• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Extent of the reformation
 Zwingle is ordained a priest
 Zwingle becomes preacher at the...
 The gospel spreads in Switzerl...
 A discussion
 Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, and the...
 The Anabaptists
 Martyrdom of Keyser
 Savage enmity of the Romish...
 Numerous enemies to the Gospel...
 Apostasy and steadfastness
 John Calvin
 The Protestants multiply in...
 More about the dragonades
 The Netherlands
 The Reformation in Spain
 Conversion of Constantine, the...
 Maria de Bohorques
 The Reformation in Italy
 Massacre of the Protestants of...
 The king of Denmark invades...
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: History of the Reformation for children : Switzerland, France, Holland, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
Title: A history of the Reformation for children
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002204/00001
 Material Information
Title: A history of the Reformation for children Switzerland, France, Holland, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
Alternate Title: Child's history of the Reformation
Physical Description: xii, 215 p. <1> leaf of plates : ill. ; 15cm.
Language: English
Creator: Nangle, Edward
Drought, George ( Printer )
Achill Mission ( Publisher )
Publisher: Sold at the office of the Achill Mission
Place of Publication: Dublin
Manufacturer: George Drought
Publication Date: 1852
 Subjects
Subject: Reformation -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Ireland -- Dublin
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Rev. Edward Nangle, A. B.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002204
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234814
oclc - 44698247
notis - ALH5250

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Extent of the reformation
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Zwingle is ordained a priest
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Zwingle becomes preacher at the Cathedral of Zurich
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The gospel spreads in Switzerland
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    A discussion
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, and the Wafer
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    The Anabaptists
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Martyrdom of Keyser
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Savage enmity of the Romish party
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Numerous enemies to the Gospel in France
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Apostasy and steadfastness
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    John Calvin
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    The Protestants multiply in France
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    More about the dragonades
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    The Netherlands
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    The Reformation in Spain
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Conversion of Constantine, the chaplain of Charles V
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Maria de Bohorques
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    The Reformation in Italy
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Massacre of the Protestants of Santo Xisto
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    The king of Denmark invades Sweden
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text





























"Drowznng of the Protestants at Venice."






HISTORY

OF


THE REFORMATION


FOR CHILDREN.

SWITZERLAND, FRANCE, HOLLAND, SPAIN, ITALY,
SWEDEN, NORWAY, AND DENMARK.



BY
REV. EDWARD NANGLE, A.B.



VoL lHE.



DUBLIN:
PRINTED BY GEORGE DROUGHT,
6, BACIELOR'S-WALK.
IOLD AT THil OFFICE? OF THB ACHILL MISSION,
14, BOLLRI-STRERT, DUDLIM.











PREFACE.




Tins, our third volume, finishes the History
of the Reformation. It is a remarkable fact,
that this is the only complete narrative of that
great event contained in any one work. Many
have written histories of the Reformation in
particular countries; but this is the only nar-
rative of that great religious awakening which
was manifested throughout the principal kiig-
doms of Europe in the sixteenth century.
Hoping that some of our young readers may
be excited by this very short account of this
the most important event which has taken






IV PREFACE.

place since the establishment of Christianity
to desire further information, I think it well
to insert here a list of the books from which
I have gathered the facts related in my little
history:-Daubigne's History of the Refor-
mation;" Fox's "Book of Martyrs;" "Life
of Edward VI.," by Protestant Association;
Hume's "History of England;" M'Crie's "His-
tory of the Church of Scotland;" Ireland
and her Church," by Dean of Ardagh; "Life
of Philip II.," by Watson; Browning's "His-
tory of the Huguenots;" M'Grie's "History
of the Reformation in Spain;" M'Crie's His-
tory of the Reformation in Italy;" "Encyclo-
piedia Britannica."
I now send forth this little volume with ear-
nest prayer that the great Head of the Church
may make it instrumental in imbuing the minds
of the rising generation with such a sense of the





PREFACE. V

evil of Popery, as opposed to Christ's true re-
ligion, as may prompt them to join heart and
hand in the effort which is being made to de-
liver our fellow-subjects from its tyranny.



Achill, April 30, 1852.




















THE following chapters appeared in suc-
cessive numbers of the ACHILL MIssIONARY
HERALD.














CONTENTS.





CHAPTER I.
PAOx
Extent of the Reformation-Zwingle-His Childhood-
His promising Genius-The Dominicans and Franclcans
-The Virgin Mary appears to Jetser-The trick Is dis-
overed-Men' eyes begin to be opened 1


CHAPTER II

Zwlngle Is ordalbed a Prest-Obtains Pension from the
Pope-Get a& Glimpse of the Truth-Beomes a Soldier-
Discovers the Unhollnes of the Church of Bome-The
Church ofElnidlen-Zwingle advances in the Truth, and
preaches what he know-Sale of Indulgnces 10

CHAPTER III
Zwingle becomes Preacher at the Cathedral of Zurich-
Indulgences old for a IIorse-The Seller of Indulgences
expelled fom Zurich-Zwlngle attacked by the Plague-
Preache with success in la le-Perecution-The Papilts
shrink from Dicusion-Francis lambcrt 19







CONTENTS.


CHAPTER IV.

The Gospel spreads in Switzerland-Zwingle marries-
Meeting of the Reformers-Haller defended by the Ber-
nese against the Pope's Bishops-Zwingle perseented by
his own Family-A coming Storm-Zwingle's Prayer-
The Pope tries to bribe Zwingle-Indignation of the Peo-
ple against Idols 29


CHAPTER V.

A Discuion-An Idol burnt by a little Boy-Martyrdom
of llottinger-The People of Zurich threatened-Their
trmnese-A Min:ster of the Gospel carried off by Soldiers
-A Convent burnt-Cruel Martyrdom of Wirth-His
S~n and Butlman-Their meekness and courage 39


CHAPTER VI.

Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, and the Wafer-The Mas abo-
lished at Zurich-Great love among the Christd n-The
Oespel advances at Berne-The Nuns of Konigaftldt-
Acolampadiu preaches with much suceae at Bule-The
Anabaptits 0


CHAPTER VII.

The Anabaptists-Fanaticism of Schucker and his Sons-
Their error checked-Need of the Word and the Spirit-
Dispute between Luther and Zwingle about the Lord's
Supper-Progres of the Gospel-A Disputation-Happy
Results 8









CONTENTS.


CHAPTER VIII.

MartyrdomofKeyer-War-The Beree refuse their aid
-The Paplst all unite-Zwingle's fa=r-Unchristia
conduct of Zurich and Berne-Perplexitles of Zwlngle-
Zwtngle goes to Battle-Defeat of the Protesant, and
Death of Zlngle 67


CHAPTER IX.

Savage Enmity of the Romish arty-Death of Meolam-
padlus-The Waldenses-William Farel-He goes toPars
-His Bigotry and Converion-The Bishop of Meaux-
QueenMar e 75


CHAPTER X
Numerous Enemies to the Gospel In Trance-Pernertion-
The New Testament and Pralms printed in French-
Bishop of Meaux preaches the Gopel-Threat of a Monk
-Cowardice of the Bishop-Martyrdom of Le Clrc-.
Reection 65


CHAPTER XI.

Apostasy and Steadfastnes-William Farel-Perasettion
-Imprudent zsal-A Natenal Calamity turned against
the Beformers-The Hermit of Livry--HB Martyrdom-
John Calvin 97








CONTENTS.


CHAPTER XII.
PAGN
John Calv'n-Ie studies the Bible-Is forced to ly from
Paris-The King condemns the Reformation, and puts
eight Protestants to death-Calvin quite France-Goes
to Geneva-Is banished thence, but soon recalled-His
Laboure-Hisl Cruelty to Servetu--Founds a College-
Illslast Sickness and Death 107


CHAPTER XIII.

The rrotestants multiply in France-Take up Arms in
defence of their Liberty-Crafty Cruelty of Charles IX.
-Coligni-Masacre of St. Bartholomew-Rejocinog at
Rome-Henry IV.-Edict of NMntes-Louis XIV.-Bri.
bery and Apostasy-The Dragonade 119


CHAPTER XIV.

More about the Dragonadee-John Migault--IIs Sufferings
for the Truth-Persecution of a Little Boy, and a Young
Woman, and others-The Protestants ly to Holland and
England-France much injured-Blindand mad Bigotry
ofLouls XIV.-God's Judgment on the French Nation 133


CHAPTER XV.

The Netherlands-The Reformation-Cruel Law of Charles
V.-Butchery of the Protestants-Philip IL.-B- Ty-
ranny-His Subjects Rebel-Counts Egmont and Horn
-The Prince of Ornge Asmsinated-Dreadful Slaughter












CONTENTS. Xl
PAos
of the Protestants-The Duke of Alva-Character of
Philip II.-His miserable Death-Success of the Befor.
maticn 146


CHAPTER XVI.

The Reformation in Spain-Early Independence of the
Spanish Church-Wickedness and Ignorance of the
Priests-Cardinal Ximenes opposed to the General Cir-
culation of the Bible-The Inquisition of Seville-How
the Reformed Faith got into Spain-A Peasant con-
verted to Christ by the Inquisition-Horrid Murder of
JuanDias 155


CHAPTER XVII.

Conversion of Constantine, the Chaplain of Charles V.
-His Confesion of Christ-His Sufferings and Death-
Many Men of rank and learning converted to Christ-
Don Carles de Seo--His Coeonion of Christ, Condem-
nation, and Martyrdom-Real Criminals leniently dealt
with by the Inquisition 166


CHAPTER XVIII.
Mar: de Bohorques-Confese Christ, and i put to the
Torture-Her Martyrdom-Suffering of Jane do Bohor-
ques-Martyrdom of Marla Gornes and Seven other
Females-The Reformation put down in Spain by the
Inquisition-Hypocrisy of the Inquisitors--Etect of the
Suppresion of the Reormation in Spain 175









CONTENTS.


CHAPTER XIX.

The Reormation in Italy-Savam rola--The Writings of
the Reformers and the Bible Translated Into Italian-
Corruption of the Bomish Church-Progress of Reforms-
tion in Ferrar and other Italian Towns-Melancthon's
promising appearances-Alam of the Pope-The Inqul-
ltlon established-Suering of Christ' People .185


CHAPTER XX.
Masacre of the Protestant of Santo Xisto-Torture and
Murder of the Inhabitants of La Guardia-Horrid
Butchery of Christ's People at Montalto-The Proteetants
of Calabria-The Martyrs at Venice put to Death by
Drowning 196


CHAPTER XXI.
The King of Denmark invades Swedn-Gustaiu Vasai
carried into Denmark-His Escape-Beturns to Sweden-
SWorks in the Mines-Treachery-He tires up the Pe
ants to Revolt-Drives Chrirtlan out of Sweden-Is
proclaimed King-Declare himself a Protesant-Estab-
lshes the Reformed Beligion-Duty of Princes-Con-
cluding Bemark .












A HISTORY


OF

THE REFORMATION.
->-

CHAPTER I.
Extent of the Reftemntlon-Zwingle-ni Childhood--Il
promisia gniun--The Domlnician and Franlmras-Tho
Virgin Mary appears to Jetcer-The trick ii dlcoererd-
Mens eye begin to be opened.
THE Bible tells us that "the works of the Lord
are great." What a great work God does in
the spring, when the snows of winter melt
away under the warm sun, and the trees and
shrubs, which seemed to be dead, put forth
leaves and blossoms; and this change takes
place not in one or two fields, or in one coun-
try, but over the whole face of the earth. Such
a work was the Reformation. It was a great
work-it was not confined to a few places. The
power of the Divine Spirit who did that great
work was felt throughout the whole of Europe.
B







2 A HISTORY OF
I have already told you how souls were brought
out of Popish darkness and death to the light
and life of Christ's glorious Gospel, in Germany
and England; and if my life is spared to finish
the volume which I have now begun, I shall
tell you how the same great work was do*e in
Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, Italy,
Spain, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. And
you will observe that this wondrous awakening
did not begin in one place at first, and then go
on from one country to another, but all Europe
felt an impulse at the same time, showing us
plainly that God, and not man, was the author
of the Reformation-the most wonderful event
in the history of man since Christianity was
first set up by miracles.
In a wild and remote part of the mountains
of Switzerland, at-the end of the fifteenth oer.
tury, there lived, in a place called the Wild.
haus, a man named Zwingle. He was a shp.
herd, and had a large family, who, with their
father, were all employed in taking care of
their flocks. He was the bailiff of the parish,
and much respected by all his neighbours







THE RBEfOMATION. 8
The third son of this shepherd, named Ulrich,
was born on New Year'sDay, 1484, seven weeks
after the birth of Luther. Duringthesummer
months, Ulrich Zwingle used to go with his
brothers and sisters though the mountains
seeking the best pasture for their flocks. The
long winter evenings were spent, in his father's
cottage, in listening to the conversation of the
peasantry on the Scripture stories, mixed up
with superstitious legends, which were related
by his pious old grandmother.
Ulrich's father saw that he was a lad of no
common mind, and thinking it a pity that his
life should be spent in tending cattle on his
native mountains, he took him to his brother,
who was Dean of Wesen. The dean was
much pleased with his little nephew, and sent
him to a school in his own neighbourhood.
Young Zwingle was so clever that ie soon
learned all the master could teach him, and
his uncle then removed him to another school
in the celebrated city of Basle. Here he made
still further progress in learning. The boys
of different schools used to have disputations






A HISTORY OF


in imitation of those which learned men used to
hold; and in these young Zwingle was always
victorious-so early did he display that talent
which God afterwards used for overturning
the Pope's false religion in a great part of
Switzerland.
From the school at Basle, Zwingle was re-
moved to Berne, and placed under the care of
Lupulus, a celebrated scholar. There was at
Berne a celebrated convent of the monks who
follow the rule of St. Dominic, and are called
Dominicans. These monks were engaged in a
furious dispute with the Franciscans, or fol.
lowers of St. Francis. The Franciscans con.
tended that the Virgin Mary was free from any
tit of in; the Dominicans said that she was
conceived in sin. Now, the Dominicans were
right, became the Bible says that "all have
pinned," and "there is none righteous, no, not
one;" and the Blessed Virgin confessed herself
to be a sinner, when she said, "My spirit hath
rejoiced in God my Saviour."
But it was not by the Bible, as I shall show
you presently, that the Dominicans tried to







TH BREFOrMATION.


convince people that they were right, and that
the Franciscans were wrong. These monks
remarked that Zwingle had a very fine voice;
they had also heard how clever he was: and
thinking that it would add greatly to the glory
of their order if they could get him to join them
they did all they could to draw him over to
their party. Zwingle's father heard of this, and
being afraid that these crafty and wicked men
might entrap his son, he took him away from
Berne. A fact which I am now going to tell
you, will show you how happy it was for Zwin.
gle that he escaped the snare which they laid
for him.
A young man named John Jetzer, of weak
mind, was admitted as a lay brother into the
Dominican convent. After a few nights he was
roused out of his sleep by deep groans. He
saw a tall white form standing beside his bed.
It spoke-" I am a soul escaped from the fires
of Purgatory." Poor Jetzer shook with terror
as he said, God help thee, I can do nothing."
The spectre in anger came near to Jetzer, and
seized him by the throat, reproaching him for







A HBITORY 0O


his refusal. Jetzer in great terror, cried out,
" What can I do to save thee ?" The spectre
replied, "Scourge thyself for eight days, until
the blood comes, and lie on thy face in the
chapel of St. John;" and having said this, it
vanished. Jetzer told what happened to his
confessor and the preacher of the convent, who
advised him to do as the spectre had told him.
A report soon went out through the city that a
soul in Purgatory had sought relief from the
Dominicans. The Franciscans were deserted;
and the people ran in crowds to the church
where the holy man was to be seen lying on
the pavement. The soul from Purgatory had
told Jetzer that it would appear again to him
in eight days. It came at the appointed time,
and two spirits more along with it, who tor.
mented it so that it groaned most piteously.
The spectre spoke. "Sertus," it said, who
taught the Franciscans that the Virgin was
conceived without sin, is among those who
suffer the same horrible torments that I do."
When the report of this spread through Berne,
the Fraciscans were still more dismayed; but







THE BROIOATION. 7
the soul had told Jetzer that it would appear
to him again on a certain day, and that the
Virgin herself would accompany it. On the
day fixed the astonished Jetser saw Mary, as
he thought, appear in his cell. He could hardly
believe his eyes. She came to him kindly, gave
him, as she said, three drops of our Saviour's
tears, and as many drops of His blood, with a
crucifix and a letter to Pope Julius IL, who,
she said, was appointed by God to setaside the
festival which had been instituted in honour of
the Immaculate Conception. Then cominglose
to the bed were Jetser lay, she told him, in a
solemn voice, that she was going to bestow a
great favour upon him, and at the same time
she pierced his hand with a nail. Poor Jetzer
roared with pain, but Mary wrapt up his hand
in a eloth, that her son (as she said) had worn
at the time of the flight into Egypt. But this
one wound was not enough. The Franciscans
said that St. Francis had been marked with the
five wounds of Christ, and the Dominicans must
not have less glory. The Virgin, therefore,
gave Jetser a wound in each hand and foot,







8 A HISTORY Of
and one in his side. When this was done, the
poor simpleton was placed in a room hung with
pictures of our Lord's passion. Here he spent
many days without food, and his mind became
much excited. At times he was quite out of
his senses, foaming at the mouth, and seeming
ready to die. The monks from time to time
let in the people, who flocked in crowds to the
convent to see the man who had been visited
by departed spirits, and by the Virgin herself.
Many were deceived-even Lupulus, Zwingle's
teacher, was among the number; and the Do-
minicans from their pulpit boasted of the glory
which God had put upon their order.
But at last the trick was found out. Mary
appeared again to Jetzer. She spoke, but
Jetzer fancied the voice was that of his confes-
sor. Having uttered his suspicion, Mary dis.
appeared, but she soon came again to censure
Jetzer for his suspicion. But his doubts had
been awakened, and he now discovered that
the pretended Virgin was the prior of the con-
vent. The enraged dupe ran at the Virgin
with a knife in his hand, determined to avenge







THE REFORMlATION. 9
himself for the wounds which she had given
him; andtheVirgin, having returnedtheassault
by flinging a pewter plate at the head of the
poor brother, instantly vanished.
The Dominicans were much frightened when
they saw that Jetzer had discovered the plot;
and to prevent public exposure they tried to
poison him, but he contrived to escape out of
their hands. The Pope empowered his legate
and two bishops to inquire into the affair.
Four of the monks were found guilty, and were
burnt alive on the let of May, 1509, in the pre-
sence of thirty thousand people. The report
of this wicked trick spread through Europe,
and by opening men's eyes to the frauds of the
monks, prepared the way for the Reformation.
How happy it was for young Zwingle that his
father took him away from Berne : if he had
not done so, he might have been entrapped
into the Dominican order; and who can say
that, like Luther, he would ever have come
forth from the cloister to hold up the light of
the glorious Gospel of Christ to his country.
men?







A HISTORY OF


CHAPTER II.
Zwingle Is ordained a Pries-Obtalns a pension from the Pope-
Gets a glimpse of the Truth-Beoomes a Soldier-Dlecovers the
unholinese of the Church of Rome-The Church of Einidlen-
ZSingie advances in the truth, and preached wht he knows-
Sale of Indulgences.
In the year 1506, Zwingle, having finished his
studies, was invited by the people of Glaris to
become their priest. He was ordained by the
Bishop of Constance, and read his first Mass
at Wildhaus, on St. Michael's day, in the pre-
sence of all his relations and many friends of
his family.
At this time the Pope used to employ Zwin-
gle's ountrymen, the Swiss, to fight his battles
as soldiers; and there was a man named Schin.
ner, who was made a Cardinal by Julius IL
This pretended Vicar of Christ was a great
warrior, and he was much pleased with Schin-
ner because he persuaded a great many of the
Swis to join his army. Schinner heard that
Zwingle was a very clever man; and thinking
that he might make use of him in the Pope'a






THIE BEOBMATION. 11
service, he made acquaintance with him, and
after a little time he got him a yearly pension
of fifty florins from the Pope. This was of
good service to Zwingle, for he was so poor
that he could not buy books to improve his
mind by reading, but this pension enabled him
to do so.
In the course of his reading he met with a
poem, written by Erasmus, in which Jesus
Christ is said to complain that men do not seek
every grace from Him, although he is the
source of all good. "Ai," said Zwingle,
"A.L"-..and this word was ever present to his
mind. He then began to ask is it right to pray
to saints and angels for help, and his mind
answered, No. It is needless, it is foolish
Jesus Christ is the source of Ar good."
Some years after, Zwingle became acquaint-
de with Erasmus, and through him with many
learned men who afterwards took a leading put
in the Reformation. Among these was a very
good man named Oswald, Myconius, and Oeo-
lampadius, who preached Christ with great
power as the only Saviour of sinners.






A HISTORY Of


But Zwingle did not yet know the truth.
The Pope was engaged in war with Francis L,
King of France, and Schinner persuaded the
Swiss to join the Pope's army; and Zwingle,
too, a minister of Christ by profession, became
a soldier. He forgot that the sword of the
Spirit should be his only weapon; and at last,
as you will see in the course of this history,
the Lord's words were fulfilled in his fall-
"They that take the sword shall perish with
the sword."
Zwingle, as a soldier, marched into Italy,
and there he learned much which prepared
him for the great work to which God was about
to call him. He remarked the difference in
the way of celebrating Mass at Milan and
Rome, which showed him that the Pope's
Church had not even that outward unity which
it claims. The sight of his countrymen, slaugh-
tered like sheep for the faithless and proud
Pope, filled him with anger; and the coveteous-
ness and ignorance of the priests, the filthy
lives of the drunken monks, and the pride and
luxury of the bishops showed him that the






TH9 RBEFOBNATION.


Church of Rome had not that holiness which
marks the true Church of Christ. He felt
more deeply than ever the need of reform in
the Church.
There was in Switzerland a celebrated mo-
nastery called Einsidlen. About the end of
the tenth century a church was built, in honour
of the Virgin, on the spot where a hermit had
been murdered several years before. And
this church was said to have been consecrated
by God himself, attended by numerous hosts of
angels. A Bull of Leo VIII. forbid any one
to doubt the truth of this legend. This church
was therefore regarded as a very holy place,
and multitudes of pilgrims used to visit it every
year. It was to this place that Zwingle re-
moved from Glaris, in 1516, as priest and
preacher.
At the monastery of Einsidlen, Zwingle had
much time for study. The head of the mo-
nastery was a well-disposed man; he used to
invite learned men to spend some time with
him, and they used to read the Scriptures to-
gether. It was here that Zwingle wrote out






14 A HISTORY OE
with his own hand the Epistles of St. Paul;
he also learned them by heart, and some time
after, the other books of the New Testament,
and part of the Old. No man ever yet did
much to reform the Church who was not mighty
in the Scriptures. In proportion as Zwingle
learned the truths of the Bible, his life was re-
gulated by them. He now broke off from world.
ly pursuits which he used to follow in the days
of his ignorance.
It was at Einsidlen, too, that Zwingle got
a deeper insight into the knavery of the Church
of Rome. An image of the Virgin which was
kept in the monastery, was mid to work mira.
cles. Over the gate of the abbey was written,
"Here a plenary remission of sins may be
had." The hope of getting this indulgence
drew crowds of poor deceived souls to this nest
of superstition. The sight of these deceived
people stirred up the pity and zeal of the Be-
former. "Do not think," said he from the pul.
pit, that God is in this church more than in
any other part of the world. God is every-
wher, and hears you in all places a well a at






THE BEPO IATION. l~

our Lady's of Einsidlen. Can useless works,
long pilgrimages, offerings, images, prayer to the
Virgin and the saints, secure for you the grace of
God ? What good is there in a smooth cowl,
shorn head, along robe, or slippers embroidered
with gold? God looks at the heart, and our
hearts are far from him. Christ, who was once
offered on the cross, is the sacrifice and victim
that makes satisfaction for the sins of believers
to all eternity."
The crowd of pilgrims listened with wonder
to these words Some went away filled with
horror; but many went to Jesus, who was
preached to them as meek, gentle, and loving,
and carried.back the tokens which they had
brought to present to the Virgin. The pil
grimes returned to their homes, everywhere
spreading the report of what they had heard
at Einsidlen, that CUsBT ALOwN AVEs, AND
Hn SAVES IN Am. ACE5." Often did whole
bands, amazed at these reports, turn back with.
out finising their pilgrimage. Thenumber of
Mary's worshippers grew fewer and fewer every
day. It was their offerings which chiefly sup-







16 A mIsTOT or
plied Zwingle with the means of living; but this
faithful witness to the truth felt happy in
making himself poor, while he was enriching
the souls of his fellow-sinners with the precious
faith of the Gospel.
Zwingle now began to speak plainly to
Schinner. "Popery," said he, "is on a bad
foundation. If you do not cast away your
errors, the whole building will come down about
your ears with a crash." He spoke with the
same freedom to Cardinal Pucci; he was the
Pope's legate, and tried to persuade Zwingle
not to preach as he did. But Zwingle said,
" With God's aid I will preach the Gospel, and
this preaching will make Rome totter." Zwin-
gle declared that he would resign the Pope's
pension. The legate entreated him to keep
it; and Zwingle, who had not then any inten-
tion of setting himself in hostility to the pre.
tended head of the Church, consented to re-
ceive it for three years longer. But do
not imagine," he added, "that for love of
money I will hold back the least particle of the
truth."







THE REFORMATION.


In the year 1518, a Franciscan monk, named
Samson, crossed the mountains which separate
Switzerland from Italy, to traffic, like Tetzel,
in the sale of indulgences. This impostor and
his hungry train first opened their trade in Uri.
They then passed on to Schwytz, the Canton in
which Zwingle lived. "I can pardon all
sins," said the Italian monk; "heaven and hell
are subject to my power; and I sell the merits
of Christ to any who will purchase them, by
buying an indulgence, for ready money."
Zwingle's zeal took fire when he heard of
such blasphemies. He cried out to the people
in his preaching--" Jesus Christ the Sonof God
has said, 'Come unto me all ye that are weary
and heavy laden, and I will give you rest.' Is
it not, then, great wickedness and folly to say,
* Buy indulgences, hasten to Rome, give to the
monks and the priests, and if thou doest these
things I absolve thee from thy sins?' Jesus
Christ is the only offering, the only sacrifice,
the only way."
Jesus Christ, as He is set forth to us in the
Bible, is the great argument against all the







18 A DISTORT OF

Pope's false doctrines. Zwingle used this ar-
gument, and Samson, the seller of indulgences,
was soon regarded throughout the whole can-
ton as a cheat and a seducer.







THE BRIOBnATION.


CHAPTER III.
Zwingle becomes Preacher at the Cathedral of Zurich-Indul.
gene old fbr a hors-The wller of Induleneea expeled
hfom Zurich--wingle attacked by the Pisgue--Preche with
necess in Basle-Perecutlon-The Papists daink ho d1s-
cuuion-Francl Lambert.
GoD had been teaching Zwingle for the great
work he had to do, and now He put him in a
post where he could use what he had learned
with the greatest effect. Zwlngle was chosen
to be the preacher in the cathedral of Zurich,
which was at that time the chief city of Swit.
zerland. The enemies of the Reformation did
all they could to hinder Zwingle's election, but
in vain. Zwingle preached faithfully and
powerfully, and multitudes flocked to hear
him.
Samson, of whom I told you something in
the last chapter, was still going through Switz-
erland selling indulgences. He was received
in Berne with great honour; and to show you







20 A HIBTOR OF
how blinded the people were, I shall tell you
a thing which happened there. A celebrated
knight, Jacques de Stein, came to Samson,
mounted on a beautiful grey horse, which the
monk admired very much. "Give me, said
the knight, an indulgence for myself and my
five hundred soldiers, all my servants, and all
my ancestors, and I will give you my horse."
The bargain was struck, the horse was led to
the monk's stable, and all these souls were
supposed to be free from the pains of Purga-
tory I
On the last day of his stay in Berne, Sam.
son stood on the steps of the high altar and
shouted to the people, Kneel down, say three
paters and three aves, and your souls will be
as pure as at the moment of your baptism."
The people fell upon their knees, and then this
daring blasphemer cried out, I deliver from
the pains of Purgatory and of hell all the souls
of the Bernese who are dead, whatever may
have been the manner and the place of their
death."
Samson was making his way on to Zurich.







THI REFOBMATION.


When he came to Bremgarten, Bullinger, the
dean, and father of Henry Bullinger, who
afterwards became a Reformer, would not let
him into his church. Samson was in a great
rage, and threatened to complain to the depu-
ties at Zurich. In the meantime, a great
change had been made in the minds of the
people of Zurich by Zwingle's preaching; and
when he heard that Samson was coming, he
publicly attacked the sale of indulgences.
"No man," he said, "can forgive sins but
Christ alone, who is God and man. So, buy
indulgences, but be assured that you are not
forgiven. Those who sell pardons of sin for
money are the companions of Simon the magi-
cian, the friends of Balaam, and the ministers
of the devil." When Samson came to Zurich,
he was received courteously; but when the
people found that he had nothing to speak
about but Papal bulls, he was sent away.
Zwingle's preaching, or rather Christ's holy
Gospel, had spoiled his market in Zurich. He
went away in a great rage, and soon after re-







A EISTORT 0O


turned to the Pope in Italy, bringing with him
a waggon, drawn by three horses, laden with
the money which his lies had wrung from the
people of Switzerland, in the name of his nias-
ter, the Pope.
When God has a great work for any of His
people to do, He often prepares them for it by
teaching them how weak and helpless they are.
If he did not deal thus with them they might
be puffed up with pride, and think that the
good which God did by them they did of them-
selves. It was thus God dealt with Zwingle;
the plague broke out in Switzerland, and Zwin-
gle was attacked by it. Hte was so very sick
that his friends gave up all hope of his recovery,
and it was. even reported that he was dead.
It was then that he composed the following
hymn:-


Lo! at the door
I hear Death's knock!
Shield me, 0 Lord,
My Strengthand Hock.







THE REFORMATION.


Thy hand, once nailed
Upon the tree,
Jesus uplift,
And shelter me.

Wiliest thou, then,
Death conquer me
In my noonday ?
So let it be.

Oh, may I die,
Since I am thine;
Thy home is made
For faith like mine.

Contrary to all the expectations of Zwingle
and his friends, it pleased God to restore him
to health. He rose from his bed of sickness
more devoted to the service of Jesus Christ
than ever. His zeal was more active, his
life more holy, and his preaching more power-
ful than before his sickness. Thus God was
training his servant for the great work which
He intended him to do.
Some time after this, Zwingle visited the city
of Basle, to preach the Gospel there. A great
and lasting impression was made on many







A HISTORY OF


hearts. John Glother, a schoolmaster, wrote to
Zwingle, after he had left Basle, to tell him
how much he had been affected by his sermons;
and Capito, having embraced the Gospel him-
self, began to preach it to the citizens in a
course of sermons on the Gospel of St. Mat-
thew. His congregation increased daily, and
the crowds who came to hear received the Word
of God with great gladness. Some time after
Capito was removed to Mentz; but his place
at Basle was supplied by a good young man,
named Hedio, who, besides preaching in public,
used to invite believers to his own house, that
he might instruct them in private.
You may be very sure that the enemies of
God were not idle while the Reformation was
going on. Zwingle's life was often threatened;
God, however, protected him; but in other
places the servants of Satan were permitted to
carry their hatred of God's people to the last
extremity. An old man at Schaffhausen,
named Galsten, became a believer in the Gos-
pel. He could not be silent, his heart was so
glad; so he tried to teach his wife and children







THE BEFORMATION.


what he had learned himself. In his zeal for
Christ's truth, he attacked the Romish priests
and their vain and wicked superstitions. He
soon became an object of hatred and terror
even to his own family. Fearing that they
would do him some mischief, he left his house,
and tried to hide himself in the forests; but he
was pursued by men and bloodhounds. He was
taken and dragged before the magistrates, who
commanded him to deny the faith of the Gos.
pel; and when he would not do this, they cruelly
cut off his head.
There was a good man at Lucerne, named
Myconius. He was a great friend of Zwingle,
and was a schoolmaster. The people of Lu-
cerne disliked him very much because he was
a believer in Christ, and at last they banished
him from the canton. Poor Myconius had a
sickly wife and a delicate little child, and he
did not know where to go. God, however, pro.
vided a home for him elsewhere; and the un-
grateful and wicked city which cast him out
continues under the power of the Papal Anti.
christ to this day.







26 A HISTORY f
The Gospel still continued to spread in
Zurich, and the Bishop of Constance sent
three deputies to try if they could put a stop to
its further progress. When the deputies came
to Zurich, they first called the priests toge-
ther, but Zwingle was there to answer them.
Then they assembled the magistrates, and tried
to prevail on them to use force against the
preachers of the Gospel. They did all they
could to keep Zwingle out of this assembly,
but the magistrates said that Zwingle and the
other preachers should speak in their own de-
fence. The deputies were very angry at this,
and would not hold any discussion with Zwin.
gle and his friends. This greatly helped the
Reformation, because the people thought that
if the Pope had a good cause, his partisans
would not shrink from defending it.
There was a Franciscan friar, who lived at
Avignon, named Francis Lambert. This man
got some knowledge of the Gospel by Luther's
writings, but when it was suspected that he
was a believer, he was obliged to leave his na.
tive place. He went to Geneva, where he







THE REFOBMATION.


preached the Gospel so far as he knew it, and
also at Lausanne, Friburg, and Berne. He
spoke boldly against the Sacrifice of the Mass,
the traditions of the Church of Rome, and the
superstitions of the monks. This extraordi-
nary man travelled about in his monk's dress,
riding on an ass, which, as he was very tall,
hardly lifted his bare feet off the ground. He
came to Zurich, and calling on Zwingle he
handed him a letter from Haller. Zwingle
was delighted to see him, and opened his
church for him. Lambert preached four ser-
mons, in which he exposed the errors of the
Church of Rome, but in the fourth he said
that it was right to pray to the Blessed Virgin
and the saints. When Zwingle heard this he
cried out in the church, "Brother, you are
mistaken." The friends of the Pope were
much pleased at this. They were glad to find
that the friends of the Reformation were not
agreed among themselves; and they tried to
set Lambert and Zwingle to dispute with each
other. They said to Lambert-'" He has
publicly contradicted you, and you ought to








28 A HISTORY OF

challenge him to argue the point with you
in public." Lambert being zealous for what.
ever he supposed to be God's truth, did so:
Zwingle you may be sure accepted the chal-
lenge. There was great excitement in Zu-
rich. The disputants met before a largo
assembly. Zwingle showed from the Bible
how wrong it was to pray to the Virgin and
the saints. He spoke for a long time and with
great power. All were now anxious to hear
Lambert's reply. He stood up; then clasping
his hands and raising his eyes to heaven, he
said-" I thank thee, 0 God, that by means
of this great and good servant of thine thou
hast brought me to a fuller knowledge of thy
truth. Henceforth," he added, turning to the
people, "in all my troubles I will call upon
God alone, and I will throw aside my beads."
He left Zurich on the next day, mounted on
his ass, to visit Erasmus at Basle, and thence
he went into Germany to visit Martin Luther,
at Wittemberg.







THE REFORMATION.


CHAPTER IV.
The Gopel spread in Switterland-Zwlngle marrles-Meetlng
of the Reformern--Hller defended by the Bernese ginst
the Pope's Bishop-Zwlngle persecuted by his own fmily-
A coming torm-Zwingle's prayer-The Pope tries to bribe
Zwingle-Indlgnation of the people sgaint idols.

THn Gospel continued to spread in Switzer-
and. In Appenzel, a young man named Wal-
ter Klarer read Luther's works, and soon began
to preach the truths contained in them. An
innkeeper named Rausberg, and who was a
member of the Council of Appenzel, opened
his house for the preaching of the Gospel.
A famous captain named Berweger, who had
fought for the Popes, came back to Appenzel,
from Rome, at this time, and began to perse-
cute the friends of the Gospel. One day, how-
ever, remembering what bad things he had
seen at Rome, he began to read the Bible and
to hear the sermons of the Reformers. He was
soon after converted to Christ. When he saw








A HISTORY OF


the crowds who could not find room in the
churches coming to hear the Gospel, he said-
" Let the ministers preach in the fields and pub-
lic places." Many tried to hinder this; but in
spite of all that they could do, the fields and
streets of Appenzel soon resounded with the
joyful news of the Gospel.
From Zurich the truth spread to the Grison's
Country. So great an effect was produced by
the preaching of a good man called Jacques
Burkli, that a great many of the inhabitants de-
manded to have the Sacrament as our Lord in-
stituted it; and a pious man writing to a friend
said-" Oh that you could see how the dwellers
in the Rhxetian mountains are throwing off the
yoke of the Pope of Rome."
About this time, Zwingle married a widow
lady named Anna Reinhardt. She was a very
good woman, and in every way suited to be
the Reformer's wife; but fearing that some
who were not entirely free from Romish error
might be offended, he kept his marriage secret
for some time. This was not right. When
our actions are such as God is pleased with, we







TEM BEUOBRMTION.


should never be ashamed or afraid to make
them known. But the best men are so weak
that it is only the grace of God that can give
them courage to go on straight in the path of
righteousness.
In the beginning of July 1522 a meeting of
Reformers was held at Einsidlen. They came
from all parts of Switzerland. They drew up
a petition to the bishop and another to the
Government, requiring leave to preach the
Gospel without hindrance, and inviting them to
join them in the holy effort to break the Pope's
heavy yoke, and lead their countrymen back to
Christ. The good men at this meeting were
all of one mind, and continued so until death.
The petition of the Reformers stirred up the
enemies of the Gospel through Switzerland.
In the city of Berne there was a good man
named Berthold Haller; he had not signed the
petition, but he preached the Gospel faithfully,
and for doing so he was summoned to the
town-halL The magistrates were divided in
their opinion; some of the most powerful among
them said that it was a cause which should








32 A HISTORY OF

be tried by the bishop, and that Haller should
be given up to him. Haller's friends were
much terrified at this. On his return home
from the town-hall, the people surrounded him;
and a great body of the citizens, with arms in
their hands, kept watch before his house, deter-
mined to defend Haller against his enemies
even unto death. This struck such terror into
the bishop and the magistrates that they were
afraid to lay hands on Haller, and he continued
to preach the Gospel.
Zwingle was much tried at this time by the
unkindness of his own family. His brothers
were worldly men, who sought nothing but the
praise of man; they did not like to be the bro-
thers of one who was called a heretic, and they
feared that they might be shamed still more,
if Zwingle was put to death as a criminal, for
his religion. Zwingle wrote a letter to them,
in which among other things he said:-" So
long as God permits me I will do His work
without fearing the world and its proud tyrants.
* My own strength is nothingness it-
self, and I know the power of my enemies; but







THE REFORMATION.


I know also that I can do everything in Christ,
who strengthens me. Banish all fear,
my dear brothers. If I have any fear, it is
lest I have been milder and gentler than suits
our times. What reproach, say you, will be
cast upon our family, if I am burned, or put to
death in any other way I Oh, my beloved bro-
thers, the Gospel receives this power from the
blood of Christ, that the most cruel persecu-
tors, instead of stopping, only help on its pro-
gress. Those alone are the true soldiers of
Christ who do not fear to bear in their body
the wounds of their Master; all my labours
have no aim but to tell men the treasures of
happiness that Christ has bought for us, that
all might take refuge in the Father, through
the death of the Son. If this doctrine offends
you, you cannot stop me : you are my brothers;
yes, my own brothers-sons of the same father,
the fruit of the same womb. But if you
were not my brothers in Christ and in the work
of faith, then my grief would be so violent
that nothing could equal it. Farewell! I shall
never cease to be your affectionate brother, if
c2







A HISTORY OF


only you will not cease yourselves to be the
brethren of Jesus Christ."
The governments of the different Cantons
into which Switzerland is divided, seemed at this
time to rise like one man against the Gospel.
The petition from Einsidlen had stirred them
allup. Zwingle saw himself surrounded by ene-
mies; he had enemies in Zurich-enemies in
his own family. The monks and priests, filled
with fury, thirsted for his blood; the Govern-
ment threatened to crush the infant cause of
the Reformation; and his countrymen were en-
listing in foreign service to fight for the Pope,
and put down the preaching of the Gospel by
force of arms. It was in this state of things
that Zwingle brought all his anxieties to the
throne of grace. 0 Jesus," said he, "thou
seest how the wicked storm thy people's ears
with their loud blasphemies. Thou knowest
how from my childhood I have hated all dis-
putes; andyet in spite of myself thou hast thrust
me into this conflict. Therefore do I call upon
thee with confidence to finish what thou hast
begun. If I have built up anything wrongly,







TiE RUEPOBhtON.


do thou throw it down with thy mighty hand.
If I have laid any other foundation than thee,
let thy powerful arm destroy it. 0 Vine, full
of sweetness, whose husbandman is the Father,
and whose branches are we, do not abandon
thy shoots I For thou hast promised to be with
us unto the end of the world."
Soon after this the Pope sent a legate to
visit Zwingle. The legate had a paper written
by the Pope, called a brief, in which the Pope
spoke of the Reformer as his dear son." He
also sent another person named Zink, to try if
he could gain over Zwingle to his side by flat.
tery and bribes. When this man was asked
by Myconius what the Pope had authorised
him to offer to Zwingle, he answered--" Every
thing but the Papal chair;" but by the grace of
God Zwingle could neither be frightened nor
coaxed from the service of Christ by threats or
flattery.
When God raises up upright men to preach
His Gospel, their labour is never in vain.
The cause of truth was prospering in Zurich.
A great number of priests petitioned the Gor







36 A HISTORY OF
vernment to make better rules for the clergy
of Zurich. It was decided to put away the
lazy and ignorant priests, and to place in their
stead learned, pious, and zealous men, who,
instead of reading Latin prayers and Masses,
should give a daily explanation of a chapter in
the Bible.
At this time a young priest, named Louis
Hetzer, published a book, which he called
" The Judgment of God against Images."
This made a great impression on the people.
At a place called Stadelhofen, outside the city
of Zurich, stood a crucifix curiously carved;
and it grieved every lover of the Bible to see
the superstition with which this piece of stone
was regarded by the people. A citizen named
Claude Hottinger, having met the miller of
Stadelhofen, to whom the crucifix belonged,
asked him when he intended to throw down
his idols ? "No one forces you to worship
them," said the miller. "But do you not
know," replied Hottinger, that the Scripture
forbids us to have graven images?" Well,
then," said the miller, "jf you are authorized







TIE REFORMATION.


to remove them, I give them up to you."
Shortly after this, Hottinger and a number of
the citizens went to the crucifix and dug around
it, until it fell to the earth with a great crash.
This made a great tumult; the Papists cried
out that Hottinger and his friends should be
put to death. They were taken prisoners and
brought before the magistrates.
Zwingle, speaking of this from the pulpit,
said that the image-breakers were guilty of no
sin in the sight of God, but that they might
justly be punished by the laws of their country,
because they acted with violence and without
the authority of the magistrates.
The people were now so full of abhorrence of
Romish idolatry, that acts like this, of which
I have just told you, took place very often. A
priest one day, seeing a number of hungry
poor people, covered with rags, before the
church, turned his eyes to the costly ornaments
in which the images of the saints were decked,
and said:--" I should like to strip those
wooden idols to buy clothes for these poor
members of Jesus Christ." A few days after







88 A HISTORY O0
this the saints and all their gay ornaments
disappeared. The magistrates cast the poor
curate into prison, although they could not
prove that he took away the saints' clothes, and
although he protested that he was innocent.
This made the worship of these images still more
detestable to the people. "What I" they said,
" is it these logs of wood that Jesus ordered us
to clothe ?-is it on account of these images that
he will say to the righteous, 'I was naked, and
ye clothed me ?'"
Thus the efforts that were made to check the
Reformation only helped it forward. When
God works, how vain it is for man to try to
hinder it.







TEE REIOIATION.


CHAPTER V.
A DticNuson-An Idol burnt by a little boy-Martyrdom of
Hottinger-The people of Zurich threatened-Their firmnes
-A Minister of the Gospel carried off by Soldiers-A Convent
burnt-Cruel Martyrdom of Wirth-His Son and Butlman-
Their meekness and courage.

SHORTLY after the events which are related in
the former chapter, Zwingle and Leo Juda,
another Reformer, met some priests before a
great assembly at Zurich, and proved, to the
satisfaction of many, that the religion of the
Pope was contrary to the religion of the Bible;
and several priests who heard what was said on
both sides went home determined to do all they
could to help on the Reformation: even little
boys began to despise the superstitions of the
Church of Rome. We are told of one, who
was a pupil in the school of Myconius, whose
duty it was to keep up the fire in the stove of
the schoolroom. One cold morning this little
fellow found he had no wood to put on the fire,







A HISTORY OF


but he thought to himself, "Why should I
want wood while there are idols in the church 1"
Zwingle was to preach that day, and the bells
were ringing, but none of the congregation had
assembled, so the little boy, whose name was
Thomas Plater, entered very softly, laid hold
of an image of St. John that stood upon an
altar, and thrust it into the stove, saying,
"Downwith you, for in you must go." Now,
I do not say that the little boy was right in
doing this, because the image did not belong to
him-if it did, he would have done well to de-
stroy it; but the act shows that Popery had
ceased to be respected even by children.
The progress of the Reformation in Zurich
filled the Pope's followers with fury, and they
were determined to put a stop to it by force.
A good man named Hottinger, a native of
Zurich, lived in Lucerne, and here he made
no secret of his abhorrence of the Romish Mass,
and his love for the religion of the Bible. He
had occasion to go to a place called Waldshut,
on the other side of the Rhine, and there he
was seized by a man named Flockenstein, and







THE REFORMATION.


carried as a prisoner before the Diet which was
sitting at Lucerne. The Diet immediately con.
demned him to be beheaded. When told of
his sentence he gave glory to God. "That
will do," said one of his judges; we do not
sit here to listen to sermons; you can have
your talk some other time." "He must havehis
head taken off this once," said another, with a
laugh; if he should ever get it on again, we
will all embrace his faith." "May God forgive
all those who have condemned me," said the
prisoner. A monk then held a crucifix to
Hottinger's lips that he might kiss it; but he
put it away, saying, It is in the heart that
we must receive Jesus Christ."
When he was led out to execution many
people in the crowd burst into tears, and Hot-
tinger said to them, "I am going to eternal
happiness." When he came to the place where
he was to die, he raised his hands to heaven
and said, Into thy hands, 0, my Redeemer,
I commit my spirit I" In another minute his
head was struck off and rolled upon the scaf.
fold.







A HISTORY OF


After this the Diet sent a message to the'ma-
gistrates and people of Zurich, calling on them
to give up the religion of the Bible, and to re-
turn to Popery; but they replied to this message
by putting an end to processions in honour of
the Virgin, burying the relics, and taking the
images out of the churches. The people of
Zurich were well pleased at this. They said-
"Let our rulersfollow the Word of God without
fear, and we will aid them. If any one seeks
to molest them, we will come to their support."
But the Pope's followers were determined to
put down the religion of the Bible by force and
cruelty. There was a good minister named
(Exlin, who was pastor of Burg, upon the
Rhine. On the 7th of July, at midnight, a
number of soldiers entered his house and car-
ried him away, while he cried murder I His
neighbours, alarmed by his cries, started from
their beds, and soon a great crowd came to-
gether to inquire what had happened. When
they learned that their good minister had been
carried off, they went in pursuit of him, but
could not find him. They found themselves







THE REFORMATION.


near the convent of Ittingen, and some bad
men in the crowd forced their way into the
convent, and, having made themselves drunk
with the wine which they got there, they set
fire to the building. After this, deputies from
the Cantons of Switzerland met at Zug; no-
thing was heard but threats of death to the
people of Zurich. The magistrates of Zurich
were much frightened, and they determined to
make prisoners of any who had been in the
crowd when the convent was burnt. Among
these prisoners were three good men, Wirth
and his two sons, and as they were eminent for
their piety and love to the Bible, the deputies
of the Cantons demanded that they should be
given up to them. The magistrates of Zurich,
influenced by sinful fear, at last consented, but
on condition that they would only try them for
the burning of the convent, and not on account
of their faith. They consented to do so, but it
will soon be seen how far they were from keep-
ing their word.
Wirth and his two sons were carried as
prisoners to Baden, where a great crowd was








A HISTORY OF


waiting for them. At first they were taken to
an inn, and thence to the prison. They could
scarcely get on, the crowd were so anxious to
see them. The father, who walked in front,
turned to his two sons and meekly said to them,
" See, my dear children, we are, as the Apostle
says, men appointed to death, for we are made
a spectacle unto the world, and unto angels,
and to men."
On the next day they were examined. The
old man was first brought in. He was put to
the torture without any regard to his age and
character, but he steadily denied having had
any part in the burning of the convent. He
was then accused of having destroyed an image
of St. Anne. Nothing could be proved against
his two sons, except that Adrian Wirth was
married, and that he preached after the man-
ner of Zwingle and Luther-and that John
Wirth had given the Sacrament to a sick man
without bell and taper.
But the fury of their persecutors was only in.
creased by the proof of their innocence. From
morning until noon they inflicted the most cruel







THE REFORMATION.


tortures on the old man. His tears could not
soften his judges. John Wirth was treated
with still greater barbarity. Tell us," said
they to him in the midst of his anguish, "whence
did you learn this heretical faith ?-from Zwin-
gle, or from any other person ?" And when he
exclaimed, 0 merciful and everlasting God,
help and comfort me I" one of his profane tor-
mentors asked, Where is your Christ now?"
When Adrian Wirth appeared, Sebastian of
Stein, the deputy ofBerne, saidtohim, "Young
man, tell us the truth, for if you refuse to do so,
I swear by my knighthood, that I gained on the
very spot where the Lord was crucified, that
we will open your veins one after another."
They then fastened the young man to a rope,
and hoisted him into the air. There my little
master," said Stein with a sneer, there is your
wedding present," alluding to the marriage of
this youthful servant of the Lord. When the
examination was ended the deputies returned
to their Cantons, and did not meet again until
four weeks after. The wifeof the elder Wirth,
carrying an infant child in her arms, came to








A HISTORY ON


Baden to intercede with the judges for her
husband and her two sons. John Escher, of
Zurich, came with her as her advocate. Among
the judges he saw Jerome Stocker, who knew
well the excellent character of the Wirths.
"You know," said Escher, "that Wirth has
always been an upright man." "You say the
truth, my dear Escher," replied Stocker, he
has never injured any one; citizens and stran-
gers were always kindly welcomed to his table;
his house was a convent, an inn, and an hos-
pital-and so, if he had committed robbery or
'murder, I would have made every exertion to
obtain his pardon: but seeing that he has
burnt St. Anne, Christ's grandmother, he must
die "The Lord have mercy upon us ex-
claimed Escher.
Some time after, the deputies of nine Cantons
passed sentence of death on Wirth and his son
John, who appeared to be firmest in his faith,
and on another Zuricher, named Rutiman.
Adrian Wirth's second son was pardoned at
the earnest entreaty of his mother. When the
officers went to the prison to bring the prison-







THR BE]IO ACTION.


era to the court, the old man said to Adrian-
"My son, never avenge our death, although
we do not deserve punishment." Adrian burst
into tears. Brother," said John, "the cross
of Christ must always follow his Word."
After the sentence was read the three Chris-
tians were led back to prison-John Wirth
walking first, his father and Rutiman next, and
a priest behind them. As they were crossing
the castle bridge, on which was a chapel dedi-
cated to St. Joseph, the priest called out to the
two old men-" Fall down upon your knees
and call upon the saints." John Wirth, who
was in front, turned round at these words, and
said-" Father, be firm; you know that there
is only one Mediator between God and man,
the Lord Jesus Christ." "Assuredly, my son,"
replied the old man, and by the help of his
grace I will continue faithful to the end." Upon
this, they all three began to repeat the Lord's
Prayer-"' Our Father which art in Heaven"-
and so crossed the bridge.
They were next brought to the scaffold. John
Wirth, who loved his father very much, bade







A HISTORY OF


him farewell. "My dearly beloved father," said
he, "henceforward thou art no longer my fa-
ther, and I am no longer thy son, but we are
brothers in Christ our Lord, for whose name
we must suffer death to-day, if it be God's
pleasure; my beloved brother, we shall go to
Him who is the Father of us all. Fear nothing."
" Amen 1" replied the old man, and may God
Almighty bless thee, my beloved son and bro-
ther in Christ 1"
Thus, on the threshold of eternity, these good
men felt that every relation but that of children
of God would cease in that glorious state upon
which they were about to enter through the
bloody gate of martyrdom. Rutiman prayed
in silence. The greater part of the crowd shed
floods of tears.
All three then knelt down, and their heads
were cut off; the crowd, observing the marks
of the torture upon their bodies, cried aloud
with grief.
Thus, in Switzerland as well as in England,
the Church of Rome showed, by her savage
cruelty to the people of Christ, that she is the








THE REFORMATION.


great apostasy described by St. John in the
Revelations, as a harlot gaudily dressed, and
" drunken with the blood of the saints and with
the blood of the martyrs of Jesus." We may
wonder that Christ should permit that wicked
Church thus to murder His true people; but
when we think not only of the courage but the
forgiving gentleness with which the martyrs
bore their dreadful trial, we cannot but see
that the power of Christ was more glorified in
them than if He had sent down fire from hea-
ven to consume their murderers-for he that
ruleth his own spirit is greater than he that
taketh a city;" but it was the power of Christ's
grace which strengthened the martyrs to rule
their spirit as they did. For I am sure that if
any one praised them for their gentleness and
their bravery they would refuse to take any
honour to themselves, and that each one of
them would say, like St. Paul, "Not I, but the
grace of Go4 which was in me."'







A HISTORY OF


CHAPTER VI.
Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, and the Wifer-The MassboUlhed
at Zurich-Great love among the Christlns-The Gospel ad-
vancee at Berne-The Nuns of Konigfeldt-1E colampadils
preaches with much success at Bale-The Anabaptists.

IN the first volume of this history, you have
heard of that very learned man, Erasmus. In
the history of the Reformation in Switzerland
we meet with him again, and he still appears
as timid, wavering, and unsteady as ever. He
was, however, convinced that the Church of
Rome was teaching false doctrine. We have
clear proof of this in the following story relat-
ing to him and Sir Thomas More, the cele-
brated Papist Chancellor of England. Erasmus
and Sir Thomas had a short dispute about the
wafer which the priest pretends to change into
the person of Christ. Erasmus was contending
against this foolish and wicked notion of Anti-
christ, and when Sir Thomas More could not
convince him by sound arguments, he said to







THE BTFOBMATION. 51

him, Believe that you have the body of Christ,
and you have it really." Erasmus made no re-
ply. Shortly after, when leaving England,
More lent him a horse to carry him to the sea-
side, but Erasmus took it with him to the Con-
tinent. More was very angry at this, and
wrote a sharp letter to Erasmus, calling on
him to restore his horse. Erasmus, in reply,
wrote him the following lines:-

"You aid of the bodily prence of Chrilt-
BeMee that you have, and you have him ;
Of the nag that I took, my reply is the msme
&awm that you hae, and you have him."

This is very good,for it shows us the Papists,
when put on the defence of their religion, are
obliged to talk what every body would denounce
as rank nonsense if applied to the common con-
cerns of life. But a man may be convinced of
the foolery of Popery without having the ho-
nesty and courage to oppose it against his own
worldly interest. It was so with poor Erasmus.
He wrote to Zwingle-" I shall not be unfaith-
ful to the cause ofChrist, at leastsofaras the age
wil permit me." His learning, great as it was,







2 A HISTORY OF
taught him nothing better than this. We must
pray for God's Holy Spirit to make us valiant
for His truth-so valiant that nothing may ever
hinder us from speaking openly in its defence.
There is nothing which our Saviour loathes more
than half-hearted service. If we would be His
disciples, we must be prepared cheerfully to lay
down our lives for the Gospel. Nothing but
God's Holy Spirit can implant and sustain such
noble courage in our hearts. Peter thought he
could confess his Master; he went on in his own
strength, and you know how shamefully he fell.
His fall is related in the Bible, for our warning.
I told you in the last chapter how those good
men, the Wirths, were cruelly put to death for
the Gospel; but the people of Zurich showed
that they were not daunted by this, for imme-
diately after, they abolished the Romish Mass,
and restored the Lord's Supper as Christ insti-
tuted it. There seemed just at this time to
have been an outpouring of the Holy Spirit on
the Christians of Zurich, like that which we
read of in the Acts of the Apostles as having
taking place on the Day of Pentecost. The






THE NREOBMATION. 53

altars on which the wicked priests ofAntichrist
pretended to offer their abominable mass.sacri-
fice were taken away out of the churches, and
decent communion tables were put in their
places, and a devout and attentive crowd press-
ed around them. On Holy Thursday the young
people, on Good Friday the men and women,
and on Easter Sunday the aged, received the
bread and wine which our Lord appointed to be
taken in remembrance of His body that was
given, and His blood that was shed for us.
The love of the first age of the Gospel was now
revived in Zurich. Enemies who had long
hated one another were seen embracing in bro-
theily love, after having taken the sacramen-
tal bread. Zwingle's heart was greatly glad-
dened by such plain proofs of the work of God's
Holy Spirit in the hearts of the people.
" Peace," said he, dwells in our city; among
us there is no fraud, no dissension, no envying,
no strife. Whence can such harmony come
but from the Lord? And it shows that the doc-
trine which we preach inclines us to innocence
and peace."







54 A HISTORY OF
Thus the Gospel was established in Zurich:
and when the people were told that several
States had refused to sit with them in future'in
the Diet, they calmly replied-" Well, then, we
have the firm assurance that God the Father,
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, in whose name
our States were united, will not desert us, and
will at last, of His great mercy, make us sit at
the right hand of His glorious majesty."
We now turn to the Canton of Berne, where
the Gospel, in the face of much opposition,
was also making progress. The Government
made a law that men should not preach from
the writings of Luther, or any other human
teacher, but that they should teach the doc-
trines of God freely and openly, as it is laid
down in the Old and New Testament.
There was in Berne at Konigsfeldt a convent,
where many devout ladies of high rank had
imprisoned themselves as nuns. Zwingle re-
ceived a letter from the Mother Abbess of this
convent, in which she thanked God that the
doctrine of salvation was spreading day by day
through his preaching of the Word of God;






THE BE ORMATION.


and some time after, the nuns applied to the
Government to release them from imprisonment.
in the convent, as they were persuaded that
they could serve God better in the bosoms of
their families; and, after some time, the liberty
which they asked was granted.
The celebrated city of Basle also showed fa-
vour to the doctrine of the Gospel. iEcolam-
padius was the man raised up by God to turn
the hearts of his countrymen, in this place, from
superstition to true religion. Like Luther, he
had been a monk, and knew, by bitter expe-
rience, the cruel bondage in which the Church
of Rome holds its dupes. After escaping many
dangers with which he was threatened by the
fury of the monks and other partisans of the
Pope, he was made curate of St. Martin's
Church, and from his pulpit he sounded forth
the pure doctrines of the Gospel. An immense
crowd filled the church whenever he preached;
and such an impression was made, that even
Erasmus, who lived in that city, was forced to
exclaim, "-Ecolampadius triumphs I"
But the Gospel could not long continue to







5( A HISTORY OF
spread without interruption. Satan has, at all
times, laboured to hinder its progress, and his
great power over men was now used for that
purpose. Nothing can protect men from the
wiles of that evil spirit but the holy Word of
God, and therefore the Devil always strives to
turn men aside from the teaching of the Bible.'
He persuades Papists that they do not need
that Holy Book, as they have their priests to
teach them. He whispers to others, who, per-
haps, doubt or deny his existence, that their
own reason is able to guide them much better
than the Bible; and he deludes others to ima-
gine that they have an inward light from God
which teaches them all things, and that, there-
fore, the Scriptures are useless. Men had been
driven out of the first of these errors by the
preaching of the Reformers, but Satan now
filled the minds of many with vain notions, that
God had given them such an inward light that
they did not need the Bible any more. The
same sect also appeared in Germany, as I told
you in the history of the Reformation in that
country. Indeed it was when they were driven







Tri ImroarATION. 65
iut of termany that they came into Switzer-
land. These bad people were called Anabap-
tists, and to such lengths were they driven by
Satan, that some of them burnt the New Tes-
tament, saying 'I The letter killeth, but the
Spirit giveth life." I shall tell you more about
these wicked people in the next chapter, but
what has been said um\y show you that we
should stand aloof from every teacher and
every church, which sets up any rule for our
faith and conduct but the 1Voly Bible.







A HImTOBRY 0


CHAPTER VII.
The Am bptUist-Fanaticism of Schucker sad his Sons-Their
error checked-Need of the Word and the Spirit-Dispute be-
tween Luther and Zingle about the Lord's Supper-Progres
of the Gospel-A Disputation-Happy Ee lts.

I PRomSED in the last chapter to tell my
young readers something about the Anabap-
tists, which would show how very dangerous
it is for people to set up their own fancies as
an inward light to guide them, instead of the
Word of God as written in the Bible.
In a solitary house near St. Gall, lived an
aged farmer, John Schucker, with his five sons.
All in this house, including the servants, had
become Anabaptists, and two of the farmer's
sons, Leonard and Thomas, were among the
most zealous of these misguided people. On
a certain day they invited a large party to
their house; their father killed a calf for the
feast, and supplied the guests with plenty of
wine. The whole night was spent in telling







THE REPOB23TION.


each other what they had learned from the
, inward light." Some of them, as they talked,
tossed about their arms and legs, and some of
them fell into convulsions.
In the morning, Thomas, who it seems had
lost his "eason, took the calf's bladder, and,
placing part of the gall in it, came to his bro-
ther Leonard, saying, with a solemn voice,
*' Thus bitter is the death thou art to suffer I"
He then added, "Brother Leonard, kneel
'down." Leonard fell on his knees. Shortly
-after, Thomas bid him arise, and he rose up.
The old farmer and the rest of the Anabap-
tists looked on, wondering what God would do,
for they supposed that Leonard was doing what
God told him. Thomas commanded his bro-
ther to kneel down again; he obeyed. The
people who were present, being frightened
when they saw how gloomy Thomas looked,
said to him, "Think of what you are about, and
take care that no mischief happens." "Fear
not," replied Thomas, "nothing will happen
but the will of the Father." At the same time,
he hastily caught up a sword, and, striking a






A HISTORY OF


violent blow at his brother, who was still kneel-
ing before him, he cut off his head, crying out
with a loud voice, Now the will of the Father
is finished."
The people who were present werr struck
with horror at the deed, and gave vent to their
grief in groans and cries. Thomas, who was
nearly naked, ran out of the house, to St. Gall,
tossing about his limbs as he went. He en-
tered the house of a magistrate, and, with a dis.
tracted look and a wild cry, said to him, I
proclaim to thee the day of the Lord 1" The
news of this horrid event soon spread through
that part of the country. He has slain his
brother as Cain slew Abel," said the people.
The murderer was seized. "It is true I did
it," said he, but it is God who did it through
me." He was tried and condemned for the
murder, and lost his head by the sword of the
executioner. This dreadful event opened peo-
ple's eyes, and put an end to the error of the
Anabaptists in that part of the country. There
is every reason to believe that the Devil was
the agent in the whole of this business. We






TEH REFORMATION.


have no reason to think that God does not per-
mit that wicked spirit sometimes to possess the
bodies of men now, as we know he did in our
Lord's time. Satan's great object is to turn
men away from Christ's true religion, and, as
that can only be learned from the Bible, read
or heard under the inward teaching of the
Holy Spirit, the Devil is always striving to
turn men aside from the Bible, and to persuade
them that there is no such thing as the inward
light of the Holy Spirit. By the error of the
Anabaptists, Satan taught men that they did
not need the Bible; and by the dreadful wick-
edness which they did, while they said they had
God's inward light in their souls, he gave think-
ing men some ground to suspect that the inward
light of the Spirit was nothing but delusion
and madness. The Devil's craft lay in sepa-
rating what God has joined together. God
has joined the Bible and the inward teaching of
the Spirit; but the Devil said to these unhappy
men-" You do not want the Bible, the inward
light is enough for you;" and thus he prepared
them to do any wickedness which he put into






62 A HIBTORT OF
their hearts. If we would escape from this
snare, we must never separate the Bible and
the inward light of the Spirit. It it by the
Bible that the Holy Ghost teaches the people
of God; therefore, if we desire to know the
will of God, we must search the Scriptures,"
and pray earnestly, at the same time, for the
teaching of the Holy Spirit. "Open thou
mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things
out of thy law I"
There was at this time a great dispute be-
tween Luther and Zwingle about the Lord's
Supper. Luther taught, that although the
bread and wine remained, there was also pre-
sent in the sacrament the literal body of Christ,
Zwingle taught that the Lord's Supper was in-
tended only to remind Christians of the Lord's
body, which was given, and His blood which
was shed, for them. This difference of opinion
among good men shows us how imperfect the
best are in this present world. "Now we see
through a glass darkly;" but it is a great com-
fort to know that God's people will be brought
to the knowledge of all saving truth. Luther







THE BEFOBMATION.


knew enough to save him from the dreadful
error of giving to a bit of bread the worship
which belongs to God, as the Papists do; and
Zwingle knew enough about the sacrament to
lead him into the enjoyment of the blessings
realized by those who receive it in humble de-
pendence on the grace of the Great Master of
the feast. This dispute between these leaders
of the Reformation also shows us that they
were influenced by a love of truth, and not by
a blind hatred to the Church of Rome.
But amid all the noise and confusion created
by the wickedness and ignorance of man, God,
by the small still voice of His Spirit, spoke to
the hearts of sinners, and His holy truth con-
tinued every day to make new triumphs. In
the mountains of the Tockenburgh three priests
openly taught the truths of the Gospel, and
when they were persecuted by the bishop, these
good men said, "Convince us by the Bible that
we are wrong, and we will submit to the mean-
est of our brethren in Christ, otherwise we will
obey no one, not even the mightiest among
men." This was the true spirit of the Refor-






04 A EITOBR OF
nation, which took possession of many hearts
in Zwingle's native mountains.
The Gospel also spread very much at this
time in Rhletia, where a good man named
Comander was faithfully preaching it. A
meeting was held at Ilantz, for a public con-
ference or disputation between the Protestants
and the Papists. The Bishop's Vicar, who
was to dispute in favour of the Church of
Rome, did all he could to hinder this meeting,
but in vain. Comander stood up, and read
the following sentence, which he undertook to
defend-" The Church of Christ is born of
the Word of God; it must abide by this
Word, and hear no other voice." He then
went on to prove this by many texts of Scrip.
ture. This is too long," said the Vicar.
" When he is at table with his friends, listening
to the pipers," said a man of Zurich, "he does
not find the time too long."
Shortly after this, a man arose and came
forward from the midst of the crowd, tossing
his arms about, and knitting his brows; he
rushed towards Comander, and many thought






TBH BERORBATI O. 9S

he was going to strike him. He was a man
named Berre, a school'.aster of Coire. "I
have written out a great miny questions,"
said he to the Reformer, "answer them in-
stantly." "I am 'ere," said Comander, "to
defend my doctrine; attack it, and I will de-
fend it, or elesc return to your place; I will
answer you when I have done." The school-
master remained silent for some moments, and
then returned to his seat.
It was next proposed to discuss the doctrine
of the racraments. The Abbot of St. Luke's
declared that he could not take up such a
subject without awe, and began to make the
sign of the cross. The schoolmaster again
come forward, and began to defend the Romish
doctrine from the text, "This is my body."
" But how," asked Comander, do you under-
stand these words, 'John is Elias?"' "I un-
derstand," said Berre, who saw what Coman-
der was aiming at, "that he was really and
truly Elias." "Why, then," continued Co-
mander, "did John the Baptist himself say to
the Pharisees that he was not Elias?" The







66 t. rISTORY or
schoolmaster was silent; at last he replied, "It
is true." Everyone bt gan to laugh, even those
who had urged him to speak.
The Abbot of St. Luie's then closed the
conference by a long speech. Some people
say that such discussions do no good, but this
is a great mistake; they were among the means
which God employed for shoving men the
falsehood of Popery at the Refomiiation, and
when they are conducted in faith, they serve
the same purpose still. The dislike ,which the
priests show to such meetings, and t he diffi-
culty with which they are brought to tai'e any
part in them, shows that they feel them 0b be
injurious to their superstition. The discussion
at Ilantz proved to be so. Seven priests fo r-
sook Popery, and embraced the Gospel;- com-
plete religious liberty was proclaimed; the
idolatrous mass and the senseless mummery of
the Latin service ceased inmany of the churches,
and the Gospel was preached to the people; and
the worship of God, according to His Word, was
set up.






TEn BInOBIATION.


CHAPTER VIII.
Martydom o Keyse-War-The Bernee reutheir sid-The
Paplits all unite-Zwingle's fears-Unchristian conduct of
Zurich and Berne-Perplexities of Zwingle-Zwingle goo to
Battle-Defeat of the Proteiants, and death of Zwingle.

I MUST now draw the history of the Reforma-
tion in Switzerland to a close. I have not yet
told my young readers anything about two
great and good men, who helped on the work
of God against Popery in that country very
much-I mean Farel and Calvin ; but as they
were born in France, I shall not forget them
when I come, in the following chapters, to
speak of the Reformation there.
The Gospel never makes much vay in any
place without violent opposition. The hatred
which it stirs up in the mind of fallen' man is
so great, that it aims at nothing short of the
death of those who receive it. It was Lo in
Switzerland. The storm had been for a Long
time gathering, it burst fearfully at last.







A HISTORY Or


There was a good man named Keyser, a
minister of the Gospel, who had been appointed
pastor of Oberkirk; when he was going to
preach in his church he was seized by six men
of the Popish Canton of Schwytz, and brought
before the magistrates, by whose orders he was
burned to death.
When Zwingle heard of this he was very
angry, and advised the Protestants to take up
arms for their defence. This advice might
have been very suitable if Zwingle was a ma-
gistrate or a general, but he seems to have for-
gotton that he was neither, but a minister of
Jesus Christ.
The Swiss were now arming in every direc-
tion, and the Papists sought the aid of Aus-
tria. Zwingle joined the Protestant army,
although the Council of Zurich wished him to
remain at 'home with them.
The people of Zurich sought help from their
fellow-Protestants in Berne, but they refused
to aid them, saying, Since Zurich has begun
the -war without us, let her finish it in like
manner." The Romish Cantons did not act






THE BSFOBaATION. 69
thus, but joined together as one man for the
defence of Popery.
When the army of Zurich was marching
onward, they were met by a man named Aebli,
a magistrate of Glaris. He entreated them
for the love of God to halt, until he should re.
turn to them in a few hours, when he hoped
to make an honourable peace.
Aebli was known to be a good man, and
therefore the captains of Zurich were inclined
to take his advice, but Zwingle tried to hinder
them. He said-" Our enemies are caught in
a sack, and therefore they give you sweet
words; by-and-bye they will fall upon us, and
there will be none to deliver us." You will see
how Zwingle's words proved to be true. A sort
of peace was made, and the advantage seemed
to be on the side of Zurich and the Reforma.
tion; but Zwingle did not think so. His mind
was bowed down with gloomy fear for the
future, and what followed will show you that
his fears were not groundless.
The bad feeling existing between the two
parties was increased by daily insults. At last







A HISTORY OF


Berne and Zurich determined not to supply
the five Romish Cantons with the food which
they used to purchase from them. They not
only did this, but they cut off the supplies which
were sent to them from other parts of Europe.
This was very bad indeed; but we must tell it,
even though it was done by Protestants, for our
design is not to exalt any party, but to state
facts as they are. But we must remind our
readers that although such conduct was very
disgraceful to the people of Berne and Zurich,
it is no disgrace to the Bible, for the Bible con-
demns it. It says-"If thine enemy hunger,
feed him; if he thirst, give him drink." We
must beware, lest a false zeal for the Bible should
impel us to such acts as the Bible condemns.
The people of the five Cantons now became
furious. They said-" They block up their
roads, but we will open them with our right
arm." Some attempts were made to settle the
dispute between the Cantons. A council of the
rulers of the Cantons was held at Bremgarten,
and for some time there was hope that good
feeling would be restored, but it was not so.






THE BEFOBRATION.


In the meantime, Zwingle was losing his
power in Zurich. The influence which he
gained as a Reformer he lost when he became
a politician. People of all classes suffered
much from the violent measures which he re-
commended, and all the discontented pointed
at Zwingle as the cause of their misfortunes.
Zwingle was heart-broken; he had taken up
the false notion, that the violent means which
are used by the rulers of this world for support-
ing their rights should be employed in the ser-
vice of the Gospel He wished to retire from
public life, but the rulers of Zurich besought
him not to desert them. "I will stay with
you," said he, and I will labour for the public
safety until death."
Zwingle seeing that war was at hand, tried to
persuade the Protestants to make preparation
for it, but in vain; his influence was gone, and
a panic seemed to have seized every mind.
But the Romish Cantons decided upon war, and
made active preparations for it. Warning after
warning came to Zurich, but all was in vain.
At length the enemy was at hand, and all the







A HISTORY OF


force that could be got together to meet them
consisted of about 700 men, badly armed, and
without discipline. Zwingle marched with this
disorderly crowd to meet the powerful foe; he
parted from his wife and children under the
sorrowful persuasion that they should never
meet again in this world.
At eleven o'clock on the following morning,
the little band of Zurich came within sight of
the powerful army of the five Cantons. They
fell on their knees and entreated help from
God. They then prepared themselves for battle.
Their force at this time had increased to about
1,200 men.
At four o'clock in the evening, the first shot
was fired by the army of the five Cantons.
After there had been much skirmishing, as
evening came on, the men of Zurich thought
that the battle would not be fought until the
next day; but suddenly a dreadful fire was
opened upon them in a wood where they had
posted themselves; many of their soldiers
fell, and the rest, to save themselves, lay flat
on the ground. "Warriors," said Zwingle,







TE REFORMATIO,.


who was there with a spear in his hand, fear
nothing; if we are this day to be defeated, our
cause is good: commend yourselves to God."
The battle now commenced; the men of Zurich
fought with desperate valour for a time, but a
panic seized them, and many fled. Some still
maintained their ground, and fell, after killing
many of the enemy, covered with many wounds.
The slaughter of the men of Zurich, considering
the smallness of their numbers, was very great;
amongst the slain, were twenty-five ministers of
the Gospel, who marched to battle at the head
of their flocks. The Romish soldiers trembled
with rage whenever they discovered one of these
ministers, and they sacrificed him as a chosen
victim to the Virgin.
Zwingle was at the post of danger-the hel-
met on his head, the sword at his side, and the
battle-axe in his hand. The battle had scarcely
begun, when, stooping to console a dying man,
a stone struck him on the head and closed his
lips. Yet Zwingle arose, when two other blows
which hit him on the leg, threw him down
again. Twice more he stood up; but a fourth
E







A HISTORY OF


time he receives a thrust from a lance; he
staggers, and, sinking beneath so many wounds,
falls on his knees. Once more he lifts up his
head, and, gazing with a calm eye upon the
trickling blood, exclaims, What matters this
misfortune I They may indeed kill the body,
but they cannot kill the soul." These were
his last words.
Zwingle was dead. A great light had been
put out in the Church of God. Happy had it
been for his native land if this great Reformer
had wielded only the legitimate weapon of the
warfare in which he was engaged, The
sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God."
The result of this contest greatly strengthened
the cause of Popery; it was restored at Brem-
garten and other places; priests and monks
swarmed everywhere. We bid farewell to this
sad scene in the words of the Psalmist, Some
trust in chariots, and more in horses: but we
will remember the name of the Lord our God.
They are brought down and fallen: but we are
risen and stand upright."






THE REFORMATION.


CHAPTER IX.
Savage enmity of the Romish arty-Death of oolampedius-
The Waldenses-William Farel-He goes to Parlo-Hs bl-
go ry and converion-The Bishop of Meaux-Queen Marget.
ZWINGL had fallen on the field of battle.
His dead body was cut up into quarters, and
then burned-the ashes of swine were mixed
with his-and his remains were scattered by
his cruel enemies to the four winds of heaven.
Just at this time another great light of the
Swiss Reformation was taken away. Ecolam.
padius, surrounded by his children and his
Christian friends, died calmly upon his bed,
happy at the prospect of being with Jesus.
The prospects of the Christian Church in
Switzerland were at this time very gloomy.
But often, when the eye can see nothing in
outward events but ground for discourage-
ment, the unseen Spirit of God, who is the
builder up of the Church, is silently working








A HISTORY OF


on the minds and hearts of men, and training
new champions to maintain His truth before
the world. It was so in this period of the
history. In another land God was preparing
a soldier of the cross, by whose means the
Reformation was to gain fresh victories in
Switzerland.
So far back as the ninth century, we find a
people living at the foot of the Alps, who
never ceased to warn the Church of the de-
ceits of the Bishop of Rome. Many and cruel
were the persecutions to which these good
men, who were called Waldenses, were ex-
posed. In the year 1487, a guilty wretch,
called Innocent VIII., who was then Pope,
wrote a Bull against these good people. To
arms," said this pretended vicar of Christ,
"and trample these heretics under foot, as
poisonous serpents."
In obedience to this call, an army of eighteen
thousand men, and a number of other persons
who wished to enrich themselves by robbing
the good Waldcnses, followed the Pope's legate.
The poor Christians, terrified at the approach






THE rEFORMATION.


of such a force, forsook their houses, and took
refuge in the caverns of the mountains. Not
a valley, not a wood, not a rock, escaped their
persecutors; everywhere these humble Chris-
tians were hunted down like beasts of prey,
until the Pope's soldiers, weared with pursuing
and murdering them, could execute their cruel
task no longer.
In the mountainous country which was the
scene of this cruel oppression, at a short dis-
tance from the town of Gap, was a manor
house, in which there lived a noble family
called Farel. In the very year that the Pope
was carrying on the cruel persecution, of which
I have just told you, a child was born in this
house, who was named William, and, as his
parents were Papists, he and his brothers and
sisters were trained up in all the errors and
superstitions of the Church of Rome.
William Farel was a very fine youth; he
had a sharp mind and a lively fancy; he was
very sincere and truthful; he was also very
eager in following what he thought to be
right, and so courageous that no difficulties or







78 A HISTORY OF
dangers could frighten him. The only fault
in his character seems to have been a head-
long rashness.
So long as young Farel thought that Po-
pery was the true religion of Christ, nothing
could surpass the zeal and diligence with
which he practised all its superstitions. He
was also very eager in the pursuit of know-
ledge, and, having learned all that could be
taught him in his native mountains, he was
very anxious to go to Paris, which was then
celebrated for its learning; and having got
leave from his parents, he set out for that
famous city.
At the time that Farel went to Paris many
men lived there who delighted much in study.
Among these was a person named Levevre.
He was a professor of divinity in the univer-
sity, and he had learned the great truth, that
all who desire the right knowledge of God
must seek it in the Bible. But Levevre's
eyes were not yet opened to see how the
Church of Rome had departed from the faith;
he used to attend constantly at the Mass, and







THE REFORMATION.


none bent themselves more devoutly than he
before the images. Farel used to notice him
on these occasions, and being as falsely but
zealously devout as himself, he sought to be-
come acquainted with him. A great friendship
sprung up between Farel and Levevre. Farel
looked up to him with all the respect of a son,
and Levevre regarded him with the affection of
a father.
The darkness of Farel's mind at this time
was very gross. He tells us himself that he
regarded the Pope of Rome as the visible
head of the Church-a sort of God by whose
will souls might be saved. Whenever he heard
any one speak against the Pope, he would gnash
his teeth like a furious wolf, and would have
called down fire from heaven to consume the
guilty wretch. "I believe," said he, "in the
cross, in pilgrimages, images, vows, and relics.
What the priest holds in his hands, puts into
the box, and there shuts up, eats, and gives to
others to eat, is my only true God, and to me
there is no other either in heaven or earth."
In another place he says.- Satan had so lodged







A HISTORY OF


the Pope, the Papacy, and all that is his in my
heart, that even the Pope had not so much of
it in himself." How wonderful that God should
make such a man the instrument of bringing
thousands to the light of the Gospel I
But the darkness of Farel's mind was not
driven away in a moment. He began to study
the Bible, and he soon found out that its
teaching and the teaching of the Church of
Rome were totally different; then a terrible
struggle began in his mind, between his re-
spect for the Church of Rome and his reve-
rence for the Holy Scriptures. For a time, he
threw aside his Bible, and returned to the
superstitions of Rome, but his soul could find
no peace. At this time God was teaching his
friend Levevre, who now began to preach
the great truth, that a'linner is justified and
saved, not by his own merit, but through faith
in the all-sufficient merits of Christ. Farel
embraced this truth with all the ardour of his
soul. "Then," said he, "Popery was utterly
overthrown; I began to detest it as devilish,
and the holy Word of God had the chief







THE REFORMATION.


place in my heart." In another place, speak-
ing of the wonderful change which God's grace
had wrought in him at the time, he says-
"Now everything appears to me in another
form; Scripture is cleared up, prophecy is
opened; the Apostles shed a strong light upon
my soul; a voice till now unknown-the voice
of Christ, my shepherd, my master, my teacher,
speaks to me with power. I was so changed,
that, instead of the murderous heart of a raven-
ing wolf, I came back quietly like a meek and
harmless lamb, having my heart entirely with-
drawn from the Pope, and given to Jesus
Christ."
While God was thus preparing Farel and
others to be preachers of His truth in France
(A.D. 1512), Luther was travelling to Rome
as a monk, and Zwingle was living as a man
of the world, careless of divine things: so that
we may say that the great Reformation of the
sixteenth century began in France; nor was it
communicated thence to Germany, and thence
to Switzerland. It sprung up in these coun-
tries by the immediate impulse of God's Holy
S2







A HISTORY OF


Spirit in the hearts of men. My young readers
should carefully note this, for it is a fact which
shows that this great religious movement had
its beginning with God, and not with man.
We must now pass over a period of several
years, when Farel, having been made a master
of arts, became lecturer at one of the princi-
pal colleges in Paris. Several were now won
over to the cause of true religion; among
whom was Brigonnet, the Bishop of Meaux,
who seems with much humbleness of mind to
have received the Gospel. But, as in the
days of the Apostles, there were saints in
Caesar's household, there were in the court of
the French King, at this time, some true dis-
ciples of Christ. Among the most illustrious
of these converts was Margaret of Alengon,
sister of the King, Francis I. This lady was
very beautiful, and very accomplished and
agreeable, greatly beloved by her brother and
by all who knew her, for her kind and amiable
manners. The French court at this time
was very wicked; the nobles who composed
it were either superstitious Papists or profane







THE REFOBMATION.


infidels; and even among those who were not
grossly immoral, scarcely one could be found
who seemed to have a taste for anything be-
yond those vain amusements which draw away
the heart from God. Margaret, whose soul
was thirsting for something better than the
pleasures of a palace, heard from some of the
ladies of the court what Levevre, and Farel,
and others were teaching; they lent her their
little books, and spoke to her of the Primitive
Church, of the pure Word of God-of wor-
shipping in spirit and in truth-of Christian
liberty, which shakes off the bondage of man,
and binds the soul closer to God. Soon the
curiosity of this princess became awakened,
and she conversed on the things of God with
Levevre and Farel. Their zeal, their piety,
and the purity of their morals made a deep
impression on her; but it was the Bishop of
Meaux, whom she had long honoured with her
friendship, who became her principal guide in
the path of life.
This amiable princess soon after found how
truly the Apostle had written-"All that will







84 A HISTORY or
live godly in Christ Jesus, must suffer persecut-
tion." The change which had taken place in
her was remarked by all. The ungodly and
immoral courtiers were very angry. What I"
they exclaimed, "even the sister of the King
takes part with these people I" She was ac-
cused to the King of having become a Protes-
tant, but as he loved his sister tenderly he
pretended to think that the charge was not
true. Margaret's great amiability lessened the
opposition for a time, but nothing but the
grace of God can effectually conquer the
hatred with which the hearts of natural men
rage against Christ's true people.







THE REFORMATION.


CHAPTER X.

Numerous enemies to the Gopel in France-Persention-The
New Testament and Pslms printed in French-Bishop of
Meaux preaches the Gospel-Threat of a Monk-Cowardice
of the Bishop-Martyrdom of Le Clere-B-lections.

THE mother of the French King, Louisa of
Savoy, was a very bad woman, and the Chan-
cellor of the kingdom, Anthony Duprat, who
was a great favourite of hers, was as wicked as
she. These two powerful persons were great
persecutors of Christ's people. Francis was
very much guided by them. He made an agree-
ment with the Pope at Bologna, which gave
the Pope great power in France; and the Pope,
in return, gave him leave to appoint priests and
bishops in France. All this power was used
to put down true religion. In every age the
kings and the rulers of the earth take counsel
together against the Lord and against His
Anointed;" but in His own good time "He
will dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel."







86 A HISTORY or
But there was another party in France who
were equally opposed to the Gospel. All the
superstitious priests and monks were as violent
against Christ's true religion as the Pharisees of
old. A man named Beda was foremost among
this class.
The persecution raised by these enemies of
truth became so hot, that Levevre and Farel
were obliged to quit Paris, and retire to Meaux,
where they were kindly received by Brigonnet,
the bishop of that place, who then seemed to
be a true Christian, but who afterwards proved
to be such as our Lord describes in the pa-
rable of the sower, who at first receive the Gos-
pel gladly, but who fall away when tribulation
and persecution arise because of the Word.
For a time, however, Meaux was the place
where true religion had a shelter. Many ex-
cellent men, whose hearts the Lord had touch-
ed, fled there from the persecution which was
directed against them in other places, and were
kindly received by the bishop.
Margaret, the King's sister, was now left
alone in Paris, and she used often to write to




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