• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Discussion of the fauna
 Systematics
 Reference
 Plates






Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum., v.1, no.3
Title: Fresh water mollusks of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida from the Escambia to the Suwannee River
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002260/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fresh water mollusks of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida from the Escambia to the Suwannee River
Series Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Physical Description: 98-239 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clench, William James, 1897-
Turner, Ruth Dixon ( joint author )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Mollusks -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "References": p. 219-220.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Partially funded from a 1997 <a href="http://www.imls.gov/">IMLS</a> grant <a href="http://palmm.fcla.edu/lfnh/">Linking Florida's Natural Heritage"</a>.
Statement of Responsibility: by William J. Clench and Ruth D. Turner.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002260
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000440436
oclc - 05065103
notis - ACK0902
lccn - a 56009845
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Introduction
        Page 99
        Historical resume
            Page 100
            Page 101
        Acknowledgements
            Page 102
    Discussion of the fauna
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Systematics
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Viviparidae
            Page 109
            Genus viviparus Montfort
                Page 109
            Viviparus georgianus Lea
                Page 109
            Campeloma
                Page 113
                Page 114
                Page 115
                Page 116
            Lioplax
                Page 117
                Page 118
                Page 119
        Pilidae
            Page 120
            Genus Pomacea Perry
                Page 120
            Pomocea paludosa Say
                Page 120
                Page 121
        Bulimidae
            Page 122
            Genus Somatogyrus Gill
                Page 122
            Notogillia
                Page 123
                Page 124
            Pomatiopsis
                Page 125
        Pleuroceridae
            Page 126
            Genus Goniobasis Lea
                Page 126
                Page 127
                Page 128
                Page 129
                Page 130
                Page 131
                Page 132
                Page 133
                Page 134
                Page 135
                Page 136
                Page 137
                Page 138
                Page 139
                Page 140
                Page 141
        Pulmonata
            Page 142
        Physidae
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Genus Physa Draparnaud
                Page 143
            Physa pumilia Conrad
                Page 143
        Lymnaeidae
            Page 145
            Genus Pseudosuccinea Baker
                Page 145
                Page 146
        Ancylidae
            Page 147
            Genus Ferrissia Walker
                Page 147
        Margaritanidae
            Page 148
            Genus Margaritana Schumacher
                Page 148
                Page 149
        Unionidae
            Page 150
            Genus Fusconaia Simpson
                Page 150
            Fusconaia succissa Lea
                Page 150
                Page 151
                Page 152
            Quincuncina
                Page 153
                Page 154
                Page 155
            Crenodonta
                Page 156
                Page 157
                Page 158
                Page 159
            Pleurobema
                Page 160
                Page 161
                Page 162
                Page 163
                Page 164
            Elliptio
                Page 165
                Page 166
                Page 167
                Page 168
                Page 169
                Page 170
                Page 171
                Page 172
                Page 173
                Page 174
                Page 175
            Uniomerus
                Page 176
                Page 177
                Page 178
            Alasmidonta
                Page 179
                Page 180
            Anodontoides
                Page 181
                Page 182
            Anodonta
                Page 183
                Page 184
                Page 185
                Page 186
                Page 187
                Page 188
            Medionidus
                Page 189
                Page 190
            Glebula
                Page 191
                Page 192
            Corunculina
                Page 193
                Page 194
                Page 195
            Lampsilis
                Page 196
                Page 197
                Page 198
                Page 199
                Page 200
                Page 201
                Page 202
                Page 203
                Page 204
            Villosa
                Page 205
                Page 206
                Page 207
                Page 208
                Page 209
                Page 210
                Page 211
                Page 212
                Page 213
        Sphaeriidae
            Page 214
            Sphaerium
                Page 215
            Pisidium
                Page 216
            Byssanodonta
                Page 217
                Page 218
    Reference
        Page 219
        Page 220
    Plates
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
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BULLET


OF THE


FLORIDA STA

BIOLOGICAL


TE MUSEUM


SCIENCES


Volume I


Number 3


FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA,


GEORGIA,


AND FLORIDA


FROM THE ESCAMBIA TO THE SUWANNEE RIVER


William J. Clench


UNIVERSITY


and Ruth D. Turner


OF FLORIDA


Gainesville
September, 1956





The numbers of THE BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA STATE
MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, will be published at irregu-
lar intervals. Volumes will contain about 250 to 300 pages, and will
not necessarily be completed in any one calendar year.














William J. Riemer, Editor
John C. Briggs, Associate Editor


















All communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publi-
cation should be addressed to the Curator of Biological Sciences, Flor-
ida State Museum, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida. Manuscripts
should be sent to The Editor, Department of Biology, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


Published October 3, 1956


Price for this issue $1.80







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND
FLORIDA FROM THE ESCAMBIA TO THE
SUWANNEE RIVER

WILLIAM J. CLENCH AND RUTH D. TURNER1



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction --....... ...-- ...-------------- ...- ----------.--------- --- ----- ------------------- -------- 99
Historical r6sum --.........-......... -----------....------ ...----- --------.------------ --------- 100
Acknowledgements ...-......--------.......... -.....-- -....- ..---------------.------------------------ 102
Discussion of the fauna ......-- ...-.....------ ............- ....-- ..--- .....- ....-..----------- ----- 103
Systematics ----..--------.... ..--...........-- .--- ......------------.......-- -------------.------------------ 109
Viviparidae .-......---- ..-----.....------ -------....---.--------.......---------------- 109
Viviparus .-- ..-.... ..........-------.........------------ ------------------------ 109
Campeloma ........-...- .------------ ----- .........--...-------- -- --------..------ ------------ 113
Lioplax --..-... ....-- ------.................-----... ....----.....-..- --...----------- 117
Pilidae .....-.....-- -- ------.....- .. ---.............---------.------ ------.. --.------... ------------ 120
Pomacea ---..-----..---....-----.............-.............------...........------------ 120
Bulimidae .---- ----.......-..--------. ----- -----.--...---- .......-. ------------- 122
Somatogyrus .-....-.....---- ..----- ........-- ----..-------------------------- --122
Notogillia--.....- -- ~....... ..............-..... ..--- ---------------------- 123
Pomatiopsis --........-- .......-- .------------------ --------------- ------- 125
Pleuroceridae -----......-------- ---- .....--..-- ------. ..- ------------------------ 126
Goniobasis -- -------...... -- .....---...-........----------- -. -------.---..------ -----.----------- 126
Pulmonata --- .....------- ....--------.. ........---- ....-. ..------------------------ ----------- ------- 142
Physidae -...-- .. -------- ------- -...............- --- -.- ----------.--- --.--- -- ---------- ----- 143
Physa .- ------- ................ ....---- .--- .---..-.---------------------. .---- --------------- 143
Lymnaeidae --- -------.......... --- ------------...... ...........-...........----------.---------------- 145
Pseudosuccinea ...............------------.-.... .......--- ...... ------.... ..............- .--------- -----. 145
Ancylidae ...--.--....-- .....-----...--- ---.....--.-----.---------....------------ ------. 147
Ferrissia .------.-..- --...- .....--......---------........... 147
Margaritanidae --..-..... -...----. -----...-.....---- ---.. ----------....--...... 148
Margaritana --......... .----. ----.----.............-...-.-----....---- .-..--------------- 148


1[William J. Clench is Curator and Ruth D. Turner is Research Associate in the
Department of Mollusks, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts. Both authors participated in the field work upon which this report is
based. During that period the senior author served as Collaborator on the staff of
the Florida State Museum.-Ed.]






v I

98 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Unionidae -..... -- --.... -...... --... .-- .....- ..--......----....-. ...... ....---. 150
Fusconaia --...-_. ------- .... .....--............. 150
Quincuncina ..--------------......-...------- ....-...----------------- 153
Crenodonta ..------------.-..-.. ..--------.... --.... 156
Pleurobema --. ---..... ....------ ------ .........-.............-.-------. --.- ---- 160
Elliptio ......-- ...-- ...--- -- ........_-- ...----- ---........- ------- 165
Uniomerus --......-----------...-... ..-....--- ..- ------.-. .... .. 176
Alasmidonta .--..---..-- --.... --.....-....... ... -- ... .....-------------------- 179
Anodo-toides .--------..... .--.................--- .............--------- ------.-- 181
Anodonta .......-------... .... ..---- .--- --------- --............ ..--... -........-.- ---- 183
Medionidus ----...... -- ... .. -.......--.... --. ---..---....-- --.-............ 189
Glebula -.......---.....------ --......-. -.. ............ --. ........--- 191
Corunculina ...-.....-..-..-------...................--------.- ----------- 193
Lampsilis -..---..---....-----... ........... ---------- -----... -----.--.----....... 196
Villosa .--............. ...... ~.---- ...........-..-....-......-.--- ........... 205
Sphaeriidae .........------............----------..-----------.-------------..------ 214
Sphaerium ........ ---. .........---.-.. .. -- .....-......----------------- 215
Pisidium ---- .. ... ...........-------------.----........_................- .. ... 216
Byssanodonta .........----------..-..--......--..--------------...........---....-......-.....-- 217
References ....-. ..............------------.. .....................-----.-.------------- 219






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 99

INTRODUCTION

The beginnings of this study go back some years to when Peter
Okkelberg2 and the senior author made a survey of the upper Flint,
Chattahoochee, and Altamaha Rivers in Georgia and Alabama. This
trip, in essence, was to be a preliminary expedition to determine, from
the material collected, just what river systems should be investigated
later in greater detail. Sickness, and later the death, of Dr. Walker,
who was to finance the program, precluded a continuance of this work.
In 1933 Henry Vander Schalie and the senior author made a
survey of the Unionid fauna of the Cahawba River in Alabama. We
crossed Georgia on our way south and again made several stations in
the regions drained by the Apalachicola river system. During addi-
tional trips to the south various members of this museum have added
a few more stations in this general area.
Many other collectors have played an important part in supplying
records for this study. Most of these records are based upon materials
received in exchange from the University of Michigan, the University
of Alabama, and on materials in the University of Florida Collections.
In the spring of 1953 the University of Florida3 became greatly
interested in the Chattahoochee area of Florida, the site of the Jim
Woodruff dam. This dam is being built across the Apalachicola River
just below the two confluents that create it, the Chattahoochee and
Flint Rivers. Specialists in many fields of zoology and botany were
called to aid in the survey of territory that was shortly to be inundated.
The main idea was to collect and preserve such material as would be
destroyed by flooding, and to resurvey the same area in the years to
come to determine what changes might occur in the biota. It is
astonishing and catastrophic that so little interest has prevailed else-
where, particularly in the south, where vast changes have been made
by the construction of power dams. Surely much damage to the local
fauna occurred long before these dams were built, but now much data
that might have been obtained are lost forever.
The party working on the mollusks in 1953 consisted of the authors
and Mrs. Clench. In 1954 J. C. Dickinson, as administrator of the
project, was granted additional funds for a continuance of this survey.


2Then Professor of Zoology, University of Michigan; now Professor Emeritus.
3A United States National Park Service contract, and a National Science Foun-
dation grant, issued through the Florida State Museum and the Department of
Biology, University of Florida, made possible, in part, field work in connection with
this study.




100 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

A broadening of the problem appeared inevitable, and with an addi-
tional grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, a survey of
the river systems from the Escambia east to the Suwannee was made
possible during August and September of 1954. The party collecting
mollusks consisted of the authors and Donald F. McMichael. The
success of this trip was a product of the weather. The south experienced
widespread drought that was declared by many local observers to be
the worst in 30 to 50 years. A few years earlier, P. Okkelberg and the
senior author were unable to collect in the lower Flint or Chattahoo-
chee Rivers because of the high water. In 1953 the same high water
conditions existed. In 1954 the rivers were exceedingly low and clear,
making possible the collection of a rich fauna unavailable during a
period of normal or high water.

HISTORICAL RESUME

The historical record is clouded owing to lack of details about the
early collectors. Isaac Lea of Philadelphia, a man of wide friendships,
described most of the species of the Unionidae found in this area. A
host of collectors, Bishop Elliott, E. R. Showalter, W. Spillman, G.
Hallenbeck, Dr. Boykin, Major LeConte, G. White, J. Postell, J. H.
Couper, H. M. Neisler, and others, contributed to his large collection.
Lea was a man of considerable means and was able to publish his
descriptions in a sumptuous fashion, particularly for that time. Pre-
liminary descriptions appeared in the Proceedings of the Academy
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. A little later these same brief
diagnoses reappeared in the Transactions of the American Philosophi-
cal Society or the Transactions of the Academy of Natural Sciences,
Philadelphia, with more detailed descriptions, remarks, and beautiful
figures. A certain number of sets of these later studies were repaged,
then grouped and issued under the title of "Observations on the Genus
Unio."4
In 1834 T. A. Conrad published a booklet with illustrations of
several American freshwater shells. He collected a few species in the
Flint River, very probably at Albany. He traveled extensively through

4The plates retained their original numbers, as the numbers had been engraved
along with the rest of the plate. This has been the source of concern by workers
and librarians as the various volumes of the "Observations" have no continuity of
plate numbers. The so-called missing numbers are plates on other subjects that
appeared originally in the Transactions or elsewhere. Fortunately, a detailed
bibliography of Lea was compiled by N. P. Scudder (1885). All pertinent data are
given in detail.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 101

much of Alabama and through limited areas of Georgia wherein he
made many notable discoveries. Lea and Conrad became exceedingly
antagonistic toward one another, and their discord regarding publica-
tion dates was second only to the Marsh and Cope controversy of a
few generations ago. We highlight this only because the antagonism
caused Lea to deposit his extensive collection in the United States
National Museum, and not in the Academy at Philadelphia under
whose auspices many of his studies had been published. Conrad's
types are scattered, and many are lost. A few are in Philadelphia, but
his main collection was stored in Cambridge, Massachusetts, about
1870, and then lost. We have done everything to locate it, but with
no success.

Many of the so-called "cabinets" of Lea's day are also lost. He
usually mentioned under each species he described the name of the
collector, and then added, for example, "My cabinet, and the cabinet
of Rev. George White." Just what has happened to the many cabinets
is unknown to us. Some may exist in our larger museums, but we
fear that most of them ceased to be when their owners lost interest,
or their inheritors failed to recognize or understand the importance
of these collections.
Locality data were frequently in error. This is understandable,
for at that time there was a lack of interest in, or understanding of,
the importance of such data. Collections were made, possibly over
a wide area, then labelled at a later date. Memory certainly failed in
many instances. Mollusks from Macon County on the Flint River-
the Apalachicola system-were frequently listed as "Macon" which is
a city on the Ocmulgee River, a major tributary of the Altamaha
River-a totally different system. Also, several type localities are given
as "Flint River near Macon, Georgia." In some instances reference
was made to the city of Macon, and the river in question was not the
Flint River but the Ocmulgee. Thus, these original errors persisted,
were copied and republished with occasional new errors added to in-
crease the complexity of the problem. Certain of these errors are
going to be very difficult to prove. Many type localities have been
destroyed. In one instance, a whole river, the Chattahoochee, once
rich in mollusks, now appears to be nearly barren of these animals.
Continued destruction will proceed at an accelerated pace. Industrial
expansion continues in the south, and many industries produce waste
products deleterious to mollusks. However, the greatest source of
damage seems to be land erosion and consequent silting of the rivers.
Many species of Unionidae were described originally from the Chat-





102 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

tahoochee River, Columbus, Georgia. Most were described during
the middle of the past century. In 1929 P. Okkelberg and the senior
author failed to find a single freshwater mollusk at this locality.
More recently (1955), Herbert Athearn located a limited number
of species both above and below Columbus, Georgia, in the Chatta-
hoochee River. Probably there are many other places which possess
some material, but, on the whole, the river now has only a small
fraction of a once rich fauna.
The most recent study within this area is that of Vander Schalie
in 1940. This paper considers the distribution and ecology of the fresh-
water mussels of the Chipola River, a major tributary of the lower
Apalachicola River.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are exceedingly grateful to many people who have aided in
making this study possible. Angus Gohlson, of Chattahoochee, Florida,
was helpful in taking us to many localities not easily located by those
unfamiliar with the area about Chattahoochee.
We are also indebted to a host of collectors who have furnished
much of the material that formed the basis of this study. To H. A.
Rehder, R. T. Abbott, and Henry Vander Schalie we owe our sincere
thanks for time and trouble in checking type material and for the
loan of types which we needed for many species in this study. To
Herbert Athearn, of Cleveland, Tennessee, we are grateful for the
loan of material collected on two trips, one to the Chipola River and
the other to the upper Chattahoochee River region.
The photographs are the work of Frank White, staff photographer
at the Biological Laboratories, Harvard University.





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 103

DISCUSSION OF THE FAUNA

In the systematic part of this report we have treated monographic-
ally all of the species known to occur in the rivers from the Escambia
east to the Suwannee. From this study some interesting facts have
emerged, and these seem to indicate that the fauna of this area has
been derived from the west, is depauperate, and must be fairly old.
There is also evidence that a central area of the Floridian peninsula
remained isolated for a sufficient period of time to allow the develop-
ment of several endemic elements. This area has been referred to as
"Orange Island" by Vaughan (1910) and Woodson (1947).
A WESTERLY DERIVED FAUNA.-The relationships of most of the
species and genera found in the area encompassed by this report are
with species and genera of the Coosa-Alabama and Tennessee river
systems. Only two genera are endemic in the area, namely, Quincun-
cina and Notogillia. The genus Quincuncina is close in its relationship
with Fusconaia, a genus of wide distribution in the Coosa-Alabama
and Mississippi river systems. Notogillia, a genus containing only a
single recent species, has its relationship with the genus Somatogyrus
of the same river systems. A species and subspecies have recently been
described in Notogillia from the Pliocene of St. Petersburg, Florida,
by Pilsbry (1953: 439).
How this fauna arrived in the area is difficult to say-mechanically
or by stream capture? We are inclined to favor the former possibility,
simply because there are so many genera absent which should occur
if stream capture had been at all prevalent. Distribution by stream
capture would have necessitated a sequence of captured streams from
the Apalachicola to the Suwannee in order to explain the presence
of several species. The absence of other species present in the Apa-
lachicola and Ochlockonee, but not in the Suwannee, would then be
hard to explain. Accidental dispersal, however, can at least be credited
to some factor in the life cycle of a species. That is, certain species
are more susceptible to mechanical transport and, therefore, are more
successful in making accidental trips from one drainage system to
another. In many instances these species are more adaptable and,
consequently, are more likely to survive when introduced into a new
area. Time is important. Streams in this area, at least in the upland
region, have probably been in existence since the mid-Tertiary, and
perhaps much longer. Considering this length of time, a successful
introduction once in a thousand years could easily account for the
present fauna. It is unfortunate, however, that there is no fossil





104 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

record of any freshwater mollusks in the upland country between the
Escambia and the Suwannee Rivers.
It must be remembered that most of the Unionidae or freshwater
mussels are, in the larval stage, parasitic on some species of fish. The
proper host or hosts would have to be present for an introduced species
to survive. Also, parasitized fish introduced into a new stream would
be a factor in mussel dispersal. Probably wide ranging species of
mussels can parasitize several species of fish while those with a limited
range are probably limited to a single fish host. However, nothing is
known regarding host specificity of the mussels in this area.
A DEPAUPERATE FAUNA.-The absence of many genera, and a great
lack in number of species within this entire area, denotes a depau-
perate molluscan fauna. Such genera as Pleurocera, Anculosa, and
Apella in the Pleuroceridae, and Proptera, Quadrula,'Tritogonia, and
Obovaria in the Unionidae, are entirely absent. These are only a few
of the many genera that do not occur within this region, but which
are exceedingly common in the Coosa-Alabama river system, and in
most instances even extend into the rivers to the north.
A FAIRLY OLD FAUNA.-The rather large number of endemic forms
(27) would indicate an element of antiquity. It would appear that
regardless of the vicissitudes of the coastal plain, and even parts of
the lower upland country, the headwaters of certain of these streams,
particularly the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers have persisted for a
considerable period of geologic time, certainly since the mid-Ter-
tiary, and perhaps much longer.
EVIDENCE OF "ORANGE ISLAND."-There appears to be some good
evidence among the freshwater mollusks for the existence of an island
in what is now central Florida during the period of fluctuation of the
epicontinental Pliocene and Pleistocene seas. Though the differences
between many of the species of central and southern Florida and the
regions to the north are not great, they exist in sufficient numbers to
warrant an explanation.
Although the central area of Florida is beyond the scope of this
paper, several species that occur in it have been dealt with because
they have a direct bearing on our problem. For a few genera we have
included all of the species which occur in central and southern Florida.
Naturally we can set no exact limits on the maximum size of such an
island area; we can suggest, however, that it must have been large, at
least large enough to have had a freshwater drainage system with some
lakes and perhaps some fairly large creeks. Dall (1903) held the
opinion that freshwater lakes were "constantly existing since the Ocala







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 105

islands were raised above the sea." Earlier in this same work he refers
to this area as the "island of Florida."
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES.-In the accompanying table, Distri-
bution of Species, only records from the Escambia, Choctawhatchee,
Apalachicola, Ochlockonee, and Suwannee Rivers have been included.
Records from the Yellow, Econfina,5 Aucilla, Fenholloway, and Stein-
hatchee, are too limited, and their inclusion would not aid in this
problem. We have included all of the Unionidae and all of the Proso-
branch gastropods, but have omitted the Sphaeridae and the Pulmo-
nate gastropods as their numbers are relatively small.
Several facts of importance are vividly portrayed in this chart.
First, the greatest amount of endemicity occurs in the Apalachicola
river system, which points to the great antiquity and stability of at
least its upper part. Second, there are many species which do not ex-
tend to the east or south beyond the Suwannee River. This is un-
doubtedly explained by the fact that at the time of "Orange Island"
this area was inundated. However, as the land came into existence
the Suwannee River was populated by elements which had existed
in the upper Withlacoochee River, its most important tributary. Since
that time only a few species have extended their range to the south.
It is impossible at this time to explain the lack of many gastropods
in the Ochlockonee River. A number of collecting stations were
made on this river, and many areas appeared suitable. However, very
few gastropods were found, and it seems particularly strange that no
species of such common, widespread genera as Goniobasis, Viviparus,
and Pomacea were collected.
The occurrence of Goniobasis dickinsoni (a new species described
later in this paper) in the upper reaches of two different river systems,
where the small tributaries nearly meet one another, probably in-
dicates mechanical distribution, or possibly general flooding of this
low-lying area.
It is interesting to note the lack of endemic species in the smaller
river systems such as the Ochlockonee and the Suwannee, rivers whose
headwaters do not extend far into the uplands. During the period of
greatest submergence most of the area drained by these rivers was
inundated. If endemic species ever did exist in these two rivers they

5There are two Econfina Rivers in Florida, one in Washington County and the
other in Taylor County. Also, there are two Withlacoochee Rivers; the southern-
most is an independent stream that enters the Gulf of Mexico about 25 miles south
of Cedar Keys, Florida. The other Withlacoochee River has its origin in southern
Georgia, and is an important confluent of the Suwannee River.







106 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES


-^F-

SPECIES" 9

(Arranged geographically z
according to their oc- F .
currency in the river sys- o u o
teams from west to east) 0 z 0



Lampsilis a. floridensis O X X X X X X O
Elliptio strigosus O X X X X .X X O
Villosa vibex O X X X X X X O
Villosa lienosa O X X X X X
Anodonta imbecilis O X X X X X
Lampsilis claibornensis O X X X X X
Anodonta hallenbecki O X X X
Glebula rotundata 0 X X X
Elliptio c. incrassatus O X X
Lampsilis excurvatus O X
Margaritana hembeli O X
Uniomerus obesus X X X X X X O
Campeloma geniculum X X X X X
Crenodonta boykiniana X X X
Goniobasis curvicostata X X X
Anodontoides elliotti X X
Pleurobema strodeanum X X
Lampsilis australis X X
Fusconaia succissa X X
Fusconaia escambia* X
Corunculina paula X X X X X O
Pomacea paludosa X X X X O
Viviparus georgianus X X X X O
Goniobasis floridensis X X X X O
Lioplax pilsbryi X X X X
Anodonta gibbosa X X X
Lampsilis subangulata X X X
Quincuncina burkei X
Elliptio mcmichaeli* X
Goniobasis clenchi X








FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 107

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES (Continued)




z
SPECIES < z

(Arranged geographically
according to their oc- z
currency in the river sys- o W o
teams from west to east) S



Notogillia wetherbyi X X X X O
Villosa villosa X X X ? O
Quincuncina infucata X X X
Medionidus penniculatus X X X
Pleurobema pyriforme X X X
Elliptio sloatianus X X
Crenodonta neisleri X
Alasmidonta triangulata X
Elliptio chipolaensis X
Goniobasis athearni* X
Goniobasis boykiniana X
Goniobasis catenoides X
Goniobasis viennaensis X
Goniobasis albanyensis X
Goniobasis dickinsoni* X
Villosa v. amygdala X O
Viviparus g. wareanus X O
Anodonta cowperiana X O
Campeloma floridense X
Goniobasis vanhyningiana X





X-present in the system or region indicated.


O-range extends out of the area covered in this report, either to the north and
west or to the south and east.


*A new species to be described later in this paper.






108 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATIC MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SC(IENCES

were destroyed by the invasion of the Pleistocene seas. Such a species
could have been Elliptio pachyodon Pilsbry, described from the Plio-
cene of St. Petersburg. It is closely related to Elliptio crassidens incras-
salts Lea, a species which today does not occur east of the Apalachicola
system.
The species listed in the table for "Orange Island" are by no means
all that occur. The few listed are those which, for one reason or
another, concerned us in our survey. A complete picture of the en-
demicity in the "Orange Island" area can be obtained only after a
monographic study of all of the species found in the Florida peninsula.
Three species which are found in the Escambia and the Apalachi-
cola river systems apparently do not occur in the (Choctawhatchee river
system. With the data at hand we are unable to explain this situation.

RIVER SYSTEMS NUMBER OF SPECIES
5 10 15 20 25 30 35

ESCAMBIA


CHOCTAWHATCHEE


APALACHICOLA


OCHLOCKONEE TOTAL NUMBER
SPECIES ENDEMIC
IN THE AREA
13 -- SPECIES ENDEMIC
SUWANNEEIN THE SYSTEM

It is possible, of course, that with further collecting they will be found
in the (:hoctawhatchee system, though this seems unlikely as col-
lections from this region are reasonably good, the species concerned
are large and conspicuous, and elsewhere they are reasonably common.
Indi(ative of the great endemicity of this area is the fact that of
the forty-five species listed in the table as ranging from the Escambia
River to the Suwannee River only eleven extend to the west and north.
Of the remainder, twenty-seven are endemic, while seven extend from
the area southward into central Florida.
The text figure shows graphically the relative number of species
occurring in each river system, as well as the endemicity within each
area and each system.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 109

SYSTEMATICS

The following abbreviations have been used in the text and on the
plate captions.
ANSP-Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
MCZ-Museum of Comparative Zoology
MZUM-Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan
USNM-United States National Museum
[Where a full synonymic citation is lacking, reference to the biblio-
graphy is implied. The style of the synonymies is the responsibility of
the editor, not of the authors-Ed.]

VIVIPARIDAE.

Genus Viviparus Montfort

Viviparus Denys de Montfort (1810, Conchyliologie Systematique (Paris), 2: 247).
Type species, Viviparus fluviorum Montfort (= Helix vivipara Linn6), original
designation.

Shells globose to moderately attenuate with pronounced convex
whorls. Generally thin in structure, but strong. Usually colored green-
ish to dark brown or black, and occasionally with spiral bands of dark
brown.
The animal is sluggish and prefers quiet water where there is
vegetation and a soft substrate of mud or muddy sand.

Viviparus georgianus Lea
Plate 1 Figures 1-4

Paludina georgiana Lea (1834, Tran. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.), 5: 116, pl. 19, fig. 85),
Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Lea, 1834 (1: 228, pl. 19, fig. 85).
Vivipara georgiana var. altior Pilsbry (1892, Nautilus, 5: 142), aboriginal shell heap,
left bank Hitchen's Creek, near entrance of St. Johns River into Lake George,
Florida.
Viviparus contectoides compactus Pilsbry (1916, Nautilus, 30: 42), Dougherty,
Georgia.
Viviparus contectoides limi Pilsbry (1918, Nautilus, 32: 71); [new name for com-
pactus Pilsbry, 1916; non Kobelt, 1906].
Viviparus contectoides goodrichi Archer (1933, Nautilus, 47: 19, pl. 3, figs. 1-3),
tributary to the Chipola River, 5 mi. NE Marianna, Jackson Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell subglobose in outline and varying in size, large
specimens reaching about 44 mm. (about 1% inches) in length, im-
perforate or with a narrow slitlike umbilicus. Usually rather thin in
structure, but strong and smooth. Color yellowish or olivaceous green






110 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

to dark brownish green, banded or uniform in color. Banded speci-
mens usually have four dark reddish-brown bands about evenly spaced.
Whorls 4 to 5, strongly convex, and generally with a slight shoulder.
Spire somewhat extended and produced at an angle of from 50 to 65.
Aperture ovate to subcircular. Outer lip thin, parietal lip consisting of
a thickened glaze. Columella narrow and arched. Suture deeply in-
dented. Sculpture consisting only of fine growth lines. Young speci-
mens have a few spiral threads which eventually disappear as they
grow older. Operculum corneous, thin, with concentric growth lines
and a submarginal nucleus.

LENGTH* WIDTH
mm. mm.
44 35 Holotype, V. goodrichi Archer
26 19.5 Holotype, V. georgiana Lea
26 21 Lectotype, '. compactus (-limi) Pilsbry
*All measurements in this paper are based upon single specimens, usually the largest avail-
able or others that are typical examples.

TYPES.-The holotype of V. georgianus Lea is in the United States
National Museum (106252), and is from Hopeton, near Darien,
Georgia. Paratypes are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(186792). The lectotype of V. contectoides compactus Pilsbry, here
selected, is in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, (27731)
from Dougherty County, Georgia. The holotype of V. contectoides
goodrichi Archer is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (92432),
from a spring-fed creek [Spring Creek, or a tributary of it] 5 miles
northeast of Marianna, Jackson County, Florida. The holotype of
V. georgiana altior Pilsbry is in the Academy of Natural Sciences,
Philadelphia, and paratypes are in the Museum of Comparative Zo-
ology (78391).

t REMARKS.-This is an exceedingly variable species. Though the
extremes appear to be quite different, every kind of an intergrade
exists between them. These differences appear to have no pattern,
but occur sporadically throughout the range of the species, probably
controlled by a combination of inheritance and ecology. The distri-
bution of this species is very spotty. It generally is not found in the
larger rivers, but in the sloughs that may margin them or in smaller
creeks, lakes, ponds, and springs. There may be considerable dis-
tances between colonies, and each colony is usually rather uniform as
to size, shape, and coloration of the shells. Colonies can exist where
there is a great deal of soft mud and vegetation in quiet water, but
may also occur in sandy areas where the water is quiet.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 111

The form named georgianus Lea is somewhat attenuate, rather
solid, bandless, and dark olivaceous green in color (pl. 1, fig. 3). The
form limi Pilsbry is exceedingly close in all characters to the typical
form, but is banded (pl. 1, fig. 4). The form goodrichi Archer is sub-
globose in shape and much larger. The type lot has both banded and
unbanded forms (pl. 1, fig. 1). The brief notes above are based on the
actual type specimens. Many other lots that we have examined are
intermediate between these several forms.
Viviparus georgianus Lea differs from V. g. wareanus Kiister
by being larger and generally a little less attenuate. Nevertheless even
this subspecies can be matched in size with specimens of georgianus
from Kiokee Creek (form limi), Terrell County, Georgia.
The form altior Pilsbry is much attenuated and probably an ex-
treme in this regard. However, many examples in Lake Monroe, Semi-
nole County, Florida, are identical with certain of the paratypes from
the kitchen-midden series, though none matches the extreme of the
attenuated specimens. We have no recent examples from Hitchen's
Creek, the site of the midden, but these specimens may only repre-
sent rheophilous examples.
Our only examples of georgianus in the Choctawhatchee system
came from a tributary, Holmes Creek; however, it may well exist
in the lower reaches of this system.
RANGE.-From the Peace River in southwest Florida the species
ranges north to the Savannah River, Georgia, and west to the Choctaw-
hatchee river system.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

PEACE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Peace River.
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Withlacoochee River, 9 mi. N Dade City, Pasco Co.; Withlacoochee
--River, near Dunnellon, Marion Co.
ST. JOHNS RIVER SYSTEM -
Florida: Lake Jessup; Wekiva River, 15 mi. NW Winter Park; Lake Monroe; all
Seminole Co. Benson Springs; Lake Woodruff; Spring Garden Creek, near DeLeon
Springs; all Volusia Co. Silver Springs; Oklawaha River, 2 mi. E Orange Springs;
Both Marion Co. Silver Springs, Lake George; Lake George; both Putnam Co_
SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
SANTA FE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Poe Spring, Santa Fe River, 3 mi. S High
Springs; Santa Fe River, High Springs; both Alachua Co. Ichtucknee River below
the main spring, Columbia Co.
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Withlacoochee River, Olympia,
Lowndes Co. Florida: Withlacoochee River, Blue Springs, Madison Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Suwannee River, Ellaville; Suwannee River
at mouth of Withlacoochee River; both Madison Co. Suwannee River below







112 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

mouth of Santa Fe River, Gilchrist Co. Suwannee River, Oldtown, Dixie Co.
STEINHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Steinhatchee River, 9 mi. E Salem, Taylor Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Kiokee Creek, 15 mi. SE Dawson, Terrell Co.
Creek, 6 mi. W Albany, Dougherty Co. Keels Creek, 2.3 mi. S Leary, Calhoun Co.
Spring Creek, Colquitt, Miller Co. Spring Creek, Reynoldsville, Seminole Co.
Spring Creek, near Brinson; Four Mile Creek, 3 mi. SW Bainbridge; Paul Clark
Spring, 2% mi. W Recovery; Sealey's Spring, 5 mi. NW Recovery; Shackleford
Spring, 3 mi. NW Recovery; Blue Spring, 7% mi. W Recovery; all Decatur Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Reedy Creek, 6 mi. W Malone; Big Creek,
8 mi. W Malone; creek, 5 mi. NE Marianna; Chipola River, 51 mi. W Greenwood;
all Jackson Co. Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola River, Scotts Ferry;
Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Holmes Creek, 3 mi. E Bonifay, Holmes Co.
ALTAMAHA RIVER SYSTEM
ALTAMAHA RIVER DRAINAGE.-G(eorgia: Altamaha River, near Darien, McIntosh
Co.
OCMULGtEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Oscewickee Springs, 10 mi. S Abbeville,
Wilcox Co.
SAVANNAH RIVER SYSTEM
Georgia: Savannah River.

Vwiparus georgianus wareanus Kiister
Plate 1 Figure 5

Paludina wareana 'Shuttleworth' Kiister (1852, Conchylien-Cabinet (2), 1, pt. 21:
21, pl. 4, figs. 10-11), Ostflorida im Ware-See.
Viviparus waltonii Tryon (1866, Amer. Jour. Conchol., 2: 108, pl. 10, fig. 2), St.
Johns River, Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell medium to rather small, reaching about 25 mm.
(1 inch) in length, though it is generally a little less. Shell somewhat
attenuate, with rather compact whorls, and usually banded, but oc-
casionally bandless forms occur. In all respects it appears to be ex-
ceedingly close to typical georgianus Lea.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
24 18 Lake Tohopekaliga, Kissimmee, Oceola Co., Florida
21.5 17 Canal Point, Lake Okeechobee, Palm Beach Co., Florida
21 16.5 Lake Weir, Marion Co., Florida

TYPEs.-The location of the types of V. wareanus Kiister is un-
known. According to Kiister, the specimens he described were in
the Charpentier Collection, and Sherborn (1940) states that the Char-
pentier collection went to the Vaux Museum. The original specimens






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 109

SYSTEMATICS

The following abbreviations have been used in the text and on the
plate captions.
ANSP-Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
MCZ-Museum of Comparative Zoology
MZUM-Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan
USNM-United States National Museum
[Where a full synonymic citation is lacking, reference to the biblio-
graphy is implied. The style of the synonymies is the responsibility of
the editor, not of the authors-Ed.]

VIVIPARIDAE.

Genus Viviparus Montfort

Viviparus Denys de Montfort (1810, Conchyliologie Systematique (Paris), 2: 247).
Type species, Viviparus fluviorum Montfort (= Helix vivipara Linn6), original
designation.

Shells globose to moderately attenuate with pronounced convex
whorls. Generally thin in structure, but strong. Usually colored green-
ish to dark brown or black, and occasionally with spiral bands of dark
brown.
The animal is sluggish and prefers quiet water where there is
vegetation and a soft substrate of mud or muddy sand.

Viviparus georgianus Lea
Plate 1 Figures 1-4

Paludina georgiana Lea (1834, Tran. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.), 5: 116, pl. 19, fig. 85),
Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Lea, 1834 (1: 228, pl. 19, fig. 85).
Vivipara georgiana var. altior Pilsbry (1892, Nautilus, 5: 142), aboriginal shell heap,
left bank Hitchen's Creek, near entrance of St. Johns River into Lake George,
Florida.
Viviparus contectoides compactus Pilsbry (1916, Nautilus, 30: 42), Dougherty,
Georgia.
Viviparus contectoides limi Pilsbry (1918, Nautilus, 32: 71); [new name for com-
pactus Pilsbry, 1916; non Kobelt, 1906].
Viviparus contectoides goodrichi Archer (1933, Nautilus, 47: 19, pl. 3, figs. 1-3),
tributary to the Chipola River, 5 mi. NE Marianna, Jackson Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell subglobose in outline and varying in size, large
specimens reaching about 44 mm. (about 1% inches) in length, im-
perforate or with a narrow slitlike umbilicus. Usually rather thin in
structure, but strong and smooth. Color yellowish or olivaceous green






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 109

SYSTEMATICS

The following abbreviations have been used in the text and on the
plate captions.
ANSP-Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
MCZ-Museum of Comparative Zoology
MZUM-Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan
USNM-United States National Museum
[Where a full synonymic citation is lacking, reference to the biblio-
graphy is implied. The style of the synonymies is the responsibility of
the editor, not of the authors-Ed.]

VIVIPARIDAE.

Genus Viviparus Montfort

Viviparus Denys de Montfort (1810, Conchyliologie Systematique (Paris), 2: 247).
Type species, Viviparus fluviorum Montfort (= Helix vivipara Linn6), original
designation.

Shells globose to moderately attenuate with pronounced convex
whorls. Generally thin in structure, but strong. Usually colored green-
ish to dark brown or black, and occasionally with spiral bands of dark
brown.
The animal is sluggish and prefers quiet water where there is
vegetation and a soft substrate of mud or muddy sand.

Viviparus georgianus Lea
Plate 1 Figures 1-4

Paludina georgiana Lea (1834, Tran. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.), 5: 116, pl. 19, fig. 85),
Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Lea, 1834 (1: 228, pl. 19, fig. 85).
Vivipara georgiana var. altior Pilsbry (1892, Nautilus, 5: 142), aboriginal shell heap,
left bank Hitchen's Creek, near entrance of St. Johns River into Lake George,
Florida.
Viviparus contectoides compactus Pilsbry (1916, Nautilus, 30: 42), Dougherty,
Georgia.
Viviparus contectoides limi Pilsbry (1918, Nautilus, 32: 71); [new name for com-
pactus Pilsbry, 1916; non Kobelt, 1906].
Viviparus contectoides goodrichi Archer (1933, Nautilus, 47: 19, pl. 3, figs. 1-3),
tributary to the Chipola River, 5 mi. NE Marianna, Jackson Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell subglobose in outline and varying in size, large
specimens reaching about 44 mm. (about 1% inches) in length, im-
perforate or with a narrow slitlike umbilicus. Usually rather thin in
structure, but strong and smooth. Color yellowish or olivaceous green






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 109

SYSTEMATICS

The following abbreviations have been used in the text and on the
plate captions.
ANSP-Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
MCZ-Museum of Comparative Zoology
MZUM-Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan
USNM-United States National Museum
[Where a full synonymic citation is lacking, reference to the biblio-
graphy is implied. The style of the synonymies is the responsibility of
the editor, not of the authors-Ed.]

VIVIPARIDAE.

Genus Viviparus Montfort

Viviparus Denys de Montfort (1810, Conchyliologie Systematique (Paris), 2: 247).
Type species, Viviparus fluviorum Montfort (= Helix vivipara Linn6), original
designation.

Shells globose to moderately attenuate with pronounced convex
whorls. Generally thin in structure, but strong. Usually colored green-
ish to dark brown or black, and occasionally with spiral bands of dark
brown.
The animal is sluggish and prefers quiet water where there is
vegetation and a soft substrate of mud or muddy sand.

Viviparus georgianus Lea
Plate 1 Figures 1-4

Paludina georgiana Lea (1834, Tran. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.), 5: 116, pl. 19, fig. 85),
Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Lea, 1834 (1: 228, pl. 19, fig. 85).
Vivipara georgiana var. altior Pilsbry (1892, Nautilus, 5: 142), aboriginal shell heap,
left bank Hitchen's Creek, near entrance of St. Johns River into Lake George,
Florida.
Viviparus contectoides compactus Pilsbry (1916, Nautilus, 30: 42), Dougherty,
Georgia.
Viviparus contectoides limi Pilsbry (1918, Nautilus, 32: 71); [new name for com-
pactus Pilsbry, 1916; non Kobelt, 1906].
Viviparus contectoides goodrichi Archer (1933, Nautilus, 47: 19, pl. 3, figs. 1-3),
tributary to the Chipola River, 5 mi. NE Marianna, Jackson Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell subglobose in outline and varying in size, large
specimens reaching about 44 mm. (about 1% inches) in length, im-
perforate or with a narrow slitlike umbilicus. Usually rather thin in
structure, but strong and smooth. Color yellowish or olivaceous green





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 113

were collected by F. Rugel in "Ware-See," probably Lake Weir, Marion
Co., Florida. The holotype of V. waltonii Tryon is in the Academy
of Natural Science, Philadelphia, and is from the St. Johns River,
Florida.
REMARKS.-We are admitting wareanus as a subspecies because of
its pattern of distribution. It overlaps georgianus in its distribution as
well as in its morphological characters, but those occurring in the
upper St. Johns drainage and the Okeechobee drainage are remark-
ably uniform. In Lake George and other areas in the lower and
middle St. Johns drainage, both forms occur with much intermixing.
RANGE.-From Lake Okeechobee this subspecies ranges north into
Lake and Marion Counties in the Oklawaha River drainage.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

LAKE OKEECHOBEE SYSTEM
Florida: Lake Okeechobee at Canal Point and Pahokee, Palm Beach Co. Fellsmere,
Indian River Co. Lake Hutchineha; Lake Tohopekaliga, Kissimmee; both Oceola
Co.
ST. JOHNS RIVER SYSTEM
OKLAWAHA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Lake Dora, Tavares; Lake Harris; Lake
Eustis, Tavares; Lake Griffin, Leesburg; all Lake Co. Oklawaha River; Lake Weir;
both Marion Co.

Genus Carnpeloma Rafinesque

Campeloma Rafinesque (1819, Journal de Physique de Chimie d'Histoire Naturelle
(Paris), 88: 423).
Type species, C. crassula Rafinesque, monotypic.

Shell rather large, occasionally reaching 61.5 mm. (nearly 2%
inches) in length, subglobose to subovate, imperforate and usually
rather solid. Color light green to dark olivaceous green. Whorls
smooth, usually rounded or slightly shouldered. Aperture oval with
a simple lip. Columella and parietal wall generally thickened. Oper-
culum with a submarginal nucleus (parietal margin) and concentric
growth lines.
There are few genera among our North American freshwater mol-
lusks that remain in a more confused state than Campeloma. It is
widespread from the Mississippi river system east to the Atlantic States
and is usually abundant where it occurs. Morphologically the shell
shows but minor differences between the species, and the legion of
names employed has so confused the issue that no attempt has been
made to monograph the genus since that of Binney in 1865. Time
does not permit a revision for this report. The soft anatomy may well







114 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

provide important clues to relationships; and with a basis of anatomi-
cal details, the nomenclatorial tangle probably will not be impossible
to unravel.
So far as we understand this complex, only a single species, C. geni-
culum Conrad, occurs in this area, and it is found in most streams from
the Escambia River to the Suwannee. Another species, Campeloma
floridense Call, occurs in east-central Florida in Volusia, Marion, and
Orange Counties. This species appears closely related to, C. geniculum
Conrad,'differing mainly by having the interior of the aperture colored
a dark brown, having the spire less attenuate, and being somewhat
lighter in structure. A few specimens, however, are white within the
aperture. We have been unable to trace any species of Campeloma
along the east coast, south of the Altamaha River in Georgia until the
genus reappears in the upper reaches of the St. Johns River, Florida.

Campeloma geniculum Conrad
Plate 1 Figures 7-8

Paludina geniculum Conrad (1834: 48, pl. 8, fig. 3), Flint River, Georgia.
Campeloma rufum geniculiforme Pilsbry (1916, Nautilus, 30: 42), Dooly Co., Georgia.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell somewhat extended, reaching 44 mm. (about
1 % inches) in length, imperforate, solid, and smooth. Olivaceous green
in color with occasional and somewhat irregular axial streaks of green-
ish black. Interior of aperture a pale bluish white. Whorls 5% to 6,
strongly convex, and with a slight shoulder. Spire extended and pro-
duced at an angle of about 500. Aperture subovate. Outer lip thin;
parietal lip consisting of a thickened glaze. Columella narrow and
arched. Suture rather deeply indented. Sculpture almost absent. Under
a 14X lens, there appear to be numerous, irregular and fine, spiral, in-
cised lines. Operculum corneous, having concentric growth lines and
a submarginal (parietal margin) nucleus.

LENGTH* WIDTH
mm. mm.
43 35.5 Flint River, Bainbridge, Decatur Co., Georgia
33 24 Suwannee River, Oldtown, Dixie Co., Florida
27.5 17.5 Chipola River, Scotts Ferry, Calhoun Co., Florida
*Tip of spire corroded away on all specimens.

TYPEs.-The holotype of Campeloma geniculum Conrad is in the
Academy Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (29199). The type locality,
Flint River, Georgia, is here restricted to the Flint River, Albany,






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 115

Georgia, as it was very probably here that Conrad obtained his speci-
mens. The holotype of Campeloma rufum geniculiforme Pilsbry is in
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (122782), from Dooly
County, Georgia.
REMARKS.-This is a widespread and abundant species in the Flint
river system. At one time it was probably just as abundant in the
Chattahoochee, but as mentioned in the introduction, silting has
probably killed it out. It appeared rather common in the kitchen mid-
dens along the lower Chattahoochee.
Campeloma geniculum Conrad is characterized by having rather
strongly shouldered whorls. The shell is dark olivaceous green in
color, and it is smooth or has faint growth lines. It lives generally
along stream margins, preferring a sand-silt substratum and is most
abundant at the base of plant roots. It moves freely and is one of the
first mollusks to seek the margin of a stream following a rise in
water level.
RANGE.-The range extends from the Suwannee River west to the
Escambia River.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Withlacoochee River, Olympia,
Lowndes Co. Florida: Withlacoochee River, Blue Springs, Madison Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Suwannee River, near mouth of With-
lacoochee River, Suwannee Co. Suwannee River, Ellaville, Madison Co. Suwannee
River, Oldtown, Dixie Co. Santa Fe River, 3 mi. S High Springs, Alachua Co.
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
Georgia: Attapulgus Creek, 2 mi. NW Amsterdam, Decatur Co. Ochlockonee
River, between Reno and Beachton, Grady Co. Florida: Ochlockonee River,
near Jackson's Bluff; Ochlockonee River, 11 mi. NW Tallahassee; Ochlockonee
River, about 8 mi. W Tallahassee; Lake Talquin, Ochlockonee River (southeast
shore); all Leon Co. Little River, 3% mi. E Quincy, Gadsden Co. Ochlockonee
River, 7% mi. E Hosford, Liberty Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Creek, 6 mi. NW Vienna; North Fork, Penna-
hatchee Creek, 4 mi. N Vienna; both Dooly Co. Flint River, mouth of Gum
Creek; Gum Creek, 2 mi. N Cordele; Cordele Springs, Cordele; Cedar Creek,
6 mi. SW Cordele; Swift Creek, 12 mi. SW Cordele; Flint River, 2 mi. W War-
wick; all Crisp Co. Jones Creek, 2 mi. S Oakfield; Abrams Creek, 5 mi. S Oak-
field; Abrams Creek, 3 mi. W Doles; spring, 3 mi. W Doles; Mill Creek, 8 mi.
S Oakfield; all Worth Co. Lees Creek, 5 mi. S DeSoto; Muckalee Creek, 4 mi. NE
Leesburg; creek, 7 mi. NW Albany; all Lee Co. Cooleewahee Creek, Newton, Baker
Co. East Fork, Chickasawhatchee Creek, 5 mi. SW Dawson, Terrell Co. Ichaway-
nochaway Creek, 6 mi. N Morgan, Calhoun Co. Flint River, Albany, Dougherty
Co. Flint River, Bainbridge; Flint River, Recovery; Spring Creek, Brinson; Paul
Clark Spring, 2% mi. W Recovery; Shackleford Spring, 3 mi. NE Recovery;






116 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Sealey's Spring, 5 mi. NW Recovery; Blue Spring, 7% mi. W Recovery; all De-
catur Co. Spring Creek, Reynoldsville; Spring Creek, 2% mi. S Reynoldsville; both
Seminole Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.--Georgia: Chattahoochee River, West Point,
Troup Co. Ossahatchee Creek, 3 mi. S Waverly Hall; Mulberry Creek, Mitchell
Bridge, 3 mi. S Mountain Hill; both Harris Co. Alabama: Chattahoochee River,
Phenix City, Russell Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee;
Mosquito Creek, 1% mi. E Chattahoochee; Mosquito Creek, River Junction; all
Gadsden Co. Stream 5.2 mi. N Blountstown; stream 3 mi. N Blountstown; both
Calhoun Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; Reedy Creek, 6
mi. W Malone; Chipola River, 5/ mi. W Greenwood; creek, 5 mi. NE Marianna;
Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna; Spring Creek, 3 mi. SE Marianna; Chipola
River, 3 mi. S Marianna; creek 4.4 mi. NNW Sink Creek; Chipola River, 1 mi.
W Sink Creek; all Jackson Co. Chipola River, 2% mi. SE Chason; Chipola River,
2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River,
Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Alabama: Pea River, Geneva; Choctawhatchee River, 2 mi. E Geneva; both
Geneva Co. Florida: Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W Miller Cross Roads; Holmes
Creek, 3 mi. E Bonifay; Hurricane Creek, 5 mi. E Miller Cross Roads; Holmes
Creek, about 1 mi. W Graceville; all Holmes Co. Choctawhatchee River, I mi.
W Caryville, Washington Co. Creek, S Pine Log Creek, Pine Log State Forest,
Bay Co. Creek, 3 mi. E Bruce, Walton Co.
YELLOW RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Yellow River, Milligan, Okaloosa Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
Alabama: Little Patsaliga Creek; Patsaliga Creek, 1 mi. W Luverne; both Cren-
shaw Co.


Campeloma floridense Call
Plate 1 Figure 9

Campeloma floridense Call (1886, Bull. Washburn College Lab., 1: 159, pl. 6, fig.
7), Florida; [in synonymy of C. limum Anthony].
Campeloma floridense Call. Pilsbry (1916, Nautilus, 30: 42).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell somewhat extended, reaching 35 mm. (1 3/8
inches) in length, imperforate, rather solid and smooth. Color a uni-
form dark olivaceous green; within the aperture adult specimens us-
ually colored a dark brownish red. Whorls 5 to 6, strongly con-
vex, and with a slight shoulder. Spire moderately extended and pro-
duced at an angle of 500 to 650. Aperture subcircular. Outer lip thin;
parietal lip consisting of a thin glaze. Columella narrow and arched.
Suture rather deeply indented. Sculpture consisting of microscopical
spiral threads which are crossed with equally fine axial growth lines.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 117

Operculum corneus with concentric growth lines and a submarginal
(parietal margin) nucleus.

LENGTH* WIDTH
mm. mm.
30 22 Moccasin Branch, St. Johns Co., Florida
33.5 21.5 Jordans Ferry, Oklawaha River, 2 mi. E Orange Springs,
Marion Co., Florida
28.5 20 Lectotype
*All specimens measured were corroded at the spire with the loss of 2 to 4 mm.

TYPES.-The lectotype, here selected, is in the Museum of Com-
parative Zoology (189592), and is from the Wekiva River, Orange
County, Florida. Paratypes are from the same locality.
REMARKS.-We are in full agreement with Pilsbry (loc. cit.) that
the name floridense Call should stand. It first appeared as given above
in the synonymy of C. limum Anthony, but Call's description was
based mainly upon specimens from the upper St. Johns River, and
these are quite distinct from limum Anthony, a species from South
Carolina.
This species differs from geniculum by being somewhat smaller,
lighter in structure, and in having the dark reddish-brown coloration
within the aperture. In addition, the microscopic sculpture appears
to be a little stronger.
This is a remarkable species as it occupies a small area in central
Florida in the upper St. Johns river system. It is completely isolated
from the only other species of Campelorna in Florida, C. geniculum,
which does not occur, so far as we can detect, south of the Suwannee
River.
RANGE.-The upper St. Johns river system, Florida.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

ST. JOHNS RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Moccasin Branch, St. Johns Co. Wekiva River, Orange Co. Jordans
Ferry, Oklawaha River, 2 mi. E Orange Springs, Marion Co. Blue Springs,
Volusia Co.

Genus Lioplax Troschel

Lioplax Troschel (1857, Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 1: 100, pl. 7, fig. 5). Clench and
Turner (1955: 1-20).
Type species, Paludina (Lioplax) subcarinata Say, monotypic.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell ovate, usually turreted, imperforate or only






118 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

minutely perforate, and carinate at least on the earlier whorls. Color
generally a light to dark olivaceous green. Microscopic sculpture of
the shell consists of fine spiral threads. Operculum with the nucleus
subcentral and with the lines of growth in a paucispiral arrange-
ment in the early stage, then having concentric growth lines develop
during the later stages.

Lioplax pilsbryi Walker
Plate 1 Figure 10

Lioplax pilsbryi Walker (1905, Nautilus, 18: 133, pl. 9, figs. 1-3), Chipola River,
Florida. Clench and Turner (1955: 16, pl. 3, figs. 1-6).
Lioplax pilsbryi choctawhatchensis Vanatta (1935, Nautilus, 49: 66), Horseshoe Lake,
Choctawhatchee River, Washington Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell reaches about 28 mm. in length, is rather solid
in structure, the spire somewhat extended. Shell is imperforate and
usually carinated, particularly on the early whorls. Color light
olivaceous green to blackish green with the interior of the aperture
bluish green. Whorls 7, and usually moderately to strongly convex
with a well pronounced shoulder. Spire somewhat extended and
produced at an angle of about 500. Aperture subcircular to ovate with
the outer lip thin, the inner lip composed of a thickened callus. The
outer lip in profile is strongly sigmoid. Generally imperforate. Suture
deeply impressed. Sculpture consisting of a well developed carina,
usually high up on the whorl forming the shoulder. On the body
whorl the carina becomes well rounded. Microscopic sculpture con-
sists of fine spiral and somewhat beaded threads which are crossed by
somewhat irregular, sigmoid growth lines. Operculum with a sub-
central nucleus. Periostracum rather heavy and colored olivaceous
green to almost black.

LENGTH WIDTH WHORLS
mm. mm. mm.
27.2 18 5 (apex corroded) Lectotype
28 20 5 (apex corroded) Paratype
27.5 19 5 (apex corroded) Paratype

TYPES.-The lectotype of Lioplax pilsbryi Walker is in the Mu-
seum of Zoology, University of Michigan; paratypes are in the Museum
of Comparative Zoology. The type locality is the Chipola River, 2
miles east of Clarksville, Calhoun County, Florida. The holotype of
L. p. choctawhatchensis Vanatta is in the Academy of Natural Sciences,







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 119

Philadelphia (162240), and is from Horseshoe Lake, Choctawhatchee
River, Washington County, Florida.
REMARKS.-This is the most distinctive member of the genus Lio-
plax. It is dark in color and has developed a broad and flattened whorl
shoulder. It is completely imperforate, and the sculpture generally is
far more pronounced on the body whorl than that existing in any other
species.
Lioplax pilsbryi Walker reaches its greatest development in the
Chipola River. It was exceedingly abundant at most stations we investi-
gated in this river. It appears to thrive best where there is a good
admixture of sand, mud, and decaying vegetation. Individuals of
this species were rare and rather small at the stations where we found
them in the Choctawhatchee and Ochlockonee Rivers. Here they were
living in rather coarse sand with very little plant detritus.
It is possible that this species may occur in the Aucilla, Econfina
(Taylor County), Fenholloway, and Steinhatchee Rivers in Florida.
RANGE.-This species ranges from the Choctawhatchee River east
to the Suwannee River, Florida. In the Apalachicola system it extends
north as far as Columbus, Georgia, on the Chattahoochee River, and
to the mouth of Gum Creek, Crisp County, Georgia, on the Flint
River.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Suwannee River, Fannin Spring, Gilchrist Co. Suwannee River, Oldtown,
Dixie Co. Suwannee River, Ellaville; Suwannee River at mouth of Withlacoochee
River; both Madison Co.
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Ochlockonee River, 8 mi. W Tallahassee, Leon Co. Ochlockonee River,
7% mi. E Hosford, Liberty Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.--Georgia: Flint River, mouth of Gum Creek, Crisp Co.
Spring Creek near Brinson, Decatur Co. Spring Creek, 2 mi. S Reynoldsville;
Spring Creek, Reynoldsville; both Seminole Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, Columbus,
Muscogee Co. Alabama: Uchee Creek, Russell Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; Chipola River,
1 mi. N Marianna; Chipola River, 3 mi. S Marianna; Chipola River, 1 mi. W
Sink Creek; all Jackson Co. Chipola River, 2% mi. SE Chason; Chipola River,
about 2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River,
Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.
ECONFINA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Econfina River,6 Bay Co.


6This is not the Econfina River, Taylor County, Florida.






120 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

CHOCTAWHATCHEE SYSTEM
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.--Alabama: Pea River, 1/2 mi. SE Geneva, Geneva Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W.
Miller Cross Roads; Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W Caryville; both Holmes Co.
Horseshoe Lake, Choctawhatchee River, Washington Co.

PILIDAE

Genus Pomacea Perry

Pomacea Perry (1810, Arcana, pl. 12, with description in Signature G5).
Type species, Pomacea maculata Perry, monotypic.

Shells usually large, globose, generally thin but strong, colored yel-
lowish green to dark olivaceous green, and frequently banded. Oper-
culum corneous.
This genus is widely distributed in South and Central America,
and in the West Indies it occurs in Cuba, Jamaica, and certain of the
Lesser Antilles. In the southeastern states there is but a single species,
and this is restricted to Florida and extreme southern Georgia.


Porocea paludosa7 Say
Plate 1 Figure 6

Ampullaria depressa Say (1824 (in Keating, W. H.), A narrative of an expedition
to ihe source of the St. Peters River, Appendix 2, p. 264), small creek tributary
to St. Johns River and Lake George, Florida. Non A. depressa Lamarck, 1804 or
Risso, 1826.
Ampullaria paludosa Say (1829, New Harmony Disseminator, p. 260); [new name
for A. depressa Say, 1824; non Lamarck, 1804].
Ampullaria hopetonensis Lea (1834, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 5: 115, pl. 19, fig. 84),
Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Lea, 1834 (1: 227, pl. 19, fig. 84).
Ampullaria penesma 'Say' DeKay (1843, Zoology of New York, 5: 124).
Ampullaria disseminate 'Say' DeKay (1843, Zoology of New York, 5: 124).
Ampullaria penesima 'Say' Binney (1865, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections,
143, pt. 3: 5) [error for penesma 'Say' DeKay].
Ampullaria pinei Dall (1898, Nautilus, 12: 75), Homosassa River, Florida.
Pomacea paludosa flava 'Pilsbry' M. Smith (1937, East Coast marine shells (Ann
Arbor, Michigan), p. 147), central Everglades and near Miami, Florida.
Pomacea paludosa lutea Farfante (1942, Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de His-
toria Natural, 16: 51) [nomen nudum].


7Ampullaria rotundata Say (1829, New Harmony Disseminator, p. 245), St. Johns
River, Florida. The species received by Say from Captain LeConte, although de-
scribed as coming from the upper St. Johns River, is apparently one of the several
species that LeConte had obtained from Calcutta, India. See Clench (1955, Nautilus,
68: 107).






120 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

CHOCTAWHATCHEE SYSTEM
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.--Alabama: Pea River, 1/2 mi. SE Geneva, Geneva Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W.
Miller Cross Roads; Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W Caryville; both Holmes Co.
Horseshoe Lake, Choctawhatchee River, Washington Co.

PILIDAE

Genus Pomacea Perry

Pomacea Perry (1810, Arcana, pl. 12, with description in Signature G5).
Type species, Pomacea maculata Perry, monotypic.

Shells usually large, globose, generally thin but strong, colored yel-
lowish green to dark olivaceous green, and frequently banded. Oper-
culum corneous.
This genus is widely distributed in South and Central America,
and in the West Indies it occurs in Cuba, Jamaica, and certain of the
Lesser Antilles. In the southeastern states there is but a single species,
and this is restricted to Florida and extreme southern Georgia.


Porocea paludosa7 Say
Plate 1 Figure 6

Ampullaria depressa Say (1824 (in Keating, W. H.), A narrative of an expedition
to ihe source of the St. Peters River, Appendix 2, p. 264), small creek tributary
to St. Johns River and Lake George, Florida. Non A. depressa Lamarck, 1804 or
Risso, 1826.
Ampullaria paludosa Say (1829, New Harmony Disseminator, p. 260); [new name
for A. depressa Say, 1824; non Lamarck, 1804].
Ampullaria hopetonensis Lea (1834, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 5: 115, pl. 19, fig. 84),
Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Lea, 1834 (1: 227, pl. 19, fig. 84).
Ampullaria penesma 'Say' DeKay (1843, Zoology of New York, 5: 124).
Ampullaria disseminate 'Say' DeKay (1843, Zoology of New York, 5: 124).
Ampullaria penesima 'Say' Binney (1865, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections,
143, pt. 3: 5) [error for penesma 'Say' DeKay].
Ampullaria pinei Dall (1898, Nautilus, 12: 75), Homosassa River, Florida.
Pomacea paludosa flava 'Pilsbry' M. Smith (1937, East Coast marine shells (Ann
Arbor, Michigan), p. 147), central Everglades and near Miami, Florida.
Pomacea paludosa lutea Farfante (1942, Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de His-
toria Natural, 16: 51) [nomen nudum].


7Ampullaria rotundata Say (1829, New Harmony Disseminator, p. 245), St. Johns
River, Florida. The species received by Say from Captain LeConte, although de-
scribed as coming from the upper St. Johns River, is apparently one of the several
species that LeConte had obtained from Calcutta, India. See Clench (1955, Nautilus,
68: 107).






120 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

CHOCTAWHATCHEE SYSTEM
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.--Alabama: Pea River, 1/2 mi. SE Geneva, Geneva Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W.
Miller Cross Roads; Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W Caryville; both Holmes Co.
Horseshoe Lake, Choctawhatchee River, Washington Co.

PILIDAE

Genus Pomacea Perry

Pomacea Perry (1810, Arcana, pl. 12, with description in Signature G5).
Type species, Pomacea maculata Perry, monotypic.

Shells usually large, globose, generally thin but strong, colored yel-
lowish green to dark olivaceous green, and frequently banded. Oper-
culum corneous.
This genus is widely distributed in South and Central America,
and in the West Indies it occurs in Cuba, Jamaica, and certain of the
Lesser Antilles. In the southeastern states there is but a single species,
and this is restricted to Florida and extreme southern Georgia.


Porocea paludosa7 Say
Plate 1 Figure 6

Ampullaria depressa Say (1824 (in Keating, W. H.), A narrative of an expedition
to ihe source of the St. Peters River, Appendix 2, p. 264), small creek tributary
to St. Johns River and Lake George, Florida. Non A. depressa Lamarck, 1804 or
Risso, 1826.
Ampullaria paludosa Say (1829, New Harmony Disseminator, p. 260); [new name
for A. depressa Say, 1824; non Lamarck, 1804].
Ampullaria hopetonensis Lea (1834, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 5: 115, pl. 19, fig. 84),
Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Lea, 1834 (1: 227, pl. 19, fig. 84).
Ampullaria penesma 'Say' DeKay (1843, Zoology of New York, 5: 124).
Ampullaria disseminate 'Say' DeKay (1843, Zoology of New York, 5: 124).
Ampullaria penesima 'Say' Binney (1865, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections,
143, pt. 3: 5) [error for penesma 'Say' DeKay].
Ampullaria pinei Dall (1898, Nautilus, 12: 75), Homosassa River, Florida.
Pomacea paludosa flava 'Pilsbry' M. Smith (1937, East Coast marine shells (Ann
Arbor, Michigan), p. 147), central Everglades and near Miami, Florida.
Pomacea paludosa lutea Farfante (1942, Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de His-
toria Natural, 16: 51) [nomen nudum].


7Ampullaria rotundata Say (1829, New Harmony Disseminator, p. 245), St. Johns
River, Florida. The species received by Say from Captain LeConte, although de-
scribed as coming from the upper St. Johns River, is apparently one of the several
species that LeConte had obtained from Calcutta, India. See Clench (1955, Nautilus,
68: 107).






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 121

DESCRIPTION.-Shell globose, rather large, reaching about 65 mm.
(22 inches) in length, thin in structure and perforate. Color a dark
olivaceous green to straw yellow, and generally having about 10 to 15
narrow spiral bands of reddish brown. These bands are generally
separate, though occasionally groups of bands may become fused.
Occasional specimens are found that are semialbinistic with the
green and reddish bands absent, the color remaining being a light
straw yellow. Whorls 5, and strongly globose. Spire depressed, only
slightly elevated above the body whorl. Aperture large, subovate.
Outer lip thin, inner lip consists of a thin glaze on the parietal wall.
Columella thin and slightly arched. Umbilicus narrow and partially
covered by the columella reflection. Suture slightly indented. The
shell is generally smooth, but occasional examples show faint mallea-
tions and fine axial growth lines. Operculum corneus, thin, with con-
centric growth lines around a submarginal nucleus.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
64 61 Wakulla Springs, Florida
62 57.5 Silver Springs, Ocala, Florida
43 41.5 Fellsmere, Florida

TYPEs.-Types of Ampullaria depressa Say are in the Academy of
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; the lectotype, here selected, is number
50580. The type locality is the upper St. Johns River and Lake George,
Florida. Paratypes of Ampullaria hopetonensis. Lea from Hopeton
near Darien, Georgia, are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(151580).

REMARKs.-This species shows a rather wide range of variation in
the size, color, and thickness of the shell. However, any one popu-
lation appears to be quite uniform. It is widely distributed throughout
all of central and southern Florida in rivers, lakes, ponds, and even
roadside ditches. In the northern part of the state it is rather rare,
and here it is limited generally to the large springs and spring-fed
creeks. Early records indicate that it existed in southeastern Georgia
at least as far north as the lower Altamaha River, but we have seen
no specimens collected recently from anywhere in this river system.
Our only Georgia record in this survey is from Sealey's Spring on the
lower reaches of Spring Creek, Seminole County.
As stated above, the distribution of this species in northern Florida
and southern Georgia is restricted to the large springs and spring-fed
creeks. This is probably due to the fact that these springs remain







122 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

warmer during the winter months than do the streams carrying sur-
face run-off.
Their pinkish-white, calcareous eggs are laid in clusters above
the water line on vegetation, boats, logs, or other surfaces.
A small, reddish-brown race of paludosa from the vicinity of Miami,
Florida, has been named miamiensis Pilsbry. However, it appears to
be little more than a local population. Paratypes are in the Museum
of Comparative Zoology from the Miami River, Miami, Florida. The
form flava 'Pilsbry' Smith is only a partial albino which is a uniform
pale yellow in color. Individual examples occur sporadically through-
out the range of the species.
RANGE.-Southern Georgia, Florida, and Cuba.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
SANTA FE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Ichtucknee River, 5 mi. NW Fort White,
Columbia Co. Santa Fe River, 3 mi. N High Springs; Poe Spring, Santa Fe River,
3 mi. S High Springs; both Alachua Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Suwannee River, Fannin Springs, Gilchrist
Co.
ECONFINA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Econfina River, 18 mi. W Perry, Taylor Co.
ST. MARKS RIVER SYSTEM
WAKULLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Wakulla Springs, Wakulla; St. Marks Game
Refuge, St. Marks; both Wakulla Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Sealey's Spring, 7% mi. SW Reynoldsville,
Seminole Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Spring Creek, 3 mi. E Marianna; Chipola
River, 1 mi. N Marianna; both Jackson Co. Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville;
Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park; all Cal-
houn Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
HOLMES CREEK DRAINAGE.-Florida: Holmes Creek, 1 mi. W Graceville, Jackson Co.

BULIMIDAE

Genus Somatogyrus Gill

Somatogyrus Gill (1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 34).
Type species, Amnicola depressa Tryon, original designation.

Shells small, reaching about 8 mm. Usually rather thick and solid,
imperforate, or very narrowly umbilicate and smooth. Body whorl large
and inflated. Spire usually short; the apical whorls sometimes spirally
punctate. Aperture oblique; the lip sharp. Operculum corneous,







122 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

warmer during the winter months than do the streams carrying sur-
face run-off.
Their pinkish-white, calcareous eggs are laid in clusters above
the water line on vegetation, boats, logs, or other surfaces.
A small, reddish-brown race of paludosa from the vicinity of Miami,
Florida, has been named miamiensis Pilsbry. However, it appears to
be little more than a local population. Paratypes are in the Museum
of Comparative Zoology from the Miami River, Miami, Florida. The
form flava 'Pilsbry' Smith is only a partial albino which is a uniform
pale yellow in color. Individual examples occur sporadically through-
out the range of the species.
RANGE.-Southern Georgia, Florida, and Cuba.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
SANTA FE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Ichtucknee River, 5 mi. NW Fort White,
Columbia Co. Santa Fe River, 3 mi. N High Springs; Poe Spring, Santa Fe River,
3 mi. S High Springs; both Alachua Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Suwannee River, Fannin Springs, Gilchrist
Co.
ECONFINA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Econfina River, 18 mi. W Perry, Taylor Co.
ST. MARKS RIVER SYSTEM
WAKULLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Wakulla Springs, Wakulla; St. Marks Game
Refuge, St. Marks; both Wakulla Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Sealey's Spring, 7% mi. SW Reynoldsville,
Seminole Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Spring Creek, 3 mi. E Marianna; Chipola
River, 1 mi. N Marianna; both Jackson Co. Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville;
Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park; all Cal-
houn Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
HOLMES CREEK DRAINAGE.-Florida: Holmes Creek, 1 mi. W Graceville, Jackson Co.

BULIMIDAE

Genus Somatogyrus Gill

Somatogyrus Gill (1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 34).
Type species, Amnicola depressa Tryon, original designation.

Shells small, reaching about 8 mm. Usually rather thick and solid,
imperforate, or very narrowly umbilicate and smooth. Body whorl large
and inflated. Spire usually short; the apical whorls sometimes spirally
punctate. Aperture oblique; the lip sharp. Operculum corneous,






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 123

paucispiral, and with an eccentric nucleus. Proboscis broad and flat.
Tentacles short and flattened. Verge broad, compressed, and bifid.

Somatogyrus substriatus Walker
Plate 1 Figure 12

Somatogyrus substriatus Walker (1906, Nautilus, 19: 97, pl. 5, fig. 1), Tennessee
River at Florence, Alabama.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small, reaching 5 mm. (about 3/16 inch) in
length, globose, smooth, imperforate or nearly so, and rather solid.
Color a rather light greenish yellow. Aperture large, oblique, and
subcircular. Lip simple and often somewhat thickened. Columella
arched and thickened. Umbilicus occasionally present as an exceed-
ingly narrow slit. Suture slightly indented. Sculpture consists of a
series of fine oblique, striated lines which are probably only fine and
regular growth lines. Operculum corneus, thin, transparent, multi-
spiral, and with an eccentric nucleus.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
5 4.5 Tombigbee River, Columbus, Lowndes Co., Mississippi
4 3.5 Choctawhatchee River, 9 mi. S Ozark, Dale Co., Alabama

TYPES.-Holotype, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan
[Walker Collection] from the Tennessee River, Florence, Alabama.
Paratype, Museum Comparative Zoology (68458) from the same lo-
cality.
REMARKS.-Only two lots of this species are known from the area
covered by this report, and these are the first reported outside of the
Alabama-Tennessee river systems. This species is probably more wide-
spread, but its small size has made it difficult to locate.
RANGE.-Rivers of Alabama.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Uchee Creek, Fort Mitchell, Russell
Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Alabama: Choctawhatchee River, 9 mi. S Ozark, Dale Co.

Genus Notogillia Pilsbry

Notogillia Pilsbry (1953: 439).
Type species, Hydrobia wetherbyi Dall, original designation.






124 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Shell small, reaching about 8.5 mm. in length, subglobose, and
smooth. Whorls 4% to 5 and strongly globose. Suture impressed.
Aperture large, subovate, with the outer lip thickened. Operculum
corneous, paucispiral.

Notogillia wetherbyi Dall
Plate 7 Figure 6

Amnicola nuttaliana 'Lea' Frauenfeld (1863, Verhandlungeu der Kaiserlich-K6ni-
glichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 13: 1029), Silver Springs,
Fort King, [near Ocala], Florida. Non A. nuttaliana Lea.
Hydrobia(?) wetherbyi Dall (1885, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 8(17):258, pl. 17, fig. 10).
Lake Eustis, Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small, not exceeding 9 mm. (about 3/8 inch)
in length, subglobose, rather solid, imperforate, and smooth. Color
a dull straw yellow to a dark olivaceous brown, and within the aper-
ture it is colored a bluish purple. Whorls 4% and strongly convex.
Spire slightly extended, being about the length of the aperture, and
produced at an angle of about 700. Aperture subovate to subcircular
and holostomatous. Both outer and inner lips thickened. Suture well
impressed. Sculpture consists of exceedingly fine axial growth lines
with only the faintest traces of a spiral sculpture.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
8.5 5.5 Chipola River, Scotts Ferry, Calhoun Co., Florida
6 4.5 Leesburg, Lake Co., Florida

TYPES.-The holotype of Hydrobia wetherbyi Dall is in the United
States National Museum (32123) and is from Lake Eustis, Florida.
Wetherby is the collector.
REMARKs.-Notogillia wetherbyi is a species that apparently is
limited to the clear water of springs, creeks which are largely spring-
fed, or lakes. Its distribution is apparently spotty, though perhaps
it has been overlooked owing to its small size.
Range.-From the upper reaches of the St. Johns River, north
and west to the Chipola River, Florida.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

ST. JOHNS RIVER SYSTEM
ST. JOHNS RIVER DRAINACE.-Florida: Lake George, Marion Co. Lake Apopka;
Leesburg; Lake Eustis; Silver Springs near Ocala; all Lake Co. Lake Jessup, Semi-
nole Co.





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 125

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Fannin Spring, Gilchrist Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Blue Spring, Flint River, 7% mi. W Recovery,
Decatur Co. Sealey's Spring, 7% mi. SW Reynoldsville, Seminole Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; Spring Creek,
3 mi. E Marianna; Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna; Chipola River, 3 mi. S Mari-
anna; Chipola River, 1 mi. W Sink Creek; all Jackson Co. Chipola River, 2
mi. E Clarksville; Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola
Park; all Calhoun Co.


Genus Pomatiopsis Tryon

Pomatiopsis Tryon (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 452).
Type species, Amnicola lapidaria Say, monotypic.

Shell small, reaching about 8 mm. in length, attenuate, rather
thin, smooth, and umbilicate. Aperture slightly expanded with a
simple lip. Operculum corneus and paucispiral. Foot not as long as
the shell. Proboscis large and longer than the tentacles. Verge large,
simple, convoluted, with the outer margin rounded and smooth, and
the inner margin sharp and wrinkled.


Pomatiopsis lapidaria Say
Plate 1 Figure 11

Cyclostoma lapidaria Say (1817, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1: 13), no locality.
Pomatiopsis lapidaria Say. Abbott (1948, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 98 (3222): 57-68, pls.
3-4).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small, reaching about 8 mm. (about Y4 inch)
in length, attenuate, umbilicate, and smooth. Color dark olivaceous
brown to yellowish brown. Whorls 7 and strongly convex. Spire
greatly extended and produced at an angle of about 22. Aperture
subcircular and usually holostomatous. Lip simple, thin or only
slightly thickened. Columella arched. Umbilicus small, but fairly
deep. Sculpture consists of fine axial growth lines. Operculum thin,
transparent, paucispiral, and with an excentric nucleus.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
7 3.8 Grand Rapids, Kent Co., Michigan
6.2 4.5 Torreya Park, 10 mi. S Chattahoochee, Liberty Co.,
Florida
6.5 3.5 Niagara Falls, Niagara Co., New York






126 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

TYPES.-Say's types of P. lapidaria have apparently been lost. He
gave no type locality, but as specimens are known to occur along the
Delaware River, this can be taken to be the type locality.
REMARKS.-These are the first known records for this species from
the state of' Florida. It is widely distributed from southern Ontario
west to Minnesota and south into Alabama and Florida. It also occurs
in the east, from New York south to Virginia. It has a spotty distri-
bution and is perhaps quite colonial in habit. It lives in damp to
wet situations, usually in the flood plains of streams, under stones,
wood, and other debris.
RANGE.-See Remarks above.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: West bank, Apalachicola River, Chat-
tahoochee, Jackson Co. Torreya Park, 10 mi. S Chattahoochee, Liberty Co.

PLEUROCERIDAE

This family contains more names and probably more species than
any other family among the freshwater mollusks of North America.
The greatest numbers of species occur in the vast Ohio river system
and in the Alabama-Coosa river system. Rivers of the Atlantic water-
shed, and rivers of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida draining into the
Gulf of Mexico east of the Alabama-Coosa River have but few species.
The main issue has been an attempt to allocate the large number of
names to the various species occurring within the area covered by this
report. As mentioned elsewhere, much of the older material lacked
data entirely or possessed faulty data, and the synonyms presented are
to be accepted with this fact in mind.
In general, where the various species occur, specimens may be
found in considerable numbers, and sometimes they occur in in-
credible numbers. Though most species are bottom feeders, a few
will be found on water plants, feeding on algae and dead vegetable
matter.
Of several genera in this family, only the genus Goniobasis occurs
in southeastern Alabama, and in Florida and Georgia southeast of the
Alabama-Coosa drainage.

Genus Goniobasis Lea

Goniobasis Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 262).
Type species, Goniobasis osculata Lea, subsequent designation, Hanibel, 1912.






126 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

TYPES.-Say's types of P. lapidaria have apparently been lost. He
gave no type locality, but as specimens are known to occur along the
Delaware River, this can be taken to be the type locality.
REMARKS.-These are the first known records for this species from
the state of' Florida. It is widely distributed from southern Ontario
west to Minnesota and south into Alabama and Florida. It also occurs
in the east, from New York south to Virginia. It has a spotty distri-
bution and is perhaps quite colonial in habit. It lives in damp to
wet situations, usually in the flood plains of streams, under stones,
wood, and other debris.
RANGE.-See Remarks above.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: West bank, Apalachicola River, Chat-
tahoochee, Jackson Co. Torreya Park, 10 mi. S Chattahoochee, Liberty Co.

PLEUROCERIDAE

This family contains more names and probably more species than
any other family among the freshwater mollusks of North America.
The greatest numbers of species occur in the vast Ohio river system
and in the Alabama-Coosa river system. Rivers of the Atlantic water-
shed, and rivers of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida draining into the
Gulf of Mexico east of the Alabama-Coosa River have but few species.
The main issue has been an attempt to allocate the large number of
names to the various species occurring within the area covered by this
report. As mentioned elsewhere, much of the older material lacked
data entirely or possessed faulty data, and the synonyms presented are
to be accepted with this fact in mind.
In general, where the various species occur, specimens may be
found in considerable numbers, and sometimes they occur in in-
credible numbers. Though most species are bottom feeders, a few
will be found on water plants, feeding on algae and dead vegetable
matter.
Of several genera in this family, only the genus Goniobasis occurs
in southeastern Alabama, and in Florida and Georgia southeast of the
Alabama-Coosa drainage.

Genus Goniobasis Lea

Goniobasis Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 262).
Type species, Goniobasis osculata Lea, subsequent designation, Hanibel, 1912.





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 127

Shells small to moderate in size, attenuate, and imperforate. They
may be smooth or have sculpture consisting of axial costae, spiral
threads, or nodules; many species are carinate. Aperture subrhom-
boidal with a simple outer lip, the base subangular, and not canalicu-
late. Columella smooth and not twisted. Operculum corneous and
paucispiral.
The genus is widely distributed from the Mississippi Valley east-
ward to western New England, and from Florida north to the Great
Lakes. A small number of species occur from northern California north
to Washington.

Goniobasis floridensis Reeve
Plate 2 Figures 7-9

Melania floridensis Reeve (1860, Conchologia Iconica, 12: Melania, pl. 45, no. 334),
Florida.
Melania etowahensis 'Lea' Reeve (1861, Conchologia Iconica, 12:Melania, pl. 55, no.
426), Georgia. Non M. etowahensis Lea, 1862.
Melania papillosa 'Anthony' Reeve (1861, Conchologia Iconica, 12:Melania, pl. 59,
no. 467), Florida.
Goniobasis canbyi Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 271), Lake Monroe,
Florida, collected by W. Canby; Etowah and Tennessee Rivers, Georgia, col-
lected by J. Postell.
Goniobasis couperii Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 271), Etowah River,
[Georgia], received from Couper and collected by J. Postell.
Goniobasis downieana Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 272), Etowah River,
[Georgia], collected by J. Postell.
Goniobasis effosa M. Smith (1938, Nautilus, 51: 91), fossil of the Tertiary of Belle
Glade, Florida.
Goniobasis post 'Pilsbry and Johnson' Goodrich (1942: 3) [nomen nudum].
Goniobasis catenaria cancellata 'Say' Goodrich (1942: 3). Non Melania cancellata Say,
1829.8

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching 27 mm. (about 1 inch) in
length, imperforate, rather thin in structure, and heavily sculptured.
Color generally a dark chocolate brown to almost black. Whorls 9
to 10 and slightly convex. Early two to four whorls are usually cor-
roded away. Spire extended, conical, and produced at an angle of
about 200. Aperture subquadrate in outline. Parietal lip consists of a
thin callus. Outer lip thin, and when viewed in profile appears as a
flattened sigmoid curve. Columella straight to slightly arched and
rather narrow. Suture moderately indented. Sculpture consists of


8Melania cancellata Say [= Melanoides tuberculata Miiller]. Clench (1955,
Nautilus, 68: 107), a species from Asia.






128 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

strong, and usually straight to slightly arcuate, costae which are in-
clined to be somewhat more numerous on the early whorls. These
are crossed by four or five spiral threads, and these become strongly
nodulose where the two intersect. The peripheral cord or thread is
generally much the largest, the nodules are correspondingly large.
On the body whorl below the peripheral thread there are five or six
spiral threads without any nodules.

LENGTH* WIDTH
mm. mm.
24 8.5 Chipola River, Scotts Ferry, Calhoun Co., Florida
23.5 11.5 Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville, Calhoun Co., Florida
25 10 Spring Creek, 3 mi. E Marianna, Jackson Co., Florida
*Tip of spire corroded in all specimens.

TYPES.-The holotype of Melania floridensis Reeve is probably in
the British Museum. Cotypes of etowahensis Reeve and papillosa
Reeve are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The types of Gonio-
basis canbyi, couperii, and downieana, all of Lea, are in the United
States National Museum. On Anthony's original labels of papillosa
the locality is given as Enterprise, Florida, and we here select the We-
kiva River, Enterprise, Florida, as the type locality.
REMARKS.-The name Goniobasis ratenaria has been used in error
for years for this widespread Floridian species. Although members
of the same complex, they are remotely related and are very different
species. Say's catenaria came originally from Eutaw Springs, St. Johns,
Berkeley County, South Carolina, a locality now obliterated by the
impoundment of the waters of the Santee River creating Lake Marion.
The senior author had the pleasure of visiting this spring several
years ago with William Mazyck, and of collecting a fine series of this
species before the area was inundated.
Goniobasis floridensis Reeve appears to be directly related to
G. boykiniana Lea of the Chattahoochee river system. Young specimens
of this latter form are very similar to G. floridensis, though the adults
of G. boykiniana differ in being much larger, proportionately wider,
and in having the sculpture far more pronounced. See remarks under
G. vanhyningiana also.
This is an exceedingly variable species; hardly two populations
are exactly alike, and the extremes are quite different. However, the
differences are largely the degree of strength or weakness of any of
the several sculptural characters. For example, the peripheral spiral
cord may be strongly developed with large tubercles, while in another







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 129

series this cord may not be pronounced at all. Superficially this makes
the shells look quite dissimilar, while in fact, this difference is only
one of degree. Individuals in any one population are usually uniform,
a fact which emphasizes the apparent differences between populations.
Goniobasis floridensis lives under a variety of conditions though it
appears to prefer the large freshwater springs and spring-fed streams
and rivers. However, it is equally at home in still water, such as in
the pond formed by the dam on Spring Creek near Marianna, Florida.
It occurs also in swift water below the dam. Bottom conditions
such as mud, rock, or weeds seem equally favorable.
We were unable to find this species at any of the six stations that
we made on the Ochlockonee River, nor have we seen any specimens
that had been collected in this river system.
We possess two lots of this species taken from Holmes Creek, one
of the tributaries of the Choctawhatchee River, and these are
the only records that we have seen west of the Apalachicola river
system. This is another anomaly regarding distribution between
Holmes Creek and some of the upper tributaries of the Chipola River.
Also see remarks under G. dickinsoni, a new species described later
in this paper.

RANGE.-From the upper reaches of the St. Johns River and the
Hillsborough River in central Florida, north and west to the Apalachi-
cola River and the upper reaches of Holmes Creek (see Remarks). So
far as we can determine this species does not occur in the Ochlockonee
river system.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

ST. JOHNS RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Beecher Run, 3 mi. S Welaka, Putnam Co. St. Johns River, near
DeLand; Orange City; both Volusia Co. Silver Creek and Juniper Creek, Lake
George; Silver Springs, 5 mi. E Ocala; all Marion Co. Alexander Spring; Lake
Harris; both Lake Co. Wekiva River, Sanford, Seminole Co.
HILLSBOROUGH RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Sulphur Springs, Tampa, Hillsborough Co.
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Lake Panasoffkee, Withlacoochee River; Sumterville; both Sumter Co.
Rainbow Springs, Juliette, Marion Co.
WACCASASSA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Waccasassa River, 24 mi. NE Cedar Keys.
SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Withlacoochee River, 10 mi. E Madison; Suwannee River, Ellaville; both
Madison Co. Suwannee River, Oldtown, Dixie Co. Ichtucknee River, 5 mi. N
Fort White, Columbia Co. Ichtucknee River, Hildreth, Suwannee Co. Poe Spring,
Santa Fe River, 3 mi. S High Springs, Alachua Co.







130 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

WAKULLA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Wakulla Spring, Wakulla Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Spring Creek, Brinson, Decatur Co. Spring
Creek, Reynoldsville; Spring Creek, 2/2 mi. S Reynoldsville; both Seminole Co.
Sealey's Spring, 5 mi. NW Recovery; Shackleford Spring, 3 mi. N Recovery; Blue
Spring, 7% mi. W Recovery; Paul Clark Spring, 21/ mi. W Recovery; all Decatur
Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; Reedy Creek,
6 mi. W Malone; Blue Spring Lake, 5 mi. ENE Marianna; tributary of Chipola
River, 3 mi. NE Marianna; Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna; Spring Creek Pond,
3 mi. S Marianna; Chipola River, 3 mi S Marianna; Thomas Mill Pond, 8 mi. S
Marianna; creek 21 mi. NW Sink Creek; Chipola River, 1 mi. W Sink Creek;
Chipola River, 5% mi. W Greenwood; all Jackson Co. Chipola River, 21% mi. SE
Chason; Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead
Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
HOLMES CREEK DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Holmes Creek, near Fadette, Geneva Co.
Florida: Holmes Creek, Vernon, Washington Co.

Goniobasis vanhyningiana Goodrich
Plate 3 Figure 7

Goniobasis vanhyningiana Goodrich (1921, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., no.
91: 2, pl. 1, figs. 2-3), creek below Seminole Springs, Lake Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching 15 mm. (about 1 inch)
in length, imperforate, rather thin in structure, and moderately
sculptured. Color generally a dark blackish brown, with some speci-
mens showing axial streaks of red brown when viewed from within the
aperture. Whorls 9 or 10 and slightly convex. Spire extended, conical,
and produced at an angle of about 200. Early 4 to 5 whorls usually
corroded away. Aperture subquadrate in outline. Parietal lip con-
sists of a thin callus. Outer lip thin, and when viewed in profile it
appears as a flattened sigmoid curve. Columella slightly arched and
rather narrow. Suture moderately indented. Sculpture consists of
weak to moderately strong, arcuate costae, which are more numerous
on the early whorls. In many adult specimens the body whorl is
almost entirely smooth. In very young specimens there is a well de-
veloped carina which is generally beaded, but disappears entirely in
the adult shell. Spiral sculpture absent.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
16 7 Alexander Spring Creek, near Summit, Lake Co., Florida
14 5.5 Creek below Seminole Spring, Lake Co., Florida
13 4.7 Holotype





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 131

TYPES-Holotype, in the Museum of Zoology, University of Michi-
gan. Paratypes in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (93755). The
type locality is a creek below Seminole, Lake County, Florida; T. Van
Hyning is the collector.

REMARKS.-This species is close in its relationship to Goniobasis
floridensis Reeve. It differs by being much smaller and in lacking both
the beading and spiral sculpture, at least in the adult stage. Young
specimens of vanhyningiana are difficult to distinguish from typical
floridensis, but they are not so highly sculptured and lack the spiral
cords below the periphery of the whorl. This species is restricted to
a small area in Orange and Lake Counties in east central Florida.
It appears to be a good species; we have seen no specimens that
could be called intergrades. Goniobasis floridensis Reeve occurs in
the same general drainage system, but we have no records of the two
species occurring in the same locality.

RANGE.-Restricted to the springs and small streams in the upper
St. Johns River drainage of Orange and Lake Counties, Florida.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

ST. JOHNS RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Rock Spring Creek, Orange Co. Alexander Spring Creek, near Summit;
Seminole Run; creek below Seminole, Seminole Springs; all Lake Co.


Goniobasis athearni, new species
Plate 2 Figure 6

DESCRIPTION.-Shell subelongate, reaching about 16 mm. (% inch)
in length, rather thin in structure, and heavily sculptured. Color
generally a dark chocolate brown to almost black. Whorls 9 to 10
and slightly convex. Spire somewhat extended, conical, and produced
at an angle of about 250. Early whorls usually corroded away. Aper-
ture subovate in outline. Parietal lip consists of a thin callus. Outer lip
thin, and when viewed in profile is nearly straight. Columella straight
to slightly arched and rather narrow. Suture moderately indented.
Sculpture consists of numerous spiral threads which are strongly nodu-
lose above the periphery. Below the periphery the nodules are much
smaller, weaker, or may be entirely lacking. The beads on the threads
are usually in axial alignment. Axial costae exceedingly weak and
usually completely absent. The peripheral thread is generally the
largest.






132 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
14.5 9 Holotype
12.5 6 Chipola River, 1 mi. W Sink Creek, Jackson Co., Florida
16 9 Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville, Calhoun Co., Florida

TYPEs.-Holotype, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(190102), from the Chipola River, 2 miles southeast of Chason,
Calhoun County, Florida. Paratypes from the same locality are in the
Museum of Comparative Zoology and the University of Florida Col-
lections. Additional paratypes are from the Chipola River, 3 miles
south of Marianna.
REMARKs.-Goniobasis athearni is exceedingly close in its relation-
ship to G. floridensis Reeve. The sculpture is similar, but differs in
athearni by having only nodules and not the axial costae. In addition,
the shell of G. floridensis is more attenuate, has straighter sides, and
the aperture is smaller in proportion to the length of the shell.
It seems rather remarkable that these two closely related species
should exist in the same streams and at the same stations.
RANGE.-Goniobasis athearni is limited to the central part of the
Chipola river system. Only one station was made outside of the
Chipola proper, this being a small creek, 2 miles northwest of Sink
Creek in Jackson County.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna; Chipola
River, Marianna; Chipola River, 3 mi. S Marianna; Chipola River, I mi. W Sink
Creek; creek 22 mi. NW Sink Creek; all Jackson Co. Chipola River, 21/ mi
SE Chason; Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville; both Calhoun Co.

Goniobasis boykiniana Lea
Plate 5 Figures 5-6

Melania boykiniana Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 289), Chattahoochee
River, Columbus, Georgia. Lea (1842, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.), 8: 228,
pl. 6, fig. 59). Lea, 1863 (3: 66, pl. 6, fig. 59).
Goniobasis hallenbeckii Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 271), Randall's
Creek, near Columbus, Georgia. Lea (1862, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 5: 339,
pl. 38, fig. 203). Lea, 1863 (9: 161, pl. 38, fig. 203).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching about 35 mm. (1 3/8 inches)
in length, imperforate, rather thin in structure, and heavily sculptured.
Color a yellowish brown to dark brown. When viewed from within
the aperture there are 1 to 5 spiral bands of dark red brown which





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 133

are best seen by transmitted light. Whorls probably 9 to 10 and
slightly convex. Early two to four whorls are usually corroded away.
Spire extended, conical, and produced at an angle of about 250. Aper-
ture subovate in outline. Parietal lip consists of a thickened callus.
Outer lip thin, and when viewed in profile appears as a flattened
sigmoid curve. Columella straight to slightly arched and rather
narrow. Suture moderately indented. Sculpture consists of 9 to 10
spiral threads which are crossed by rather strong axial costae above
the periphery. Rather strong nodules are produced where the costae
cross the spiral threads. Below the periphery the spiral threads are
somewhat irregular, but not nodulose. The peripheral carina is most
pronounced, giving the whorl an angulation at this point.

IEN(;TH WIDTH
mm. mm11.
31.5 13.5 Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Georgia
30 15 Ditto
28 11.5 Ditto
27.5 13 Ditto
*Tip of spire corroded in all specimens.

TYPES.-The holotype of Goniobasis boykiniana Lea is in the
United States National Museum and is from the Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia. The holotype of G. hallenbeckii Lea is also in
the United States National Museum and is from Randall's Creek near
Columbus, Georgia.
REMARKS.-So far as we now know, this species is nearly extinct. All
the early records were from the Chattahoochee River and Randall's
Creek in the vicinity of Columbus, Georgia. The latest date that we
can assign to this material is 1855. Sometime after that date, over-
farming and the consequent silting of this river apparently destroyed
most of its mollusk fauna. Herbert Athearn collected a few specimens
of this species in 1955, near West Point, Troup County, Georgia.
This is one of the largest species of Goniobasis, and it is possibly
the progenitor of the abundant and more widely distributed G.
floridensis Reeve. It differs from this species by being much larger
and having the nodules more developed, and in being yellowish brown
rather than nearly black.
RANGE.-Known only from the Chattahoochee River, Georgia.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
C:HAiTAHOOCHFE RIVER DRAINA(;.--(eorgia: Chattahoochee River, West Point,







134 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Troup Co. Chattahoochee River, Columbus; Randall's Creek, Columbus; both
Muscogee Co.

Goniobasis catenoides Lea
Plate 3 Figure 8

Melania catenaria Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 289), Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia. Non catenaria Say, 1822.
Melania catenoides Lea (1842, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.), 8: 228, pl. 6, fig. 60),
Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1863 (3: 66, pl. 6, fig. 60); [new
name for catenaria Lea; non Say].
Melania modest Lea (1845, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 4: 166). Lea (1858, Trans.
Amer. Philos. Soc., 10: 86, pl. 9, fig. 34), Chattahoochee River, Columbus,
Georgia.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching probably 25 mm. (1 inch)
in length, imperforate, rather heavy in structure, and moderately
sculptured. Color generally a dark yellow brown and rarely with three
to five red-brown bands of color. Whorls probably 9 to 10 and moder-
ately convex. Early two to four whorls usually corroded away. Spire
extended and produced at an angle of about 27'. Aperture ovate in
outline. Parietal lip consists of a thin callus. Outer lip thin, and
when viewed in profile it appears as a nearly straight line. Columella
slightly arched and narrow. Suture moderately indented. Sculpture
consists of 11 to 12 spiral threads which are generally beaded, particu-
larly above the periphery. The peripheral thread is usually the largest,
which creates a carina particularly noticeable on the early whorls.
Axial costae absent or only slightly developed. Rarely the shell is
smooth or nearly so.

LENGTH* WIDTH
mm. mm.
23 11 Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Georgia
22 11 Ditto
20 11.5 Ditto
15 7 Holotype of G. modest Lea
*All specimens heavily corroded, with a loss of perhaps 2 to 1 mm.

TYPEs.-The holotypes of Goniobasis catenaria Lea (G. catenoides
Lea) and G. modest Lea are in the United States National Museum,
both are from the Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Georgia.

REMARKS.-This species, so far as we know now, is extinct. The
small series that we have was collected at Columbus, Georgia, by Mr.
Gesner in 1855. Though only known from Columbus, this species
probably had a fairly wide distribution in the Chattahoochee River







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 135

and apparently was exterminated by river silt.
Goniobasis catenoides appears to be closest in relationship to G.
albanyensis, but differs by having far less sculpture, by being larger,
and by having beaded spiral threads. In albanyensis the beads on
the later whorls become lengthened.
Goniobasis modest Lea appears to be just a young specimen of
G. catenoides which is not sculptured.
RANGE AND RECORDS.-Known only from the Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia.

Goniobasis viennaensis Lea
Plate 5 Figures 7-8

Goniobasis viennaensis Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 267), near Vienna,
Dooly Co., Georgia, in a small stream [Pennahatchee Creek] tributary to the
Flint River. Lea, 1862 (9: 137, pl. 37, fig. 160).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching about 25 mm. (about 1 inch)
in length, imperforate, rather thin in structure, and usually strongly
sculptured. Color a straw yellow to dark yellowish brown and fre-
quently banded with dark reddish brown. Whorls 9 to 10 and slightly
convex. Early two to four whorls usually corroded away. Spire
extended, conical, and produced at an angle of about 20". Aperture
subquadrate in outline. Parietal lip consists of a thin callus. Outer
lip thin, and when viewed in profile appears as a nearly straight line.
Columella nearly straight. Suture moderately indented. Sculpture
consists of numerous, arcuate, axial costae, which are faintly nodulose
at the whorl periphery. Occasional specimens have a subsutural row
of faint nodules, while in others there may be a third row. Base of
the shell usually smooth, but in some specimens there may be a series
of fine spiral threads. Rare examples may be entirely smooth.

LENGTH* WIDTH
mm. mm.
21.5 10.3 North Fork, Pennahatchee Creek, 4 mi. N Vienna, Dooly
Co., Georgia
21 9.5 Swift Creek, 12 mi. SW Cordele, Crisp Co., Georgia
19.5 9.5 Mill Creek, 8 mi. S Oakfield, Worth Co., Georgia
*Early whorls corroded away.

TYPES.-The holotype of Goniobasis viennaensis Lea is in the
United States National Museum and is from Pennahatchee Creek near
Vienna, Dooly County, Georgia.






!36 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

REMARKS.-This species is close in its relationship to G. curvi-
costata Reeve. It differs in being wider in proportion to its length,
being nodulose, and in having the outer lip when viewed in profile,
seen as a straight line and not as a sigmoid curve.
RANGE.-This species is restricted to the smaller streams in the
central Flint River area. It does not occur in the Flint River proper.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINA(..-(;eorgia: Cedar Creek, 5 mi. SW Cordele; Swift Creek,
12 mi. SW Cordele; both Crisp Co. North Fork, Pennahatchee Creek, 4 mi. NW'
Vienna, Doolv Co. Lee's Creek, 5 mi. S DeSoto, Lee Co. Abrams Creek, 5 mi. S
Oakfield; Jones Creek, 2 mi. S Oakfield; Mill Creek, 8 mi. S Oakfield; all Worth
Co.

Goniobasis curvicostata Reeve
Plate 2 Figures 4-5

Melania cur icostata Reeve (1861, Conchologia Iconica, 12: Melania, plate 58, no.
462), Florida, United States.
Melania densicostata Reeve (1861, Conchologia Iconica, 12: Melania, plate 58,
no. 465), Florida, United States.
Goniobasis doolyensis Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 14: 266), Tennessee
[and] near Vienna, Dooly Co., Georgia. Lea (1863, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci.,
Ihila. (n.s.), 5: 315, pl. 37, fig. 159). Lea, 1863 (9: 137, pl. 37, fig. 159).
(oniobasis inclinans Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 14: 267), New Albany
[Albany I, Georgia; Etowah, Georgia, and Tuscumbia, Alabama. Lea (1863, Jour.
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. (n.s.), 5: 318, pl. 37, fig. 165). Lea, 1863 (9: 140, pl. 37,
fig. 165).
Melania indula Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 14: 267), near Vienna,
)ooly Co., Georgia. Lea (1863, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. (n.s.), 5: 319, pl.
37, fig. 166). Lea, 1863 (9: 141).
(oniobasis ucheensis Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.. p. 270), Little Uchee
River, below Columbus, Georgia [Russell Co.. Alabama Lea (1863, Jour.
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. (n.s.), 5: 334, pi. 38, fig. 194). Lea, 1863 (9: 156, pl. 38,
fig. 194).
Goniobasis elliotti Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 271), Fannin County,
Georgia; Uchee and Little Uchee Rivers, Alabama. Lea (1863, Jour. Acad.
Nat. Sci., Phila. (n.s.), 5: 338, pl. 38, fig. 201). Lea, 1863 (9: 160, pl. 38, fig. 201).
(oniobasis gesneri Lea (1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 151), Uchee River,
[Russell County], Alabama.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching about 31.7 mm. (about 11a
inches) in length, imperforate, rather thin in structure, and strongly
sculptured. Color a light yellow to dark yellowish brown, uniform in
color, or with three to four narrow bands of dark mahogany brown.
There is generally a subsutural light area. Whorls 9 to 10 and nearly






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 137

fiat sided. Spire extended, conical, and produced at an angle of about
270. Early two to four whorls are generally corroded away. Aperture
subquadrate in outline. Parietal lip consists of a thin callus. Outer lip
thin, and when seen in profile it appears as a flattened sigmoid curve.
Columella straight to slightly arched and rather narrow. Suture
moderately indented. Axial sculpture consists of numerous, strong,
arcuate costae, which are formed on the upper half of the whorl.
Spiral sculpture consists of one or two fine threads, which may be
slightly beaded where the threads and costae cross one another. There
is usually a fairly strong peripheral carina. In addition, there are
fine axial growth lines which are also arcuate. In some colonies the
axial costae are greatly reduced, and in a few rare instances the shells
are nearly smooth.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
31.7 11.5 Pigeon Creek, 4 mi. N Pigeon Creek Post Office, Butler
Co., Alabama
23.0 9.2 Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone, Jackson Co., Florida
22.8 9.0 Ditto
20.5 8.0 Flint River. Albany, Dougherty Co., Georgia
19.0 7.0 Ditto

TYPES.-The types of G. curuicostata Reeve and densicostata Reeve
are probably in the British Museum, but originally contained in the
Cuming Collection. The types of G. doolyensis, gesneri, elliottii, and
ucheensis, all of Lea, are in the United States National Museum.

REMARKs.-This is one of the most common and widespread species
in the area covered by this report. It is a rather variable species, a
fact which is reflected in the large number of synonyms given above.
It appears to be closely related to both G. viennaensis Lea and
G. albanyensis Lea. The most characteristic features of typical speci-
mens of this species are the slightly arcuate costae and the lack of
nodules. See also remarks under albanyensis and viennaensis. In the
Escambia River forms occur which are brightly banded with dark
reddish brown, while specimens from other stations have bands which
are relatively inconspicuous or they may be absent.
This species may be found in the larger rivers as well as many of
the smaller creeks.

RANGE.-From the Flint River of the Apalachicola system, the
species occurs west to the Escambia River.


SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-







138 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: North Fork Pennahatchee Creek, 4 mi. NW
Vienna; spring, 8 mi. NW Vienna; both Dooly Co. Swift Creek, 12 mi. SW Cordele;
Gum Creek, 2 mi. N Cordele; Cedar Creek, 6 mi. SW Cordele; Cordele Springs,
Cordele; all Crisp Co. Lee's Creek, 5 mi. S DeSoto, Lee Co. West Fork Chicka-
sawhatchee Creek, Dawson; West Fork Chickasawhatchee Creek, 5 mi. E Dawson;
both Terrell Co. Abrams Creek, 5 mi. S Oakfield; Abrams Creek, 3 mi. W Doles;
Mill Creek, 8 mi. S Oakfield; Jones Creek, 2 mi. S Oakfield; spring, 3 mi. W Doles;
all Worth Co. Creek, 7 mi. NW Albany; Flint River, Albany; Radium Spring,
4 mi. SE Albany; all Dougherty Co. Spring Creek, Colquett, Miller Co. Spring
Creek, near Brinson, Decatur Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Mosquito Creek, 2 mi. SW Recovery,
Decatur Co. Florida: Mosquito Creek, 1/ mi. E Chattahoochee; Mosquito Creek,
1 mi. S Chattahoochee; both Gadsden Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Mulberry Creek, Mitchell Bridge, 3
mi. S Mountain Hill, Harris Co. Sandy Creek, 5 mi. N Fort Gaines, Clay Co.
Sawhatchee Creek, 14 mi. NW Donalsonville; Sawhatchee Creek, 10 mi. NW
Donalsonville; Kirkland Creek, 6 mi. NW Donalsonville; all Seminole Co.
Alabama: Uchee Creek, Fort Mitchell, Russell Co. Howard Creek, 1 mi. S Gordon,
Houston Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Big Creek near Taylor, Houston Co.
Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; Reedy Creek, 6 mi. W. Malone; stream, 11/
mi. N Campbelltown; Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna; Chipola River, % mi.
E Marianna; Spring Creek, Merritts Mill, 3 mi. E Marianna; Chipola River, 3
mi. S Marianna; creek, 2.4 mi. NNW Sink Creek; Chipola River, 1 mi. W Sink
Creek; Thomas Mill Pond, 8 mi. S Marianna; Chipola River, 5'/2 mi. W Green-
wood; all Jackson Co. stream, 5.2 mi. N Blountstown; Chipola River, 2% mi. SE
Chason; Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville; Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola
Park; all Calhoun Co.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: East Fork, Choctawhatchee River,
8 mi. W Abbeville, Henry Co. West Fork, Choctawhatchee River, 7 mi. E Ozark;
Choctawhatchee River, Newton; both Dale Co. Choctawhatchee River, 2 mi.
E Geneva, Geneva Co. Florida: Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W Miller Cross
Roads; Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W Caryville; Hurricane Creek, 5 mi. E
Miller Cross Roads; Holmes Creek, 3 mi. E Bonifay; all Holmes Co.
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabaina: Pea River, %/ mi. SW Geneva, Geneva Co.

YELLOW RIVER SYSTEM
YELLOW RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Yellow River, Milligan, Okaloosa Co.

ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
ESCAMBIA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia
Co.
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.--Alabama: Pigeon Creek, 4 mi. N Pigeon Creek Post
Office, Butler Co. Little Patsaliga Creek, 1 mi. W Rutledge, Crenshaw Co. Battle
Creek, 2 mi. NW Brooklyn; Blue Springs Creek; Burnt Corn Creek, 1 mi. W
Repton; all Conecuh Co. Burnt Corn Creek, 3 mi. W Appleton; Burnt Corn
Creek, Brewton; both Escambia Co. Branch of the Conecuh River, 8 mi. WSW
Andalusia, Covington Co.





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 139

Goniobasis albanyensis Lea
Plate 3 Figure 6

Goniobasis albanyensis Lea (1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 4), near Albany
and Blue Spring, Baker [Dougherty] Co., Georgia. Lea (1866, Jour. Acad. Nat.
Sci., Phila., 6: 141, pl. 23, fig. 49). I.ea, 1867 (11: 97, pl. 23, fig. 49).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell imperforate, medium in size, reaching 19 mm.
in length, and rather light in structure. Color a dull yellowish brown
with spiral cords of blackish brown. Whorls 6 to 7, the early whorls
usually corroded. The whorls are slightly convex. Spire acute, ex-
tended, and nearly flat sided. Aperture subovate with the outer lip
thin; the inner lip appears as a thin glaze. Siphonal canal barely in-
dicated. Columella short and arched. Suture only slightly indented.
Sculpture consists of 10 to 13 spiral cords more or less evenly disposed
over the whorls. Axial costae well developed on the early whorls, some-
times lacking on the body whorl.

LENGTH WIDTH WHORLS
mm. mm. mm.
19.5 9 6% Spring Creek, Reynoldsville, Georgia
18.2 8.4 6+ Ditto
15.8 8 6 Ditto

TYPEs.-The holotype of G. albanyensis Lea is in the United States
National Museum and is from near Albany, Dougherty County,
Georgia.

REMARKs.-This species differs from G. curvicostata Lea by having
a somewhat larger shell and in having the axial costae usually quite
nodulose. It occasionally invades spring-fed creeks, but is usually
confined to the larger rivers. It is abundant in the upper Flint River,
particularly in the vicinity of Albany.
RANGE.-Formerly this species probably occupied all of the Apa-
lachicola system. At the present time it is limited to the Flint River
drainage and tributaries of the Chattahoochee River. Silting has
probably killed it out of the main stream. We found it in the
Apalachicola River, only on the Flint River side, just below the
town of Chattahoochee, Florida.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Flint River, mouth of Gum Creek, Crisp Co.
Flint River, 2 mi. N Albany; Flint River, Albany; Radium Spring, Flint River,








140 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

4 mi. SE Albany; Flint River, 10 mi. S Albany; all Dougherty Co. Flint River,
Newton, Baker Co. Flint River, Bainbridge; Flint River, Recovery; both Decatur
Co. Spring Creek, Reynoldsville; Spring Creek, 2% mi. S Reynoldsville; both
Seminole Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Flat Shoal Creek, 5 mi. SE West
Point; Mulberry Creek, 3 mi. S Mountain Hill; both Harris Co. Alabama: Uchee
Creek, 6 mi. NE Seale; Uchee Creek, Fort Mitchell; both Russell Co. Howard
Creek, 1 mi. S Gordon, Houston Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE..-Florida: Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee,
Gadsden Co.

Goniobasis clenchi Goodrich
Plate 3 Figures 4-5

Goniobasis clenchi Goodrich (1924, Nautilus, 38: 46, figs. 1-4), Choctawhatchee River,
Newton, Dale Co., Alabama.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching about 30 mm. (about 1 s
inches) in length, imperforate, rather thin in structure, and strongly
sculptured. Color varies from a chestnut brown to a dark chocolate
brown. Whorls 9 to 10 and nearly flat sided. Spire extended, conical,
and produced at an angle of about 250. Early two to three whorls
are generally corroded away. Aperture subquadrate in outline. Parie-
tal lip consists of a thin callus. Outer lip thin, and it appears as a
flattened sigmoid curve when viewed in profile. Columella straight
to slightly arched and rather thin. Suture somewhat indented. Sculp-
ture consists of 9 to 12 spiral cords, those above the periphery are
nodulose, those below the periphery are without nodules. Axial
sculpture consists of numerous and rather low arcuate costae or riblets,
and the nodules on the cords are usually produced at the junction
of the cords and the costae. In addition, there are numerous and
usually fine arcuate growth lines. Operculum subcircular and pau-
cispiral. Periostracum thin, persistent, and chestnut to dark chocolate
brown in color.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
29 12 Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W Caryville, Washington
Co., Florida
24 8 Holotype
24 9.5 Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W Miller Cross Roads,
Holmes Co., Florida
23 10 Flat Creek, 8 mi. SW Samson, Geneva Co., Alabama

TYPFs.-The holotype of G. clenchi is in the Museum of Zoology,
University of Michigan. Paratypes are in the University of Michigan,




FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 141

and in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (51282). The type locality
is Choctawhatchee River, Newton, Dale County, Alabama.
REMARKS.-This is a distinctive species apparently related to curvi-
costata Lea. It differs, however, in the development of its spiral sculp-
ture and in the production of numerous nodules.
RANGE.-Apparently limited to the Choctawhatchee river system.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

(HOCT'AWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Alabama: West Fork, Choctawhatchee River, 7 mi. E Ozark; Choctawhatchee
River, Newton; east branch Choctawhatchee River; all Dale Co. Flat Creek,
8 mi. SW Samson; Choctawhatchee River, 2 mi. E Geneva; Pea River, % mi.
SW Geneva; all Geneva Co. Florida: Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W Miller
Cross Roads, Holmes Co. Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W Caryville, Washington
Co.

Goniobasis dickinsoni new species
Plate 2 Figure 10

DESCRIPTION.-Shell elongate, reaching about 26 mm. (about I
inch) in length, imperforate, rather thin in structure, and slightly
sculptured. Color a rather dark yellowish brown. Whorls 9 to 10 and
flat sided. Spire extended, conical, and produced at an angle of about
20. Early two to four whorls are generally corroded away. Aper-
ture subquadrate in outline. Parietal lip consists of a thin callus.
Outer lip thin, and when viewed in profile appears as a flattened sig-
moid curve. Columella straight to slightly arched and rather narrow.
Suture moderately indented. Sculpture consists of weak to strong ar-
cuate axial costae, which are most numerous on the early whorls.
Spiral cords absent, or limited to three or four on the base of the shell.
Axial growth lines strong and arcuate. There is generally a strongly
developed peripheral carina.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
26 11 Holotype
26.5 10.0 Paratype
23.0 10.0 Hurricane Creek, 5 mi. E Miller Cross Roads, Holmes
Co., Florida
24.5 9.5 Big Creek near Taylor, Houston Co., Alabama

TYPEs.-The holotype is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(191771), and is from Holmes Creek, 1 mile west of Graceville, Florida.
Paratypes from the same locality are in the Museum of Comparative
Zoology (191772), the University of Florida Collections, the United






142 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

States National Museum, and the Museum of Zoology, University of
Michigan.

REMARKS.-This is a distinctive species, apparently not closely
related to any other species in this area. It appears, however, to be
closest to G. curvicostata Reeve from which it differs by having
straight-sided whorls, possessing a well-formed peripheral carina, and
being nearly devoid of sculpture.
Its distribution is exceedingly interesting as it occupies limited
but adjacent areas in two different drainage systems, these being the
headwaters of the Chipola River and the upper reaches of Holmes
and Hurricane Creeks, the latter two streams being in the Chocta-
whatchee system. Stream capture or transport by mechanical means
may be the explanation. It is to be remembered that this is a region
of low relief with only a few feet in elevation actually separating these
two systems.

RANGE.-Upper tributaries of the Chipola River in Florida and
Alabama, and the tributaries of the Choctawhatchee immediately to
the west.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
CIPIOLA RIVER DRAINMAG;.-Alabama: Reedy Creek, near Ashford; Big Creek, near
Taylor; both Houston Co. Florida: Stream, 1V mi. N Campbellton, Jackson Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
HOILMEs CREEK DRAINAGE.-Florida: Hurricane Creek, 5 mi. E Miller Cross Roads;
Holmes Creek, 3 mi. E Bonifay; both Holmes Co. Holmes Creek, about 1 mi. W
Graceville, Jackson Co.

ORDER PULMONATA

The following few species of the order Pulmonata are not to be
taken as an index of completeness. There are probably many more
species than we have considered, but we failed to find them on the
two trips-1953 and 1954-in the lower reaches of these rivers. How-
ever, this is not good country for this order of snails. Fresh-
water pulmonates thrive best in areas of lakes, ponds, and small
streams, not in large rivers or creeks subject to high water and heavy
silting. Freshwater pulmonates are rare and difficult to find in all of
the region from the Ohio River south to the Suwannee. Below the
Suwannee, in the lake region of Florida, they increase greatly in both
species and numbers.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 143

PHYSIDAE

Genus Physa Draparnaud

Physa Draparnaud (1801, Tableau des Mollusques Terrestres et Fluviatiles de la
France (Paris), p. 31, 52).
Type species, Physa fontinalis Linn6

Shells small to medium in size, sinistral, attenuate, usually shining,
brown to light amber in color, and imperforate. Aperture elongate and
possesses a simple lip which may be slightly thickened a little below
the edge. Radula has a few denticles on the central tooth; the lateral
teeth are denticulate and with an apophysis.


Physa pumilia Conrad
Plate 4 Figure 8

Physa pumilia Conrad (1834, Amer. Jour. Sci., 25: 343), Randon's Creek. near
Claiborne, Alabama.
FPlysa showalterii Lea (1864 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 115), Uniontown, Ala-
bama. Lea, 1867 (11: 126, pl. 24, fig. 92).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell sinistral, medium in size, reaching 16 mm.
(about % inch) in length, thin, elliptical in outline, smooth and shin-
ing. Color brownish yellow to brown. Nuclear whorls reddish brown.
Whorls 51/ to 6, somewhat inflated, and strongly convex. Spire ex-
tended and acute. Aperture elliptical and somewhat flaring at the
base. Outer lip thin. Inner lip consists of a thin glaze on the
parietal wall. Columella slightly twisted and broadening above. Su-
ture slightly impressed. Sculpture consists of fine growth lines and
equally fine spiral threads, which together give a reticulated pattern
when seen under magnification of 15-20X.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
13.5 7.5 Alaga Hole, 8 mi. W Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia
11 5.5 Pond, 7% mi. SW Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia

TYPES.-The location of Conrad's type of P. pumilia is unknown.
The type locality is Randon's Creek, near Claiborne, Alabama. The
holotype of P. showalterii Lea is in the United States National
Museum.
REMARKS.-This species is found in quiet water of springs, ponds,






144 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

and the backwater areas of larger streams. See also remarks under
P. crocata Lea.

RANGE.-From the lower Mississippi River this species ranges east
to Georgia and south to the southern part of Florida.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Withlacoochee River, Blue Spring,
10 mi. E Madison, Madison Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Suwannee River, White Springs, Columbia
Co. Suwannee River, Ellaville, Madison Co. Santa Fe River, Poe Springs, Alachua
Co. Ichtucknee River, 5 mi. NW Fort White, Suwannee Co.
ECONFINA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Econfina River, 18 mi. W Perry, Taylor Co.
WAKULLA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Wakulla Spring, Wakulla River, Wakulla Co.
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
Georgia: Ochlockonee River, between Reno and Beachton, Grady Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Cordele Springs, Cordele, Crisp Co. East
Fork, Chickasawhatchee River, 5 mi. E Dawson, Terrell Co. Flint River, 2 mi.
N Albany; Radium Spring, 4 mi. SE Albany; both Dougherty Co. Cypress Creek,
Baker Co. Alaga Hole, 8 mi. W Recovery; pond, 71/ mi. SW Recovery; Paul
Clarke Spring, 2% mi. W Recovery; all Decatur Co. Spring Creek, Reynoldsville,
Seminole Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Opelika, Lee Co. Big Uchee Creek,
6 mi. NE Seale, Russell Co. Irving Mill Creck, 10 mi. S Gordon, Houston Co.
Florida: Cypress swale, 1 mi. N Sneads, Jackson Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Cal-
houn Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
PEA RIVER DRAINACE.-Alabama: Pea River, Elamville, Barbour Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-A labama: Evergreen, Conecuh Co.


Physa crocata Lea
Plate 4 Figure 9

Physa crocata Lea (1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 114), Lafayette, Walker Co.,
Georgia. Lea, 1867 (11: 125, pl. 24, fig. 90).
Physa oleacea Tryon (1866, Amer. Jour. Conchology, 2: 6) [in part], Bridgeport,
Alabama; and Lake Superior.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell sinistral, medium in size, reaching 12 mm.
(about 1/2 inch) in length, imperforate, elliptical, and shining. Color
usually straw yellow to light horn. Whorls 41/2 to 5, rather inflated,






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 143

PHYSIDAE

Genus Physa Draparnaud

Physa Draparnaud (1801, Tableau des Mollusques Terrestres et Fluviatiles de la
France (Paris), p. 31, 52).
Type species, Physa fontinalis Linn6

Shells small to medium in size, sinistral, attenuate, usually shining,
brown to light amber in color, and imperforate. Aperture elongate and
possesses a simple lip which may be slightly thickened a little below
the edge. Radula has a few denticles on the central tooth; the lateral
teeth are denticulate and with an apophysis.


Physa pumilia Conrad
Plate 4 Figure 8

Physa pumilia Conrad (1834, Amer. Jour. Sci., 25: 343), Randon's Creek. near
Claiborne, Alabama.
FPlysa showalterii Lea (1864 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 115), Uniontown, Ala-
bama. Lea, 1867 (11: 126, pl. 24, fig. 92).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell sinistral, medium in size, reaching 16 mm.
(about % inch) in length, thin, elliptical in outline, smooth and shin-
ing. Color brownish yellow to brown. Nuclear whorls reddish brown.
Whorls 51/ to 6, somewhat inflated, and strongly convex. Spire ex-
tended and acute. Aperture elliptical and somewhat flaring at the
base. Outer lip thin. Inner lip consists of a thin glaze on the
parietal wall. Columella slightly twisted and broadening above. Su-
ture slightly impressed. Sculpture consists of fine growth lines and
equally fine spiral threads, which together give a reticulated pattern
when seen under magnification of 15-20X.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
13.5 7.5 Alaga Hole, 8 mi. W Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia
11 5.5 Pond, 7% mi. SW Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia

TYPES.-The location of Conrad's type of P. pumilia is unknown.
The type locality is Randon's Creek, near Claiborne, Alabama. The
holotype of P. showalterii Lea is in the United States National
Museum.
REMARKS.-This species is found in quiet water of springs, ponds,






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 143

PHYSIDAE

Genus Physa Draparnaud

Physa Draparnaud (1801, Tableau des Mollusques Terrestres et Fluviatiles de la
France (Paris), p. 31, 52).
Type species, Physa fontinalis Linn6

Shells small to medium in size, sinistral, attenuate, usually shining,
brown to light amber in color, and imperforate. Aperture elongate and
possesses a simple lip which may be slightly thickened a little below
the edge. Radula has a few denticles on the central tooth; the lateral
teeth are denticulate and with an apophysis.


Physa pumilia Conrad
Plate 4 Figure 8

Physa pumilia Conrad (1834, Amer. Jour. Sci., 25: 343), Randon's Creek. near
Claiborne, Alabama.
FPlysa showalterii Lea (1864 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 115), Uniontown, Ala-
bama. Lea, 1867 (11: 126, pl. 24, fig. 92).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell sinistral, medium in size, reaching 16 mm.
(about % inch) in length, thin, elliptical in outline, smooth and shin-
ing. Color brownish yellow to brown. Nuclear whorls reddish brown.
Whorls 51/ to 6, somewhat inflated, and strongly convex. Spire ex-
tended and acute. Aperture elliptical and somewhat flaring at the
base. Outer lip thin. Inner lip consists of a thin glaze on the
parietal wall. Columella slightly twisted and broadening above. Su-
ture slightly impressed. Sculpture consists of fine growth lines and
equally fine spiral threads, which together give a reticulated pattern
when seen under magnification of 15-20X.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
13.5 7.5 Alaga Hole, 8 mi. W Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia
11 5.5 Pond, 7% mi. SW Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia

TYPES.-The location of Conrad's type of P. pumilia is unknown.
The type locality is Randon's Creek, near Claiborne, Alabama. The
holotype of P. showalterii Lea is in the United States National
Museum.
REMARKS.-This species is found in quiet water of springs, ponds,





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 145

and rounded. Nuclear whorls reddish brown. Spire slightly obtuse,
not produced. First whorl above the aperture bulges slightly beyond
the otherwise straight contour of the spire. Aperture rounded, elon-
gate, slightly flared at the base. Palatal lip acute and marginate.
Parietal lip present only as a slight deposit on the body whorl. Colu-
mella usually straight, sometimes slightly inclined to the left, some-
times slightly twisted. Suture slightly impressed, not indented. Sculp-
ture consists of fine growth lines; cross striae absent. Axial rest .bands
yellowish externally, dark brownish red internally, and sometimes
quite thickened.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
12.8 7.8 Silver Creek, Rome, Floyd Co., Georgia
10.3 7 Fish hatchery, Warm Springs, Meriwether Co., Georgia
9.8 5.6 Lafayette, Walker Co., Georgia (Paratype).

TYPES.-The holotype of P. crocata Lea is in the United States
National Museum (134813) and is from Lafayette, Walker County,
Georgia. The holotype of P. oleacea Tryon is in the Academy of
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.

REMARKs.-According to F. C. Baker (1910: 492), Tryon's P. oleacea
from the Lake Superior region are young Physa gyrina Say, whereas
his specimens from Bridgeport, Alabama are unquestionably Physa
crocata Lea. Physa crocata Lea is readily differentiated from P. purnilia
Conrad by being more globose, and generally in having a somewhat
heavier shell which is lighter in color and has a more pronounced whorl
shoulder.

RANGE.-Upper reaches of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers and
throughout most of the Coosa-Alabama and Tennessee river systems.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Fish hatchery, Warm Springs, Meriwether Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, West Point,
Troup Co. Chattahoochee River, Franklin, Heard Co.

LYMNAEIDAE

Genus Pseudosuccinea Baker

Pseudosuccinea Baker (1908, Science (n.s.), 27: 943).
Type species, Lymnaea columella Say, original designation.





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 145

and rounded. Nuclear whorls reddish brown. Spire slightly obtuse,
not produced. First whorl above the aperture bulges slightly beyond
the otherwise straight contour of the spire. Aperture rounded, elon-
gate, slightly flared at the base. Palatal lip acute and marginate.
Parietal lip present only as a slight deposit on the body whorl. Colu-
mella usually straight, sometimes slightly inclined to the left, some-
times slightly twisted. Suture slightly impressed, not indented. Sculp-
ture consists of fine growth lines; cross striae absent. Axial rest .bands
yellowish externally, dark brownish red internally, and sometimes
quite thickened.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
12.8 7.8 Silver Creek, Rome, Floyd Co., Georgia
10.3 7 Fish hatchery, Warm Springs, Meriwether Co., Georgia
9.8 5.6 Lafayette, Walker Co., Georgia (Paratype).

TYPES.-The holotype of P. crocata Lea is in the United States
National Museum (134813) and is from Lafayette, Walker County,
Georgia. The holotype of P. oleacea Tryon is in the Academy of
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.

REMARKs.-According to F. C. Baker (1910: 492), Tryon's P. oleacea
from the Lake Superior region are young Physa gyrina Say, whereas
his specimens from Bridgeport, Alabama are unquestionably Physa
crocata Lea. Physa crocata Lea is readily differentiated from P. purnilia
Conrad by being more globose, and generally in having a somewhat
heavier shell which is lighter in color and has a more pronounced whorl
shoulder.

RANGE.-Upper reaches of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers and
throughout most of the Coosa-Alabama and Tennessee river systems.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Fish hatchery, Warm Springs, Meriwether Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, West Point,
Troup Co. Chattahoochee River, Franklin, Heard Co.

LYMNAEIDAE

Genus Pseudosuccinea Baker

Pseudosuccinea Baker (1908, Science (n.s.), 27: 943).
Type species, Lymnaea columella Say, original designation.







146 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Shells small to medium in size, usually thin, smooth, and imper-
forate. Generally the spire is short, and the body whorl is large and
expanded. The columella is slightly twisted.


Pseudosuccinea columella Say
Plate 4 Figure 10

Lymnaea columella Say (1817, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1: 14), no locality given
[probably near Philadelphia].
Pseudosuccinea columella Say. Baker (1911, Chicago Acad. Sci., Spec. Publ., 3: 163,
pl. 23, figs. 8-20; pl. 24, figs. 1-4).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell fragile, small, reaching 23 mm. (about 1 inch)
in length, thin in structure, nearly smooth, and imperforate. Color
straw yellow to brownish yellow. Spire short. Aperture ovate and
large. Outer lip thin. Parietal wall thinly glazed. Columella narrow,
arched, and slightly twisted. Suture impressed. Sculpture, as seen
under magnification of 10-14X consists of numerous but fine spiral
threads crossed by fine axial growth lines.

LENGTH WIDTH
mm. mm.
11.5 8.5 Flint River, Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia
7.3 4.6 Irving Mill Creek, 10 mi. S Gordon, Houston Co.,
Alabama

TYPEs.-The holotype of Lymnaea columella Say is in the Academy
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (58791). The type locality, though
not given by Say, is probably in the vicinity of Philadelphia.
REMARKS.-This is a widely distributed species, though it is rare
in the area covered by this report. Specimens from the southern states
are, on the average, smaller than those from the north. This species
prefers quiet water along the larger streams and rivers.
RANGE.-This species occurs from Florida west to Texas and north
into Canada.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.--

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Flint River, Recovery, Decatur Co. Spring
Creek, Reynoldsville, Seminole Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, West Point,
Troup Co. Alabama: Irving Mill Creek, 10 mi. S Gordon, Houston Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Cal-
houn Co.





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 147

ANCYLIDAE

Genus Ferrissia Walker

Ferrissia Walker (1903, Nautilus, 17: 15).
Type species, Ancylus rivularis Say, original designation.

Shells small, conical, thin, with the apex posterior and slightly
inclined to one side. The shell may be smooth on the apex or radially
striate.

Ferrissia (Laevapex) dalli Walker
Plate 1 Figure 13

Ferrissia (Laevapex) dalli Walker (1920, Nautilus, 33: 102), Lake Helena, Volusia
Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell depressed, conical, reaching 6.5 mm. (Y of
an inch) in length, oval, thin and fragile. Color a light yellowish brown.
Apex subacute and inclined toward the right. Anterior slope slightly
convex; posterior slope slightly concave. Apex faintly sculptured with
radial threads.

LENGTH WIDTH HEIGHT
mm. mm. mm.
6.5 4.5 1.5 Holotype
4 3 1.4 Blue Spring, 7% mi. SW Recovery, Decatur
Co., Georgia

TYPES.-The holotype is in the Museum of Zoology, University of
Michigan (Walker Collection) and is from Lake Helena, Volusia
County, Florida.

REMARKS.-We found but a single series of this species within the
area covered by this report. It appears to be rather abundant in the
lake region of central Florida.

RANGE.-Probably limited to southern Georgia, southern Alabama,
and most of Florida.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Blue Spring, 7% mi. SW Recovery, Decatur Co.





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 147

ANCYLIDAE

Genus Ferrissia Walker

Ferrissia Walker (1903, Nautilus, 17: 15).
Type species, Ancylus rivularis Say, original designation.

Shells small, conical, thin, with the apex posterior and slightly
inclined to one side. The shell may be smooth on the apex or radially
striate.

Ferrissia (Laevapex) dalli Walker
Plate 1 Figure 13

Ferrissia (Laevapex) dalli Walker (1920, Nautilus, 33: 102), Lake Helena, Volusia
Co., Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell depressed, conical, reaching 6.5 mm. (Y of
an inch) in length, oval, thin and fragile. Color a light yellowish brown.
Apex subacute and inclined toward the right. Anterior slope slightly
convex; posterior slope slightly concave. Apex faintly sculptured with
radial threads.

LENGTH WIDTH HEIGHT
mm. mm. mm.
6.5 4.5 1.5 Holotype
4 3 1.4 Blue Spring, 7% mi. SW Recovery, Decatur
Co., Georgia

TYPES.-The holotype is in the Museum of Zoology, University of
Michigan (Walker Collection) and is from Lake Helena, Volusia
County, Florida.

REMARKS.-We found but a single series of this species within the
area covered by this report. It appears to be rather abundant in the
lake region of central Florida.

RANGE.-Probably limited to southern Georgia, southern Alabama,
and most of Florida.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Blue Spring, 7% mi. SW Recovery, Decatur Co.






148 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

MARGARITANIDAE

This is a family containing only two genera and but few species;
these all occur in the northern hemisphere-North America, Europe,
and Asia. Members of this family differ from the Unionidae by having
the gills without distinct interlamellar septa, or if the septa are present,
they are oblique to the gill filaments.

Genus Margaritana Schumacher

Margaritana Schumacher (1817, Essai d'un Nouveau Systieme des Habitations des
Vers Testac6s, p. 123).
Type species, Margaritana fluviatilis Schumacher (= Mya margaritifera Linn6),
monotypic.

Shells generally elongate, usually arcuate, and with the umbos low
and not full. Sculpture consists of numerous curved ridges which
emanate along the posterior ridge, remain strong on the posterior
slope, and generally flatten and then disappear on the disc. Hinge teeth
generally imperfect or not fully developed, with two pseudocardinal
teeth in the left valve and one pseudocardinal in the right valve. The
gills are without water tubes, but have scattered interlamellar con-
nections.
The reference to sculpture in this general description covers only
M. hembeli Conrad; most other members of this genus are smooth
or nearly so.

Margaritana hembeli Conrad
Plate 5 Figure 1

Unio hembeli Conrad (1838, Monography of the family Unionidae (Philadelphia),
p. 93, pl. 51, figs. 1-3), locality unknown.
Margaritana hembeli Conrad. Ortmann (1912: 235, figs. 3-3a). Simpson (1914: 523).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell medium in size, reaching 95 mm. (3% inches)
in length, rather solid in structure, subquadrate in outline, and sculp-
tured. Color a dark olivaceous brown to blackish brown. Posterior
slope nearly flat with the posterior ridge poorly defined. Shell tapering
to an angulated point posteriorly. Umbos anterior to the center,
broad, but not high or full. Ligament short and rather wide. Perios-
tracum somewhat smooth and shiny on the disc, roughened on the
ventral margin and over the posterior slope. Sculpture consists of






148 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

MARGARITANIDAE

This is a family containing only two genera and but few species;
these all occur in the northern hemisphere-North America, Europe,
and Asia. Members of this family differ from the Unionidae by having
the gills without distinct interlamellar septa, or if the septa are present,
they are oblique to the gill filaments.

Genus Margaritana Schumacher

Margaritana Schumacher (1817, Essai d'un Nouveau Systieme des Habitations des
Vers Testac6s, p. 123).
Type species, Margaritana fluviatilis Schumacher (= Mya margaritifera Linn6),
monotypic.

Shells generally elongate, usually arcuate, and with the umbos low
and not full. Sculpture consists of numerous curved ridges which
emanate along the posterior ridge, remain strong on the posterior
slope, and generally flatten and then disappear on the disc. Hinge teeth
generally imperfect or not fully developed, with two pseudocardinal
teeth in the left valve and one pseudocardinal in the right valve. The
gills are without water tubes, but have scattered interlamellar con-
nections.
The reference to sculpture in this general description covers only
M. hembeli Conrad; most other members of this genus are smooth
or nearly so.

Margaritana hembeli Conrad
Plate 5 Figure 1

Unio hembeli Conrad (1838, Monography of the family Unionidae (Philadelphia),
p. 93, pl. 51, figs. 1-3), locality unknown.
Margaritana hembeli Conrad. Ortmann (1912: 235, figs. 3-3a). Simpson (1914: 523).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell medium in size, reaching 95 mm. (3% inches)
in length, rather solid in structure, subquadrate in outline, and sculp-
tured. Color a dark olivaceous brown to blackish brown. Posterior
slope nearly flat with the posterior ridge poorly defined. Shell tapering
to an angulated point posteriorly. Umbos anterior to the center,
broad, but not high or full. Ligament short and rather wide. Perios-
tracum somewhat smooth and shiny on the disc, roughened on the
ventral margin and over the posterior slope. Sculpture consists of






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 149

numerous, rather irregular, enchevroned costae which are built upon
the posterior ridge and extend over a part of the disc as well as
over the posterior slope to the dorsal margin of the valve. The strength
of the sculpture is somewhat variable, with occasional specimens being
nearly smooth.
Nacre bluish white and only moderately iridescent. Both anterior
and posterior muscle scars are well defined. Hinge plate long and
fairly wide. Right valve with one crenulated and triangular, pseudo-
cardinal tooth. Left valve with two subequal, crenulated. and tri-
angular, pseudocardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
112 57 32.5 Spring Creek, near Clearwater, about 20 mi.
S Alexandria, Rapides Parish, Louisiana
95 50 29.5 Burnt Corn Creek, Conecuh Co., Alabama
87 44 27 Otter Creek, branch of Murder Creek, near
Evergreen, Conecuh Co., Alabama
72 38 20.5 Horse Creek, near Luverne. Crenshaw Co.,
Alabama

TYPES.-The location of the type specimen of Margaritana hembeli
Conrad is unknown. It is not at the Academy of Natural Sciences,
Philadelphia, where some of Conrad's types are located.
REMARKS.-This is a remarkable species and not closely related
to any other species found in this area. The original specimens were
sent to Conrad from New Orleans, Louisiana, but he states in his
original description that "no locality was given."
This species is known only from the small tributaries of the Es-
cambia River in Alabama and from a small spring-fed creek, a tribu-
tary to Bayou Cocodrie, in Louisiana. This is a remarkable distri-
bution; it is known from no localities between these two systems.
RANGE.-So far as now known this species is restricted to the Es-
cambia river system and the Bayou Teche system.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Horse Creek, near Luverne, Crenshaw
Co. Burnt Corn Creek, near Burnt Corn, Monroe Co. Hunters Creek, 8 mi. SW
Evergreen; Otter Creek, branch of Murder Creek, near Evergreen; both Conecuh
Co.
BAYOU TECHE SYSTEM
BAYOU COCODRIE DRAINAGE.-Louisiana: A spring creek, near Clearwater, about
20 mi. S Alexandria, Rapides Parish.







150 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

UNIONIDAE

The problem concerning the Unionidae of this area is, perhaps, just
as great as it is elsewhere in the southern states. Errors of considerable
magnitude were made by the earlier describers, particularly by Isaac
Lea, who had received most if not all of his material from others. These
people who sent material to Lea, failed, in many cases, to give exact
data, and in many cases these data were in error. A duplication of
place names can account for certain of these errors. There is a Macon
County on the Flint River, Georgia, several miles removed from the
city of Macon, which is on the Ocmulgee River, a totally different
drainage system. The name Macon appears frequently in Lea's type
localities for species that are now known to be limited to the Chatta-
hoochee-Flint system and do not occur in the Altamaha system of
which the Ocmulgee is a major tributary.
Far too many names exist for the species that are found in this
region. Names were based on single, or at best few, specimens; and
trivial differences were used as diagnostic characters. When large
series are studied these characters are found to have no significance.

Genus Fusconaia Simpson

Fusconia Simpson (1900: 784).
Fusconaja 'Simpson' Ortmann (1912, Ann. Carnegie Museum (Pittsburgh), 8: 240)
emendationn for Fusconaia Simpson].
Type species, Unio trigonus Lea, original designation.

Shell subcircular, triangular, or subelliptical in outline. Posterior
ridge usually poorly defined. Umbos broad and full, often high, usually
curved inward and forward, and sculptured with a few, coarse, parallel
ridges which curve upward posteriorly. Periostracum usually dark.
Shell smooth. Hinge plate of moderate width and usually strongly
arcuate. Pseudocardinal teeth strong. Nacre white, salmon, or purple.
All four gills are used as the marsupia.

Fusconaia succissa Lea
Plate 7 Figure 5

Unio succissus Lea (1852, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 10: 275, pl. 21, fig. 32), West
Florida.
Unio cacao Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 11: 154), Chacktahachie [Chocta-
whatchee] River, West Florida. Lea, 1852 (8: 26, pl. 56, fig. 169).
Quadrula wright Simpson (1914: 868), Pine Barren Creek, Escambia Co., Florida.







150 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

UNIONIDAE

The problem concerning the Unionidae of this area is, perhaps, just
as great as it is elsewhere in the southern states. Errors of considerable
magnitude were made by the earlier describers, particularly by Isaac
Lea, who had received most if not all of his material from others. These
people who sent material to Lea, failed, in many cases, to give exact
data, and in many cases these data were in error. A duplication of
place names can account for certain of these errors. There is a Macon
County on the Flint River, Georgia, several miles removed from the
city of Macon, which is on the Ocmulgee River, a totally different
drainage system. The name Macon appears frequently in Lea's type
localities for species that are now known to be limited to the Chatta-
hoochee-Flint system and do not occur in the Altamaha system of
which the Ocmulgee is a major tributary.
Far too many names exist for the species that are found in this
region. Names were based on single, or at best few, specimens; and
trivial differences were used as diagnostic characters. When large
series are studied these characters are found to have no significance.

Genus Fusconaia Simpson

Fusconia Simpson (1900: 784).
Fusconaja 'Simpson' Ortmann (1912, Ann. Carnegie Museum (Pittsburgh), 8: 240)
emendationn for Fusconaia Simpson].
Type species, Unio trigonus Lea, original designation.

Shell subcircular, triangular, or subelliptical in outline. Posterior
ridge usually poorly defined. Umbos broad and full, often high, usually
curved inward and forward, and sculptured with a few, coarse, parallel
ridges which curve upward posteriorly. Periostracum usually dark.
Shell smooth. Hinge plate of moderate width and usually strongly
arcuate. Pseudocardinal teeth strong. Nacre white, salmon, or purple.
All four gills are used as the marsupia.

Fusconaia succissa Lea
Plate 7 Figure 5

Unio succissus Lea (1852, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 10: 275, pl. 21, fig. 32), West
Florida.
Unio cacao Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 11: 154), Chacktahachie [Chocta-
whatchee] River, West Florida. Lea, 1852 (8: 26, pl. 56, fig. 169).
Quadrula wright Simpson (1914: 868), Pine Barren Creek, Escambia Co., Florida.







150 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

UNIONIDAE

The problem concerning the Unionidae of this area is, perhaps, just
as great as it is elsewhere in the southern states. Errors of considerable
magnitude were made by the earlier describers, particularly by Isaac
Lea, who had received most if not all of his material from others. These
people who sent material to Lea, failed, in many cases, to give exact
data, and in many cases these data were in error. A duplication of
place names can account for certain of these errors. There is a Macon
County on the Flint River, Georgia, several miles removed from the
city of Macon, which is on the Ocmulgee River, a totally different
drainage system. The name Macon appears frequently in Lea's type
localities for species that are now known to be limited to the Chatta-
hoochee-Flint system and do not occur in the Altamaha system of
which the Ocmulgee is a major tributary.
Far too many names exist for the species that are found in this
region. Names were based on single, or at best few, specimens; and
trivial differences were used as diagnostic characters. When large
series are studied these characters are found to have no significance.

Genus Fusconaia Simpson

Fusconia Simpson (1900: 784).
Fusconaja 'Simpson' Ortmann (1912, Ann. Carnegie Museum (Pittsburgh), 8: 240)
emendationn for Fusconaia Simpson].
Type species, Unio trigonus Lea, original designation.

Shell subcircular, triangular, or subelliptical in outline. Posterior
ridge usually poorly defined. Umbos broad and full, often high, usually
curved inward and forward, and sculptured with a few, coarse, parallel
ridges which curve upward posteriorly. Periostracum usually dark.
Shell smooth. Hinge plate of moderate width and usually strongly
arcuate. Pseudocardinal teeth strong. Nacre white, salmon, or purple.
All four gills are used as the marsupia.

Fusconaia succissa Lea
Plate 7 Figure 5

Unio succissus Lea (1852, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 10: 275, pl. 21, fig. 32), West
Florida.
Unio cacao Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 11: 154), Chacktahachie [Chocta-
whatchee] River, West Florida. Lea, 1852 (8: 26, pl. 56, fig. 169).
Quadrula wright Simpson (1914: 868), Pine Barren Creek, Escambia Co., Florida.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORII)DA 151

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small to medium in size, reaching 60 mm.
(about 2 3/8 inches) in length, subcircular in outline, heavy in struc-
ture, smooth, and inflated. Color olivaceous brown when young,
turning to a dark brownish black in older specimens. Posterior slope
nearly flat with the posterior ridge poorly defined. Shell rounded
posteriorly. Umbos anterior to the center, broad and full, but not
high. Ligament short and narrow. Periostracum smooth on the disc
and somewhat roughened on the posterior slope.
Nacre white to purplish, though generally only the margin is
purple and this surrounds a more or less white interior. (This color-
ation has faded in most of the older material in collections.) Young
specimens may be entirely purple. Both anterior and posterior muscle
scars are clearly outlined. Hinge plate broad and strongly arcuate.
Right valve with two-one large and one small-irregular pseudocardi-
nal teeth. Left valve with two subequal pseudocardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
60 43 32.5 Yellow River, Milligan, Okaloosa Co., Florida
56 43.5 31 Hollis Creek, Sanford, Covington Co., Alabama
47.5 38 22.5 Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia
Co., Florida

TYPEs.-The holotypes of Fusconaia succissa Lea and the two
synonyms are in the United States National Museum. We here limit
the type locality to the Choctawhatchee River, Caryville, Holmes
County, Florida. This is on the route of the old Spanish Trail, and
it is quite possible that Lea's original material came from this part
of the river.
REMARKS.-There is no question that Quadrula wright Simpson
is identical with this species. In essence, it appears to be an adult
form with the purple nacre more or less restricted to the shell margin.
In younger specimens, such as the one which Lea described as U. cacao,
the entire inner surface of the shell may be purple.
This species is confined to the Choctawhatchee, Yellow, and Es-
cambia river systems. It is not a rare species, and it is found in the
large rivers as well as the small streams. It is a rather uniform species,
showing but little variation, other than size, from one locality to
another.
RANGE.-The species occurs from the Choctawhatchee river system
west to the Escambia river system.


SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-






152 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: East Fork, Choctawhatchee River,
8 mi. W Abbeville, Henry Co. East Fork, Choctawhatchee River, 9 mi. N
Pinckard; West Fork, Choctawhatchee River, near Blackman's Mill; West Fork,
Choctawhatchee River, 7 mi. E Ozark; Claybank Creek; Choctawhatchee River,
near Newton; all Dale Co. Choctawhatchee River, 2 mi. E Geneva, and near
Gilleys Mill Creek; both Geneva Co. Florida: Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W
Caryville, Washington Co. Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W Miller Cross Roads,
Holmes Co. Choctawhatchee River, Cowford Bridge; Bruce Creek; both Walton
Co.
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Pea River near Elamville, and near Burke's
Place; both Barbour Co. Pea River, 8 mi. NW Ariton, Dale Co. Pea River,
Flemings Mill, Coffee Co. Pea River, 2' mi. SW Geneva, Geneva Co.
YELLOW RIVER SYSTEM
YELLOW RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Hollis Creek, near Sanford, Covington Co.
Florida: Yellow River, Milligan, Okaloosa Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Patsaliga Creek, 1 mi. W Luverne;
Conecuh River, near Searight, and near Brantley; all Crenshaw Co. Murder
Creek, near Evergreen, Conecuh Co. Patsaliga Creek; Conecuh River, near
Dunn's Crossing; both Covington Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Escambia River near Pollard; Escambia
River near Flomaton; both Escambia Co. Florida: Escambia River, 3 mi. SE
Century, Escambia Co.

Fusconaia escambia new species
Plate 7 Figure 3-4

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small to medium in size, reaching 46 mm.
(about 1% inches) in length, subcircular in outline, heavy in struc-
ture, smooth, and inflated. Color reddish brown when young, be-
coming a dark blackish brown in older specimens. Posterior slope
slightly concave with a well defined posterior ridge. Shell pointed
posteriorly, forming an angle of a little over 90'. Umbos slightly
anterior to the center, broad, full, and high. Ligament short and
narrow. Periostracum smooth on the upper part of the disc, slightly
roughened on the posterior slope and along the ventral margin.
Nacre white (rare) to a deep salmon and highly iridescent pos-
teriorly. Both anterior and posterior muscle scars are clearly out-
lined. Hinge plate broad and strongly arcuate. Right valve with one
large crenulated pseudocardinal tooth. Left valve with two sub-
equal crenulated teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
46 38 22 Holotype
45 35 19 Paratype
41.5 36.5 21.5 Paratype





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 153

TYPEs.-The holotype is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(191470) and is from the Escambia River, 3 miles southeast of Century,
Escambia County, Florida. Paratypes from the same locality are in
the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the University of Florida
Collections.
REMARKS.-This species, though somewhat similar to Fusconaia
succissa Lea, is quite a distinct species and differs in several characters.
Fusconaia escambia has a well defined posterior ridge and a pointed
posterior margin. In F. succissa the posterior ridge is absent or very
poorly defined, and posteriorly the valves are rounded rather than
strongly angulate. In addition, the umbos of F. escambia are much
higher, and the nacre of this new species is a deep salmon in color;
very different from the purple coloration of F. succissa.
RANGE.-Known only from the type locality.

Genus Quincuncina Ortmann

Quincuncina Ortmann (1922, Nautilus, 36: 1).
Type species, Quincuncina burkei Walker, original designation.

Shells rather small, subcircular to subelliptical in outline, rather
solid, and usually dark colored. The nacre is bluish white. Hinge plate
narrow, but supporting well-developed pseudocardinal teeth. Disc and
posterior slope usually well sculptured with chevron-shaped or short
irregular ridges. All four gills are used as marsupia.
This genus occurs in the Choctawhatchee River east to the Su-
wannee River. Its relationships are nearest to Fusconaia, a genus of
wide distribution in central and southern North America.

Quincuncina infucata Conrad
Plate 4 Figure 6

Unio infucatus Conrad (1834: 45, pl. 3, fig. 2), Flint River, Georgia.
Union securiformis Conrad (1849, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4: 300), Flint River,
Georgia. Conrad (1849, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. (n.s.), 1: 275, pl. 37, fig. 1).
Unio kleinianus Lea (1852, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 5: 251), Suwannee River, Florida.
Lea, 1852 (5: 21, pl. 17, fig. 18).
Quadrula infucata Conrad. Simpson (1914: 864).
Quincuncina infucata Conrad. Ortmann (1922, Nautilus, 36: 3).

DESCRIPTION.-Shells small, reaching about 50 mm. (about 2 inches)
in length, solid in structure, subcircular in outline, and inflated. Color
variable, ranging from brown or greenish brown to almost jet black,
the majority of specimens being a dark blackish brown. Posterior






154 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

slope flat to slightly concave; the posterior ridge poorly defined. Shell
tapering to a blunt and rounded point posteriorly. Umbos anterior
to the center, broad and low. Ligament rather short and thick.
Periostracum smooth on the disc, slightly roughened on the posterior
slope. Most of the surface of the disc is sculptured with small chevron-
shaped subnodulose ridges. The posterior slope has somewhat stronger
arcuate ridges. The surface on some shells, however, is only faintly
sculptured, or is entirely smooth.
Nacre generally bluish white and iridescent posteriorly. Anterior
and posterior muscle scars clearly outlined. Hinge plate wide and
rather thick. There are two pseudocardinal teeth in each valve.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
50 39 28 Ochlockonee River, 7 mi. S Cairo, Grady Co.,
Georgia
48 40 30.5 Flint River, Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia
48 35 24 Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Muscogee
Co., Georgia

TYPES.-The location of the types of Q. infucata Conrad and Q.
securiformis Conrad is unknown to us. The type locality is the Flint
River, Georgia. We here limit the type locality to the Flint River,
Albany, Dougherty County, Georgia, as it was probably at this place
that Conrad obtained the material. The type of Q. kleiniana Lea is in
the United States National Museum and is from the Suwannee River,
Florida.
REMARKS.-This is a rather rare and highly variable species. The
shells may be smooth to highly sculptured with chevron-shaped sub-
nodulose ridges. Completely smooth shells are rare. Conrad's infucata,
as listed above, was based on a smooth specimen; his securiformis was
a slightly sculptured one.
This species occurs mainly in the deeper portions of the rivers,
generally under trash, and it is seldom located by the siphonal
openings.
Individuals of this species from the Flint, Apalachicola, and Chipola
Rivers are relatively smooth, having the sculpture limited to the upper
part of the disc. Elsewhere throughout the range of the species the
shells are rather heavily sculptured.
RANGE.-From the Suwannee River, the range extends west to the
Apalachicola river system.


SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 155

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Withlacoochee River, Blue Spring,
Madison Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Suwannee River, Ellaville, Madison Co.
Santa Fe River, Worthington Springs, Union Co. Suwannee River, Oldtown,
Dixie Co.

OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Ochlockonee River, 7 mi. S Cairo; Och-
lockonee River, between Reno and Beachton; both Grady Co. Florida: Ochlock-
onee River, 1 mi. below Jackson Bluff; Ochlockonee River, 11 mi. NW Talla-
hassee; Ochlockonee River, about 8 mi. W Tallahassee; all Leon Co. Little River,
32 mi. E Quincy, Gadsden Co. Ochlockonee River, 7'% mi. E Hosford, Liberty Co.

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Little Patsiliga Creek, near Butler; Patsiliga
Creek; both Taylor Co. Flint River, 8 mi. W Cordele, Crisp Co. Mill Creek, 8
mi. S Oakfield, Worth Co. Flint River, Albany; Flint River, River Bend, 8 mi.
S Albany; both Dougherty Co. Flint River, Bainbridge; Flint River, Recovery;
both Decatur Co. Spring Creek, Reynoldsville, Seminole Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, Cobb Co.
Chattahoochee River, West Point, Troup Co. Mulberry Creek, Mitchell Bridge,
3 mi. SSE Mountain Hill, Harris Co. Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Muscogee
Co. Alabama: Cowikee Creek, 6 mi. N Eufaula, Barbour Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee;
Mosquito Creek, %/ mi. E Chattahoochee; both Gadsden Co. Apalachicola River,
Blountstown, Calhoun Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; Reedy Creek, 6
mi. W Malone; Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna; all Jackson Co. Chipola River,
2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River,
Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.


Quincuncina burkei Walker
Plate 4 Figure 5

Quincuncina burkei Walker (1922, Nautilus, 36: 3, pl. 1, figs. 1, 4), Sikes Creek,
tributary of the Choctawhatchee River, Barbour Co., Alabama.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small, reaching 60 mm. (about 21 inches) in
length, subelliptical in outline, inflated, and strong. Color brownish
yellow to a dark brownish black. Posterior slope slightly concave;
the posterior ridge usually well defined. Shell tapering to a blunt
point posteriorly. Umbos are well anterior to the center, broad, though
not high and full. Ligament short and small. Periostracum smooth
and shining on the disc, somewhat roughened on the posterior slope
and near the ventral margin. Sculpture consists of small chevron-
shaped ridges over most of the disc in young specimens. In older speci-
mens the sculpture is confined to the upper part of the disc, while






156 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

on the posterior slope these ridges become parallel. A few specimens
are smooth on the disc, but there always appears to be a few ridges
on the upper posterior slope.
Nacre bluish white. Anterior muscle scars well defined. Posterior
muscle scars only slightly impressed. Hinge plate small. Right valve
with one moderately large pseudocardinal tooth; left valve with two.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
59 33 26 Holmes Creek, 1 mi. W Graceville, Jackson
Co., Florida
58 32.5 20 Beaver Creek, near Taylor, Houston Co.,
Alabama
51 32 22.5 Panther Creek, Pinckard, Houston Co., Ala-
bama

TYpES.-The holotype of this species is in the Museum of Zoology,
University of Michigan (originally in the Walker Collection as 41626).
The type locality is Sikes Creek, a tributary of the Choctawhatchee
River, Barbour County, Alabama.
REMARKs.-This species is not closely related to infucata of the
Apalachicola river system. It differs from infucata by being far more
attenuate and in having a more pronounced posterior ridge. It is
interesting to note that in both these species there is a great deal of
variation in the intensity and extent of sculpture.
Members of this species should not be confused with those of the
genus, Medionidus which they resemble.

RANGE.-This species is restricted to the Choctawhatchee river
system.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W
Abbeville, Henry Co. Choctawhatchee River, Newton, Dale Co. Little Chocta-
whatchee River, near Dothan, Houston Co. Little Choctawhatchee River,
5 mi. S Pinckard; Panther Creek near Pinckard; both Dale Co. Beaver Creek,
near Taylor; Bear Creek, near Taylor; both Houston Co. Florida: Chocta-
whatchee River, 8 mi. W Miller Cross Roads; Holmes Creek, 3 mi. E Bonifay;
both Holmes Co. Holmes Creek, 1 mi. W Graceville, Jackson Co.

Genus Crenodonta Schltiter

Amblema Rafinesque (1820, Annales G&ndrales des Sciences Physiques (Bruxelles),
5: 314). Type species, Amblema costata Rafinesque, subsequent designation,
Walker, 1918. Non Amblema Rafinesque, 1819.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 157

Crenodonta Schliiter (1838, Kurzgefasstes systematisches Verzeichniss Meiner Con-
chyliensammlung (Halle), p. 33).
Type species, Unio plicatus Say, subsequent designation, Simpson, 1900.

In 1819 Rafinesque (Journal des Physiques de Chimie d'Histoire
Naturelle (Paris), 88: 427) instituted the genus Amblema with a brief
description and with A. ovalis as the type, it being the only species
mentioned. This species is completely unknown, and the brief and
poor generic description is quite inadequate as a diagnosis. In 1820,
as noted in the synonymy above, Rafinesque again used this name
with a generic definition. His second use was, of course, a homonym,
and as such was invalid. Unfortunately, other workers in this family
have overlooked or ignored the earlier use of Amblema. In 1838
Schliiter instituted the name Crenodonta and gave as his first species
Unio plicatus Say, and this was subsequently designated as the type
species of Crenodonta by Simpson in 1900.
The shells are subquadrate to subtrapezoidal in outline, thick,
and with the umbos somewhat elevated. Sculpture generally consists
of large diagonal plicae. Umbonal sculpture consists of coarse, double-
looped corrugations which extend over the upper part of the disc.
Periostracum dark brown to nearly black. Pseudocardinal teeth rela-
tively large and ragged; lateral teeth long and well developed. Nacre
generally white. Marsupia occupying all four gills.
This genus is widely distributed from the Ochlockonee River west
to the Mississippi system and north to the upper St. Lawrence system.

Crenodonta boykiniana Lea
Plate 9 Figure 3

Union boykinianus Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 288), Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1842 (3: 46, pl. 13, fig. 22).
Quadrula boykiniana Lea. Simpson (1914: 824).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell large, reaching 168 mm. (about 6% inches)
in length, subquadrate in outline, solid in structure, and moderately
inflated. Color olivaceous green in young specimens to blackish brown
in adults. Posterior slope slightly concave with the posterior ridge ab-
sent or only poorly defined. Young shells are generally winged on the
dorsal margin of the posterior slope. As the shell becomes adult, the
wing becomes less pronounced. The shell tapers to a blunt point
posteriorly and is rounded anteriorly. Umbos are anterior to the center,
fairly broad, and not full. Ligament long and wide. Periostracum






158 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

shiny in young specimens, satiny in older specimens. Sculpture
covers almost the entire surface of the shell. In the umbonal area
of young specimens there are numerous, rather high, chevron-shaped
ridges, which are irregular and generally connected to one another.
Below the umbos the ridges become more pronounced, subradial in
alignment, and curved upward over the posterior slope. Specimens
occurring in slow-flowing streams have three to five larger ridges ex-
tending from the umbo to the posterior end.
Nacre bluish white and moderately iridescent over most of the
inner surface. Anterior and posterior muscle scars well defined. Hinge
plate broad. Right valve with two pseudocardinal teeth-one large
and corrugated, the other small and laminated. Left valve with two
pseudocardinal teeth-one narrow and bladelike, the other broad and
deeply furrowed.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
168 118 54 Chattahoochee River, West Point, Troup Co.,
Georgia
153 100 64 Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park, Cal-
houn Co., Florida
93 71 39 Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia
Co., Florida

TYPES.-The holotype of C. boykiniana Lea is in the United States
National Museum and is from the Chattahoochee River at Columbus,
Georgia. Idiotypes are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(141087) and are from the same locality.
REMARKS.-This is the largest freshwater mussel in this area. It is
found mainly in the larger rivers and in areas where there is a sandy-
mud bottom.
Its relationships appear to be close to C. perplicata Conrad of
the Coosa river system and to C. gigantea Barnes of the Ohio river
system. It is variable in several characters. In areas of sluggish rivers,
specimens become much stouter, a little more elongate, and develop
heavier ridges.
Crenodonta boykiniana is trapezoid or subquadrate in outline,
while perplicata Conrad appears more circular in outline. The
sculpturing is more complex and irregular in young specimens of
C. boykiniana.
RANGE.-From the Ochlockonee River the species occurs west to
the Escambia River, however, we have seen no specimens from the
Choctawhatchee River.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-





FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 159

OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Ochlockonee River, Jacksons Bluff;
Ochlockonee River, 8 mi. W Tallahassee; both Leon Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.--Georgia: Flint River, Albany; Flint River, 8 mi. S
Albany; both Dougherty Co. Flint River, Bainbridge; Flint River, Recovery; both
Decatur Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, West Point,
Troup Co. Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Muscogee Co. Chattahoochee
River, Georgetown, Quitman Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.--Florida: Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee,
Gadsden Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park,
Calhoun Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Sepulga River, Conecuh Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia
Co.

Crenodonta neisleri Lea
Plate 2 Figure 1

Unio neislerii Lea (1858, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 2: 165), Flint River at Lanier,
Georgia.9 Lea, 1859 (7: 30, pl. 26, fig. 93).
Quadrula neislerii Lea. Simpson (1914: 829).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell medium in size, reaching 84 mm. (about 31/4
inches) in length, subquadrate in outline, solid in structure, strongly
sculptured, and moderately inflated. Color a dark brownish black.
Posterior slope slightly concave with the posterior ridge poorly de-
fined. Shell rounded both posteriorly and anteriorly. Umbos well
anterior to the center, broad, but not full. Ligament moderately long
and somewhat thickened. Periostracum somewhat shiny and satiny.
Sculpture usually covers the entire shell. The umbo with small chevron-
shaped ridges which merge into heavy, nearly parallel ridges extending
posteriorly.
Nacre bluish white and usually highly iridescent posteriorly. An-
terior and posterior muscle scars well defined. Right valve with one
large corrugated, and one small laminated, pseudocardinal tooth. Left

9Lanier does not appear on modern maps. It was a small town, perhaps a logging
camp, situated near the Flint River, about 10 miles north of Oglethorpe, Macon
County, Georgia. It is not to be confused with a town of the same name on modern
maps which is in Bryan County, some 35 miles west of Savannah, Georgia.
Lea, in his Observations (op. cit.), refers to another locality as Macon, Georgia.
This is an error for Macon County, Georgia, and we have two paratypes so labeled;
probably all specimens came from a single source.






160 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

valve with two subequal pseudocardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
84 57 46.5 Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park, Cal-
houn Co., Florida
69 52 33 Flint River, Macon Co., Georgia
62.5 49 35.5 Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee, Gadsden
Co., Florida

TYPEs.-Holotype in the United States National Museum from
the Flint River at Lanier, [10 miles north of Oglethorpe], Macon
County, Georgia. Paratypes in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(189796) are from the same locality and were received from Dr. Neis-
ler.
REMARKS.-This is a rather rare species, though it can be locally
abundant. It differs rather sharply from C. boykiniana Lea; specimens
of the same size differ in that the ridges in neisleri are parallel, while
those in boykiniana are radiating. In addition, the shape of boykiniana
is affected materially by the presence of a "wing," while in neisleri the
posterior end is rounded. It is quite possible that this species is now
extinct in the upper reaches of the Flint River. To our knowledge it
has not been obtained on the lower Flint River north of Bainbridge,
Decatur County, since the latter part of the last century.
Crenodonta neisleri was amazingly abundant in Dead Lake, on
the lower Chipola River. It appeared to be the most dominant species
at the station where we collected. Ten to fifteen specimens occurred
in every square meter, for a length of 200 meters, along the lake
shore that we surveyed. Like most "rare" species they can be locally
abundant. Elsewhere we found this species to be rare.
RANGE.-This species is limited to the Apalachicola River system.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Flint River, Macon Co. Flint River, Recovery,
Decatur Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee,
Gadsden Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake,
Chipola River, Chipola Park: both Calhoun Co.

Genus Pleurobema Rafinesque

Pleurobema Rafinesque (1820, Annales G6nerales des Sciences Physiques (Bruxelles)
5: 313).






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 161

Type species, Pleurobema cuneata Rafinesque (-U. clava Lamarck). Subsequent
designation, Simpson, 1900-so far as we can trace.

Shell solid, triangular, rhomboid or subelliptical in outline, and
usually with a prominent umbonal region. Umbos usually well an-
terior to the center, incurved, and pointed forward. Umbo sculpture
consists of a few irregular, and often broken ridges, concentrically ar-
ranged, and occasionally in a semiradial pattern. Posterior ridge
usually poorly defined, usually low and rounded. Periostracum light
brown to nearly black, shiny to dull, and occasionally rayed or with
broken rays. Hinge plate strong, usually narrow, and generally arcuate.
Marsupium occupies the entire outer gills.


Pleurobema strodeanum B. H. Wright
Plate 8 Figure 4

Unio strodeanus B. H. Wright (1898, Nautilus, 12: 5), Escambia River, West Florida.
Pleurobema strodeana B. H. Wright, Simpson (1900a: 81, pl. 1, fig. 3). Simpson
(1914: 787).
Pleurobema patsaligensis Simpson (1900a: 82, pl. 2, fig. 1), Little Patsaliga Creek,
[Crenshaw Co.], southeastern Alabama. Simpson (1914: 788).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small in size, reaching about 58 mm. (about
21' inches) in length, rather thin, subelliptical in outline, smooth, and
not inflated. Color dark olivaceous brown to blackish brown and
occasionally weakly rayed. Posterior slope faintly concave, with the
posterior ridge generally poorly defined. Shell tapers to a blunt point
posteriorly. Umbos anterior to the center, broad, but not high or full.
Ligament short and narrow. Periostracum shiny to somewhat satiny.
Sculpture limited to one or more threadlike ridges on the posterior
slope, paralleling the posterior ridge.
Nacre bluish white and highly iridescent posteriorly. Both the
anterior and posterior muscle scars clearly outlined. Hinge plate
long and narrow. Right valve with one large and irregular pseudo-
cardinal tooth. Left valve with two subequal and irregular pseudo-
cardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
58 37.5 22.5 Sandy Creek, Evergreen, Conecuh Co., Ala-
bama
57 33 20.5 Panther Creek, near Pinckard, Dale Co.,
Alabama
44 29 17.5 Patsaliga Creek, Crenshaw Co., Alabama







162 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

TYPEs.-The holotype of Pleurobema strodeanum B. H. Wright
from the Escambia River, Florida; and the holotype of Pleurobema pat-
saligensis Simpson from Little Patsaliga Creek, Alabama; are in the
United States National Museum. In the Museum of Comparative
Zoology there are paratypes of P. patsaligensis (20179, 210276) and P.
strodeanum (210277).

REMARKS.-This species is somewhat spotty in its occurrence. It may
be locally abundant, while in other apparently similar areas it is
rare. It is found in small streams as well as large rivers. See also
remarks under P. pyriforme Lea.

RANGE.-This species is confined to the Choctawhatchee and Es-
cambia Rivers of western Florida and southern Alabama.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.--Alabama: East Fork, Choctawhatchee River,
8 mi. W Abbeville, Henry Co. Sikes Creek, Barbour Co. Little Choctawhatchee
River, near Dothan, Houston Co. Choctawhatchee River, near Newton; Little
Choctawhatchee River, 5 mi. S Pinckard; Little Choctawhatchee River, near
Wicksburg; Panther Creek, near Pinckard; all Dale Co. Choctawhatchee River,
2 mi. E Geneva, Geneva Co. Florida: Hurricane Creek, 5 mi. E Miller Cross
Roads; Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W Miller Cross Roads; both Holmes Co.
Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi. W Caryville, Washington Co.
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Pea River, Flemings Mill, Coffee Co. Pea River,
1/2 mi. SW Geneva, Geneva Co.
YELLOW RIVER SYSTEM
YELLOW RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Yellow River, Harmony, Covington Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Little Patsaliga Creek, Crenshaw Co. Sandy
Creek, Evergreen; Murder Creek, near Evergreen; both Conecuh Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia
Co.

Pleurobema pyriforme Lea
Plate 8 Figure 6

Unio striatus Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 287), Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1842 (3: 41, pl. 12, fig. 16). Non U. striatus Goldfuss,
1837.
Unio pyriforme Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 31), near Columbus,
Georgia. Lea, 1858 (6: 69, pl. 12, fig. 50).
Unio modicus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 171), Chattahoochee River,
near Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1860 (7: 22, pl. 24, fig. 86).
Unio bulbosus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 172), Flint River near
Macon, Georgia [this is very probably the Flint River, Macon Co., Georgia.







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 163

The city of Macon is on the Ocmulgee River, a major tributary of the Altamaha
River]. Lea, 1859 (7: 9, pl. 21, fig. 75).
Unio anabilis Lea (1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.. Phila., 9: 89), Butler, Taylor Co.,
Georgia. Lea, 1869 (12: 17, pl. 31, fig. 72).
Unio reclusum B. H. Wright (1898, Nautilus, 11: 111) Ocklocknee [Ochlockonee]
River, Leon Co., Florida.
Pleurobema reclusa B. H. Wright, Simpson (1900a: 82, pl. 1, fig. 2). Simpson (1914:
783).
Unio harper B. H. Wright (1899, Nautilus, 13: 6), Altamaha, Suwannee, and Flint
Rivers.
Pleurobema harper B. H. Wright. Simpson (1900a: 81, pl. 1, fig. 10). Simpson
(1914: 782).
Pleurobema simpsoni Vanatta (1915, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 67: 559); [new
name for U. striatus Lea, 1840; non Rafinesque, 1820; non Goldfuss, 1837].


DESCRIPTION.-Shell small, reaching about 56 mm. (about 214
inches) in length, moderately thick, subovate in outline, smooth, and
inflated. Color variable, ranging from a yellowish brown to dark
brown and sometimes almost black. Occasional specimens, particularly
young, are faintly rayed. Posterior slope slightly concave with the
posterior ridge poorly defined. Shell tapers to a blunt point posteriorly.
Umbos well anterior to the center, broad though not high, but rather
full. Ligament short and fairly wide. Periostracum smooth and shiny
over the entire shell, with occasional specimens dull or satiny on the
posterior slope. Sculpture consists of fine radial ridges at the um-
bonal region. This character is seldom seen as the umbonal area is
often badly corroded. Some specimens have one or more fine thread-
like ridges on the posterior slope, which run parallel to the posterior
ridge.

Nacre whitish to a dull salmon and highly iridescent at the posterior
end. Both anterior and posterior muscle scars clearly outlined. Hinge
plate narrow, long, and arched in the central region. Right valve with
one large, irregular pseudocardinal tooth. Left valve with two sub-
equal pseudocardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREAD H
mlm. mm. mm.
56 31.5 24 Ochlockonee River, 7 mi. S Cairo, Grady Co.,
Georgia
47.5 27 17.5 Mill Creek, 8 mi. S Oakfield, Worth Co.,
Georgia
42 25.5 17 Santa Fe River, Worthington Springs, Union
Co., Florida

TYPES.-The holotypes of Pleurobema pyriforme Lea and striatum






164 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Lea are in the United States National Museum. The type locality is
the Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Georgia. The types of the
synonyms of Lea and Wright enumerated above are also in the United
States National Museum. The type localities are given in the synony-
my. The Museum of Comparative Zoology has paratypes of Pleuro-
bema reclusum Wright and P. harper Wright.

REMARKS.-This is a variable species, particularly so far as the color
of the periostracum is concerned-a variable character which appears
to have no geographic pattern. This species is relatively rare and is
perhaps only locally abundant.
Berlin H. Wright was in error in recording this species [under
harper] from the Altamaha River, Liberty County, Georgia. No
member of this genus is known to occur in the Altamaha river system,
and probably none occurs in the entire Atlantic drainage area.
This species differs from P. strodeanurn Wright of the Escambia
and Choctawhatchee Rivers by having a heavier shell, being more
sharply pointed posteriorly, and by being far more inflated. Pleuro-
bema strodeanum has a more elliptical to subcircular outline than
pyriforme, which is subovate. In color strodeanum is a more uniform
dark brownish black, while pyriforme ranges from a light golden
brown to dark brownish black.

RANGE.-From the Suwannee River the species ranges west to the
Apalachicola river system.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Santa Fe River, Worthington Springs,
Union Co.
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Ochlockonee River, between Reno and
Beachton; Ochlockonee River, 7 mi. S Cairo; both Grady Co. Florida: Ochlocko-
nee River, 11 mi. NW Tallahassee, Leon Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.- Georgia: Patsiliga Creek and Little Patsiliga Creek; both
Taylor Co. Stream 6 mi. N Vienna, Dooly Co. Gum Creek, 2 mi. N Cordele;
Cedar Creek, Cordele; Cedar Creek, 6 mi. SW Cordele; Swift Creek, 12 mi. SW
Cordele; all Crisp Co. Lee Creek, Chokee, Lee Co. Jones Creek, 2 mi. S Oak-
field; Abrams Creek, 5 mi. S Oakfield; Mill Creek, 8 mi. S Oakfield; all Worth
Co. Flint River, Albany, Dougherty Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Columbus, Muscogee Co. Sawhat-
chee Creek, 4 mi. NW Donalsonville, Seminole Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Cowarts Creek, near Cowarts, Houston Co.
Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone, Jackson Co. Chipola River, Scotts Ferry;
Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park; both Calhoun Co.







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 165

Genus Elliptio Rafinesque

Elliptio Rafinesque (1819, Journal de Physique et de Chimie d'Histoire Naturelle
(Paris), 88: 426) [nomen nudum]. Rafinesque (1820, Annales G6enrales des
Sciences Physiques (Bruxelles), 5: 291). Simpson (1900b: 700).
Type species, Unio nigra Rafinesque (=Unio crassidens Lamarck), subsequent
designation, Simpson, 1900.

Shell inequilateral, ovate to elongate in outline, rounded an-
teriorly, bluntly pointed or biangulate posteriorly, and generally ar-
cuate when fully adult. Umbos usually broad, but not high. Shell
moderately compressed, seldom inflated, and with few exceptions the
shell is not heavy. Sculpture moderate, and when present it is generally
restricted to the posterior slope. A few exceptions occur, such as in
Elliptio sloatianus Lea and E. spinosus Lea, which have strong sculp-
ture on the disc. Periostracum generally dark in color, and usually
rough along the ventral margin and on the posterior slope; it may
be either rough or smooth on the disc. Hinge plate generally long
and narrow, with two pseudocardinal teeth and two lateral teeth in the
left valve; one pseudocardinal tooth and one lateral tooth in the right
valve. Marsupia occupy the entire length of the outer gills. They
form thick smooth pads when filled with glochidia.
This genus is probably more confused than any other in the
Unionidae of North America. The limits of distribution of the many
species are still unknown, and it is exceedingly difficult to assign
taxonomic limits to any one species. Most of the difficulty, besides
the lack of marked differential characters to separate the various species,
lies in the fact that they are able to live in environments which are
impossible for many other genera. They may exist under the most
adverse conditions, withstanding pollution, silting, and other seem-
ingly unfavorable conditions. The result is that local populations may
show marked differences in size, color, thickness, and shape of shell,
as a direct result of the environment. This, unfortunately, has led to
a large number of names which have been based upon these ecological
forms.

Elliptio strigosus Lea
Plate 8 Figure 2

Unio strigosus Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 287), Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1842 (3: 36, pl. 9, fig. 9 [a malformed specimen]).
Unio tortivus Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 287), Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1842 (3: 42, pl. 12, fig. 17).






166 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Unio accultus Lea (1843, Descriptions of twelve new species of Uniones, [no
pagination]), Black Creek and Lake Monroe, Florida. Lea 1846, Trans. Amer.
Philos. Soc., 9: 279, pl. 41, fig. 7). Lea, 1848 (4: 37, pl. 41, fig. 7).
Unio fraternus Lea (1852, [in part] Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 10: 263, pl. 16,
fig. 15), Chattahoochee River records only.
Unio nigellus Lea (1852, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 5: 251), Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1852 (5: 39, pl. 24, fig. 42).
Unio pullatis Lea (1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 262), creeks near Columbus,
Georgia.
Unio pullatus Lea, 1858 (6: 57, pl. 8, fig. 39), creeks near Columbus, Georgia.
Unio extensus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 31), Dry Creek, Columbus,
Georgia. Lea, 1858 (6: 67, pl. 12, fig. 49).
Unio sublatus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 169), Uchee Bar, below
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1858 (6: 82, pl. 16, fig. 62).
Unio tetricus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 170), Flint River, near
Albany, Georgia. Lea, 1859 (7: 13, pl. 22, fig. 78).
Unio fumatus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 171), Chattahoochee River,
near Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1858 (6: 88, pl. 18, fig. 68).
Unio purpurellus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 171), Flint River,
near Albany, Georgia. Lea, 1859 (7: 16, pl. 23, fig. 81).
Unio aquilus Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 172), Flint River, near
Macon [Co.], Georgia; and Chattahoochee River at Roswell, Georgia. Lea,
1858 (6: 92, pl. 20, fig. 2).
Unio postelli Lea (1858, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 165), Randall's Creek, near
Columbus, Georgia; and Carters Creek, Baldwin Co., Georgia. Lea, 1859 (7:
32, pl. 26, fig. 94); [in part-Columbus record only. The specimen from Carters
Creek, Baldwin Co., Georgia-Oconee drainage-was selected by Simpson to be
the lectotype (U.S. Nat. Mus. 85470), and this is not strigosus].
Unio viridans Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 170), near Columbus,
Georgia. Lea, 1862 (8: 19, pl. 54, fig. 162).
Unio viridiradiatus Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 154), Big Uchee River,
[Russell Co.], Alabama. Lea, 1862 (8: 18, pl. 53, fig. 161).
Unio merceri Lea (1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 14: 169), Lee Co., Georgia.
Lea, 1863 (9: 31, pl. 31, fig. 278).
Unio hallenbeckii Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 170), Flat Rock Creek
and Four Mile Creek, near Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1859 (8: 10, pl. 51, fig. 154).
Unio salebrosus Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 170), Flat Rock Creek,
near Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1859 (8: 14, pl. 52, fig. 157).
Unio verutus Lea (1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 171), Flat Rock Creek, near
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1859 (8: 17, pl. 53, fig. 160).
Unio basalis Lea (1872, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 161), Carter's Creek, near
Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1874 (13: 52, pl. 16, fig. 46).
Unio doolyensis Lea (1873, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 424), Flint River, Dooly
Co., Georgia. Lea, 1874 (13: 68, pl. 22, fig. 60).
Unio invanutus Lea (1873, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 424), Columbus, Georgia.
Lea, 1874 (13: 70, pl. 22, fig. 62).
Unio gesneri Lea (1873, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 424), Uchee River near
Columbus, Georgia [Russell Co., Alabama]. Lea, 1874 (13: 69, pl. 22, fig. 61).


DESCRIPTION.-Shell small to medium in size, reaching about 107






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 167

mm. (41% inches) in length. Moderately thick in shell structure,
smooth, subelliptical in outline, and not inflated. Color a dull to
shiny black, sometimes dark blackish brown or brown, or sometimes
greenish. Occasionally specimens occur that are rayed. Posterior
slope flat to faintly concave. Posterior ridge not well defined. Shell
tapers to a blunt point posteriorly. Umbos well anterior to the center,
broad, but not high or full. Ligament moderately long and narrow.
Periostracum usually smooth and shiny on the disc, but somewhat scaly
and dull on the ventral margin and over the posterior slope.
Nacre variable, generally purplish, but ranging through salmon
bronze to pink and whitish. Nacre generally iridescent on the posterior
third. Both anterior and posterior muscle scars clearly outlined;
hinge plate long and narrow. Right valve with one fairly large,
pointed, pseudocardinal tooth. Left valve with two, one large and
one small, pseudocardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
100 48 24.5 Mosquito Creek, Chattahoochee, Florida
107 50 30.5 Ditto
79 39 22.5 Flint River, Recovery, Decatur Co., Georgia
69 34 19 Sandy Creek, Evergreen, Conecuh Co., Ala-
bama

TYPEs.-The lectotype of Elliptio strigosus Lea is in the United
States National Museum (85890) and is from the Chattahoochee River,
Columbus, Georgia.
We have seen most, if not all, of the specimens regarded as types
of the various synonyms given above. These are all in the collection
of the United States National Museum. The type localities of the
various forms are given in the synonymy.
REMARKS.-This is the most abundant freshwater mussel in this
area. It may not be the most abundant species at any one station,
but it occurs rather frequently, and sometimes may be the only species
occurring at any single station. This is particularly true of stations
made on many of the small creeks. It is exceedingly variable in size,
shape, coloration, and in other characters. Much of this may be due
to a wide adaptive ability, the varied ecological conditions under
which this species may exist being expressed in the morphology of
the shell structure. Under favorable conditions this species produces
large individuals having rather heavy shells, clear white to pink
nacre, and smooth and shiny periostracum. In unfavorable ecological
places, the shells are small, somewhat irregular in shape, with dull






168 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

periostracum, and nacre clouded with "oil spots." These spots are circu-
lar or subcircular layers of olivaceous organic material secreted over
areas on the inner surface of the valves opposite corroded areas on
the outer surface of the shell.
The large synonomy given above attests the differences between
populations of this species. These differences represent only popula-
tions of ecological forms or simple selected examples. However, a
large geographical series indicates the impossibility of segregation of
any of these forms under separate names, even in the sense of a sub-
species.
We have held this species under the name strigosus Lea, the oldest
of the several names employed for examples named from type localities
in this region. It is possible that Elliptio arctatus Conrad, 1834,
described from specimens collected in the Black Warrior River of
Alabama (Coosa-Alabama drainage) may be the same species. Our
present collections are not rich enough from the Coosa-Alabama river
system to be sure, but it is a point to be considered in future studies
of this species. Consequently, under range we have been indefinite,
at least regarding strigosus distribution towards the west.
In a series of this species that we collected at Holmes Creek near
Graceville, Florida, many specimens were twisted either to the left
or right. We could not determine what factor or factors were re-
sponsible for this rather rare condition.
RANGE.-Probably from the Coosa-Alabama system east and south
into central Florida.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

WACCASASSA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Otter Creek, Otter Creek (town); Waccasassa River, 4 mi. NE Otter
Creek (town); both Levy Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
SANTA FE RIVER DRAINAGE.--Florida: Santa Fe River, Worthington Springs, Union
Co. Santa Fe River, N of Bland; Santa Fe River, Poe Springs; both Alachua Co.
Santa Fe River, Columbia Springs, Columbia Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Long Pond, Twin Lakes, Lowndes Co.
Florida: Suwannee River, Ellaville, Madison Co. Suwannee River, Oldtown, Dixie
Co.
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Withlacoochee River, Olympia,
Lowndes Co. Florida: Withlacoochee River, Blue Spring, Madison Co.
ECONFINA RIVER SYSTEMS
Florida: Econfina River, 15 mi. W Perry, Taylor Co. Moccasin Creek, Econfina,
Bay Co.
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Ochlockonee River, 7 mi. S Cairo;
Ochlockonee River, between Reno and Beachton; both Grady Co. Florida: Little







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 169

River, 3%A mi. E Quincy, Gadsden Co. Ochlockonee River, 11 mi. NW Talla-
hassee; Ochlockonee River, 8 mi. W Tallahassee; Lake Talquin, Ochlockonee
River; all Leon Co. Ochlockonee River, 71/ mi. E Hosford, Liberty Co.

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Line Creek, Coweta Co. Patsiliga Creek,
Taylor Co. North Fork, Pennhatchee Creek, 4 mi. NW Vienna, Dooly Co.
Gum Creek, 2 mi. N Cordele; Swift Creek, 12 mi. SW Cordele; Flint River, 10
mi. W Cordele; all Crisp Co. Lee's Creek, 5 mi. S DeSoto, Lee Co. East Fork,
Chickasawhatchee Creek, 5 mi. SE Dawson, Terrell Co. Jones Creek, 2 mi. S
Oakfield; Abrams Creek, 5 mi. S Oakfield; Mill Creek, 8 mi. S Oakfield; all
Worth Co. Flint River, Albany; Flint River, River Bend, 8 mi. S Albany; both
Dougherty Co. Cooleewahee Creek, Newton; Ichawaynochaway Creek, 10 mi.
SW Newton; both Baker Co. Spring Creek, at Colquitt, Miller Co. Spring
Creek, Reynoldsville, Seminole Co. Four Mile Creek, 3 mi. SE Bainbridge; Flint
River, Bainbridge; Flint River, Recovery; all Decatur Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Marietta, Cobb Co. Mulberry Creek,
Mitchell Bridge, 3 mi. SE Mountain Hill, Harris Co. Chattahoochee River,
Georgetown, Quitman Co. Sawhatchee Creek, 4 mi. NW Donalsonville, Seminole
Co. Alabama: Black Mud Creek; Uchee Creek, Fort Mitchell; both Russell Co.
Cowikee Creek, near Hawkinsville, Barbour Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Mosquito Creek, Chattahoochee, Gads-
den Co. Stream, 5 mi. N Blountstown, Calhoun Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.--Alabama: Cowart's Creek, near Cowart; Big Creek,
near Madrid; both Houston Co. Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; stream 11'
mi. N Campbellton; Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna; Spring Creek, 3 mi. E
Marianna; Chipola River, 3 mi. S Marianna; Chipola River, 12 mi. S Marianna;
Chipola River, Marianna Falls; Chipola River, Merritt's Bridge, Marianna;
all Jackson Co. Chipola River near Altha; Chipola River, 2/2 mi. SW Chason;
Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola River, Scotts Ferry; Chipola River,
near Pole Bluff Landing; Dead Lake, Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
HOLMES CREEK DRAINAGE.-Florida: Holmes Creek, 1 mi. W Graceville; Holmes
Creek, 3 mi. E Bonifay; both Holmes Co. Holmes Creek, Millers Ferry, Washing-
ton Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: East Fork, Choctawhatchee River,
8 mi. W Abbeville; Van's Mill Creek, near Abbeville; both Henry Co. Choctaw-
hatchee River, Newton; Bear Creek, 8 mi. S Pinckard; both Dale Co.
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Pea River, W of Elamville, Barbour Co. Pea
River, 8 mi. NW Ariton, Dale Co.

YELLOW RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Yellow River, Milligan, Okaloosa Co.

ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Conecuh River near Young Blood, Pike
Co. Patsaliga Creek, 13 mi. N Searight, Crenshaw Co. Sandy Creek, Evergreen;
Murder Creek near Evergreen; Hunters Creek, 8 mi. SW Evergreen; Burnt Corn
Creek, 2 mi. W Belleville; all Conecuh Co. Burnt Corn Creek, Escambia Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Escambia River, Flomaton, Escambia Co.
Florida: Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia Co.






170 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Elliptio mcmichaeli, new species
Plate 7 Figures 1-2

Elliptio fraternus of authors, in part. Non Lea, 1852.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell medium to fairly large in size, reaching 100
mm. (about 4 inches) in length, subelliptical in outline, rather thin
in structure, and not inflated. Color a dark brownish black, with
occasional young specimens being faintly rayed. Posterior slope
slightly concave with the posterior ridge fairly well defined. Shell
tapers to a blunt point posteriorly. Umbos well anterior of the center,
broad, but not high. Ligament rather long and narrow. Periostracum
smooth and somewhat shiny on the disc, slightly roughened along the
anterior margin and on the posterior slope. Sculpture variable, but
when present consists of a series of rather small arcuate ridges which
are confined to the region of the posterior slope. This sculpture can
be fairly strong on certain individuals and absent on others.
Nacre white to pale pink or salmon, and highly iridescent pos-
teriorly. Both anterior and posterior muscle scars well defined. Hinge
plate long and narrow. Right valve with one pseudocardinal tooth.
Left valve with one small and one large pseudocardinal tooth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
101 49 32 Choctawhatchee River, 8 mi. W Abbeville,
Henry Co., Alabama
92 50 25.5 Pea River, % mi. SW Geneva, Geneva Co.,
Alabama
88 51 26.5 Ditto
91 50 27 Holotype.

TYPES.-The holotype is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
(191922) and is from the Choctawhatchee River, 8 miles west of Miller
Cross Roads, Holmes County, Florida, on Florida State Route 2.
Paratypes are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology; University of
Florida Collections; United States National Museum; Academy of
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Museum of Zoology, University of
Michigan; and University Museum, University of Alabama.

REMARKS.-This species has been referred to E. fraternus Lea, we
think, erroneously. The type locality for fraternus is Abbeville, South
Carolina, in the Savannah river system. From all records available
to us, there appears to be nothing equivalent to fraternus in either
the Apalachicola or the Altamaha river systems. These are two vast






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 171

rivers systems between the Choctawhatchee and the Savannah river
systems.
Elliptio mcmichaeli is a variable species within fairly narrow limits.
It is related to the Elliptio fraternus complex by having similar sculp-
ture and shape. However, it differs by being larger and by having
occasional specimens show salmon coloration. It is also related to
E. incrassatus Lea, having a similar, though less pronounced, sculpture,
and in having occasional specimens show the salmon coloration. It
differs, however, in being much lighter in weight, in being propor-
tionately more elongate and much less inflated, than incrassatus. In
any large sample from the Choctawhatchee system, some extreme in-
dividuals are found along with the typical individuals. This may, at
least in part, answer the question as to why typical incrassatus does not
occur in the Choctawhatchee River, though it occurs on either side
in both the Escambia and the Apalachicola river systems. It is a
guess on our part that perhaps during some period in the history
of the Choctawhatchee river system incrassatus was present and
hybridized with some other Elliptio, perhaps of the fraternus type.
This hybridization is now reflected by the specimens representing the
extremes in the variation of this species.

RANGE.-This species is confined to the Choctawhatchee river sys-
tem.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: East Fork, Choctawhatchee River,
8 mi. W Abbeville, Henry Co. Choctawhatchee River, near Newton, Dale Co.
Choctawhatchee River, 2 mi. E Geneva, Geneva Co. Florida: Choctawhatchee
River, 8 mi. W Miller Cross Roads, Holmes Co. Choctawhatchee River, 1 mi.
W Caryville, Washington Co. Choctawhatchee River at Oakey Bend; South Oakey
Bend; Inlet Lake to Bushy Point; near mouth of Sandy Creek; 3 mi. E Red Bay;
at Cowford Ferry; 5 mi. SE Bruce; all Walton Co.
PEA RIVER DRAINAGE.--Alabama: Pea River near Elamville, Barbour Co. White-
water Creek, 7 mi. N Elba; Pea River, Flemmings Mill; both Coffee Co. Flat
Creek, 8 mi. SW Samson; Pea River, /2 mi. SW Geneva; both Geneva Co.

Elliptio crassidens incrassatus Lea
Plate 8 Figure 1

Unio incrassatus Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 286), Chattahoochee River,
near Columbus, Georgia. Lea (1840, Trans. Amer, Philos. Soc., 8: 271, pl. 16,
fig. 34). Lea, 1842 (3: 55, pl. 16, fig. 34).
Unio danielsii B. H. Wright (1899, Nautilus, 13: 31), Spring Creek, Decatur Co.,
Georgia.






172 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

DESCRIPTION.-Shell medium to fairly large in size, reaching 100
mm. (about 4 inches) in length, subelliptical to subcircular in out-
line, solid in structure, heavy, and somewhat inflated. Color dark
greenish brown to almost black with occasional specimens, particularly
young, showing a few greenish rays. Posterior stope slightly concave,
the posterior ridge usually well defined. Shell tapers to a blunt point
posteriorly. Umbos anterior to the center, broad, and moderately high.
Ligament rather long and thick. Periostracum smooth and shiny on
the disc though somewhat satiny along the anterior margin and rough-
ened on the posterior slope with numerous, irregular, somewhat curved
ridges. The sculpture on the posterior slope is variable, some speci-
mens lack this feature almost entirely.
Nacre salmon pink to somewhat purplish in color and highly
iridescent posteriorly. Both anterior and posterior muscle scars are
clearly outlined. Hinge plate long. Right valve with one large and
one small pseudocardinal tooth. Left valve with two subequal pseudo-
cardinal teeth.

LENGTH HIK(;HT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
100 62 40 Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia
Co., Florida
79 54 35 Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park, Cal-
houn Co., Florida
84 49 30.5 Flint River, 8 ni. S Albany, Dougherty Co.,
Georgia

TYPES.-The holotypes of E. incrassatus Lea and E. danielsii B. H.
Wright are in the United States National Museum. The type locality
for E. incrassatus Lea is the Chattahoochee River, Columbus, Georgia;
and for E. danielsii B. H. Wright it is Spring Creek, Decatur Co.,
Georgia.
REMARKS.-The measurements given above are for specimens col-
lected in the area covered by this report, those coming from the Coosa
river system may be 10 to 20 mm. longer.
This is a variable species; there is a considerable range in the
length-height ratio, and, in addition, the female specimens are pro-
portionately shorter and broader than the male. The shells can be-
come greatly thickened-one valve measures 10 mm. in thickness just
below the umbo. This particular specimen is from the Escambia River.
This species seems to be entirely absent in the Choctawhatchee
River, though it is common in both the Escambia and the Apalachi-
cola systems. It is also widely distributed in the Alabama-Coosa system.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 173

We agree with Simpson (1914: 608) that incrassatus is only a sub-
species of the widely distributed E. crassidens Lamarck.
Typical crassidens has a much larger, heavier shell, lacks the
sculpture on the posterior slope, and has the posterior ridge much
less pronounced than in incrassatus. Though the two extremes are
distinct, there are all degrees of intergradation between the two forms.
RANGE.-Apalachicola river system west to the Amite River, Louisi-
ana, but absent in the Choctawhatchee River.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Ichawaynochaway Creek, 10 mi. SW Newton,
Baker Co. Flint River, 10 mi. W Cordele, Crisp Co. Flint River, Albany; Flint
River, 8 mi. S Albany; both Dougherty Co. Flint River, Bainbridge; Flint River,
Recovery; both Decatur Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER )KRAINACE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, Columbus;
Chattahoochee River, Fort Benning; both Muscogee Co. Alabama: Uchee Creek,
Fort Mitchell, Russell Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGEI.-Florida: Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee,
Gadsden Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone; Chipola River,
1 mi. N Marianna: both Jackson Co. Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola
River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Conecuh River near Brantley; Patsaliga
River, 13 mi. N Searight; Patsaliga Creek, near Searight; all Crenshaw Co.
Conecuh River, Bozeman's Landing, Covington Co. Sepulga River, near Herbert,
Conecuh Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Escambia River near Flomaton, Escambia
Co. Florida: Escambia River, 3 mi. SE Century, Escambia Co.

Elliptio sloatianus Lea
Plate 9 Figure 2

Unio sloatianus Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 287), Chattahoochee River,
Georgia. Lea, 1842 (3: 55, pl. 16, fig. 33). Simpson (1914: 604).
Unio atro-marginatus Lea (1840, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 288), Chattahoochee
River, Columbus, Georgia. Lea, 1842 (3: 45, pl. 13, fig. 21).
Unio plectrophorus Conrad (February 1849, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 4: 154), Flint
River, Georgia.
Unio aratus Conrad (October 1849, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (2), 4: 302), Flint
River, Georgia.
Unio plectophorus Conrad (1850, Jour. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1: 277, pl. 38, fig. 7) [cor-
rection for plectrophorus Conrad].

DESCRIPTION.-Shell large, reaching 149 mm. (about 6 inches) in
length, subrhomboidal in outline, solid in structure, and strongly





174 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

sculptured. Color dark blackish brown. Posterior slope slightly con-
cave with the posterior ridge moderately well defined. Shell tapers
to a blunt point posteriorly and is rounded anteriorly. Umbos an-
terior to the center, fairly broad, but not high or full. Ligament long
and thick. Periostracum shiny in young specimens, shiny to dull in
older specimens. Sculpture variable; on the posterior slope it consists of
a series of irregular ridges that are slightly arcuate; on the disc the rid-
ges are usually small, subradial in arrangement, and become weak or
absent near the ventral margin particularly on older specimens. Oc-
casionally young specimens may be devoid of sculpture on the disc.

Nacre a deep purple over most of the inner surface, a pale whitish
pink in the central disc area, and highly iridescent posteriorly. An-
terior and posterior muscle scars well defined. Right valve with one
large and one small corrugated pseudocardinal tooth. Left valve with
two subequal pseudocardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
149 94 57 Dead Lake, Chipola River, Calhoun Co.,
Florida
140 90 50.5 Flint River, Baker Co., Georgia
137 75 39.5 Flint River, Bainbridge, Decatur Co., Georgia

TYPEs.-The holotype of E. sloatianus Lea is in the United States
National Museum. The type locality is the Chattahoochee River,
Georgia. We here limit the type locality to Columbus, Georgia. The
holotype of atromarginatus Lea is also in the United States National
Museum. Cotypes of E. plectophorus Conrad from the Flint River,
Georgia, are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (28339 and
178840).

REMARKS.-Conrad published the same paper in two different
journals as indicated above under plectrophorus and aratus. The only
change was to substitute the name aratus for plectrophorus, the de-
scriptions being almost identical.
This is a relatively rare species and is apparently confined to larger
rivers and streams. It is the most highly sculptured species in the
genus Elliptio, and in this regard it approximates somewhat Creno-
donta boykiniana Lea. It differs from that species by being propor-
tionately longer, in having a purple rather than bluish-white nacre,
and in having subradial sculpture on the disc. In addition C. boykin-
iana has a rather pronounced wing.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 175

Frierson (1927: 33) created the subgenus Elliptoideus for this
species and stated that it differed from typical Elliptio by having the
marsupia developed in all four gills-only the outer gills are utilized
as marsupia in typical Elliptio.

RANGE.-The Ochlockonee and Apalachicola river systems.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Ochlockonee River, 7 mi. S Cairo;
Ochlockonee River between Reno and Beachton; both Grady Co. Florida:
Ochlockonee River, 11 mi. NW Tallahassee; Ochlockonee River, 8 mi. W Tal-
lahassee; both Leon Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINACE.-Georgia: Flint River, Baker Co. Flint River, Bain-
bridge; Flint River, Recovery; both Decatur Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Chattahoochee River, Columbus,
Muscogee Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee,
Gadsden Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park,
Calhoun Co.

Elliptio chipolaensis Walker
Plate 8 Figure 3

Unio chipolaensis Walker (1905, Nautilus, 18: 135, pl. 9, figs. 6-7), Chipola River,
Florida.

DESCRIPTION.-Shell small in size, reaching 78 mm. (about 3 inches)
in length, subelliptical in outline, moderately strong in structure, and
somewhat inflated. Color a dark chestnut brown to blackish brown,
the darker color appearing around the umbos. Occasionally there
are one to three dark concentric bands. Posterior slope slightly con-
cave with the posterior ridge poorly defined. Shell tapers to a rounded
point posteriorly; is rounded anteriorly. Umbos anterior to the center,
fairly brad, but not high or full. Ligament moderately short and
narrow. Periostracum fairly shiny on the disc, but usually dull and
satiny on the posterior slope.
Nacre salmon colored, the color being most intense in the central
area. Posteriorly the salmon color grades to bluish white and is iri-
descent. Posterior and anterior muscle scars well defined. Right valve
with one corrugated pseudocardinal tooth, and left valve with two
subequal corrugated pseudocardinal teeth.






176 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
78 41 29 Big Creek, 8 mi. W Malone, Jackson Co.,
Florida
64 36 25.5 Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park, Cal-
houn Co., Florida
64 35 23 Chipola River, 1 mi. N Marianna, Jackson Co.,
Florida

TYPES.-The holotype of U. chipolaensis Walker is in the Museum
of Zoology, University of Michigan. We here restrict the type locality
to the Chipola River, 1 mile north of Marianna, Jackson County,
Florida, a locality from which we have a good series.

REMARKS.-This is an endemic species in the Chipola River. It is
rather rare, though it does occur throughout most of the length of
the river proper and its the smaller tributaries. It appears to be a
distinct form and not particularly closely related to other species of
Elliptio in this system. It is distinguished by its chestnut brown ex-
terior and salmon colored interior.

RANGE.-Chipola River.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Reedy Creek, 6 mi. W Malone; Big Creek,
8 mi. W Malone; Chipola River, about 1 mi. N Marianna; all Jackson Co.
Chipola River, 2% mi. SE Chason; Chipola River, 2 mi. E Clarksville; Chipola
River, Scotts Ferry; Dead Lake, Chipola River, Chipola Park; all Calhoun Co.


Genus Uniomerus Conrad

Uniomerus Conrad (1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. 6: 268).
Type species, Unio excultus Conrad (-Unio tetralasmus Say).

We here select Unio excultus Conrad to be the type species for
this genus. The previous use of Unio tetralasmus Say for the type
was in error as this name was not included by Conrad among the
several that he listed as belonging to this genus.
The shells are trapezoidal in outline, usually inflated, and with the
umbos full, but not high. Periostracum usually satiny in appearance,
somewhat rough, and dark in color. Pseudocardinal teeth small;
lateral teeth delicate and curved. Only the outer gills serve as mar-
supia.






FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 177

Uniomerus obesus Lea
Plate 5 Figure 2

Unio obesus Lea (1831, Trans, Amer. Philos. Soc., 4: 96, pl. 13, fig. 26), York River,
Virginia. Lea, 1834 (1: 106, 118, pl. 13, fig. 26), locality corrected to Georgia.
Unio blandingianus Lea (1834, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 5: 101, pl. 15, fig. 44),
?St. Johns River, Florida. Lea, 1834 (1: 213, pl. 15, fig. 44).
Unio declivis Conrad (1836, Monography of the family Unionidae, p. 45, pl. 23,
fig. 1), Creek, Green Co., Alabama.
Unio paludicolus Gould (1845, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 2: 53), Florida Ever-
glades.
Unio ineptus Lea (1852, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 10: 261, pl. 15, fig. 12), Abbeville
District, South Carolina. Lea, 1852 (5: 17, pl. 15, fig. 12).
Unio hebes Lea (1852, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 10: 267, pl. 18, fig. 21), Oconee
River near Athens, Georgia. Lea, 1852 (5: 23, pl. 18, fig. 21).
Unio rivularis Conrad (1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 6: 257), [new name for
Unio declivis Conrad; non Say].
Unio columbensis Lea (1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 9: 31), creeks near Colum-
bus, Georgia. Lea, 1858 (6: 75, pl. 14, fig. 55).
Unio cicur Lea (1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 13: 39), Little Ocmulgee River,
Georgia. Lea, 1862 (8: 97, pl. 13, fig. 241).
Unio squalidus Lea (1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 192), Neuse River near
Raleigh; Roanoke River near Weldon and Deep River, North Carolina. Lea,
1867 (11: 26, pl. 7, fig. 20).
Unio bissellianus Lea (1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 81), Bissels Pond,
Charlotte, North Carolina. Lea, 1868 (12: 37, pl. 37, fig. 90).
Unio jewettii Lea (1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 81), sink of Noonan's
[Newnans] Lake, Gainesville, Florida. Lea, 1869 (12: 36, pl. 37, fig. 89).
Unio rivicolus Conrad (1868, Amer. Jour. Conchology, 4: 280, pl. 18, fig. 4), brook
near Tampa, Florida.
Unio pawensis Lea (1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 161), Paw Creek, Beaver
Co. and Catawba Run, North Carolina. Lea, 1869 (12: 62, pl. 45, fig. 114).

DESCRIPTION.-Shell medium to large in size, reaching 114 mm.
(about 4/2 inches) in length, rather solid in structure, smooth, sub-
elliptical to subquadrate in outline, and inflated. Color a uniform dark
brownish black. Posterior slope slightly concave and generally with
a fairly well-defined posterior ridge. Shell tapers to a rounded point
posteriorly. Umbos well anterior to the center, broad, and full but
not high. Ligament long and narrow. Periostracum slightly rough-
ened, but with a satiny sheen over most of the shell, occasionally
smooth and shiny over the umbonal area.
Nacre usually whitish, but sometimes approaching a purplish
bronze; iridescent posteriorly. Anterior muscle scars clearly marked;
posterior muscle scars poorly defined. Hinge plate long and narrow,







178 BULL. OF THE FLA. STATE MUSEUM, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

supporting strong lateral teeth. Right valve with a rather large,
triangular-shaped, pseudocardinal tooth. Left valve with two subequal,
but fairly large, pseudocardinal teeth.

LENGTH HEIGHT BREADTH
mm. mm. mm.
114 61 39 Ogeechee River, near Barton, Jefferson Co.,
Georgia
87 45 30 Miakka Lake, Sarasota Co., Florida
81 48 32.5 Columbus, Muscogee Co., Georgia

TYPES.-The holotype of U. obesus Lea, as well as all of the other
species of Lea listed in the synonymy above, are in the United States
National Museum. The original type locality, York River, Virginia,
was subsequently changed by Lea to Georgia, as noted in the synonymy
above. We here restrict the type locality to Columbus, Georgia, one of
the many localities given by Lea for his several synonyms. The type of
U. paludicolus Gould is in the New York State Museum.
REMARKS.--This species appears to be limited mainly to lakes
and to the smaller streams. Though widely distributed it is not
common at any one locality. So far as we can detect there are no real
differences between specimens from central and southern Florida,
and those from elsewhere in the range of the species.
In general appearance this species is fairly close to Elliptio strigo-
sus Lea, but is much more inflated. The nacre is usually whitish, and
never has the dark purplish bronze of strigosus. In addition, U.
obesus is proportionately higher and has a slightly roughened perio-
stracum with a high satiny sheen, while strigosus is smooth over the
entire shell.
RANGE.-This species extends from the Everglades of southern
Florida north to North Carolina, and west to the Escambia River.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-

EVERGLADES DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Florida: Paradise Key, Royal Palm Park, Everglades National Park, Dade Co.
Canals, West Palm Beach; 10 mi. W Jupiter; Loxahatchee Creek, 6 mi. W Jupiter;
all Palm Beach Co.
PEACE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Peace River, near Arcadia, DeSoto Co.
MIAKKA RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Miakka River; Lake Miakka; both Sarasota Co.
OKEECHOBEE DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Florida: Lake Tohopekaliga, Kissimmee, Oceola Co. Gum Free Slough near
Bassenger; Tyler Creek; both Okeechobee Co.







FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF ALABAMA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA 179

ST. JOHNS RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Canals between Deer Park and Melbourne; ditch near Lake Washington,
6 mi. W Eau Gallie; both Brevard Co. Canal from Lake Virginia to Lake Sue,
Winter Park, Orange Co. Econlockhatchee River near confluence with St. Johns
River, Seminole Co. Oklawaha River, Marion Co. Little Orange Creek, 3 mi.
E Hawthorne, Putnam Co. Hatchet Creek, NE Gainesville; Shands Canal, 3
mi. NE Micanopy; Prairie Creek, near Gainesville; Newnans Lake, near Gaines-
ville; all Alachua Co.
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Florida: Lake Tsla Apopka, Citrus Co.
SUWANNEE RIVER SYSTEM
Georgia: Withlacoochee River, about 5 mi. NW Valdosta, Lowndes Co. Florida:
Suwannee River, 6 mi. NE Ellaville, Suwannee Co.
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER SYSTEM
Georgia: Ochlockonee River, 7 mi. S Cairo, Grady Co. Attapulgus Creek, 2 mi.
NW Amsterdam, Decatur Co. Florida: Little River, 3' mi. E Quincy, Gadsden
Co. Ochlockonee River, 11 mi. NW Tallahassee, Leon Co. Ochlockonee River,
7 mi. E Hosford, Liberty Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER SYSTEM
FLINT RIVER DRAINAGE.-Georgia: Cedar Creek, 11 mi. NE Vienna; Pennahatchee
Creek, Vienna; both Dooly Co. Abrams Creek, 3 mi. W Doles, Worth Co. Flint
River, 2 mi. N Albany, Dougherty Co. Ichawaynochaway Creek, 52 mi. NE
Morgan, Calhoun Co. Bainbridge, Decatur Co. Spring Creek, Reynoldsville,
Seminole Co.
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Mill Creek, near Phenix City,
Russell Co. Georgia: Near Columbus, Muscogee Co.
APALACHICOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.--Florida: Mosquito Creek, Chattahoochee, Gads-
den Co.
CHIPOLA RIVER DRAINAGE.-Florida: Small creek, 9 mi. NW Marianna, Jackson Co.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER SYSTEM
Alabama: Van's Mill Creek, near Abbeville, Henry Co. Sikes Creek, Easterling
Mill, Barbour Co.
YELLOW RIVER SYSTEM
Alabama: Poley Creek, near Opp, Covington Co.
ESCAMBIA RIVER SYSTEM
CONECUH RIVER DRAINAGE.-Alabama: Beaman's Creek, near Youngblood; Mill
Creek, near Youngblood; Patsaliga Creek, Shady Grove; all Pike Co. Oakywoods
Creek, Butler Co. Boggy Branch, Conecuh River, near Searight; Sandy Creek,
near Brantley; Dry Creek, near Brantley; all Crenshaw Co.


Genus Alasmidonta Say

Alasmidonta Say (1818, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1: 459).
Type species, Monodonta undulata Say, monotypic.


Shell medium to large in size, generally rhomboid in outline, in-
flated, and with a well developed posterior ridge. Beaks full and high,
with coarse, concentric or slightly double-looped bars. Periostracum




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