
industrial lines.

No other state has the op-
portunity to build up a
large trade with Latin-
America as has Florida.

Those countries will want
hundreds of millions of
dollars worth of materials
from the United States.
This will enable us to im-
port hundreds of millions
of dollars worth of raw ma-
terials through the ports of
Florida.


THIS IS FLORIDA


Governme'nt-


FLORIDA HAS
No state bonded debt.
No state income tax.
No general sales tax.
No tax on homesteads
up to the value of
$5,000 except such
as incurred before the
law passed.
No state tax on lands.
No poll tax.

New Industries Are Ex-
empt from Taxes until
1 9 4 8 .






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TEN KEYS

1 CROPS
2 FACTORIES
3 MINERALS
4 FISHERIES
5 CITIES


ri, cr 0y
0O
00
J'r ~~.


TO FLORIDA


TRANSPORTATION
PAN AMERICA
TOURISTS
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT


CROPS
Florida has 130 different crops grown
commercially. Most of them are har-
vested in the winter months-fruits,
vegetables, field, and highly specialized
crops.

FACTORIES
Factories are numerous and varied.
Some of the larger ones are the large
paper mills, fertilizer factories, wood
using industries, and canneries.

MINERALS
Mining in Florida is of the non-me-
tallic kinds. Phosphate, kaolin, Fuller's
earth, limestone, clays for pottery and
ceramics, sands for glass, coquina, oolite,
coral rock are among the valuable min-
erals of the state.

FISHERIES
A dozen fish and seafood products
bring in some 130,000,000 pounds per
year, employing 10,000 persons. In ad-
dition, sport fishing attracts thousands
to the salt water around the shores.







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW


CITIES


=-. _

r1


Florida has more people in incorpo-
rated towns than in the rural districts.
The large cities are Jacksonville, Miami,
Tampa, and Pensacola. Daytona, Palm
Beach, Fort Myers are cities notable for
tourists resorts.
All of the above named are seacoast
cities. There are quite a few thriving
cities inland-such as Orlando, Lake-
land, Tallahassee, Sarasota, Gainesville,
and Sanford.

TRANSPORTATION
Florida has ten ports that are capable
of accommodating sea-going vessels.
The quantity of over 10,000,000 tons
in normal times goes to ports of all the
seven seas. The waters of our leading
ports will float the largest ships and fur-
nish room for as many as the leading
ports of the world.
Our railroad facilities are ample and
the freight and passenger traffic im-
mense. The bus and truck lines make
use of our more than 8,000 miles of hard
surfaced highways.

PAN AMERICA
No state is as favorably located for
the development of traffic with Latin
America as Florida.
We have ample air fields well
equipped for service. The future ex-
pansion of this service will mean much
to the state and to the building of Pan
American trade.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TOURISTS


m'o
-^\iL


I mon--i2


Florida first became famous as a tour-
ist state. This has increased as better
facilities for sports, recreation and
points of interest were offered.
We welcome visitors and shall always
endeavor to offer them the advantages
which they come to enjoy.
There are scenic views which vie with
other states in beauty and interest.

HISTORY

Florida has had a truly colorful his-
tory and those interested in historic
landmarks will find plenty to conjure
with.
No other state has been under five
flags and bears the imprint of each
change in the sovereignty imposed,
from the earliest Spanish explorers to
the successive French, English, Union,
flags and bears the imprint of each
session.

STATE GOVERNMENT

The government of Florida has some
features not found in any other state.
Investigation will show it to be in a
splendid condition financially without
the burdensome taxation found in many
states.
Come and see. Judge for yourself.






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 13


OPPORTUNITIES IN FLORIDA

INDUSTRIES
1. New Products
2. New Markets
3. New Machines
4. New Transportation
NEW PRODUCTS
Technicians are all the while bringing to light possibili-
ties in the realm of physics and chemistry. Each thing
added to the useful arts and sciences brings the need of new
factories to fill the demand which the public welcomes to
the equipment of civilization.
Florida is a prolific field for these new inventions and
discoveries and answers the ever enlarging demands of high
standard living. To mention a few:
1. New uses for Palmetto
2. New uses for Plastics
3. New uses for Ramie
4. New uses for Coquina
5. Glass factories
NEW MARKETS
There is an ever-growing demand for new products of
every kind. This means new markets for articles of trade.
Florida has, just south of her in the Latin American coun-
tries, a population equal to that of the United States. These
countries have unlimited supplies of raw materials which
can be brought to Florida ports by cheapest possible means
of transportation where they can be manufactured.

NEW MACHINES
All branches of industries must change machinery to
meet new requirements. The items of this class are well-
nigh interminable.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NEW TRANSPORTATION
Quick transportation by rail, boat, truck, and airplane
furnish ample means of getting the output of factories to
the great centers of population.

AGRICULTURE

1. New Crops
2. New Markets
3. New Machines
4. New Transportation

Florida has 70 fruit and 60 vegetable crops grown com-
mercially.
Among new crops may be mentioned starch-producing
crops:
1. Cassava
2. A new large sweet potato

Fiber Bearing Crops:
1. Ramie
2. Sansevieria
3. Roselle
4. Henequen

Food Producing Crops:

1. Coconuts
2. Paprika
3. Gooseberries
4. Carob
Miscellaneous:
1. Deer Tongue
2. Lemon Grass
3. Castor Beans
4. Medicinal Plants






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 15

TOURISTS
1. New Appeals
2. New Accommodations
3. New Experiences
4. New Lessons

1. Climate a permanent asset
2. Accommodations for recreation varied and enticing
3. New experiences in sport fishing, hunting, motoring,
games, comfort
4. New Lessons-parks, woodlands, fresh and salt water
furnish means for the study of wild life on land and sea


INFORMATION ON FLORIDA

Life in Florida need never be dull, for here the lover of
any sport or amusement, whether it be rugged wilderness
variety or the more sophisticated resort pleasures, will find
complete and constant satisfaction.
Florida has so many worthwhile points of interest that
it is safe to say that few Florida visitors ever see all of them.
To know and enjoy them fully one must see all parts of
the State-from the verdant hills of the north to the palm-
covered semitropical plains of the south.
In addition to the brilliant resorts and an amazing array
of casual natural wonders, Florida offers four magnificent
national monuments, Fort Jefferson, Fort Marion, Fort
Matanzas, and forts on Santa Rosa Island; the Apalachi-
cola, Osceola, and Ocala National -Forests; four State
monuments, eleven State Parks, eight renowned and beau-
tifully landscaped gardens, each different and each worth
seeing; and perhaps the largest number of famous springs
within the border of any State.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FAMOUS SPRINGS


DeLeon Springs - -
Green Cove Springs
Health Springs -
Juniper Springs -
Rainbow Springs
Salt Springs - -
Sanlando Springs -
Silver Springs - -
Sulphur Springs -
Wakulla Springs
Weckiwachee Springs


- DeLand


Green Cove Springs
Tarpon Springs
Marion County
- Dunnellon
- - Marion County
Seminole County
- - - - Ocala
- - - - Tampa


Tallahassee
Brooksville


SCENIC DRIVES


Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean -
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean -
Beach Driving -
Gulf Coast - -
Gulf Coast - -
Gulf Coast -
Indian River, Ocean
Lakes, Citrus
Tampa Bay - -


Dania to Miami Beach
Fort Pierce to Jensen
- Palm Beach to Ft. Lauderdale
St. Augustine Daytona Beach
Jacksonville, Daytona Beach
- Clearwater to St. Petersburg
- Fort Walton to Panama City
- - Pensacola to Tallahassee
Titusville to Palm Beach
Lake, Orange, Polk Counties
Davis Causeway and Gandy Bridge


NATIONAL MONUMENTS


Fort Jefferson
Fort Marion - -
Fort Mantanzas -
Santa Rosa Island -


- Garden Key
- - - St. Augustine
- - South of St. Augustine
Pensacola


STATE MONUMENTS

Natural Bridge (near Tallahassee) Leon County
Constitution - - Port St. Joe
Olustee - - - Olustee
Dade Massacre (near Bushnell) - Sumtcr County

STATE PARKS


Torreya Park (near Bristol) -
Florida Caverns Park (at Marianna) -
Pan American Park (near Ft. Lauderdale) -


Liberty County
Jackson County
Broward County


-
-







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 17


Hugh Taylor Birch Park (near Ft. Lauderdale)
Broward County
Suwannce River Park (near Ellaville) Suwannee County
Fort Clinch Park (at Fernandina) -Nassau County
Gold Head Branch Park (near Keystone Heiglts)
Clay County
Tomoka Park (near Ormond) Volusia County
Hillsborough River Park (near Zephyr Hills)
Hillsborough County
Highlands Hammock Park (near Sebring)
Highlands County
Myakka River Park (near Sarasota) - Sarasota County
Collier Seminole Park (near Everglades) Collier County
Royal Palm Park (near Homestead) - Dade County
O'Lcno Recreation Area (near Lake City) Columbia County
Everglades National Park (Proposed)-only place in U. S.
where tropical wild life, both flora and fauna, can be preserved.


STATE FORESTS

Myakka (near Sarasota) - Manatee and Sarasota Counties
Pine Log (near Panama City) Bay and Washington Counties
Cary (near Baldwin) Nassau and Duval Counties
Blackwater River (near Milton)
Okaloosa and Santa Rosa Counties


NATIONAL FORESTS

Apalachicola (near Bristol)
Liberty, Wakulla and Leon Counties
Osceola (near Lake City) -Columbia and Baker Counties
Ocala (near Ocala) - - Marion County


GARDENS


Dupree Gardens
Oriental Gardens
Ravine Gardens - -
Japanese Gardens -
Venetian Gardens -
Meads Gardens -
Cypress Gardens -
McKee Jungle Gardens
Eagles Nest Gardens
Palmetum -


SNorth of Tampa
- Jacksonville
- - - Palatka
- Bellair
- - - -Leesburg
- - - - Orlando
- Winter Haven
V ero Beach
Clearwater
Coconut Grove






18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Florida has a population of over 2,000,000. (528,000
in 1900.) During the winter season, the state entertains
a million visitors.
Florida has 35,000,000 acres-2,500,000 under cultiva-
tion, 22,000,000 in timber, 3,000,000 of water, and 3,000,-
000 of prairie. Millions of acres of good soil await develop-
ment.
7,500 miles of railroads-almost 8,000 miles of paved
roads ...
A climate that is the envy of the world ...
An almost fantastic number of fine hotels, apartment
houses, tourist homes and camps...
The world's largest springs-Silver Springs at Ocala and
Wakulla Springs near Tallahassee ...
The only Oceanarium in the world, at Marineland, 18
miles south of St. Augustine ...
Florida has more sunshine in winter and less in summer
than the Northern States. In Florida the shortest day in
the year is only about three hours shorter than the longest
day; along the northern border of the United States there
is a difference of more than seven hours. This, in part, ac-
counts for the mildness of Florida winters and the coolness
of Florida summers. The Gulf Stream brushes the south-
eastern shore of the State and also modifies the climate.
Florida has the oldest permanent white settlement in
the United States. It is the last State of the Union to be
developed.
Florida is the land of romance, legend, song, and story,
from "Way Down Upon the Suwannee River" to "The
Over-Sea Route Along the Keys," and from Perdido's bor-
dered valley to St. Augustine's templed shrines.
It is bathed in the passionate caresses of the southern sun,
laved by the limpid waves of the embracing seas, wooed
by the glorious Gulf Stream, whose waters, warmed by
the tropical sun, speed northeastward to temper the climate
of Europe.







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 19


FLORIDA STATE GOVERNMENT

* No poll tax.
* No state income tax.
r No general sales tax.
* No slate bonded debt.
* No state tax on lands.
* No tax on homesteads occupied by the owner, up to the
value of $5000-except such as incurred before the law
passed.
* More sunshine in winter and less in summer than any
other slate.
* A mean annual temperature ranging from 68.8 to 72.3
degrees-average rainfall 52.4 inches.

LEADING INCOME-YIELDING TREES OF FLORIDA
(In the following we have used round numbers and average value-
not one special year.)


Citrus - -
Forest trees (pine
and cypress) -
Tung - -
Pecans - -
Papayas - -
Avocados - -


S180,000,000


80,000,000
700,000
540,000
390,000
200,000


Persimmons


Coconuts
Pears
Peaches -
Guavas -
Mangoes
Figs -
Blueberries


- - - $5,000


- $120,000
- 120,000
- 40,000
- 30,000
- 20,000
- 14,000
- 10,000


INCOME-PRODUCING TREES THAT WOULD GROW
IN FLORIDA

Rubber, Coffee, Carob, Cork, Poplar, Black Walnut

LEADING INCOME-PRODUCING VEGETABLES IN FLORIDA


String Beans - 5,300,000
Celery - 3,900,000
Potatoes (white) 3,800,000
Cabbage - 2,500,000
Lettuce -


Peppers - -
Cucumbers -
Sweet Potatoes -
Lima Beans -
- - $225,000


- $1,000,000
- 1,000,000
- 1,000,000
- 800,000


-5 -0






20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

LEADING FIELD CROPS IN FLORIDA
Tomatoes -- - $6,000,000 Watermelons - -$2,000,000
Corn - - 5,000,000 Cotton - 1,500,000
Peanuts (Hay Strawberries - -1,000,000
and Seeds) -4,000,000 Velvet Beans - -1,000,000
Tobacco - - 3,500,000 Sorghum - - 1,000,000
Cane Syrup - - $1,000,000

LEADING INCOME-PRODUCING DOMESTIC ANIMALS
IN FLORIDA
Dairy Animals - $20,000,000 Beef Cattle -- -$7,000,000
Poultry - - 11,000,000 Hogs - - 5,000,000

Mineral Products - -$21,000,000
Fisheries - - - 20,000,000

WAR EXPENDITURES
Expenditures in Florida for war expansion and con-
struction of factories, mills, public utilities, housing, roads,
and for military and naval installations during the four-
year period from July, 1940 through June, 1944 totaled
$645,000,000. Of this total War and Navy Department
installations account for 81 per cent, or $521,000,000;
expansion of establishments manufacturing ships, aircraft,
and combat vehicles for $60,000,000; housing for $43,-
000,000; and food processing, chemical, and other plants
for $21,000,000.

EXPORTS OF FARM PRODUCTS FROM THE
UNITED STATES
When it comes to exports, we can find no evidence that
foreign concessions resulted in any increase in volume of
farm products sold abroad. Back in 1910-1914 exports of
farm products accounted for an even 50 per cent of total
exports. By 1932 farm exports were down to 41.7 per cent
of total exports. It was to rebuild the export market that
farmers were asked to support the Trade Agreements Bill.
Here, again, let us look at the record.







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 21

The United States Department of Agriculture furnished
the following data:

VALUE OF UNITED STATES EXPORTS
PERCENT
TOTAL AGRICULTURAL FARMS
YEAR DOMESTIC EXPORTS EXPORTS OF TOTAL
1932 $1,413,397,000 $589,650,000 41.7%
1933 2,008,484,000 787,343,000 39.2%
1934 2,085,092,000 668,713,000 32.1%
1935 2,375,415,000 766,303,000 32.3%
1936 2,790,880,000 732,474,000 26.2%/
1937 3,361,699,000 890,771,000 26.5%
1938 2,884,687,000 682,962,000 23.7%
1939 3,743,930,000 737,640,000 19.7%
1940 3,959,262,000 349,821,000 8.8
While the dollar value of exports of farm products was
about the same in 1938 and 1939 as during 1932 to 1935,
they were held there only because unit prices were higher
and through the paying of huge export subsidies, and not
because of foreign concessions to us.


WHAT DOES AGRICULTURE INCLUDE?

The human race is dependent on agriculture for its ex-
istence. An industry of that importance should be under-
stood in a comprehensive way by everybody. Let us con-
sider it under its various divisions and classifications.
Agriculture is the science and the art of tilling the soil,
growing and harvesting of crops, the utilization and mar-
keting of same, the raising and care of domestic animals,
farm management, and agricultural economics.
These activities are subdivided into various several
classes and each has its own particular science and art.
The Cultivation and Care of the Soil is a fundamental
part of the science of agriculture. It requires the proper
cultivation and economical utilization of soils; the preser-
vation of its fertility by judicious use, fertilization, pre-






22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

vention of erosion by water or wind, the rotation of crops
and sodding between seasons are items in the art and science
of farming.
Horticulture has to do with fruits, vegetables, and orna-
mentals. These are again divided into distinct kinds of
culture. Fruit farming has numerous subdivisions. Garden
crops may be expanded to large acreage and truck farming
has assumed enormous proportion. Ornamentals include
all manner of plants and shrubs for beautification. The
magnitude and importance of each of these varies with
different parts of the world.
Animal Husbandry includes all domestic animals for
whatever purpose; their breeding, care, and utilization for
either food or domestic service. Horses, beef cattle, dairy
cattle, hogs, sheep, goats, and poultry come in this category.
General Farming is inclusive of a wide scope of field
crop growing and livestock raising. Grains, hays, fiber
crops, root crops, and fruits are usually allied with what
is considered general farming.
Truck. Farming is confined to the growing of all kinds
of vegetables. The hundreds of different vegetable crops
that are used for food of both man and beast. Highly
specialized farming may take the form of crops limited
in area as to climate, soil, or other environment. Fruits,
vegetables, and ornamentals lend to this kind of restricted
agriculture. Since the invention and development of the
canning and preserving processes this kind of farming has
been augmented to exceedingly large volumes. A distinct
kind of farming is that specialized in growing of sugar cane
and sugar beets for the manufacture of sugar. Maple syrup
from the sugar maple is limited to small areas. The tapping
of long-leaf pine for turpentine and resin has been classified
as farming.
Farm Management holds a place in agriculture as its
business phase of production and is mostly a problem of the
sagacity of the operator in meeting all the emergencies that
come to the hazards of farm life.






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 23

Agricultural Economics relates to the commercial end
of farming. It is that part of agriculture that joins the
farm to all other vocations. It is much broader than farm
management as it includes the financing, marketing, and
synchronizing of production to demand.
The close connection between all these divisions is ap-
parent. Nevertheless there is enough difference to justify
the classifications.

FARMING AND FOREIGN TRADE

Farmers have never gone on a strike. This is true in all
countries. Farm products have usually sold on a free mar-
ket. Farmers have had to buy the products of factories on
a tariff-protected market. The present world crisis has
demoralized international trade. Our exports are the lowest
they have been in this century. The prospects are that they
will remain so after the war is over. Bankrupt nations
cannot buy and each one will attempt to make itself as
nearly selfsufficient as possible.
Because of improved machinery on farm and in factory
this country was able to invade the markets of all the world
and sell as well as buy all manner of commodities and build
up an enormous trade. Gradually tariff walls were raised
by nearly all nations and barriers hindered the flow of com-
merce throughout the world.
Our greatest trade was with Great Britain. The size of
a country or the number of its inhabitants does not indi-
cate its foreign trade. Our trade with Japan with only
70,000,000 inhabitants had been several times more than
our trade with China with 400,000,000 inhabitants and an
area as large in proportion.
Florida has one advantage in the export trade: Very little
of our products depend on foreign markets. Our markets
are at home and in our states. We have no great sur-
pluses piled up such as is the case with cotton, wheat, to-
bacco, and packinghouse products.






24 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

All efforts to artificially boost the price of a product
above the price set by legitimate demand are merely hypo-
dermic injections to stimulate and do not remove the cause
of the trouble.. However these emergency "shots" often
serve a good purpose. More than 90% of our markets are
at home. But the surpluses are the levers of depression that
lower the price of the whole crop. The only thing that
can keep our standard of living high is the consuming power
of the masses.
Evidence points to a post war condition when nations
will settle into a series of self-contained areas. Last year
our domestic retail trade was $45,500,000,000, and our ex-
port trade was equivalent to about one month's retail trade.
An important item to consider is the low margin on which
people can exist and the wide margin on which people will
live if their income will permit.
Our international trade will take on new features after
post war readjustment. Commerce will expand between
the two Americas more than ever before.


NOW AND YESTERDAY

By B. J. VAN INGEN & Co., INC.

Since 1940, Florida has experienced a phenomenal growth
in population. Thousands of individuals from other parts
of the country have poured into this subtropical state. Many
are only temporary residents, attracted by the shipbuilding
and other war industries. Many are the members of families
of service men stationed in Florida, who will return to the
points of their origin at the end of the war. But by far
the greater majority of these newcomers are here to stay
and are the vanguard of thousands more to come.
It is a great mistake to compare Florida's rapid progress
today with the boom of the 1920's. Conditions are not
strictly comparable. To the pat phrase that "history re-
peats itself," let us suggest that history only repeats itself






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 25

when conditions repeat themselves. The economic and
financial conditions of Florida in 1945 are to those of 1925
as an adult is to an adolescent.
Florida's geographical, health, and climatic advantages
have made it for many years the playground of nations.
The State has also gained considerable fame as a producer
of fine citrus fruits and winter vegetables. That cattle
raising is an important source of revenue is also well known
to students of Florida's economy. But the extent of and
the reasons for the remarkable advance in the economic and
financial condition of the State are not too widely known.
It shall be the endeavor of the following paragraphs to re-
count some of the developments contributing to Florida's
rapid progress in the past two decades.
Certain phases of Florida's economy have been omitted
in the ensuing discussion for lack of space. Others, such as
the tremendously lucrative tourist industry, worth some
$300,000,000 annually to Florida residents, are too well
known to need further comment. The growing of winter
vegetables, the acreage and value of which nearly trebled
in the period under review, constitutes a phase of Florida's
economy which is also widely known. The millions of dol-
lars of construction work on military establishments and
the millions more in payrolls of military personnel stationed
in Florida, have already gained wide publicity. These mili-
tary contributions to the wealth of the State, while exten-
sive, are for the most part of a temporary nature and are
omitted from the following discussion of certain funda-
mental contributions to Florida's progress.

POPULATION INCREASE

In 1920 Florida had a population of 968,470. By 1930
the population had increased to 1,468,211, an increase of
51.6% over 1920, or three and one-fifth times the national
rate of growth in the same period. In 1940 the population
had grown to 1,897,414, an increase of 29.2% over 1930,
which was four times the rate of growth of the whole na-






26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

tion. As of July 1, 1944 it was estimated that Florida's
population had grown to 2,369,196, an increase of 24.9%
over 1940. Florida is one of four states in the Union with
an increase since 1940 of more than 20%.
Although mere increment to a population does not
always mean advancement and progress, Florida's phenom-
enal growth in the past two decades is in general the product
of economic expansion. The exploitation of Florida's re-
sources, even on a modest scale, has been of comparatively
recent origin. There still remain in Florida resources and
natural advantages which have not been thoroughly ex-
ploited.
The unusually rapid growth since 1940 is attributable
in part to the war boom. It is not possible to predict with
any degree of accuracy just what percentage of this in-
crease in population can be classed as a permanent gain.
One indication that a great deal of it is permanent, is to be
found in an unofficial forecast of Dr. Philip M. Houser,
Assistant Director of the United States Bureau of the Cen-
sus. Dr. Houser estimates that there are 16 metropolitan
areas in the United States which are adjudged to have
superior prospects of retaining wartime growths. Three
of these are in Florida: Miami, Jacksonville, and the Tampa-
St. Petersburg district embracing Hillsborough and Pinel-
las Counties.
The experience.of these four cities in developing through
three different economic periods, although superior to the
average community in Florida, has in general, paralleled
that of the State as a whole. These periods cover the pros-
perity period from 1920 to 1930, the depression from 1930
to 1940, and the war boom period since 1940. The popu-
lation trend has been consistently upward and has been
contemporaneous with the period of greatest economic
expansion in the State.






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 27

TRADE WITH LATIN AMERICA

The Commerce Department in Washington has issued
a report that shows conclusively that the postwar trade
between the two Americas for the next ten years will be
no less than $5,780,000,000.
As instances it is estimated that American Republics will
purchase $720,000,000 worth of material in the next four
years.
Examples of the trade prospects from some of the Latin
American countries will show the possibilities of trade.
Argentina will require machinery from the United
States valued at $417,000,000.
Brazil will require $1,309,000,000.
Chile will require $266,000,000.
Columbia will require $241,000,000.
Cuba will require $120,000,000.
Mexico will require $650,000,000.
These estimates are made by the Federal Government
and should be fairly accurate.
When purchases are made by a foreign country the set-
tlement has to be made mostly in trade balances.
Few other countries have gold to settle balances of trade.
Therefore, we shall have to purchase material from those
countries to match our sales to them.
The most of our purchases will be raw materials, con-
sisting of such things as timber, rubber, tropical fruits,
minerals, hides, medicinal plants, etc.
There is no reason why Florida ports cannot be the en-
trance point to the United States for a large part of this
shipping.
Florida factories will have the shortest route to receive
raw material.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA PINE

A GREAT, GROWING ALL-PURPOSE INDUSTRY
OF THE STATE

Lumber, naval stores and wood products, including
pulpwood, have been major sources of Florida's income for
more than 100 years . and yet, the riches stored away in
those forests have been scarcely tapped. With reasonably
sound forest-management and more diversified wood util-
ization, Florida's forests can be the basis of a far greater
and never ending prosperity.
For every thousand board feet of lumber produced at
the sawmill, a ton of sawdust, slabs, and edgings is accu-
mulated, while three tons of tops, limbs, and cull trees are
left in the forests. This is good chemical raw material.
Truly, the pine is a magic tree. From it come, literally,
hundreds of by-products.
22,000,000 Acres of Forest Land Available-Two-thirds
of Florida's soil-some 22,000,000 acres-is well adapted
for timber growth. Numerous varieties of pine are found
in the state, two-thirds of Florida's production being long
leaf, slash, and loblolly. Loblolly abounds in the north,
but the other two varieties are found throughout the state.
Pine Is Source of Numerous Products-Science is discov-
ering new uses for pine by-products at an amazing rate.
Basic materials for synthetic rubber, soap, plastic, paint,
and chemical industries-to name a few-abound in pine
. and the door to new uses is wide open.
Thousands of Wood Products Can Be Manufactured-
Florida already possesses a thriving wood product industry
but in the light of discovery of greater uses for the pliant
pine, many new products can be made.
By-products of pine are sources of many materials.






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 29

FOREST BY-PRODUCTS
Pulpwood made into wood pulp for manufacture of paper by the
Sulphite, Sulphate, Soda, and Ground wood process.
By-Products of Sulphite Process Are: Adhesives, Cymene, Taty
acids, Mordants, Road binder, Cellophane, Photo film. Boiler compounds,
Dyes, Feeding yeast, Paint remover, Tannins, Lacquers, Rayon, Foundry
core binder, Ethyl alcohol, Fertilizers, Plastics, Vanillin, Nitrated pro-
ducts, explosives, etc., Viscose acetate.
By-Products of Sulphate Process Are: Acetic acid, Acetone, Dimen-
thyl sulphide, Taty acids, Methyl alcohol, Oxalic acid, Pine oil, Rosin
soap, Turpentine.
By-Products of the Soda Process Are: Acetic acid, Oxalic acid, Ace-
tone, Plastics, Methyl alcohol, Pure calcium carbonate.
From Limbs, Edgings, Stumps, and Bolts: Dye, Acetate of lime,
Acetone, Columbian spirits, Methylatic spirits, Cedar oils, Pine oil,
Galactan, Acetate acid, Acetone oils, Formaldehyde, Pitch, Dipentene,
Pine tar, Tannin, Acetate anhydride, Charcoal, Methyl acetate, Sodium
acetate, Heptane, Turpentine.
From Sawdust: Wood flour, Fusion, Oxalic acid.
By Wood Hydrolysis from Sawdust: Acetic acid, Carbolic acid, Feed-
ing yeast, Lignin powder, Baking yeast, Carbonic acid, Furfural, Sugars,
Butadiene, Ethyl alcohol, Glycerin, Plastic molding powder.


FLORIDA RECEIVED $1,472,412,000 OF
NATION'S WAR CONTRACTS

War supply and facility contracts awarded in Florida
stood at $1,472,412,000, a cumulated net total, as of July 1,
1945, the research division of the Florida State Chamber
of Commerce stated in its weekly business review.
Gross totals including, in addition to the above, contracts
under $50,000, sub-contracts from other states and
amounts spent for Florida foods, fresh and processed, when
released will be greatly in excess of this July 1 level.
Analysis of the latest report of tabulations by the War
Production Board show a per capital expenditure, at the
July figure, of $654 in Florida as compared with $1,718
per capital, nationally.






30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Florida shipbuilding, fitting, and repairing accounted
for $686,039,000; ordinance for $29,978,000; aircraft for
$7,905,000; and communication equipment for $4,519,000.
Classification of $118,020,000 as "other" covered a wide
variety of unspecified small manufactured items in the
state. Military facilities made up a $555,979,000 of the
total, and new industrial facilities, $69,972,000.
A break-down as of July 1, 1945, by counties shows the
following totals:
Hillsborough, $344,535,000; Duval, $250,431,000; Bay, $143,237,-
000; Dade, $134,227,000; Polk, $101,770,000; Escambia, $78,811,000;
Clay, $45,973,000; Monroe, $45,517,000; Orange, $30,828,000; Oka-
loosa, $29,318,000; Volusia, $26,708,000; Highlands, $22,999,000;
Broward, $19,056,000; Leon, $18,836,000; Lee, $17,607,000; De Soto,
$14,247,000; Palm Beach, $12,990,000; Manatee, $11,011,000; Semi-
nole, $8,513,000; Hendry, $8,368,000; Pinellas, $8,308,000; Indian
River, $8,303,000; Jackson, $8,018,000; Columbia, $7,081,000; Ala-
chua, $6,441,000; Brevard, $6,437,000; Martin, $5,821,000; Marion,
$5,698,000; Gulf, $4,612,000; Sarasota, $3,813,000; Franklin, $3,-
570,000; Collier, $2,902,000; Nassau, $2,831,000; Hernando, $2,339,-
000; St. Lucie, $2,299,000; Wakulla, $2,215,000; Suwanee, $2,180,-
000; Taylor, $2,110,000; Levy, $1,860,000; Dixie, $1,598,000; Putnam,
$1,575,000; Pasco, $1,178,000; Osceola, $1,170,000; Charlotte, $927,-
000; Lake, $654,000; Holmes, $209,000; Citrus, $117,000; Madison,
$104,000; Lafayette, $73,000; St. Johns, $6,000; and unassigned,
$12,981,000.-Industrial Florida.

FLORIDA REBUILT 1300 MILES OF HIGHWAY
DURING THE WAR

Despite labor and material shortages, Florida built or
reconstructed nearly 1,300 miles of roads and bridges on
the State maintained highway system during the war at a
cost of more than $41,000,000.
Much of this money was provided by the Federal gov-
ernment and 140 miles of the road work, mostly new con-
struction, was on access highways to Army and Navy instal-
lations in the State.
Some major links in the highway system were built dur-
ing the war years, however, notably the Overseas Highway






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 31

to Key West and the section of the West Coast Highway
between Chiefland and the Pinellas County line. The con-
struction figure does not include the $3,564,510 paid for
Davis Causeway and the Gandy Bridge which were pur-
chased by the State and made toll free.
In addition to the war time construction and rebuilding
program, the Road Department spent nearly three million
dollars a year on maintaining old highways and bridges.
Even with its war time expenditures, the Road Depart-
ment emerged into peace time with a balance of about
$14,000,000 on hand, and plans for spending about $30,-
000,000 a year on the highway system during the next few
years.-Industrial Florida.







32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF
THE FOREIGN WHITE STOCK, BY NATIVITY,
FOR FLORIDA

(Statistics for the native white population of foreign or mixed parent-
age are based on a tabulation of a 5 percent cross section of the popula-
tion, multiplied uniformly by 20. U. S. Census Report 1940.)


COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
All countries - - -
NORTHWESTERN EUROPE


TOTAL.
FOREIGN
WHITE
STOCK
180,921
55,960


England - - - 19,845
Scotland - - - 5,402
Wales - - - 1,016
Northern Ireland 1,706
Irish Free State (Eric) - 8,491
Norway - - - 2,816
Sweden - - - 6,088
Denmark' - -2,910
Iceland - - - 6
Netherlands 1,583
Belgium -- - - 658
Luxemburg - - - 166
Switzerland - - - 1,760
France - - - 3,513
CENTRAL EUROPE 38,349
Germany - - 24,640
Poland - - - 4,883
Czechoslovakia ---- 1,780
Austria - - - 3,788
Hungary - -- 3,004
Yugoslavia - - 254

EASTERN EUROPE - 15,666
Russia (U. S. S. R.) -- 11,764
Latvia - - - 260
Estonia - - - 84
Lithuania - - - 766
Finland - - - 861
Rumania - - 1,757
Bulgaria - - - 164
Turkey in Europe - - 10


FOREIGN
BORN
69,861
20,180
7,985
2,202
276
486
1,751
1,036
2,548
1,070
6
683
298
66
620
1,153

13,209
7,080
2,003
700
1,828
1,444
154

7,426
5,524
160
44
366
461
817
44
10


NATIVE OF
FOREIGN OR
MIXED
PARENTAGE
111,060
35,780
11,860
3,200
740
1,220
6,740
1,780
3,540
1,840

900
360
100
1,140
2,360

25,140
17,560
2,880
1,080
1,960
1,560
100

8,240
6,240
100
40
400
400
940
120







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 33


COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
SOUTHERN EUROPE
Greece - -
Italy - -
Spain - - -
Portugal - -
OTHER EUROPE -

ASIA -
Palestine - -
Syria - - -
Turkey in Asia - -
OTHER ASIA - -


TOTAL
FOREIGN
WHITE
STOCK
24,923
3,163
12,578
8,988
194
116

3,468
144
2,400
514
410


AMERICA - - 39,048
Canada-French 2,117
Canada-Other - - 17,511
Newfoundland - - 294
Mexico - - - 527
Cuba - - - 12,247
Other West Indies - - 5,449
Central America - 496
South America - - 407

ALL OTHER ----- 3,391
Australia - - 280
Azores - - - 35
Other Atlantic Islands - 235
All other and not reported 2,841


FOREIGN
BORN
10,123
1,643
5,138
3,248
94
56


1,608
64
1,020
294
230

16,748
877
8,491
114
247
4,607
1,889
256
267

511
140
15
55
301


NATIVE OF
FOREIGN OR
MIXED
PARENTAGE
14,800
1,520
7,440
5,740
100
60


1,860
80
1,380
220
180


22,300
1,240
9,020
180
280
7,640
3,500
240
140

2,880
140
20
180
2,540







34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



1945 STATE CENSUS


Table Shows Total for State-Tabulated by Counties
Also Showing 1940 Federal and 1935 State Census


Alachua -
Baker - -
Bay -
Bradford
Brevard -
Broward -
Calhoun -
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay -
Collier
Columbia
Dade - -
DeSoto -
Dixie -
Duval -
Escambia
Flagler -
Franklin
Gadsden -
Gilchrist -
Glades -
Gulf -
Hamilton
Hardee -
Hendry -
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes -
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake -
Lee - -
Leon -
Levy -


1945
38,245
6,326
43,188
10,730
S 19,339
50,442
8,225
4,220
5,427
10,038
4,957
17,139
315,138
6,854
- 4,926
273,843
105,262
2,516
8,026
30,992
3,466
2,281
7,010
8,731
S 8,585
- 5,066
S 5,672
16,220
207,844
14,627
9,079
S 34,509
11,066
3,995
27,946
S 23,593
S 35,451
9,902


1940
38,607
6,510
20,686
8,717
16,142
39,794
8,218
3,663
5,846
6,468
5,102
16,859
267,739
7,792
7,018
210,143
74,667
3,008
5,991
31,450
4,250
2,745
6,951
9,778
10,158
5,237
5,641
9,246
180,148
15,447
8,957
34,428
12,032
4,405
27,255
17,488
31,646
12,550


1935
36,481
7,173
16,828
8,841
14,554
23,042
8,352
3,801
5,599
7,103
4,790
15,382
180,998
8,170
5,853
175,204
56,674
3,179
6,585
26,974
4,174
2,673
3,099
9,791
11,414
3,711
5,522
10,912
159,208
14,449
8,480
35,384
13,617
4,259
28,062
16,351
26,622
12,973







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 35


Liberty -
Madison -
Manatee -
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk -
Putnam -
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota -
Seminole -
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia -
Wakulla -
Walton
Washington

TOTALS


1945
- 3,193
- 15,537
- 26,803
- 35,132
- 6,094
- 19,018
- 10,859
- -16,155
- 2,919
- 86,782
- 10,562
- 112,311
- 13,729
- 130,268
- 112,429
- 17,837
- 21,596
- 12,958
- 15,994
- 19,202
- 24,560
- 11,133
- 17,602
- 10,738
- 6,051
- 58,492
- 5,059
- 13,871
- 11,889

- 2,247,038


1940
3,752
16,190
26,098
31,243
6,295
14,078
10,826
12,900
3,000
70,074
10,119
79,989
13,981
91,852
86,665
18,698
20,012
11,871
16,085
16,106
22,304
11,041
17,073
11,565
7,094
53,710
5,463
14,246
12,302

1,897,414


1935
3,883
17,145
23,061
30,751
5,214
13,354
9,185
11,669
3,484
58,184
9,759
53,194
11,266
64,638
82,184
18,370
17,639
9,044
15,530
13,787
22,192
10,056
16,973
11,142
5,428
50,550
6,083
13,894
12,899

1,606,842






36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA STATE POPULATION
CENSUS 1945
POPULATION OF CITIES & TOWNS AS TO SIZE,
SHOWING RACE & SEX
CITY WHITE COLORED TOTAL
MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE
Jacksonville -67,100 72,280 31,606 35,456 206,442
Miami - - 72,433 81,662 17,477 20,550 192,122
Tampa - 47,378 50,819 12,396 13,883 124,476
St. Petersburg 33,087 40,627 5,206 6,264 85,184
Orlando -- 18,179 18,010 6,927 6,989 50,105
Pensacola - 13,789 15,152 6,425 7,938 43,304
West Palm Beach 13,304 14,702 5,806 6,787 40,599
Miami Beach - 14,992 17,068 46 150 32,256
Lakeland - 11,658 12,782 3,347 3,674 31,461
Daytona Beach 7,916 9,653 3,572 4,170 25,311
Ft. Lauderdale 9,204 10,143 2,676 2,858 24,881
Panama City - 9,571 9,752 2,092 2,499 23,914
Tallahassee - 5,118 6,265 2,834 3,888 18,105
Ft. Myers - 5,542 5,725 1,934 1,997' 15,198
Clearwater - 5,867 6,364 1,315 1,465 15,011
Gainesville- 4,685 5,362 2,179 2,718 14,944
Key West - 6,014 5,750 1,186 1,296 14,246
Sarasota - 4,832 5,235 1,823 1,967 13,857
Sanford - 3,394 2,874 3,160 3,069 12,497
St. Augustine - 4,482 4,797 1,404 1,726 12,409
Bradenton - -4,887 4,784 1,375 1,500 12,146
Lake Worth -4,920 5,445 128 122 10,615
Ocala - 2,654 3,040 2,182 2,366 10,242
Ft. Pierce - 2,580 2,679 2,001 2,222 9,482
Coral Gables - 4,374 4,805 38 33 9,250
Bartow - 3,755 2,896 1,551 1,519 8,721
Plant City - 2,640 2,777 1,305 1,515 8,213
Winter Haven 3,361 3,506 620 622 8,109
Chattahoochee 2,520 3,010 1,238 1,061 7,829
Hollywood - 3,745 3,974 7,719
DcLand - 2,441 2,851 919 1,034 7,245
Palatka - 1,950 2,058 1,332 1,493 6,833
Lake City - 2,229 2,332 979 1,017 6,557
Lake Wales -- 1,878 1,916 1,266 1,150 6,210
Leesburg - 1,807 2,012 981 1,164 5,964
Jacksonville Beach 2,506 2,768 296 373 5,943
Winter Park 1,836 2,199 696 855 5,586
Marianna - 1,832 2,074 718 902 5,586
Quincy - -1,333 1,510 1,101 1,402 5,346
Haines City -- 1,771 1,642 865 854 5,132





FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 37



DOWN SOUTH

By THURMAN SENSING
Syndicated Article

There are thousands of manufactured articles now im-
ported by the south for which the south furnishes the raw
materials. The south should manufacture many of these
articles and can easily place itself in position to do so by
wise use of much of its war-time expansion in plants and
equipment. It would be well, therefore, to analyze this
southern wartime industrial expansion by states and by
character.

The following table shows the war factories in the six-
teen southern states during the past 4 years, giving the num-
ber of plants and the value for each state:


Alabama
Arkansas -
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky -
Louisiana -
Maryland -
Mississippi
Missouri -
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee -
Texas - -
Virginia -
West Virginia


- 142
- 59
- 99
- 133
- 133
- 140
- 184
- 67
- 249
- 83
- 78
- 72
- 156
- 441
- 105
- 95


$ 538,300,000
233,000,000
76,900,000
139,300,000
261,500,000
439,400,000
324,100,000
54,200,000
513,700,000
71,300,000
222,500,000
66,700,000
377,700,000
1,259,000,000
292,000,000
345,900,000


In Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee the
largest value in expansion was for the manufacture of ex-
plosives; the second largest value was for iron and steel
in Alabama, for chemicals in Arkansas, ships in Mississippi,
and nonferrous metals in Tennessee. The largest expan-
sion in Florida, North and South Carolina, and Virginia
was for ships; the second largest in these states was for
food in Florida, explosives in North Carolina and Virginia,






38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

and chemicals in South Carolina. The largest expansion
in Georgia, Maryland, and Oklahoma was for aircraft, fol-
lowed by ships, iron and steel, and explosives respectively.
The largest expansion in Kentucky and Texas was for syn-
thetic rubber, followed by chemicals in Kentucky and
closely by aviation gasoline in Texas. In both Louisiana
and West Virginia the greatest expansion was for chemi-
cals, followed by synthetic rubber; in Missouri it was for
ammunition, followed by aircraft.
The manufacture of such items as guns, ammunition,
and explosives must naturally be almost totally discon-
tinued at the end of the war and the facilities used in their
manufacture will require extensive conversion for peace-
time use. Less than 10 per cent of the expansion in the
manufacture of guns is located in the south but the south
contains 25 per cent of the expansion in the manufacture
of ammunition and 45 per cent of the expansion in the
manufacturing of explosives. Of course, the discoveries
made in manufacturing the atomic bomb, largely devel-
oped in Tennessee, may offer untold possibilities for peace-
time use. The south contains 15 per cent of the nation's
expansion of the manufacture of aircraft and 18 per cent
of the shipbuilding expansion. The south also contains 15
per cent of the expansion in iron and steel products and
25 per cent of the expansion in nonferrous metal produc-
tion, both of which are hopeful developments for the south-
ern region. In two other important fields, namely, machine
tools and electrical equipment, the south still contains only
a negligible percentage of the: nation's total.
The most hopeful development from manufacturing
expansion during the war in the south is in the fields of
synthetic rubber and chemicals. The synthetic rubber in-
dustry is no doubt here to stay and certainly in the field of
chemicals lies perhaps the greatest promise for growth of
new developments of any industrial field. Approximately
80 per cent of the synthetic rubber development is located
in the south, and 55 per cent of the expansion in the chemi-
cal industry is located in the south.






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 39

The south is now in position to make rapid industrial
progress. The slow but steady industrial advancement of
the south during the past few decades has been greatly
accelerated by the exigencies of war. The whole south,
beginning with the communities where they are located,
should make certain that this wartime industrial expansion
is utilized to full advantage in the postwar era.

FLORIDA'S FUTURE
By SIGISMOND DER. DIETTRICH
Professor of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville

Florida's well-being and prosperous future depends upon
numerous conditions, which are: (1) stability of popula-
tion, (2) military and economic demobilization, (3) con-
version of war-type industries for peacetime use, (4) re-
organization and expansion of prewar economic activities,
(5) the economic policy of the Federal Government, (6)
the general level of prosperity in the United States, and
(7) the peace and well-being of the world. These factors
can only be indicated in this study.
The problem of population stability is of paramount
importance. The efficient use of human resources, the size
of the labor force and market, the value and intensity of
land utilization are all intimately tied up with the size and
the rate of population increase. Since the war did not create
new tendencies but only intensified and accelerated decades'
old trends of population growth in Florida the wartime
increases due to immigration is to be considered as a perma-
nent gain. This view is expressed by population authorities
of the U. S. Census, not as official forecasts of the Bureau
but as private opinions in published articles wherein Florida,
especially the metropolitan areas, is classified as having su-
perior prospects of retaining wartime growth.
Demobilization presents a series of issues. First, the
return of the discharged veterans. It was estimated earlier
that approximately 130,000 people will return to civilian
life in Florida. With the low rate of permanent disability


I-






40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

caused by war, practically all of the returning veterans
should be considered as potential members of the labor
force. Thus their return will greatly swell the number of
employables. Second, it involves the discontinuance of
wartime production, which means demobilization of the
labor force engaged in war industries. Since 48% of the
increase in the State's non-agricultural employment was
new employment in munition industries, industrial demo-
bilization will involve about 62,000 workers. Thus at the
completion of this process there will be about 200,000 de-
mobilized job seekers in Florida. In addition to these there
will be employables who just reached the age of employ-
ment and most probably immigrants who, attracted by
the climate and the lure of Florida, will continue to migrate
hither. On the other hand, people beyond their physical
prime who either stayed at their jobs or returned to em-
ployment due to war manpower shortage and those who
are reaching the age of retirement will probably balance
the new employables and at least partially the immigrants.
It is to be expected that there will be a considerable emigra-
tion of people but these will be mostly families of service-
men; thus this emigration will not affect conspicuously
the available labor force. Finally comes the problem of
women in industry. Employment of women in non-war
industries increased by 11% and in munition industries
even higher. The question is twofold: (1) will the demo-
bilized women seek new employment? (2) will the em-
ployed women remain in industrial occupations?
The conversion of war industries is the most difficult
problem. A certain proportion of these may be maintained
with little change for civilian production or repair work.
The major share, however, has to be either converted to
other uses or closed down. Since the munition industries
have been maintained by federal purchases, the cessation
of inflow of federal funds will be of great significance. In
addition to war purchases, federal money paid for civilian
and military pay-rolls. These three combined constituted
57% of the income of Floridians in 1944.






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW


To overcome these difficulties it will be necessary (1) to
intensify and expand agricultural activities along the old
lines and utilize new, improved methods and products,
(2) improve rural housing, transportation, and social con-
ditions to induce settlement in agricultural areas, (3) main-
tain and possibly increase industrialization by (a) conver-
sion of some war industries, (b) expansion of prewar in-
dustries, (c) establishment of new industries, (4) intensi-
fy both (a) forestry and (b) mining industries, (5) ex-
pand the use of fresh and salt water resources, (6) re-estab-
lish full employment in the service industries, (7) by a
carefully planned and coordinated policy increase tourism
and finally (8) by self-restraint, prompted by a long-range
economic interest, prevent the occurrence of a speculative
boo like the one following World War I.
The ar gains in population and in economic resources
coupled w,.~h an intelligently restrained economic policy
can definitely a. sure a prosperous future when the human
and natural resourLes of Florida will be fully utilized for
the maximum benefit\of its people.
\,
A SPECIAL REPORT

FLORIDA'S
PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL PERISHABLES
in Relation, to the
DEVELOPMENT OF AIR FREIGHT
By The United States Department of Agriculture and The Edward S.
Evans Transportation Research of Washington, D. C.
By L. H. BRITTr~
Director, The Edward S. Evans Transportation Research
"A new era is dawning for the transportation of Flor-
ida's perishables to Northern Markets."
"The extensive use of surplus war transport planes as
air-freight carriers will provide over-night delivery and
gentle handling of sun-ripened commodities in northern
markets."






42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

"It is believed that air freight transport will play an
important role in the marketing of sub-tropical and tropi-
cal commodities which do not move in commercial volume
by existing methods of transportation."
"Florida's floricultural commodities will greatly benefit
from this type of service."
Exotic tropical crops from Florida may be sold regularly
in the Northern States when air freight expands.
That probability is suggested in a report made public
recently by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
United States Department of Agriculture and The Edward
S. Evans Transportation Research of Washington, D. C.
The report, "Florida's Production of Agricultural P r-
ishables in Relation to the Development of Air Fr ght,"
is now available for free distribution.
To some extent "air freight" may comp .rNith present
methods of shipping and marketing yfnter fruits, vege-
tables and floricultural commodities,.-
In order to compete successfully with surface-borne
produce the air-borne produce rust be of superior quality.
For example: vine-ripened tomatoes shipped by air may
replace surface-borne green packed tomatoes in northern
markets.
However, air freight may play a much greater role in
the development of highly perishable sub-tropical and
tropical crops and floricultural commodities that are now
shipped out in large volume. Among these are the avocado,
mango, papaya, lychee, loquat, sapodilla, white sapote and
carambola, as well as the gla:diolus, small succulent plants
for potting and many other specialties.
Virtually all varieties of fruits and vegetables produced
in Florida are harvested in quantity within 50 to 75 miles of
Miami and of Plant City. Production in these areas is main-
tained throughout the year, at a steadier volume than in
most of the rest of the State. These cities, therefore, are ex-
amples of desirable air-freight concentration points.







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 43

The report contains detailed tables and charts showing
the production of individual crops by seasons in these areas
and in the entire state.
Much of the data has never been published before.
In the initial development of air transportation of per-
ishables it is highly desirable that air-freight concentration
points be located in intensive fruit and vegetable producing
areas as well as in areas where the seasonal variation in pro-
duction is at a m, in imum.t


\\
-S.






44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



FUTURE POSSIBILITIES IN FLORIDA

VOLUME ONE

CONTENTS

These Bulletins may be had upon request.
PAGE
The Carob Tree - - --------96
Coffee Is Grown From Seeds Here - - - - 99
Coffee Bush Ten Feet High in Bloom Found in Fort Lauderdale - 100
Scrub Palmetto May Move Into Defense Pictures Soon - 102
Bamboo Ski Poles for Fighting Yanks Sent to Far North Being
Manufactured in Ococc - - - - 10/
J. J. Williams, Boynton Beach, Showing Profit With Mangoes - i
Florida's Small Indusnry Turns Production to Goods for War Use, 107
Commercial Vegetable Dehydration Opens New Field -A 109
$1,500,000 Vegetable Dehydration Plant to Be Built Near..jrlando 111
Lignin- - - ---- -112
Reopening Shark Plant Approved - 113
High Powered Orange Juice - -- - - 115
New Lake Alfred Plant to Produce Alcoiol and Molasses from
Citrus - - ------117
Citrus Concentrate - - - 119
Lactic Acid Is Made from Grapefrui. Juice - - - 120
Announce Plans for $200,000 Citrus By-Product Plant - 121
Gainesville Scientist Finds Value of Pliofilm - -- - 122
Miami Chemist Finds Pine Tree Gium Can Yield Rubber Base - 124
Russian Dandelions Are Cultivatld as Source of Rubber - 126
Florida Growers Study Plans for Ersatz Rubber - - 126
Seeds for Rubber Experiment Coming - - - 127
Rubber from the Everglades' - - - - 128
The Plastics Are Coming- - - - - - 129
Frozen Citrus Juice May Be Put on Market after the War -- 130
Rotenoid Poisons -- - - - - - 132
Extension Possibilities Are Cited by Ware - - - 133
At Least $75,000 Worth of Coconuts in Lee County in the '43 Crop 134
How They Cleared $20,000 in Year Is Related by Two 'Glades
Farm Boys - - - - 134
Guavas Have Richest Source of Vitamin C - - - 137
Scientists Growing Plants in Florida for South American Use - 139
Florida Plant May Furnish "Stickum" for New Stamps - 141
Notice to Farmers (Concerning Blue Lupine) -- - 142
Grady Baggett Sells 1581 Pounds Blue Lupine Seed -- -143
Pigeon Pea Seen as "Readjustment" Crop for State -- - -144






FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 45

PAGE
Improving Nature's Processes - 147
RAF Marshal Cites Value of Orange Juice 148
New Industry Is Seen for Florida in Local Hybiscus -- 149
Snakeproof Grass Ought to Be Popular All Over Florida -- 150
We Waste What Others Eat 4
Advise Planting of Tropical Gooseberry as Vitamin Source 8
Many Types of Seeds Will Be Produced by 'Glades Farmers - 9
Lowly Florida Guava Will Be Glamorized for Public Use 10
,DeerTongue ---------11
Okaloosa Plans Harvesting of Blueberry Crop - - 11
Sugar Cane --------13
Green Pigeon Peas Could Be Half Million Dollar a Year Florida Crop 15
Paprika-a New American Crop - 17
Florida's Flower Farms 19
Horticulturist Says New Uses Found for Papayas 20
'lew Bean Developed (Logan) 21
Tue..-Oil Meal Use Reported 22
Castor kean Production in Florida - 23
Coconut Markets Listed by Chamber 23
Sweet Potatoe 24
Florida Lemon Gl.as Oil Now in Full Production 25
Sugar Firm to Fatten 6,000 Feeder Steers 28
Volusia Cattlemen Planting Sorghum for Stock Feed ----29
Kudzu and Sericea Makes Good Live Stock Pasture --- -- 29
Revival of Pineapple Industry to Former Multi-Million Dollar
Status Forecast Soon -- 31
All from the Little Soy Bean - 33
Two New Ideas for Florida Farmers -- 36
New Soil Tests Boon to Florida Farmers - - 37
Agricultural Research 39
Plant Fibers in Wartime - 52
Roselle- ------- 63
Production of Roselle 74
Ramie --------78
Flax Production 80
Sansevieria Bowstring Hemp - 81
Bromelia Sylvestris Wild Pineapple 81
Pineapple Fibre 83
Urena Lobara Florida Jute - 84
Agava Sisalana Sisal Hemp Henequen PlInt 84
Indian Mallow - 85
Bear Grass - - - 85
Agava Mexicana - 85
Spanish Bayonet or Yucca Palm - - - -- - 85
Palmetto - 86
Okra --- ------ 86






46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


PAGE
Cotton- - - - - - - - - 86
Pine Leaves-- - - ---- 87
Station Experiments with Fibre Plants - - - - 87
Palm Tree Fibre - - - - -------88-
New Textile Plant for Florida - - - - - 88
Wealth Is Seen in Fiber Crops of Everglades - - - 90
Uses of Tung Oil- - - --- - --- 90
Industrial Oil that Grows at the River's Edge (Oiticica) - 92







FLORIDA TODAY AND TOMORROW 47




FUTURE POSSIBILITIES IN FLORIDA


VOLUME TWO

CONTENTS


These Bulletins may be had upon request.


Information on Florida -
Leading Income-Yielding Crops
Post-War Florida -- --
New Uses for Palmetto -
Uses of Soy Bean - - -
New Sorghum Syrup -
New Plastics from Starch -
Nev Crops for the Glades -
Ceramics in Florida -
Pyrethrur, -
Victory Over Insects -
Tanning in FlorAi.a -
Lime Flavoring .
Citrus Research - N- -
Chemo-Plastics - -
Clover and Tung Oil -
Guayule Rubber Plant -,
Synthetic Rubber -
New Grapefruit - -
Mildew Resisting Bean -
Florida Farmers Owe Least -
Dehydration in Florida -
Florida's 1944 Farm Crop -
New Florida's Citrus Juicing Plant
Florida Citrus Canneries -
Cork Oak Plantings in Florida -
Balsa 'Wood in Florida -
Mahogany Wood in Florida -
Candlenut Oil - -
Silk Worms in the South -
Cherimoya in Florida -
Karakul Sheep - -
Florida Drug Plants - -
Florida and Latin America -
Sweet Potato Stock Feeds -
Florida and Sugar Industry -
Citrus Pilot Plant


- N-


S- -- -







\
\






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\
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PAGE
7
7
8
11
16
19
21
22
25
32
- 33
48
50
58
64
70
76
- 79
80
- 83
- 84
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- 91
- 95
- 96
- 99
- 103
- 105
- 106
- 108
- 113

- 116
- 124
- 127
- 130
- 134






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


New Fruits Developed -
By-Products of Citrus -
Agar-Agar Production in Florida -
Shoe and Shire Factories in Florida -
Farewell to Cattle Ticks -----
DDT and the Mosquito -
Medicinal Properties of Florida Fruits -


Pigeon Peas - -
Florida Vegetable Crops - - -
Chinese Lychee Fruit - - - -
Elderberries Commercially - -
Lumbering in Florida - -
Live Stock Pavilions in Florida -
Wooden Shoes in Florida - - -
Florida Grasses -
Fiber Alloys -
Tobacco in Florida -
Dithane Increases Potato Yields -
Miami as an Overseas Airport -
Toxic and Non-Toxic Legumes -
Electronic Tubes Equipment -
Two Million Dollar Shark Industry -
Citrus Dehydration - -- -
Miami's New Industry - -
Long-Range Cattle Development -
Pangola Grass - --- ----
Why Paint Manufacturers Should Lokate in Florida -
Florida's Mineral Pigments - -
Florida's Mineral Industry - -
Shell Industry in Florida - - -


PAGE
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146-147
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- 74
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--. 180
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192
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