• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Surrender of Detroit
 Battle of Queenstown
 Defence of Fort Harrison
 Capture of the Guerriere
 Capture of the Frolic
 Attack on York
 Capture of Fort George
 Defence of Sackett's Harbor
 Defence of Fort Stephenson
 Building of the fleet on Lake...
 Battle of Lake Erie
 Battle of the Thames
 Capture of the Boxer
 Battle of Lundy's Lane
 Battle of Lake Champlain
 Defence of Fort M'Henry
 Battle of New Orleans
 Conclusion of the war with Great...
 Battle of Palo Alto
 Battle of Resaca de la Palma
 Siege of Monterey
 Battle of Buena Vista
 Doniphan's march
 Capture of Taos
 Conquest of California
 Siege of Vera Cruz
 Battle of Cerro Gordo
 Storming of Contreras
 Storming of Churubusco
 Capture of Molino Del Rey
 Storming of Chapultepec
 Capture of the city of Mexico
 Defeat of the Mexicans at the National...
 General Pierce
 Capture of Monterey, in upper...
 Battle of San Gabriel
 General Shields at Cerro Gordo
 The American army in the Capit...
 Battle of Atlixco
 Battle of Bracito
 Battle of Sacramento
 Battle of San Pasqual
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Stories of the War of 1812, and the Mexican War ; with numerous engravings
Title: Stories of the War of 1812
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002195/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stories of the War of 1812 and the Mexican War ; with numerous engravings
Alternate Title: Stories of the American Wars
Physical Description: 176 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill., ports. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: J. & J.L. Gihon ( Publisher )
Publisher: J. & J.L. Gihon
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1852, c1851
Copyright Date: 1851
 Subjects
Subject: Mexican War, 1846-1848 -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- War of 1812   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
 Notes
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002195
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237958
oclc - 22754084
notis - ALH8452
lccn - 02017442
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Surrender of Detroit
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Battle of Queenstown
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Defence of Fort Harrison
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Capture of the Guerriere
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Capture of the Frolic
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Attack on York
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Capture of Fort George
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Defence of Sackett's Harbor
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Defence of Fort Stephenson
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Building of the fleet on Lake Erie
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Battle of Lake Erie
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Battle of the Thames
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Capture of the Boxer
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Battle of Lundy's Lane
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Battle of Lake Champlain
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Defence of Fort M'Henry
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Battle of New Orleans
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Conclusion of the war with Great Britain
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Battle of Palo Alto
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Battle of Resaca de la Palma
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Siege of Monterey
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Battle of Buena Vista
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Doniphan's march
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Capture of Taos
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Conquest of California
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Siege of Vera Cruz
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Battle of Cerro Gordo
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Storming of Contreras
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Storming of Churubusco
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Capture of Molino Del Rey
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Storming of Chapultepec
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Capture of the city of Mexico
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Defeat of the Mexicans at the National Bridge
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    General Pierce
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Capture of Monterey, in upper California
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Battle of San Gabriel
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    General Shields at Cerro Gordo
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    The American army in the Capital
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Battle of Atlixco
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Battle of Bracito
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Battle of Sacramento
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    Battle of San Pasqual
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text



















































































































































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V


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STORIES


OF THE


WAR OF 1812,

AND THE

MEXICAN WAR.



WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS.



PHILADELPHIA:
J. & J. L. GIHON,
No. 98 CHESNUT STREET.
1852.




















Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by

J. & J. L. GIHON,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and
for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.












PREFACE.


THE following pages contain a collection of Stories
of the War of 1812, with Great Britain; and of the
Recent War, with the Republic of Mexico.
Rightly considered, the first of these national wars
was a supplement to the glorious War of Independence.
Up to the time when our government boldly threw
down the gauntlet of defiance to the most powerful
nation of Europe, in defence of Free Trade and
Sailor's Rights, the British nation regarded us as re-
volted subjects, successful for the moment, but des-
tined always to be governed by British influence and
ultimately to be reconquered.
The events of the second war with Great Britain
finished what the first had begun, and set the seal on
our Independence. From the period of its conclusion,

(3)





PREFACE.


our flag was respected by Britain and all other na-
tions. Our naval prowess was recognized as a fixed
fact.
The recent war with Mexico has taught the world
another lesson. It has shown that with a standing
army of very few men, and a good militia system, the
republic is capable of raising large and efficient
armies, and conquering a military republic, of immense
population, wealth, and resources, possessing a power-
ful standing army; accustomed, in consequence of the
distracted state of the country, to frequent action and
constant discipline.
The wars which teach these lessons are worthy the
attention of the youth of our country; and we have
endeavored to render these stories of the wars suffi-
ciently attractive to win that degree of attention
and interest which will insure a future study of Ame-
rican history.



























0

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THE WAR OF 1812.


SURRENDER OF DETROIT.
IN June, 1812, the United States de-
clared war against Great Britain. The
chief cause of the war was the impress-
ment of American seamen by the British.
General Hull, with twenty-five hundred
men, took post at Detroit, in Michigan.
Soon afterward, the British general, Brock,
with thirteen hundred men, appeared
before Detroit, erected batteries, and
summoned Hull to surrender. He refused,
and the British opened their fire upon
(7)




SURRENDER OF DETROIT.


the works. On the 26th, they crossed
the river and moved forward to the
attack. The American troops were pre-
pared to receive them, and eager for the
conflict. But as the British approached,
Hull ordered his men to retire into the
fort, and hoisted a white flag. In a short
time, terms of surrender were agreed
upon, and the whole American army,
with all its ammunition and stores were
given up to the British. This surrender
excited the indignation of the people.
Hull was accused of cowardice, tried by
a court martial, and sentenced to be shot.
The President, however, in consideration
of his age and services, remitted the
punishment, but ordered his name to be
stricken from the rolls of the army.















Iii
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BATTLE OF QUEENSTOWN.


EARLY in October, 1812, about three
thousand five hundred men, under com-
mand of General Van Rensselaer, were
assembled on the Niagara frontier. Ge-
neral Van Rensselaer resolved to make
an attack on the British position at
Queenstown, eight miles below Niagara
Falls. At daybreak on the 13th of Oc-
tober, the troops began to embark to
cross the river. The British opened a
fire upon them, which was returned by
the American batteries. Colonel Van
Rensselaer, with about one hundred men,
reached the shore, and stormed the fort
(11)





BATTLE OF QUEENSTOWN.


of the British, though not without severe
loss. The Americans drove the enemy
from the field, and the victory was sup-
posed to be gained, when another rein-
forcement arrived, and the conflict was
renewed. At this critical moment, Ge-
neral Van Rensselaer crossed the river
to bring a reinforcement for his gallant
little band, and found that the militia
would not obey his orders. Colonel
Christie maintained the fight on the op-
posite shore, against overwhelming num-
bers, until seeing no hope of relief, he
surrendered the remnant of his force.
The Americans lost one thousand men in
all, in this battle. The loss of the enemy
was somewhat less, but their noble com-
mander, the gallant Brock, was slain.





















I1









DEFENCE OF FORT HARRISON.

FORT Harrison was a post on the Wa-
bash river, in the heart of the Indian
country. It consisted of two blockhouses,
stockade works, and a few buildings for
stores or magazines. In September 1812,
sixteen men, under the command of Cap-
tain Zachary Taylor, formed the garrison
of this post. On the 3d of September,
two men, who were working in the field
near it, were murdered by the Indians,
and on the night of the 4th, the savages
set fire to one of the blockhouses, and
commenced an assault. Captain Taylor,
though suffering from sickness displayed
(15)





DEFENCE OF FORT HARRISON.


the greatest coolness and resolution.
Two of his men leaped over the stockade
and fled, and the others were seized with
a panic. But he restored their hopes,
and by tearing off the roof of the bar-
racks, and other means, succeeded in
quenching the fire. The savages poured
a steady fire into the fort. The invalids
of the garrison returned it, and the con-
flict was fierce and desperate until day-
break, when the enemy retreated beyond
the reach of the fort. They beleaguered
the garrison, however, for twelve days,
when a large body of troops arrived, and
forced them to raise the siege.



















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COMMODORE HULL.


CAPTURE OF THE GUERRIERE.

AT the commencement of the war, the
navy of Great Britain was looked upon
as invincible. But an important victory
changed the opinion of the people of the
United States. The frigate Constitution,
(19)





CAPTURE OF THE GUERRIERE.


commanded by Captain Isaac Hull, sailed
from Annapolis on the 25th of July, 1812,
for New York. Falling in with a British
fleet, she only escaped by great skill and
seamanship. Soon after she sailed from
Boston, and on the 19th of August en-
countered the British frigate, Guerriere,
commanded by Captain Dacres. A fierce
conflict of about half an hour's length
ensued. The Guerriere was reduced to
a wreck, and after her surrender, burned.
In this action the Americans had seven
men killed, and seven wounded.. The
British loss was fifteen killed, sixty-two
wounded, and twenty-four missing. The
effect of this victory was to give the
Americans confidence in the skill and
bravery of their seamen.


20








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CAPTURE OF THE FROLIC.


THE United States sloop-of-war Wasp,
of eighteen guns, commanded by Captain
Jacob Jones, sailed from the Delaware,
on the 13th of October; and on the 18th
of the month, after a long and heavy
gale, fell in with a convoy of six mer-
chantmen, four of them strongly armed,
under the protection of His Britannic Ma-
jesty sloop-of-war Frolic, of twenty-two
guns, Captain Whinyates. At half-past
eleven in the morning, the action com-
menced at the distance of about fifty
yards. But, during the action, so near
did they come to each other, that the
(23)





CAPTURE OF THE FROLIC.


rammers of the Wasp's cannon struck
against the side of the Frolic. The fire
of the English vessel soon slackened; and
after a most sanguinary action of forty-
three minutes, every brace of the Wasp
being shot away, and the rigging so much
torn, that Captain Jones resolved to board
the enemy. With this view he wore ship
and running down upon the enemy, the
vessels struck. The officers surrendered
the vessel, and the colors were hauled
down by Lieutenant Biddle. The Frolic
was in a shocking condition; the berth-
deck was filled with dead and wounded.
No sooner had the engagement ceased,
than the British ship, Poictiers, of seventy
four guns, came up, and captured both
vessels.


24





























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II:


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ATTACK ON YORK.


GENERAL DEARBORN, the commander of
the United States forces on the Ontario
frontier, having resolved to attack York,
the capital of Upper Canada, embarked
seventeen hundred troops, and left
Sackett's Harbor on the 25th of April.
On the 27th, the troops, under the com-
mand of General Pike, effected a landing
and drove a much superior force of the
enemy from the shore. But they returned
to the attack, and the contest was re-
newed. The enemy were again defeated
and driven to their works. The whole
force of the Americans having reached
the shore, and being arranged in the
(27)





ATTACK ON YORK.


order for attack, General Pike pressed
forward, carried one of the enemy's bat-
teries, and was moving towards the main
works, when a sudden and tremendous
explosion of the magazine occurred,
hurling upon the advancing troops im-
mense masses of stone and timber, and
for a time checking them by the havoc
it made. General Pike was mortally
wounded. But the troops under com-
mand of Colonel Pearce, pressed on, and
captured the town, with all the land and
naval forces in and about it. The total
loss of the Americans was three hundred
and twenty men. General Pike was
greatly lamented. The British loss was
four hundred killed or wounded, and three
hundred prisoners.


28


















II aI


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CAPTURE OF FORT GEORGE.

AFTER the capture of York, General
Dearborn resolved to attempt the cap-
ture of Fort George. On the morning
of the 27th of May, the light troops un-
der Colonel Scott and Major Forsyth, sup-
ported by Colonel Porter's light artillery
and General Lewis's division, crossed
the Niagara river, and attacked the fort.
Other brigades of troops followed. Com-
modore Chauncey had made judicious
arrangements with his small ships, to
silence the enemy's batteries at the point
of landing.. The descent was warmly
contested at the water's edge, by the
(31)





32 CAPTURE OF FORT GEORGE.
British; but they were soon compelled
to give way, and the landing was com-
pleted. The American batteries soon
succeeded in rendering the fort untenable.
The British, retiring from the banks of
the river, re-entered the fort, fired a few
shot, set fire to the magazine, and then
moved off in different directions. Of the
British regular troops, ninety were killed,
one hundred and sixty wounded, and one
hundred captured. The Americans lost
seventeen killed, and sixty wounded.




















0

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DEFENCE OF SACKETT'S HARBOR.

To retalliate for the capture of York,
Sir George Prevost, the British general-
in-chief, determined to make a descent
on Sackett's Harbor, the chief American
depot for stores, on the lakes. Accord-
ingly, on the 27th of May, 1813, Prevost,
with nearly a thousand men, embarked
in small boats, and proceeded, under
convoy of the British fleet. The fleet
being seen on the lake, preparations were
made for the defence of the post. Ge-
neral Brown, with six hundred militia,
came to the aid of the few regular troops,
and made wise disposition for the recep-
(35)






36 DEFENCE OF SACKETT'S HARBOR.
tion of the enemy. Prevost arrived, and
commenced the attack on the evening of
the 28th. The first line of the militia
fired, and then gave way. But Brown,
with the rest of his troops, maintained
his ground against the assault, and
poured such a well aimed fire into the
enemy, that they were checked. The
success was followed up, and at length,
the British were driven to their boats.
Through some mistake the American
stores were burned by the officer set to
guard them. This victory brought the
military talents of General Brown to
light.
















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DEFENCE OF FORT STEPHENSON.

THE defence of Fort Stephenson, at
Lower Sandusky, was one of the most
brilliant exploits in the annals of war.
It was an unfinished stockade fort, gar-
risoned by one hundred and fifty men,
under the command of Major George
Croghan. General Harrison had sent
word to the major, that he should aban-
don the fort on the approach of the
enemy. But he did not think a retreat
possible, and, moreover, was determined
to perish, rather than surrender. On
the 28th of May, Proctor, with twenty-
two hundred British and Indians, ap-
(39)






DEFENCE OF FORT STEPHENSON.


peared before the fort, and summoned
the garrison to surrender. Receiving the
most heroic refusal, he opened a heavy
fire, which was continued during the
night and all next day, when the enemy
advanced to the assault. Croghan had
but one six-pounder in the fort. This
was masked, and other preparations made
to receive the foe. The assault was fu-
rious, but the fire of the heroic garrison
committed such havoc that the British
were compelled to fall back in confusion,
and soon after they abandoned the siege,
having lost over two hundred men. Cro-
ghan's loss was trifling.


40

















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COMMODORE PERRY.


BUILDING OF THE BLEET ON
LAKE ERIE.

EARLY in the spring of 1813, the atten-
tion of the government of the United
States, was directed to the important
(43)




(7>


44 BUILDING THE FLEET ON LAKE ERIE.
object of obtaining the command of Lake
Erie. The earnest representations of
General Harrison had awakened the ad-
ministration to a proper sense of the ne-
cessity of this measure. The British al-
ready had an efficient naval force upon
the lake, and it gave them great advan-
tages. Two brigs and several schooners
were ordered to be built, under the di-
rection of Captain Oliver H. Perry. That
able and active officer saw that the work
was carried on with the greatest rapidity,
and on the 2d of August, he was able to
sail in quest of the enemy's squadron.
The British, though much superior in
force, did not venture out to meet the
new squadron.

























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71








BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE.


ON the morning of the 10th of Septem-
ber, while Perry's squadron was lying in
Put-in-bay, in Bass Island, the enemy's
fleet was discovered standing out from
the port of Malden, with the wind in
their favor. The American fleet imme-
diate weighed anchor, cleared the islands
at the head of the lake, and was formed
in line of battle. A little before twelve
o'clock, the action commenced, the Bri-
tish having the weathergage. For some
time, the fire of the enemy was concen-
trated upon the St. Lawrence, Perry's
flag-ship, and she was much cut up,
most of her crew killed or wounded, and
(47)






BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE.


her guns disabled. In the midst of the
fire, Captain Perry passed in an open
boat from the Lawrence to the Niagara,
and succeeded in bringing the rest of his
fleet into action. A well directed fire
was then opened upon the enemy, and
the battle then became close and warm.
At length the British vessels having suf-
fered severely from the superior gunnery
of the Americans, struck their colors.
The Lawrence, whose flag had been hauled
down soon after Perry had left her, had
been enabled to hoist it before the end
of the contest, the enemy not being able
to take possession of her. The American
loss was twenty-five killed, and ninety-
six wounded; that of the enemy, forty-
one killed, and ninety-five wounded.


48









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BATTLE OF THE THAMES.


As soon as General Harrison received
the news of the triumph on Lake Erie,
he hastened to put his army in motion
to meet-Proctor. Crossing the Lake, by
means of Perry's victorious squadron, he
reached Maiden, which the British and
Indians had abandoned the day before.
On the 2d of October, Harrison moved
forward in pursuit of the enemy, and on
the 5th, came up with them, at a strong
position on the banks of the Thames.
The Indians, under Tecumseh, were
placed in a dense wood, while the British
regulars were drawn up in open files,
(51)





BATTLE OF THE THAMES.


their flanks protected by the river and a
morass. Colonel Johnson, with the
mounted volunteers, was ordered to at-
tack the Indians, while Harrison formed
another battalion of the same troops, and
ordered them to charge and break the
line of regulars. This novel manoeuvre
was executed with complete success.
The British force was compelled to sur-
render. The Indians maintained a des-
perate contest until the great Tecumseh
was slain, when they broke and fled.
This victory was decisive. Very few
were killed and wounded on both sides,
but the enemy were entirely captured
or dispersed.


52




















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CAPTURE OF THE BOXER.


ON the 5th of September, 1813, the
United States brig Enterprize, of fourteen
guns, commanded by Lieutenant Bur-
rows, sailed from Portsmouth, and the
next day fell in with the British brig,
Boxer, of fourteen guns, commanded by
Captain Blythe. The latter immediately
fired a shot as a challenge, hoisted En-
glish colors, and bore down on the En-
terprize. The American vessel manoeu-
vered until she gained the weathergage,
and then returned the fire. Obtaining
a raking position, the Enterprize soon
gained the advantage, and after an action
(55)





CAPTURE OF THE BOXER.


of three quarters of an hour, compelled
the British to cry for quarter. Their
colors were nailed to the mast, but the
firing ceased. Captain Blythe and Lieu-
tenant Burrows were mortally wounded
in the early part of the action. Bur-
rows refused to be carried below until
the sword of the enemy was presented
to him, when he exclaimed, "I am now
satisfied-I die contented. The Boxer
had twenty-five men killed, and fourteen
wounded. The Enterprize had four men
killed, and eleven wounded.


56














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BATTLE OF LUN DAY'S LANE.

THE battle of Lundy's Lane was the
best contested action of the war of 1812.
On the afternoon of the 24th of July,
1814, General Brown received a notice
that the British general had thrown a
thousand men across the lake to Lewis-
town, nine miles below Chippewa. To
divert them from what he supposed to
(59)






BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE.


be their object, the American general or-
dered General Winfield Scott, with his
brigade of thirteen hundred men, to ad-
vance and threaten the forts at the
mouth of the Niagara. Scott, advancing
more than two miles, suddenly found
himself in front of the whole British
army, drawn up in Lundy's Lane. Un-
daunted, he formed his line, and the
struggle began. For two hours, the
fiercest and the most desperate valor was
displayed on both sides. Every attempt
of the British to turn the flanks of the
gallant band opposed to them failed.
Their own left was turned and cut off,
but their centre stood firm. Night came
on, and the struggle was continued solely
by the flashes of the guns. The Ameri-


60
























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BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE.


can line had suffered much, but the rem-
nants of the troops stood their ground
with indomitable resolution. About ten
o'clock the ammunition of the troops
began "to fail. But General Brown at
length came up with strong reinforce-
ments, and relieved the exhausted men.
A more equal fight now ensued. Brown
determined to carry the battery on the
height at the head of the lane, that be-
ing the key of the enemy's position.
Riding up to Colonel Miller, he asked
him if he would storm the height.
"I will try, sir 1" was the heroic reply.
Piloted by Scott, through the darkness
to the foot of the ascent, Miller seized
the guns almost instantaneously. Mean-
while General Ripley engaged the enemy,


63





BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE.


and was supported by the gallant Scott,
who had two horses shot under him, and
was wounded in the side, but kept the
field until a wound in the shoulder
brought him to the ground. General
Brown was severely wounded, and, with
Scott, taken from the field. The com-
mand now devolved on General Ripley.
But the battle was nearly over. The
British made one more charge, and were
repulsed in disorder, and then the firing
ceased. Ripley retired to the camp at
Chippewa. In this bloody and well
fought battle, the Americans lost eight
hundred and sixty men, killed and
wounded. The loss of the enemy was
about one thousand men. One of their
generals, Riall, was captured.























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BATTLE OF LAKE CHAPLAIN.

THE British were very anxious to ob-
tain the command of Lake Champlain,
and the posts in the vicinity. The Ame-
ricans had fitted out a small squadron
on the lake, and placed it under the
command of Commodore Macdonough. In
1814, a powerful British army advanced
against Plattsburgh, and a British squad-
ron, commanded by Captain Downie,
sailed to meet the American squadron,
then lying in Plattsburg bay. Early on
the morning of the 11th of September,
the fleets met, and the battle commenced.
The Confiance, the flag-ship of the
(67)





BATTLE OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN.


enemy, engaged the Saratoga, and the
contest was maintained for about two
hours, when the Confiance struck her
colors. The chief vessel of the enemy
being captured, the brig surrendered in
a few minutes; two sloops had been
captured some time before; three of the
gallies were sunk, and the others escaped.
The killed on board the American squad-
ron amounted to fifty-two, the wounded
to fifty-eight. Of the enemy, eighty-four
were killed, including Captain Downie,
the commander of the squadron, one
hundred and ten wounded, and eight
hundred and fifty-six remained prisoners,
a number exceeding the whole amount
of the Americans engaged.


68






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DEFENCE OF FORT M'HENRY.

THE success of the attack on Washing-
ton encouraged the British general, Ross,
to undertake an expedition against an-
other city. Baltimore was the object of
attack. The approach to that city by
water was defended by Fort M'Henry,
garrisoned by one thousand men, under
Major Armistead; and by other tempo-
rary works. On the 11th of September,
Admiral Cochrane appeared at the mouth
of the Patapsco, with a squadron of fifty
sail, and a strong body of British troops
was landed at North Point, about four-
teen miles below Baltimore. At sunrise,
(71)






DEFENCE OF FORT M'HENRY.


on the 13th, the bombardment of the
fort commenced. The bomb vessels of
the enemy were stationed about two
miles from the fort, and were consequently
beyond the reach of its guns. Though
compelled to remain inactive, the troops
in the fort were steadfast to their posts.
The bursting of a shell within the south-
west bastion creating some confusion,
the ships of the enemy attempted to pro-
fit by it, but they were soon compelled
to retreat to their former stations, where
they continued a tremendous bombard-
ment until the morning of the 14th. Dur-
ing the night, some barges and rocket
vessels succeeded in passing the fort, but
they were driven back with severe loss,
by the fire from the smaller works.


72









BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS.

IN the latter part of 1814, information
being received that the British intended
to make a descent on Louisiana, General
Jackson hastened to New Orleans, and
made preparations for its defence. Every
approach to the town was guarded by
batteries and gunboats. The British
fleet arrived early in December, and on
the 14th, an attack was made upon the
American gunboats on Lake Borgne.
After a desperate contest, they submitted
to a much superior force. The British
having gained a position on the banks
of the Mississippi, General Jackson, with
two thousand men, marched down, on
(73)





BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS.


the evening of the 23d, and attacked
them. After a hot fight, in which the
enemy lost over two hundred men, the
Americans fell back to their lines. Both
armies having received large reinforce-
ments, the British on the 8th of January,
moved to the assault. The Americans
drove them back in confusion. Sir Edward
Packenham was killed. Again the enemy
attempted to scale the work, and were
again driven back. At length all the
chief commanding officers being killed or
disabled, the British retreated. Their loss
in this battle was two hundred and ninety-
three killed, twelve hundred and sixty-
seven wounded, and four hundred and
eighty-four prisoners. The American loss
was only thirteen killed, and thirty-seven
wounded.









CONCLUSION OF THE WAR WITH
GREAT BRITAIN.

THE battle of New Orleans was the last
great military event of the second war
with Great Britain. In point of fact, it
was fought after a treaty had been
signed by the commissioners of Great
Britain and the United States, assembled
for the purpose at Ghent. This battle
was of immense importance. It saved
the city of New Orleans from capture
and plunder. General Jackson's ser-
vices on this occasion, and his difficult
and perilous campaign against the Creek
Indians, raised his reputation to a very
(75)





CONCLUSION OF THE WAR,


high point; and subsequently occasioned
his elevation to the president's chair.
After the conclusion of the treaty of
Ghent, a squadron of the United States
navy was sent to chastise the Barbary
powers for attacking our commerce during
the war with Great Britain. The Bar-
bary powers concluded treaties without
a struggle, and the country, except a
few skirmishes with the Indians, re-
mained at peace till the war with Mex-
ico, of which we will now proceed to give
some sketches.


76

































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THE MEXICAN WAR.



BATTLE OF PALO ALTO.
IN the course of the year 1845, the
government of the United States ordered
General Taylor, with about three thou-
(79)





BATTLE OF PALO ALTO.


sand men, to take possession of the coun-
try lying between the Neuces and the
Rio Grande, which country was the sub-
ject of dispute between the governments
of Mexico and Texas. General Taylor
reached the Rio Grande, in April, 1846.
Now, the Mexican government looked
upon this movement as a trespass upon
their territory, and therefore declared
war. Leaving a small force to occupy
Fort Polk, opposite Matamoras, General
Taylor, with the main body of his army,
marched to Point Isabel, at the mouth
of the Rio Grande. Soon after, he heard
that the Mexicans had commenced to
bombard Fort Polk, and that General
Arista, with a large body of troops, had
crossed the river. There was great dif-


80






























6




BATTLE OF PALO ALTO.


ference in the strength of the two armies,
but General Taylor was a very deter-
mined man, and he said he would go
and relieve Fort Polk, and fight whoever
opposed him. He started on the morn-
ing of the 7th of May, and about two
o'clock the next day, encountered the
Mexicans at Palo Alto. A dreadful battle
was then fought. The Mexicans were
much more numerous than the Ameri-
cans, but the Americans were braver
soldiers, and they had some fine guns,
which could be quickly moved to any
part of the field. While conducting the
movement of these guns, Major Ringgold,
a very brave and skilful officer, was
shot through both thighs and fell to the
ground. To add to his sufferings, his


83





84


BATTLE OF PALO ALTO.


horse fell on him. He was taken off the
field, and died, after enduring great pains
for two or three days. The battle was
chiefly fought with the artillery. But
at one time, about one thousand Mexi-
can lancers moved forward to attack the
Americans. This splendid looking body
of cavalry, however, was driven back by
the dreadful fire from the American guns,
and the whole Mexican army retreated.
General Taylor and his brave soldiers
slept upon the field of battle.


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BATTLE OF RESACA DE LA PALMA.
THE next day after the battle of Palo
Alto, General Taylor moved forward to-
wards Fort Polk. He could hear the
sound of the bombardment, and he was
anxious to relieve the small garrison he
had left in the fort. He soon came up
with the Mexicans again. They had re-
ceived more troops and had taken a
strong position. It was a place called
Resaca de la Palma, or the Palm Ravine.
General Taylor did not hesitate to attack
them. He and his men were confident
that they could beat many times their
number of Mexicans. The victory at
(87)






88 BATTLE OF RESEACA DE LA PALMA.
Palo Alto had assured them of a victory
wherever they should meet a foe. The
flying artillery was brought into service
and poured quick and murderous dis-
charges into the Mexican ranks. Then
Captain May, with his dragoons charged
down the ravine, through the bushes,
and over the guns of the enemy, cutting
down all who came within reach of their
sabres. General La Vega fell into their
hands. The Mexicans continued the
fight even after they had lost their can-
non, but the Americans soon cleared the
field at the point of the bayonet, and then
pushed on to Fort Polk.













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SIEGE OF MONTEREY.
AFTER General Taylor had taken pos-
session of Matamoras, he waited for re-
inforcements and then moved forward to
attack Monterey. This city was very
(91)






SIEGE OF MONTEREY.


strongly fortified by nature and art. The
Saddle mountains extended on three
sides of it, while the other side was pro-
tected by a high wall and strong works.
Besides every house was so constructed
of stone as to be looked upon as a forti-
fication. General Ampudia, with about
eleven thousand men formed its garrison.
General Taylor's army only numbered
six thousand men, yet he advanced, and
commenced the siege on the 21st of Sep-
tember. The Americans displayed the
greatest bravery in the various attacks,
and at the close of the first day of the
siege, had taken the Bishop's Palace and
other strong outworks. The next day
was employed by the Americans in pre-
paring for another grand attack. On


92














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SIEGE OF MONTEREY.


the 23d they assaulted the city on two
sides, and their batteries made terrible
havoc among the Mexicans. The Texan
rangers cut their way through the houses
with pickaxes, and the fighting in the
streets became dreadful and destructive.
The Mexicans were collected in the heart
of the city, and to that point the Ameri-
cans advanced. Night put an end to
the fighting, and the next morning, the
Mexican general proposed to surrender
the city. Officers from both sides met
and agreed to certain terms. Then the
Mexican army marched out of the city,
and the Americans entered and took
possession of it. So it seemed that no-
thing could stop the progress of General
Taylor and his men.


95









BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA.


THE Mexicans, though beaten so often,
did not lose their spirits. Their great
general, Santa Anna, soon collected an
army of more than twenty thousand men,
and advanced towards Monterey. Now
General Taylor's army was much reduced
in numbers, and the most of his troops
were volunteers, who had never been in
battle. But he resolved to await the
attack of the great Mexican army at a
place called Buena Vista. On the 22d
of February, Santa Anna appeared and
attacked the Americans; but was re-
pulsed. The great battle was fought on
(96)




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