• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Lesson I: Introduction
 Lesson II: Great Divisions of the...
 Lesson III : Europe, Sweden, Norway,...
 Lesson IV: Denmark, Russia, Germany,...
 Lesson V: Poland, Austria, Switzerland,...
 Lesson VI: Holland, Belgium
 Lesson VII: United Kingdom of Great...
 Lesson VIII: England Continued
 Lesson IX: England Continued
 Lesson X: Wales
 Lesson XI: Scotland
 Lesson XII: Ireland
 Lesson XIII: Spain, Portugal
 Lesson XIV: Italy, Turkey,...
 Lesson XV: Asia, Asiatic Russia,...
 Lesson XVI: Persia, Independent...
 Lesson XVII: China, Birman...
 Lesson XVIII: Oriental Islands,...
 Lesson XIX: Africa, Northern Coast,...
 Lesson XX: North America, Canada,...
 Lesson XXI: West Indies, South...
 Lesson XXII: Brazil, La Plata,...
 Back Cover
 Spine














Group Title: Easy lessons on geography : : for the use of schools and private families
Title: Easy lessons on geography
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002192/00001
 Material Information
Title: Easy lessons on geography for the use of schools and private families
Alternate Title: Hutchinson's geography for the use of schools and private families
Physical Description: 110 p. : maps (some col.) ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hutchinson, James
Wright, Simpkin, & Co ( Publisher )
Woolley and Cook ( Printer )
Publisher: Wright, Simpkin, Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Woolley and Cook
Publication Date: 1852
Edition: 15th ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Children's questions and answers   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Questions and answers -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
Questions and answers   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James Hutchinson, M.A.
General Note: Baldwin Library copy bound with the cover of the 14th ed.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement: back cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002192
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002231967
oclc - 45758775
notis - ALH2355

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Copyright
        Page 4
    Lesson I: Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Lesson II: Great Divisions of the Land and Water
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Lesson III : Europe, Sweden, Norway, Lapland
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Lesson IV: Denmark, Russia, Germany, Prussia
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Lesson V: Poland, Austria, Switzerland, France
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Lesson VI: Holland, Belgium
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Lesson VII: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Lesson VIII: England Continued
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Lesson IX: England Continued
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Lesson X: Wales
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Lesson XI: Scotland
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Lesson XII: Ireland
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Lesson XIII: Spain, Portugal
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Lesson XIV: Italy, Turkey, Greece
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Lesson XV: Asia, Asiatic Russia, Asiatic Turkey, Arabia
        Page 74
        Plate 1
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Lesson XVI: Persia, Independent Tartary, Affghanistan, Hindostan
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Lesson XVII: China, Birman Empire
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Lesson XVIII: Oriental Islands, Eastern Archipelago, Austral Asia, Polynesia
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Lesson XIX: Africa, Northern Coast, Eastern Coast, Western Coast, Interior
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Lesson XX: North America, Canada, United States
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Lesson XXI: West Indies, South America, Columbia, Peru, Bolvia, Chili, Patagonia
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Lesson XXII: Brazil, La Plata, Guiana
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Back Cover
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Spine
        Page 114
Full Text

































?A A


.44





FIrmm


The Baldwin Library
University
m dof






THE 'ORLA).


*'s~ i.~::.'~k~t~3 ~~C~;~k#







EASY LESSONS


ON


GEOGRAPHY,


FOR THE USE OF


SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE FAMILIES.




BY JAMES IIUTCHINSON, M.A.,
AUTHOR OF "EASY LESSONS ON THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND," ETC. ETC.




FIFTEENTH EDITION.



LONDON:
WRIGHT, SIMPKIN, & CO,
SCHOOL I'UBLISHERS,
b, STANHOPE STREET, NEWCASTLE STREET, STRAND

1852.









































LONDON:

PI1NTKD BY WOOLLEY AND COOK ST. DENI'? PLACE,
QlACBCUDACII STAlE?.








FABY LESSONS


ON

GEOGRAPHY.


LESSON I.
INTRODUCTION.
Q. What is the title of this little worx?
A. Easy Lessons on Ge-og'-ra-phy.
Q. How is the term Geography derived?
.A. From two Greek words, which me.a
"to describe the earth."
Q. Then how may it be defined?
A. As "the science which gives us a
knowledge of the Earth and its inhabitants.'
Q. Is not the Earth known by some other
names?
A. Yes, we sometimes call it the World,
and sometimes the Globe.
Q. Why is it sometimes called the Globe?
A. Globe is the general name given to a&y
thing round like a ball.






Q. Is the earth exactly round?
A. No, it is a little flattened at the poles
or ends, the same as an orange.
Q. It does not appear round to us?
A. No, it does not, neither would a large
balloon aprqar round to a small insect creep-
ing upon it.
Q. Can you give me any proofs that it is
round?
A. Yes, I can give two most convincing
ones.
Q. What is the first?
A. Thousands of persons have sailed round
it.
q. The second?
A. The shadow which the earth casts apon
the moon in an eclipse, is just such a shadow
as would fall from a round body.
Q. You say that thousands of persons have
sailed round the world, then it must be a
common occurrence?
A. It is, for ships freighted for Aus-tra-li-a
usually go by the Cape of Good Hope, and
return by Cape Horn.
Q. In doing this do they sail round the
Globe?
A. They do, and by constantly sailing in







an easterly direction they arrive at the very
port from which they started.
Q. Can you name anything that will make
this more familiar?
A. If a small insect creep down one side
of an orange, and up the other side, it will
arrive at the very place from which it set out.
Q. You say that the earth is round, how
can it be so, seeing it has such lofty moun-
tains upon it?
A. These mountains do not lessen its
roundness more than the in-e-qual'-i-ties of
the rind diminish the roundness of an orange.
Q. How many motions has the earth?
A. Two, namely, one round the sun, and
the other upon its axis.
Q. How long is the earth in performing its
journey round the sun?
A. Three-hundred and sixty-five days, six
hours, which is the length of our year.
Q. With what velocity or speed does the
earth move in its yearly journey?
A. At the rate of a thousand miles a
minute.
Q. If the earth did not make this journey,
what would be the consequence?
A. We should have all our seasons alike,







and there would be no distinctions of summer
and winter, nor of spring and autumn.
Q. You say that the earth turns round
upon its axis, pray how often does it do this?
A. Once every twenty-four hours, and
this is the length of our day.
Q. What advantage arises from this move-
ment?
A. We have the agreeable change of day
and night.
Q. If the earth were not to turn round
upon its axis, what would be the conse-
quence?
A. One half of the world would have per-
petual day, and the other half perpetual
night.
Q. Why cannot we see this movement?
A. Because the air and clouds move along
with it.
Q. Then cannot we see it in any way?
A. Yes, by observing the sun, the moon,
and the stars, for they appear to rise in the
east and set in the west.
Q. Do these not in reality rise and set?
A. No, they remain in the same place, and
it is the earth that is turning on its axis from
west to east.







Q. What is the cir-cum'-fer-ence of the
Earth?
A." Nearly twenty-five thousand miles.
Q. What do you mean by the word cir-
cumference?
A. The distance round a body.
Q. If you wished to know the circumfer-
ence of your ball, how would you proceed?
A. I should measure it round the middle
with a piece of string, and then measure the
string.
Q. If a person were to travel round the
middle of the world at the rate of twenty
miles a day, what time would it require?
A. Nearly three years and a half.
Q. What is the di-am'-e-ter of the Earth?
A. Nearly eight thousand miles.
Q. What is the meaning of the word diam-
eter?
A. The distance from side to side exactly
through the middle.
Q. If you wished to know the diameter of
an orange, how would you act?
A. I should pass a piece of wire through
the centre or middle, and then measure the
length of that part of the wire which had
been hidden.






Q. Of what does the surface of the earth
consist?
A. Of land and water, about one-third of
it being land, and the rest water.



LESSON II.

THE GREAT DIVISIONS OF THE LAND AND
WATER.
Q. You say that the surface of the earth
consists of land and water, pray how is the
land divided?
A. Into Continents, Is-lands,* Pen-in'-su-
las, Isth'-mus-es,t and Capes.
Q. Do you observe that little star, called
an asterisk, after the word island?
A. Yes, I do; and I know it instructs me
to look at the bottom of the page.
Q. What are the other marks commonly
used for the same purpose?
A. The obelisk, marked thus, t
The double dagger, thus,
The section, thus,
The parallel lines, thus, H


* Pronounced le'-and.


t Istl-mus-ea.






Q. Do you also see the mark put after in,
in the word Peninsula?
A. Yes; it is called an accent, and instructs
me to lay a greater stress of voice upon that
syllable than upon any other in the same word.
Q. What is a Continent?
A. A large extent of land, containing a
number of countries, and nowhere entirely
separated by water.
Q. What is an Island ?
A. A smaller extent of land, entirely sur-
rounded by water, as Great Britain.
Q. What is a Pen-in'-su-la?
A. A portion of land almost surrounded by
water, and joined to the main land by an
Isth'-mus, as the Mo-re-a, the southern part
of Greece.
Q. What is an Isth'-mus?
A. A narrow neck, which connects two
large portions of land together, as the Isth'-
mus of Pan-am'-a, between North and South
A-mer'-i-ca.
Q. What is a Cape?
A. A point of land which stretches out into
the sea, as the Cape of Good Hope: if it be
much elevated, it is usually called a Prom'-
on-to-ry. ,






Q How is the water divided ?
A. Into Oceans, Seas, Gulfs, Bays, Straits%
Channels, Lakes, and Rivers.
Q. What is an Ocean?
A. A vast body of salt water covering a
considerable portion of the earth's surface,
as the Pa-cif-ic Ocean.
Q. What is a Sea?
A. A smaller body of water, which com-
municates with the ocean, as the Irish Sea.
Q. What is a Gulf?
A. A part of the sea running up into the
land, as the Gulf of Ven'-ice.
Q. What is a Bay?
A. Much the same as a gulf, but usually
smaller.
Q. Is not a bay sometimes known by some
other names?
A. Yes, when small, and it will allow ships
to anchor in safety, it is called a harbour,
haven, or port.
Q. What is a Strait?
A. A wider passage of water which joins
one sea to another, as the Strait of Dover.
Q. What is a Channel?
A. A narrow passage of water which joins
one sea to another, as the English Channel




13


Q. What is a Lake?
A. A portion of fresh water entirely sur-
rounded by land, as Lake Superior, in North
America.
o. What is a River?
A. A running stream of fresh water, which
rises in the land, and flows either into another
river, or into the sea, as the Iris, the Thames.*
2he fiUolwiig wood-cut ill in some measure illustrate
the geographicl terms eed i the lesson.











Q. Is not the land divided in some other
way ?
A. Yes, into four great parts usually called
QUARTERS.
Q. What are the names of these?
Tem.






A. Eu'-rope, A'-si-a, Af-ri-ca, and A-mer'-
i-ca
Q. What are Europe, Asia, and Afriea
frequently called?
A. The Old World, or Eastern Hem-is-
phere.
Q. Then what is America called?
A. The New World, or Western Hemis-
phere.
Q. Why is it called the New World?
A. Because the inhabitants of the Old
World did not know that it existed till 1492.
Q. How was it then known?
A. It was discovered by Co-lum-bus, a
native of Gen'-o-a, a city in It'-aly.
Q. How many square miles is Europe sup-
posed to contain?
A. Four millions.
Asia? Sixteen millions.
Africa? Eleven millions.
America? Fifteen millions.
Q. How many inhabitants may we allow
to every square mile in Europe?
A. About sixty.
In Asia? Thirty.
In Africa? Eight.
In America? Three.




15
Q. What number of inhabitants is sup-
posed to exist on the surface of the earth?
A.' About nine hundred millions.
Q. How many of these are supposed to be
Christians ?
A. About two-sixths.
Q. How many Mo-ham'-me-dans?
A. About one-sixth.
Q. How many Pagans?
A. The remaining part, that is, one-half.
Q. What are meant by Pagans?
A. Such as have not the revealed will of
God to direct them.
Q. You have not mentioned the ancient
people, the Jews?
A. It is supposed they do not exceed four
millions, taking in the whole globe.
Q. You say that the land is divided into
four great parts, how are these subdivided?
A. Into empires, kingdoms, and states.
Q. How does an empire differ from a
kingdom?
A. An empire consists of several countries
united under one sovereign, called an em-
peror; a kingdom usually consists of one
country.
Q. You said that an ocean was a vast body






of salt water; pray, how many great oceans
are there?
A. Five, namely, the Pa-cif-ic, the' At-
lan'-tic, the Indian, the Arc'-tic, and the
Ant-arc'-tic Oceans.
Q. What is the situation of the Pacific?
A. It separates Asia from America.
Q. What that of the Atlantic?
A. It separates Europe and Africa from
America.


LESSON III.
EUROPE-SWEDEN-NORWAY-LAPLAND.
EUROPE.
Q. What is Europe?
A. Much the smallest of the four great
divisions of the earth, but the most important
and powerful
Q. Why is it the most powerful?
A. "Knowledge is power," and its inha-
bitants, taken as a whole, are distinguished
for their knowledge, their civ-il-i-za'-tion,
and their refinement.
0, How is Europe bounded on the north?
A. By the Arctic Ocean.






On the east? By Asia.
On the south? By the Med-i-ter-ra'-ne-an.
Oni the west? By the Atlantic.
Q. What is its length?
A. About three thousand four hundred
miles.
Q. Its breadth?
A. About two thousand five hundred.
Q. Its population?
A. About two hundred and forty millions.
Q. What are the three prevailing religions?
A. The Roman Catholic, the Protestant,
and the Greek churches.
Q. How many of the inhabitants are sup-
posed to be Roman Catholics?
A. About one hundred and twenty-five
millions.
0. How many Protestants?
A. Fifty-six millions.
Q. How many of the Greek church?
A. Forty-four millions.
Q. What is the climate of Europe?
A. Towards the north it is excessively
cold, in the middle temperate, and in the
south warm.






SWEDEN.
Q. What does Sweden comprise?
A. The kingdoms of Sweden and Norway,
the greater part of Lapland, and a part of
Finland.
Q. What is the extent of Sweden?
A. Nearly a thousand miles in length, and
will average about two hundred in breadth.
Q. What is its population ?
A. Including Norway, upwards of four
millions. The Swedes are a well made, cheer
ful people, and much attached to learning.
Q. What are its chief productions for
export?
A. Copper, iron, timber, tallow, and hemp.
Q. What do you mean by export ?
A. When a nation sends goods in ships to
other countries, it is called exporting; when
it receives them in ships, it is called importing.
Q. Why are these words printed in a
different type?
A. That I may pay particular attention to
their meaning.
Q. Is not the climate of Sweden cold?
A. Yes, in the north excessively so; and
the summers are of short duration.
Q. Its soil?







A. In the north poor and unproductive;
but the valleys in the south afford excellent
pastutage for horned cattle and sheep.
Q. What are the principal wild animals
common to the country?
A. The bear, the wolf, the otter, the beaver,
and the lynx.
Q. What is its capital?
A. STOCK-HOLM, a handsome city,
containing eighty-five thousand inhabitants;
its situation is beautifully romantic, being
built on several small islands opening into
the Baltic Sea.
Q. What are its other chief towns?
A. Upsal, noted for its excellent University
and Botanical gardens, and Got'-ten-burg, a
place of considerable trade.

NORWAY.
Q. What is Norway?
A. A cold, mountainous, and barren coun-
try, lying on the west of Sweden; it formerly
belonged to Denmark, but was united to
Sweden in the year 1814.
Q. Its extent?
A. A thousand miles in length, and from
fifty to two hundred and fifty in breadth.
02





Q. Its climate?
A. In winter it is excessively cold, indeed
so much so, that if water be thrown up into
the air, it freezes before it reaches the ground.
Q. Its population?
A. Rather more than a million. The Nor-
wegians are a simple, but brave and hospitable
people.
Q. What are the chief sources of wealth in
Norway ?
A. Its mines, its forests, and its fisheries;
a part of the inhabitants depend upon hunt-
ing and fishing for support; each individual
manufacturing his own clothing, tools, and
furniture.
Q. Are not the forests of Norway very
large?
A. Yes, sufficiently so to supply all Europe
with timber; but only a very small part will
bear the expense of conveyance.
Q. Why?
A. On account of the rugged nature of the
country, and the want of roads.
Q. Is there not a dangerous vortex or
whirlpool near the coast of Norway?
A. Yes, named the Ma'-el-stro~m.
Q. How far does its influence extend?






A. Ten or twelve miles; but if a ship or a
boat come within three of it, it is unavoidably
draw~ in, and shattered to pieces among the
rocks.
Q. What are its chief towns ?
A. CHRIS-TI-A'-NA, the capital, and
Ber-gen, an ancient sea-port.

LAPLAND.
Q. What is Lapland?
A. A wild and thinly inhabited country,
lying between the White Sea and the Arctic
Ocean.
Q. Its climate?
A. In the winter season intensely cold, and
the ground is covered with snow much the
greater part of the year.
Q. Its population?
A. About sixty thousand. The Laplanders
are filthy in their habits, and disgusting in
their appearance, seldom exceeding four feet
and a half in height.
Q. What is there peculiar in Lapland and
other countries situated in the same latitude?
A. During a few weeks in summer the sun
never sets; and is never seen for the same
space of time in winter.
03






Q. Is not this part of their winter peculiarly
gloomy?
A. It must, but the clear light of the ifioon,
and the continual brightness of the Au-ro'-ra
Bo-re-a'-lis, or Northern Lights, afford the
inhabitants sufficient light to pursue their
usual employment.
Q. What are the animals common to
Lapland ?
A. Wolves, elks, and rein-deer; the last
form the chief wealth of the inhabitants.
Q. How?
A. The flesh of these useful animals sup-
plies them with food, their milk with cheese,
and their skins serve for clothing.
Q. Do they not also use them in the winter
season for travelling?
A. Yes, and in sledges drawn by them
they pass over the snow with amazing speed.


LESSON IV.
DENMARK-RUSSIA--GERMANY-PRUSSIA.
DENMARLK
Q. What is Denmark?
A. A small kingdom in the north of






Europe, partly consisting of islands, and
partly of countries, bordering upon Germany.
Qw Which are the principal islands ?
A. Zea'-land and Fu'-nen, at the entrance
of the Baltic Sea, and Iceland, in the At-
lantic Ocean.
Q. Which are the chief states on the
continent?
A. The pen-in'-su-la of Jutland, and the
territories of Hol-stein, Sles-wick, and Lau-
en-burg
Q. Its climate?
A. Moist, but temperate and healthy; the
country in general is flat, and abounds in
unproductive marshes; some parts are, how-
ever, fertile, yielding abundance of corn, and
excellent pasturage for cattle.
Q. Its population?
A. Upwards of two millions. The Danes
were formerly celebrated for their daring
courage; but they are now considered a
peaceable and industrious people.
Q. What are their chief exports?
A. Timber, tallow, hides, tar, and iron.
Q. Its capital?
A. CO-PEN-HA'-GEN,* a handsome,
The g is sounded hard as in gone.






well-fortified city on the east shore of the
island of Zealand, containing one hundred
and twenty thousand inhabitants.
Q. What is Iceland?
A* A cold and barren country, abounding
in volcanoes, the chief of which is the burning
mountain, Hec'-la.
Q. Does not Iceland contain something
besides that is wonderful?
A. Yes, boiling springs, which throw up
jets of boiling water to a considerable height:
a piece of meat held in one of these springs
will be boiled to pieces in a few minutes.
Q. What is Greenland?
A. A cold barren country on the eastern
coast of America.
Q. For what is it celebrated?
A. Its extensive whale fisheries, and al-
though these fisheries are chiefly carried on
by other nations, yet the country is con-
sidered a part of Denmark.

RUSSIA.
Q. What is Russia?
A. A very extensive country; including its
possessions in Asia and Am-rica, Russia is
the largest empire in the world.






Q. Its climate?
A. In the north the winters are intensely
cold, in the middle it is much the same as
England; in the south it is warm.
Q. Its population in Europe?
A. Fifty-five millions: the Russians are a
brave and hardy people, the upper classes
being well educated and polished.
Q. What is the state of the peasantry?
A. They are in general rude and uneduca-
ted, living in houses built with rough logs of
wood, and clothing themselves with the
skins of sheep.
Q. What are the chief exports of Russia?
A. Furs, timber, hemp, tallow, hides, tar,
and iron; of these it ships large quantities
Q. What are its chief wild animals?
A. The bear, the wolf, the hy-e'-na, thu
elk, the an-te-lope, the fox, the ermine, and
other quadrupeds, yielding valuable furs.
Q. What is its capital?
A. St. PE-TERS-BURG, a handsome
city, seated on the marshy banks of the river
Ne'-va, near the Gulf of Finland.
Q. Who founded this city?
A. Peter the Great, on account of its com-
manding situation for commerce; it contains







four hundred and eighty thousand inhabi
tants.
Q. What are the other principal towis?
A. Moscow, noted for the extent of its
inland trade; Ri'-ga, a large and wealthy
port on the Baltic Sea; Arch-angel,* a place
of great trade on the White Sea; and 0-des-
ea, a considerable port on the Black Sea.
Q. Why is the a-r-o-h in Archangel soun-
ded hard, that is, as if written ark?
A. When a-r-c-h is followed by a vowel, it
is always sounded like a-r-k, as in the word
architect.t
e. How is it sounded when followed by a
consonant?
A. Like a-r-t-c-h, as in the word arch-
bishop.
Q. What is the government of Russia?
A. Absolute, that is, the will of the em-
peror is not under the control of any other
power.
Q. What are its principal rivers?
A. TheVol-ga, the largest river in Europe,
the Don, the Dnie'-per,t the Dnies-ter,i and
the Dwi'-na.
SArkt-ain-geL t Arl-ke-tect. wNee'-per. j Nees-ter.






GERMANY.
Q. What is Germany?
A. 'A large and populous country, lying
about the middle of Europe.
Q. How is it divided?
A. Into thirty-eight distinct and indepen-
dent states, which, for common protection,
are united under the name of the Ger-
man'-ic Confederation.
Q. Its extent?
A. About seven hundred miles in length,
and five hundred in breadth.
Q. Its population?
A. About forty millions; the Germans are
a moral and industrious people, and have
distinguished themselves in various branches
of learning and science.
Q. Its climate?
A. In general temperate; the middle parts
are much the same as in England, but the
weather is more settled.
Q. What states have the largest posses-
sions in Germany?
A. Austria and Prussia, and these two
powers are supposed to have the chief control
in the management of its affairs.
Q. Which are the other leading states?







A. Sax'-o-ny, Han'-o-ver, Ba-va'sri-a, and
Wur-tem-burg.
Q. Did not Hanover belong to England?
A. Yes, till the accession of Queen Vic-
toria, when the crown descended to the next
male heir, the Duke of Cumberland, the
uncle of Her Majesty.
Q. Are not some of the German states
very small?
A. Yes, and may be compared to English
counties in extent and population, but each
has an independent sovereign, under the title
of elector, duke, or prince.
Q. What are the principal productions of
Germany?
A. It abounds in corn, and is particularly
rich in minerals; it is also famous for its
medicinal springs.
Q. Which are its leading cities?
A. Mu-nich,* the capital of Bavaria; Dres-
den, the capital of Saxony; Leip-sic,f cele-
brated for its fairs: and Hamburg for its
commerce.
PRUSSIA.
Q. What is Prussia?
A. Prussia, properly so called, is not of
Mu'-nick. t Lip-sig.






great extent, but including its possessions in
Poland, Germany, and other parts, it forms
a powerful kingdom.
Q. What is its climate?
A. Temperate, and in general healthy; the
soil is fruitful, especially in corn, of which it
exports large quantities.
Q. Is Prussia a manufacturing country?
A. Within these late years it has made
considerable progress in its manufactures,
for which it finds a ready market in Ger-
many.
Q. Its population?
A. Sixteen millions; the Prussians, when
engaged in war, have acquitted themselves
with bravery; but they are now wisely de-
voting their energies to the improvement of
their social condition.
Q. Its capital?
A. BER-LIN', a large and handsome city
seated on the river Spree, which empties
itself into the Baltic: its population is two
hundred and eighty thousand.
Q. What are the other chief towns?
A. Kon'-igs-burg, the capital of ancient
Prussia; Dant-zic, famous for its trade in







corn; and Mem-el, well known in the timber
trade.
Q. What are its principal rivers?
A. The Elbe,* the We'-ser, the Oder, the
Vis'-tu-la, and the Mem-el.



LESSON V.
POLANDI-AUSTRIA-SWITZERLAND-
FRANCE.
POLAND.
Q. What is Poland?
A. A country of considerable extent, si-
tuated between Russia and Prussia, and once
forming a powerful kingdom.
Q. How did Poland lose its independence?
A. About half a century ago it was un-
justly seized by the three neighboring
powers, Russia, Prussia, and Austria, and
divided amongst them.
Q. What are its chief productions?
A. Grain, hemp, timber, pitch, and tar.
Q. Its extent?
A. About six hundred miles in length, and
the same number in width.
Elb.






Q. Are not the Poles considered a brave
people?
A. Yes, and they have at different times
made a gallant struggle to regain their inde-
pendence, but without success.
Q. What are the principal towns of Po-
land?
A. Warsaw, the present capital, and Cra-
cow, the ancient one, both considerable cities
seated on the Vis'-tu-la.

AUSTRIA.
Q. What is Austria?
A. With the exception of Russia, the
largest empire in Europe.
Q. Of what does it consist?
A. Of Austria, and other German states,
the kingdoms of Hun-ga-ry and Bo-he'-mi-a,
the northern part of Italy, a part of Poland,
and other territories
Q. Its climate?
A. Mild and healthy, and its soil in general
fertile, but not well cultivated; the country
is inclined to be mountainous, and is rich in
minerals.
Q. Its population?
A. Nearly forty millions; the Austrians







are a moral, domestic people, and have con-
siderable taste for reading and music.
Q. Its capital?
A. VI-EN'-NA, a considerable city seated
on the Danube; it contains some magnificent
buildings, and has a population of three hun-
dred and forty thousand.
Q. What are the other chief towns of
Austria?
A. Prague, the capital of Bo-he'-mi-a;
Bu'-da, the capital of Hungary; Trieste,* a
large commercial town on the Gulf of Ven-.
ice; and Mil-an and Venice in Italy.
Q. Its principal rivers?
A. The Da-nube', the Inn, the Drave, and
the Save.
BWITZERLAND.
Q. What is Switzerland?
A. The highest inhabited country in
Europe; it is of small extent, but its situa-
tion on the Alps is beautifully romantic.
Q. Its climate?
A. In the higher parts the cold is piercing,
but in the valleys it is warm, and the soil
extremely fruitful.
Q. Its population?
Treest.







A. Two millions; the Swiss are an indus-
trious, cleanly people, faithful to their words,
and remarkable for their attachment to their
country.
Q. Its government?
A. A republic, that is, the people elect
their own rulers; the country is divided into
twenty-two cantons, each of which is inde-
pendent as it regards its own affairs.
Q. What is Mount Blanc?'
A. The loftiest mountain of the Alps, and
also of Europe; its summit, or top, is about
three miles above the level of the sea, and
always covered with snow.
Q. Its capital?
A. BERNE, a neat and convenient city,
with twenty-one thousand inhabitants.
Q. What are the other chief towns?
A. Zu'-rich,f a wealthy manufacturing
town, and Ge-ne'-va, celebrated for its rural
beauties, and its manufacture of watches.

FRANCE.
Q. What is France?
A. A large and populous kingdom near
the middle of Europe, and, with the excep-
Mong Blawng. t Zu-rik.
D3






tion of England, the most powerful state
in it.
Q. How is France divided?
A. Into eighty-six departments, most of
which take their names from the rivers and
mountains with which they are connected.
Q. Its extent?
A. About five hundred and sixty miles in
length, and five hundred in breadth.
Q. Its climate?
A. France enjoys one of the finest climates
in Europe, and the soil is fruitful, producing
in great abundance all the necessaries, and
most of the luxuries of life.
Q. Its population?
A. Thirty-six millions; the French are a
brave and ingenious people, lively in their
manners, and distinguished for their polite-
ness and attention to strangers.
Q. What are the principal articles of
export?
A. Silks, fruits, wines, and brandy; the
last, known by the name of Cognac,* is dis-
tilled from wines not sufficiently good for
exportation.
Q. Does notFrance abound with vineyards?
Cone-yack.






A. Yes, they are supposed to cover five
millions of acres; in the south it produces
olives, figs, oranges, prunes, and other fruits
common to warm climates.
Q. Its capital?
A. PAR-IS, the second city in Europe for
size, and, perhaps, the first for the splendour
of its public buildings; it is seated on the
river Seine,* and has a population of nearly
a million.
Q. What are its other chief towns?
A. Ly-ons, noted for its opulence and
commercial importance; Mar-seilles,t and
Bor-deaux,4 two large trading ports; and
Rou-en,' famous for its manufactures.
Q. For what is Stras'-burg celebrated?
A. For its fine cathedral; and Brest and
Tou-lon|| are strong naval ports.
Q. Name the principal rivers of France?
A. The Seine, the Somme, the Rhone,
the Loire, and the Ga-ronne.**
i Sayne. Roo-awng. f Sum.
Mar-sailz. IToo-lon. Ga-ron'.
Bur-do'.








LESSON VL
HOLLAND-BELGIUI .
HOLLAND.
Q. What is Holland?
A. A small commercial kingdom lying
opposite to England, and separated from it
by the German Ocean.
Q. Its climate?
A. In the south mild, but in the north cold
and foggy; in the winter season the ca-nals'
with which it abounds are frozen over, and
the inhabitants skate along them with great
rapidity.
Q. Is not Holland a level country?
A. Yes, and a great part of it lies below
the level of the sea.
Q. Then does not the sea overflow it?
A. No, it is prevented by enormous dykes
or embankments, kept in repair at a great
expense.
Q. What are its chief exports?
A. Flax, butter, cheese, and grass seeds;
of these it sends large quantities to England.
Q. Its population?
A. Three millions; the Dutch are a peace-






able, industrious, persevering people, and have
long been noted for their commercial enter-
prise.
Q. Its capital?
A. AM-STER-DAM, a large and thriving
sea-port, containing two hundred and twenty
thousand inhabitants.
Q. What are its other chief towns?
A. Rot-ter-dam, a large commercial port,
Ley'-den, famous for its University; and the
Hague, a beautiful city, and the seat of
government.

BELGIUM.
Q. What is Belgium?
A. A small but populous kingdom, lying
between Holland and France, and separated
from England by the German Ocean.
Q. Its climate?
A. Mild, but moist; the face of the country
is in general level, the soil fertile, and in a
high state of cultivation.
Q. Its population?
A. Four millions. The Belgians, formerly
called Flemings, are an industrious people,
and excel in manufacturing lace, cambric, and
fine lawn.






Q. When did Belgium establish its inde-
pendence ?
A. In 1831, when Le-o-pold, the uncle of
the Queen of England, was chosen king.
Q. Its capital?
A. BRUS-SELS, one of the finest cities
in Europe, with a population of one hundred
and ten thousand.
Q. What are the other chief towns?
A. Antwerp, and Ghent,* two large manu-
facturing and commercial cities; Os-tend', a
considerable sea-port; and Bru'-ges, noted
for its cathedral.
Q. Is not Waterloo in Belgium?
A. Yes, near Brussels: this village has
obtained considerable celebrity from a great
battle fought in its neighbourhood between
the English and French in the year 1815.



LESSON VII.
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND IRELAND.
2. What do we understand by the British
empire?
Gong.







A. Great Britain, Ireilnd, and extensive
colonies in different parts of the world.
Q. What does Great Britain comprise?
A. England, Scotland, and Wales.
Q. How is England bounded?
A. On the north by Scotland.
On the east by the German Ocean.
On the south by the English Channel
On the west by Wales and the Irish
Sea.
Q. Its extent?
A. About three hundred and sixty miles in
length, and two hundred in breadth.
Q. How divided?
A. Into forty counties, and these are
arranged into six circuits, for the convenience
of the twelve judges, two being required for
each circuit.
Q. What do we understand by county town?
A. That town in each county which con-
tains the jail, and where the assizes are held.
Q. What are the assizes?
A. Courts for the trial of those who are
accused of having committed crimes.
Q. What do you mean by the Northern
Circuit?
A. The six counties most to the north.







Q. What is the county town of North-
unberland ?
A. Newcastle, on the river Tyne.
Q. What of Cumberland?
A. Car-lisle,* on the river E'-den.
Q. What of Durham?
A. Durham, on the Wear.
Q. What of Westmoreland?
A. Ap'-ple-by, on the E-den.
Q. What of Lancashire ?
A. Lan-cas-ter, on the Lune.
Q. What of Yorkshire?
A. York, on the Ouse.
Q. What do you mean by Middle Circuit?
A. The eight counties most towards the
middle of the kingdom.
Q. What is the county town of Cheshire ?
A. Chester, on the Dee.
Q. What of Derbyshire?
A. Derby, on the Derwent.
Q. What of Nottinghamshire?
A. Nottingham, on the Trent.
Q. What of Lincolnshire ?
A. Lin-coln,f on the With'-am.
Q. What of Warwickshire?
A. War'-wick,t on the Avon.
Car-lile t Lin'-con. t War'-ric.







Q. What of Leices-ter-shire P
A. Leices-ter,' on the Soar.
Q. What of Rutlandshire?
A. Oak'-ham.
Q. What of Northamptonshire?
A. North-amp-ton, on the Nen.
Q. Of what does the Oxford Circuit consist?
A. Of Oxfordshire, and the seven counties
bordering upon it.
Q. What is the county town of Oxford-
shire?
A. Oxford, on the I'-sis.
Q. What of Buckinghamshire ?
A. Buck-ing-ham, on the Tame.
Q. What of Glouces'-ter-shire?
A. Glouces'-ter,f on the Sev'-ern.
Q. What of Worces'-ter-shire?
A. Worces'-ter,t on the Sev'-ern.
Q. What of Mon-mouth-shire?
A. Mon'-mouth, on the Wye.
q. What of Her-e-ford-shire?
A. Her'-e-ford, on the Wye,
Q. What of Shropshire?
A. Shrews'-bu-ry, on the Severn.
Q. What of Staffordshire?


* Les'-ter.
f Glos-ter.


Woos-ter.
Mon-nmuut





42
A. Stafford, on the Sow.
Q. Of what does the Norfolk Circuit consist?
A. Of Norfolk, and the five bordering
counties.
Q. What is the county town of Bedford-
shire ?
A. Bedford, on the South Ouse.
Q. What of Berkshire?
A. Read-ing,* on the Thames.t
Q. What of Huntingdonshire?
A. Huntingdon, on the South Ouse.
Q. What of Cam-bridge-shire?
A. Cam-bridge,t on the Cam.
Q. What of Suffolk?
A. Ips-wich, on the Orwell.
Q. What of Norfolk?
A. Nor-wich,|l on the Yare.
Q. What do you mean by Home Circuit?
A. Middlesex, and the five adjoining
counties.
Q. What is the county town of Middlesex?
A. LONDON, on the Thames.
Q. What of Essex ?
A. Chelms'-ford, on the Chelmer.
Q. What of Hertfordshire?
Red-ding. Caim-bridge. j Nor-ridge.
t Ten. Ips-iclh






A. Ilert'-ford,* on the Lea.
Q. What of Kent?
A. Maidstone, on the Medway.
Q. What of Surrey?
A. Guild'-ford, on the Wey.
Q. What of Sussex?
A. Chich'-es-ter, on the Ar'-un.
Q. Of what does the Western Circuit
consist ?
A. Of the six counties lying on the west of
London.
Q. What is the county town of Hampshire?
A. Winchester, on the Itch'-yn.
Q. What of Wiltshire?
A. Salis'-bu-ry,t on the Avon.
Q. What of Dorsetshire?
A. Dor-ches-ter, on the Frome.
Q. What of Somersetshire?
A. Wells, on the Stour.
Q. What of Devonshire ?
A. Ex'-e-ter, on the Exe.
Q. What of Cornwall?
A. Laun-ces-ton,t on the Ta-mar.
Har-ford. t Solz'-bu-ry. : Launs-tou








LESSON VIII.
ENGLAND CONTINUED.
Q. What is the climate of England?
A. Changeable, even to a proverb, but at
the same time temperate, for we seldom
experience either extreme heat or extreme
cold.
Q. What remark did Charles IL make
respecting it?
A. That there was no country in Europe
in which he could be abroad in the air more
hours in the day, and more days in the year,
without inconvenience, than in England;"
the observation was, perhaps, just.
Q. Its soil?
A. Generally fertile, and it is made still
more so by very superior cultivation, it
produces in great abundance everything ne-
cessary for the sustenance of man.
Q. What are its chief minerals?
A. Coal, iron, tin, copper, and lead.
Q. Are not these minerals of great im-
portance ?
A. Yes, but especially coal and iron; to
our plentiful supply of these minerals may,







in a great measure, be ascribed our manufac-
turing greatness, and commercial success.
Q. Where does coal most abound?
A. Towards the north of England; the
coal-fields of Durham and Northumberland
Share wrought to a greater extent than those of
the other counties.
Q. What reason can you give?
A. They occupy a commanding situation
for supplying London, and the counties on
the east and south-east coasts, where no coal
is procured.
S Q. Do we export much coal ?
A. Yes, large quantities to France and
other countries; the coal-trade is considered
San excellent nursery for a hardy race of
Sseamen.
o Q. What is the population of England ?
A. About sixteen millions; the English
re a well-made people, industrious in their
abits, and distinguished for their learning
r *'ud knowledge.
Q. What are the principal islands belonging
England?
A. The Isle of Wight, south of Hampshire;
;he Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea; and the
3cilly Isles, off Corn'-wall.
E3






Q. Have we not some islands in the Eng-
lish Channel, near the coast of France?
A. Yes, Guern'-sey, Jer'-sey, Alderney,
and Sark.
Q. What are the principal rivers?
A. The Thames, the Sev-ern, the Humber,
the Medway, the Mersey, and the Tyne.
Q. What are the principal lakes?
A. Windermere, in Westmoreland; Uls-
water, between Cumberland and Westmore-
land; and Con-is-ton Water, in Lancashire.
Q. Which are the highest mountains ?
A. Skid'-daw, and Cross Fell, in Cumber-
land; Chev'-i-ot Hills, in Northumberland;
In'-gle-bor-ough, and Wharnside, in York-
shire; and the Peak, in Derbyshire.




LESSON IX.
ENGLAND CONTINUED.
Q. What is London?
A. The capital of England, and also of the
whole British empire.
Q. Its extent?
A. About seven miles in length, and five






in width, and contains upwards of two mil-
lions of inhabitants.
Q. How is London situated?
A. On the banks of the Thames, and for
the extent of its commerce, and the number
and usefulness of its charitable institutions,
it stands unrivalled.
Q. What are the other leading commercial
ports?
A. Liverpool, Bristol, Hull, Newcastle-
upon-Tyne, Southampton, and Yarmouth.
Q. What may Liverpool be considered?
A. The great mart of the American trade,
for which it occupies a commanding situation
on the river Mersey.
Q. Its population?
A. Upwards of three hundred thousand,
and two centuries ago it was only a village,
occupied by a few fishermen.
Q. What is the situation of Bristol?
A. On the Av-on, near the Bristol Channel;
it carries on an extensive trade with Wales
and Ireland, and also with the West Indies;
its population is about one hundred and
thirty thousand.
Q. Where is Hull seated?
A. On the Humber, about twenty miles







from the German Ocean; it is an enter-
prising town, and has a considerable trade
with Holland, Denmark, Sweden, and other
countries bordering upon the Baltic. Its
population is nearly sixty thousand.
Q. On what river is Newcastle situated?
A. On the Tyne, and it is largely engaged
in shipping coal, and also possesses a consider-
able foreign trade; its population, including
Gateshead, is nearly eighty thousand.
Q. Where is Southampton?
A. In Hampshire, not far from the Isle of
Wight; it is a thriving port, and carries on
a considerable trade with the continent; its
population is nearly thirty thousand.
Q. Where is Yarmouth seated?
A. At the mouth of the Yare, in Norfolk;
it has a convenient harbour, and is noted for
curing herrings, of which it exports large
quantities.
Q. Which are the most important manu-
facturing towns ?
A. Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Shef-
field, Nor-wich,* Nottingham, and Lei-ces'-
ter.t
q. What is Manchester?
Nor-ridge. t Lcs'-ter.







A. A large and ancient town, next to
London in population, and probably also in
wealth: it contains about three hundred and
sixty thousand inhabitants.
Q. How may Manchester be regarded?
A. As the centre of the cotton trade; and
to this single article it in a great measure
owes its importance.
Q. Are not its various manufactures con-
ducted on a very large scale?
A. Yes, amazingly so, and they give em-
ployment to avast number of hands; its cotton
goods are exported in large quantities to
almost every civilized country in the world.
Q. Which are the principal neighboring
towns engaged in the same line?
A. Preston, Bolton, Oldham, Ashton,
Stockport, Wigan, and Blackburn.
Q. For what is Birmingham noted?
A. For its me-tal'-lic manufactures, such as
hardware, guns, jewellery, trinkets, watches,
plated goods, and ma-chi-ne-ry;* its exports
in these are very considerable.
Q. What is its population?
A. About two hundred thousand.
Q. What is Leeds?
Ma-sheen'-ery.






A. A large and wealthy town in the West
Riding of Yorkshire, with a population of
about one hundred and sixty thousand.
Q. How may it be regarded?
A. As the centre of the Yorkshire woollen
trade; the neighboring towns employed in
the same line, are Huddersfield, Bradford,
and Halifax.
Q. For what is Sheffield celebrated?
A. For its edge-tools, cutlery, and plated
goods; these, from their superior quality,
find a ready market in foreign countries: its
population is about one hundred thousand.
Q. What is Norwich?
A. An ancient city which has long been
celebrated for its manufacture of crapes,
silks, bombazines,* and other fine stuffs: its
population is about sixty-five thousand.
Q. What is Nottingham?
A. A handsome town, seated on the Trent,
with a population of nearly sixty thousand;
it is largely engaged in manufacturing lace
and hosiery, and is also celebrated for its ex-
cellent ale.
Q. In what is Leices'-ter chiefly engaged?
A. In the hosiery trade; but it also manu-
Bum-ba-secns.







factures lace, gloves, cotton threads, and
similar articles. Leicester is an ancient and
improving town, situated in a rich farming
country, with a population of about fifty
thousand.
Q. What towns are noted for carpets?
A. Kidderminster, Axminster, and Wilton.
Q. What for iron works?
A. Wolverhampton, and Dudley.
Q. What towns are noted for salt works?
A. Northwich, and Nantwich, in Cheshire.
and Droitwich, in Worces'-ter-shire.
Q. What towns in the West of England
are noted for woollen cloths?
A. Exeter, Glouces-ter, and Frome.
Q. What for silks?
A. Coventry, and Macclesfield.
Q. For what is Rochdale noted?
A. For its flannels.
Dunstable?-For straw-plait.
Worces'-ter?-For stockings and china.
Bedford?-For lace.
Derby?-For its silk mills.
Colchester?-For its oyster beds.
Farnham?-For hope.
Carlisle?-For ginghams and hats.







Newcastle under Line?-For its pot-
teries.
Burton?-For fine ale.
Q. Which are the principal naval stations
of England?
A. Portsmouth, celebrated for the strength
of its fortifications; and Plymouth, noted for
its capacious harbour, and gi-gan'-tic break-
water.
Q. What places are celebrated for their
medicinal springs?
A. Bath, Cheltenham, Leam'-ing-ton, Mat-
lock, Buxton, Harrowgate, Tunbridge Wells,
and Clifton.
Q. Name the principal sea-bathing places.
A. Brighton, Ryde, Hastings, Weymouth,
Ramsgate, Margate, Scarborough, and Red-
car.


LESSON X.
WALES.
Q. What is Wales?
A. A small principality lying on the west
of England, about one hundred and forty
miles in length, and fifty in breadth; it was






united to England in the reign of Edward
the First.
Q. How is it divided?
A. Into North and South Wales, each
containing six counties: its population is
about a million.

NORTH WALES.
Q. What is the county town of
Flintshire? Car-nar'-von-shire?
Flint. Car-nar'-von.
Den'-bigh-shire?* Mer'-i-o-neth-shire?
Den'-bigh. Har-lech.f
An'-gle-sea? Mont-gom'-e-ry-shire?
Beau-ma'-ris. Mont-gom-e-ry.t

SOUTH WALES.
Q. What is the county town of
Car'-di-gan-shire? Gla-mor'-gan-shire?
Car'-di-gan. Car'-diff
Rad'-nor-shire? Car-mar'-then-shire?
Rad-nor. Car-mar'-then.
Breck'-nock-shire? Pem'-broke-shire?
Breck'-nock. Pem'-broke.
Q. What is the general description of
Wales?
* Den'-be-sher. t Har-lech. Mun-gum-er-e.
F






A. The northern part is mountainous, and
much admired for its beautiful and romantic
scenery.
Q. What country is it supposed to re-
semble ?
A. Switzerland, but the mountains are on
a smaller scale: the highest are Snowden and
Plyn-lim'-mon.
Q. Its productions?
A. Wales, with the exception of its valleys,
is a barren country, but it is very rich in
minerals, especially in iron, copper, coal, and
slate.
Q. How is the Isle of Anglesea connected
with the other part of Wales ?
A. By he Me-nai suspension bridge,
nearly two hundred yards in length; Angle-
sea has long been famous for its copper
mines.
Q. What is the general character of the
Welsh ?
A. They are brave, hospitable, and simple
in their manners; they, however, pride them-
selves on their ancestry, and are accused of
being hasty in their temper.









LESSON XI.
SCOTLAND.
Q. What part of the island of Great
Britain does Scotland occupy?
A. The most northerly, and it is in part
separated from England by the Solway Frith,
the Chev-i-ot hills, and the river Tweed.
Q. Its extent?
A. About two hundred and eighty miles
in length, and will average about one hun-
dred and thirty in width; it is divided into
thirty-three counties.

ELEVEN NORTHERN COUNTIES.


Q. What is
Orkneys?
A. Kirkwall.
Caithness ?
Wick.
Suth'-er-land?
Dornoch.*
Ross?
Ding-wall.
Dor-nok.


the county town of the


Elgin or Murray?
Elgin.
Banff? t
Banff.
Aberdeen ?
Aberdeen.


i Bamf.







Crom'-ar-ty?
Cromarty.
Nairn ?
Nairn.


Inverness?
In-ver-ness'.
Kincardine ?
Kin-car'-dine.


NINE MIDDLE.
Q. What is the county town of Forfar?
A. For'-far.
Perth? Stirling?
Perth. Stirling.
Fife? Dunbarton?
Cu'-par. Dun-bar'-ton.
Kinross? Ar-gyle'?
Kin-ross'. In-ver-a-ry.
Clackmannon? Bute ?
Clack-man'-non. Roth'-say.

THIRTEEN SOUTHERN.
Q. What is the county town of Haddington?


A. Haddington.
Edinburgh?
Ed-in-burgh.*
Linlithgow?
Lin-lith-gow.
Berwick? -
Greenlaw.


Roxburgh?
Jedburgh.
Selkirk?
Selkirk.
Peebles?
Pee'-bles.


* Ed-in-bur-row


- w






Lan'-ark? Dumfries?
Glasgow. Dum-fries'.
Renfrew ? Kircudbright ?
Renfrwv. Kir-cud-bright.f
Ayrshire? Wigton?
Ayr. Wigton.
Q. By what name are the northern parts
of Scotland usually known?
A. By that of the Highlands, and the
southern parts by that of Lowlands; they
are separated by the Grampian hills.
Q. What is the climate of the Highlands ?
A. Cold and moist, and the soil barren; in
the Lowlands it becomes much milder, and in
some districts the soil is fruitful and in a high
state of cultivation.
Q. What are its chief productions?
A. Iron, coal, cattle, and sheep.
Q. Does Scotland consume all the cattle
and sheep it breeds ?
A. No, it sends great numbers to be
fattened in the rich pastures of England.
Q. Are not the fisheries of Scotland of great
national importance ?
A. Yes, especially that of herrings; these,
in their yearly migration, first visit the
Dum-frccs. T Kirk-coo-bree.




6&
northern coasts of Scotland, when they are
caught in immense numbers.
Q. What do they make of these?
A. They cure them, and when packed in
casks they export them to different coun-
tries.
Q. What is the population of Scotland?
A. About two millions and three quarters.
The Scotch are a temperate, hardy, moral,
and persevering people.
Q. Are not the blessings of education
widely diffused in Scotland?
A. Yes, and it is probably in a great mea-
sure owing to this, that crime does not exist
in so great a degree as it does in its sister
kingdom, England.
Q. Its capital ?
A. EDINBURGH, a handsome city, long
distinguished as the seat of science and
learning; its population is about one hundred
and fifty thousand.
Q. What are the other most important
towns of Scotland?
A. Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dun-dee, Paisley,
and Green'-ock.
Q What is Glasgow?
A. Much the largest city in Scotland, its






population being about three hundred
thousand.
Q. In what is it chiefly engaged?
A. In the cotton trade, but it also manu-
factures largely silks, linens, lawns, and
threads. Glasgow printed goods bear a high
character.
Q. What is Aberdeen?
A. The principal city in the north of Scot-
land? it is a flourishing sea-port, seated on
the mouth of the Dee, and also extensively
engaged in manufacturing linen, woollen, and
cotton goods; its population is nearly seventy
thousand.
Q. What is Dundee?
A. A commodious sea-port on the Frith of
Tay, with a considerable foreign trade; it
also manufactures linens, canvass, and glass
in considerable quantities; its population is
about sixty-five thousand.
Q. Where is Paisley?
A. About six miles to the west of Glasgow,
and its manufactures are much of the same
nature; its leading articles are shawls, cam-
brics, lawns, cotton threads, and gauze; its
population is about fifty thousand.
Q. Where is Greenock situated?






A. On the Frith of Clyde, and is the most
considerable port in Scotland; it carries on
an extensive trade with America and the
West Indies, and has a population of nearly
forty thousand. Z
Q. Which are the principal mountains of
Scotland?
A. Ben Nevis, the highest in Great Bri-
tain, the Grampian hills, and Cheviot hills.
Q. Is not Scotland celebrated for its lakes?
A. Yes, and the scenery about these is
beautifully romantic; the principal are Loch*
Lomond, Loch Aive, Loch Kat-trine,f Loch
Tay, and Loch Ness.
Q. What are the principal rivers ?
A. The Clyde, the Tay, the Forth, the
Dee, the Don, and the Spey.
Q. What are its chief islands ?
A. The Shetland Isles, the Orkney Isles,
the Heb'-ri-des or Western Isles, and the
two islands, Arran and Bute, in the Frith of
Clyde.


* Lock,


t Kat-tren.








LESSON XII.
IRELAND.
Q. What is Ireland?
A. A large island lying on the west of
England, and separated from it by the Irish
Sea and St. George's Channel.
Q. Its extent?
A. About two hundred and eighty miles
in length, and one hundred and sixty in
breadth.
Q. How is it divided?
A. Into four provinces, namely, Ulster, in
the north; Leinster, in the east; Munster,
m the south; and Connaught, in the west;
and these are again divided into thirty-two
counties.
PROVINCE OF ULSTER.
Q. What is the county town of Don'-e-gal?
A. Lifford.
Londonderry ? Down ?
Londonderry. Down-pat'-rick.
Antrim? Ar'-magh?
Car-rick-fer'-gus. Ar-magh.*
Ar-mah.







Mon'-a-ghan.
Mon'-a-ghan.
Ty-rone'?
O'-magh.


Fer-ma'-nagh ?
En-nis-kil'-len.
Cavan?
Cav'-an.


PROVINCE OF LEINSTER.
Q. What is the county town of


Louth?
Drog'-he-da.*
Meath?
Trim.
West-meath?
Mul-lin-gar'.
Longford ?
Longford.
Dublin?
DUBLIN.
Kil-dare'.
Kildare.


King's County?
Phil'-ips-town.
Queen's County?
Ma-ry-bor-ough.
Carlow ?
Carlow.
Wicklow?
Wicklow.
Wexford?
Wexford.
Kilkenny ?
Kil-kcn'-ny.


PROVINCE OF MUNSTER.
Q. What is the county town of
WVaterford? Clare?
Waterford. Ennis.
Tip-pcr-a'-ry? Limerick?
Clonmell. Limerick.
Draw'-e-do.







Cork? Kerry?
Cork. Tra-lee'.

PROVINCE OF CONNAUGHT.
Q. What is the county town of Roscommon?
A. Roscommon.
Leitrim? Mayo?
Lei-trim.' Cas-tle-bar'.
Sligo? Galway?
Sli'-go. Galway.
Q. What is the climate of Ireland?
A. Warmer than that of England, and
more inclined to moisture; to this circum-
stance is to be attributed the perpetual
greenness of its fields.
Q. Is it on this account that it is some-
times called the Emerald or Green Isle ?
A. It is; a great part of the soil is ex-
tremely fertile, and where well cultivated,
highly productive.
Q. Its chief productions ?
A. Butter, bacon, wheat, oats, eggs, and
salted beef: of these it sends large quan-
tities to England.
Q. Its capital?
A. DUBLIN, a handsome city seated on
Le'-trim.






the Liffey, with a population of about three
hundred thousand.
Q. What are the objects most to be ad-
mired in Dublin ?
A. The elegance of its public buildings,
the beauty of its bay, and the fine scenery
of the surrounding country.
Q. What is Cork?
A. The second city of Ireland, possessing
a fine harbour, and largely engaged in com-
merce; its population is about eighty-five
thousand, and its principal exports are the
productions of the neighboring counties.
Q. What is Bel-fast?
A. The most thriving and commercial town
in Ireland; it is the seat of several manufac-
tories for linen and woollen goods, and has a
population of nearly eighty thousand.
Q. How is Limerick situated?
A. On the noble river Shannon; its in-
habitants, nearly sixty thousand in number,
are extensively engaged in manufacturing
linens, woollens, and gloves.
Q. What is Waterford?
A. A considerable port town in the south
of Ireland; its exports are considerable, and
its population is about thirty thousand.






Q. What is the population of Ireland?
A. Upwards of eight millions; the Irish are
considered a hardy and kind-hearted people;
the higher classes are hospitable, liberal, and
polite, but the peas'-ant-ry in general are in
a wretched state of poverty.
Q. What are its chief rivers?
A. The Shannon, the Liffey, the Boyne,
and the Blackwater.


LESSON XIII.
SPAIN-PORTUGAL.
Q. What is Spain?
A. An extensive kingdom lying on the
west of France, and separated from it by the
Pyr'-e-nees.
Q. Its extent?
A. About six hundred miles in length, and
five hundred in breadth.
Q. What is the face of the country ?
A. It is inclined to be mountainous; to-
wards the south the climate is oppressively
hot, but in the higher districts, about the
middle, during the winter, the air is cold and
piercing.






Q. What are its chief productions ?
A. Wines, oranges, lemons, grapes, and
other fruits; silk, wool, cork, iron, and lead.
Q. Its population?
A. About fourteen millions; the Spaniards
are a stately, grave people; the upper classes
possessing a high sense of honour.
Q. Its capital?
A. MA-DRID', a city rather gloomy in
appearance, and remarkable for nothing but
its magnificent royal palace, and the number
of its churches; its population is two hun-
dred and ten thousand.
Q. What are its other chief towns?
A. Bar-ce-lo'-na, noted for its commerce.
Cad-iz, a large commercial port and
naval station.
Sev'-ille, a handsome city, formerly the
capital.
Mal'-a-ga, with a fine harbour, and an
extensive foreign trade; and
Sal-a-man'-ca, famous for its University.
Q. What are the principal rivers of Spain?
A. The E'-bro, the Ta'-gus, the Dou'-ro,
and the Gua-dal-quiv'-er.
q. What is Gibraltar?
A. A strong fortress on the south of Spain,




67
which has been in the possession of the
English since 1704.
Q. Why is the possession of this place
considered of importance?
A. Because it commands the entrance into
the Med-i-ter-ra'-ne-an Sea.

PORTUGAL.
Q. What is Portugal?
A. A small kingdom lying on the west of
Spain, and the most westerly country in
Europe.
Q. Its extent?
A. About three hundred miles in length,
and one hundred in breadth.
Q. Its climate?
A. Pure and mild, but the soil in general
is not so fertile as that of Spain.
Q. What are its chief exports?
A. Wines, olive oils, raisins, and other
dried fruits, oranges and lemons.
Q. Its population?
A. Three millions and a half. The Por-
tu-guese resemble the Spaniards, but they
are neither so tall, nor so well made; a great
part of the peas'-ant-ry are in a wretched
state of poverty.







Q. Its capital?
A. LISBON, a well built city, finely
situated on the Tagus; a considerable parn
of it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1755,
when not fewer than thirty thousand persons
perished; its population is about two hundred
and sixty thousand.
Q. What is its other chief town ?
A. Oporto, a handsome city on the Douro,
and celebrated for its strong wine called port,
of which it sends large quantities to England.


LESSON XIV.
ITALY-TURKEY--GREECE.
ITALY.
Q. What is Italy?
A. A large peninsula on the southern part
of Europe, washed on three sides by the
Med-i-ter-ra'-ne-an Sea, and in its shape not
unlike a man's boot.
Q. How is Italy divided?
A. Into ten distinct states, each belonging
to a different sovereign.
Q. Which are the principal sovereigns?
A. The Pope, the King of Naples, the






King of Sar-din'-i-a, and the Emperor of
Austria.
Q. What part belongs to the Pope?
A. The central or middle; in this is Rome,
once the capital of the Roman empire, and
the Mistress of the World."
Q. What is Rome in the present day?
A. It is still a fine city, deservedly cele-
brated for its splendid buildings, and its noble
ruins.
Q. What two buildings in Rome are par-
ticularly deserving of admiration?
A. The church of St. Peter, considered the
largest, and the most beautiful in the world;
and the Vat'-i-can, the palace of the Pope,
containing four thousand apartments. "
Q. What does the kingdom of Naples
comprise ?
A. The southern part of Italy, and the
Island of Sicily,* separated from it by the
Strait of Mes-si'-na.t
Q. What is Vesuvius?
A. Avol-ca'-no, or burning mountain, about
eight miles from the city of Naples.
Q. What is Mount Etna?
A. A still larger volcano than Vcsuvius,
Sis'-e-le. t Mes-see-Ia.




70

but not so violent; it is situated on the east
side of the Island of Sicily, and is the highest
burning mountain in Europe.
Q. Of what does the kingdom of Sardinia
consist?
A. Of the Island of Sardinia, and Pied'-
mont, Gen'-o-a, and Sa-voy', in Italy; Tu-
rin', in Pied-mont,* is the capital.
Q. What do the Austrian States comprise?
A. Ven'-ice and Lombardy; their chief
towns are Venice, Mil'-an, and Mantua.
Q. What are the other independent states?
A. Tus'-ca-ny, Lucca, Mod-e-na, Parma,
Mo-nac-o, and San Ma-ri'-no.t
Q. What is the climate of Italy?
A. Fine, and its sky clear and unclouded, but
the heat in summer is sometimes oppressive.
Q. Its soil?
A. Rich, producing abundantly the luxuries
of life; its chief exports are olive oil, silk,
oranges, lemons, citrons, figs, and other fruits.
Q. Its population?
A. About twenty-one millions taken as a
whole; the Italians are a prudent, polite
people, with considerable expression in their
countenances, and excelling in the fine arts.
Peed'-mong. f Ma-ree'-no.




71
Q. What are its chief rivers ?
A. The Po, the Tiber, and the Arno.
Q. What are the islands near Italy besides
those already mentioned?
A. Corsica, famous for having given birth
to Bo-na-parte; Elba, a small island, to
which he was first banished after his down-
fal; and Malta, a small but important island,
belonging to England.

TURKEY IN EUROPE.
Q. What is Turkey?
A. An empire of considerable extent, partly
lying in Europe, and partly in Asia.
Q. What is the extent of Turkey in Europe?
A. About six hundred miles in length, and
five hundred in breadth.
Q. What is the face of the country?
A. Rather mountainous, but it is agreeably
diversified with beautiful valleys, and fertile
plains; and the soil, where properly cultivated,
is very luxuriant.
Q. What are its chief exports ?
A. Wines, coffee, rhu'-barb, opium, carpets,
silk, also raisins, figs, and other dressed fruits.
Q. Its population in Europe?
A. Ten millions; the Turks are a well-






made, handsome people, but considered
haughty and cruel
Q. In what respects do the Turks differ
from other Eu-ro-pe'-ans?
A. They profess the religion of Mahomet,
and wear turbans and flowing robes, instead
of the hat and close dress of the other nations.
Q. What is the government of Turkey?
A. Despotic, that is, the emperor, usually
styled the sultan, or grand seignior,* has the
lives and the property of his subjects com-
pletely at his own disposal.
Q. Its capital?
A. CON-STAN-TI-NO'-PLE, a large
city, seated between the Black and Mar'-
mo-ra Seas; it contains some magnificent
buildings, but most of the streets are narrow
and dirty; its population is five hundred
thousand.
Q. What are the other chief towns ?
A. Ad'-ri-an-o-ple, Sal-o-ni'-ca, So-phi'-a.
The principal rivers are the Dan-ube, the
Pruth, and the Save. ,

GREECE,
Q. What is Greece?
S'-ni-o"







A. A small kingdom occupying the most
southerly part of Europe; this country formed
a part of Turkey till 1827, when it became
an independent power.
Q. Its capital?
A. ATH'-ENS, in ancient times the seat
of learning, and of the arts and sciences; it is
now of small extent, and only attractive for
the noble ruins of its ancient and magnificent
buildings.
GENERAL SUMMARY OF EUROPE.


States.
Sweden?*
Norway?
Denmark?
Russia?
Saxony?
Bavaria?
Hanover?
Prussia?
Austria?
Switzerland?
France?
Holland?
Belgium?
England?


Capitals. Pop. in mllns. Religion.
Stockholm 3 Lut-ther-an
Christiana 1 Lutheran
Copenhagen 2 Lutheran
Petersburg 56 Greek Church
Dresden 1 Lutheran
Munich 4 Catholic
Hanover 1 Lutheran
Ber-lin' 16 Lutheran
Vienna 38 Catholic
Berne 2 Caths. & Prots.
Paris 36 Catholic
Amsterdam 3 Protestant
Brussels 4 Catholic
London 16 Protestant


If the classes be frequently practised as below on
the above summary, its contents will be fixed on the
memory; thus:-
What is the capital of Sweden? Of Norway? Of
Denmark? &c.
What is the population of Sweden? Of Norway? Of
Denmark? &c.
What is the religion of Sweden? Of Norway? &c.







State. Capitals. Pop. In millns. Religion.
Scotland? Edinburgh 2t Protestant
Ireland? Dublin 84 Cath. & Prots.
Spain? Ma-drid' 14 Catholic
Portugal? Lisbon 34 Catholic
4 Naples? Naples 8 Catholic
4 Sardinia? Turin 4 Catholic
Papal States? Rome 2 Catholic
Tuscany? Florence 1 Catholic
SPaParma? Parma 6 Catholic
Turkey? Constantinople 10 Mohammedans
Greece? Athens 1 Greek Church


LESSON XV.
ASIA-ASIATIC RUSSIA-ASIATIC TURKEY-
ARABIA.
ASIA.
Q. What is Asia?
A. The largest and the most populous of
the four great divisions of the world; it mea-
sures about six thousand miles in length, and
five thousand in breadth.
Q. Why do we feel more than usual interest
with respect to Asia?
A. In it the human race was first planted,
and in it also occurred almost all the interest-
ing events recorded in the Sacred Scriptures.





AS6 IA


'North

C r 0 c f 1 /




u R 0 p K t4 x



.-Ai~f A my

























'0 A9 .4
0 C r.4 M 5

01vpt m







ASIA,








ASIATIC RUSSIA.
Q. What is Asiatic Russia?
A. A country of vast extent, consisting of
Siberia, occupying the whole of the northern
part of Asia, and also Georgia, and other
countries bordering on the Caspian Sea.
Q. Its climate?
A. In the northern part it is intensely cold,
but towards the south it bc.aomes more
kindly, and favourable to vegetation.
Q. What are the principal wild animals?
A. Reindeer, wolves, bears, foxes, ermines,
and other animals, yielding costly furs.
Q. For what circumstance has Si-be'-ri-a
obtained considerable no-to-ri'-e-ty?
A. From its being the place to which those
Russians are banished who have the misfor-
tune to ofend the government.
Q. What is the population of the whole of
Asiatic Russia?
A. About seven millions; the chief cities
are As-tra-chan', on the Volga, neax the
Caspian Sea; and Tobolsk, in Siberia.

ASTATIC TURKEY.
Q. What is Asiatic Turkey ?







A. A country of considerable extent, bor-
dering on th. Black and Med-i-ter-ra'-ne-an
Seas, with a population of about twelve
millions.
Q. Of what does it consist?
A. Of a number of provinces, which in
ancient times were kingdoms; the most in-
teresting of these is Syr'-i-a, in the Sacred
Scriptures called Ju-de'-a.
Q. Is it not now known by some other
names?
A. Yes, it is sometimes called Pal'-es-tine,
and sometimes the Holy Land, because it
was the principal scene of the labours of
OUR SAVIOUR.
Q. What are the chief towns of Asiatic
Turkey ?
A. A-LEP'-PO, the capital, Smyrna, Da-
mas'-cus, Bagdad,* and Jerusalem.
Q. What was Jerusalem in ancient
times?
A. The capital of the Jewish nation; it i
now an inconsiderable place, with a popula-
tion of about twenty thousand.
Q. Is it much frequented?
A. Yes, by pilgrims, who visit it for the
SBag-rdat'.






purposes of devotion. Mount Calvary is in
the immediate neighbourhood.

ARABIA.
Q. What is Arabia?
A. A large country bordering upon the
Red Sea; its length is about fourteen hun-
dred miles, and its breadth nine hundred.
Q. How is it usually divided?
A. Into three parts, namely, Arabia Pet'-
re-as, or Rocky; Arabia De-ser-ta, or the
Desert; and Arabia Felix, or the Happy.
Q. Its climate?
A. Hot and dry, and subject to suffocating
blasts; the soil in some parts is nothing but
loose sand, which, when agitated by the wind,
rolls like the waves of the sea.
Q. What are its chief cities?
A. MEC'-CA, the birth-place of Maho-
met, and Me-di'-na,* the place of his burial,
visited by thousands of pilgrims from all
parts where the Mo-ham'-me-dan religion
prevails.
Q. Are not Arabian horses much prized?
A. Yes, for their swiftness and beautiful
sym-me-try, and they have contributed
*Me-dee-na.
H






largely to the improvement of the breed of
those of other countries.
Q. From whom are the Arabians supposed
to be descended ?
A. From Ishmael; in the exterior of the
country many of them lead a wandering life,
and are much addicted to robbery.



LESSON XVI.
PERSIA-INDEPENDENT TARTARY-AFF-
GHANISTAN-HINDOSTAN.
PERSIA.
Q. What is Persia?
A. A kingdom of great antiquity, lying on
the east of Arabia.
Q. Its climate?
A. Pure, but inclined to be hot, and sub-
ject to suffocating winds; its soil, where cul-
tivated, is extremely fertile, producing all the
finer fruits in great perfection.
Q. Its population?
A. About eleven millions; the Persians are
distinguished for their vivacity and hospita-
lity, and also for their taste in dress.
Q. Do they not excel in manufactures?






A. Yes, but especially in silks, woollens,
porcelain, and carpets; in the last they are
unrivalled.
Q. What are the chief cities of Persia ?
A. TE-HE-RAN, the present capital
Is-pa-han', the former one, and Shi-raz, noted
for the beauty of its gardens.

INDEPENDENT TARTARY.
Q. What is Independent Tartary?
A. A territory of great extent, lying be-
tween the Caspian Sea and Chinese Tartary.
Q. Of what does it chiefly consist ?
A. Of a number of provinces, formerly
powerful kingdoms.
Q. What is there peculiar in Tartary?
A. There being no property in land, a part
of its population consists of wandering tribes,
who rove about with their flocks and herds
in search of pasture.

AFFGHANISTAN.
Q. Of what does Aff-ghan-is-tan' consist?
A. Of various countries, under the different
names of Ca-bul,+ Be-loo-chistan,f La-hore,
Moultan, and Scinde.t


0 Ca-booll. t ]lc-loo-sis'-tan.
2


I Sind.







Q. How is this country peopled?
A. By numberless tiibes bearing separate
names, and each under the control of a khan,
or chief; many of these tribes possess a fierce-
ness not common to Asiatic nations.

HINDOSTAN.
Q. What is Hin-dos-tan, usually called
the East Indies?
A. A country of very great extent, mea-
suring eighteen hundred miles in length, and
fifteen hundred in width.
Q. How may Hindostan be divided?
A. Into three great parts, namely, the
British possessions, the states under British
protection, and the independent states: the
population of the whole is estimated at one
hundred and forty millions.
Q. What are the chief cities of the British
possessions ?
A. CAL-CUT'-TA, Ma-dras', and Bom-
bay'.
Q. Its climate?
A. Towards the north temperate, but in
the south oppressively hot; near the coasts
the heat is moderated by refreshing breezes
from the sea.







Q. Its soil?
A. Luxuriant, producing all the luxuries
of life; it also possesses valuable mines of
gold, silver, and diamonds, and yields in
abundance many kinds of spices and
drugs.
Q. What are the animals common to the
country ?
A. Elephants, lions, tigers, leop'-ards, pan-
thers, monkeys, and buf'-fa-loes; and in some
parts of the country serpents abound.
Q. What is the general character of the
Hin-doos'?
A. They are very dark in their complex-
ions, well-made, but slender in their persons,
open and pleasing in their countenances, and
gentle and inoffensive in their manners.
Q. How are the Hindoos classed?
A. Into castes or tribes, and none of these
are allowed to marry into another tribe, nor
are the different tribes permitted to eat,
drink, or dwell with each other.
Q. Their diet?
A. That of the working classes is extremely
simple, consisting of rice, milk, vegetables,
and spices; indeed, the inferior castes are
forbidden to eat fish or flesh of any kind.
11 3







Q. What are the chief productions of the
country ?
A. Rice, cotton, coffee, silk, fruit, spices,
drugs, gold, silver, and precious stones.
Q. What are the principal rivers?
A. The Indus, the Gan'-ges, and the Bur-
ram-poo'-ter, all rising in Thib-et.* The
Hindoos hold the waters of the Ganges in
great veneration.



LESSON XVII.
CHINA-BIRMAN EMPIRE.
CHINA.
Q. What is China?
A. An empire of very large extent, con-
sisting of China, Chinese Tartary, and Thibet.
Q. For what has China long been noted?
A. For the antiquity of its government,
the extent of its population, and the singular
customs of its inhabitants.
Q. Its climate?
A. In general good, and the soil fruitful;
it is cultivated with great industry, and yields
TibL'et.







in abundance all the necessaries and comforts
of life.
Q. What are its chief exports ?
A. Teas and silks; the tea shrub is cul-
tivated with great care, and its leaves, under
the name of black and green teas, are exported
in immense quantities to different countries,
but especially to England and America.
Q. What are the two great works of art
in China?
A. The Grand Ca-nal', and the Great
Wall.
Q. For what purpose was the Great Wall
erected?
A. To protect China from the invasions of
the Tartars; this stupendous wall is fifteen
hundred miles in length, twenty-five feet in
height, and sufficiently broad on the top to
admit of five horsemen abreast.
Q. Its population?
A. About three hundred millions; the
Chinese are of the middle size, their faces
broad, their eyes small and black, and their
countenances devoid of much expression; in
their manners they are tranquil, peaceable,
and ceremonious.
Q. What are the chief cities of China ?






A. PE-KIN', the capital, with a population
equal to that of London; Nan-kin', with a
population of a million; and Can'-ton, till
lately the only port open to British merchants.
Q. What is Chinese Tartary ?
A. An extensive country on the north of
China, chiefly inhabited by the Mand-shurs
and Mongols.
Q. What is Thibet?
A. A very mountainous district, lying be-
tween China and the British possessions;
between Thibet and Hindostan are the cele-
brated Him-a-lay'-ah mountains, the highest
in the world.
Q. What is the height of the loftiest of
these ?
A. Five miles above the level of the sea.
Q. What do we understand by India
beyond the Ganges?
A. It is the general name given to several
states on the east of the river Ganges.
Q. Which of these is the most important ?
A. Assam, a large territory belonging to
the English; the tea shrub, being natural to
this country, is now cultivated on a large
scale under the authority of the East India
Company.








THE BIRMAN EMPIRE.
Q. What is the Birman empire?
A. An extensive country on the south-
west of China, comprising Av'-a or Birmah.
and Pegu; its population is estimated at
seventeen millions: UM-MER-A-POO'-RA
is the capital.
Q. For what is this country noted?
A. For its large forests, in which the teak
tree grows to a large size; this wood is
chiefly used for ship-building in the east, and
is fully equal, if not superior, to the British
oak for that purpose.
Q. What'is Siam?
A. A considerable country bordering upon
the bay of Ben-gal;* it produces large quan-
tities of rice and sugar, and is famous for its
fine elephants.
Q. What is Cochin t China?
A. A large empire, comprising Cochin
China, Tonquin,t Cam-bo-di-a, and Laos.
Q. What is the climate of these countries?
A. Mild and healthy, and the soil fertile;
the inhabitants rather resemble the Chinese
Ben-gaul'. t Cot-shin. t Ton-keen.






in appearance, but they have not attained
that degree of civilization.
Q. What is Malacca?
A. A peninsula occupying the most south-
erly part of Asia; a great many of the inha-
bitants, called Ma-lays', are pirates, and con-
sidered a fierce and lawless people.

JAPAN.
Q. Of what does the empire of Japan
consist ?
A. Of several islands, separated from China
by the sea of Ja-pan'; the largest of these is
Ni-phon', in which is situated the capital,
JEDDO, a large city, with a population of a
million and a half.
Q. What is the character of the Jap-an-
ese'?
A. They are represented as being a peace-
able and industrious people, displaying con-
siderable taste in their different manufactures.
Q. Do we know much of Japan?
A. Not much, having no intercourse with
it; but it is known to be a rich country,
abounding in every necessary for food and
raiment: its teas are superior to those or
China.









LESSON XVIII.
ORIENTAL ISLANDS--EASTERN ARCHIPE-
LAGO-AUSTRAL ASIA-POLYNESIA.
ORIENTAL ISLANDS.
Q. What do we understand by ORIEN-
TAL ISLANDS?
A. All the islands belonging to Asia, and
also those spread over the Pacific Ocean.
Q. How may these be classed?
A. Into three distinct divisions, namely,
the Eastern Ar-chi-pel'-a-go,* Austral Asia,
and Pol-y-ne'-si-a.
Q. Which are the most important islands
belonging to the EASTERN AR-CHI-
PEL'-A-GO?
A. Cey-lon, Su-ma'-tra, Bor'-ne-o, Cel-e-
bes, the Spice, and the Phil-ip-pine islands.
Q. Which of these is the largest?
A. Borneo, it being nearly eight hundred
miles in length, and six hundred in breadth;
this island is rich in gold and diamond mines,
and the ou-rang ou-tang is common in the
forests.
*Ar-ke-pel'-a-go.






Q. What do we understand by AUS-
TRAL ASIA?
A. It is the name given to a number of
islands extending southward from the eastern
part of Asia.
Q. Which are the principal?
A. Aus-tra'-li-a, Van Die'-man's Land,
New Guin'-ea, and New Zea'-land.
Q. What is Australia?
A. An important Bf tish 3olaut, and the
largest island in the world; it ide-sures two
thousand eight hundred miles in length, and
two tLousand in breadth.
Q. Its climate?
A. In general healthy, and the soil fertile;
but the inhabitants sometimes suffer from
continued dry weather.
Q. Describe the original natives?
A. They are black, low in stature, ill-made,
and without animation; indeed, some of them
are reported as being removed only in a slight
degree from the brute creation.
Q. What is the capital of Australia?
A. SYDNEY, situ, :ed on the eastern coast,
with a popu/ tion of about thirty-five thou-
sand; in its neighbourhood is Botany Bay, the
place to which convicts were formerly bani4.ed.






Q. What is Van Dieman's Land?
A. An island rather smaller than Ireland,
lying on the south of Australia, and separated
from it by Bass's Strait.
Q. Its climate ?
A. Fine and healthy, and its soil produc-
tive; this island has been chiefly peopled by
British emigrants, and it is a very thriving
colony; HOBART TOWN is the capital.
Q. How did New Guinea receive its name?
A. From the great resemblance of the
natives to those of New Guinea in Africa;
this island is nearly as large as Borneo, and
abounds with groves of cocoa-nut trees.
Q. What does New Zealand comprise ?
A. Two considerable islands, separated by
Cook's Strait, about fifteen miles in width;
the soil of these islands is extremely fertile,
yielding grain and flax in abundance.
Q. How are the original inhabitants divided?
A. Into tribes, and these were formerly
almost constantly at war with each other.
Q. Is it not now the case?
A. Not so much so; a part of the country
has become a British colony, and considerable
progress has been made in bringing them to
a state of civilization.






Q. What are the other principal smaller
islands belonging to this division?
A. New Britain, New Ireland, and the
New Heb'-ri-des.
Q. What do we mean by the term POL-
Y-NE'-SI-A?
A. Numerous clusters of islands spreading
over the Pacific Ocean.
Q. Which are the principal groups on the
north side of the equator?
A. The Pelew Isles, the La-drone Islands,
and the Sandwich Islands.
Q. Did not Captain Cook lose his life in
one of these?
A. Yes, in an affray with the natives at
O-why-hee, the principal of the Sandwich
Islands.
Q. Which are the principal groups on the
south of the equator ?
A. The Mar-que-sas,* the Society, and the
Friendly Islands; the last were so named
from the courteous and friendly manners of
the natives.
Mar-kee'sas.








LESSON XIX.
AFRICA-NORTHERN COAST-EASTERN
COAST-WESTERN COAST-INTERIOR.
AFRICA.
Q. What is the extent of Africa?
A. It is nearly three times the size of
Europe, and separated from it by the Med-
i-ter-ra'-ne-an Sea.
Q. What are its leading features?
A. Its vast deserts of burning sand, the
un-civ-il-i-zed state of its inhabitants, and
the number and savage nature of its wild
beasts.
Q. Its climate?
A. In general very hot, the greater part
lying within the torrid zone, that is, near the
equator.
Q. Does not the wind acquire additional
heat in passing over the burning sand?
A. It does, and when this is the case it
becomes almost insupportably hot.
Q. What are the principal rivers of Africa?
A. The Nile, the Ni'-ger,* the Sen-e-gal,
the Gam-bia, and the Orange.
Ni-jer.
I9







NORTHERN COAST.
Q. What are the principal states on the
northern coast?
A. The Barbary States, including Mo-
roc-co, Al-giers,* Tu'-nis, Trip-o-li, and
Barca; also the ancient kingdom of Egypt.
Q. Which of these is the most interesting?
A. Egypt, not only from its great an-
tiquity, but from its connection with Sacred
History, and its having been the great nur-
sery of the arts and sciences.
Q. What is its climate?
A. Warm, and in the lower grounds the
soil is rendered extremely fertile by the
yearly overflowing of the Nile.
Q. What ancient buildings may be named
as particularly worthy of notice ?
A. The pyr'-a-mids near Cairo, the capital;
the largest stands upon eleven acres of land,
and is four hundred and ninety feet in height.
Q. When were these built ?
A. Nearly two thousand years before the
birth of Christ. It is supposed they were
intended as sepulchres, or burial-places for
the Egyptian kings.
Al-jeers'.







Q. What kind of people are the descen-
dants of the ancient Egyptians ?
A. They are indolent in their habits, and
by no means prepossessing in their appear-
ance, being swarthy in their complexions,
dirty, and ill-looking.

EASTERN COAST.
Q. What are the principal countries on the
eastern coast ?
A. Nubia, Abys-sin'-i-a, Zan-que-bar', and
Mo-zam-bique.*
Q. For what is Nubia remarkable?
A. For its noble ruins, the remains of its
ancient grandeur: Abys-sin'-i-a is an exten-
sive country, inhabited by a degraded and
ferocious race.
Q. For what is Zan-que-bar' noted?
A. For the number of its serpents, croco-
diles, and similar animals; Mo-zam'-bique is
more civilized, and carries on a considerable
trade with the Dutch in gold, ivory, and
ebony.
Q. What are the chief countries in the south?
A. Cape Colony, and Caf-fra'-ri-a, the
country of the Hot-ten-tots.
Mo-zam-beek.
13






Q. What part of Africa does Cape Colony
occupy ?
A. The most southerly, that is, the Cape
of Good Hope and its neighbourhood; it
measures six hundred miles from west to
east, and three hundred and sixty from north
to south. CAPE TOWN is the capital.
Q. To what power does Cape Colony belong?
A. To England; before the year 1806 it
was in the possession of the Dutch.
Q. Its climate?
A. Fine, and the soil fruitful; this colony
derives additional importance from its being
convenient for ships, trading to the East
Indies, to call at for refreshments.

WESTERN COAST.
Q. What are the principal countries on the
western coast?
A. Upper and Lower Guinea, including
Ash-an-tee, Be-nin', Loango, Congo, and
Angola.
Q. Have not different Eu-ro-pe'-an nations
formed settlements on these coasts?
A. Yes, especially the English, French,
and Dutch, for the purposes of trade, but the
climate is often fatal to the settlers.







INTERIOR STATES.
Q. What countries occupy the interior or
middle parts of Africa ?
A. Sa'-ha-ra, Sou-dan, Bor-nou, Hows'-sa,
and many others very imperfectly known.
Q. Why are they so little known?
A. The great heat of the climate, the want
of regular roads, and the uncivilized state of
many of its inhabitants, are obstacles not
easily overcome.
Q. What is Sa'-ha-ra?
A. A vast desert, extending some hundreds
of miles. The soil, with the exception of a
few patches, is composed of fine loose sand.
Q. What effect does the wind produce upon
this ?
A. It causes it to roll in large waves like
the sea, and these are frequently fatal to
travellers.
Q. Name a few of the wild animals common
to Africa?
A. The lion, the rhi-no'-ce-ros, the hip-po-
pot'-a-mus, the gi-raffe', the buffalo, the cro-
codile, and the ostrich.
Q. What are the principal African islands?
A. The Ma-dei'-ra Isles, the Canary







Islands, Cape Verd Isles, St. Hel-e-na, Mad.
a-gas'-car, Bour-bon, and Man-ri'-tius.*



LESSON XX.
NORTH AMERICA-CANADA-UNITED
STATES.
AMERICA.
Q. How is America divided?
A. Into two parts, namely, North and
South America; these are connected by a
narrow neck of land, called the Isth'-mus of
Pa-nam'-a.
Q. What is the extent of America?
A. About nine thousand miles in length,
and it will average about two thousand in
breadth; it enjoys every variety of climate
found in the globe.

NORTH AMERICA.
Q. How may North America be divided?
A. Into the British possessions, the United
States, Mexico, Guat-i-ma-la, and large tracts
of land inhabited by the original native tribes.
Mau-rish'-i-us.






CANADA.
Q. What are the Can'-a-das?
A. Important British colonies. Upper
Canada is a fertile district, chiefly inhabited
by emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland.
Q. What are the principal lakes between
Canada and the United States?
A. Lakes Superior, Hu'-ron, E'-rie, and
Ontario; Lake Superior is four hundred
miles in length, and nearly one hundred in
breadth.
Q. What is there remarkable between
Lakes Erie and Ontario?
A. The celebrated cataract or waterfall,
called the Falls of Ni-ag'-a-ra.
Q. What is the height of these falls?
A. Fifty yards; the noise made by an
immense body of water, falling so great a
height, can hardly be conceived; it may be
heard at the distance of thirty miles.
Q. What is New-found-land?
A. A large barren island near the Gulf ot
St. Lawrence, belonging to the English;
it is only of importance from the extensive
cod fishery carried on near the adjoining sand
-nks.
Q. Does this fishery employ many ships?






A. Yes, at the proper season, between two
and three thousand arrive for the purpose of
fishing, and after completing their cargoes,
they return to their respective countries laden
with this useful article of food.
Q. What is New Brunswick?
A. A large territory on the south-east of
Lower Canada; it is thinly inhabited, and
not generally fertile, but it has some noble
forests.
Q. What is Nova Sco'-ti-a ?
A. A peninsula on the east of New Bruns-
wick, and, like it, far from being fruitful;
HALIFAX, its capital, is the principal naval
station of the British in North America.
Q. What are the other principal islands
belonging to England near the coast of North
America?
A. Cape Bre'-ton, Prince Edward's Island,
and the Bermudas; the last are about six
hundred miles from the coast, and noted for
their delightful climate and fertility.

THE UNITED STATES.
Q. What are the United States?
A. A very extensive country, measuring
Sco'-she-a.




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