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Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Title: A List of Florida fishes and their distribution
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002267/00001
 Material Information
Title: A List of Florida fishes and their distribution
Series Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Physical Description: 224-318 p. : maps, tables. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Briggs, John C ( John Carmon )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Fishes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 302-316.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002267
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2644
notis - ACK0922
alephbibnum - 000440456
oclc - 05069150
lccn - a 58009521 //r

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Full Text



BULLETIN

OF THE


FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES


Volume 2


Number 8


A LIST OF FLORIDA FISHES AND THEIR
DISTRIBUTION

John C. Briggs


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


Gainesville


1958







The numbers of THE BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM,
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, will be published at irregular intervals. Volumes
will contain about 300 pages and will not necessarily be completed in any one
calendar year.



















WILLIAM J. RIEMER, Editor
ROLAND F. HUSSEY, Associate Editor





















All communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publication should
be addressed to the Curator of Biological Sciences, Florida State Museum, Seagle
Building, Gainesville, Florida. Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor of the
BULLETIN, Flint Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


Published 12 March 1958


Price for this issue $1.29








A LIST OF FLORIDA FISHES AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION

JOHN C. BRIGGS 1

SYNOPSIS: The fish fauna of Florida is far richer than that of any comparable
area in North or Central America. The 1,120 species which occur in Florida
waters represent approximately one-fourth the number of species recorded for the
entire northern portion of the Western Hemisphere. Seventy-four of these ap-
parently have a worldwide (circumtropical) distribution, while eighty-five have
been taken only from Florida waters.
More fish species occupy the marine shore zone than are found in all other
habitats combined. This shore fauna has a great deal in common with that of
the West Indies, South America, and Bermuda, perhaps more than with.the rest of
North America. The surprising number of Florida shore species that range to the
eastern Atlantic indicates a closer relationship to that area than was previously sus-
pected.
The Florida Keys contain the greatest variety of fishes in the state. The ma-
jority of the mainland forms occur in the Keys, and, in addition, approximately
135 species that inhabit the Keys do not occur on the mainland. A distinct differ-
ence is present between the Gulf and Atlantic coast faunas with the former being
a good deal richer in number of species. There is also a clear indication of a
faunal difference between the northeastern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico.
The rich freshwater fish fauna of the other southeastern states has been able
to penetrate Florida to but a limited extent; almost all of those species present
belong to six families of which the Cyprinodontidae, Centrarchidae, and Ictaluri-
dae have been the most successful invaders.
A systematic list provides information about the range, habitat, and common
name of each species. A bibliography includes those references necessary for the
identification of Florida freshwater, euryhaline, and marine shore fishes.




"I truly believe that in the sea there is
an abundance of infinitely admirable things,
whereof God alone hath knowledge."

Laurent Vital in Voyage de
Charles Quint, 1518.






SThe author, an Assistant Professor of Biological Sciences, University of Flor-
ida, is currently on leave of absence as a Research Associate in the Department
of Anatomy, College of Medicine, on this campus. He is also an Associate of the
Florida State Museum and a Research Associate of the George Vanderbilt Founda-
tion of Stanford University. Manuscript submitted 19 June 1957.-ED.








224 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 2





TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction. . 225

Terminology 232

Acknowledgments. . 232

Classification 233

General distribution. . 235

Distribution of the shore fishes. . 237

Local distribution 241

Shore fishes . 241

Freshwater fishes .. 244

Euryhaline fishes ... 246

Systematic list of Florida fishes 247

Bibliography .. 302

Major works .. 302

Other books and papers. 304

Literature cited . 315

Index to orders and families. 317




LIST OF TABLES

Ecological analysis of the Florida fish fauna . 226

Florida species with a worldwide (circumtropical) distribution . 234

Endemic Florida species. . 235

Principal families of Florida shore fishes and their distribution in the
western Atlantic. . 239

Marine shore fishes inhabiting the northeastern, but not the northwestern
part of the Gulf of Mexico 242






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


INTRODUCTION
The fish fauna of Florida is far richer than that of any comparable
area in North or Central America. The 1,120 species which occur in
Florida waters represent approximately one-fourth the number of
species recorded for the entire northern portion of the Western Hemi-
sphere. To ichthyologists this has been a rewarding area since the
days of Mark Catesby who, in 1743, completed publication of the first
scientific treatise dealing with the Florida fauna: "The natural history
of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands; containing the figures of
birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, and plants, etc."
One might assume that the 214 years subsequent to Catesby's work
would provide sufficient time for the Florida fishes to become relatively
well known. However, a glance at the recent ichthyological literature
is enough to dispel any doubts about the matter. New and important
information along such lines as life history, behavior, morphology, and
ecology is constantly being disseminated; distributional records are
still being reported; and new species are still being described. For
the modern worker, then, Florida waters continue to hold the fascina-
tion that is provided by a great wealth of research material. Perhaps
another 214 years must pass before the fishes of this area can be said
to be "well known."
The most recent work which attempts a listing of all the Florida
species is the checklist of the North and Middle American fishes writ-
ten by Jordan, Evermann, and Clark (1930). In addition to its original
faults, this work is now far out of date, for the ensuing 27 years have
brought a fair amount of revisionary work plus a veritable rash of
minor collection reports and faunal lists.
The purpose of this paper is to present an accurate portrayal of
the fish fauna in the Florida area primarily to help clarify the zoogeo-
graphic relationship of Florida waters with adjacent areas. A sec-
ondary purpose is an examination of the fish distribution on a local
scale with an ecological analysis of each family (table 1). Also, the
opportunity is taken to present a bibliography which lists those books
and papers necessary for the identification of Florida fishes. This is
intended particularly for students who are in the process of becoming
acquainted with the Florida fauna.
Since this is a distributional list instead of a checklist in the usual
sense (where only specimens taken and identified from a certain area,
could be considered), the inclusion of a name does not necessarily
mean that individuals of that species have actually been captured in
Florida waters. For example, there are a few cases where apparently







226 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 2

TABLE 1

ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA FISH FAUNA




Family a .




1. Branchiostomidae 1 1
2. Epigonichthyidae 1 1 2
3. Myxinidae --- 1 -
4. Petromyzonidae 1 1 2
5. Hexanchidae 2 1 3
6. Carchariidae 1 1
7. Isuridae --- 2 2
8. Alopiidae 2 2
9. Orectolobidae 1 1
10. Rhineodontidae 1 1
11. Scyliorhinidae 3 3
12. Traikidae --- 2 2
13. Carcharhinidae 11 4 1 2 18
14. Sphyrnidae -- 4 4
15. Squalidae ---- 1 1 8 10
16. Squatinidae - 1 1
17. Pristidae 2 2
18. Rhinobatidae ---- 1 1
19. Torpedinidae 2 1 8
20. Rajidae --- 6 6 12
21. Dasyatidae -- 4 4
22. Gymnuridae -2 2
23. Urolophidae -1 1
24. Myliobatidae 3 3
25. Rhinopteridae 1 1
26. Mobulidae --- 2 2
27. Chimaeridae --- 1 1
28. Acipenseridae - 2 2
29. Lepisosteidae --.-- 2 2 4
30. Amiidae --- 1 1
31. Elopidae -------- 1 1
32. Megalopidae --- 1 1
33. Albulidae -1 1
34. Clupeidae 9 12 21
35. Engraulidae 6 2 8
36. Alepocephalidae 2 4 6
37. Argentinidae -- 3 -- 3


(continued)







1958 BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES 227

TABLE 1-(Continued)

ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA FISH FAUNA




Family




38. Astronesthidae 1 1
39. Stomiatidae -- 1 -- 1
40. Melanostomiatidae .- 13 -- 13
41. Idiacanthidae __..-- 1 1
42. Malacosteidae 5 5
43. Chauliodontidae 2- 2
44. Sternoptychidae _-- 16 16
45. Umbridae ----- 1 1
46. Esocidae 2 2
47. Aulopidae ---_- 1 1
48. Chlorophthalmidae 3 -
49. Synodontidae --_ 7 -- 7
50. Ipnopidae ____-- _- 1 1
51. Bathypteroidae 4 4
52. Myctophidae --.... 23 23
53. Alepisauridae .---- 1 1
54. Paralepidae ---- 4 4
55. Cetomimidae ___ -- -- 1 1
56. Ateleopidae 1 1
57. Eurypharyngidae -1 1
58. Ariidae ----- 2 2
59. Ictaluridae --- - 8 8
60. Catostomidae .... 7 7
61. Cyprinidae --- 20 20
62. Anguillidae ----_ 1 1
63. Serrivomeridae --_ 1 1
64. Nemichthidae ---_ 2 2
65. Synaphobranchidae 2 2
66. Nettastomidae -.-- 1 1
67. Congridae --- -- 7 5 12
68. Dysomminidae .... 1 1
69. Muraenidae 7 7
70. Ophichthidae --.- 17 1 18
71. Dysommidae ----- 1 1
72. Halosauridae --..-. -- 3 -
73. Notacanthidae .__- 1 1
74. Belonidae ---5 2 7


(continued)







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM

TABLE 1-(Continued)

ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA FISH FAUNA


Family


75. Scomberesocidae _
76. Hemirhamphidae
77. Exocoetidae --
78. Cyprinodontidae
79. Poeciliidae --
80. Aphredoderidae ---
81. Syngnathidae ------
82. Aulostomidae ------
83. Fistulariidae ._.--.-
84. Centriscidae --
85. Macrouridae -
86. Moridae
87. Bregmacerotidae
88. Gadidae
89. Lampridae
90. Stylephoridae -----
91. Lophotidae
92. Trachipteridae
93. Regalecidae
94. Stephanoberycidae
95. Polymixiidae
96. Diretmidae --
97. Trachichthyidae
98. Anoplogastridae --.-
99. Melamphaidae
100. Holocentridae --
101. Zeidae -----
102. Grammicolepidae
103. Antigoniidae
104. Serranidae
105. Centrarchidae
106. Percidae
107. Priacanthidae .-----
108. Apogonidae
109. Malacanthidae
110. Pomatomidae --
111. Rachycentridae -


*Eaj -





1 1
5 5
6 7 13
10 11 21
5 5
S- 1 1
18 1 2 21
1 1
1 1
2 2
21 21
7 7
2 2
2 4 6
1 1
1 1
2 2
3 3
1 1
1 1
- 1 1
- 1 1
- 1 1
- 1 1
- 2 2
7 7

- 1 1
- 2 2
57 1 58
- 23 28
- 11 11
3 3
12 5 17
5 5
- 1 1
1 1


(continued)


Vol. 2








BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES

TABLE 1-(Continued)

ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA FISH FAUNA


J4.~
0 0
nI I) P
Vi C :~


112. Carangidae
113. Coryphaenidae ---..
114. Bramidae
115. Centropomidae -
116. Lutjanidae --
117. Pomadasyidae -
118. Lobotidae --
119. Leiognathidae -
120. Sciaenidae -
121. Mullidae ---
122. Sparidae ----
123. Pempheridae -
124. Kyphosidae
125. Ephippidae --
126. Chaetodontidae ----
127. Pomacentridae -....
128. Labridae
129. Scaridae ---
130. Percophididae ------
131. Acanthuridae .---..
132. Uranoscopidae
133. Dactyloscopidae
134. Gempylidae ----- -.
135. Trichiuridae --- -
136. Scombridae--
137. Luvaridae .-----.... _
138. Xiphiidae .....-----.
139. Istiophoridae ---
140. Eleotridae ----------
141. Gobiidae --------------......
142. Callionymidae ----
143. Opisthognathidae
144. Blenniidae
145. Clinidae -----
146. Microdesmidae
147. Brotulidae ---
148. Ophidiidae --------


26 -



























1 6 -
2 - -
3 - -
- 3
- 2
- 1
1 - -











- 3
- 6
- 3









-- 2 -I



-
1 6 -
1 2 -
13 -
1 - -
1 - -

- - 4
- 10
- 1 -






- 1 -


(continued)


Family








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM

TABLE 1-(Continued)

ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA FISH FAUNA


Family


149. Carapidae
150. Nomeidae -
151. Stromateidae
152. Tetragonuridae
153. Sphyraenidae --.-
154. Mugilidae --
155. Atherinidae
156. Polynemidae
157. Steinegeriidae
158. Scorpaenidae
159. Peristediidae
160. Triglidae
161. Dactylopteridae
162. "Cottidae --
163. Batrachoididae -
164. Gobiescocidae
165. Bothidae
166. Pleuronectidae
167. Soleidae
168. Cynoglossidae
169. Echeneidae
170. Triacanthidae ---
171. Balistidae
172. Aluteridae
173. Ostraciidae
174. Tetraodontidae
175. Canthigasteridae
176. Diodontidae
177. Molidae
178. Lophiidae
179. Antennaridae -
180. Chaunacidae
181. Ogcocephalidae --
182. Melanocetidae
183. Oneirodidae
184. Ceratiidae -


TOTALS


I o .a 4


1 .. Q





4 1 5
5 2 7- - 7

4 4


2 12
--- 1 1
15 3 18

4 5 9
2 5 27

2




-- 1
2 - 1 8
34 5 8

7 1 1
15 3 1
5 5
2 2
20 2 5 27
2 2

7 2 1 10
S 4 1 5
1 1
8 -- 8
11 11
4 -- 4
9 9
1 1

3 3

4 1 1 6
1 1
6 1 7
2 2
1 1
2 2


603 110 103 118 98 88 1,120


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


reliable records exist for a species from the mainland north of Florida
and also from localities in the West Indies or along the South Ameri-
can coast. Some deep water species have been included which are
apparently widespread in the North Atlantic and, in addition, have
been taken somewhere in the Gulf of Mexico, but not off the Florida
coast. In both cases, the names of such species have been added to
the list because of the inference that a continuous population would
extend into Florida waters.


Figure 1.-Florida waters as delimited for use with this work.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Florida waters (fig. 1) have been arbitrarily defined as that area
lying east of a line extending from the western boundary of Florida
at.about 8730' longitude due south to 280 latitude; thence east of
86 longitude, south to 240 latitude; thence north of a line extending
eastward midway between the Tortugas Islands and Cuba into the
Straits of Florida where it curves northward; and thence west of a
line extending north halfway between the Florida mainland and the
nearest of the Bahama Islands. North of the Little Bahama Bank,
the boundary again leads eastward to the 780 longitude line and then
due north to a point opposite the northern border of Florida at about
latitude 30040'. Florida fresh waters are all those lying within the
political boundaries of the state.

Terminology
In most instances it was possible to place each of the species in the
proper habitat category without much difficulty. However, with the
extremely rare fishes, or even with some that are considered fairly com-
mon but happen to have poorly known life histories, the decision was
made with more difficulty. In many such instances the habitat could
only be surmised from evidence based upon the occurrence of closely
related forms.
The "shore" species are found in those waters that overlie the con-
tinental shelf where the depth is less than 200 meters (109 fathoms).
"Pelagic" fishes generally inhabit the surface layers of water-
depths of less than 200 meters-in the offshore regions usually beyond
the limits of the continental shelf. Species inhabiting the offshore
waters below 200 meters, but not including the sea bottom, are in the
"bathypelagic" zone. The benthicc" forms are bottom fishes found
at depths greater than 200 meters. "Euryhaline" fishes are those that
exhibit a broad salinity tolerance, usually being found in brackish
waters. The "freshwater" category includes species that habitually
occupy freshwater even though some may have a certain tolerance
for moderate salinities.

Acknowledgments
In order that this list might be made as complete as possible before
publication was undertaken, a typed preliminary version was dupli-
cated in October 1956, and distributed to ichthyologists who were
working on Florida species or who had a general interest in western
North Atlantic fishes. Accompanying this manuscript list was a letter
requesting corrections and additions. I was most gratified to have


Vol. 2






1958 BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES 233

the benefit of aid from the following: Richard H. Backus, Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institution; Frederick H. Berry, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service; James E. Bihlke, Philadelphia Academy of Natural
Sciences; Harvey Bullis and David K. Caldwell, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service; Eugenie Clark, Cape Haze Marine Laboratory; Charles F.
Cole, Cornell University; Wilbur I. Follett, California Academy of
Sciences; Marion Grey, Chicago Natural History Museum; Gordon
Gunter, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory; Robert R. Harry, Stanford
University; Earl S. Herald, California Academy of Sciences; Thomas
R. Hellier, University of Florida; Henry H. Hildebrand, Veracruz,
Mexico; Giles W. Mead, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Luis R. Rivas,
University of Miami; C. Richard Robins, University of Miami; William
C. Schroeder, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Leonard P.
Schultz, U.S. National Museum; Stewart Springer, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service; Victor Springer, University of Texas; Donald P. de-
Sylva, Cornell University; Gerard W. Teague, Washington, D. C.;
Vladimir Walters, American Museum of Natural History; Ralph W.
Yerger, Florida State University.

Classification
Due to the wide variation one finds in modern schemes of classifi-
cation, it seems worthwhile to identify the principal sources of infor-
mation which led to the adoption of the terminology and sequence
presented in this paper. At the present time the monumental series,
"Fishes of the western North Atlantic," has covered all the groups of
cartilaginous fishes. The classification given by Bigelow and Far-
fante (1948) and Bigelow and Schroeder (1948, 1954) in their careful
work has been followed except for the arrangement of the family
Carcharhinidae, which was modified in accordance with the system
of Springer (1950).
The activities of the Committee on Fish Classification of the Amer-
ican Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists have resulted in the
production of two notable, but unpublished, studies of the primitive
bony fishes. The Isospondyli were investigated by N. J. Wilimovsky
in 1951, and the Iniomi by R. R. Harry in the following year. The
thoughtful conclusions of these investigators are generally followed.
The limits of the isospondylus families Argentinidae and Sternoptychi-
dae have been expanded to conform with the views of Hubbs (1953).
With the exception of the Apodes, the Anacanthini, and the Plec-
tognathi, the general arrangement of the remainder of the teleost
groups is essentially that of Regan (1929). As Myers and Storey (1956)







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 2

FLORIDA SPECIES WITH A WORLDWIDE (CIRCUMTROPICAL) DISTRIBUTION


Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre)
Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus)
Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre)
Rhineodon typus Smith
Galeocerdo cuvieri (Lesueur)
Prionace glauca (Linnaeus)
Carcharhinus limbatus (Miiller and
Henle)
Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus)
Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus)
Squalus fernandinus Molina
Aetobatis narinari Euphrasen
Manta birostris (Walbaum)
Albula vulpes (Linnaeus)
Stomias affinis Giinther
Photonectes margarita (Goode and
Bean)
Idiacanthus fasciola Peters
Cyclothone microdon (Giinther)
Sternoptyx diaphana Hermann
Argyropelecus afinis Garman
Valenciennellus tripunctulatus
(Esmark)
Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin)
Eurypharynx pelecanoides Vaillant
Neoscopelus macrolepidotus Johnson
Diogenichthys laternatus (Garman)
Diogenichthys atlanticus (Thning)
Gonichthys coccoi (Cocco)
Centrobranchus nigroocellatus
(Giinther)
Myctophum affine (Liitken)
Notolychnus valdiviae Brauer
Diaphus gemellari (Cocco)
Diaphus rafinesquei (Cocco)
Diaphus dumerili (Bleeker)
Notoscopelus elongatus (Costa)
Macrorhamphosus scolopax (Linnaeus)
Macrorhamphosus gracilis (Lowe)
Gadomus longifilis (Goode and Bean)
Antimora rostrata Giinther


Lampris regius (Bonnaterre)
Stylephorus chordatus Shaw
Lophotus capellei Temminck and
Schlegel
Trachipterus cristataus Bonelli *
Trachipterus polystictus Ogilby *
Regalecus glesne (Ascanius)
Anoplogaster cornuta Valenciennes
Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus)
Rachycentron canadus (Linnaeus)
Elagatis bipinnulatus (Quoy and
Gaimard)
Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus)
Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch)
Caranx hippos (Linnaeus)
Caranx lugubris (Poey)
Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus
Coryphaena equisetis Linnaeus
Brama brama (Bonnaterre)
Ruvettus pretiosus Cocco
Gempylus serpens Cuvier
Acanthocybium solanderi (Cuvier)
Auxis thazard (Lac6pBde)
Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus)
Thunnus obesus Lowe
Thunnus alalunga (Gmelin)
Xiphias gladius Linnaeus
Tetragonurus atlanticus Lowe
Mugil cephalus Linnaeus
Remora remora (Linnaeus)
Phtheirichthys lineatus (Menzies)
Remoropsis brachyptera (Lowe)
Alutera scripta (Osbeck)
Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus
Mola mola (Linnaeus)
Melanocetus johnsoni Giinther
Ceratias holboelli Kroyer
Cryptopsaras couesi Gill
TOTAL 74


* New, but as yet unpublished, generic names are in press.


Vol. 2






1958 BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES 235

have pointed out, the system of Berg (1940) is to a large extent a re-
capitulation of Regan's work, though often with different emphasis,
nomenclature, and excessive splitting. The conclusions of Gosline
(1952), and the suggestions of J. E. Bohlke (personal communication)
have been helpful in selecting an arrangement for the order Apodes.
The work of Svetovidov (1948) on the Anacanthini has been followed.
The relationships of the Plectognathi have been nicely worked out by
Breder and Clark (1947) and Clark and Gohar (1953). Their recom-
mendations for this group seem preferable to the less conservative
views of Fraser-Brunner (a series of papers in the Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,
1935-1943).
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION
The range of each species in the list has been carefully investigated
so that the completed work could be used to give some idea of the
affinities of the Florida fish fauna with that of other areas. It was sur-
prising to find that a total of 74 species (table 2) apparently have a
worldwide (circumtropical) distribution. Since only 105 species of
fishes in the world are known to be this widespread (I have compiled
a manuscript list of these), it can be seen that 70.5 percent of them
occur in Florida waters. As would be expected, the great majority are
either pelagic or bathypelagic.
In contrast to the fishes that are widely distributed, there are 85
species that, so far, have been taken only from Florida waters (table
3). Of these, the great majority-63 species or 74.2 percent-are shore
forms, many of them not well known. The 22 nonshore species occur
as follows: seven freshwater, eight benthic, four bathypelagic, and
three euryhaline.
TABLE 3
ENDEMIC FLORIDA SPECIES

Paramyxine springeri Bigelow and Verma kendalli Gilbert
Schroeder Ophichthus guttifer Bean and Dresel
Mustelus norrisi Springer Ophichthus retropinnis Eigenmann
Raja teevani Bigelow and Schroeder Callechelys muraena Jordan and
Harengula pensacolae floridana Rivas Evermann
Conocara macdonaldi Goode and Bean Callechelys perryae Storey
Talismania antillarum Goode and Bean Gordiichthys irretitus Jordan and
Bathylagus sp. Davis
Hybopsis harper subterranea Hubbs Gordiichthys springeri Ginsburg
and Crowe Lucania goodei Jordan

(continued)







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 3-(Continued)

ENDEMIC FLORIDA SPECIES


Fundulus seminolis Girard
Cyprinodon hubbsi Carr
Floridichthys carpio carpio (Giinther)
Gambusia sp.
Syngnathus floridae subsp.
Syngnathus floridae mackayi
(Swain and Meek)
Syngnathus sp.
Oxygadus occa (Goode and Bean)
Bregmaceros cayorum Nichols
Dermatolepis zanclus Evermann and
Kendall
Hypoplectrus gemma Goode and Bean
Hypoplectrus puella (Cuvier)
Mycteroperca phenax Jordan and
Swain
Mycteroperca xanthosticta (Jordan and
Swain)
Prionodes nigropunctatus Hildebrand
Pronotogrammus aureorubens Longley
Pseudogrammus brederi (Hildebrand)
Serranus beta Hildebrand
Serranus tortugarum Longley
Micropterus notius Bailey and Hubbs
Micropterus sp.
Micropterus salmoides floridanus
(Lesueur)
Apogon planifrons Longley and
Hildebrand
Apogon quadrisquamatus Longley
Apogonichthys alutus (Jordan and
Gilbert)
Synagrops spinosa Schultz
Vacuoqua sialis (Jordan and
Eigenmann)
Holacanthus townsendi (Nichols and
Mowbray)
Acanthurus randalli Briggs and
Caldwell
Barbulifer ceuthoecus (Jordan and
Gilbert)
Bathygobius curacao lepidopoma
Ginsburg
Bollmannia jeannae Fowler
Gobiosoma longipala Ginsburg


Gobulus myersi Ginsburg
Microgobius carri Fowler
Microgobius microlepis Longley and
Hildebrand
Rhinogobius eigenmanni (Garman)
Callionymus bairdi Jordan
Callionymus calliurus Eigenmann and
Eigenmann
Opisthognathus fasciatum Longley
Acanthemblemaria erythrops (Fowler)
Emblemaria piratula Ginsburg and
Reid
Emblemariopsis diaphana Longley
Hemiemblemaria simulus Longley and
Hildebrand
Enneapterygius pectoralis Fowler
Paraclinus marmoratus (Steindachner)
Microdesmus floridanus (Longley)
Porogadus catena (Goode and Bean)
Lepophidium jeannae Fowler
Ophidion beani Jordan and Gilbert
Membras martinica vagrans
(Goode and Bean)
Menidiella conchorum (Hildebrand
and Ginsburg)
Steinegeria rubescens Jordan and
Evermann
Scorpaenodes floridae Hildebrand
Scorpaena microlepis Gunter
Peristedion spiniger Longley and
Hildebrand
Peristedion taeniopterum Fowler
Peristedion thompsoni Fowler
Peristedion macgintyi Fowler
Prionotus grisescens Teague
Prionotus salmonicolor Fowler
Prionotus vanderbilti Teague
Opsanus vandeuseni Fowler
Opsanus pardus (Goode and Bean)
Achirus comifer Jordan and Gilbert
Symphurus parvus Ginsburg
Fowlerichthys floridanus Barbour
Ogcocephalus macgintyi Fowler
Oneirodes bradburyae Grey
TOTAL 85


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Distribution of the Shore Fishes
To the zoogeographer, the littoral or shore region of the tropics
is often the most interesting, for here is concentrated the greatest
wealth of animal life. This is particularly true of those areas in which
coral growth is abundant. Jordan (1901, p. 566) drew attention to
such regions in respect to the distribution of fishes:
The coral reefs of the tropics are the centers of fish-life, the cities in fish econ-
omy. The fresh waters, the arctic waters, the deep sea and the open sea, represent
forms of ichthyic backwoods, regions where change goes on more slowly, and in
them we find survivals of archaic or generalized types. For this reason, the study
in detail of the distribution of marine fishes of equatorial regions is in the highest
degree instructive.
In Florida more fish species occupy the marine shore zone than are
found in all the other habitats combined. When the distributions of
these 603 shore forms are analyzed according to current knowledge,
some interesting information is afforded about faunal affinities: 63
species or 10.4 percent are endemic, 137 or 22.7 percent range along
the North American mainland either to the north along the Atlantic
coast or to the west along the Gulf coast, 178 or 29.5 percent reach
Bermuda, 407 or 67.5 percent extend to the West Indies, 258 or 42.8
percent have been recorded from the South American coast, 97 or 16.1
percent reach the shores of the eastern Atlantic, 20 or 3.3 percent are
found in the eastern Pacific, 16 or 2.6 percent extend to the western
Pacific, and 10 or 1.7 percent are circumtropical in distribution.
Although other writers have noted the tropical nature of the Florida
shore fauna, there has been no previous attempt at any quantitative
evaluation of the relationship to other areas. While the figures given
as the result of the foregoing analysis will certainly undergo minor
changes in future years, they should continue to provide a good basis
for some general zoogeographic conclusions. It is obvious that the
shore fish fauna has a great deal in common with that of the West In-
dies, South America, and Bermuda, perhaps more than with that of
the United States mainland to the north or west.
The surprising number of Florida shore species (97) that range to
the eastern Atlantic indicates a closer relationship to that area than
was previously suspected. In comparison there is only a distant affin-
ity to the fauna of the Indian Ocean, and western and eastern Pacific.
In this regard it is interesting to note that of the 16 species that reach
the western Pacific most of them (10) continue on across this ocean to
establish a circumtropical range.
Additional information of value becomes apparent when the distri-
bution of the largest families of shore fishes is considered. The Ser-











































Figure 2.-Distribution of the family Ser-
ranidae in the western Atlantic. The figures
represent the number of species of this family
recorded from the indicated area.


Figure 3.-Distribution of the family Go-
biidae in the western Atlantic. The figures
represent the number of species of this family
recorded from the indicated area.




TABLE 4
PRINCIPAL FAMILIES OF FLORIDA SHORE FISHES AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN THE WESTERN ATLANTIC Q



Family a B
aB


Serranidae----- -------- 58 31 10 4 24 23 30 16 34 6 8
Gobiidae ------- 36 8 1 10 13 17 3 14 1 2
Bothidae --- 27 4 9 4 6 6 8 1 18 3 8
Clinidae -- 25 6 16 13 14 8 6 3
Sciaenidae-- ---------- 23 2 9 4 4 11 21 8 30 11 16
Triglidae ----- 23 2 2 4 4 1 1
Clupeidae ----- 21 5 10 8 3 6 11 5 11 5 5
Syngnathidae ~.---21 12 3 2 11 7 7. 4 11 2 5
Ophichthidae -~. 18 12 1 1 13 3 6 1 10 -
Carcharhinidae -- 18 6 10 5 3 3 7 4 14 3 -
Scorpaenidae ---- 18 4 9 2 7 5 7 2 4 2 1
Apogonidae -------- 17 5 1 11 4 5 1 3 -
Lutjanidae .--- 16 9 4 14 13 12 10 9 -
Pomadasyidae -----. 15 10 1 12 14 19 11 23 1
Blenniidae .----. 14 4 3 2 2 4 1 7 1 1
Sparidae -- 14 4 5 2 6 5 5 3 9 2 3
Pomacentridae -- 14 11 9 10 10 6 6 -
Labridae ------ 14 13 2 2 14 10 7 3 13 1
Scaridae ----- 13 10 1 11 13 16- 6 14 -
Chaetodontidae --- 13 7 4 7 7 7 5 7 -


All species from each family are included for the designated area; a few are not actually part of the shore fauna.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


ranidae (fig. 2) and the Gobiidae (fig. 3) are of particular interest be-
cause each of these families is of especial importance in any tropical
shore area. It can be seen that these two groups have evidently under-
gone a greater evolutionary radiation in Florida waters than in the
other parts of the western Atlantic. The apparent differences in the
amount of speciation in some of the smaller families (table 4) is even
more striking. Why should there be 23 species of triglids in Florida
waters and not more than 4 recorded for other western Atlantic locali-
ties? An almost comparable situation exists in the Scorpaenidae and
the Blenniidae with twice as many species represented in the Florida
area than for the next most productive locality.
Considering the present incomplete state of our knowledge about
the geography of western Atlantic fishes, it is believed that the distri-
butional pattern of many of the families, as listed in table 4, will under-
go considerable change. Although these changes may not have much
effect upon our present concept of the general relationships of the
shore faunas, it is likely that there will be significant alterations of
current ideas about the distributional history of certain families and
many smaller groups.
Theoretically one would expect the greatest amount of speciation
to occur in the area of warmest temperature, provided a sufficient
variety of habitats were available. As far as the western Atlantic is
concerned, this means that the richest shore fauna should occur along
the northeastern South American coast and perhaps up into the Lesser
Antilles. In the winter months at least, the surface temperature of the
ocean is considerably higher in this area than in the region north of
the Caribbean Sea.
The apparent depauperate state of the shore fish fauna of north-
eastern South America and the Lesser Antilles is undoubtedly a re-
flection of the minor amount of collecting effort that has been ex-
pended in this area. I do not know of a single extensive fish collection
from it; no American museum possesses even a moderate number of
specimens, so that ichthyologists interested in such fishes must turn
to the modest and ancient holdings of two European institutions. It
will not be possible to give an adequate portrayal of fish distribution
in the western Atlantic until good collections are made in this region.
When this is done I believe that the shore fauna will prove to be at
least as rich as that found in Florida waters.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


LOCAL DISTRIBUTION
Shore Fishes
Due to the scarcity of dependable locality data, it is difficult at
this time to give a concise account of the distribution of the shore
fishes within Florida waters; many of the references in the older litera-
ture simply list "Florida," "southern Florida," or the "Keys." When
more collections are analyzed, particularly from the east coast and the
southern tip of the mainland, it should be possible to give a more sat-
isfactory description of the dispersal of these species.
As far as shore fishes are concerned, the Florida Keys contain the
greatest variety in the state. The majority of the mainland species
range to the Keys and, in addition, approximately 135 species inhabit-
ing the Keys do not extend north to the continental mainland. Accord-
ing to present knowledge, the relatively isolated Tortugas archipelago
evidently possesses the richest shore fish fauna of any single locality
in the New World.
Ichthyologists have long recognized that the Florida peninsula has
acted as a barrier to prevent the movement of some temperate-water
species between the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
A number of these colder water forms are evidently unable to enter
the higher temperatures found in the vicinity of the southern tip of
the peninsula. Although Florida was in large part submerged during
the interglacial periods of the Pleistocene, and hence did not impede
the movement of faunas, the present emergence has been in effect long
enough to cause a marked evolutionary divergence in several species
in the resulting disjunct populations. Ginsburg has investigated a
number of these geminate species and has presented a summary of
his findings (1952, p. 99).
In addition to the evidence of the geminate temperate-water spe-
cies, a faunal difference between the Florida east and west coasts is
indicated by a number of other species (about 50) which, so far, have
not been taken on the Gulf coast. While some of these are temperate-
water forms which reach the southern limit of their range on the Flor-
ida east coast, the majority are tropical shore fishes which apparently
do not find suitable habitat on the Gulf coast.
The difference between the Gulf and Atlantic coast faunas may
be further emphasized by. considering the number of Gulf coast spe-
cies which apparently do not occur on the Florida east coast. At
present I have 138 listed in this category, indicating that the Gulf
fauna is not only distinct to a considerable degree but that it is also
a good deal richer in number of species.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


There has been some recent controversy over the relationship of the
fish faunas of the northeastern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Baughman (1950, p. 118) believes that the western part has an entirely
separate faunal complex, cut off from Florida by the "vast and silt-
laden flood" of the Mississippi. Ginsburg (1952, p. 101) shows agree-
ment with this view and, in addition, considers a hypothetical pen-
insular barrier, in some past geological epoch, between Cape San
Bias, Florida, and Mobile Bay, Alabama.
In apposition to the foregoing opinions, Hildebrand (1954, p. 343)
maintains that some of Ginsburg's evidence is not on a firm basis and
also refutes Baughman's claim. In fact, Hildebrand states that no
species of fish has been shown convincingly to be endemic to either
the eastern or western Gulf and that the main difference in the fish
fauna of the two areas is one of the relative abundance of species.
The northeastern Gulf has proved to be interesting because recent
collections from the Panama City area (Caldwell and Briggs, 1957)
have revealed the presence of a number of tropical species hitherto
unrecorded in the Gulf from north of Tortugas. These, as well as

TABLE 5
MARINE SHORE FISHES INHABITING THE NORTHEASTERN, BUT NOT THE NORTH-
WESTERN PART OF THE GULF OF MEXICO


Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre)
Eulamia altima Springer
Carcharhinus maculipinnis (Poey)
Raja eglanteria Bosc
Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand
Conger caudilimbatus (Poey)
Ahlia egmontis (Jordan)
Mystriophis intertinctus (Richardson)
Ophichthus ocellatus (Lesueur)
Ophichthus guttifer Bean and Dresel
Ophichthus retropinnis Eigenmann
Callechelys muraena Jordan and
Evermann
Gordiichthys irretitus Jordan and Davis
Strongylura raphidoma (Ranzani)
Corythoichthys albirostris Heckel
Hippocampus zosterae Jordan and
Gilbert
Syngnathus springeri Herald
Syngnathus sp.


Syngnathus floridae subsp.
Micrognathus crinigerus (Bean and
Dresel)
Myripristis jacobus Cuvier
Holocentrus bullisi Woods
Gonioplectrus hispanus Cuvier
Chlorististium sp.
Prionodes notospilus (Longley)
Mycteroperca xanthosticta (Jordan and
Swain)
Ocyanthias martinicensis (Guichenot)
Paranthias furcifer (Cuvier)
Pronotogrammus aureorubens Longley
Apogon pigmentarius (Poey)
Apogon pseudomaculatus Longley
Apogonichthys alutus (Jordan and
Gilbert)
Caulolatilus microps Goode and Bean
Caulolatilus intermedius Howell Rivero
Brachygenys chrysargyreus (Giinther)


(continued)


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


TABLE 5-(Continued)
MARINE SHORE FISHES INHABITING THE NORTHEASTERN, BUT NOT THE NORTH-
WESTERN PART OF THE GULF OF MEXICO


Haemulon sciurus (Desmarest)
Haemulon plumieri (Lac6pBde)
Ulaema lefroyi (Goode)
Equetus umbrosus (Jordan and Eigen-
mann)
Equetus lanceolatus (Linnaeus)
Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch)
Calamus arctifrons Goode and Bean
Calamus proridens Jordan and Gilbert
Chaetodon aya Jordan
Chaetodon striatus Linnaeus
Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus)
Chromis enchrysurus (Jordan and
Gilbert)
Chromis insolatus (Cuvier)
Pomacentrus xanthurus Poey
Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus)
Decodon puellaris (Poey)
Halichoeres bivittata (Bloch)
Halichoeres radiata (Linnaeus)
Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum)
Xyrichthys psittacus (Linnaeus)
Nicholsina ustus (Valenciennes)
Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch)
Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch and
Schneider
Acanthurus randalli Briggs and
Caldwell
Gnathagnus laticeps (Longley and
Hildebrand)
Gillelus semicinctus Gilbert
loglossus caliurus Bean
Garmannia macrodon (Beebe and
Tee-Van)
Gobionellus stigmaturus (Goode and
Bean)
Gobionellus stimaticus (Poey)
Gobulus myersi Ginsburg
Callionymus agassizi Goode and Bean
Callionymus bairdi Jordan
Opisthognathus macrognathus Poey
Opisthognathus lonchurus Jordan and
Gilbert
Blennius marmoreus Poey


Hypleurochilus bermudensis Beebe
and Tee Van
Emblemaria atlantica Jordan and
Evermann
Emblemaria piratula Ginsburg and
Reid
Paraclinus marmoratus (Steindachner)
Paraclinus fasciatus (Steindachner)
Lepophidium cervinum (Goode and
Bean)
Lepophidium graellsi (Poey)
Ophidion beani Jordan and Gilbert
Otophidium omostigmum (Jordan and
Gilbert)
Sphraena picudilla Poey
Pontinus rathbuni Goode and Bean
Pontinus castor Poey
Scorpaena bergi Evermann and Marsh
Scorpaena agassizi Goode and Bean
Peristedion imberbe (Poey)
Prionotus grisescens Teague
Prionotus beani Goode
Bellator egretta (Goode and Bean)
Bellator brachychir (Regan)
Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus)
Opsanus pardus (Goode and Bean)
Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz)
Citharichthys arctifrons Goode
Citharichthys rimosus Goode and Bean
Citharichthys microstomus Gill
Gastropsetta frontalis Bean
Syacium micrurum Ranzani
Gymnachirus williamsoni (Gunter)
Symphurus minor Ginsburg
Symphurus urospilus Ginsburg
Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch)
Lagocephalus pachycephalus (Ranzani)
Sphaeroides cutaneus (Ginther)
Sphaeroides dorsalis Longley
Sphaeroides harper Nichols
Canthigaster rostratus (Bloch)
Ogcocephalus parvus Longley and
Hildebrand
TOTAL 108






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


other records in the literature, give evidence of a shore fish fauna
considerably richer than has been listed so far from the northwestern
Gulf. In fact, the total of 108 species (table 5) taken from the north-
eastern area that have not yet been found to the west gives a clear
indication that the faunal difference is real and could not be attributed
to merely a variation in the relative abundance of species.
In regard to the opinions of Baughman (1950) and Ginsburg (1952),
there is no need to utilize a physical barrier in the northcentral Gulf
to explain the faunal peculiarities of the two sides. The work of
Hedgpeth (1954, p. 206) on the bottom communities of the Gulf of
Mexico shows a virtually continuous association of coral patches and
sponges covering the broad continental shelf west of Florida from the
Keys north to near the western boundary of the state. To the west
of this point the coral-sponge association is abruptly replaced by the
shrimp ground community-there are a few scattered coral reefs at
the edge of the shelf off the Texas coast, but they are widely separated
from the corals of the northeastern and the southwestern Gulf, and
there are no sponge grounds.
The above information gives a good ecological basis for the differ-
ences apparent in the fish faunas of the two northern Gulf areas.
Tropical shore fishes in particular tend to become highly specialized
and dependent upon certain types of bottom fauna for food and
shelter. It may be noted that a large percentage of the species con-
fined to the northeastern area (table 5) can be considered typical of
the coral community (especially the seven serranids, six labrids, five
puffers, four scorpaenids, three acanthurids, three pomacentrids, three
apogonids, and two chaetodontids). The coral-sponge association of
the western Florida shelf offers a broad, continuous migration route
north for fishes of this type.

Freshwater Fishes
Almost all of the Florida freshwater fishes (80 species out of 88)
belong to six families (Centrarchidae, Cyprinidae, Percidae, Cyprin-
odontidae, Ictaluridae, and Catostomidae) which have an interesting
local distribution in view of the recent geological history of the state.
According to Cooke (1945), the present Florida peninsula had its be-
ginning during the Sangamon interglacial stage of the Pleistocene
when the Penholoway terrace was formed. This allowed the Wicom-
ico islands to fuse into a long, narrow peninsula, which extended
southward to about the Highland-Glades county line. The change
from the Wicomico to the Penholoway stage involved a drop in the
sea level from the 100 foot to the 70 foot contour and, presumably,


244


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


allowed the gradual formation of extensive freshwater areas which
proved attractive to the continental freshwater fishes.
It is conceivable that some freshwater fishes could have survived
on the Wicomico islands, having reached these areas during the pre-
vious emergence of the Florida peninsula. However, these islands
were evidently rather limited in size, and the small amount of en-
demism found in peninsular Florida fishes adds but little weight to
this theory. Of the nine species of autochthonous freshwater fishes,
five are cyprinodontids, all of which probably have a comparatively
broad saltwater tolerance. If any species can trace its history from
the Wicomico islands, it is most likely one of this group.
Of the six families of freshwater fishes listed above, five (all except
the Cyprinodontidae), according to the classification of Myers (1949),
may be considered "Primary Freshwater Groups." Because of their
physiological intolerance to saltwater, the invasion of Florida by
these families had to be accomplished by means of freshwater migra-
tion routes. Although Florida has a rather high rainfall and a large
number of lakes and streams, the low topography and generally slow
movement of water tends to minimize erosion and stream capture,
evidently making migration more difficult than in many areas with a
steeper terrain. Also, many of the continental species of freshwater
fishes are ecologically better suited to comparatively swift streams
with lower temperatures and different types of food organisms. This
is particularly true of the species of Percidae, Catostomidae, and, to
a lesser degree, the Cyprinidae.
Although there are eleven species of Percidae in Florida, eight are
confined to the extreme northern or western panhandle area, two reach
to midpeninsula, and only one extends to the southern end of the pen-
insula. Of the seven species of Catostomidae, six are still restricted
to extreme northern areas and only one reaches down to near the end
of the peninsula. A similar although less restricted pattern is evident
for the nineteen native species of the family Cyprinidae; ten are ex-
treme northern, six are found in midpeninsula, and only three have
penetrated to southern Florida. The Centrarchidae and Ictaluridae
have apparently found more suitable ecological conditions because
they have become well dispersed-it is recognized that some of these
species may have had considerable human assistance. Of the twenty-
three Florida Centrarchidae, only six are confined to the extreme north,
nine are found in midpeninsula, and eight extend to the southern tip
of the state. There are seven species of Ictaluridae, but only one is
restricted to the extreme north, two range to midpeninsula, and five
are present at the southern end of the mainland.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


The distribution of the sixth family, the Cyprinodontidae, is con-
sidered separately because it is a "Secondary" rather than a "Primary"
freshwater group (Myers, 1949). The species have a fairly well de-
veloped salt tolerance and, in many parts of the world, have been able
to colonize areas that could be reached only by crossing a formidable
saltwater barrier-such as the West Indies, Seychelles, Madagascar,
Celebes, etc. In many instances it is difficult to decide whether a
species should be considered freshwater or euryhaline, for little is
known about the life histories of the 21 species of Florida cyprinodon-
tids. As matters now stand, eleven are included in the freshwater
category while ten are thought to be euryhaline. The present local
distribution of the eleven freshwater forms (three in the extreme
north, four in midpeninsula, and four in the far south) does not have
the same zoogeographic significance as that of the families of "Pri-
mary" freshwater fishes.
In summary, it can be said that the freshwater fish fauna of Florida
owes its relationship and origin to the fauna of the continental United
States. The rich fish fauna of the other southeastern states has so far
been able to penetrate Florida only to a limited extent, probably be-
cause of difficult migratory routes and generally unsuitable ecological
conditions. The members of the families Cyprinodontidae, Centrarch-
idae, and Ictaluridae have been the most successful invaders. Conse-
quently, the fauna of the southern peninsula is composed chiefly of
species belonging to these families plus those euryhaline fishes that
tend to prefer prolonged residence in freshwater.

Euryhaline Fishes
In addition to the Cyprinodontidae discussed above, the families
containing the largest numbers of euryhaline fishes may be listed as
follows: Clupeidae with twelve species; Gobiidae, ten; Sciaenidae,
six; Poeciliidae, five; Atherinidae, five; Bothidae, five; Mugilidae, four;
and Eleotridae, four. Of the last eight families, only one, the Poecilii-
dae, has all of its Florida species classified as euryhaline. All of the
remaining seven contain marine species, but no freshwater ones.
With the exception of the Poeciliidae, which is sometimes considered
a "Secondary" freshwater fish family, and the Cyprinodontidae, the
euryhaline groups show a marine type of distribution similar to that
seen in many of the shore fish families.


246


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BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


SYSTEMATIC LIST OF FLORIDA FISHES

ORDER AMPHIOXI
1. Family Branchiostomidae-Lancelets
Branchiostoma caribaeum Sundevall-Caribbean lancelet. Chesapeake Bay to
the West Indies and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
2. Family Epigonichthyidae-Uneven lancelets
Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews-Southern lancelet. Atlantic, Indian, and west-
ern Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the Florida
Keys to Pernambuco, Brazil. Shore.
Amphioxides pelagicus (Giinther)-Pelagic lancelet. Atlantic, Indian, and west-
ern Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda, and probably south
to Florida and the Bahamas. Pelagic.

ORDER MYXINOIDEA
3. Family Myxinidae-Hagfishes
Paramyxine springeri Bigelow and Schroeder-Springer's hagfish. Northeastern
part of the Gulf of Mexico off the Florida coast. Benthic.

ORDER PETROMYZONIDA
4. Family Petromyzonidae-Lampreys
Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus-Sea lamprey. Both sides of the North Atlantic;
known in the western Atlantic from Greenland to the St. Johns River system
in northern Florida. Euryhaline.
Ichthyomyzon gagei Hubbs and Trautman-Southern brook lamprey. Lower
Mississippi Valley including the western Florida panhandle east to the
Ochlockonee River. Freshwater.

ORDER SELACHII
5. Family Hexanchidae-Cowsharks
Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre)-Sixgill cowshark. Worldwide in tropical and
temperate waters; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Cuba. Shore.
Hexanchus sp.-Cowshark. Florida. Shore. Data not yet published.
Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre)-Sevengill cowshark. Atlantic and western
Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from the northeastern and northeentral
Gulf of Mexico to Cuba. Benthic.
6. Family Carchariidae-Sand sharks
Carcharias taurus Rafinesque-Sand shark. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Maine to the northern Bahamas. Shore.
7. Family Isuridae-Mackerel sharks
Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque-Mako. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Cape Cod to Rio de Janeiro and the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Pelagic.
Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus)-White shark. Worldwide in tropical and
temperate waters; in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to Brazil and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


8. Family Alopiidae-Thresher sharks
Alopias superciliosus (Lowe)-Bigeye thresher. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Miami to Cuba and in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.
Pelagic.
Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre)-Common thresher. Worldwide in tropical and
temperate waters; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to northern Argen-
tina and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
9. Family Orectolobidae-Carpet sharks
Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre)-Nurse shark. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Rhode Island and Bermuda to southern Brazil
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
10. Family Rhineodontidae-Whale sharks
Rhineodon typus Smith-Whale shark. Worldwide in tropical and temperate
waters; in the western Atlantic from New York to Abrolhas Island, Brazil,
and in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
11. Family Scyliorhinidae-Cat sharks
Apristurus atlanticus (Koefoed). Coast of Morocco in the eastern Atlantic to the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Galeus arae (Nichols)-Crested shark. Northern part of the Gulf of Mexico, and
Miami, to the north coast of Cuba. Benthic.
Scyliorhinus retifer (Garman)-Chain dogfish. Southern New England to the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
12. Family Triakidae-Smooth dogfishes
Mustelus canis (Mitchill)-Smooth dogfish. Bay of Fundy and Bermuda to
Uruguay and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Mustelus norrisi Springer-Florida dogfish. Englewood and Naples on the west
coast of Florida south to the Keys. Shore.
13. Family Carcharhinidae-Requiem sharks
Galeocerdo cuvieri (Lesueur)-Tiger shark. Worldwide in tropical and tem-
perate waters; in the western Atlantic from Woods Hole, Massachussetts, and
Bermuda, to Uruguay and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionace glauca (Linnaeus)-Great blue shark. Worldwide in tropical and tem-
perate waters; in the western Atlantic 'from Newfoundland and Bermuda to
the Rio de la Plata. Pelagic.
Scoliodon terraenovae (Richardson)-Sharpnose shark. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from the Bay of Fundy to Uruguay and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Aprionodon isodon (Miller and Henle)-Eventooth shark. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from New York to Cuba and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Negaprion brevirostris (Poey)-Lemon shark. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from New Jersey to northern Brazil and the northern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Hypoprion signatus Poey-Night shark. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from South Carolina to British Guiana. Bathypelagic.


Vol. 2


248






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey)-Blacknose shark. North Carolina to Rio de
Janeiro and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Carcharhinus leucas (Miiller and Henle)-Bull shark. New York and Bermuda
to southern Brazil and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Carcharhinus limbatus (Miiller and Henle)-Small blacktip shark. Worldwide
in tropical and temperate waters; in the western Atlantic from southern New
England to southern Brazil and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Carcharhinus porosus Ranzani-Smalltail shark. In both the western Atlantic
and eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from the northern Gulf of Mexico
to central Brazil. Shore.
Carcharhinus maculipinnis (Poey)-Large blacktip shark. Jacksonville, Florida,
to Puerto Rico and the northeastern and northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Eulamia altima Springer-Knopp's shark. Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Bimini,
to Trinidad and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Eulamia falciformis (Miiller and Henle)-Reef shark. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Delaware Bay and Bermuda to the West Indies.
Shore.
Eulamia floridana Bigelow, Schroeder, and Springer-Silky shark. Widespread
in the Gulf of Mexico and to the south coast of Cuba. Shore.
Eulamia milberti (Miiller and Henle)-Sandbar shark. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from southern New England to southern Brazil and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Eulamia obscura (Lesueur)-Dusky shark. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from southern Massachusetts and Bermuda to southern
Brazil and the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Eulamia springeri (Bigelow and Schroeder)-Springer's shark. Englewood, Flor-
ida to the east coast of Yucatan. Shore.
Pterolamiops longimanus (Poey)-Whitetip shark. Both sides of the Atlantic, and
the western Pacific; in the western Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to
Uruguay, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
14. Family Sphyrnidae-Hammerhead sharks
Sphyrna diplana Springer-Hammerhead. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from New Jersey to southern Brazil and in the northern
part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus)-Bonnet shark. Worldwide in tropical and temperate
waters; in the western Atlantic from Nantucket Sound to southern Brazil
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphyrna mokarran (Riippell)-Great hammerhead. Both sides of the Atlantic,
and the western Pacific; in the western Atlantic from North Carolina to
northern Argentina and the eastern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus)-Common hammerhead. Worldwide in tropical and
temperate waters; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts Bay and Bermuda
to northern Argentina and the northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
15. Family Squalidae-Dogfishes
Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque). Eastern Atlantic to the northern part of the
Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Centrophorus granulosus (Bloch and Schneider). Eastern Atlantic to the northern
part of the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Etmopterus virens Bigelow, Schroeder, and Springer. Northern part of the Gulf
of Mexico and close to the Florida coast. Benthic.
Etmopterus schultzi Bigelow, Schroeder, and Springer. Northern part of the
Gulf of Mexico and close to the Florida coast. Benthic.
Etmopterus hillianus (Poey). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from Chesapeake Bay to Cuba. Benthic.
Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe). Eastern Atlantic to the northern part of the Gulf
of Mexico. Benthic.
Squalus acanthias Linnaeus-Spiny dogfish. Both sides of the North Atlantic
and North Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Cuba. Shore.
Squalus fernandinus Molina. Worldwide in tropic and temperate waters; in
the western Atlantic from South Carolina to Argentina and the northeastern
part of the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Squalus cubensis Howell Rivero. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Rio de Janeiro.
Benthic.
Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from southern New England to the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
16. Family Squatinidae-Angel sharks
Squatina dumerili (Lesueur)-Angel shark. Massachusetts to Jamaica and the
northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

ORDER BATOIDEI
17. Family Pristidae-Sawfishes
Pristis pectinatus Latham-Common sawfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from New York and Bermuda to middle Brazil and the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Pristis perotteti Miiller and Henle-Southern sawfish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Salerno, Florida to Santos, Brazil, and to the
northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
18. Family Rhinobatidae-Guitarfishes
Rhinobatos lentiginosus (Garman)-Spotted guitarfish. North Carolina to Florida
and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
19. Family Torpedinidae-Electric rays
Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte-Electric ray. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to the Florida Keys. Shore.
Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers)-Lesser electric ray. North Carolina to southern
Brazil and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Benthobatis marcida Bean and Weed-Deepsea electric ray. South Carolina to
the north coast of Cuba. Benthic.
20. Family Rajidae-Skates
Raja ackleyi Garman-Ackley's skate. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from southern Florida to the YucatAn Bank. Shore.
Raja eglanteria Bosc-Brier skate. Massachusetts Bay to Florida and the north-
eastern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Raja garmani Whitley-Rosette skate. Southern New England to the Florida
Keys. Shore.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Raja lentiginosa Bigelow and Schroeder. Northern and southwestern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Raja olseni Bigelow and Schroeder. Northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Raja teevani Bigelow and Schroeder. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Raja texana Chandler-Texas skate. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Breviraja plutonia (Garman). Northern North Carolina to the Florida Keys.
Benthic.
Breviraja sinusmexicana Bigelow and Schroeder. Northeastern to northeentral
Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Breviraja spinosa Bigelow and Schroeder. Delaware Bay to the Florida Straits.
Benthic.
Cruriraja poeyi Bigelow and Schroeder. St. Augustine, Florida, to the coasts of
Cuba. Benthic.
Springeria folirostris Bigelow and Schroeder. Northern and eastern Gulf of
Mexico. Benthic.
21. Family Dasyatidae-Sting rays
Dasyatis americana Hildebrand and Schroeder. New Jersey to Rio de Janeiro
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from southern New England to the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur). Chesapeake Bay to Florida and the northern part of
the Gulf of Mexico. Marine shore, occasionally in freshwater.
Dasyatis sayi (Lesueur). Southern Massachusetts to southern Brazil and the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
22. Family Gymnuridae-Butterfly rays
Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus)-Butterfly ray. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from southern Massachusetts to the Rio de la Plata. Shore.
Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Schneider)-Lesser butterfly ray. Both sides of
the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from southern New England to Rio de
Janeiro and the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
23. Family Urolophidae
Urolophus jamaicensis (Cuvier). North Carolina to Trinidad and the southern
part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
24. Family Myliobatidae-Eagle rays
Myliobatis freminvilli Lesueur-Eagle ray. Cape Cod to Rio de Janeiro and the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Myliobatis goodei Garman. South Carolina to Uruguay. Shore.
Aetobatis narinari Euphrasen-Spotted duckbill ray. Worldwide in tropical and
temperate waters; in the western Atlantic from Chesapeake Bay and Bermuda
to Santos, Brazil, and the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
25. Family Rhinopteridae-Cownose rays
Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill)-Cownose ray. Cape Cod to Rio de Janeiro and
the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
26. Family Mobulidae-Devil rays
Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft)-Lesser devil ray. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from North Carolina to Santos, Brazil. Pelagic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Manta birostris (Walbaum)-Giant devil ray. Worldwide in tropical waters; in
the western Atlantic from southern New England and Bermuda to Rio de
Janeiro and the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.

ORDER CHIMAERAE
27. Family Chimaeridae-Chimaeras
Hydrolagus alberti Bigelow and Schroeder-Chimaera. Northern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
ORDER CHONDROSTEI
28. Family Acipenseridae-Sturgeons
Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus Mitchill-Northern sea sturgeon. Labrador
to Jacksonville, Florida. Euryhaline.
Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi Vladykov-Southern sea sturgeon. Northern Gulf
of Mexico and west coast of Florida to French Guiana. Euryhaline.

ORDER GINGLYMODI
29. Family Lepisosteidae-Gar pikes
Lepisosteus products Cope-Northern spotted gar. Mississippi Valley and Gulf
coast including the Florida panhandle. Freshwater.
Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay-Florida spotted gar. Southern Georgia and
throughout Florida. Freshwater.
Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus)-Longnose gar. Lowlands from Maryland through-
out Florida, west to Louisiana and Mississippi, and north into the Great
Lakes. Euryhaline.
Lepisosteus spatula Lac6pbde-Alligator gar. Streams entering the Gulf of
Mexico eastward to the Choctawhatchee River, Florida. Euryhaline.

ORDER PROTOSPONDYLI
30. Family Amiidae-Bowfins
Amia calva Linnaeus-Bowfin. United States east of the Great Plains and
throughout Florida. Freshwater.

ORDER ISOSPONDYLI
31. Family Elopidae-Tenpounders
Elops saurus Linnaeus-Tenpounder. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific
Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and southern New England
to Rio de Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
32. Family Megalopidae-Tarpons
Megalops atlanticus (Valenciennes)-Tarpon. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from the Gulf of Maine and Bermuda to northern Brazil
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
33. Family Albulidae-Ladyfishes
Albula vulpes (Linnaeus)-Bonefish. Worldwide in tropical seas; in the western
Atlantic from New York and Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro and throughout the
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


34. Family Clupeidae-Herrings
Alosa sapidissima (Wilson)-American shad. Southeastern coast of Newfound-
land to the St. Johns River, Florida. Euryhaline.
Alosa alabamae Jordan and Evermann-Alabama shad. Gulf of Mexico coast
including western Florida. Euryhaline.
Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson)-Alewife. Northern Newfoundland to the At-
lantic coast of Florida. Euryhaline.
Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill)-Glut herring. Nova Scotia to northern Florida.
Euryhaline.
Alosa chrysochloris (Rafinesque)-Skipjack herring. Gulf of Mexico coast includ-
ing western Florida and northward to the Great Lakes. Euryhaline.
Alosa mediocris (Mitchill)-Hickory shad. Bay of Fundy to the Florida east
coast. Euryhaline.
Brevoortia gunteri Hildebrand-Menhaden. Gulf coast from Cedar Key, Florida,
to the Gulf of Campeche. Euryhaline.
Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe)-Menhaden. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Indian River City, Florida. Euryhaline.
Brevoortia patrons Goode-Large scale Gulf menhaden. From Tampa through-
out the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Brevoortia smith Hildebrand-Bug fish. North Carolina to Indian River City,
Florida. Euryhaline.
Dorosoma petenense (Giinther)-Threadfin shad. Gulf coast of Florida, west and
south to British Honduras. Euryhaline.
Dorosoma lacepedi (Lesueur)-Gizzard shad. Cape Cod to Florida and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur)-Thread herring. Gulf of Maine and Bermuda
to Rio de Janeiro and the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Etrumeus sadina (Mitchill)-Round herring. Bay of Fundy to Florida and the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Harengula humeralis (Cuvier)-Sardina. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Natal,
Brazil, and west to Yucatan. Shore.
Harengula clupeola (Cuvier)-Sprat. Florida Keys to Rio de Janeiro and the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Harengula pensacolae pensacolae Goode and Bean-Scaled sardine. Cape Ca-
naveral, Florida, to Yucatan and the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Harengula pensacolae floridana Rivas. Confined to the Florida Keys from Old
Rhodes Key to Key West. Shore.
Jenkinsia lamprotaenia (Gosse)-Key sardine. Bermuda and the Florida Keys
to Venezuela. Shore.
Sardinella anchovia Valenciennes-Spanish sardine. New Jersey and Bermuda
to Rio de Janeiro and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sardinella brasiliensis Steindachner. Florida Keys to Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
35. Family Engraulidae-Anchovies
Anchoa cayorum (Fowler). Florida Keys to Honduras and the West Indies.
Shore.
Anchoa hepsetus hepsetus (Linnaeus)-Striped anchovy. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Montevideo and the
northern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Anchoa hepsetus colonensis Hildebrand. Florida, along the northern Gulf of
Mexico south to Panama, and the West Indies. Euryhaline.
Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand. Southern Florida to Panama, the West Indies,
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann and Marsh). North Carolina to the Gulf of Venezuela
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Anchoa cubana (Poey). Melbourne Beach, Florida, to Guatemala and the West
Indies, also through the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Anchoa mitchilli diaphana Hildebrand-Bay anchovy. South Carolina to Yucatin
and through the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Anchoviella perfasciata (Poey). New York to Hispaniola and the northern Gulf
of Mexico coast. Shore.

36. Family Alepocephalidae-Slickheads
Alepocephalus products Gill. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from off New Jersey to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Conocara murrayi (Koefoed). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Conocara macdonaldi Goode and Bean. Off Pensacola, Florida, to the vicinity
of Tortugas. Benthic.
Talismania antillarum Goode and Bean. Off Pensacola, Florida. Bathypelagic.
Leptoderma macrops Vaillant. Both sides of the Atlantic and perhaps to the
Indian Ocean; in the western Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
Xenodermichthys copei (Gill). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western At-
lantic from off the Virginia coast to Tortugas, and off Pensacola in the Gulf
of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
37. Family Argentinidae-Deepsea smelts
Argentina striata Goode and Bean. Off Pensacola to Espirito Santo, Brazil and
westward throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Bathylagus benedicti Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from New York to Argentina. Bathypelagic.
Bathylagus sp. (not yet described). Off Pensacola, Florida. Bathypelagic.
38. Family Astronesthidae
Borostomias braueri Regan. Atlantic and Indian Oceans; in the western Atlantic
from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
39. Family Stomiatidae-Scaly dragonfishes
Stomias afinis Giinther. Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic from
off New Jersey to French Guiana and in the southern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
40. Family Melanostomiatidae-Scaleless dragonflies
Echiostoma tanneri Gill. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from
Bermuda and off New Jersey to the Caribbean and the southern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Echiostoma barbatum Lowe. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
off Gloucester, Massachusetts to the vicinity of Tortugas. Bathypelagic.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Eustomias fissibarbis Pappenheim. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Bermuda to the Caribbean and the southern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Eustomias bigelowi Welsh. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from Bermuda and off Cape Hatteras to the Florida Straits. Bathypelagic.
Eustomias leptobolus Regan and Trewavas. Strait between Florida and Cuba.
Bathypelagic.
Eustomias brevibarbatus Parr. Strait between Florida and Cuba to the Lesser
Antilles. Bathypelagic.
Pachystomias atlanticus Regan and Trewavas. Nova Scotia and Bermuda to the
Caribbean. Bathypelagic.
Leptostomias ramosus Regan and Trewavas. North Atlantic and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Bathophilus longipinnis (Pappenheim). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Bermuda to the Florida Straits and off the Leeward Islands.
Bathypelagic.
Bathophilus chironema Regan and Trewavas. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from near Bermuda to the Florida Straits. Bathypelagic.
Bathophilus longipes Regan and Trewavas. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.
Bathypelagic.
Bathophilus nigerrimus Giglioli. Both sides of Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Bathypelagic.
Photonectes margarita (Goode and Bean). Worldwide in tropical waters; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda to northern Brazil and the northeastern Gulf
of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
41. Family Idiacanthidae-Blackdragons
Idiacanthus fasciola Peters-Blackdragon. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the
western Atlantic from New Jersey to the southern Gulf of Mexico. Bathy-
pelagic.
42. Family Malacosteidae-Loosejaws
Aristostomias polydactylus Regan and Trewavas. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico and the
Caribbean. Bathypelagic.
Aristostomias grimaldi Zugmayer. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from near Bermuda to French Guiana and the Florida Straits.
Bathypelagic.
Aristostomias tittmanni Welsh. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from near Bermuda to the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.
Bathypelagic.
Aristostomias xenostoma Regan and Trewavas. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from the Florida Straits and the Caribbean. Bathypelagic.
Photostomias guernei Collet. Widespread on both sides of the Atlantic; in the
southern Gulf of Mexico and the West Indies. Bathypelagic.
43. Family Chauliodontidae-Viperfishes
Chauliodus sloani sloani Bloch and Schneider-Viperfish. Atlantic, Indian, and
western Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from New England to French
Guiana and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Chauliodus danae Regan and Trewavas. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from off North Carolina to the Lesser Antilles and in the Florida
Straits. Bathypelagic.
44. Family Sternoptychidae-Lightfishes
Bonapartia pedaliota Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from off Miami. Bathypelagic.
Cyclothone microdon (Giinther)-Small tooth bristlemouth. Worldwide in dis-
tribution; in the western Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to Tortugas
and the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Gonostoma denudatum Rafinesque. Both sides of the Atlantic including the
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Gonostoma elongatum (Giinther). Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
widespread in the western Atlantic and the eastern and northcentral Gulf
of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Polyipnus spinosus Giinther. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from the northeastern part of the Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Polyipnus asteroides Schultz. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico south to the
vicinity of Puerto Rico. Bathypelagic.
Sternoptyx diaphana Hermann. Worldwide in distribution; in the western At-
lantic from New England to the West Indies and throughout the Gulf of
Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Argyropelecus hemigymnus Cocco. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to Argentina. Bathy-
pelagic.
Argyropelecus amabilis (Ogilby). Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from southern New England to the Lesser Antilles and the
eastern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Argyropelecus affinis Garman. Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic
from the northeastern part of the Gulf of Mexico to the West Indies. Bathy-
pelagic.
Argyropelecus aculeatus Valenciennes. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific
Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to the West Indies and
the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Argyropelecus gigas Norman. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Yarrella blackfordi Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Yarrella corythaeola Alcock. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Valenciennellus tripunctulatus (Esmark). Worldwide in distribution; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda to the Lesser Antilles and to the northeastern
part of the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin). Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic
from the Gulf of Maine to Argentina (52o53' S.) and the northeastern part of
the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


45. Family Umbridae-Mud minnows
Umbra pygmaea (DeKay)-Eastern mudminnow. Long Island to northeastern
Florida. Freshwater.

46. Family Esocidae-Pikes
Esox americanus Gmelin-Redfin pickerel. St. Lawrence River to Lake Okee-
chobee, Florida. Freshwater.
Esox niger Lesueur-Chain pickerel. New Hampshire to the southern tip of
Florida and through the Mississippi Valley to Texas. Freshwater.

ORDER INIOMI
47. Family Aulopidae-Threadsails
Aulopus filamentosus (Bloch)-Threadsail. Both sides of the Atlantic and the
eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Pelagic.

48. Family Chloropthalmidae
Chloropthalmus agassizi Bonaparte. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from off New Jersey to the Gulf of Mexico, where
it is widespread. Bathypelagic.
Chloropthalmus truculentus Goode and Bean. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico
to the vicinity of Barbados. Bathypelagic.
Chloropthalmus chalybeius (Goode). Off Rhode Island to the vicinity of Tor-
tugas, Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
49. Family Synodontidae-Lizardfishes
Saurida brasiliensis Norman. Northern Gulf of Mexico to Cabo Frio, Brazil.
Shore.
Saurida normani Longley. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Synodus foetens (Linneaus)-Lizardfish. Cape Cod and Bermuda to Santa
Catarina, Brazil, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Synodus intermedius (Agassiz)-Sand diver. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and North Carolina to Bahia, Brazil, and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Synodus poeyi Jordan. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico to Colombia. Shore.
Synodus synodus (Linnaeus). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from Tortugas, Florida to Bahia, Brazil and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Trachinocephalus myops (Forster)-Snakefish. Atlantic, Indian, and western
Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from southern New England and
Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
50. Family Ipnopidae
Ipnops murrayi Giinther. Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the western
Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to northern Brazil. Benthic.
51. Family Bathypteroidae-Stiltfishes
Bathypterois viridensis (Roule). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western At-
lantic from the northcentral Gulf of Mexico to the vicinity of Tortugas, Florida.
Benthic.


1958







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Bathypterois longipes Giinther. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western At-
lantic from off New Jersey to Uruguay and the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Bathypterois phenae Parr. Off the Bahamas to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
Benthosaurus grallator Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from off New Jersey to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
52. Family Myctophidae-Lanternfishes
Neoscopelus macrolepidotus Johnson. Worldwide in distribution; in the western
Atlantic from the northern Gulf of Mexico to Martinique. Bathypelagic.
Hygophum macrochir (Giinther). North Atlantic to the western Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Hygophum hygomi (Liitken). Atlantic and Indian Oceans; in the western At-
lantic from off New England to the northern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Hygophum benoiti (Cocco). Atlantic and Indian Oceans; in the western Atlantic
from New Jersey to the northeastern and central Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Diogenichthys laternatus (Garman). Worldwide in tropical waters; in the western
Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to Uruguay. Bathypelagic.
Diogenichthys atlanticus (Thning). Worldwide in distribution; in the western
Atlantic from the Florida Straits. Bathypelagic.
Gonichthys coccoi (Cocco). Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic
from Newfoundland and Bermuda to southern Brazil and the western Gulf
of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Centrobranchus nigroocellatus (Giinther). Worldwide in distribution; in the
western Atlantic from North Carolina to Florida and the western Gulf of
Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Myctophum affine (Liitken). Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic
from the Gulf of Maine to Rio de Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Myctophum asperum Richardson. Atlantic and western Pacific; in the western
Atlantic from the western Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Myctophum obtusirostris Taning. North Atlantic to the western Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Myctophum rufinum Thning. North Atlantic to the northcentral and western
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Notolychnus valdiviae Brauer. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the western
Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to off southern Brazil. Bathypelagic.
Diaphus gemellari (Cocco). Worldwide in tropical waters; in the western At-
lantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to the Greater Antilles. Bathypelagic.
Diaphus rafinesquei (Cocco). Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic
from New Jersey and Bermuda to off northern Argentina. Bathypelagic.
Diaphus dumerili (Bleeker). Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic
from New Jersey to Colombia and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Diaphus intermedius Borodin. North Atlantic to the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Lampanyctus guentheri Goode and Bean. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific
Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Lampanyctus macdonaldi (Goode and Bean). Both coasts of America; in the
western Atlantic from New Jersey to northeastern Florida. Bathypelagic.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Lampanyctus ater Thning. North Atlantic to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Lampanyctus alatus Goode and Bean. Atlantic to the northeastern Gulf of
Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Lampanyctus supralateralis Parr. Bahamas to the northwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Notoscopelus elongatus (Costa). Worldwide in distribution; in the western At-
lantic from Massachusetts and Bermuda to northern Brazil. Bathypelagic.
53. Family Alepisauridae-Lancetfishes
Alepisaurus ferox Lowe-Lancetfish. Both sides of the Atlantic and the North
Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Cuba and widespread
in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
54. Family Paralepidae
Paralepis brevis brevis Zugmayer. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from off North Carolina to the Lesser Antilles and the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Lestidium intermedium (Poey). Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from off North Carolina to northern Brazil and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Lestidium affine (Ege). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from
off New Jersey to northern Brazil and the southern Gulf of Mexico. Bathy-
pelagic.
Lestidium atlanticum Borodin. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from off North Carolina to central Brazil and the
southern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.

ORDER CETUNCULI
55. Family Cetomimidae-Whale fishes
Gyrinomimus simplex Parr. Bermuda to the northwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
ORDER ATELEOPODES
56. Family Ateleopidae
Ijimaia loppei Roule. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from
the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.

ORDER LYOMERI
57. Family Eurypharyngidae-Gulpers
Eurypharynx pelecanoides Vaillant-Gulper. Worldwide in tropical and tem-
perate waters; widespread in the North Atlantic, south to the Lesser Antilles
on the western side. Bathypelagic.

ORDER OSTARIOPHYSI
58. Family Ariidae-Sea catfishes
Galeichthys felis (Linnaeus)-Sea catfish. Cape Cod to Panama and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Bagre marinus (Mitchill)-Gafftopsail catfish. Cape Cod to the West Indies
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


59. Family Ictaluridae-North American catfishes
Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)-Channel cat. Streams of the Great Lakes
region south to Lake Okeechobee, Florida and tributaries of the Gulf of
Mexico. Freshwater.
Ictalurus catus (Linnaeus)-White catfish. Streams from Massachusetts south
to Lake Okeechobee, Florida and tributaries of the Gulf of Mexico. Fresh-
water.
Ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur)-Brown bullhead. Southern Canada through the
eastern United States to southern Florida. Freshwater.
Ictalurus platycephalus (Girard)-Snail cat. North Carolina to central Florida and
west to the Chattahoochee River basin. Freshwater.
Ictalurus natalis (Lesueur)-Yellow cat. Widespread in the eastern United States
and throughout Florida. Freshwater.
Noturus funebris Gilbert and Swain-Longfin madtom. Florida panhandle and
west along the Gulf coast. Freshwater.
Noturus leptacanthus Jordan-Gulf madtom. Streams of the southeastern United
States to Lake County, Florida. Freshwater.
Noturus gyrinus Mitchill-Tadpole madtom. Widespread in the eastern United
States south to Lake Okeechobee, Florida. Freshwater.

60. Family Catostomidae-Suckers
Carpiodes cyprinus subsp.-River quillback. Lake Erie through the Mississippi
Valley to western Florida. Freshwater.
Carpiodes velifer (Rafinesque)-Highfin carpsucker. Escambia River, Florida,
through the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.
Moxostoma poecilurum Jordan-Blacktail redhorse. Western Florida from the
Choctawhatchee River along the Gulf coast to Texas. Freshwater.
Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque)-Spotted sucker. Maryland to northern Flor-
ida to the upper Mississippi Valley and west to Texas. Freshwater.
Erimyzon sucetta (Lac6pBde)-Eastern chubsucker. New York to the southern
tip of Florida. Freshwater.
Erimyzon oblongus claviformis (Girard)-Creek chubsucker. Western Florida to
Louisiana. Freshwater.
Erimyzon tenuis (Agassiz)-Alabama chubsucker. Western Florida to Louisiana.
Freshwater.

61. Family Cyprinidae-Minnows
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus-Carp. Native to Asia, but widely introduced in
North America. Found in western Florida. Freshwater.
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill)-Golden shiner. Eastern Canada through
the eastern United States to southern Florida. Freshwater.
Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill)-Creek chub. Eastern Canada and United
States to northern Florida and New Mexico. Freshwater.
Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay-Pugnose minnow. Great Lakes and Mississippi Val-
ley to southern Florida. Freshwater.
Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque)-Bigeye chub. Choctawhatchee River in western
Florida to the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.
Hybopsis harper harper (Fowler)-Spring redeye chub. Eastern Alabama and
northern Florida south to Lake County, Florida. Freshwater.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Hybopsis harper subterranea Hubbs and Crowe-Cave redeye chub. Alachua
County, Florida. Freshwater.
Notropis roseipinnis Hay-Rosefin shiner. Gulf coast from western Florida to
Louisiana. Freshwater.
Notropis hypselopterus (Giinther)-Sailfish shiner. Georgia to Hillsborough
County, Florida, and to Alabama. Freshwater.
Notropis signipinnis Bailey and Suttkus-Flagfin shiner. Chipola River in
western Florida along the Gulf coast to Louisiana. Freshwater.
Notropis roseus (Jordan)-Weed shiner. Western Florida along the Gulf coast
to Texas and widespread in the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.
Notropis petersoni Fowler-Peterson's shiner. North Carolina to Martin County,
Florida. Freshwater.
Notropis chalybaeus (Cope)-Iron-colored shiner. New York to Brevard County,
Florida, west to Texas, and widespread in the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.
Notropis cummingsae cummingsae Myers-Lowland shiner. North Carolina to
Marion County, Florida, and west to the Apalachicola River, Florida. Fresh-
water.
Notropis venustus (Girard)-Blacktail shiner. Western Florida to Texas, and
widespread in the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.
Notropis longirostris (Hay)-Eastern longnose shiner. Western Florida to Mis-
sissippi. Freshwater.
Notropis maculatus (Hay)-Red minnow. North Carolina to southern Florida
and west to Texas. Freshwater.
Notropis callitaenia Bailey and Gibbs-Bluestripe shiner. Gulf drainage streams
in Georgia, Alabama, and western Florida. Freshwater.
Ericymba buccata Cope-Silverjaw minnow. Upper Mississippi Valley and
Potomac River inland to northern Florida. Freshwater.
Hybognathus hayi Jordan-Cypress minnow. Lower Mississippi Valley to west-
ern Florida. Freshwater.
ORDER APODES
62. Family Anguillidae-True eels
Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur)-American eel. Greenland, Labrador, and Bermuda
to the Guianas and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
63. Family Serrivomeridae
Serrivomer beani Gill and Ryder-Sawtooth eel. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from New York to northern Brazil and the southern
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
64. Family Nemichthidae-Snipe eels
Avocettina infans (Giinther)-Snipe eel. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific
Oceans; in the western Atlantic from off New Jersey to northern Brazil.
Bathypelagic.
Avocettinops schmidti Roule and Bertin. Atlantic and Indian Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from New York and from off the north coast of Cuba.
Bathypelagic.
65. Family Synaphobranchidae
Synaphobranchus kaupi Johnson. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to Bahia, Brazil and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Synaphobranchus infernalis Gill. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from New Jersey to Puerto Rico and the southern Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
66. Family Nettastomidae
Venefica procera (Goode and Bean). Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from South Carolina to the Lesser Antilles and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
67. Family Congridae-Conger eels
Conger oceanicus (Mitchill)-Sea eel. Gulf of Maine to Brazil and the north-
central Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Conger caudilimbatus (Poey). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the Bahamas and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Cuba. Shore.
Congermuraena impressa (Poey). Cape Hatteras to Cuba and the northern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Congrina flava (Goode and Bean). Florida to Trinidad and throughout the Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Congrina gracilior Ginsburg. Northern Gulf of Mexico south to Cuba and
YucatAn. Shore.
Congrina macrosoma Ginsburg. Gulf of Mexico from off Florida to Louisiana
and the Gulf of Campeche. Shore.
Congrina dubius (Breder). Northern Gulf of Mexico to British Honduras.
Benthic.
Hoplunnis macrurus Ginsburg. Northern to southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hoplunnis tenuis Ginsburg. Northern Gulf of Mexico to Cuba. Benthic.
Hoplunnis diomedianus Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from off Cape San Bias, Florida. Benthic.
Promyllantor schmitti Hildebrand. Florida Keys and the northwestern Gulf of
Mexico. Benthic.
Coloconger raniceps Alcock. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from off Tortugas, Florida. Benthic.

68. Family Dysomminidae
Dysommina rugosa Ginsburg. Georgia to Tortugas, Florida. Benthic.

69. Family Muraenidae-Moray eels
Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani-Green moray. New Jersey and Bermuda to
Rio de Janeiro and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier)-Spotted moray. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and North Carolina to Rio de Janeiro
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan and Davis. New Jersey and Bermuda to Cuba
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gymnothorax nigromarginatus (Girard). Northern Florida westward through the
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau)-Purplemouth moray. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Tortugas, Florida, to Bahia,
Brazil. Shore.
Muraena retifera Goode and Bean-Reticulated moray. Southern New England
to the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Echidna catenata (Bloch)-Little banded eel. Bermuda and the Florida Keys
to Brazil. Shore.
70. Family Ophichthidae
Myrophis punctatus Liitken-Speckled worm eel. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and North Carolina to Rio Goyanna,
Brazil and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Ahlia egmontis (Jordan)-Worm eel. Vicinity of the Florida Keys to Macei6,
Brazil and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Caecula conklini (Eigenmann). Southeast Florida to the Bahamas. Shore.
Myrichthys acuminatus (Gronow)-Sharptail eel. Florida Keys to the Lesser
Antilles. Shore.
Verma kendalli Gilbert-Kendall's eel. Miami to Key West, Florida. Shore.
Mystriophis intertinctus (Richardson)-Spoonnose snake eel. North Carolina to
Bahia, Brazil and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Mystriophis mordax (Poey). Northern Gulf coast to the Florida Keys and Cuba.
Shore.
Ophichthus ocellatus (Lesueur)-Spotted snake eel. North Carolina to Brazil
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Ophichthus guttifer Bean and Dresel-Florida snake eel. Snapper Banks near
Pensacola, Florida. Shore.
Ophichthus retropinnis Eigenmann. Snapper Banks near Pensacola, Florida.
Shore.
Ophichthus gomesi (Castelnau)-Gomes' snake eel. Massachusetts to Rio Grande
do Sul, Brazil, and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Bascanichthys teres (Goode and Bean). Across the northern Gulf of Mexico and
to the Florida Keys and Cuba. Shore.
Bascanichthys scuticaris (Goode and Bean)-Whipsnake eel. North Carolina
to Florida and across the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Callechelys muraena Jordan and Evermann-Blotched snake eel. West coast of
Florida from Pensacola to Marco. Shore.
Callechelys perryae Storey. Sanibel Island, Florida. Shore.
Letharchus velifer Goode and Bean. North Carolina to the northern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Gordiichthys irretitus Jordan and Davis. Snapper Banks near Pensacola, Florida.
Shore.
Gordiichthys springeri Ginsburg. Salerno, Florida. Shore.
71. Family Dysommidae
Dysomma aphododera Ginsburg. Northern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
ORDER HETEROMI
72. Family Halosauridae
Halosaurus guentheri Goode and Bean. Off New Jersey to the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Aldrovandia pallida Goode and Bean. Southern New England to Florida and
the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Aldrovandia gracilis Goode and Bean. Off Massachusetts to the Lesser Antilles
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


73. Family Notacanthidae
Notacanthus analis Gill. New Jersey to the northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.

ORDER SYNENTOGNATHI
74. Family Belonidae-Needlefishes
Ablennes hians hians (Valenciennes)-Flat needlefish. Atlantic, Indian, and west-
ern Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts and Bermuda
to Bahia, Brazil, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Strongylura acus (Lacepede)-Agujon. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Massachusetts and Bermuda to the West Indies, and wide-
spread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Strongylura longleyi Breder. Northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Strongylura marina (Walbaum)-Northern needlefish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Maine to Florida and the northern Gulf of
Mexico. Euryhaline.
Strongylura notata (Poey)-Southern needlefish. Bermuda, the Florida Keys,
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Strongylura raphidoma (Ranzani)-Houndfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from New York and Bermuda to Bahia, Brazil and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Strongylura timucu (Walbaum)-Timucu. Northern Gulf of Mexico to Rio de
Janeiro. Euryhaline.
75. Family Scomberesocidae
Scomberesox saurus (Walbaum). Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland and Bermuda to Argentina
(35*30' S.). Pelagic.
76. Family Hemiramphidae-Halfbeaks
Chriodorus atherinoides Goode and Bean-Hardhead. Gulf of Mexico from the
Florida Keys to Yucatan. Shore.
Euleptorhamphus velox Poey-Flying halfbeak. Massachusetts and Bermuda to
Hispaniola, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hemiramphus balao Lesueur-Balao. South Carolina to Colombia, and wide-
spread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Linnaeus)-Redtailed balao. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts and Bermuda to Rio de
Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (Ranzani)-Halfbeak. Eastern Pacific and both sides
of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from Maine and Bermuda to Argentina
(3530' S.), and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
77. Family Exocoetidae-Flying fishes
Oxyporhamphus micropterus similis Bruun. Atlantic and eastern Pacific; in the
western Atlantic from off northeastern Florida to Colombia, and widespread
in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Parexocoetus brachypterus hillianus (Gosse). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from New Jersey to Argentina (35o30' S.), and widespread
in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Parexocoetus brachypterus littoralis Breder. New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles
and the southern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Exocoetus volitans Linnaeus. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from New Jersey and Bermuda to Argentina (35o30' S.), and the northeastern
and northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Exocoetus obtusirostris Gunther. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western At-
lantic from off Delaware and Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Cypselurus cyanopterus (Valenciennes). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from South Carolina to Espirito Santo, Brazil, and widespread in
the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Cypselurus exsiliens (Linnaeus). New Jersey and Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro,
and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Cypselurus heterurus (Rafinesque)-Atlantic flying fish. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from the Gulf of Maine and Bermuda to
Rio de Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Cypselurus comatus (Mitchill). Southeastern Florida to northern Brazil. Shore.
Cypselurus furcatus (Mitchill)-Spotfin flying fish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to Cabo Frio, Brazil,
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Progonichthys gibbifrons (Valenciennes)-Bluntnose flying fish. Both sides of
the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from southern New England to Espirito
Santo, Brazil, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Hirundichthys affinis (Giinther)-Fourwing flying fish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Virginia to northern Brazil, and widespread in
the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Danichthys rondeleti (Valenciennes). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from southern New England and Bermuda to Colombia and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.

ORDER MICROCYPRINI
78. Family Cyprinodontidae-Killifishes
Lucania parva (Baird and Girard)-Rainwater killifish. Massachusetts to the
southern tip of Florida, and west to Mexico. Euryhaline.
Lucania goodei Jordan-Redfin killifish. Throughout the Florida peninsula.
Freshwater.
Leptolucania ommata (Jordan)-Ocellated killifish. Southeastern Alabama and
southern Georgia to Osceola County, Florida. Freshwater.
Adinia xenica (Jordan and Gilbert)-Diamond killifish. Western Florida along
the Gulf coast to Texas. Freshwater.
Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)-Mummichog. From Quebec to northeastern
Florida and Bermuda. Euryhaline.
Fundulus grandis Baird and Girard-Gulf killifish. Northeastern Florida to the
north coast of Cuba and west to Mexico. Euryhaline:
Fundulus confluentus Goode and Bean-Marsh killifish, Maryland to Key West,
Florida, and west to Alabama. Freshwater.
Fundulus majalis (Walbaum)-Striped killifish. New Hampshire to northeastern
Florida. Euryhaline.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Fundulus similis (Baird and Girard)-Longnose killifish. Northeastern Florida
to Key West and west to Mexico. Euryhaline.
Fundulus seminolis Girard-Seminole killifish. Northern and central Florida.
Freshwater.
Fundulus cingulatus Valenciennes-Banded topminnow. Southern Georgia to
southern Florida and west to Alabama. Freshwater.
Fundulus chrysotus (Giinther)-Golden topminnow. South Carolina to southern
Florida and west to Texas. Freshwater.
Fundulus notti notti (Agassiz)-Southern starhead topminnow. Western Florida
to Texas, and widespread in the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.
Fundulus notti lineolatus (Agassiz)-Eastern starhead topminnow. North Caro-
lina to Highlands County, Florida. Freshwater.
Fundulus jenkinsi (Evermann)-Saltmarsh topminnow. Western Florida along
the Gulf coast to Texas. Euryhaline.
Fundulus olivaceus (Storer)-Blackspot topminnow. Mississippi Valley to the
Choctawhatchee River in western Florida, and to eastern Texas. Freshwater.
Cyprinodon variegatus LacepBde-Sheepshead killifish. Cape Cod to the south-
ern tip of Florida and west along the Gulf coast to Mexico. Euryhaline.
Cyprinodon hubbsi Carr-Lake Eustis sheepshead killifish. Vicinity of Lake
Eustis, Florida. Freshwater.
Floridichthys carpio carpio (Giinther)-Florida goldspotted killifish. Both coasts
of southern Florida. Euryhaline.
Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean-Flagfish. Throughout Florida and west
along the Gulf coast to Mexico. Euryhaline.
Rivulus cylindraceus Poey. Southern Florida to Cuba. Euryhaline.

79. Family Poeciliidae-Topminnows
Gambusia affinis holbrooki Girard-Eastern mosquitofish. New Jersey to the
southern tip of Florida. Euryhaline.
Gambusia affinis afinis (Baird and Girard)-Western mosquitofish. Upper Mis-
sissippi Valley to western Florida and Texas. Euryhaline.
Gambusia sp. (not yet named)-Mangrove mosquitofish. Extreme southern Flor-
ida. Euryhaline.
Heterandria formosa Agassiz-Least killifish. South Carolina to the southern
tip of Florida and west to Louisiana. Euryhaline.
Mollienesia latipinna Lesueur-Sailfin molly. South Carolina to the southern
tip of Florida and west along the Gulf coast to Mexico. Euryhaline.

ORDER SALMOPERCAE
80. Family Aphredoderidae-Pirate perches
Aphredoderus sayanus (Gilliams)-Pirate perch. New York to the southern tip
of Florida and west to Texas, also widespread in the Mississippi Valley.
Freshwater.
ORDER SOLENICHTHYES
81. Family Syngnathidae--Pipefishes
Corythoichthys albirostris Heckel-Whitenose pipefish. Pensacola, Florida, south
to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Corythoichthys brachycephalus (Poey). Florida Keys to the Lesser Antilles.
Shore.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Hippocampus erectus erectus Perry-Spotted seahorse. Throughout the Gulf of
Mexico to Miami and south to Cuba. Shore.
Hippocampus erectus hudsonius DeKay-Northern seahorse. Nova Scotia to
Argentina (43o30' S.) and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hippocampus zosterae Jordan and Gilbert-Dwarf seahorse. Bermuda to Cuba
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hippocampus regulus Ginsburg. Northern to southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Syngnathus springeri Herald-Springer's pipefish. South Carolina to Tortugas
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Syngnathus dunckeri Metzelaar-Duncker's pipefish. Bermuda and North Caro-
lina to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Syngnathus elucens Poey-Poey's pipefish. Bermuda and Key West to the Lesser
Antilles. Shore.
Syngnathus fuscus Storer-Northern pipefish. Bay of Fundy to St. Augustine,
Florida. Shore.
Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann and Kendall)-Scovell's pipefish. Northeastern
Florida possibly to Panama and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Syngnathus floridae floridae (Jordan and Gilbert)-Florida pipefish. Northern
coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Syngnathus floridae mackayi (Swain and Meek)-McKay's pipefish. Southern
Florida and the Keys. Shore.
Syngnathus floridae subsp. Eastern Gulf of Mexico along the Florida mainland.
Shore.
Syngnathus louisianae Giinther-Louisiana pipefish. Virginia to Jamaica and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus-Sargassum pipefish. Atlantic, Indian, and west-
ern Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from the Gulf of Maine and
Bermuda to Argentina (520 S.) and the western and northcentral Gulf of
Mexico. Pelagic.
Syngnathus sp.-Hildebrand's pipefish. Eastern Gulf of Mexico along the Florida
coast. Shore.
Micrognathus crinitus (Jenyns). Tortugas, Florida to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Oostethus lineatus (Valenciennes). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from South Carolina to Rio de Janeiro, and widespread in the Gulf
of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Micrognathus crinigerus (Bean and Dresel). Southern Florida to Albrolhos
Reef, Brazil, and to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Micrognathus vittatus (Kaup). Bermuda and Tortugas to Argentina and the west-
ern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
82. Family Aulostomidae-Trumpetfishes
Aulostomus maculatus Valenciennes-Trumpetfish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and southern Florida to Colombia.
Shore.
83. Family Fistulariidae-Cornetfishes
Fistularia tabacaria Linnaeus-Cornetfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from the Gulf of Maine and Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


84. Family Centriscidae-Snipefishes
Macrorhamphosus scolopax (Linnaeus)-Snipefish. Worldwide in tropical and
temperate waters; in the western Atlantic from North Carolina to Argentina.
Pelagic.
Macrorhamphosus gracilis (Lowe)-Snipefish. Worldwide in tropical and tem-
perate waters; in the western Atlantic from New Jersey to Ilha Rosa, Brazil, and
evidently widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.

ORDER ANACANTHINI
85. Family Macrouridae-Grenadiers
Gadomus arcuatus (Goode and Bean). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Gadomus longifilis (Goode and Bean). Worldwide in distribution; in the western
Atlantic from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Bathygadus favosus Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Lesser Antilles. Benthic.
Bathygadus vaillanti Roule and Angel. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Tortugas, Florida to the northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Bathygadus macrops Goode and Bean. Northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
Hymenocephalus cavernosus (Goode and Bean). Throughout the Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
Malacocephalus occidentalis Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Tortugas, Florida to the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
Steindachneria argentea Goode and Bean. Northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Ventrifossa atlantica Parr. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Nezumia bairdi (Goode and Bean)-Common grenadier. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the West
Indies and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Nezumia hildebrandi Parr. Northern Gulf of Mexico to Cuba. Benthic.
Nematonurus armatus (Hector). Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from Cape Cod to Uruguay. Benthic.
Cariburus zaniophorus (Vaillant). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Cariburus mexicanus Parr. Northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Chalinura similar Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from New York to northern Florida. Benthic.
Chalinura murrayi (Giinther). Both sides of the Atlantic and the western Pacific;
in the western Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Trachonurus sulcatus (Goode and Bean). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Lesser Antilles.
Benthic.
Coelorhynchus caribbaeus (Goode and Bean). Throughout the Gulf of Mexico
to the southern Caribbean. Benthic.
Coelorhynchus carminatus (Goode). Nova Scotia to the Lesser Antilles and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Oxygadus occa (Goode and Bean). Northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Squalogadus sp. (not yet named). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


86. Family Moridae
Melanonus unipennis Beebe. Bermuda to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
Uraleptus maraldi (Risso). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the northern Gulf of Mexico to Tortugas and south to the Lesser Antilles.
Benthic.
Physiculus fulvus Bean-Hakeling. New York to the northern Caribbean, and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Laemonema barbatulum Goode and Bean. Delaware to Tortugas, Florida, and
the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Laemonema melanurum Goode and Bean. New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles and
the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Laemonema yarrelli Lowe. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the vicinity of Tortugas, Florida. Benthic.
Antimora rostrata Giinther-Blue hake. Worldwide in tropic and temperate
waters; in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to Uruguay. Benthic.
87. Family Bregmacerotidae
Bregmaceros atlanticus Goode and Bean. New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Bregmaceros cayorum Nichols. Florida Keys. Shore.
88. Family Gadidae-Codfishes
Phycis chesteri Goode and Bean-Longfin hake. Newfoundland to Tortugas,
Florida. Benthic.
Urophycis regius (Walbaum)-Spotted hake. Southern New England to Florida
and the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Urophycis cirratus Goode and Bean. Northern Gulf of Mexico to Tortugas,
Florida. Benthic.
Urophycis floridanus (Bean and Dresel). North Carolina to Florida, and wide-
spread in the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Merluccius albidus (Mitchill). New York to Tortugas, Florida. Benthic.
Merluccius magnoculus Ginsburg. Northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.

ORDER ALLOTRIOGNATHI
89. Family Lampridae-Opahs
Lampris regius (Bonnaterre)-Opah. Worldwide in distribution; in the western
Atlantic from Newfoundland to Florida and the eastern Gulf of Mexico.
Pelagic.
90. Family Stylephoridae
Stylephorus chordatus Shaw. Worldwide in distribution; in the western Atlantic
from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Lesser Antilles. Pelagic.
91. Family Lophotidae-Crestfishes
Lophotus capellei Temminck and Schlegel-Crestfish. Worldwide in distribution;
in the western Atlantic from southern Florida to Rio de Janeiro. Pelagic.
Eumecichthys fiski (Giinther)-Longnose crestfish. Atlantic and western Pacific
Oceans; in the western Atlantic from southern Florida. Pelagic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


92. Family Trachipteridae-Ribbonfishes
Trachipterus cristatus Bonelli2--Scalloped ribbonfish. Worldwide in distribu-
tion; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the northeastern Gulf of
Mexico to Cuba. Pelagic.
Trachipterus sp.-Western Atlantic ribbonfish. New York to the Straits of
Florida off Key West. Pelagic.
Trachipterus polystictus Ogilby 2-Polkadotted ribbonfish. Worldwide in dis-
tribution; in the western Atlantic from northeastern Florida to Cuba. Pelagic.
93. Family Regalecidae-Oarfishes
Regalecus glesne (Ascanius)-Oarfish. Worldwide in distribution; in the western
Atlantic from Bermuda, and from the northeastern to the southeastern Gulf
of Mexico. Pelagic.
ORDER BERYCOMORPHI
94. Family Stephanoberycidae
Stephanoberyx monae Gill. Southern New England to the Lesser Antilles and
the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
95. Family Polymixiidae
Polymixia lowei Giinther. Long Island to the Lesser Antilles and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
96. Family Diretmidae
Diretmus argenteus Johnson. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
97. Family Trachichthyidae
Hoplostethus mediterraneus Cuvier. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
98. Family Anoplogastridae-Fangtooths
Anoplogaster cornuta Valenciennes-Fangtooth. Worldwide in distribution; in
the western Atlantic from New Jersey to the northeastern and southeastern
parts of the Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
99. Family Melamphaidac-Bigscales
Melamphaes megalops Liitken. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western At-
lantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Melamphaes anthrax (Osorio). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western At-
lantic from Bermuda and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
100. Family Holocentridae-Squirrelfishes
Myripristis jacobus Cuvier. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Tortugas, Florida, and south to
Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
Holocentrus coruscus Poey. Bermuda to the Bahamas, Tortugas, Cuba, and the
southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

2 New generic names, as yet unpublished, are in press.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Holocentrus bullisi Woods. Bermuda and North Carolina to the northeastern and
southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum). Bermuda and North Carolina to Colombia and the
Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Holocentrus ascensionis (Osbeck)-Squirrelfish. Both side of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and Florida to Rio de Janeiro and the north-
ern and western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Holocentrus marianus Cuvier. North Carolina to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Holocentrus vexillarius Poey. New Jersey and Bermuda to Colombia and the
northcentral and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

ORDER ZEOMORPHI
101. Family Zeidae-Dories
Cyttopsis roseus (Lowe). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Zenion hololepis (Goode and Bean). Bahamas to Tortugas, Florida, and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Zenopsis ocellata (Storer). Nova Scotia to the northern and eastern Gulf of
Mexico. Benthic.
102. Family Grammicolepidae
Xenolepidichthys dalgleishi Gilchrist. Atlantic and western Pacific; in the west-
ern Atlantic from the northern Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean. Pelagic.
103. Family Antigoniidae-Boarfishes
Antigonia capros Lowe. Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the western
Atlantic from Rhode Island to Rio de Janeiro and the northern Gulf of
Mexico. Pelagic.
Antigonia brown Fowler. Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the western
Atlantic from New Jersey to southern Florida. Pelagic.

ORDER PERCOMORPHI
104. Family Serranidae-Sea basses
Alphestes afer (Bloch)-Cherna. Bermuda and Tortugas, Florida to Argentina
(520 S.) and the Falkland Islands. Shore.
Centropristes philadelphicus (Linnaeus)-Gulf seabass. South Carolina to Tor-
tugas, Florida, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Centropristes melanus Ginsburg. Eastern and northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Centropristes striatus (Linnaeus)-Black seabass. Maine to northern Florida.
Shore.
Centropristes ocyurus (Jordan and Evermann). North Carolina to Florida and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Chlorististium sp. (not yet named). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Serraniculus pumilio Ginsburg. North Carolina to Florida and the northeastern
and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Paracentropristes pomospilus Ginsburg. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Dermatolepis zanclus Evermann and Kendall-Sicklefin grouper. Southern Flor-
ida. Shore.
Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes)-Marbled grouper. Bermuda and southern
Florida to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Shore.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Diplectrum arcuarium Ginsburg. Northern to southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Diplectrum radiale (Quoy and Gaimard). Tortugas, Florida to Uruguay. Shore.
Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus)-Sandperch. North Carolina to Uruguay and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Serranellus subligarius (Cope)-Belted sandfish. North Carolina to Tortugas,
Florida, and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from southern Florida to the West Indies. Shore.
Cephalopholis fulvus (Linnaeus)-Coney. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to
Rio de Janeiro and the western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck)-Rock hind. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Bahia, Brazil and
the western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode and Bean-Speckled hind. Bermuda and
South Carolina to Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus)-Red hind. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Brazil and the western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Epinephelus morio (Cuvier)-Red grouper. Bermuda and Massachusetts to Rio
de Janeiro, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Epinephelus mystacinus (Poey)-Cherna de lo Alto. Bermuda and Florida to
Brazil. Shore.
Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes)-Snowy grouper. Massachusetts to Rio de
Janeiro, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Epinephelus striatus (Bloch)-Nassau grouper. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Bahia, Brazil, and the eastern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Garrupa nigrita (Holbrook)-Black jewfish. New Jersey and Bermuda to Rio de
Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gonioplectrus hispanus Cuvier-Spanish flag. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to
the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Hemianthias vivanus (Jordan and Swain)-Red barbier. Northern and eastern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hemianthias leptus (Ginsburg). Northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hypoplectrus gemma Goode and Bean. Florida Keys. Shore.
Hypoplectrus puella (Cuvier). Florida Keys. Shore.
Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum)-Butter hamlet. Bermuda and Florida to
Panama and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Liopropoma aberrans (Poey). Tortugas, Florida to Cuba. Shore.
Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey)-Black grouper. Bermuda and Massachusetts to
Rio de Janeiro, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Mycteroperca falcata (Poey)-Scamp. Bermuda to Bahia, Brazil, and widespread
in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey)-Princess rockfish. Massachusetts to Florida
and Cuba. Shore.
Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode and Bean)-Gag. Bermuda and Virginia to
Rio de Janeiro and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Mycteroperca phenax Jordan and Swain-Bacalao. Florida Keys. Shore.
Mysteroperca tigris (Valenciennes)-Tiger rockfish. Bermuda to Florida and the
Lesser Antilles. Shore.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Mycteroperca venenosa venenosa (Linnaeus)-Yellowfin grouper. Bermuda and
North Carolina to Cuba and the southern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Mycteroperca venenosa apua (Bloch). Florida Keys to Ilha dos Buzios, Brazil.
Shore.
Mycteroperca xanthosticta (Jordan and Swain). Vicinity of Pensacola, Florida.
Shore.
Ocyanthias martinicensis (Guichenot). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Tortugas,
Florida, and south to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Paranthias furcifer (Cuvier)-Creole fish. Both coasts of the Atlantic and the
eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda to Ilha Victoria, Brazil,
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Petrometopon cruentatus cruentatus (Lac6pBde)-Graysby. Bermuda and Florida
to Bahia, Brazil, and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Petrometopon cruentatus coronatus (Valenciennes)-Brown hind. Florida Keys
to Colombia. Shore.
Polyprion americanus (Bloch and Schneider)-Wreckfish. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to Argentina (38 S.)
and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionodes baldwini Evermann and Marsh. Tortugas, Florida to Puerto Rico.
Shore.
Prionodes fusculus (Poey). Tortugas, Florida to Cuba. Shore.
Prionodes nigropunctatus Hildebrand. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Prionodes notospilus (Longley). Eastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionodes phoebe (Poey)-Tattler. Bermuda and Florida to Cuba and the eastern
and northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Promicrops itaiara (Lichtenstein)-Spotted jewfish. Both coasts of tropical Amer-
ica; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Florida to Rio de Janeiro
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pronotogrammus aureorubens Longley. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the
vicinity of Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Pseudogrammus brederi (Hildebrand). Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Roccus saxatilis (Walbaum)-Striped bass. Gulf of St. Lawrence to northern
Florida and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Rypticus arenatus Cuvier. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Rypticus saponaceus saponaceus (Bloch and Schneider)-Soapfish. Both sides
of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from Rhode Island and Bermuda to
Bahia, Brazil, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Serranus beta Hildebrand. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Serranus tortugarum Longley. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.

105. Family Centrarchidae-Sunfishes
Micropterus notius Bailey and Hubbs-Suwannee Bass. Suwannee River system,
Florida. Freshwater.
Micropterus punctulatus (Rafinesque)-Northern spotted bass. Mississippi Valley
to the Apalachicola River in western Florida. Freshwater.
Micropterus sp.-Chipola bass. Chipola River system, Florida. Freshwater.
Micropterus salmoides salmoides LacepBde-Northern largemouth bass. Virginia
to northern Florida and westward through the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Micropterus salmoides floridanus (Lesueur)-Florida largemouth bass. Florida
peninsula. Freshwater.
Chaenobryttus gulosus (Cuvier)-Warmouth. Widespread in the eastern and
southwestern United States, to the southern tip of Florida. Freshwater.
Lepomis punctatus punctatus (Valenciennes)-Stumpknocker. North Carolina
to the southern tip of Florida. Freshwater.
Lepomis punctatus mineatus (Jordan)-Redspotted sunfish. Mississippi Valley
to western Florida. Freshwater.
Lepomis microlophus (Giinther)-Shellcracker. Georgia to the southern tip of
Florida and west to Texas. Freshwater.
Lepomis auritus (Linnaeus)-Redbreast. Maine to central Florida. Freshwater.
Lepomis megalotis (Rafinesque)-Longear sunfish. Mississippi Valley to western
Florida. Freshwater.
Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque-Bluegill. Southern Canada and the Great
Lakes region through the Mississippi Valley and southeast to southern Florida.
Freshwater.
Lepomis marginatus (Holbrook)-Dollar sunfish. South Carolina to central Flor-
ida and west to the lower Mississippi Valley and Texas. Freshwater.
Enneacanthus obesus (Girard)-Banded sunfish. Southern New Hampshire to
central Florida. Freshwater.
Enneacanthus glorious (Holbrook)-Bluespotted sunfish. New York to southern
Florida. Freshwater.
Enneacanthus chaetodon elizabethae (Bailey)-Blackbanded sunfish. Southern
Georgia to northern Florida. Freshwater.
Ambloplites rupestris ariommus Viosca-Southern rockbass. Lower Mississippi
Valley and Gulf coast to the Choctawhatchee River in western Florida.
Freshwater.
Acantharchus pomotis (Baird)-Mudperch. New York to Alachua County, Flor-
ida. Freshwater.
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur)-Speckled perch. Throughout the eastern
United States to Texas and southern Florida. Freshwater.
Centrarchus macropterus (Lac6pede)-Flier. Virginia to central Florida and
westward to the Mississippi Valley. Freshwater.
Elassoma zonatum Jordan-Banded pygmy sunfish. Mississippi Valley to Texas
and to Marion County, Florida. Freshwater.
Elassoma evergladei Jordan-Everglade pygmy sunfish. Southern Georgia to
southern Florida. Freshwater.
Elassoma okefenokee Bohlke. Southern Georgia to central Florida. Freshwater.

106. Family Percidae-Perches
Percina nigrofasciata nigrofasciata (Agassiz)-Crawl-a-bottom. South Carolina
to Orange County, Florida, and west to Louisiana. Freshwater.
Percina uranidea (Jordan and Gilbert)-Stargazing darter. Lower Mississippi
Valley to western Florida. Freshwater.
Percina caprodes carbonaria (Baird and Girard)-Logperch. Lower Mississippi
Valley to Texas and to western Florida. Freshwater.
Ammocrypta beani Jordan-Naked sand darter. Mississippi to the Choctaw-
hatchee River in western Florida. Freshwater.
Boleosoma sp. Oklawaha River, Florida. Freshwater.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Etheostonm saxatile (Hay)-Speckled darter. Gulf coast to western Florida.
Freshwater.
Etheostoma stigmaeum (Jordan)-Snubnose darter. Lower Mississippi Valley to
western Florida. Freshwater.
Etheostoma edwini (Hubbs and Cannon)-Brown darter. Southern Georgia and
Alabama to northern Florida. Freshwater.
Etheostoma barratti (Holbrook)-Florida swamp darter. South Carolina to Lake
Okeechobee and west through the lower Mississippi Valley to Texas. Fresh-
water.
Etheostoma proeliare (Hay)-Cypress darter. Western Florida to Mississippi.
Freshwater.
Etheostoma swaini (Jordan)-Gulf darter. Louisiana to western Florida. Fresh-
water.

107. Family Priacanthidae-Catalufas
Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier-Catalufa. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Argentina (35 S.), and wide-
spread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Priacanthus cruentatus (Lace6pde)-Bigeye. Both sides of the Atlantic and the
eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from southern Florida to Rio de Janeiro.
Shore.
Pristigenys altus (Gill)-Short bigeye. Bermuda and the Gulf of Maine to the
West Indies and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

108. Family Apogonidae-Cardinal fishes
Apogon americanus Castelnau. Tortugas, Florida to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Apogon aurolineatus (Mowbray). Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Apogon binotatus (Poey). Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Venezuela. Shore.
Apogon conklini (Silvester). Bahamas and the Florida Keys to Puerto Rico and
Panama. Shore.
Apogon imberbis (Linnaeus). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from Rhode Island to northern Brazil. Shore.
Apogon maculatus (Poey)-Spotted cardinal fish. Bermuda and Massachusetts
to Bahia, Brazil, and the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Apogon pigmentarius (Poey). Bermuda and Florida to Panama and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Apogon planifrons Longley and Hildebrand. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Apogon pseudomaculatus Longley. Bermuda and Florida to the northeastern
and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Apogon quadrisquamatus Longley. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Apogonichthys alutus (Jordan and Gilbert)-Pensacola cardinal fish. North Caro-
lina to Puerto Rico and to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Apogonichthys stellatus (Cope)-Conchfish. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to
Colombia and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Oxyodon sp. Near Tortugas, Florida. Benthic.
Epigonus pandionis (Goode and Bean). Virginia to the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.
Synagrops bella (Goode and Bean). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from North Carolina to Florida and throughout the Gulf of Mexico.
Benthic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Synagrops spinosa Schultz. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Parascombrops sp. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
109. Family Malacanthidae-Matajuelos
Caulolatilus cyanops Poey. New Jersey to Puerto Rico, and widespread in the
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Caulolatilus microps Goode and Bean. New Jersey to Florida and the central
and northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Caulolatilus intermedius Howell Rivero: Northeastern and southwestern Gulf
of Mexico to Cuba. Shore.
Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps Goode and Bean-Tilefish. Nova Scotia to Flor-
ida, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Malacanthus plumieri (Bloch)-Matajuelo blanco. Bermuda and South Carolina
to Bahia, Brazil and the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico; also to Ascension
Island. Shore.
110. Family Pomatomidae-Bluefishes
Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus)-Bluefish. Worldwide in distribution; in the
western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Argentina (40" S.), and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.

111. Family Rachycentridae-Cobias
Rachycentron canadus (Linnaeus)-Cobia. Worldwide in distribution; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Argentina (35 S.), and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

112. Family Carangidae-Jacks
Seriola falcata (Valenciennes)-Almaco amberjack. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and North Carolina to Buenos Aires,
Argentina and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Seriola fasciata (Bloch)-Little amberjack. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Cuba and the northeastern and south-
western Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Seriola zonata (Mitchill)-Slender amberjack. Nova Scotia and Bermuda to
Santos, Brazil, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Seriola dumerili (Risso)-Great amberjack. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Puerto Rico, and wide-
spread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Elagatis bipinnulatus (Quoy and. Gaimard)-Rainbow runner. Worldwide in
tropical waters; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Colombia and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus)-Round pompano. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil,
and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Trachinotus glaucus (Bloch)-Longfin pompano. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Argentina (39" S.),
and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus)-Common pompano. Bermuda and Massa-
chusetts to Santos, Brazil and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus)-Pilot fish. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the
western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Argentina (350 30' S.)
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch)-Bigeye scad. Worldwide in tropical waters;
in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier)-Mackerel scad. Nova Scotia and Bermuda to
Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Pelagic.
Decapterus punctatus (Agassiz)-Round scad. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Nova Scotia to Rio de Janeiro and
the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Trachurus lathami Nichols-Rough scad. Maine to Florida and throughout the
Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Caranx latus Agassiz-Horse-eye jack. New Jersey and Bermuda to Rio de
Janeiro, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic; occasionally in
freshwater.
Caranx bartholomaei Cuvier-Yellow jack. Massachusetts to Macei6, Brazil, and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Caranx crysos (Mitchill)-Blue runner. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Sdo Paulo, Brazil, and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Caranx ruber (Bloch)-Runner. Bermuda and off New Jersey probably to Rio
de Janeiro, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Caranx hippos (Linnaeus)-Common jack. Worldwide in tropical and temperate
waters; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Uruguay (35o30' S.) and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic; occasionally in freshwater.
Caranx lugubris (Poey)-Tinosa. Worldwide in tropical and temperate waters;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda to Santos, Brazil, and the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier). North Carolina to Santos, Brazil and the
northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Uraspis heidi Fowler. New Jersey to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus)-Bumper. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Uruguay (35o30' S.)
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Alectis crinitus (Mitchill)-African pompano. Both coasts of the Atlantic and
the eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Santos,
Brazil, and the western and southern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill)-Moonfish. Eastern Pacific and both sides of
the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Uruguay and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Vomer dorsalis Gill (records may be referable to above species). Both sides of
the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from southeastern Florida and the
eastern Gulf of Mexico to YucatAn. Pelagic.
Selene vomer (Linnaeus)-Lookdown. Eastern Pacific and both sides of the
Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Argentina
(380 S.), and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Oligoplites saurus saurus (Bloch and Schneider)-Leatherjacket. Gulf of Maine
to Uruguay and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


113. Family Coryphaenidae-Dolphins
Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus-Dorado. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the
western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Brazil and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Coryphaena equisetis Linnaeus-Small dolphin. Worldwide in tropical waters;
in the western Atlantic from Maryland and Bermuda to Florida and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
114. Family Bramidae-Pomfrets
Taractes princeps (Johnson)-Freira do alto. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from *Nova Scotia to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Pelagic.
Pterycombus goodei (Jordan)-Fan fish. South Carolina to the Cayman Islands
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Brama brama (Bonnaterre)-Common pomfret. Worldwide in distribution; in
the western Atlantic from Massachusetts and Bermuda to Cuba. Pelagic.
115. Family Centropomidae-Snooks
Centropomus ensiferus Poey-Snook. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from southern Florida to Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
Centropomus parallelus Poey-Fat snook. Southern Florida to Santos, Brazil.
Euryhaline.
Centropomus pectinatus Poey-Cuban snook. Both coasts of tropical America;
in the western Atlantic from southern Florida and the east coast of Mexico
to Rio de Janeiro. Euryhaline.
Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch)-Thin snook. Both coasts of tropical America;
in the western Atlantic from South Carolina to Rio de Janeiro and the north-
ern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.

116. Family Lutjanidae-Snappers
Etelides aquilonaris (Goode and Bean). Carolina coast to Tortugas, Florida.
Shore.
Etelis oculatus (Cuvier)-Cachucho. Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda to the Lesser Antilles and the southern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lutjanus analis (Valenciennes)-Muttonfish. Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro and
the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lutjanus aya (Bloch)-Red snapper. Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lutjanus buccanella Cuvier-Blackfin snapper. Bermuda and North Carolina
to the Lesser Antilles and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lutianus apodus (Walbaum)-Schoolmaster. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Bahia, Brazil, and the
northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus)-Mangrove snapper. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Lutjanus cyanopterus (Valenciennes)-Cubera. Southern Florida to Brazil. Shore.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Lutianus jocu (Bloch and Schneider)-Dog snapper. Massachusetts to Natal,
Brazil, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus)-Spot snapper. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Santos, Brazil, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lutianus vivanus (Cuvier)-Silk snapper. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Colombia, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lutjanus ambiguus (Poey)-Cuban snapper. Key West, Florida to Cuba. Shore.
Lutjanus mahogoni (Cuvier)-Mahogany snapper. North Carolina to Colombia.
Shore.
Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch)-Yellowtail snapper. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro, and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pristipomoides andersoni Ginsburg. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Rhomboplites aurorubens (Cuvier)-Vermilion snapper. Bermuda and North
Carolina to Rio de Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

117. Family Pomadasyidae-Grunts
Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier)-Ticopa. Southern Florida to Sdo JoHo da Barra,
Brazil, and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch)-Black margate. Florida to Bahia, Brazil, and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus)-Porkfish. Bermuda and southern Florida
to Santa Catarina, Brazil, and the eastern and southern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Bathystoma aurolineatum rimator (Jordan and Swain)-Tomtate. Virginia to the
Florida Keys and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Brachygenys chrysargyreus (Giinther)-Bronze grunt. Northeastern Gulf of
Mexico to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Shore.
Haemulon melanurum (Linnaeus)-French margatefish. Bermuda and the Flor-
ida Keys to Bahia, Brazil, and southern Mexico. Shore.
Haemulon macrostomum Giinther-Spanish grunt. Bermuda and the Florida
Keys to Colombia and the eastern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Haemulon bonariense Cuvier-Black grunt. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to
Argentina (36 S.). Shore.
Haemulon album Cuvier-Margate. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Brazil
and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Haemulon carbonarium Poey-Caesar grunt. Bermuda and the Florida Keys
to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest)-French grunt. Bermuda and South Caro-
lina to Brazil and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Haemulon parra (Desmarest)-Ronco. Florida Keys to Bahia, Brazil, and the
northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Haemulon sciurus (Shaw)-Yellow grunt. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to
Rio de Janeiro and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Haemulon plumieri (Lac6pede)-White grunt. Virginia to Rio de Janeiro and
the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Orthopristis chrysopterus (Linnaeus)-Pigfish. Bermuda and Massachusetts to
Florida and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.






280 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 2

118. Family Lobotidae-Tripletails
Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch)-Tripletail. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacipc
Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Argeln-
tina (388 S.) and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
119. Family Leiognathidae-Mojarras
Diapterus olisthostomus (Goode and Bean)-Irish pompano. Northeastern Flor-
ida to Bahia, Brazil. Euryhaline.
Eucinostomus argenteus Baird and Girard-Mojarra. Both coasts of tropical
America; in the western Atlantic from New Jersey to Rio de Janeiro, and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Eucinostomus pseudogula Poey. Bermuda and southern Florida to Bahia, Brazil;
a questionable record from New York. Shore.
Eucinostomus gula (Quoy and Gaimard)-Silver jenny. Bermuda and Massa-
chusetts to Argentina (38' S.) and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lepidochir havana (Nichols)-Cuban mojarra. Bermuda and the Florida Keys
to Natal, Brazil. Shore.
Ulaema lefroyi (Goode)-Florida mojarra. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Natal, Brazil, and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Eugerres brasilianus (Valenciennes)-Patao. South Carolina to Santos, Brazil,
and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier). Southwestern Florida to Bahia, Brazil, and west
to Mexico. Shore.
Gerres cinereus (Walbaum)-Gray mojarra. Both coasts of tropical America;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Rio de Janeiro
and the northern and western Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
120. Family Sciaenidae-Croakers
Bairdiella chrysura (Lac6pede)-Silver perch. New York to Florida and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier)-Spotted squeteague. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from New York to Florida and throughout the Gulf
of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Cynoscion nothus (Holbrook)-Silver squeteague. Maryland to Florida and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Cynoscion arenarius Ginsburg-Sand squeteague. Throughout the Gulf of
Mexico. Euryhaline.
Cynoscion regalis (Bloch and Schneider)-Weakfish. Nova Scotia to eastern Flor-
ida. Shore.
Equetus acuminatus (Bloch and Schneider)-Cubbyu. Bermuda and North
Carolina to Rio de Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Equetus lanceolatus (Linnaeus)-Equetus. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Bahia, Brazil and the northeastern and southern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Equetus pulcher (Steindachner)-Striped equetus. Florida Keys to the Lesser
Antilles. Shore.
Equetus umbrosus (Jordan and Eigenmann). South Carolina to Florida and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Equetus punctatus (Bloch and Schneider)-Spotted equetus. Southeastern Flor-
ida to Hispaniola. Shore.







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Larimus fasciatus Holbrook-Banded croaker. Massachusetts to Florida and the
northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Leiostomus xanthurus LacepBde-Spot. Gulf of Maine to Florida and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus)-Southern king whiting. New York to
Argentina (400 S.) and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook)-Gulf king whiting. Virginia to Florida and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Menticirrhus focaliger Ginsburg-Gulf minkfish. Widespread in the Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch and Schneider)-King whiting. Maine to Florida.
Shore.
Micropogon undulatus (Linnaeus)-Atlantic croaker. Massachusetts to Argentina
(40 S.) and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier)-Corvina. Key Largo, Florida to Bahia, Brazil, and
probably as far south as the Rio Negro, Argentina. Shore.
Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus)-Black drum. Massachusetts to Argentina (40 S.)
and the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Sciaenops ocellata (Linnaeus)-Red drum. Massachusetts to Florida and the
northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Stellifer lanceolatus (Holbrook)-Star drum. Virginia to Florida and the north-
ern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Umbrina coroides Cuvier-Roncador. Virginia to Santos, Brazil, and the south-
western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Vacuoqua sialis (Jordan and Eigenmann)-Vacocua. Florida Keys. Shore.

121. Family Mullidae-Goatfishes
Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier)-Yellow goatfish. Bermuda and the Florida
Keys to the Lesser Antilles, Panama, and the western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Mullus auratus Jordan and Gilbert-Northern goatfish. Bermuda and Nova Scotia
to the West Indies and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch)-Spotted goatfish. New Jersey and Bermuda
to Rio de Janeiro and the southern and northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Upeneus parvus Poey. Eastern Florida to the Lesser Antilles and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
122. Family Sparidae-Porgies
Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus) [= A. unimaculatus (Bloch)]-Sea bream.
New Jersey to Rio de Janeiro and the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and west to
Yucatin. Shore.
Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum) [= A. oviceps Ginsburg]-Sheepshead.
Nova Scotia to Florida and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Calamus arctifrons Goode and Bean-Grass porgy. Florida to Ilha Grande,
Brazil, and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Calamus bajonado (Bloch and Schneider)-JoTlfead porgy. Bermuda and Rhode
Island to Porto Seguro, Brazil, and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Calamus calamus (Valenciennes)-Saucereye porgy. Bermuda and North Caro-
lina to Bahia, Brazil, and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Calamus leucosteus Jordan and Gilbert-Whitebone porgy. South Carolina to
Florida and the northeastern and western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Calamus penna (Valenciennes)-Littlemouth porgy. Florida to Rio Grande do
Sul, Brazil, and the eastern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Calamus proridens Jordan and Gilbert-Littlehead porgy. Florida Keys to His-
paniola and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Diplodus holbrooki (Bean)-Spottail pinfish. Chesapeake Bay to Florida and
the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes)-Sargo. Bermuda and eastern Florida to
Argentina (38030' S.) and Ascension Island. Shore.
Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus)-Northern porgy. Nova Scotia to eastern Flor-
ida. Shore.
Stenotomus caprinus Bean-Longspine porgy. North Carolina to Florida and
the northern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pagrus sedecim Ginsburg-Red porgy. New York to Argentina (88 S.) and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus)-Pinfish. Bermuda and Massachusetts to Flor-
ida and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
123. Family Pempheridae-Sweepers
Pempheris schomburgki Miiller and Troschel-Glassy sweeper. Bermuda and
Miami to Brazil and west to Yucatan. Shore.

124. Family Kyphosidae-Rudderfishes
Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus)-Rudderfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Brazil and the north-
western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier)-Yellow chub. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Tortugas, Florida to Brazil. Shore.
125. Family Ephippidae-Spadefishes
Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet)-Spadefish. Massachusetts to Santos, Brazil,
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
126. Family Chaetodontidae-Butterfly fishes
Centropyge argi Woods and Kanazawa. Bermuda to the southern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Chaetodon aya Jordan-Bank butterfly fish. North Carolina to the eastern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus-Foureye butterfly fish. Massachusetts to the
Lesser Antilles and Panama. Shore.
Chaetodon ocellatus Bloch-Common butterfly fish. Massachusetts to Maman-
guape, Brazil, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Chaetodon sedentarius Poey. Eastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico to
Hispaniola. Shore.
Chaetodon striatus Linnaeus-Banded butterfly fish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from New Jersey to Rio de Janeiro and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus)-Queen angelfish. Northeastern and southwestern
Gulf of Mexico to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Holacanthus isabelita (Jordan and Rutter)-Common angelfish. Bermuda and
the Florida Keys to the West Indies, and in the eastern ahd northwestern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Holacanthus townsendi (Nichols and Mowbray)-Townsend's angelfish. Florida
Keys. Shore.
Holacanthus bermudensis (Goode)-Angelfish. Bermuda and Florida to the
West Indies. Shore.
Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch)-Rock beauty. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to
Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus)-Grey angelfish. New York to Rio de Janeiro
and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pomacanthus paru (Bloch)-French angelfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from the Florida Keys to Rio de Janeiro. Shore.

127. Family Pomacentridae-Damselfishes
Abudefduf saxatilis saxatilis (Linnaeus)-Sergeant major. Both sides of the At-
lantic and the eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and
Rhode Island to Uruguay and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Abudefduf analogus (Gill). Florida Keys to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Abudefduf taurus (Miiller and Troschel). Florida Keys to the Lesser Antilles.
Shore.
Chromis enchrysurus (Jordan and Gilbert)-Yellowtail reef fish. Eastern and
southern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Chromis insolatus (Cuvier)-Chauffe-soleil. Bermuda and eastern and north-
central Gulf of Mexico to the Lesser Antilles and St. Helena Island. Shore.
Chromis multilineatus (Guichenot). Tortugas, Florida to Cuba. Shore.
Nexilarius concolor (Gill). Both coasts of tropical America; in the western At-
lantic from the Florida Keys. Shore.
Pomacentrus adustus Troschel. Florida Keys to Hispaniola and west to Mexico.
Shore.
Pomacentrus fuscus (Cuvier)-Maria molle. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Rio de Janeiro and
the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pomacentrus leucostictus Miiller and Troschel-Beaugregory. Both sides of the
Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from Maine and Bermuda to Bahia, Brazil,
and the eastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pomacentrus partitus Poey. Tortugas, Florida to Cuba. Shore.
Pomacentrus planifrons Cuvier. Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles and
the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Pomacentrus xanthurus Poey. Tortugas, Florida to Cuba and the southwestern
and northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Microspathodon chrysurus (Cuvier)-Yellowtail damselfish. Both sides of the
Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the Florida Keys to the
Lesser Antilles and Panama. Shore.

128. Family Labridae-Wrasses
Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus)-Spanish hogfish. Bermuda and Florida to Rio de
Janeiro and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico; also to St.
Helena and Ascension Islands. Shore.
Decodon puellaris (Poey)-Cuban hogfish. Northeastern and southwestern Gulf
of Mexico to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Doratonotus megalepis Giinther-Dwarf wrasse. Bermuda and the Florida Keys
to the Lesser Antilles and Panama. Shore.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Halichoeres bivittata (Bloch)-Slippery dick. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Ilha Victoria, Brazil, and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Halichoeres caudalis (Poey)-Painted wrasse. Northern and eastern Gulf of
Mexico to Hispaniola. Shore.
Halichoeres garnoti (Valenciennes)-Variegated wrasse. Bermuda and the Flor-
ida Keys to Rio de Janeiro and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Halichoeres maculipinna (Miiller and Troschel)-Bandedhead wrasse. Bermuda
and North Carolina to the Lesser Antilles and the southwestern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner). Tortugas, Florida to Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
Halichoeres radiata (Linnaeus)-Puddingwife. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Bahia, Brazil, and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum)-Hogfish. Bermuda and North Carolina to
Colombia and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bloch)-Bluehead. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to
Colombia and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Xyrichthys martinicensis (Valenciennes)-Rosy razorfish. Bermuda and the Flor-
ida Keys to the Lesser Antilles and west to YucatAn. Shore.
Xyrichthys psittacus (Linnaeus)-Pearly razorfish. South Carolina to Bahia,
Brazil, to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, and west to YucatAn. Shore.
Xyrichthys ventralis Bean. Tortugas, Florida to Yucatan. Shore.
129. Family Scaridae-Parrot fishes
Nicholsina ustus (Valenciennes)-Emerald parrotfish. New Jersey to Rio de
Janeiro and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Cryptotomus roseus Cope-Manytoothed parrotfish. Bermuda and the Florida
Keys to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes-Loro. Florida Keys to Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
Scarus guacamaia Cuvier-Rainbow parrotfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Argentina and
west to YucatAn. Shore.
Scarus coeruleus (Bloch)-Blue parrotfish. Bermuda and Maryland to Rio de
Janeiro. Shore.
Scarus croicensis Bloch-Bahama parrotfish. Bermuda and Massachusetts to
Macei6, Brazil, and the eastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Scarus vetula Bloch and Schneider-Queen parrotfish. Bermuda and the Florida
Keys to Colombia and west to YucatAn. Shore.
Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes)-Redband parrotfish. Bermuda, and
Tortugas, Florida, to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch and Schneider)-Vieja. Tortugas, Florida, to
Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes)-Mud parrotfish. Bermuda and Massa-
chusetts to Rio de Janeiro and west to Yucatan. Shore.
Sparisoma axillaris Steindachner. Tortugas, Florida, to Bahia, Brazil, and west
to Panama. Shore.
Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes)-Radiant parrotfish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and southern Florida to Bahia, Brazil,
and the western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre)-Green parrotfish. Bermuda and southern Florida
to Bahia, Brazil, and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
130. Family Percophidae-Flatheads
Bembrops gobioides (Goode)-Flathead. New York to Florida and the eastern
and northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Bembrops anatirostris Ginsburg-Spotted flathead. Northern and eastern Gulf
of Mexico to Puerto Rico. Benthic.
131. Family Acanthuridae-Surgeon fishes
Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch)-Tang. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro and the north-
eastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch and Schneider-Blue tang. Bermuda and New
York to Rio de Janeiro and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau-Ocean tang. Bermuda and Massachusetts to
Bahia, Brazil, and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Acanthurus r, nll,l Briggs and Caldwell-Randall's tang. Northeastern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.

132. Family Uranoscopidae-Stargazers
Astroscopus y-graecum (Cuvier)-Southern stargazer. North Carolina to Santos,
Brazil, and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Execestides egregius Jordan and Thompson. Southeastern and western Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Gnathagnus laticeps (Longley and Hildebrand). Florida Keys to the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Kathetostoma albigutta (Bean). Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

133. Family Dactyloscopidae-Sand stargazers
Dactyloscopus tridigitatus Gill-Surf gazer. Bermuda and eastern Gulf of
Mexico to Natal, Brazil. Shore.
Gillellus greyae Kanazawa. Bermuda and Tortugas, Florida to Cuba. Shore.
Gillellus semicinctus Gilbert. Both coasts of tropical America; in the western
Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Florida Keys. Shore.
Gillellus rubrocinctus Longley. Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
134. Family Gempylidae-Snake mackerels
Promethichthys prometheus (Cuvier). Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
Nesiarchus nasutus Johnson. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from Nova Scotia to southern Florida. Pelagic.
Ruvettus pretiosus Cocco-Escolar. Worldwide in distribution; in the western
Atlantic from Newfoundland and Bermuda to Brazil and the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Nealotus tripes Johnson. Both sides of the Atlantic and the western Pacific; in
the western Atlantic from Maryland and Bermuda to the northeastern and
western Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Gempylus serpens Cuvier-Snake mackerel. Worldwide in tropical waters; in
the western Atlantic from New York to Colombia and the northeastern Gulf
of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Epinnula magistralis Poey. Western Atlantic and western Pacific; in the Atlantic
from the northern Gulf of Mexico to Cuba and the Caribbean. Bathypelagic.
Epinnula orientalis americana Grey. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Cuba.
Bathypelagic.
135. Family Trichiuridae-Cutlass fishes
Benthodesmus tenuis (Giinther). Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from New Jersey to the northern and eastern Gulf of
Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Benthodesmus simonyi (Steindachner). Both sides of the Atlantic and the eastern
Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to the northwestern
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus-Cutlass fish. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific
Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Argentina and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
136. Family Scombridae-Mackerels
Acanthocybium solanderi (Cuvier)-Wahoo. Worldwide in tropical waters; in
the western Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to Colombia and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Auxis thazard (Lac6pede)-Frigate mackerel. Worldwide in tropical waters;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Colombia and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus)-Ocean bonito. Worldwide in tropical waters;
in the western Atlantic from the Gulf of Maine to Rio de Janeiro and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque)-Little tuna. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the Gulf of Maine to Ilha Victoria,
Brazil, and the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Thunnus thynnus thynnus (Linnaeus)-Bluefin tuna. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland and Bermuda to Colombia and
the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Thunnus obesus Lowe-Bigeye tuna. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the
western Atlantic from southern Florida to Hispaniola. Pelagic.
Thunnus alalunga (Gmelin)-Albacore. Worldwide in distribution; in the western
Atlantic from New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles. Pelagic.
Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson)-Blackfin tuna. Bermuda and Massachusetts to Brazil
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Thunnus albacares subulatus (Poey)-Yellowfin tuna. Bermuda and New York
to the West Indies and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Pelagic.
Scomber colias Gmelin-Chub mackerel. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Ilha Rosa, Brazil, and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill)-Spanish mackerel. Both sides of the At-
lantic and the eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Maine and Ber-
muda to Santos, Brazil, and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch)-Cero. Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro and the
western Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier)-Kingfish. Gulf of Maine to Rio de Janeiro
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Sarda sarda (Bloch)-Atlantic bonito. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Argentina (38 S.) and the western Gulf of
Mexico. Pelagic.
137. Family Luvaridae-Louvars
Luvarus imperialis Rafinesque-Louvar. Both sides of the Atlantic and the
eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Connecticut to the eastern
Gulf of Mexico near the Florida Keys. Pelagic.
138. Family Xiphiidae-Swordfishes
Xiphias gladius Linnaeus-Swordfish. Worldwide in tropical and temperate
waters; in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland and Bermuda to Argen-
tina (380 S.) and the northeastern and western Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
139. Family Istiophoridae-Spearfishes
Makaira ampla ampla (Poey)-Atlantic blue marlin. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Uruguay, and widespread in
the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Makaira albida (Poey)-White marlin. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Brazil, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.
Pelagic.
Tetrapturus beloni Rafinesque-Spearfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from southern Florida. Pelagic.
Istiophorus americanus (Cuvier)-Atlantic sailfish. Rhode Island to Brazil and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.

140. Family Eleotridae-Sleepers
Dormitator maculatus (Bloch)-Fat sleeper. North Carolina to Rio de Janeiro,
and in tributaries on all sides of the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin)-Slender sleeper. Bermuda and South Carolina to Rio
de Janeiro, and in tributaries on all sides of the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Eleotris amblyopsis (Cope). South Carolina to Dutch Guiana. Euryhaline.
Eviota personata Jordan and Thompson-Bronzehead goby. Bermuda and the
Florida Keys. Shore.
Gobiomorus dormitor Lac6pede-Sleeper. Southern Florida to Dutch Guiana
and the western Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Erotelis smaragdus smaragdus (Valenciennes).-Emerald goby. Florida Keys to
Natal, Brazil. Shore.
Erotelis smaragdus civitatum Ginsburg. Northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
loglossus calliurus Bean-Pensacola goby. North Carolina to the eastern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
141. Family Gobiidae-Gobies
Barbulifer ceuthoecus (Jordan and Gilbert). Florida Keys. Shore.
Bathygobius curacao curacao (Metzelaar). Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser An-
tilles and west to Panama. Shore.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Bathygobius curacao lepidopoma Ginsburg. Vicinity of Key West, Florida.
Shore.
Bathygobius soporator soporator (Valenciennes). Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from the Bahamas and the Florida Keys to Santos,
Brazil, and west to YucatAn. Shore.
Bathygobius soporator catulus (Girard)-Mapo. North Carolina to Florida and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Bollmannia boqueronensis Evermann and Marsh. Tortugas, Florida to Puerto
Rico. Shore.
Bollmannia jeannae Fowler. Key West. Shore.
Awaous taiasica (Lichtenstein)-River goby. Florida to Bahia, Brazil, and the
southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Coryphopterus glaucofraenum (Gill)-Bridled goby. Bermuda and North Caro-
lina to Natal, Brazil. Shore.
Evermannichthys metzelaari Hubbs-Sponge goby. Western Florida to the
Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Evorthodus lyrics (Girard)-Lyre goby. Chesapeake Bay to Dutch Guiana and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Garmannia macrodon (Beebe and Tee-Van). Southern Florida to the Lesser
Antilles and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gnatholepis thompsoni Jordan. Bermuda and Tortugas, Florida to the West
Indies and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gobionellus stigmaturus (Goode and Bean)-Spottail goby. Bermuda to the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gobionellus shufeldti (Jordan and Evermann)-Freshwater goby. North Caro-
lina to Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Gobionellus stigmaticus (Poey). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Rio de Janeiro.
Shore.
Gobionellus boleosoma (Jordan and Gilbert)-Darter goby. North Carolina to
Natal, Brazil, and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Gobionellus smaragdus (Valenciennes). South Carolina to Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
Gobionellus oceanicus (Pallas). North Carolina to Brazil. Shore.
Gobionellus gracillimus Ginsburg. Northeastern Florida to the northern Gulf
of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Gobionellus hastatus Girard-Sharptail goby. North Carolina to Florida and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Gobiosoma bosci (LacepBde)-Naked goby. Massachusetts to Hispaniola and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico south to Tampico, Mexico. Euryhaline.
Gobiosoma horsti Metzelaar. Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Gobiosoma longum Nichols. Bermuda, and Key West, Florida to the Lesser
Antilles. Shore.
Gobiosoma oceanops (Jordan)-Neon goby. Florida Keys to the southwestern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg-Robust goby. Southeastern Florida to Bahia,
Brazil, and across the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Gobiosoma longipala Ginsburg. Boca Grande, Florida. Shore.
Gobulus myersi Ginsburg-Myer's goby. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lophogobius cyprinoides (Pallas)-Crested goby. Bermuda and southern Florida
to Hispaniola and west to Panama. Euryhaline.
Microgobius carri Fowler-Carr's goby. Southwestern Florida. Shore.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Microgobius gulosus (Girard)-Largemouth goby. Northeastern Florida to the
eastern and northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Microgobius microlepis Longley and Hildebrand. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Microgobius thalassinus (Jordan and Gilbert)-Green goby. South Carolina to
Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Rhinogobius eigenmanni (Garman). Vicinity of Key West, Florida. Shore.
Risor ruber (Rosen). Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Gobioides broussonneti LacBpbde-Barreto. Southeastern Florida to Rio de
Janeiro and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
142. Family Callionymidae-Dragonets
Callionymus agassizi Goode and Bean. Eastern Gulf of Mexico to the northern
Caribbean. Shore.
Callionymus himantophorus Goode and Bean. Georgia to the Lesser Antilles
and the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Callionymus bairdi Jordan-Baird's dragonet. Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Callionymus boekei Metzelaar. Bermuda and southern Florida to the Lesser
Antilles. Shore.
Callionymus calliurus Eigenmann and Eigenmann (includes C. floridae Fowler)-
Spotted dragonet. Key West, Florida. Shore.
143. Family Opisthognathidae-Jaw fishes
Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey). Florida Keys to Cuba and the eastern and
southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Opisthognathus aurifrons (Jordan and Thompson)-Blue jawfish. Bahamas to
the Florida Keys. Shore.
Opisthognathus fasciatum Longley. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Opisthognathus macrognathus Poey. Northeastern and southwestern Gulf of
Mexico to Cuba. Shore.
Opisthognathus maxillosus Poey. Bahamas and the Florida Keys to Cuba. Shore.
Opisthognathus whitehursti (Longley). Bahamas to the Florida Keys. Shore.
Opisthognathus lonchurus Jordan and Gilbert. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to
Hispaniola. Shore.
144. Family Blenniidae-Blennies
Blennius cristatus Linnaeus-Molly miller. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and southern Florida to Pernambuco, Brazil,
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Blennius marmoreus Poey. New York to Venezuela and the northeastern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Blennius pilicornis Cuvier-Horned blenny. Tortugas, Florida to Rio de Janeiro.
Shore.
Blennius nicholsi Tavolga (includes Semablennius gallowayi Fowler). North-
eastern to southwestern Florida. Shore.
Chaenopsis ocellata Poey. Southeastern Florida to Cuba. Shore.
Chasmodes bosquianus (Lac6pBde)-Striped blenny. New York to Florida and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Chasmodes saburrae Jordan and Gilbert-Gulf blenny. Northern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Chasmodes novemlineatus (Wood)-Lined blenny. South Carolina to Florida.
Shore.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Hypleurochilus bermudensis Beebe and Tee-Van-Bermuda blenny. Bermuda
to Tortugas, Florida, and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hypleurochilus geminatus (Wood)-Crested blenny. North Carolina to Rio de
Janeiro and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hypsoblennius hentzi (Lesueur)-Carolina blenny. New Jersey to Florida and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hypsoblennius ianthas (Jordan and Gilbert)-Freckled blenny. South Carolina
to Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Rupiscartes atlanticus (Valenciennes)-Rock skipper. Both sides of the Atlantic
and the eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from southern Florida to
Macei6, Brazil, and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Salarichthys textilis (Quoy and Gaimard)-West Indian blenny. Bermuda and
southern Florida to Pernambuco, Brazil, Ascension Island, and the south-
western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
145. Family Clinidae-Klipfishes
Acanthemblemaria aspera (Longley). Tortugas, Florida to Haiti. Shore.
Acanthemblemaria erythrops (Fowler). American Shoals, Florida. Shore.
Acanthemblemaria spinosa Metzelaar. Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles.
Shore.
Emblemaria atlantica Jordan and Evermann-Banner blenny. Northeastern Gulf
of Mexico to Rio de Janeiro. Shore.
Emblemaria pandionis Evermann and Marsh. Tortugas, Florida to Puerto Rico.
Shore.
Emblemaria piratula Ginsburg and Reid. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Emblemariopsis diaphana Longley. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Hemiemblemaria simulus Longley and Hildebrand. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Stathmonotus stahli tekla Nichols. Bahamas and Tortugas, Florida to Nicaragua.
Shore.
Stathmonotus hemphilli Bean. Southern Florida to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Enneapterygius jordani (Evermann and Marsh). Tortugas, Florida to Puerto
Rico and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Enneapterygius pectoralis Fowler. Southwestern Florida. Shore.
Labrisomus nigricinctus Rivero. Tortugas, Florida to the Barbados. Shore.
Labrisomus haitiensis Beebe and Tee-Van. Bahamas and Tortugas, Florida to
Haiti and the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Labrisomus kalisherae (Jordan). Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles and
west to British Honduras. Shore.
Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy and Gaimard)-Hairy klipfish. Both sides of the
Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and northeastern Florida to
Rio de Janeiro and the western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Malacoctenus sp. Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles and west to Campeche,
Mexico. Shore.
Malacoctenus macropus (Poey). Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Puerto Rico
and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Malacoctenus sp. Tortugas, Florida to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil, and west to
Veracruz, Mexico. Shore.
Paraclinus marmoratus (Steindachner)-Marbled klipfish. Eastern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner)-Blackfin klipfish. Bermuda and the Flor-
ida Keys to Brazil. Shore.
Paraclinus grandicomis (Rosen)-Crested klipfish. Bahamas and southern Florida
to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Paraclinus cingulatus (Evermann and Marsh). Bahamas and Tortugas, Florida
to Puerto Rico. Shore.
Paraclinus fasciatus (Steindachner)-Banded klipfish. Bahamas and northeastern
Gulf of Mexico to Venezuela, and west to Guatemala. Shore.
Starksia ocellatus (Steindachner). Bahamas and southwestern Florida to Macei6,
Brazil. Shore.
146. Family Microdesmidae
Microdesmus floridanus (Longley). Florida Keys. Shore.
147. Family Brotulidae-Brotulas
Aphyonus mollis Goode and Bean. Southeastern Gulf of Mexico off Tortugas,
Florida. Benthic.
Barathronus bicolor Goode and Bean. Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles.
Benthic.
Bassozetus compressus (Giinther). Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Bassozetus normalis Gill. New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles and the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Brotula barbata (Bloch and Schneider). Bermuda and the Florida Keys to
Jamaica and throughout the Gulf Mexico. Shore.
Dicrolene intronigra Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Massachusetts to the Lesser Antilles and the northern Gulf of
Mexico. Benthic.
Dinematichthys cayorum (Evermann and Kendall)-Brotula. Bermuda and the
Florida Keys to Panama. Shore.
Diplacanthopoma brachysoma Giinther. Atlantic and Indian Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Pernambuco, Brazil.
Benthic.
Neobythites gilli Goode and Bean. Northeastern and southwestern Gulf of
Mexico to Pernambuco, Brazil. Benthic.
Neobythites marginatus Goode and Bean. Atlantic and Indian Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from near Tortugas, Florida to the Lesser Antilles and the
northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Mixonus pectoralis (Goode and Bean). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Dominica.
Benthic.
Monomitopus agassizi (Goode and Bean). Northern Gulf of Mexico to the Lesser
Antilles. Benthic.
Porogadus subarmatus Vaillant. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western At-
lantic from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Porogadus catena (Goode and Bean). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Porogadus miles Goode and Bean. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from off Delaware to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
148. Family Ophidiidae-Cuskeels
Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier). Throughout the Gulf of Mexico south to
Brazil. Shore.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Lepophidium cervinum (Goode and Bean). Massachuetts to Florida and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lepophidium jeannae Fowler. Key West, Florida. Shore.
Lepophidium profundorum (Gill). Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Lepophidium graellsi (Poey). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Cuba. Shore.
Ophidion beani Jordan and Gilbert. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Otophidium holbrooki (Putnam). Northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Otophidium omostigmum (Jordan and Gilbert). Georgia to Florida and the
northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Otophidium welshi Nichols and Breder. New Jersey to Florida and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Otophidium marginatum (DeKay). New York to Florida and the northern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
149. Family Carapidae-Fierasfers
Carapus bermudensis (Jones)-Fierasfer. Bermuda and the Florida Keys to the
Lesser Antilles. Shore.
150. Family Nomeidae-Man-of-war fishes
Psenes maculatus Liitken. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from New Jersey to the Greater Antilles. Pelagic.
Psenes cyanophrys Cuvier. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from Massachusetts to the Lesser Antilles, and widespread
in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Psenes pellucidus Liitken. Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the western
Atlantic from New Jersey to the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of
Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Psenes regulus Poey. New Jersey to Cuba. Pelagic.
Nomeus gronowi (Gmelin). Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Brazil and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
151. Family Stromateidae-Harvest fishes
Poronotus triacanthus (Peck)-Butterfish. Newfoundland to Florida and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Peprilus alepidotus (Linnaeus)-Harvest fish. Maine to Florida and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Peprilus paru (Linnaeus)-Poppyfish. New Jersey to Argentina (38o30' S.) and
the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Cubiceps melanus Ginsburg. North Carolina to Florida and the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Cubiceps nigriargenteus Ginsburg. Massachusetts to Florida and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Palinurichthys bythites Ginsburg. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Palinurichthys perciformis (Mitchill). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Nova Scotia to the Florida Keys. Pelagic.
152. Family Tetragonuridae-Squaretails
Tetragonurus atlanticus Lowe-Squaretail. Worldwide in tropical waters; in
the western Atlantic from New York to Panama and the eastern Gulf of
Mexico. Pelagic.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


153. Family Sphyraenidae-Barracudas
Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum)-Great barracuda. Both sides of the Atlantic
and the western Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massa-
chusetts to Rio de Janeiro, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphyraena borealis DeKay-Northern barracuda. Bermuda and Massachusetts
to Panama and the northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier-Senet. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Massachusetts to Colombia and throughout the Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Sphyraena picudilla Poey-Picudilla. Bermuda and Tortugas, Florida to Argen-
tina (38 S.) and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
154. Family Mugilidae-Mullets
Mugil curema Valenciennes-White mullet. Both sides of the Atlantic and the
eastern Pacific; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to
Santos, Brazil, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Mugil liza Valenciennes-Liza. Bermuda and southern Florida to Argentina.
Shore.
Mugil cephalus Linnaeus-Striped mullet. Worldwide in tropical waters; in
the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Santos, Brazil, and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Mugil gaimardianus (Desmarest)-Redeye mullet. Florida Keys to Cuba. Shore.
Mugil trichodon (Poey)-Fantail mullet. Bermuda and southern Florida to Natal,
Brazil, and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft)-Mountain mullet. Both coasts of tropical
America; in the western Atlantic from eastern Florida to Colombia and the
northcentral and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
155. Family Atherinidae-Silversides
Membras martinica laciniata (Swain)-Rough silverside. New York to eastern
Florida. Euryhaline.
Membras martinica vagrans (Goode and Bean). Gulf coast from northwestern
Florida to Tampico. Euryhaline.
Allanetta harringtonensis araea (Jordan and Gilbert). Florida Keys to Colombia
and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Atherinomorus stipes (Miiller and Troschel). Southeastern Florida to Brazil and
the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Labidesthes sicculus (Cope)-Brook silverside. Great Lakes region and New
York to the southern tip of Florida and westward to Oklahoma and Texas.
Euryhaline.
Menidia menidia menidia (Linnaeus). South Carolina to south of Daytona Beach,
Florida. Euryhaline.
Menidia beryllina (Cope)-Tidewater silverside. Massachusetts to the southern
tip of Florida and west to Veracruz, Mexico. Euryhaline.
Menidiella conchorum (Hildebrand and Ginsburg). Key West, Florida. Shore.
156. Family Polynemidae-Threadfins
Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus)-Barbu. New Jersey and Bermuda to Uruguay
and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Polydactylus octonemus (Girard)-Threadfin. Massachusetts to Florida and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


157. Family Steinegeriidae
Steinegeria rubescens Jordan and Evermann. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
ORDER SCLEROPAREI

158. Family Scorpaenidae-Rockfishes
Helicolenus dactylopterus thelmae Fowler. Massachusetts to Florida and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Scorpaenodes floridae Hildebrand. Tortugas, Florida. Shore.
Pontinus castor Poey. Bermuda to Cuba and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Pontinus longispinis Goode and Bean. Georgia to Florida and the northern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Pontinus rathbuni Goode and Bean. New Jersey to Florida and the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Neomerinthe pollux (Poey). New Jersey to Cuba and the northern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Trachyscorpia cristulata (Goode and Bean). Massachusetts to Florida and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Scorpaena inermis Cuvier. New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Scorpaena calcarata Goode and Bean. Chesapeake Bay to the Lesser Antilles
and the coast of Colombia, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Scorpaena agassizi Goode and Bean. Bermuda and North Carolina to Florida and
the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier-Brazilian scorpionfish. New Jersey to Rio de
Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier-Lionfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Scorpaena bergi Evermann and Marsh. New York to Puerto Rico and Panama
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann and Marsh. Southeastern Florida to Puerto
Rico. Shore.
Scorpaena dispar Longley and Hildebrand. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Scorpaena plumieri plumieri Bloch-West Indian scropionfish. Bermuda and
Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro and the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Scorpaena microlepis Gunter. Southwestern Florida. Shore.
Setarches parmatus Goode. New York to the Lesser Antilles and throughout the
Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.

159. Family Peristediidae-Armored searobins
Peristedion gracile Goode and Bean. New Jersey to Puerto Rico and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Peristedion imberbe (Poey). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Cuba. Shore.
Peristedion longispathum (Goode and Bean). Northern Gulf of Mexico to the
Lesser Antilles. Benthic.
Peristedion miniatum Goode. New Jersey to Florida and the northern Gulf of
Mexico. Benthic.
Peristedion platycephalum (Goode and. Bean). Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to
the Lesser Antilles. Benthic.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Peristedion spiniger Longley and Hildebrand. Florida Keys. Benthic.
Peristedion taeniopterum Fowler. Florida Keys. Shore.
Peristedion thompsoni Fowler. Florida Keys. Shore.
Peristedion macgintyi Fowler. Florida Keys. Shore.
160. Family Triglidae-Searobins
Prionotus stearnsi Jordan and Swain-Steam's searobin. Throughout the Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus evolans (Linnaeus)-Striped searobin. Massachusetts to Florida. Shore.
Prionotus carolinus (Linnaeus)-Carolina searobin. Nova Scotia to Venezuela.
Shore.
Prionotus scitulus scitulus Jordan and Gilbert. North Carolina to Venezuela.
Shore.
Prionotus scitulus latifrons Ginsburg. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus martis Ginsburg. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus roseus Jordan and Evermann-Rosy searobin. North Carolina to Puerto
Rico, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus microlepis Longley and Hildebrand. East coast of Florida to Vene-
zuela. Shore.
Prionotus ophryas Jordan and Swain. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus grisescens Teague. East coast of Florida to the northeastern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus rubio Jordan. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico and south to Cuba.
Shore.
Prionotus punctatus (Bloch). Georgia to Argentina (388 S.) and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus pectoralis Nichols and Breder. North Carolina to Florida and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus tribulus tribulus Cuvier-Southern searobin. North Carolina to Flor-
ida; a questionable record from New York. Shore.
Prionotus tribulus crassiceps Ginsburg. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus beani Goode-Bean's searobin. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Rio
de Janeiro. Shore.
Prionotus paralatus Ginsburg. Widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus alatus Goode and Bean. North Carolina to Florida and throughout the
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Prionotus salmonicolor Fowler. Southern Florida. Shore.
Prionotus vanderbilti Teague. Southeastern Florida. Shore.
Bellator egretta (Goode and Bean). North Carolina to the Lesser Antilles and
to the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Bellator brachychir (Regan). South Carolina to Cabo Frio, Brazil, and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Bellator militaris (Goode and Bean). North Carolina to Florida and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

161. Family Dactylopteridae-Flying gurnards
Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus)-Flying gurnard. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Argentina
(42o30' S.) and the northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


162. Family Cottidae-Sculpins
Hemitripterus americanus (Gmelin)-Sea ravin. Labrador to Tortugas, Florida.
Shore.
ORDER HAPLODOCI
163. Family Batrachoididae-Toadfishes
Opsanus vandeuseni Fowler. Sand Key, Florida. Shore.
Opsanus tau (Linnaeus). Maine to Florida. Shore.
Opsanus beta (Goode and Bean)-Gulf toadfish. Florida to the West Indies and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Opsanus pardus (Goode and Bean). Northeastern to the northcentral Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Nautopaedium porosissimum (Valenciennes)-Midshipman. Virginia to Argen-
tina (39 S.) and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.

ORDER XENOPTERYGII
164. Family Gobiesocidae-Clingfishes
Gobiesox strumosus Cope-Clingfish. Bermuda and New Jersey to Santos, Brazil,
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Acyrtops beryllinus (Hildebrand and Ginsburg)-Clingfish. Southeastern Florida
to Cuba. Shore.
ORDER HETEROSOMATA
165. Family Bothidae-Lefteye flounders
Ancylopsetta dilecta (Goode and Bean). South Carolina to Florida and the north-
ern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Ancylopsetta quadrocellata Gill-Foureye flounder. South Carolina to Florida
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Bothus lunatus (Linnaeus)-Peacock flounder. Bermuda and the Florida Keys
to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil, and west to Yucatan. Shore.
Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz). Bermuda and New York to Rio de Janeiro and the
northeastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Citharichthys arctifrons Goode. Massachusetts to Florida and the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Citharichthys rimosus Goode and Bean. South Carolina to Florida and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Citharichthys microstomus Gill. Massachusetts to Argentina (36043' S.) and the
northeastern and northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Citharichthys atlanticus Parr. Chesapeake Bay to the West Indies and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Citharichthys cornutus (Giinther). New England to Brazil and throughout the
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Citharichthys macrops Dresel. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Citharichthys spilopterus Giinther. New Jersey to Santos, Brazil, and throughout
the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean. Northern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico to
the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode and Bean). Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Engyophrys sentus Ginsburg. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gastropsetta frontalis Bean. Eastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Monolene antillarum Norman. Northeastern and northcentral Gulf of Mexico
to the Lesser Antilles. Benthic.
Monolene sessilicauda Goode. New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles and the north-
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
Paralichthys albigutta Jordan and Gilbert-Sand flounder. North Carolina to
Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus)-Summer flounder. Massachusetts to Florida
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Paralichthys lethostigmus Jordan and Gilbert-Southern large flounder. North
Carolina to Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Paralichthys squamilentus Jordan and Gilbert-Broad flounder. Northern and
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Hippoglossina oblonga (Mitchill)-Fourspot flounder. Massachusetts to Tortugas,
Florida. Shore.
Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill). Nova Scotia to Florida and the northwestern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Syacium gunteri Ginsburg. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus). Bermuda and South Carolina to Rio de Janeiro
and Ascension Island, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Syacium micrurum Ranzani. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from Bermuda and the Florida Keys to Rio de Janeiro and the northeastern
and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Trichopsetta ventralis (Goode and Bean). Throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
166. Family Pleuronectidae-Righteyed flounders
Poecilopsetta beani (Goode). New England to Florida and throughout the Gulf
of Mexico. Benthic.
Poecilopsetta inermis (Breder). Vicinity of Tortugas, Florida to British Honduras.
Benthic.
167. Family Soleidae-Soles
Achirus achirus (Linnaeus). Northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico to Rio Grande
do Sul, Brazil. Shore.
Achirus comifer Jordan and Gilbert. Key West, Florida. Shore.
Achirus inscriptus Gosse. Florida Keys to Hispaniola and Jamaica. Shore.
Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus). Florida to Uruguay, and widespread in the Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Gymnachirus williamsoni (Gunter). Georgia to Florida and the northeastern and
southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Gymnachrius fasciatus Giinther. Florida Keys to the West Indies. Shore.
Gymnachirus nudus Kaup. Massachusetts to Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Trinectes maculatus fasciatus (Lac6pede)-Hogchoker. North Carolina to Panama
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
168. Family Cynoglossidae-Tongue soles
Symphurus civitatus Ginsburg. North Carolina to Florida, and widespread in
the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Symphurus diomedianus (Goode and Bean). North Carolina to Brazil, and wide-
spread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Symphurus marginatus (Goode and Bean). New Jersey to the Lesser Antilles
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Symphurus minor Ginsburg. Nova Scotia to Florida and the northeastern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Symphurus parvus Ginsburg. Southern Florida. Shore.
Symphurus piger (Goode and Bean). Northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico to
the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
Symphurus pelicanus Ginsburg. Northern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico to
Trinidad. Shore.
Symphurus plagiusa (Linnaeus). New York to Argentina (40 S.) and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Symphurus urospilus Ginsburg. Georgia to Florida and the northeastern and
southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Symphurus nebulosus (Goode and Bean). New York to northeastern Florida.
Benthic.
ORDER DISCOCEPHALI
169. Family Echeneidae-Remoras
Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus-Shark sucker. Atlantic, Indian, and western
Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to
Macei6, Brazil, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Euryhaline.
Remora remora (Linnaeus)-Remora. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the western
Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Argentina (380 S.), and wide-
spread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Phtheirichthys lineatus (Menzies). Worldwide in tropical waters; in the western
Atlantic from South Carolina to Colombia and the northeastern, northcentral,
and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Remoropsis brachyptera (Lowe)-Swordfish sucker. Worldwide in tropical waters;
in the western Atlantic from Maine to Brazil. Pelagic.
Rhombochirus osteochir (Cuvier)-Spearfish remora. Both sides of tropical Amer-
ica; in the western Atlantic from Massachuetts to Cuba and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
ORDER PLECTOGNATHI
170. Family Triacanthidae
Parahollardia lineatus (Longley). Virginia to the northern and eastern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
171. Family Balistidae-Triggerfishes
Balistes capriscus Gmelin-Triggerfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western
Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Argentina (3530' S.) and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Balistes vetula Linnaeaus-Queen triggerfish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Santos, Brazil, and the northern and
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Nematobalistes forcipatus (Gmelin)-Spotted triggerfish. Both sides of the At-
lantic; in the western Atlantic from Rhode Island to Brazil. Shore.
Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill). Georgia to the Bahamas and Cuba. Shore.
Canthidermis sobaco (Poey)-Ocean triggerfish. Massachusetts to the Lesser
Antilles and the northcentral and western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch). Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and northeastern Florida to Panama and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Melichthys radula (Solander)-Black triggerfish. Atlantic, Indian, and western
Pacific Oceans, and certain offshore islands of the eastern Pacific; in the
western Atlantic from the Florida Keys to Fernando de Noronha, Brazil.
Shore.
Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus)-Redtail triggerfish. Both sides of the Atlantic,
and the Indian Ocean; in the western Atlantic from South Carolina and Ber-
muda to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
172. Family Aluteridae-Filefishes
Alutera monoceros (Osbeck)-Unicorn filefish. Atlantic, Indian, and western
Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to
Ilha Grande, Brazil. Shore.
Alutera guentheriana Poey. Massachusetts to Colombia. Shore.
Alutera schoepfi (Walbaum)-Orange filefish. Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Bahia,
Brazil, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Alutera scripta (Osbeck)-Longtail filefish. Worldwide in tropical waters; in
the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Brazil and the northern Gulf of
Mexico. Shore.
Alutera ventralis Longley. Southern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Cantherines pullus (Ranzani)-Orangespotted filefish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and southern Florida to Rio de Janeiro
and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill)-Leather fish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Newfoundland and Bermuda to Argentina, and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Monacanthus tuckeri Bean. Bermuda, and Tortugas, Florida to Hispaniola.
Shore.
Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus)-Common filefish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia and Bermuda to Santos, Brazil, and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Stephanolepis spilonotus (Cope). Southeastern Gulf of Mexico near Tortugas,
Florida. Shore.
Stephanolepis setifer (Bennett). North Carolina to the Lesser Antilles. Shore.
173. Family Ostraciidae-Trunkfishes
Acanthostracion quadricornis (Linnaeus)-Cowfish. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro,
and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lactophrys trigonus (Linnaeus)-Trunkfish. Bermuda and Massachusetts to
Bahia, Brazil, and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Rhinesomus bicaudalis (Linnaeus)-Spotted trunkfish. Florida Keys to Para,
Brazil, Ascension Island, and the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Rhinesomus triqueter (Linnaeus)-Smooth trunkfish. Bermuda and Massachusetts
to Rio de Janeiro and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
174. Family Tetraodontidae-Puffers
Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus)-Smooth puffer. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Argentina (388 S.) and through-
out the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Lagocephalus pachycephalus (Ranzani)-Elongate puffer. Bermuda and Massa-
chusetts to Brazil and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Sphaeroides cutaneus (Giinther)-Smooth puffer. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from New Jersey to the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Shore.
Sphaeroides dorsalis Longley. Eastern and southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphaeroides harper Nichols. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Lesser Antilles.
Shore.
Sphaeroides maculatus (Bloch and Schneider)-Northern puffer. Nova Scotia to
Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphaeroides nephelus (Goode and Bean)-Florida puffer. Southeastern Florida
and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphaeroides spengleri (Bloch)-Southern puffer. Both sides of the Atlantic; in
the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Santos, Brazil, and
widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Sphaeroides testudineus (Linnaeus)-Tambor. Rhode Island to Sao Francisco
do Sul, Brazil, and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
175. Family Canthigasteridae-Sharpnose puffers
Canthigaster rostratus (Bloch)-Sharpnose puffer. Both sides of the Atlantic;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and the eastern and southwestern Gulf
of Mlexico to Colombia. Shore.
176. Family Diodontidae-Porcupine fishes
Chilomyctcrus atinga (Linnaeus)-Atinga. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from New Jersey and Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro and the
southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Chilomycterus schoepfi (Walbaum)-Spiny boxfish. Massachusetts to Rio de
Janeiro and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Chilomyceterus spinosus (Linnaeus). Northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico to
Argentina (35 S.). Shore.
Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus-Balloon fish. Worldwide in tropical waters; in
the western Atlantic from the Florida Keys to Brazil, and west to YucatAn.
Shore.
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus-Porcupine fish. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the
western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Santos, Brazil, and the northern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
177. Family Molidae-Headfishes
Mola mola (Linnaeus)-Headfish. Worldwide in tropical and temperate waters;
in the western Atlantic from Newfoundland to Argentina (420 S.) and the
northern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Masturus lanceolatus (Lienard)-Sharptail headfish. Atlantic, Indian, and western
Pacific Oceans; in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts to Cear6, Brazil,
and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
Masturus oxyuropterus (Bleeker). Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans; in the
western Atlantic from North Carolina to Florida. Pelagic.

ORDER PEDICULATI
178. Family Lophiidae-Frog fishes
Lophius piscatorius Linnaeus-Frog fish. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the west-
ern Atlantic from Newfoundland to Brazil and the northern and eastern
Gulf of Mexico. Shore.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


179. Family Antennaridae-Anglers
Fowlerichthys floridanus Barbour. Southern Florida. Benthic.
Antennarius ocellatus (Bloch and Schneider). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from South Carolina to Puerto Rico and throughout the Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Antennarius radiosus Garman. Bermuda to Florida, and widespread in the Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Antennarius multiocellatus (Valenciennes). Both sides of the Atlantic; in the
western Atlantic from Bermuda and southwestern Florida to the Lesser An-
tilles. Shore.
Antennarius scaber (Cuvier). New Jersey to Rio de Janeiro and the southeastern
and western Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Histrio histrio (Linnaeus)-Sargassum fish. Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans;
in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Massachusetts to Rio de Janeiro,
and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico. Pelagic.
180. Family Chaunacidae
Chaunax pictus Lowe. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic from
Rhode Island to the Florida Keys and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic.
181. Family Ogcocephalidae-Batfishes
Dibranchus atlanticus Peters. Both sides of the Atlantic; in the western Atlantic
from Rhode Island to the Lesser Antilles and the northern and eastern Gulf
of Mexico. Benthic.
Halieutichthys aculeatus (Mitchill). North Carolina to the Lesser Antilles and
throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Ogcocephalus nasutus (Valenciennes). Throughout the Gulf of Mexico south to
Bahia, Brazil. Shore.
Ogcocephalus parvus Longley and Hildebrand. Eastern and southwestern Gulf
of Mexico. Shore.
Ogcocephalus radiatus (Mitchill). North Carolina to Santos, Brazil, and the
northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus). New York to Hispaniola, and widespread
in the Gulf of Mexico. Shore.
Ogcocephalus macgintyi Fowler. Southeastern Florida. Shore.
182. Family Melanocetidae-Black anglers
Melanocetus murrayi Giinther. Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific Oceans; in
the western Atlantic from New York and Bermuda to the Caribbean and the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
Melanocetus johnsoni Giinther. Worldwide in tropical waters; widespread in the
western Atlantic to the southern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.
183. Family Oneirodidae
Oneirodes bradburyae Grey-Bradbury's angler. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Bathypelagic.
184. Family Ceratiidae-Deepsea anglers
Ceratias holboelli Kroyer. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the western Atlantic
from Nova Scotia to northern South America. Bathypelagic.
Cryptopsaras couesi Gill. Worldwide in tropical waters; in the western Atlantic
from New Jersey to the southern Gulf of Mexico. Bathypelagic.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


BIBLIOGRAPHY
This bibliography will be found reasonably complete for those
books and papers which are necessary for the identification of Florida
freshwater, euryhaline, and marine shore fishes. The student of the
pelagic or deep-water fishes usually finds a large portion of his refer-
ence material in the hundreds of faunal and revisionary works which
have been written for other parts of the world. An attempt to in-
clude them in this list would have greatly increased its size, but
would have made it unwieldy, and thus decreased its usefulness.
Aside from a few important worldwide revisions, papers on the
deepsea and pelagic groups have been restricted to notable contribu-
tions on the Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean areas.
Thanks to the production of a definitive work by Carr and Goin
in 1955, the problem of freshwater fish identification has become
greatly simplified. Ordinarily, one need only consult this book plus
the few papers which have been published since that time. There-
fore, no papers are listed dealing strictly with Florida freshwater
fishes which were published before 1955.
Since this bibliography is intended primarily to help solve identi-
fication problems for students, works on the systematics of genera
and higher categories, checklists, and papers on distribution are
generally not included. Also, with the exception of Goode and Bean's
1895 treatise on oceanic ichthyology, none of the references antedate
Jordan and Evermann's 1896-1900, "The fishes of North and middle
America."
Major Works
The following major faunal works form important basic reference
materials. Since the majority of Florida marine species are also
found in the West Indies, books which include descriptions of the
fishes of this latter area are valuable sources of information. The
student of Florida or western Atlantic tropical fishes should make
every effort to have these works readily available.

BEEBE, WILLIAM, and JOHN TEE-VAN
1928. The fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti. Zoologica, vol. 10, no. 1, 279
pp., illus.
1933. Field book of the shore fishes of Bermuda. New York: G. P. Putnam's
Sons, 377 pp., 343 figs.
BIGELOW, HENRY B., and ISABEL PEREZ FARFANTE
1948. Lancelets. In Tee-Van, John; Fishes of the western North Atlantic.
New Haven: Sears Foundation, Bingham Oceanogr. Lab., pp, 1-28,
3 figs.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


BIGELOW, HENRY B., and WILLIAM C. SCHROEDER
1948. Cyclostomes. In Tee-Van, John; Fishes of the western North Atlanfic.
New Haven: Sears Foundation, Bingham Oceanogr. Lab., pp. 29-58,
figs. 4-5.
1948. Sharks. Ibid., pp. 59-576, figs. 6-106.
1954. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part two. Sawfishes, guitarfishes,
skates, rays, chimaeroids. New Haven: Sears Foundation, Bingham
Oceanogr. Lab., xv + 588 pp., 127 figs.
BREDER, CHARLES M.
1927. Scientific results of the first oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee"
1925. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 1, art. 1, 88 pp., 36 figs.
1948. Field book of the marine fishes of the Atlantic coast. New York: G. P.
Putnam's Sons, xxxvii + 332 pp., text illus., 16 pls.
CARR, ARCHIE, and COLEMAN J. GoIN
1955. Guide to the reptiles, amphibians and fresh-water fishes of Florida.
Univ. of Florida Press, ix + 341 pp., 30 figs., 67 pls.
EVERMANN, BARTON W., and MILLARD C. MARSH
1902. The fishes of Porto Rico. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm., vol. 20, pt. 1, pp.
49-350, 112 figs., 49 pls.
FOWLER, HENRY W.
1944. The fishes. In: Results of the fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941).
Monogr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, no. 6, pp. 57-529, 264 figs., 20 pls.
1945. A study of the fishes of the southern piedmont and coastal plain. Ibid.,
no. 7, vi + 408 pp., 313 figs.
GOODE, G. BROWN, and TARLETON H. BEAN
1895. Oceanic ichthyology, a treatise on the deepsea and pelagic fishes of
the world, based chiefly upon the collections made by the steamers
Blake, Albatross, and Fish Hawk in the northwestern Atlantic. Smith-
sonian Institution, Contrib. to Knowledge, no. 981, xxxv + 553 pp.,
123 pls.
HILDEBRAND, SAMUEL F., and WILLIAM C. SCHROEDER
1928. General index to the fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish.,
vol. 43 (for 1927), pt. 1, 388 pp., 211 figs.
JORDAN, DAVID S., and BARTON W. EVERMANN
1896-1900. The fishes of North and middle America. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus.,
no. 47, 4 parts, ix + xxx + xxii + ci + 3313 pp., 392 pls.
LONGLEY, WILLIAM H., and SAMUEL F. HILDEBRAND
1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florida. Papers Tor-
tugas Lab., Carnegie Inst. Washington, vol. 34, xiii + 331 pp., 34 pls.
MEEK, SETH E., and SAMUEL F. HILDEBRAND
1923-1925. The marine fishes of Panama. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. publ., no.
215, zool. ser., vol. 15, pts. 1-3, xxx + 1045 pp., 102 pls.
METZELAAR, JAN
1919. Report on the fishes, collected by Dr. J. Boeke, in the Dutch West
Indies, 1904-1905, with comparative notes on marine fishes of Tropical
West Africa. In Boeke, J.(ed.); Rapport . in de Kolonie Curagao
[etc.] The Hague: Firma F. J. Belinfanti, xxxiv + 315 pp., 64 figs.
NICHOLS, J. T.
1929-1930. The fishes of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands.' New York Acad.
Sci., Scientific Surv. of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, vol. 10, pt.
2, pp. 159-295; pt. 3, pp. 297-399, 314 figs.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


PARR, ALBERT E.
1930. Teleostean shore and shallow-water fishes from the Bahamas and Turks
Island. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 4, 148 pp., 38 figs.
REGAN, C. TATE
1906-1908. Pisces. In Godman, F. D., and 0. Salvin; Biologia Centrali-
Americana. London: R. H. Porter, and Dulau and Co., xxxiii + 203
pp., 26 pls.
SMITH, HUGH M.
1907. The fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina, Geol. Econ. Surv., vol.
2, xi + 453 pp., 188 figs., 21 pls.

Other Books and Papers
ARATA, G. F.
1954. A contribution to the life history of the swordfish, Xiphias gladius
Linnaeus, from the south Atlantic coast of the United States and the
Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 4, pp.
185-243, 19 figs.
ARNOLD, D. C.
1956. A systematic revision of the teleost family Carapidae (Percomorphi,
Blennioidea), with descriptions of two new species. Bull. British Mus.
(Nat. Hist.), vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 245-307, 20 figs.
ARNOV, BORIS
1952. A preliminary review of the western North Atlantic fishes of the genus
Haemulon. Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 2, no. 2,
pp. 414-437.
BAILEY, REEVE M., and ROBERT H. GIBBS
1956. Notropis callitaenia, a new cyprinid fish from Alabama, Florida and
Georgia. Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 576, pp.
1-14, 1 pl.
BAILEY, REEVE M., and WILLIAM A. GOSLINE
1955. Variation and systematic significance of vertebral counts in American
fishes of the family Percidae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan,
no. 93, pp. 1-44, 4 figs.
BAILEY, REEVE M., HOwARD E. WINN, and C. LAVETT SMITH
1954. Fishes from the Escambia River, Alabama and Florida, with ecologic
and taxonomic notes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 106,
pp. 109-164.
BARBOUR, THOMAS
1942. The northwestern Atlantic species of frogfishes. Proc. New England
Zool. Club, vol. 19, pp. 21-40, pls. 8-17.
BEAN, BARTON A., and ALFRED C. WEED
1910. A review of the venomous toadfishes. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 38,
pp. 511-526, 4 pls.
BEEBE, WILLIAM
1933. Deep-sea fishes of the Bermuda Oceanographic Expeditions. No. 2-
Family Alepocephalidae. Zoologica, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 13-93, 25 figs.
1933. [Same title.] No. 3--Family Argentinidae. Ibid., vol. 16, no. 3, pp.
95-147, 20 figs.
1934. [Same title.] Family Idiacanthidae. Ibid., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 149-241,
34 figs.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


1935. [Same title.] Family Derichthyidae. Ibid., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-23,
9 figs.
1935. [Same title.] Family Nessorhamphidae. Ibid., vol. 20, no. 2, pp.
25-51, 13 figs.
BEEBE, WILLIAM, and JOCELYN CRANE
1936. Deep-sea fishes of the Bermuda Oceanographic Expeditions. Family
Serrivomeridae. Zoologica, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 53-102, 19 figs.
1937. [Same title.] Family Serrivomeridae, part 2. Ibid., vol. 22, ro. 26,
pp. 331-348, 14 figs.
1937. [Same title.] Family Nemichthyidae. Ibid., vol. 22, pt. 4, no. 27,
pp. 349-383, 22 figs.
1939. [Same title.] Family Melanostomiatidae. Ibid., vol. 24, pt. 2, nos.
6-9, pp. 65-238, 77 figs.
BERTELSEN, E.
1951. The ceratioid fishes. Dana-Report no. 39, 276 pp., 141 figs.
BERTIN LEON
1934. Les poissons apodes appartenant au sous-ordre des Lyomeres. Dana-
Report, no. 3, 56 pp., 47 figs., 2 pls.
1937. Les poissons abyssaux du genre Cyema Giinther. Ibid., no. 10, 30 pp.,
24 figs.
1938. Formes nouvelles et formes larvaires de poissons apodes appartenant
au sous-ordre des LyomBres. Ibid., no. 15, 26 pp., 17 figs., 2 pls.
BIGELOW, HENRY B., and WILLIAM C. SCHROEDER
1929. A rare bramid fish (Taractes princeps Johnson) in the northwestern At-
lantic. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 41-50, 1 pl.
1950. New and little known cartilaginous fishes from the Atlantic. Ibid.,
vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 385-408, 7 pls.
1954. A new family, a new genus, and two new species of batoid fishes from
the Gulf of Mexico. Breviora, no. 24, pp. 1-16, 4 figs.
BIGELOw, H. B., W. C. SCHROEDER, and S. SPRINGER
1953. New and little known sharks from the Atlantic and from the Gulf of
Mexico. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 213-276, 10 figs.
1955. Three new shark records from the Gulf of Mexico. Breviora, no. 49,
pp. 1-12, 2 figs.
BOHLKE, JAMES E.
1956. A new pygmy sunfish from southern Georgia. Notulae Naturae, Acad.
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, no. 294, pp. 1-11, 2 figs.
BOHLKE, JAMES, and FRANK S. CLIFF
1956. A discussion of the deep-sea eel genus Avocettinops, with notes on a
newly discovered specimen. Copeia, 1956, no. 2, pp. 95-99, 1 pl.
BOHLKE, JAMES, and CARL L. HUBBS
1951. Dysommina rugosa, an apodal fish from the North Atlantic, representing
a distinct family. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 7-10, 1 fig.
BREDER, CHARLES M.
1932. On the habits and development of certain Atlantic Synentognathi.
Papers Tortugas Lab., Carnegie Inst. Washington, vol. 28, no. 1, pp.
1-35, 10 figs., 12 pls.
1938. A contribution to the life histories of Atlantic Ocean flyingfishes. Bull.
Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 4, art. 5, pp. 1-126, 48 figs.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


BRIGGS, JOHN C.
1952. Systematic notes on the oceanic fishes of the genus Lophotus. Copeia,
1952, no. 3, pp. 206-207, 1 fig.
1955. A monograph of the clingfishes (Order Xenopterygii). Stanford Ichthyol.
Bull., vol. 6, 224 pp., 114 figs.
1956. Notes on the triglid fishes of the genus Prionotus. Quart. Jour. Florida
Acad. Sci., vol. 19, nos. 2-3, pp. 99-103, 2 figs.
BRIGGS, JOHN C., and DAVID K. CALDWELL
1955. The characteristics and distribution of the spotted cusk eel Otophidium
omostigmum (Jordan and Gilbert). Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci.
vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 285-291, 5 figs.
1957. Acanthurus randalli a new surgeon fish from the Gulf of Mexico. Bull.
Florida State Mus., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 43-51, 5 figs.
BROWN, JERRAM L.
1957. A key to the species and subspecies of the cyprinodont genus Fundulus
in the United States and Canada east of the continental divide. Jour.
Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 69-77.
BRUUN, ANTON F.
1935. Flying-fishes (Exocoetidae) of the Atlantic, systematic and biological
studies. Dana-Report no. 6, 106 pp., 30 figs., 7 pls.
1937. Contributions to the life histories of the deep sea eels: Synaphobran-
chidae. Ibid., no. 9, 31 pp., 17 figs., 1 pl.
CALDWELL, DAVID K.
1957. The biology and systematics of the pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides
(Linnaeus). Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 77-173.
CALDWELL, DAVID K., and JOHN C. BRIGGS
1957. Range extensions of western North Atlantic fishes with notes on some
soles of the genus Gymnachirus. Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 2,
no. 1, pp. 1-11.
CLANCEY, JOAN F.
1956. A contribution to the life history of the fish, Bregmaceros atlanticus
Goode and Bean, from the Florida current. Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and
Caribbean, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 233-260, 8 figs.
CLARK, EUGENIE
1950. Notes on the behavior and morphology of some West Indian plectognath
fishes. Zoologica, vol. 35, part 3, pp. 159-168, 7 figs., 2 pls.
CRAWFORD, RONALD W.
1956. A study of the distribution and taxonomy of the percid fish, Percina
nigrofasciata (Agassiz). Tulane Studies Zool., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-55.
DELSMAN, H. C.
1941. Pisces. R1sultats scientifiques de croisbres du navire-6cole Belge "Mer-
cator," vol. 3. M6moiries du Musie Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de
Belgique, ser. 10, fasc. 21, pp. 47-82, 12 figs.
EGE, VILH.
1934. The genus Stomias Cuv., taxonomy and bio-geography. Dana-Report,
no. 5, 58 pp., 12 figs., 1 pl.
1948. Chauliodus Schneider, bathypelagic genus of fishes. Ibid., no. 31, 148
pp., 9 figs., 2 pls.
1953. Paralepididae I. (Paralepis and Lestidium). Ibid., no. 40, 184 pp.,
33 figs.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


FOWLER, HENRY W.
1919. Notes on synentognathous fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
vol. 71, pp. 2-15, 4 figs.
1928. Fishes from Florida and the West Indies. Ibid., vol. 80, pp. 451-473.
1940. A collection of fishes obtained on the west coast of Florida by Mr.
and Mrs. C. G. Chaplin. Ibid., vol. 92, pp. 1-22, 37 figs., 1 pl.
1941. Notes on Florida fishes with descriptions of seven new species. Ibid.,
vol. 93, pp. 81-106, 17 figs.
1952. Fishes from deep water off southern Florida. Notulae Naturae, Acad.
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, no. 246, 16 pp., 10 figs.
FRASER-BRUNNER, A.
1933. A revision of the chaetodont fishes of the subfamily Pomacanthinae.
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 3, pp. 543-599, 29 figs., 1 pl.
1940. Notes on the plectognath fishes III. On Monacanthus setifer (Bennett)
and related species, with a key to the genus Stephanolepis and descrip-
tions of four new species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, vol. 5, pp.
518-535, 7 figs.
1949. A classification of the fishes of the family Myctophidae. Proc. Zool.
.Soc. London, vol. 118, pt. 4, pp. 1019-1106, 14 figs., 1 pl.
1950. Notes on the fishes of the genus Antigonia (Caproidae). Ann. Mag.
Nat. Hist., ser. 12, vol. 3, pp. 721-724.
1950. A synopsis of the hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna), with description of a
new species. Rec. Australian Mus. Sydney, vol. 22, pp. 213-219, 3 figs.
1951. The ocean sunfishes (family Molidae). Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.),
vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 89-121, 18 figs.
GEHRINGER, JACK W.
1956. Observations on the development of the Atlantic sailfish Istiophorus
americanus (Cuvier) with notes on an unidentified species of istiophorid.
Fish. Bull. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., no. 110, pp. iii + 139-171,
40 figs.
GIBBS, ROBERT H.
1957. Cyprinid fishes of the subgenus Cyprinella of Notropis. Copeia, 1957,
no. 3, pp. 185-195, 2 figs.
GINSBURG, ISAAC
1930. Review of the weakfishes (Cynoscion) of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts
of the United States, with a description of a new species. Bull. U.S. Bur.
Fish., vol. 45, pp. 71-85, 7 figs.
1931. Commercial snappers (Lutianidae) of the Gulf of Mexico. Ibid., vol.
46, pp. 265-276, 3 figs.
1931. Juvenile and sex characters of Evorthodus lyrics (fam. Gobiidae).
Ibid., vol. 47, pp. 117-124, 2 figs.
1932. A revision of the genus Gobionellus (family Gobiidae). Bull. Bingham
Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 4, art. 2, pp. 3-51, 7 figs.
1933. A revision of the genus Gobiosoma (family Gobiidae) with an account
of the genus Garmannia. Ibid., vol. 4, art. 5, pp. 1-59.
1933. Descriptions of new and imperfectly known species and genera of
gobioid and pleuronectoid fishes in the United States National Museum.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 82, pp. 1-23.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


1937. A review of the seahorses (Hippocampus) found on the coasts of the
American continents and of Europe. Ibid., vol. 83, pp. 497-594,
figs. 54-71.
1939. Twenty-one new American gobies. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol.
29, pp. 51-63.
1942. Seven new American fishes. Ibid., vol. 32, pp. 364-370.
1947. American species and subspecies of Bathygobius, with a demonstration
of a suggested modified system of nomenclature. Ibid., vol. 37, no. 8,
pp. 275-284.
1948. The species of Bathystoma (Pisces, Haemulonidae). Zoologica, vol. 33,
pp. 151-156.
1948. Some Atlantic populations related to Diplectrum radiale (Serranidae),
with a description of a new subspecies from the Gulf coast of the United
States. Copeia, 1948, no. 4, pp. 266-270.
1950. Review of the western Atlantic Triglidae (fishes). Texas Jour. Sci.,
1950, no. 4, pp. 489-527.
1951. Western Atlantic tonguefishes with descriptions of six new species.
Zoologica, vol. 36, pt. 3, no. 14, pp. 185-201, 3 pls.
1951. The eels of the northern Gulf coast of the United States and some
related species. Texas Jour. Sci., 1951, no. 3, pp. 431-485, 16 figs.
1952. Fishes of the family Carangidae of the northern Gulf of Mexico and
three related species. Publ. Inst. Marine Sci. Univ. Texas, vol. 2, no. 2,
pp. 43-117, 7 pls.
1952. Eight new fishes from the Gulf coast of the United States with two
new genera and notes on geographic distribution. Jour. Washington
Acad. Sci., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 84-101, 9 figs.
1952. Flounders of the genus Paralichthys and related genera in American
waters. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv. Fish. Bull., vol. 52, no. 71,
pp. 265-351, 15 pls.
1953. The taxonomic status, and nomenclature of some Atlantic and Pacific
populations of yellowfin and bluefin tunas. Copeia, 1953, no. 1, pp. 1-10.
1953. Ten new American gobioid fishes in the United States National Museum,
including additions to a revision of Gobionellus. Jour. Washington
Acad. Sci., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 18-26.
1953. Western Atlantic scorpionfishes. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 121,
no. 8, 103 pp., 6 figs.
1954. Whitings on the coasts of the American continents. Fish. Bull. U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Serv., no. 96, pp. 186-208, 2 figs.
1954. Four new fishes and one little-known species from the east coast of
the United States including the Gulf of Mexico. Jour. Washington
Acad. Sci., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 256-264, illus.
1955. Fishes of the family Percophididae from the coasts of eastern United
States and the West Indies, with descriptions of four new species. Proc.
U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 104, no. 3347, pp. 623-639, figs. 120-122.
GREY, MARION
1953. Fishes of the family Gempylidae, with records of Nesiarchus and
Epinnula from the western Atlantic and descriptions of two new sub-
species of Epinnula orientalis. Copeia, 1953, no. 3, pp. 135-141.
1955. The fishes of the genus Tetragonurus Risso. Dana-Report, no. 41, 75
pp., 16 figs.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


1955. Melamphaes triceratops, a synonym of the deep-sea fish M. anthrax.
Copeia, 1955, no. 2, pp. 147-148.
1955. Notes on a collection of Bermuda deep-sea fishes. Fieldiana: zool.,
vol. 37, pp. 265-302, 12 figs.
1956. New records of deep-sea fishes, including a new species, Oneirodes
bradburyae, from the Gulf of Mexico. Copeia, 1956, no. 4, pp. 242-
246, 2 figs.
HARRY, ROBERT R.
1951. Deep-sea fishes of the Bermuda Oceanographic Expeditions. Family
Paralepididae. Zoologica, vol. 36, pt. 1, pp. 17-35, 9 figs.
1952. [Same title.] Families Cetomimidae and Rondeletiidae. Ibid., vol. 37,
pt. 1, pp. 55-72, 4 figs., 1 pl.
HERALD, EARL S.
1942. Three new pipefishes from the Atlantic coast of North and South
America, with a key to the Atlantic American species. Stanford
Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 125-132.
HILDEBRAND, SAMUEL F.
1943. A review of the American anchovies (family Engraulidae). Bull.
Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, pp. 1-165, 72 figs.
1948. A review of the American menhaden, genus Brevoortia, with a descrip-
tion of a new species. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 107, no. 18,
pp. 1-39, 9 figs.
HILDEBRAND, SAMUEL F., and LOUELLA E. CABLE
1931. Development and life history of fourteen teleostean fishes at Beaufort,
N. C. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish., vol. 46, pp. 383-488, 101 figs.
1934. Reproduction and development of whitings or kingfishes, drums, spot,
croaker, and weakfishes or sea trouts family Sciaenidae, of the Atlantic
coast of the United States. Ibid., vol. 48, pp. 41-117, 44 figs.
1938. Further notes on the development and life history of some teleosts at
Beaufort, N. C. Ibid., vol. 48, pp. 505-642, 159 figs.
HILDEBRAND, SAMUEL F., and ISAAC GINSBURG
1927. Distinguishing characters of two species of red snappers of the Atlantic
coast of North America. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish., vol. 42, pp. 77-85, 3 figs.
1927. Descriptions of two new species of fishes from Key West, Florida, with
notes on nine other species collected in the locality. Ibid., vol. 42,
pp. 207-215, 5 figs.
HUBBS, CARL L.
1936. Fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington, no.
457, pp. 157-287, 1 fig., 15 pls.
1939. The characters and distribution of the Atlantic coast fishes referred to
the genus Hypsoblennius. Papers Michigan Acad. Sci., vol. 24, pt. 2,
pp. 153-157.
1944. Species of the circumtropical fish genus Brotula. Copeia, 1944, no. 3,
pp. 162-178, 2 figs.
HUBBS, CARL L., and WALTER R. CROWE
1956. Preliminary analysis of the American cyprinid fishes, seven new, re-
ferred to the genus Hybopsis, subgenus Erimystax. Occas. Papers Mus.
Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 578, pp. 1-8.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


HUBBS, CARL L., and LEONARD P. SCHULTZ
1939. A revision of the toadfishes referred to Porichthys and related genera.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 86, pp. 473-496.
JORDAN, DAVID S.
1904. Notes on fishes collected in the Tortugas archipelago. Bull. U.S. Fish.
Comm., vol. 22, pp. 539-544, 2 pls.
1919. On Elephenor, a new genus of fishes from Japan. Annals Carnegie
Mus., vol. 12, nos. 2-4, pp. 329-336, 5 pls.
JORDAN, DAVID S., and CARL L. HUBBS
1919. Studies in ichthyology. A monographic review of the family of Atheri-
nidae or silversides. Leland Stanford Junior Univ. Publ., univ. ser.,
pp. 1-87, 12 pls.
JORDAN, DAVID S., and JOSEPH C. THOMPSON
1905. The fish fauna of the Tortugas archipelago. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish.,
vol. 24, pp. 231-256.
LACHNER, ERNEST A.
1954. A revision of the goatfish genus Upeneus with descriptions of two new
species. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 103, no. 3330, pp. 497-532, 2 pls.
1955. Populations of the berycoid fish family Polymixiidae. Ibid., vol. 105,
no. 3356, pp. 189-206, 1 pl.
LAMONTE, FRANCESCA R.
1955. A review and revision of the marlins, genus Makaira. Bull. Amer. Mus.
Nat. Hist., vol. 107, art. 3, pp. 323-358, 9 pls.
LONGLEY, WILLIAM H.
1934. Studies on West Indian fishes: description of six new species. Yearbook
Carnegie Inst. Washington, no. 33, pp. 257-260.
1935. Osteological notes and descriptions of new species of fishes. Ibid.,
no. 34, pp. 86-89.
LONGLEY, WILLIAM H., and SAMUEL F. HILDEBRAND
1940. New genera and species of fishes from Tortugas, Florida. Papers
Tortugas Lab., Carnegie Inst. Washington, vol. 32, pp. 223-285,
28 figs., 1 pl.
MEAD, GILES W., and JAMES BOHLKE
1953. Leptoderma springer, a new alepocephalid fish from the Gulf of
Mexico. Texas Jour. Sci., 1953, no. 2, pp. 265-267.
MILLER, ROBERT R.
1946. Distributional records for North American fishes, with nomenclatorial
notes on the genus Psenes. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 36,
pp. 206-212.
1955. An annotated list of the American cyprinodontid fishes of the genus
Fundulus, with the description of Fundulus persimilis from Yucatan.
Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 568, pp. 1-25, 1 pl.
MOHR, ERNA
1937. Revision der Centriscidae (Acanthopterygii Centrisciformes). Dana-
Report, no. 13, 69 pp., 33 figs., 2 pls.
MOWBRY, LOUIS L.
1915. A new species of fish from Florida. Bull. New York Zool. Soc., vol.
18, p. 1298.
MUNRO, IAN S. R.
1950. Revision of Bregmaceros with descriptions of larval stages from Aus-
tralia. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 37-53, 10 figs.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


MYERS, GEORGE S.
1934. Three new deep-water fishes from the West Indies. Smithsonian Misc.
Coll., vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1-12, 2 figs., 1 pl.
1937. The deep-sea zeomorph fishes of the family Grammicolepidae. Proc.
U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 84, pp. 145-156, 3 pls.
NICHOLS, JOHN T.
1909. A note on the dolphins (Coryphaena equisetis and Coryphaena hippurus).
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 26, art. 10, pp. 131-133.
1910. On two new blennys from Florida. Ibid., vol. 28, art. 16, p. 161.
1911. Notes on teleostean fishes from the eastern United States. Ibid., vol.
30, art. 11, pp. 275-278, 1 fig., 1 pl.
1914. On a new swell-fish from Florida. Ibid., vol. 33, art. 3, pp. 81-83.
1917. Ichthyological notes from a cruise off southwest Florida, with a descrip-
tion of Gobiesox yuma sp. nov. Ibid., vol. 37, art. 37, pp. 873-877,
1 fig., 1 pl.
1918. On Vomer dorsalis, with a brief review of the genus. Ibid., vol. 38,
art. 18, pp. 669-676.
1920. Hynnis and Alectis in the American Museum of Natural History. Ibid.,
vol. 42, art. 4, pp. 285-292, 1 pl.
1920. A key to the species of Trachurus. Ibid., vol. 42, art. 13, pp. 477-481.
1936. On Decapterus scombrinus (Valenciennes). Amer. Mus. Novitates, no.
835, pp. 1-6.
1937. On Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) from Ecuador. Copeia, 1937, no. 1,
pp. 58-59.
1937. Young Caranx ruber (Bloch). Ibid., 1937, no. 4, pp. 236-237.
1937. Notes on carangin fishes. I.-On young Caranx hippos (Linnaeus).
II.-On young Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier and Valenciennes).
Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 967, pp. 1-6.
1938. Notes on carangin fishes. III.-On Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy and
Gaimard. Ibid., no. 998, pp. 1-6.
1938. Notes on carangin fishes. IV.-On Caranx crysos (Mitchill). Ibid.,
no. 1014, pp. 1-4, 2 figs.
1939. Young Caranx in the western North Atlantic. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr.
Coll., vol. 7, art. 2, pp. 1-9.
1940. Notes on carangin fishes. V.-Young Trachurus in the Gulf of Mexico.
Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1067, pp. 1-4.
'1946. On yo-ng western Atlantic seriolas. Copeia, 1946, no. 4, pp. 259-260.
1951. Notes on carangin fishes. 7.-On Decapterus sanctae-helenae (Cuvier
and Valenciennes). 8.-On Caranx guara and Caranx georgianus.
Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1527, pp. 1-6.
1952. A new fish of the genus Bregmaceros from the Straits of Florida. Ibid.,
no. 1556, pp. 1-3, 1 fig.
NICHOLS, JOHN T., and CHARLES M. BREDER
1922. Otophidium welshi, a new cusk eel, with notes on two others from
the Gulf of Mexico. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 35, pp. 13-16,
3 figs.
1924. New Gulf races of a Pacific Scorpaena and Prionotus with notes on
other Gulf of Mexico fishes. Ibid., vol. 37, pp. 21-24, 1 pl.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


NICHOLS, JOHN T., and F. E. FIRTH
1939. Rare fishes off the Atlantic coast including a new grammicolepid.
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 52, pp. 85-88, 1 fig.
NICHOLS, JOHN T., and FRANCESCA R. LAMONTE
1941. Yellowfin, Allison's and related tunas. Ichthyol. Contrib. Internal. Game
Fish Assoc., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 25-32, 3 figs.
NICHOLS, JOHN T., and Louis L. MOWBRY
1914. A new angel-fish (Angelichthys townsendi) from Key West. Bull. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 33, art. 37, pp. 581-583.
NORMAN, J. R.
1934. A systematic monograph of the flatfishes (Heterosomata). Vol. I. Psetto-
didae, Bothidae, Pleuronectidae. London: British Museum (Natural
History), viii + 459 pp., 317 figs.
1935. A revision of the lizard fishes of the genera Synodus, Trachinocephalus,
and Saurida. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1935, part 1, pp. 99-135, 18 figs.
1935. The carangid fishes of the genus Decapterus Bleeker. Ann. Mag. Nat.
Hist., ser. 10, vol. 16, pp. 252-264, 4 figs.
NORMAN, J. R., and ETHELWYNN TREWAVAS
1939. Notes on the eels of the family Synaphobranchidae. Ann. Mag. Nat.
Hist., ser. 11, vol. 3, pp. 352-359, 2 figs.
PARR, ALBERT E.
1927. The stomiatoid fishes of the suborder Gymnophotodermi (Astroriesthidae,
Melanostomiatidae, Idiacanthidae) with a complete review of the species.
Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 2, pp. 1-123, 62 figs.
1928. Scientific results of the third oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee"
1927. Deepsea fishes of the order Iniomi from the waters around the
Bahama and Bermuda Islands, with annotated keys to the Sudidae,
Myctophidae, Scopelarchidae, Evermannellidae, Omosudidae, Cetomi-
midae and Rondeletidae of the world. Ibid., vol. 3, art. 3, pp. 1-193,
43 figs.
1929. Notes on the species of myctophine fishes represented by type specimens
in the United States National Museum. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 76,
art. 10, pp. 1-47, 21 figs.
1930. On the osteology and classification of the pediculate fishes of the
genera Aceratias, Rhynchoceratias, Haplophryne, Laevoceratias, Allector
and Lipactis, with taxonomic and osteological description of Rhynco-
ceratias longipinnis, new species, and a special discussion of the rostral
structures of the Aceratiidae. Occas. Papers Bingham Oceanogr. Coll.,
no. 3, pp. 1-23, 6 figs.
1931. A practical revision of the western Atlantic species of the genus Citha-
richthys (including Etropus) with observations on the Pacific Citha-
richthys crossotus and C. spilopterus. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll.,
vol. 4, art. 1, pp. 1-24, 7 figs.
1946. The Macrouridae of the western North Atlantic and Central American
seas. Ibid., vol. 10, art. 1, 99 pp., 28 figs.
1946. A new species of Gyrinomimus from the Gulf of Mexico. Copeia, 1946,
no. 3, pp. 116-117, 1 pl.
1951. Preliminary revision of the Alepocephalidae, with the introduction of
a new family, Searsidae. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1531, pp. 1-21.


Vol. 2







BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


1952. Revision of the species currently referred to Alepocephalus, Halisauri-
ceps, Bathytroctes and Bajacalifornia with introduction of two new
genera. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 107, pp. 253-269.
1952. Revision of the genus Talismania, with description of a new species
from the Gulf of Mexico. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 42, pp.
268-271, 1 fig.
RANDALL, JOHN E.
1956. A revision of the surgeon fish genus Acanthurus. Pacific Sci., vol. 10,
no. 2, pp. 159-235, 23 figs., 3 pls.
REGAN, C. TATE, and ETHELWYNN TREWAVAS
1929. The fishes of the families Astronesthidae and Chauliodontidae. Danish
"Dana"-Expeditions 1920-22, no. 5, 39 pp., 7 pls.
1930. The fishes of the families Stomiatidae and Malacosteidae. Ibid., no.
6, 143 pp., 138 figs., 14 pls.
REID, EARL D.
1936. Revision of the fishes of the family Microdesmidae, with description
of a new species. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 84, pp. 55-72, 4 figs., 1 pl.
RIVAs, Luis R.
1950. A revision of the American clupeid fishes of the genus Harengula, with
descriptions of four new subspecies. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 100,
pp. 275-309, 41 figs., 3 pls.
1949. A record of lutjanid fish (Lutianus cyanopterus) for the Atlantic coast
of the United States, with note on related species of the genus. Copeia,
1949, no. 2, pp. 150-152.
1951. A preliminary review of the western North Atlantic fishes of the family
Scombridae. Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 1, no. 3,
pp. 209-230.
1956. The occurrence and taxonomic relationships of the blue marlin (Makaira
ampla Poey) in the Pacific Ocean. Ibid., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59-73, 2 figs.
ROLE, Louis, and LEON BERTIN
1929. Les poissons apodes appartenant au sous-ordre des Nemichthydiformes.
Danish "Dana"-Expedition 1920-22, no. 4, pp. 1-113, 57 figs., 9 pls.
SCHULTZ, LEONARD P.
1938. Review of the fishes of the genera Polyipnus and Argyropelecus (family
Sternoptichidae) with descriptions of three new species. Proc. U.S.
Natl. Mus., vol. 86, pp. 135-155, figs. 42-45.
1945. The leatherjackets, carangid fishes of the genus Oligoplites Gill, in-
habiting American waters. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 35, no.
10, pp. 330-336.
1948. A revision of six subfamilies of atherine fishes, with descriptions of
new genera and species. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 98, pp. 1-48,
9 figs., 2 pls.
SCHULTZ, LEONARD P., and EARL D. REID
1937. The American toadfishes of the genus Opsanus. Copeia, 1937, no. 4,
pp. 211-212.
1939. A revision of the soapfishes of the genus Rypticus. Proc. U.S. Natl.
Mus., vol. 87, pp. 261-270.
1942. Descriptive notes on the serranid fish, Garrupa nigrita (Holbrook).
Copeia, 1942, no. 1, pp. 29-30.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


SPRINGER, STEWART
1950. A revision of the North American sharks allied to the genus Carchar-
hinus. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1451, pp. 1-13.
SPRINGER, VICTOR G.
1954. Western Atlantic fishes of the genus Paraclinus. Texas Jour. Sci., vol.
6, no. 4, pp. 422-441, 1 fig.
1955. The taxonomic status of the fishes of the genus Stathmonotus, including
a review of the Atlantic species. Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean,
vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 66-80, 2 figs.
STOREY, MARGARET H.
1939% Contribution toward a revision of the ophichthyid eels. I. The genera
Callechelys and Bascanichthys, with descriptions of new species and
notes on Myrichthys. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 61-84,
6 figs.
DESYLVA, DONALD P.
1955. The osteology and phylogenetic relationships of the blackfin tuna
Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson). Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean,
vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-41, 61 figs.
DESYLvA, DONALD P., HOWARD B. STEARNS, and DURBIN C. TABB
1956. Populations of the black mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) in Florida. Florida
Board Conserv., tech. ser., no. 19, pp. 1-45, 10 figs.
TAVOLGA, WILLIAM N.
1954. A new species of fish of the genus Blennius from Florida. Copeia,
1954, no. 2, pp. 135-189, 4 figs.
TEAGUE, GERALD WARDEN
1951. The sea robins of America. A revision of the triglid fishes of the genus
Prionotus. Communicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural
de Montevideo, vol. 3, no. 61, 58 pp., 5 pls.
1952. The "Mercator" sea-robins. Bulletin Institut Royal des Sciences Naturel-
les Belgique, vol. 28, no. 59, 18 pp., 3 figs.
TUCKER, DENYS W.
1953. The fishes of the genus Benthodesmus (family Trichiuridae). Proc. Zool.
Soc. London, vol. 123, pt. 1, pp. 171-197, 5 figs., 3 pls.
1955. Studies on trichiuroid fishes. 2. Benthodesmus tenuis (Giinther) collected
by the Expedition Oc6anographique Belge dans les eaux c6tieres de
I'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949), with additional notes on the genus Bentho-
desmus. Bulletin Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique,
vol. 31, no. 64, pp. 1-26, 11 figs., 1 pl.
1956. [Same title.] 3. A preliminary revision of the family Trichiuridae. Bull.
British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 73-130, 23 figs., 1 pl.
VLADYKOv, VADIM D.
1955. A comparison of Atlantic sea sturgeon with a new subspecies from the
Gulf of Mexico (Acipenser oxyrhynchus de sotoi). Jour. Fish. Res. Board
Canada, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 754-761.
Voss, GILBERT L.
1953. A contribution to the life history and biology of the sailfish Istiophous
americanus Cuv. and Val., in Florida waters. Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf
and Caribbean, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 206-240, 6 figs.


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


Voss, NANCY A.
1954. The postlarval development of the fishes of the family Gempylidae
from the Florida current. I. Nesiarchus Johnson and Gempylus Cuv.
and Val. Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 4, no. 2, pp.
120-159, 15 figs.
WEED, A. C.
1937. Notes on sea-basses of the genus Centropristes. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.
zool. ser., vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 291-320, figs. 35-36.
WINN, HOWARD E., and JOHN E. BARDACH
1957. Behavior, sexual dichromatism, and species of parrot fishes. Science,
vol. 125, no. 3253, pp. 885-886.
WOODS, LOREN P.
1955. Western Atlantic species of the genus Holocentrus. Fieldiana: zool.,
vol. 37, pp. 91-119, 18 figs.

LITERATURE CITED
BAUGHMAN, J. L.
1950. Random notes on Texas fishes, part I. Texas Jour. Sci., 1950, no. 1,
pp. 117-138.
BERG, LEO S.
1940. Classification of fishes, both recent and fossil. Travaux de l'Institut
Zoologique de l'Acad6mie des Sciences de 1'U.R.S.S., vol. 5, no. 2,
pp. 87-517, 190 figs.
BIGELOW, HENRY B., and ISABEL PEREZ FARFANTE
1948. Lancelets. In Tee-Van, John; Fishes of the western North Atlantic.
New Haven: Sears Foundation, Bingham Oceanogr. Lab., pp. 1-28,
3 figs.
BIGELOW, HENRY B., and WILLIAM C. SCHROEDER
1948. Sharks. In Tee-Van, John; Fishes of the western North Atlantic.
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figs. 6-106.
1954. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part two. Sawfishes, guitar-
fishes, skates, rays, chimaeroids. Ibid., xv + 588 pp., 127 figs.
BREDER, CHARLES M., and EUGENIE CLARK
1947. A contribution to the visceral anatomy, development, and relationships
of the Plectognathi. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 88, art. 5, pp.
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CALDWELL, DAVID K., and JOHN C. BRIGGS
1957. Range extensions of western North Atlantic fishes with notes on some
soles of the genus Gymnachirus. Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 2,
no. 1, pp. 1-11.
CLARK, EUGENIE, and H. A. F. GOHAR
1953. The fishes of the Red Sea: order Plectognathi. Publ. Marine Biol. Sta.,
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COOKE, C. WYTHE
1945. Geology of Florida. Florida Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull. no. 29 ix +
339 pp., 1 pl., 47 figs.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


GINSBURG, ISAAC
1952. Eight new fishes from the Gulf coast of the United States, with two
new genera and notes on geographic distribution. Jour. Washington
Acad. Sci., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 84-101, 9 figs.
GOSLINE, WILLIAM A.
1952. Notes on the systematic status of four eel families. Jour. Washington
Acad. Sci., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 130-135, 2 figs.
HEDGEPETH, JOEL W.
1954. Bottom communities of the Gulf of Mexico. In Galtsoff, Paul S.
(coordinator); Gulf of Mexico, its origin, waters, and marine life. Fish.
Bull. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., no. 89, pp. 203-214, 4 figs.
HILDEBRAND, HENRY H.
1954. A study of the fauna of the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus Ives)
grounds in the western Gulf of Mexico. Publ. Inst. Marine Sci. Texas,
vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 233-366.
HUBBS, CARL L.
1953. Synonymy of the bathypelagic fish genus Rhynchohyalus, referred to the
expanded family Argentinidae. Copeia, 1953, no. 2, pp. 96-97.
JORDAN, DAVID STARR
1901. The fish fauna of Japan, with observations on the geographical distribu-
tion of fishes. Science, new ser., vol. 14, no. 354, pp. 545-567.
JORDAN, DAVID S., BARTON W. EVERMANN, and HOWARD W. CLARK
1930. Check list of the fishes and fishlike vertebrates of North and middle
America north of the boundary of Venezuela and Colombia. Rept.
U.S. Comm. Fish. 1928, pt. 2, 670 pp.
MYERS, GEORGE S.
1949. Salt-tolerance of fresh-water fish groups in relation to zoogeographical
problems. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, vol. 28, pp. 315-322.
MYERS, GEORGE S., and MARGARET H. STOREY
1956. Curatorial practices in zoological research collections. 2. System fol-
lowed in filing specimens of recent fishes in the Natural History Museum
of Stanford University. Cir. Nat. Hist. Mus. Stanford Univ., no. 6,
pp. viii + 44, 5 figs.
REGAN, CHARLES T.
1929. Fishes. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the 14th edition and its
various reprinting the account is the same, but the pagination varies.
SPRINGER, STEWART
1950. A revision of the North American sharks allied to the genus Carchar-
hinus. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1451, pp. 1-13.
SVETOVIDOV, A. N.
1948. [Fauna of U.S.S.R. Pisces. Gadiformes. Zool. Inst. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R.],
vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1-221, 38 figs., 72 pls., (in Russian).


Vol. 2






BRIGGS: FLORIDA FISHES


INDEX TO ORDERS AND FAMILIES


Acanthuridae, 285
Acipenseridae, 252
Albulidae, 252
Alepisauridae, 259
Alepocephalidae, 254
Allotriognathi, 269
Alopiidae, 248
Aluteridae, 299
Amiidae, 252
Amphioxi, 247
Anacanthini, 268
Anguillidae, 261
Anoplogastridae, 270
Antennaridae, 301
Antigoniidae, 271
Aphredoderidae, 266
Apodes, 261
Apogonidae, 275
Argentinidae, 254
Ariidae, 259
Astronesthidae, 254
Ateleopidae, 259
Ateleopodes, 259
Atherinidae, 293
Aulopidae, 257
Aulostomidae, 267
Balistidae, 298
Bathypteroidae, 257
Batoidei, 250
Batrachoididae, 296
Belonidae, 264
Berycomorphi, 270
Blenniidae, 289
Bothidae, 296
Bramidae, 278
Branchiostomidae, 247
Bregmacerotidae, 269
Brotulidae, 291
Callionymidae, 289
Canthigasteridae, 300
Carangidae, 276
Carapidae, 292
Carcharhinidae, 248
Carchariidae, 247
Catostomidae, 260
Centrarchidae, 273
Centriscidae, 268


Centropomidae, 278
Ceratiidae, 301
Cetomimidae, 259
Cetunculi, 259
Chaetodontidae, 282
Chauliodontidae, 255
Chaunacidae, 301
Chimaerae, 252
Chimaeridae, 252
Chloropthalmidae, 257
Chrondrostei, 252
Clinidae, 290
Clupeidae, 253
Congridae, 262
Coryphaenidae, 278
Cottidae, 296
Cynoglossidae, 297
Cyprinidae, 260
Cyprinodontidae, 265
Dactylopteridae, 295
Dactyloscopidae, 285
Dasyatidae, 251
Diodontidae, 300
Diretmidae, 270
Discocephali, 298
Dysommidae, 263
Dysomminidae, 262
Echeneidae, 298
Eleotridae, 287
Elopidae, 252
Engraulidae, 253
Ephippidae, 282
Epigonichthyidae, 247
Esocidae, 257
Eurypharyngidae, 259
Exocoetidae, 264
Fistulariidae, 267
Gadidae, 269
Gempylidae, 285
Ginglymodi, 252
Gobiesocidae, 296
Gobiidae, 287
Grammicolepidae, 271
Gymnuridae, 251
Halosauridae, 263
Haplodoci, 296
Hemiramphidae, 264


Heteromi, 263
Heterosomata, 296
Hexanchidae, 247
Holocentridae, 270
Ictaluridae, 260
Idiacanthidae, 255
Iniomi, 257
Ipnopidae, 257
Isospondyli, 252
Istiophoridae, 287
Isuridae, 247
Kyphosidae, 282
Labridae, 283
Lampridae, 269
Leiognathidae, 280
Lepisosteidae, 252
Lobotidae, 280
Lophiidae, 300
Lophotidae, 269
Lutjanidae, 278
Luvaridae, 287
Lyomeri, 259
Macrouridae, 268
Malacanthidae, 276
Malacosteidae, 255
Megalopidae, 252
Melamphaidae, 270
Melanocetidae, 301
Melanostomiatidae, 254
Microcyprini, 265
Microdesmidae, 291
Mobulidae, 251
Molidae, 300
Moridae, 269
Mugilidae, 293
Mullidae, 281
Muraenidae, 262
Myctophidae, 258
Myliobatidae, 251
Myxinidae, 247
Myxinoidea, 247
Nemichthidae, 261
Nettastomidae, 262
Nomeidae, 292
Notacanthidae, 264
Ogcocephalidae, 301
Oneirodidae, 301







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Ophichthidae, 263
Ophidiidae, 291
Opisthognathidae, 289
Orectolobidae, 248
Ostariophysi, 259
Ostraciidae, 299
Paralepidae, 259
Pediculati, 300
Pempheridae, 282
Percidae, 274
Percomorphi, 271
Percophidae, 285
Peristediidae, 294
Petromyzonida, 247
Petromyzonidae, 247
Plectognathi, 298
Pleuronectidae, 297
Pqeciliidae, 266
Polymixiidae, 270
Polynemidae, 293
Pomacentridae, 283
Pomadasyidae, 279
Pomatomidae, 276
Priacanthidae, 275
Pristidae, 250
Protospondyli, 252


Rachycentridae, 276
Rajidae, 250
Regalecidae, 270
Rhineodontidae, 248
Rhinobatidae, 250
Rhinopteridae, 251
Salmopercae, 266
Scaridae, 284
Sciaenidae, 280
Scleroparei, 294
Scomberesocidae, 264
Scombridae, 286
Scorpaenidae, 294
Scyliorhinidae, 248
Selachii, 247
Serranidae, 271
Serrivomeridae, 261
Soleidae, 297
Solenichthyes, 266
Sparidae, 281
Sphyraenidae, 293
Sphyrnidae, 249
Squalidae, 249
Squatinidae, 250
Steinegeriidae, 294
Stephanoberycidae, 270


Sternoptychidae, 256
Stomiatidae, 254
Stromateidae, 292
Stylephoridae, 269
Synaphobranchidae, 261
Synentognathi, 264
Syngnathidae, 266
Synodontidae, 257
Tetragonuridae, 292
Tetraodontidae, 299
Torpedinidae, 250
Trachichthyidae, 270
Trachipteridae, 270
Triacanthidae, 298
Triakidae, 248
Trichiuridae, 286
Triglidae, 295
Umbridae, 257
Uranoscopidae, 285
Urolophidae, 251
Xenopterygii, 296
Xiphiidae, 287
Zeidae, 271
Zeomorphi, 271


Vol. 2






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