THE ARMS OP THE UNITED STATES,
AND OP THE SEVERAL STATES OP THE AMERICAN UNION.
STATES OF AMERICA,
ON A PLAN
TO THE CAPACITY OF YOUTH,
ro AID THE MEMORY BY SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT AND
BY CHARLES A. GOODRICH.
Containing General Views of the Aboriginal Tribes-Sketches of the Dlacoveria
and Settlements made by different Nations-the Progress of the Colonise-
the Revolution-the several Administrations, including those of
Jackson and Van Buren, and of Harrison, Tyler Polk, and a
part of Taylor's-the whole interspersed with Notices
of the different Eras of the Progress of Manners,
Religion, Trade and Commerce, Agriculture,
Arts and Manufactures, Population
ILLUSTRATED BY ENGRAVINGS.
TO WHICH IS ADDED, THE
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
IRVISED AND ENLARGED FROM FORMER EDITIONS,
BROUGHT DOWN TO 1850.
JENKS, HICKLING, & SWAN.
Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1850,
BY CHARLES A. GOODRICH,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Distriot of Masachu
In the year 1834, the present work un
revision, involving several important alterat
the latter in compliance with a suggestion o e distin-
guished principal* of the Female Seminary in Wethersfield, Ct.,
whose public recommendation of the work was as flattering as
it was unexpected. It had then reached nearly its fiftieth e~i-
tion. Since that revision, it has been annually issued, to meet
the demands of a growing population, to the present time.
Meanwhile, time has travelled on, and the important adminis-
trations of Gen. Jackson and Mr. Van Buren, and thg short but
eventful administration of General Harrison, and those of Mr.
Tyler, of Mr. Polk, and a part of Gen. Taylor's, have transpired.
This edition includes the principal events of each, down to this
date; many of them very interesting and momentous to the
rising generation. As to time, therefore, the work is now as
complete as can be desired. The principal object of dividing
the History into periods is, to aid the memory by presenting
certain marked eras, frorq which the whole subject of dates may
be readily and distinctly viewed.
Two sizes of type are employed. The matter in larger type
is designed to give a brief outline of the History of the United
States, and may be read in connection. The matter in smaller
type is to be regarded rather in the light of notes, which, without
studying exact regularity, are thrown in as they may subserve
the purposes of illustration and completeness in the delineation
of events, or as they may contribute to support the interest and
establish the recollections of the reader.
Rev. Joseph Emerson.
striking instances of virtue, enterprise, courage,
V and, by a natural principle of emulation, in-
ites IInoble examples. History also presents us with
pictures of the vicious ultimately overtaken by misery and shame, and
thus solemnly warns us against vice.
2. History, to use the words of Professor Tytler, is the school of
politics. That is, it opens the hidden springs of human affairs; the
causes of the rise, grandeur, revolutions and fall of empires ; it points
out the influence which the manners of a people exert upon a govern-
ment, and the influence which that government reciprocally exerts upon
the manners of a people : it illustrates the blessings of political union,
and the miseries of faction; the dangers of unbridled liberty, and the
mischiefs of despotic power.
3. History displays the dealings of God with mankind. It eals
upon us often to regard with awe his darker judgments ; and again is
awakens the liveliest emotions of gratitude for his kind and benignant
dispensations. It cultivates a sense of dependence on him, strength*
ens our confidence in his benevolence, and impresses us with a convie-
tiob of his justice.
4. Besides these advantages, the study of History, if properlyeon.
ducted, offers others, of inferior importance, indeed, but still they are
not to be disregarded. It chastens the imagination improves the
taste; furnishes matter for reflection; enlarges the range of thought
strengthens and disciplines the mind.
6. To the above it may be added, that the History of the United
States should be studied, 1. Because it is the history of our owl
try. 2. Because it is the history of the first cil government oae
established upon the genuine basis of freedom. 3. Because it furnishes
lessons upon the science of civil government, social happiness, and
religious freedom, of greater value than are to be found in the history
of any other nation on the globe. 4. Because it presents uncommon"
examples of the influence of religious principle. 5. Because an ae-
quaintance with it will enable a person better to fulfil those dties
which, in a free government, he may be called to discharge.
THE History of the United States of
divided into Seventeen Periods, each Iy
some striking characteristic, or remarkable circumstance.
The FIRST PERIOD will extend from the Discovery of
America by Columbus, 1492, to the first permanent Eng.
lish settlement in America, at Jamestown, Virginia, 1607,
and is distinguished for DISCOVERIES.
Obs. Previous to the discovery of America in 1492, the inhab-
itants of Europe, Asia, and Africa, were of course ignorant of its
existence. But soon after this event, several expeditions were
fitted out, for the purpose of making discoveries in what was
then called the New World." Accordingly, between 1492 and
1607, the principal countries lying along the eastern coast of
North America, were discovered, and more or less explored. As
our history, during this period, embraces little more than accounts
of these expeditions, we characterize it as remarkable for disco-v
The SECOND PERIOD will extend from the Settlement of
Jamestown, 1607, to the accession of William and Mary
to the throne of England, 1689, and is distinguished for
Obs. During this period our history is principally occupied in
detailing the various settlements, which were either effected or
attempted, within the boundaries of the United States. It in-
cludes, indeed, wars with the natives-disputes between proprie-
tors of lands and colonies-the formation of governments, &c.
&c.; but these aff circumstances which pertain to, and form a
part of, the settlement of new countries. As this period embraces
the settlement of most of the original states in the Union, viz.
Massachusetts, including Maine, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New
Hampshire New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,
Delaware, North and South Carolina, and Virginia, it is there&
fore characterized as remarkable for settlements.
The THIRD PERIOD will extend from the accession of
William and Mary to the throne of England, 1689, to
the declaration of the war by England against France,
ee French and Indian War," 1756, and is re-
tfie three wars of KING WILLIAM, QUEEN
ERIOD will extend from the Declaration
nd against France, 1756, to the com-
men-stilities by Great Britain against the
Americ n M es, in the battle of Lexington, 1775, and
is distinguished for the FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
The FIFTH PERIOD will extend from the Battle of Lex-
ington, 1775, to the disbanding of the American Army
at West Point, New York, 1783, and is distinguished
for the WAR OF THE REVOLUTION.
The SIXTH PERIOD will extend from the Disbanding of
the Army, 1783, to the Inauguration of George Wash-
ington, as President of the United States, under the
Federal Constitution, 1789, and is distinguished for the
FORMATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FEDERAL CON-
The SEVENTH PERIOD will extend from the Inaugura-
tion of President Washington, 1789, to the Inauguration
of John Adams, as President of the United States, 1797.
This period is distinguished for WASHINGTON'S ADMINIS-
The EIGHTII PERIOD will extend from the Inaugura-
tion of President Adams, 1797, to the Inauguration of
Thomas Jefferson, as President of the United States,
1801. This period is distinguished for ADAMS'S ADMIN-
The NINTH PERIOD will extend from tle Inauguration
of President Jeferson, 1801, to the Inauguration of James
Madison, as President of the United States, 1809. This
period is distinguished for JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION.
The TENTH PERIOD will extend from the Inaguration
of President Madison, 1809, to the Inauguration of James
Monroe, as President of the United States, 1817. This
period is distinguished for MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION,
and the late WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN.
The ELEVENTH PERIOD will extend from the Inaugu-
ration of President Monroe, 1817, to the Inaugu
John Quincy Adams, as President of the
1825. This period is distinguished f
The TWELrTH PERIOD will extend
ration of President Adams, 1825, to thi o of
Andrew Jackson, as President of the states,
1829. This period is distinguished for ADAMS'S ADMINIS-
The THIRTEENTH PERIOD will extend from the Inaugu-
ration of President Jackson, 1829, to the Inauguration of
Martin Van Buren, as President of the United States,
1837. This period is distinguished for JACKSON'S AD-
The FOURTEENTH PERIOD will extend from the Inau-
guration of President Van Buren, 1837, to the Inaugura-
tion of William Henry Harrison, as President of the
United States, 1841. This period is distinguished for
VAN BUREN'S ADMINISTRATION.
The FIFTEENTH PERIOD will extend from the Inaugu-
ration of President Harrison, 1841, to the Inauguration
of James K. Polk, as President of the United States,
1845. This period is distinguished for HARRISON'S AND
The SIXTEENTH PERIOD will extend from the Inaugu-
ration of President Polk, 1845, to the Inauguration of
Zachary Taylor, as President of the United States, 1849.
This period is distinguished for POLK'S ADMINISTRATION.
The SEVENTEENTH PERIOD commences with the In-
auguration of President Taylor, 1849, and embraces the
most important events to the year 1850.
DISTINGUISHED FOR DISCOVERIES.
Extending from the Discovery of San Salvador, by
Columbus, 1492, to the first permanent English settle.
ment at Jamestown, Virginia, 1607.
Sec. 1. THE honor of first making known to the in-
habitants of Europe, the existence of a Western Conti-
nent, belongs to Spain, as a nation, and to Christopher
Columbus, a native of Genoa, as an individual.
After the discovery of America by Columbus, other nations
laid claim to this honor; and thus attempted to deprive the
Genoese navigator, as6well as the Spanish nation, of the merit to
which they were justly entitled.
The only nations, however, who appear to have had even the
semblance for such a claim, were the Welsh and Norwegians.
By the former, it was maintained, that the continent was dis-
covered by Madoc, son of Owen Gwynneth, who, returning to
his country, again sailed for the land he had discovered, about the
year 1170, taking with him ten ships, and 300 men, for the purpose
of founding a colony. Of the fate of this expedition, nothing
was ever known. As it is well established, however, that the first
voyage of Madoc was not a long one, it is justly inferred, that the
land, to which he was leading his colony, could not have been
more westerly than the islands in the Atlantic, situated about
half way between the Eastern and Western Continents, now
known by the name of the Azores.
The pretensions of the Norwegians were founded upon the dis-
covery of an unknown land, some time in the eleventh century,
by one Biron or Biorn, an Icelander. During a voyage to Ice-
land, which, with Greenland, had been discovered and settled at
an earlier date, Biron was driven southeast by a storm, and fell
in with a country, to which, from its abounding with vines, he
PERIOD i.-1492 TO 1607.
gave the name of Vineland. In his account of this voyage, the
description given of the appearance of the sun, in the country
discovered, would seem to indicate, that it lay in latitude about
The fruits found there bore a resemblance to those
Newfoundland, or the country about the Gulf of
Upon these uncertain data, the Norwegians found
to a priority in the discovery of America; but, o
his discovery appears to have excited little i rflJ
countrymen, and to have slept in forgetful Co-
lumbus had established the existence of a WeT
2. The voyage of Columbus, which led to the forego-
ing important discovery, and of which Ferdinand and
Isabella, the sovereigns of the united thrones of Castile
and Arragon, were patrons, was commenced on the 3d
of August, 1492; at which time, the Genoese navigator
sailed from Palos, an inconsiderable seaport in Spain,
with a fleet, consisting of three small vessels, manned
by ninety seamen. On the morning of the 12th of Oc-
tober following, he fell in with an island, called by the
natives Guanahani; but to which he gave the name of
San Salvador. This island, known on English maps
by the name of Cat Island, belongs to the great cluster
of the Lucayos, or Bahama Islands. During the same
voyage, he discovered several other islands, among
which were the important ones of Cuba and Hispaniola
Columbus, whose discovery of the above islands led the way
to a knowledge of the existence of a Western Continent, was
born in the city of Genoa, about the year 1435 or 1436. His fa-
ther was a reputable and meritorious man; by occupation, a wool
comber, long resident in the city of Genoa. Columbus was the
eldest of four children, having two brothers, Bartholomew and
Diego, and one sister.
His early education was limited; but he diligently improved
thb advantages, which the means of his father enabled him to enjoy.
After spending a short time at the University of Pavia, he re
turned to his father, whom he assisted in wool-combing.
His enterprising disposition, however, prompted him to more
active employment; and, at the age of fourteen years, we find
him entering upon a sea-faring life.
Having spent some time in the service of a distant relation, who
followed the seas, lie repaired to Lisbon. He was at this tine
about 34 years of age; a tall, well-formed, vigorous man; enters
uprising in his disposition, and uncommonly dignified in his man
ners. Taking up his residence, for a time, at Lisbon, he be*
came acquainted with, and married the daughter of a distin.
ruished navigator, the former governor of Porto Santo, an island
vicinty of Madeira, about 700 miles south-west from
fhis wife being dead, Columbus resided with his
niwho gave him the privilege of examining the pa-
nals, and memorandums, of her deceased husband.
Th bmbus acquainted with many important facts and
sugge thingg the great enterprise in which the Por-
tuguese were, that time, engaged, viz. the discovery of a pas-
sage to the East Indies, by doubling the southern extremity of
To a mind inquisitive and enterprising like that of Columbus,
this subject was invested with the deepest interest and importance
And the more he read and reflected upon the figure of the earth,
the stronger was his belief, not merely that a western passage to
India was practicable; but that whoever should be sufficiently
enterprising to navigate the Atlantic, by sailing due west, must
meet with a large body of land, which might be an extension
of the continent of India, designed to balance the lands lying
in the eastern hemisphere.
In this latter opinion, he was strengthened by various discov-
eries in the Atlantic, such as pieces of carved wood, trunks of
huge pine-trees, &c., which had been noticed, after long westerly
winds; but especially by the well-established fact, that the
bodies of two men had been cast upon one of the Azore islands,
whose features differed from those of any known race of people.
Having matured the plan of a voyage, with the above object
in view, he first offered to sail under the patronage of the Portu-
guese; but, being disappointed in this application, and despairing
of assistance from Henry VII. of England, to whom he had sent
his brother Bartholomew, but who, being captured, did not reach
England for some time, he repaired to Genoa, and offered to sail
under the auspices of that republic. Finding,however, his native
state not in a situation favorable to such an undertaking, he next
repaired to Spain.
By what route, or by what means, Columbus reached Spain, is
uncertain. The first trace we have of him, in this country, is
as a stranger, on foot, and in humble guise, stopping at the* gate .
of the Convent of Santa Maria de Rabida, not far from the little
seaport of Palos, and asking of the porter a little bread and water
for a child-his son Diego, whom his deceased wife had left to
him. While receiving this humble refreshment, the prior of the
convent, happening to pass by, was struck with the appearance of
the stranger, and observing, from his air and accent, that he was
a foreigner entered into conversation with him, and soon learned
the particulars of his story.
PERIOD I.-1492 TO 1607.
The prior was a man of extensive information, and entered
warmly into the views and plans of Columbus. Through his in-
fluence, the enterprising navigator was, at length, enabled to lay
his plans before Ferdinand and Isabella, then on the united
thrones of Castile and Arragon.
For a time, these sovereigns were deaf to his applica
at length, the queen undertook the enterprise, in
crown of Castile, and, to defray the expense of
voyage, parted with her royal jewels.
The necessary funds being thus provided, a fleet
three small vessels, was, at no distant time, in a state for
the voyage. Two of these were light barks, caH caravals, not
superior to river and coasting craft of more modern days. These
were open, without deck in the centre, but built high at the prow
and stern, with forecastles and cabins for the accommodation of
the crew. The names of these vessels were the Pinta and JVina.
The ship of Columbus was decked, and of larger dimensions.
She was called the Santa Maria. On board this fleet were
ninety mariners, together with various private adventurers-in
all, one hundred and twenty persons.
On Friday, the 3d of August, 1492, early in the morning, the
squadron of Columbus set sail from Palos, steering in a south-
westerly direction for the Canary Islands, from whence it was
his intention to strike due west.
Passing over many interesting incidents in their outward voyage
-the storms and tempests which they encountered-the de-
lusive appearances of land-their hopes and their fears-their
high-wrought excitement, and then their deep dejection--the
murmurs, and even mutinous spirit of the crew, and the happy
expedients of Columbus to raise their courage, and to keep burn.
ing within them the spirit of the enterprise-we arrive at the 11th
of October, at which time the indications of land were so strong,
that, at night, Columbus ordered a double watch, on the forecas-
tle of each vessel, and promised to the first discoverer of the long-
looked-for land, a doublet of velvet, in addition to the pension of
thirty crowns, which had been offered by Ferdinand and Isabella.
The greatest animation now prevailed throughout the ships;
not an eye was closed that night. As evening darkened, Columbus
took his station on the top of the castle or cabin, on the high poop
of his vessel. However he might carry a cheerful and confident
Countenance during the day, it was to him a time of the most painful
anxiety. And now, when wrapped by the shades of night from
observation, he maintained an intense and unremitting watch,
ranging his eye along the dusky horizon, in search of the most
vague indication of land. Suddenly, about ten o'clock, he
thought he beheld a light glimmering at a distance. Fearing
that his eager hopes might deceive him, he called to Pedro Gu-
tierrez, gentleman of the king's bed-chamber, and demanded
whether he saw a light in that direction; the latter replied in the
affirmative. Columbus, yet doubtful whether it might not be
some delusion of the fancy, called Roderigo Sanchez, of Segovia,
and made the inquiry. By the time the latter had ascended the
round-house, the light had disappeared. They saw it once or
twi rewards, in sudden and passing gleams, as if it were a
bark of a fisherman, rising and sinking with the
e hand of some person on shore, borne up and down
house to house. So transient and uncertain
s, that few attached any importance to them.
Co6 i r, considered them as certain signs of land,
and, the land was inhabited.
They conti ed their course until two in the morning, when
a gun from the Pinta gave the joyful lgnal of land. It was first
described by a mariner, named Roderigo le Friana; but the reward
was afterwards adjudged to the admiral, for having previously
perceived the light. The land was now clearly seen about two
leagues distant; whereupon they took in sail,and laid to, waiting
impatiently forthe dawn.
The morning at length arrived, October 12th; and before the
delighted Spaniards lay a level and beautiful island, several
leagues in extent, of great freshness and verdure, and covered
with trees like a continual orchard.
Columbus, in a rich dress, and with a drawn sword, soon after
landed with his men, with whom having kneeled and kissed the
PERIOD I.-1492 TO 1607.
gound with tears of joy, he took formal possession of the island,
in the name of Queen Isabella, his patron. On landing, the
Spaniards were surprised to find a race of people quite unlike
any that they had ever seen before. They were of a dusky cop-
per color-naked-beardless, with long black hair, floating on
their shoulders, or bound in tresses round their heads.
tives were still more surprised at the sight of tl
whom they considered as the children of the sun,
ships they looked upon as animals, with eyes of d
voices of thunder.
Having spent some time in an examination of this island, he
proceeded to visit several others not far distant; and at length,
on the 28th of October, came in sight of the important island of
Cuba, and not long after fell in with the island of Hispaniola, or
Having spent some time in examining the country, and in an
amicable traffic with the natives, Columbus set sail on his return.
He was overtaken by a storm, which had nearly proved fatal.
During the storm, Columbus hastily enclosed in a cake of wax
a short account of his voyage and discovery, which he put into a
tight cask, and threw it into the sea. This he did, hoping that,
f he perished, it might fall into the hands of some navigator, or
he cast ashore, and thus the knowledge of his discovery be pre-
served to the world. But the storm abated, and he arrived safe in
Spain, March 15th, 1493.
For this discovery, it being the first, and having laid the
foundation for all the subsequent discoveries in America, Colum
bus was doubtless entitled to the honor of giving a name to the
New World. But he was robbed of it by the address of Ameri-
rus Vespucius. This adventurer was a Florentine, who sailed to
the New World in 1499, with one Alonzo Ojeda, a gallant and
active officer, who had accompanied Columbus in his first voyage.
On his return,'he published so flattering an account of his voyage,
that his name was given to the continent, with manifest injustice to
After this, Columbus made several other voyages, but did not
discover the continent of America until Aug. 1, 149., during his
third voyage, on which day, he, for the first time, obtained a view
of the main continent, near the mouth of the Oronoco. Yet lie was
ignorant at the time, that the land in question was any thing
more than an island.
During this voyage, Columbus was destined to experience
severe afflictions. After his departure from Spain, having been
appointed governor of the New World, his enemies, by false
representations, persuaded the king to appoint another in his
place. At the same time, the king was induced to give orders
that Columbus should be seized and sent to Spain. This order
was executed with rigid severity; and the heroic Columbus we
turned to Spain in irons !
On his arrival, he was set at liberty by the king; but he nevet
recovered his authority. Soon after his return from a fourth
voyage, finding Isabella,his patroness,dead, and himself neglected,
neath his misfortunes and infirmities, and expired on
aay, 1506. His last words were, "Into thy hands,
mend my spirit."
T Pf Columbus was deposited in the convent of St.
Francisco, but was afterwards removed to a monastery at Seville,
where, for a time, it rested with the remains of his son Diego.
The bodies of both, however, were afterwards removed to Hispa-
niola, and here again disinterred, and conveyed to Havana, in the
island of Cuba, where, in peace, they now repose.
We shall conclude this notice of the great pioneer to this west-
ern world, in the eloquent language of the author to whom we
have been indebted for the principal incidents in the life of this
illustrious man.* He (Columbus) died in ignorance of the real
grandeur of his discovery. Until his last breath, he entertained the
idea that he had merely opened a new way to the old resorts of
opulent commerce, and had discovered some of the wild regions of
the East. He supposed Hispaniola to be the ancient Ophir, which
had been visited by the ships of Solomon, and that Cuba and
Terra Firma were but remote parts of Asia. What visions of
glory would have broken upon his mind, could he have known
that he had indeed discovered a new continent, equal to the whole
of the old world in magnitude, and separated by tiwo vast oceans
from all the earth hitherto known by civilized man !"
3. The discovery of Columbus naturally excited the
attention of the civilized nations of Europe, and they
became eager to share with Spain the honors and ad
vantages of further discoveries in the new world. As
early as May, 1497, John and Sebastian Cabot, father
and son, sailed, under the patronage of Henry VII.,
king of England, on a voyage of discovery; and, in
June following, fell in with the island of Newfoundland.
which they called Prima Vista. Soon after, they dis.
covered the smaller island of St. John's and the conti.
nent itself. On their return, they pursued a southerly
course to Virginia, and, according to others, to the cape
of Florida. They returned without attempting a set.
tlement, but took possession of the country in behalf
of the crown of England.
PERIOD I.-1492 TO 1607.
John Cabot appears to have been a native of Venice, but to
have settled in England, with his family, some time previous to
the above voyage. The commission granted to him by Henry,
which is the oldest American state paper of England, bore date
March 5th, 1496, although he did not sail until the year follow-
ing. This squadron was allowed to consist of six shi e
burden of two hundred tons; but, for reasons not
stood, they sailed with but two caravals, and three h
These were freighted by the merchants of London ol.
They have the honor of making the first discovery of conti-
nent, Columbus not falling in with it until 1498, during his third
voyage, as has already been related. The extent of this voyage
of the Cabots appears not to have been settled by historians.
Some writers suppose that they reached the latitude of 67, while
others make the limits of their voyage the 45th and 38th degrees
of north latitude.
4. The French attempted no discoveries on the
American coast, until 1524. This year, John Verra-
zaqp, a native of Florence, sailed under the patronage
of Francis I. of France, and, in the course of his voyage,
explored the coast from 300 to 500 of north latitude,
and examined Florida with considerable accuracy.
Historians differ in their account of this voyage of Verrazano.
By some, he is supposed to have first made the American coast
where the town of Savannah now stands. Others place his ap-
proach in latitude 370, whence it is supposed that he proceeded
south to latitude 340, in the neighborhood of Wilmington, North
Carolina, where he landed. Thence sailing southerly, as far as
the 30th degree, he resumed his northern course, touching, it is
supposed, at Sandy Hook, and afterwards at some of the islands
off Rhode Island, whence he proceeded northerly to the 50th
degree, of north latitude, to Newfoundland. The following year,
this enterprising navigator made another voyage to the American
coast, during which, by some unknown disaster, he was lost, with
all his crew.
5. In 1534, James Cartier, under a commission from
the king of France, made a voyage to America, in which
he visited the island of Newfoundland, and discovered
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The following year, during
a second voyage, he proceeded up the Gulf of St. Law-
rence, to the Isle of Orleans, and thence as far as Mon-
treal. At the former place he spent the winter, and in
the spring returned to France.
On his first voyage, Cartier sailed with two small ships, and
one hundred and twenty-two men. On the 10th of May, he
made the island of Newfoundland; but, being prevented by the
ice from proceeding farther, he sailed southwardly. As soon,
however, as the season would permit, he returned to the north,
and visited several harbors in Newfoundland and Labrador. Pro-
ceemo ortherly, with the hope of passing to China, he dis-
coin d entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but soon after
won account of unpropitious weather, to return to
Fral Pring his second voyage, he reached, as we have
stated ~ove, the island on which Montreal stands. Here he
found a large Indian settlement, by the inhabitants of which he
was well treated. This Indian settlement was called Hochelaga.
Cartier gave it the name of Mount Royal, from a mountain in
the neighborhood. From this circumstance, the island and city
of Montreal derive their name. During the winter, which he
passed at the island of Orleans, many of his men died of the
scurvy, with which they had been afflicted for some time.
It may here be added, that, in 1540, Cartier again visited Ameri-
ca, with the intention of forming a settlement. He built a fort at
some distance from the Isle of Orleans; but, in the following
spring, not having received anticipated supplies, he set sail to return
to France with his colony. At Newfoundland, he met with three
ships and two hundred persons, on their way to the new settle-
ment. Cartier proceeded on his voyage to France. The other
ships continued their course to the fort which Cartier had left.
After passing a distressing winter, the whole party, abandoning
the settlement, in the spring returned to France.
6. In the spring of 1541, six years from the discovery
of the river St. Lawrence, another equally important
river, the Mississippi, was discovered. This honor be-
longs to Ferdinand de Soto, a Spaniard, who, having
projected the conquest of Florida from the natives, ar-
rived from Cuba, 1539, with a considerable force. He
traversed the country to a great distance, and in the
spring of 1541, first discovered the Mississippi, five or
six hundred miles from its mouth.
The object of Soto, in traversing so wide an extent of country,
appears to have been to search for gold. The summer and win-
ter of 1539 he spent in Florida. In 1540, he began his tour
north-east, and having crossed the Altamaha, Savannah, and
Ogechee rivers, he turned westerly, and, crossing the Alleghanies,
proceeded southwardly as far as Mobile and Pensacola. The
winter of this year he spent with the Chickasaws. The follow.
mg spring, he made the important discovery above mentioned.
PERIOD I.-1492 To 1607.
The following year, he died on the banks of the Red river, soon
after which, the remnant of his followers, who, at first, amounted
to some hundreds, constructed several small boats, and, having
sailed down the Mississippi, returned to Cuba.
7. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh, under a commission
from Queen Elizabeth of England, despatched t ln all
vessels, commanded by Amidas and Barloj the
American coast. On their arrival, they ente i li.
co sound, now in North Carolina, and thence Ii needed
to Roanoake, an island near the mouth of Albemarle
sound. Here they spent several weeks in trafficking
with the natives, but effected no settlement. On their
return to England, they gave so splendid a description
of the beauty and fertility of the country, that Elizabeth
bestowed upon it the name of Virginia, as a memorial
that the happy discovery had been made under a virgin
Previously to the above voyage, under the auspices of Sir
Walter Raleigh, two unfortunate attempts had been made by his
brother-in-law, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, to effect a settlement in
the new world. Both, however, proved ineffectual; and during
the last, while Sir Humphrey was returning to England, his ves-
sel was shipwrecked, and all on board perished. Not discour-
aged by the unfortunate issue of the enterprises of Gilbert,
Raleigh fitted out an expedition, as we have above stated, in
1584. The report brought back by Amidas and Barlow induced
Sir Walter, in 1585, to attempt a settlement at the island of
Roanoake. This colony was, in a short time, reduced to great
distress, and, in 1586, returned with Sir Francis Drake to Eng-
land. The following year, however, another colony was sent
out, consisting of one hundred and fifty adventurers. These,
most unfortunately, were neglected, in respect to supplies; and
when, at length, a vessel was despatched to inquire into their
state, not a vestige of them remained.
8. In 1602, Bartholomew Gosnold, in a voyage from
Falmouth to the northern part of Virginia, discovered
the promontory in Massachusetts bay, which, since his
time, has been known by the name of Cape Cod, from
the circumstance of his taking a great number of cod
fish at that place.
Gosnold was the first Englishman, who, abandoning the circu
itous route by the Canaries and West Indies, came in a direct
course to this part of the American continent. He was but
seven weeks in making the passage. After the discovery of
Cape Cod, coasting south-west, he discovered two islands, one of
which he named Martha's Vineyard, and the other Elizabeth
island. On the western part of this latter island it was conclud-
ed to settle, and a fort and storehouse were accordingly erected;
but, Gosnold left the place, discontents arsing among those
who form the colony, it was thought expedient to aban-
don tm ment and to return to England. The homeward
voyage pied but five weeks.
9. As we are now about to enter upon a period which
will exhibit our ancestors as inhabitants of this new
world, it will be interesting to know what was its as-
pect when they first landed upon its shores.
STATE OF THE COUNTRY.-On the arrival of the first settlers,
North America was almost one unbroken wilderness. From the
recesses of these forests were heard the panther, the catamount,
the bear, the wild-cat, the wolf, and other beasts of prey. From
the thickets rushed the buffalo, the elk, the moose, and the carra-
bo; and, scattered on the mountains and plains, were seen the
stag and fallow deer. Numerous flocks of the feathered tribe
enlivened the air, and multitudes of fish filled the rivers, or glid-
ed along the shores. The spontaneous productions of the soil,
also, were found to be various and abundant. In all parts of the
land grew grapes, which historians have likened to the ancient
grapes of Eshcol. In the south were found mulberries, plums,
melons, cucumbers, tobacco, corn, peas, beans, potatoes, squashes,
pumpions, &c. Acorns, walnuts, chestnuts, wild cherries, cur-
rants, strawberries, whortleberries, in the season of them, grew
wild in every quarter of the country.
10. ABORIGINES.-The country was inhabited by nu-
merous tribes or clans of Indians. Of their number, at
the period the English settled among them, no certain
estimate has been transmitted to us. They did not
probably much exceed 150,000 within the compass of
the thirteen original states.*
In their physical character, the different Indian tribes,
within the boundaries of the United States, were nearly
the same. Their persons were tall, straight, and well
Thil is the estimate of Dr. Trumbull
PERIOD i.-1492 TO 1607.
proportioned. Their skins were red, or of a copper-
brown; their eyes black, their hair long, black, and
coarse. In constitution, they were firm and vigorous,
capable of sustaining great fatigue and hardship.
As to their general character, they were quick of ap-
prehension, and not wanting in genius. At til they
were friendly, and even courteous. In co they
were distinguished for gravity and eloquence; m war,
for bravery and address. When provoked to anger,
they were sullen and retired; and when determined
upon revenge, no danger would deter them; neither ab-
sence nor time could cool them. If captured by an
enemy, they never asked life; nor would they betray emo-
tions of fear, even in view of the tomahawk, or of the
They had no books or written literature, except rude hieroglyph-
ics; and education among them was confined to the arts of war,
hunting, fishing, and the few manufactures which existed among
them, most of which every male was more or less instructed in.
Their language was rude, but sonorous, metaphorical, and ener-
getic. It was well suited to the purposes of public speaking;
and, when accompanied by the impassioned gestures, and uttered
with the deep guttural tones of the savage, it is said to have had
a singularly wild and impressive effect. They had some few war-
songs, which were little more than an unmeaning chorus; but, it
is believed, they had no other compositions which were preserved.
Their arts and manufactures were confined to the construction
of wigwams, bows and arrows, wampum, ornaments, stone hatch-
ets, mortars for pounding corn; to the dressing of skins, waving
of coarse mats from the bark of trees, or a coarse sort of hemp,
Their agriculture was small in extent, and the articles they
cultivated were few in number. Corn, beans, peas, potatoes,
melons, and a few others of a similar kind, were all.
Their skill in medicine was confined to a few simple prescrip.
tions and operations. Both the cold and warm bath were often
applied, and a considerable number of plants were used with suc-
cess. For some diseases they knew no remedy, in which case
they resorted to their powow, or priest, who undertook the re-
moval of the disease by means of sorcery.
It may be'remarked, however, that the diseases to which the
Indians were liable, were few, compared with those which pre
vail in civilized society.
The employment of the men were principally hunting,fishing,
and war. The women dressed the food, took charge of the do-
mestic concerns, tilled their narrow and scanty fields, and per-
formed almost all the drudgery connected with their household
The amusements of the men were principally leaping, shooting
at mark dancing, gaming, and hunting, in all of which they
made violent exertions. Their dances were usually per-
forem a large fire. In their war-dances, they sung or re-
cited t which they or their ancestors had achieved;
represented the manner in which they were performed, and
wrought themselves up to an inexpressible degree of martial en-
thusiasm. The females occasionally joined in some of these
sports, but had none peculiar to themselves.
Their dress was various. In summer, they wore little besides a
covering about the waist; but in winter, they clothed themselves
in the skins of wild beasts. They were exceedingly fond of or
naments. On days of show and festivity, their sachems wore
mantles of deer-skin, embroidered with white beads, Or copper; or
they were painted with various devices. Hideousness was the
object aimed at in painting themselves. A chain of fish-bones
about tle neck, or the skin of a wild-cat, was the sig of rAyalty.
For habitations, the Indians had eekaums, or wigwams, as
pronounced by the English. These originally consisted" a
strong pole, erected in the centre, around which, at the distance
PERIOD 1.-1492 TO 1607.
of ten or twelve feet, other poles were driven obliquely into the
ground, and fastened to the centre pole at the top. Their cover
ings were of mats, or barks of trees, well adjusted so as to render
them dry and comfortable.
Their domestic utensils extended not beyond a hatchet of stone,
a few shells and sharp stones, which they used for knives; stone
mortars for pounding corn. and some mats and skins upon which
they slept. They sat, and ate, and lodged, on the ground. With
shells and stones they scalped their enemies, dressed their game,
cut their hair, &c. They made nets of thread, twisted from the
bark of Indian hemp, or of the sinews of the moose and deer.
For fish-hooks, they used bones which were bent.
Theirfood was of the coarsest and simplest kind-the flesh,
and even the entrails, of all kinds of wild beasts and birds;
and, in their proper season, green corn, beans, peas, &c. &c.,
which they cultivated, and other fruits, which the country spon-
taneously produced. Flesh and fish they roasted on a stick, or
broiled on the fire. In some instances, they boiled their meat and
corn by putting hot stones in water. Corn they parched, es-
pecially in the winter; and upon this they lived in the absence
of other food.
The money of the Indians, called wampum, consisted of small
beads wrought from shells, and strung on belts, and in chains.
The wampum of the New England Indians was black, blue, and
white. That of the Six Nations was of a purple color. Six of
the white beads, and three of black, or blue, became of the value
of a penny. A belt of wampum was given as a token of friend-
ship, or as a seal or confirmation of a treaty.
There was little among them that could be called society. Except
when roused by some strong excitement, the men were generally
indolent, taciturn, and unsocial. The women were too degraded
and oppressed to think of much besides their toils. Removing,
too, as the seasons changed, or as the game grew scarce, or as
danger from a stronger tribe threatened, there was little opportu-
nity for forming those local attachments, and those social ties,
which spring from a long residence in a particular spot. Their lan.
guage also, though energetic, was too barren to serve the purposes
of familiar conversation. In order to be understood and felt, it
required the aid of strong and animated gesticulation, which could
take place only when great occasions excited them. It seems,
therefore, that they drew no considerable part of their enjoyments
from intercourse with one another. Female beauty had little
power over the men; and all other pleasures gave way to the
strong impulses of public festivity, or burning captives, or seeking
murderous revenge, or the chase, or war, or glory.
War was the favorite employment of the savages of North
America. It roused them from the lethargy into which they fell
when they ceased from the chase, and furnished them an oppor-
Lunity to distinguish themselves-to achieve deeds of glory, and
taste the sweets of revenge. Their weapons were bows and ar-
rows headed with flint or other hard stones, which they dis-
charged with great precision and force. The southern Indiana
uod targets made of bark; the Mohawks clothed themselves
with skins, as a defence against the arrows of their enemies.
When they fought in the open field, they rushed to the attack
with incredible fury; and, at the same time, uttered their appal-
Ang warwhoop. Those whom they had taken captive they ofea
tortured with every variety of cruelty, and to their dying ago-
nies added every species of insult. If peace was concluded on,
the chiefs of the hostile tribes ratified the treaty by smoking, in
succession, the same pipe, called the calumet, or pipe of peace.
The government of the Indians, in general, was an absolute men.
archy, though it differed in different tribes. The will of the sachem
was law. In matters of moment, he consulted his counsellors; but
his decisions were final. War and peace, among some tribes, seem
to have been determined on in a council formed of old men, distin-
guished by their exploits. When in council, they spoke at pleas-
ure, and always listened to the speaker with profound and re-
spectful silence. When propositions for war or peace were made,
or treaties proposed to them by the colonial governors, they met
the ambassadors in council, and, at the end of each paragraph or
proposition, the principal sachem delivered a short stick to one
of his council, intimating that it was his peculiar duty to remem-
ber that paragraph. This was repeated, till every proposal was
finished; they then retired to deliberate among themselves. Af-
ter their deliberations were ended, the sachem, or some counsel-
lors to whom he had delegated this office, replied to every para-
graph in its turn, with an exactness scarcely exceeded in the
written correspondence of civilized powers. Each man actually
remembered what was committed to him, and, with his assistance,
the person who replied remembered the whole."
The religious notions of the natives consisted of traditions,
mingled with many superstitions. Like the ancient Greeks, Ro-
mans, Persians, Hindoos, &c. they believed in the existence of
two gods, the one good, who was the superior, and whom they
styled the Great or Good Spirit; the other evil. They worship-
ped both; and of both formed images of stone, to which they
paid religious homage. Besides these, they worshipped various
other deities-fire, water, thunder-any thing which they conceived
to be superior to themselves, and capable of doing them injury
The manner of worship was to sing and dance round large fires
Besides dancing, they offered prayers, and sometimes sweet-
scented powder. In Virginia, the Indians offered blood, deer's
suet, and tobacco. Of the creation and the deluge, they had dis-
Marriage among them was generally a temporary contract
24 PERIOD 1.-1492 TO 1607.
The men chose their wives agreeably to fancy, and put them away
at pleasure. Marriage was celebrated, however, with some cere-
mony, and, in many instances, was observed with fidelity; not
unfrequently it was as lasting as life. Polygamy was common
among them. 0
Their treatment of females was cruel and oppressive. They
were considered by the men as slaves, and treated as such.
Those forms of decorum between the sexes, which lay the foun-
dation for the respectful and gallant courtesy, with which women
are treated in civilized society, were unknown among them. Of
course, females were not only required to perform severe labor, but
often felt the full weight of the passions and caprices of the men.
The rites of burial, among the Indians, varied but little through
out the continent. They generally dug holes in the ground, with
sharpened stakes. In the bottom of the grave were laid sticks,
upon which the corpse, wrapped in skins and mats, was deposited.
The arms, utensils, paints, and ornaments of the deceased, were
buried with him. and a mound of earth raised over his grave.
Among some tribes in New England, and among the Five Nations,
the dead were buried in a sitting posture, with their faces towards
the east. During the burial, they uttered the most lamentable
cries, and continued their mourning for several days.
The origin of the Indians inhabiting the country, on the arrival
of the English colonists, is involved in much obscurity; and sev-
eral different answers have been given by learned men to the in-
quiry, Whence did they come to America ? The opinion best sup-
ported is, that they originated in Asia, and that at some former
period, not now to be ascertained, they emigrated from that coun
try to America, over which, in succeeding years, their descend-
ants spread. This opinion is rendered the more probable by the
fact, that the figure, complexion, dress, manners, customs, &c.
&c., of the nations of both continents, are strikingly similar.
That they might have emigrated from the eastern continent is
evident, since, in latitude 66, the two continents are not more
than forty miles distant from each other; and between them are
two islands less than twenty miles distant from either shore.
11. We shall find it pleasant and profitable occasionally to pause
in our history, and consider what instruction may be drawn from
the portion of it that has been perused.
In the story of Columbus, we are introduced to a man of ge-
nius, energy, and enterprise. We see him forming a new, and, in
that age, a mighty project; and, having matured his plan, we
see him set himself vigorously about its execution. For a time
he is either treated as a visionary or baffled by opposition. But,
neither discouraged nor dejected, he steadily pursues his purpose
surmounts every obstacle, and at length spreads his sails upon
the unknown waters of the Atlantic. A kind Providence au-
spiciously guides his way, and crowns his enterprise with the up-
expected discovery of a new world.
While we admire the lofty qualities of Columbus, and look
with wonder at the consequences which have resulted from his
discovery, let us emulate his decision, energy, and perseverance.
Many are the occasions, in the present world, on which it will be
important to summon these to our aid; and, by their means,
many useful objects may be accomplished, which, without them,
would be unattained.
But, while we thus press forward in the career of usefulness-
while we aim to accomplish for our fellow men all the amount of
good in our power, let us moderate our expectations of reward
here, by the consideration that Columbus died the victim of in-
gratitude and disappointment.
Another consideration, of still deeper interest, is suggested by
the story of Columbus. We, who live to mark the wonderful events
which have flowed from his discovery, within the short space of
three centuries, cannot but advert with awe to Hyi who attaches
to the actions of a single individual a train of consequences so
stupendous and unexpected. How lightly soever, then, we may
think of our conduct, let us remember, that the invisible hand
of Providence may be connecting with our smallest actions the
most momentous results to ourselves and others.
With respect to Americus Vespucius, it may be observed, that,
although he deprived Columbus of the merited honor of giving
his name to the new world, and gained this distinction for him-
self, still his name will ever remain stigmatized, as having ap
propriated that to himself which fairly belonged to another.
DISTINGUISHED FOR SETTLEMENTS
Extendingfrom the first permanent English Settlement
at Jamestown, Virginia, 1607, to the Accession of
William apd Mary to the Throne of England, 1689.
Sec. 1. Prior to the year 1607, a period of 115 years
from the discovery of San Salvador by Columbus, seve-
ral attempts, some of which we have noticed, were made
to effect settlements in various parts of North America;
but none had proved successful.
A sufficient reason may be assigned for the failure of the seve-
ral attempts to effect permanent settlements in North America,
viz. that they were undertaken upon individual responsibility, with
bad calculations, and intrusted, in most instances, to men of mer-
cenary views. And, as to the sovereigns of Europe, they were
too much occupied with affairs at home, to engage in speculations
abroad. Besides, no prince or statesman in Europe appears to
have foreseen the advantages of planting colonies in this northern
continent. Had it contained mines of gold and silver, like South
America, they would have contended with one another for the
prize. But it seems not to have been conceived how numerous,
hardy colonies, could give such strength, opulence and grandeur
to empires, as could never be derived from the gold and rich pro.
ductions of the southern regions. One advantage, however, re-
sulted to the nations of Europe, and which, for many years, they
enjoyed in common, viz. the fishery on the banks of Newfound-
land. For a time, it was prosecuted to an inconsiderable extent
but, at length, it ripened into a system, and became a source of
2. The year 1607 marks the era when the first per-
manent settlement was effected by Europeans in North
America. In the month of May of this year, a colony
from England, consisting of one hundred and five per-
sons, arrived in Virginia; and, on a beautiful peninsula
in James river, began a settlement, which they called
3. This name was given to the above, settlement in
honor of James I. of England, who, the year previously,
had granted to two companies, called the London and
Plymouth companies, the lands in North America em-
braced between the 34th and 45th degrees of north lati-
tude-the southern part, called South Virginia, to the
London, and the northern, called North Virginia, to the
The London company consisted of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir
George Somers, Richard Hackluyt, Edward Maria Wingfield,
&c. These were authorized to make a settlement at any place
between the 34th and 41st degrees of latitude; and in them was
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
vested the right of property in the land extending fifty miles each
way from their place of habitation, reaching one hundred miles
into the country. The Plymouth company consisted of Thomas
Hanham, Raleigh Gilbert, William Parker, George Popham, and
others, principally inhabitants of Bristol, Plymouth, and the east,
ern parts of England. To this company was granted the lands
between the 38th and 45th degrees of latitude. They were vest-
ed with the right of property in lands to the same extent as in the
southern colony : neither company, however, were to form set-
tlements within one hundred miles of the other.
4. Under the auspices of the London company, the
first settlement in Virginia was commenced. The expe-
dition was commanded by Capt. Christopher Newport;
but the government of the colony was framed in Eng-
land, before it sailed. It was to consist of a council of
seven persons, with a president, to be elected by the
council from their number. Who composed it was un-
known at the time the expedition sailed, their names
being carefully concealed in a box, which was to be
opened after their arrival.
The original intention of the colony was to form a settlement
at Roanoake; but, being driven by a Violent storm north of that
place, they discovered the entrance of Chesapeake bay, the
capes of which they named Charles and Henry. Entering this,
they at length reached a convenient spot upon which to com-
mence a settlement.
The code of laws, hitherto cautiously concealed, was now pro-
mulgated; and, at the same time, the council appointed in Eng-
land was made known. It consisted of Bartholomew Gosnold,
John Smith, Edward Wingfield, Christopher Newport, John
Ratcliffe, John Martin, and George Kendall. Mr. Wingfield was
Among the most enterprising and useful members of this col-
ony, and one of its magistrates, was Capt. John Smith. In his
youth, he had been apprenticed to a merchant; but, being of a
roving turn, he quitted his master; and, although at this time
but thirteen years of age, he travelled in France, whence he pro-
ceeded to the Netherlands, Egypt, and Germany, and, at length,
entered the service of the emperor of Austria, who was engaged
in a war with the Turks.
The regiment in which he served was engaged in several
hazardous enterprises, in which Smith exhibited a bravery ad-
mired by all the army; and when Meldrick left the imperial
service for that of his native prince, Smith followed
At the siege of Regal, he was destined to new adventures.
I he Ottomans, deriding the slow advance of the Transylvania
army, the Lord Turbisha despatched a messenger with a chal-
lenge, that, for the diversion of the ladies of the place, he would
fight any captain of the Christian troops.
The honor of accepting this challenge was determined by lot,
and fell on Smith. At the time appointed, the two champions
appeared in the field on horseback, and, in the presence of the
armies, and of the ladies of the insulting Ottoman, rushed im-
petuously to the attack. A short, but desperate conflict ensued,
at the end of which Smith was seen bearing the head of the
lifeless Turbisha in triumph to his general.
The fall of the chief filled his friend Crualgo with indigna-
tion, and roused him to avenge his death. *Smit~ accordingly
soon after received a challenge from him, which he did not hes-
itate to accept; and the two exasperated combatants, upon their
chargers, fell with desperate fury upon each other. Victory again a
followed the falchion of Smith, who sent the Turk headlong to
It was now the turn of Smith to make the advance. He de-
spatched a message, therefore, to the Turkish ladies, that if th
were desirous of more diversion of a similar kind, they should
be welcome to his head, in case their third champion could take it.
Bonamalgro tendered his services, and haughtily accepted the
Christian's challenge. When the day arrived, the spectators as.
sembled, and the combatants entered the field. It was an hour
of deep anxiety to all: as the horsemen approached, a deathlike
silence pervaded the multitude. A blow from the sabre of the
Turk brought Smith to the ground; and, for a moment, it seemed
as if the deed of death was done. Smith, however, was only
stunned. He rose like a lion when he shakes the dew from his
mane for the fight, and, vaulting into his saddle, made his fal-
chion "shed fast atonement for its first delay." It is hardly
necessary to add, that the head of Bonamalgro was added to the
In a general battle, in which he was subsequently engaged,
he was wounded and taken prisoner. On his recovery, he was
sold as a slave, and was taken to Constantinople. He was re-
quired to wait upon the lady of his master, who, captivated by
his fine appearance, sent him, in the absence of her husband, to
the care of her brother, who resided near the sea of Asoph.
But he, being of a cruel disposition, treated Smith with so
much inhumanity, that, one day, in a fit of desperation, he killed
his new master and fled into Russia. From this country, he tray
elled through Germany, France, and Spain; and, at length, re
turned once more to England.
At this time, the settlement of America was occupying the
attention of many distinguished men in England. The life of
30 PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
Smith, united to his fondness for enterprises of danger and diffi
eulty, had prepared him to embark with zeal in a project so
novel and sublime as that of exploring the wilds of a newly-dia
He was soon attached to the expedition about to sail undet
Newport, and was appointed one of the magistrates of the colo-
ny sent over at that time. Before the arrival of the colony, his
colleagues in office, becoming jealous of his influence, arrested
him on the absurd charge, that he designed to murder the coun-
cil, usurp the government, and make himself king of Virginia.
He was, therefore, rigorously confined during the remainder of
On their arrival in the country, he was liberated, but could
not obtain a trial, although, in the tone of conscious integrity, he
repeatedly demanded it. The infant colony was soon involved
in perplexity and danger. Notwithstanding Smith had been
calumniated, and his honor deeply wounded, his was not the
spirit to remain idle, when his services were needed. Nobly
disdaining revenge, he offered his assistance, and, by his talents,
experience, and indefatigable zeal, furnished important aid to
the infant colony.
Continuing to assert his innocence, and to demand a trial, the
time at length arrived, when his enemies could postpone it no
longer. After a fair hearing of the case, he was honorably ac-
quitted of the charges alleged against him, and soon after took his
seat in the council.
The affairs of the colony becoming more settled, the active
spirit of Smith prompted him to explore the neighboring country.
In an attempt to ascertain the source of' Chickahoming river, he
ascended, in a barge, as far as the stream was uninterrupted.
Designing to proceed still farther, he left the barge in the keeping
of the crew, with strict injunctions on no account to leave her,
and, with two Englishmen and two Indians, left the party. But
no sooner was he out of view, than the crew, impatient of re
strain, repaired on board the barge, and, proceeding some dis
tance down the stream, landed at a place where a body of In
dians lay in ambush, by whom they were seized.
By means of the crew, the route of Smith was ascertained,
and a party of Indians were immediately despatched to take him.
On coming up with him, they fired, killed the Englishmen, and
wounded himself. With great presence of mind, he now tied his
Indian guide to his left arm, as a shield from the enemies' ar-
rows, while, with his musket, he despatched three of the moot
forward of the assailants.
In this manner, he continued to retreat towards his canoo,
while the Indians, struck with admiration of his bravery, fol-
lowed with respectful caution. Unfortunately, coming to a
sunken spot filled with mire, while engrossed with eyeing hiz
pursuers, he sunk so deep as to be unable to extricate himself
and was forced to surrender.
Fruitful in expedients, to avert immediate death, he presented
an ivory compass to the chief, whose attention was arrested by
the vibrations of the needle. Taking advantage of the impres-
sion which he had thus made, partlyby signs and partly by lan.
guage, he excited their wonder still more, by telling them of its
Their wonder, however, seemed soon to abate, and their at-
tention returned to their prisoner. He was now bound, and tied
to a tree, and the savages were preparing to direct their arrows
at his breast. At this instant, the chief holding up the compass,
they laid down their arms, and led him in triumph to Powhatan,
Powhatan and his council doomed him to death, as a man
whose courage and genius were peculiarly dangerous to the
Indians. Preparations were accordingly made; and when the
time arrived, Smith was led out to execution. His head was laid
upon a stone, and a club presented to Powhatan, who himself
claimed the honor of becoming the executioner. The savages
in silence were circling round, and the giant arm of Powhatan
had already raised the club to strike the fatal blow, when, to his
astonishment, the young and beautiful Pocahontas, his daughter,
with a shriek of terror, rushed from the throng, and throw her
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
self upon the body of Smith. At the same time, she cast an
imploring look towards her furious, but astonished father, and, in
all the eloquence of mute, but impassioned sorrow, besought
The remainder of the scene was honorable to Powhatan.
The club of the chief was still uplifted; but a father's pity had
touched his heart. and the eye that had at first kindled with wrath
was now fast losing its fierceness. He looked round as if to col-
lect his fortitude, or perhaps to find an excuse for his weakness, in
the pity of the attendants. A similar sympathy had melted the
savage throng, and seemed to join in the petition which the
weeping Pocahontas felt, but durst not utter, My father, let
the prisoner live." Powhatan raised his daughter, and the cap-
tive, scarcely yet assured of safety, from the earth.
Shortly after, Powhatan dismissed Capt. Smith, with assur-
ances of friendship; and the next morning, accompanied with
a guard of twelve men, he arrived safely at Jamestown, after a
captivity of seven weeks.*
In 1609, circumstances having arisen to interrupt the friendly
dispositions of Powhatan towards the colony, he plotted their
entire destruction. His design was to attack them unapprized,
and to cut them off at a blow.
In a dark and stormy night, the heroic Pocahontas hastened alone
to Jamestown, and disclosed the inhuman plot of her father.
The colony were thus put on their guard, and their ruin averted.
It may be interesting to add, concerning Pocahontas, that some
time after this, she was married to an English gentleman of the
name of Rolfe, with whom she visited England. She embraced
the Christian religion, and was baptized by the name of Rebec-
ca. She left one son, who had several daughters, the descend-
ants of whom inherited her lands in Virginia, and are among the
most respectable families in that state.
5. The colony, thus commenced, soon experienced a
variety of calamities, incidental, perhaps, to infant settle-
ments, but not the less painful and discouraging. Ineffi-
ciency and a want of harmony marked the proceedings
of the council. Provisions were scarce, and of a poor
quality. The neighboring tribes of Indians became
jealous and hostile; and, more than all, sickness spread
among them, and carried a large proportion of their
number to an early grave.
By the middle of July, they were so distressed with the bad-
ness and scarcity of provisions, with sickness, labor, and contain
L 1 guarding against the enemy, that scarcely ten of the whole
company could walk, or even stand alone. By the end of the
month, fifty of their number were no more. Among the dead,
was that enterprising gentleman, Captain Gosnold, the projector
of the whole scheme of the plantation.
To increase their misfortunes, the president embezzled the
public stores, and attempted to run away with the company's
bark, and to return to England. It was therefore found neces-
sary, for the common safety, to displace him. Mr. Ratcliffe was
elected to the presidency. But it very soon appeared that his
abilities were by no means equal to the exigencies of the compa-
ny; and the whole weight of government fell, therefore, on Capt.
The condition of the colony was, at length, somewhat -im-
proved, and their courage renewed, by the arrival of Capt. New-
port, (who had been despatched to England,) with a supply of
provisions, and an additional number of men. This number was
not long after augmented, and a further supply of necessaries re-
ceived, by the arrival of Capt. Nelson, who had sailed in company
with Newport, but who had been separated from him during a
storm, and for some time was supposed to be lost. With these
accessions, the colonists now amounted to two hundred men. This
number was still further increased, before the end of 1608, by the
arrival of seventy colonists, among whom were many persons of
6. Early in the year 1609, the London company, not
having realized their anticipated profit from their new
establishment in America, obtained from the king a new
charter, with more ample privileges. Under this charter,
Thomas West, otherwise called Lord De la War, was
appointed governor for life.
The company, under their new act of incorporation, was styled,
" The treasurer and company of adventurers and planters for the
first colony in Virginia." They were now granted in absolute
property, what had formerly been conveyed only in trust-a
territory extending from Point Comfort two hundred miles north
and south, along the coast, and throughout the land from sea
7. Lord De la War, being appointed governor of the
colony, but not being able to leave England, immediately
despatched to America nine ships and five hundred men,
under command of Sir Thomas Gates, his lieutenant, and
PERIOD ii.-1607 TO 1689.
Sir George Summers, his admiral. Eight of these ships
arrived in safety at Jamestown, in the month of August;
but that on board of which was Sir Thomas and other
officers, being wrecked on the Bermudas, did not arrive
till May of the following year.
The ship, thus wrecked, contained one hundred and fifty per-
sons, the whole of whom were, for a time, in extreme danger of
being lost. For three days, they were obliged to labor incessant-
ly at the pump. The leak, however, still increasing, it was
attempted to run her on shore; but she stranded, at the distance
of three quarters of a mile from land. By the help of the boats,
however, the crew and passengers were all saved; and, having
built two small vessels, again set sail for Virginia, where they
arrived at the time stated above.
8. At the time Sir Thomas and the other officers ar-
rived, the colony had become reduced to circumstances
of great depression. Capt. Smith, in consequence of a
severe accidental wound, had some time before returned
to England. His departure was followed by disastrous
consequences. Subordination and industry ceased; the
Indians became hostile, and refused the usual supplies
of provisions. Famine ensued; and to such extremities
had they sunk, that the skins of the horses were de-
voured, as were also the bodies of Indians whom they
had killed, and even the remains of deceased friends
Of five hundred persons, sixty only remained. At this
juncture, the shipwrecked from Bermuda arrived. An
immediate return to England was resolved upon; and,
with that intent, they embarked. But, just as they were
leaving the mouth of the river, Lord De la War fortu-
nately appeared, with supplies of men and provisions,
and they were persuaded to return. By means of his
judicious management, the condition of the colony soon
wore a better aspect, and for several years continued to
It was unfortunate, however, for the colony, that ill health
obliged Lord De la War, in March, 1611, to leave the adminis-
tration. He was succeeded by Sir Thomas Dale, who arrived in
May. Hitherto, no right of property in land had been establish.
ed, but the produce oflabor was deposited in public stores, and
shared in common. To remedy the indolence and indifference
growing out of such a system, Sir Thomas assigned to each in.
habitant a lot of three acres as his own, and a certain portion
of time to cultivate it. The advantages of this measure were
soon so apparent, that another assignment of fifty acres was
made, and not long after the plan of working in a common field
9. In 1613, several Dutch merchants erected a fort
on Hudson's river, where Albany now stands, and a few
trading houses on the island of New York, at that time
called by the Indians Manhattan.
Hudson's river derives its name from Henry Hudson, an Eng-
lishman by birth, but who, at the time of this discovery, was in
the service of the Dutch East India Company. Hudson left the
Texel on the 20th of March, 1609, with the design of penetrat-
ing to the East Indies by sailing a north-westward course.
Failing in this, he proceeded along the shores of Newfoundland,
and thence southward as far as Chesapeake and Delaware bays.
Thence returning northward, he discovered and sailed up the
river which now bears his name.
By virtue of this discovery, the Dutch laid claim to the coun-
try, and the following year several Dutch merchants sent ships
to the river to open a trade with the natives. The claim thus
set up by the Dutch, was denied by the court of England not
on the ground that Hudson was not the first to discover and en-
ter the river, but that, being an English subject, the right to the
country belonged to them.
The Dutch, having planted themselves at Manhattan, were
visited the same year by Capt. Argal, of Virginia, with a naval
force, who demanded the surrender of the place to the English
crown, as properly constituting a part of Virginia. The Dutch
governor, findinghimself incapable of resistance submitted him.
self and his colony to the king of England, and under him to
the governor of Virginia. Notwithstanding this surrender, the
country still continued to be called, as before, New Netherlands,
and the settlement, the place where New York now stands, New
Amsterdam. These names they retained till the final conquest
of the country by the English, in 1664. (See Sec. 37.)
10. In 1614, Capt. John Smith sailed from England,
with two ships, to North Virginia. During this voyage,
he ranged the coast from Penobqpot to Cape Cod, and
gave names to several points of land, which now, for the
first time, were discovered. On his return home, hav.
ing formed a map of the country, he presented it tu
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
Prince Charles, who, in the warmth of admiration, do.
dared that the country should be called NEW ENGLAND.
Cape Ann was so called by the prince in filial respect
to his mother.
11. The year 1619 forms a memorable epoch in
the history of Virginia, a provincial legislature being
at this time introduced, in which the colonists were
represented by delegates chosen by themselves.
This colonial assembly, the first legislature to which the peo-
ple of America sent representatives, was convoked by Sir George
Yeardly, the governor-general of the colony, and met at James-
town, on the 19th of June. Before this, the colonists had been
ruled rather as soldiers in garrison, by martial law; but now they
were invested with the privileges of freemen. They were di-
vided into eleven corporations, each of which was represented
in the assembly.
The following year, the colony received a large accession
to their number. Eleven ships arrived, with twelve hundred
and sixty persons, for settlement. Nearly one thousand colonists
were resident here before. In order to attach them still more to
the country, Sir Edwin Sandys, the treasurer of the company,
recommended to send over a number of young women of reputa-
ble character, to become wives to the planters. Accordingly,
ninety at this time came over, and sixty the following year.
These were sold to the planters at the price, at first, of one hun-
dred, and, afterwards, one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco.
Tobacco, at this time, was worth three shillings per pound.
Debts incurred for the purchase of wives were recoverable before
Accessions to the colony, of a different character, were also
made about this time. By order of King James, one hundred
persons of profligate character, who had rendered themselves
obnoxious to government by their crimes, were sent to the colony
by way of punishment. This, perhaps designed for its benefit.
as the exiles were chiefly employed as laborers, was ultimately
prejudicial to its prosperity.
During the year 1620, slave-holding was introduced into the
colony. A Dutch ship from Aftica, touching at Jamestown,
landed twenty negroes for sale. These were purchased by the
planters; and with these was introduced an evil into the coun-
try, the sad effects of which are felt to the present day.
12. The year 1620 marks the era of the first settling
of New England. On the 22d of December of this
year, a colony originally from England, known by tho
name of Puritans, landed at Plymouth, Massachu.
setts, and began the settlement of that place. Although
natives of England, they were driven thence by the arm
of persecution, for urging a more thorough reformation
in the church of England.
They fled from England, first to Amsterdam, in Hol-
land, in 1607, with their pastor, the Rev. Mr. Robin-
son. From Amsterdam, they soon after removed to
Leyden, where they continued until they embarked for
Among the motives which influenced them to remove
to America, the prospect of enjoying a purer worship
and greater liberty of conscience," was the principal.
To secure these objects, they were willing to become
exiles from a civilized country, and encounter the dan-
gers and privations which might meet them in a wil-
The people who first settled New England were principally
from the counties of Nottinghamshire, Lancashire, and York-
shire. In these counties, there prevailed, about the year 1602,
an extensive revival of religion. The new converts, wishing to
worship God in a manner more simple than was observed in the
established church, but not being allowed to do it while they
continued members of it,agreed upon a separation from it; and,
for the sake of peace, and more liberty of conscience, resolved
upon a removal to the States of Holland, which, at that time,
granted a free toleration to different denominations of Prot-
The leader of these emigrants, in the year 1607, was an able
and pious man, Mr. John Robinson, who, with his congregation,
having disposed of their property, prepared for their removal,
with a design to fix themselves at Amsterdam; but now they
found the ports and harbors carefully watched; and, the design
of this congregation being suspected, strict orders were given
that they should not be suffered to depart.
They were compelled to use the most secret methods, to give
extravagant fees to seamen, by whom, notwithstanding, they
were often betrayed. Twice they attempted to embark, but were
discovered and prevented. At another time, having got onboard
a ship, with their effects, the ship-master sailed a little distance,
and then returned, and delivered them to the resentment of
The next year, they made another attempt, in which, after the
38 PERIOD ii.-1607 TO 1689
severest trials, they succeeded. Having engaged a ship belong
ing to Holland, for their conveyance, they were going on board"
By some treachery, their enemies had been informed of their
design, and, at this juncture, a great number of armed men came
upon them. A part of the men were on board, without any of
their effects; the women and children were in a bark approach-
ing the ship. The Dutch captain, apprehensive of danger to
himself, hoisted sail, and, with a fair wind, directed his course
The passengers used every effort to persuade him to return,
but in vain. They saw their wives and children fall into the
hands of merciless enemies, while unable to afford them any re-
lief. They had none of their effects, not even a change of
clothes, on board.
A violent storm came on, which raged seven days, without
intermission. By the violence of the storm, they were driven to
the coast of Norway. On a sudden, the sailors exclaimed, The
ship has foundered; she sinks; she sinks!" The seamen trem-
bled in despair; the pilgrims looked up to God, and cried, Yet,
Lord, thou canst save; yet, Lord, thou canst save." To the
astonishment of all, the vessel soon began to rise; rode out the
storm, and, at length, reached its destined port. After some
time, all their friends who had been left, arrived safely in Hol-
This congregation fixed their residence at Amsterdam. But,
in consequence of some unhappy disputes which then agitated
the other English churches in that city, they thought it prudent
to remove. Accordingly, they retired the next year, and settled
in the city of Leyden. Here they Were kindly received, and
enjoyed a quiet habitation. As the flames of religious tyranny
and persecution continued to rage in England, many of their
countrymen joined them. Under the able ministry of their be-
loved pastor, they continued in great union and prosperity, and
became a numerous congregation.
After remaining a number of years in Holland, this little flocl
found their situation, on many accounts, unpleasant. The im
moralities of their neighbors were dangerous to the rising gene-
ration; the difficulties of procuring a comfortable living induced
not a few of their sons to enter the Dutch armies; and, at no dis-
tant day, there was reason to apprehend their posterity would
become incorporated with the people of the country, and their
church become extinct.
These considerations, added to the more powerful motive, the
hope of laying a foundation for the extensive advancement of
the kingdom of Christ in the western wilderness, induced them
to remove to America. Previous to their final determination, as
their governing maxim always was, In all thy ways acknowl
edge God, and he shall direct thy paths," they set apart a day
for fasting and prayer, to seek direction from God.*
Having decided to settle in Virginia, their next object was to
obtain a patent, which they at length effected, from the London
company. At the same .time, they received from King James
an intimation, that they should not be molested in respect to the
enjoyment of their religion. They now began to prepare them.
selves for their momentous enterprise. For this purpose, they
procured two vessels, the Speedwell and the Mayflower. The
Speedwell, of sixty tons, they purchased in Holland, with the
intention of keeping her for their accommodation in America.
The Mayflower, of one hundred and eighty tons, they hired at
All things being in readiness for their departure from Leyden,
they kept a day of solemn humiliation and prayer. On the 21st
of July, the pilgrims went to Delfthaven, a place about twenty
miles from Leyden, and two miles from Rotterdam. Here they
were to embark. To this port they were kindly attended by
many of their brethren and friends from Amsterdam, as well
as from Leyden. Leaving Delfthaven, they sailed for South-
hampton, at which place they were joined by the rest of their
company from London, in the Mayflower. On the 5th of Au-
gust, 1620, both vessels set sail for the new world; but before
proceeding far, the Speedwell sprung a-leak, and at Plymouth,
whither they put in, she was condemned as not seaworthy.
Under these circumstances, a part of the emigrants were dis-
missed, and the rest were taken on board of the Mayflower.
With one hundred passengers, this vessel sailed from Plymouth,
September 6th. For two months they were tossed and driven
upon the tempestuous ocean; till, at length, on the 9th of No-
vember, they had the happiness to descry the bleak and dreary
shores of Cape Cod. The part then discovered was Sandy
Point, called Cape Malabar, in Chatham. But they were still
remote from the place which they had selected for a habitation.
It was their intention to settle near the mouth of the Hudson.
Toward that river they now bent their course. But the wintry
season, the stormy prospect, the perilous shoals and breakers
in their way, induced them to relinquish their design, and seek
the nearest resting-place, where they might hope for tolerable
accommodations. They therefore turned back, sailed round
Race Point, and, after two days, November llth, anchored in
Cape Cod harbor, between Cape Cod and Plymouth.t
Before landing, having devoutly given thanks to God for their
safe arrival, they formed themselves into a body politic, forty-
one signing a solemn contract, according to the provisions of
which they were to be governed. Mr. John Carver was elected
governor for one year.
Robbins's New England Fathers. t Dr. Parish
PERIOD II.-1607TO 1689.
Government being thus established, sixteen men, well armed
with a few others, were sent on shore the same day, to fetch
wood and make discoveries; but they returned at night, without
having found any person or habitation. The company, having
rested on the Lord's day, disembarked on Monday, the 13th of
November; and soon after proceeded to make further discovery
of the country.
On Wednesday, the 15th, Miles Standish and sixteen armed
men, in searching for a convenient place for settlement, saw five
or six Indians, whom they followed several miles, until night;
but, not overtaking them, were constrained to lodge in the woods.
The next day, they discovered heaps of earth, one of which they
dug open; but finding within implements of war, they conclud-
ed these were Indian graves; and, therefore, replacing what they
had taken out, they left them inviolate. In different heaps of sand
they also found baskets of corn, a quantity of which they carried
away in a great kettle, found at the ruins of an Indian house.
This providential discovery gave them seed for a future harvest,
and preserved the infant colony from famine. Before the close
of the month, Mrs. Susannah White became the mother of an
infant son, who was called Perigrine ; and this was the first child,
of European extraction, born in New England.
On the 6th of December, the shallop was sent out with sev-
eral of the principal men, Carver, Bradford, Winslow, Standish,
and others, and eight or ten seamen, to sail round the bay, in
search of a place for settlement. The next day, this company
was divided; and, while some travelled on shore, others coasted
in the shallop. Early on the morning of the 8th, those on
shore were surprised by a flight of arrows from a party of In-
dians; but on the discharge of the English muskets, the Indians
The shallop, after imminent hazard from the loss of its rudder
and mast in a storm, and from shoals which it narrowly escaped,
reached a small island on the night of the 8th; and here the
company, the next day, which was the last day of the week, re-
posed themselves with pious gratitude for their safety. On this
island they kept the Christian sabbath. The day following, they
sounded the harbor, and found it fit for shipping; went on shore,
and explored the adjacent land, where they saw various cornfields
and brooks; and judging the situation to be convenient for a set-
tlement, they returned with the welcome intelligence to the ship.
On the 15th, they weighed anchor, and proceeded with the
ship for this newly-discovered port, where they arrived on the
following day. On the 18th and 19th, they went on shore for
discovery, but returned at night to the ship. pn the morning
of the 20th, after imploring divine guidance, they went on shore
again, to fix on some place for immediate settlement. Aftei
viewing the country, they concluded to settle on a high ground
facing the bay, where the land was cleared, and the water was
On Saturday, the 23d, as many of the company as could
v ith convenience, went on shore, and felled and carried timber
to the spot designed for the erection of a building for common use.
On the Lord's day, the 24th, the people on shore were alarmed by
the cry of Indians, and expected an assault; butthey continued
unmolested. On Monday, the 25th, they began to build the first
house. A platform for their ordnance demanding their earliest
attention, they began one on the 28th on a hill, which com-
manded an extenve prospect of the plain beneath, of the ex-
pandin bay and of the distant ocean.
"In the afternoon, they divided their whole company into nine-
teen families; measured out the ground, and assigned to every
person by lot half a pole in breadth, and three poles in length.
for houses and gardens. Though most of the company were on
board the ship on the Lord's day, Dec. 31st, yet some of them
kept sabbath for the first time in their new house. Here, there
fore, is fixed the epoch of their settlement, which, in grateful
remembrance of the Christian friends whom they found at the
last town they left in their native country, they called Plymot.
This was the foundation of the first English town built m New
4 Holmes's Annals.
PERIOD II.--107 TO 16t9
13. In November, 1620, the same month in which the
Puritans arrived on the American coast, James I. issued
a patent granting to the Duke of Lenox, Ferdinando
Gorges, and others, styling themselves The Council of
Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for planting and
governing New England, in America," the territory be-
tween the 40th and 48th degrees of north latitude, and
extending through the main land from sea to sea.
This territory had, until this time, been known by the name
of North Virginia; but now it received the name of New Eng-
land, by royal authority. The patent thus issued to the council
of Plymouth, was the foundation of all the subsequent grants,
under which the colonies of New England were settled.
14. In March, 1621, the colony of Plymouth, through
Gov. Carver, entered into a league of friendship, com-
merce, and mutual defence, with Masassoit, the great
sachem of the neighboring Indians. This treaty, which
was strictly observed until the breaking out of Philip's
war, (a period of more than fifty years,) gave general
peace to the colony, and laid the foundation for their in-
timate and amicable correspondence with the neighbor-
ing Indian tribes.
The person chiefly instrumental in bringing this event to pass,
was Samoset, a sagamore or chief of the country lying at the dis-
tance of about five days' journey. He was the first visitant of the
colony at Plymouth, and greatly surprised the inhabitants, by call-
ing out, as he entered their village," Welcome, Englishmen! wel-
come, Englishmen !" He had conversed with the English fisher-
men who had come to the eastern coast, and had learned some of
the language. He informed the colony that the place where they
were settled, was called by the Indians Patuzet; that, five years
before, a plague had swept off all the natives from the place, so
that there was neither man, woman, nor child remaining. Prov-
idence had thus singularly prepared the way for the colonies to
take possession of the land without molesting a single owner.
Samoset, having been treated with hospitality by these stran-
gers, was disposed to cultivate a further acquaintance with them.
and, on his third visit, was accompanied by Squanto, a native o1
the country, who had been carried away in 1614, by one Hunt,
and sold into Spain, but had been taken to London, whence he
had returned to America.
They informed the English that Masassoit, the greatest sachem
of the neighboring Indians, was ear, with a guard of sixty men.
Mutual distrust prevented, for some time, any advances from
either side. But Squanto, who was at length sent to Masassoit,
returned, saying that the sachem wished the English to send
some one to confer with him. Mr. Edward Winslow was ac-
cordingly sent, bearing suitable presents to the chief. These
proving acceptable, Masassoit left Mr. Winslow in the custody
of his men as a hostage, and ventured to the English, by whom
he was hospitably entertained, and with whom he concluded the
treaty already noticed.
tCh5. In 1621, the colony of Virginia received from
the London company, through Sir Francis Wyat, who,
at this time, arrived as governor, a more perfect consti-
tution and form of government. The powers of this
government were vested in a governor and two coun-
cils. One of these was called the council of state, to
advise and assist the governor. This council was to
be appointed and removed by the company. The
other was called the general assembly, consisting of the
council of state, and two burgesses, or representatives,
deputed from each town, hundred, or plantation. This
assembly met annually, and were intrusted with the
business of framing laws for the colony, the governor
having a negative upon their proceedings. No laws
were valid until ratified by a court of the company in
16.' In 1622, the Virginia colony, which for some
time had enjoyed great prosperity, and had received fre-
quent accessions, experienced a stroke which proved
nearly fatal. The successor of Powhatan, who was
of a proud, revengeful spirit, and extremely hostile to
the colony, concerted a plan to cut them off at a blow.
On the 22d of March, it was so far put in execution,
that three hundred and forty-seven of the colony, men,
women, and children, were butchered almost in the same
The chief by whom this"massacre was planned, and under
whom it was executed, was Opecancanough, the successor of
Powhatan, but a deadly foe to the English. The whole Indian
population in the surrounding country had been enlisted by thi
PERIOD II.-160f7 TO 1689.
artful chief, and yet they visited the English settlements and
even purchased arms and borrowed boats to enable them to ao-
complish their savage purpose.
On the very morning of the fatal day, as also the evening
before, they came, as at other times, into the houses of the Eng-
lish, with deer, turkeys, fish, and other things to sell. At mid-
day, the hour appointed, the blow fell; and, in the work of death,
neither sex nor age was spared. So quick was the execution, that
few perceived the weapon or the blow which despatched them.
Those who had sufficient warning to make resistance, saved
their lives. Nathaniel Causie, an old soldier of Capt. Smith's,
though cruelly wounded, cleaved down one of his assailants
with an axe, upon which the whole party who had surrounded
him fled, and he escaped. At another place two men held pos-
session of a house, against sixty Indians. At Warrasqueake, a
Mr. Baldwin, whose wife was so badly wounded that she lay
for dead, by repeatedly discharging his musket, drove off the
enemy, and saved both her and himself. Ralph Hamer, the his-
torian, defended himself in his house successfully, with spades,
axes and brickbats. One family, living near Martin's Hundred,
where as many as seventy-three of the English were slain, not
only escaped the massacre, but heard nothing of it, till two or
three days afterwards. Jamestown and some of the neighboring
places were saved by the disclosure of a Christian Indian, named
Chanco, who was confidentially informed of the design by his
brother, on the morning of the 22d."* As soon as the English
had time to recover themselves, they rose to avenge the death
of their slaughtered friends, and succeeded in driving far into
the wilderness such as they could not destroy. But by means of
the calamities which fell upon the English, their settlements were
reduced from eighty to eight; and by the year 1624, out of nine
thousand persons who hadbeen sent from England,but eighteen
hundred existed in the colony.
17. While the Virginians were mourning their
losses, the Plymouth colony began to experience the
distresses of famine. By the time their planting was
finished, in 1623, they were destitute of bread and corn.
SThe most gloomy anticipations were indulged, but, by a
remarkable and well-attested interference of Divine
Providence, they were delivered.
From the third week in May to the middle of July, there was
no rain. Their corn, for whichtheyhad made their utmost exer-
tions, withered under the heat of a scorching sun, and the greater
part of it appeared irrecoverably lost. The Indians, seeing their
Thatcher's Indian Biography
prospects, observed that they would soon be subdued by famine
when they should find them an easy prey. A public fatwas ap
pointed and observed with great solemnity. The morning and
most of the day was clear and hot, but towards evening, the
clouds collected, and, like the gracious influences of God, the
rain descended in moderate yet copious showers. This revived
their expiring crop, and produced plentiful harvest. After which
they observed a day of public thanksgiving, the origin of the
annual thanksgiving which is now observed in New England.*
18. In 1623, a number of persons from England were
sent to America by Ferdinando Gorges, to form settle-
ments on lands which had been granted to them by the
council of Plymouth, between the Merrimac and Saga-
dahok, and extending from the ocean west to the rivers
of Canada. These settlers, arriving in the river Piscat-
aqua, began o settlements, one at the mouth, called
Little Harb the other still higher up the river, at Co.
checo, afterwards called Dover. These were the first
settlements in NEW HAMPSaIRE.
19. In 1624, the London company, which had settled
Robbins's New England Fathers.
PERIOD ii.-1607 TO 1689.
Virginia, was dissolved by an act of King James 1 un
der pretext of the calamities which had befallen the
colony, and the dissensions which had agitated the com-
pany. Their charter was taken away, and the govern-
ment of the colony assumed by the crown. The king
himself appointed the governor, in whom, with twelve
counsellors, the powers of government were vested.
The London company, thus dissolved, consisted of gentlemen
of noble and disinterested views, who had expended more than
one hundred thousand pounds of their fortunes in this first at-
tempt to plant an English colony in America; and more than
nine thousand persons had been sent from the mother country to
people this new settlement. At the time of the dissolution of
the company, scarcely two thousand persons survived.
The dissolution of the charter was a most arbitrary act in the
king; and not less arbitrary and odious were his subsequent reg-
ulations. Under these the people lived and fered till 1636.
At this time, inflamed to madness by the oppreive conduct of
Sir-John Harvey, the then governor, they seized him, and sent
him prisoner to England. Their conduct in this was so displeas-
ing to the king, Charles I., successor of James I., that he sent
Harvey back. But, in 1639, the king appointed Sir William
Berkley to succeed him, with instructions again to allow the Vir-
ginians to elect representatives. (For the continuation of the
history of Virginia, see Sec. 45.)
20. It has been stated that the lands upon which the
Plymouth colony settled, were granted by the crown to
"the Council of Plymouth," in England, in November,
1620. This was the same month that the Puritans had
arrived in the country. (Sec. 13.) Being apprized
of this grant, the colony, in 1626, began to take meas-
ures to purchase these lands. The negotiations for this
purpose ended the next year in a patent, which the com-
pany granted them for one thousand eight hundred
pounds sterling, with ample powers of government.
The government of the colony was at first formed and conducted
according to a voluntary compact, entered into before landing
(Sec. 12.) Till the year 1624, it consisted of a governor and one
assistant only. From this period, five were annually chosen, the
governor having a double vote. The number of assistants was
afterwards increased to seven. The laws of the colony were
enacted, and the affairs of government conducted, by these
,oficers, for near twenty years. In 1639, the towns in this colo
ay, for the first time, sent deputies. The colony continued dis.
tinct near seventy years, until 1691, when, by charter of William
and Mary, it was united to the colony of Massachusetts and
the Province of Maine.
21. In 1628, the foundation was laid for another colo-
ny in New England, by the name of the Colony of Mas.
sachusetts Bay. At this time, several enterprising men
purchased of the council of Plymouth the territory
which constituted the above colony. The same year,
the purchasers sent out Mr. John Endicot, with about a
hundred adventurers, to commence a settlement, which
they effected at Salem, at that time called, by the Indians,
The territory included in the colony of Massachusetts Bay, ex-
tended three miles north of the Merrimac river, and three miles
south of Charles river, and east and west from the Atlantic to the
The 'settlement of Massachusetts Bay, like the colony of
Plymouth, was commenced by non-conformists, for the purpose
of enjoying greater religious liberty in matters of worship and
discipline. Among the most active in this enterprise was Mr
Endicot, already mentpned, and Mr. White, a pious and active
minister of Dorchestei, in England.
22. The following year, 1629, the Massachusetts
company was confirmed by King Charles in their title
to the soil; and, at the same time, received the powers
of civil government. They were incorporated by the
name of the Governor and Company of Massachusetts
Bay, in New England." Soon after, a form of govern-
ment for the new colony was settled. Mr. Endicot,
already in the colony, was appointed governor.
On the appointment of Mr. Endicot as governor, an expedi-
tion was fitted out for the purpose of giving an impulse to the
colony. Five ships were provided, which, being laden with cat-
tle and other necessaries, sailed from England, with nearly three
hundred planters, and arrived at Salem in June. They found
the settlement in prosperous circumstances; yet, not being them-
selves pleased with the situation of Salem, two hundred of them
removed, and settled at a place which they called Charlestoon.
23. In the month of August of the same year, it was
determined by the company in England, that the gor-
PERIOD ii.-1607 TO 1689.
ernment and the patent of the plantation should be trans-
ferred from London to Massachusetts Bay. At the same
time, a new election of officers for the colony took
place. John Winthrop was chosen governor, and Thom-
as Dudley deputy-governor. Soon after their appoint-
ment, they sailed with a large company, some of whom
settled at Charlestown, others at Boston, and in towns
On the arrival of Gov. Winthrop, in June, who continued from
that time to his death the head and father of the colony, he
found the plantation in a distressed and suffering state. In the
preceding autumn, the colony contained about three hundred
inhabitants. Eighty of these had died, and a great part of
the survivors were in a weak and sickly state. Their supply of
corn was not sufficient for more than a fortnight, and their other
provisions were nearly exhausted.
In addition to these evils, they were informed that a combina-
tion of the various tribes of Indians was forming for the utter ex-
tirpation of the colony. Their strength was weakness, but their
confidence was in God, and they were not forsaken. Many of
the planters, who arrived this summer, after long voyages, were
in a sickly state, and disease continued to rage through the sea-
son. By the close of the year, the number of deaths exceeded
two hundred. Among these were several of the principal per-
sons in the colony.' Mr. Higginson, the venerable minister of
Salem, spent about a year with that parent church, and was re-
moved to the church in glory. His excellent colleague, Mr.
Skelton, did not long survive him. Mr. Johnson, one of the
assistants, and his lady, who was-a great patroness of the settle-
ment, died soon after their arrival. Of the latter, an early his-
torian observes, She left an earthly paradise, in the family of
an earldom, to encounter the sorrows of a wilderness, for the
entertainments of a pure worship in the house of God; and then
immediately left that wilderness for the heavenly paradise."
The succeeding winter commenced in December with great
severity. Few of the houses which had been erected were com-
fortable, and the most of them were miserable coverings. Un-
used to such severities of climate, the poor people suffered
severely from the cold. Many were frozen to death. The in-
conveniences of their accommodations increased tne easess
which continued to prevail among them.
But their constancy had not yet been brought to the last trial.
During the continuance of the severe season, their stock of pro-
visions began to fail. Those wh,# vented were supplied by those
who possessed, as long as any re .nlned. A poor man came to the
governor to complain, and was informed that the lastbread of his
house was in the oven. Many subsisted upon shell-fish, ground-
nuts, and acorns, which, at that season, could not have been pro-
cured but with the utmost difficulty.
In consideration of their perilous condition, the sixth day of
February was appointed for a day of public fasting and prayer,
to seek deliverance from God. On the fifth of February, the
day before the appointed fast, the ship Lion, which had been
sent to England for supplies, arrived laden with provisions. She
had a stormy passage, and rode amidst heavy drifts of ice, after
entering the harbor. These provisions were distributed among
the people, according to their necessities, and their appointed
fast was exchanged for a day of general thanksgiving.*
24. In 1632, Charles I. completed a patent to Cccil-
ius Calvert, otherwise called Lord Baltimore, which had
been designed for his father, by which was conveyed to
him a tract of country on the Chesapeake bay, which,
in honor of Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry the
Great of France, he named MARYLAND.
George Calvert, the father, having embraced the Roman Cath-
olic religion, found his situation in England so unpleasant, that,
for the sake of enjoying his religious opinions in peace, he made
a visit to America, and having explored the territory above men-
tioned, returned to England, for the purpose of procuring a pat-
ent of it. Before it was completed, he died, and the patent was
made out to his son, Cecil. By this patent, the latter came into
possession of the country from the Potomac to the 40th degree
of north latitude. This grant covered the land which had long
before been granted to Virginia, as what was now granted to
Lord Baltimore was in part subsequently given to William Penn.
In consequence of these arbitrary acts of the crown, long and
obstinate contentions arose between the descendants of Penn and
25. In 1633, Lord Baltimore appointed his brother,
Leonard Calvert, governor of the province, who,with about
two hundred planters, mostly Roman Catholics, left Eng-
land near the close of this year, and arriving, in 1634, at
the mouth of the river Potomac, purchased of the Indians
Yoamaco, a considerable village, where they formed a
settlement, to which they gave the name of St. Mary.
The charter granted to the inhabitants of Maryland, conferred
on them more ample privileges than had been conferred on any
lobbi..i's New England Fathera
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
other colony in America. Among these privileges was that of
passing laws without any reservation, on the pa:t of the crown,
to revoke them. This and other favorable circumstances con-
tributed to the rapid settlement of Maryland.
At first, when few in number, the freemen assembled in per-
son, and enacted the necessary laws; but, in 1639, it was found
expedient to constitute a "house of assembly." This consisted
of representatives chosen by the people, of others appointed by
the proprietor, and of the governor and secretary, who sat together.
In 1650, the legislative body was divided into an upper and lower
house-the members of the former being appointed by the pro
prietor; those of the latter by the people.
Few of the colonies escaped intestine troubles; nor did Maryland
form an exception. In 1645, a rebellion broke out, chiefly caused
by one William Clayborne. This man, under license from the
king, had, as early as 1631, formed a settlement on the island of
Kent; and when the grant was made to Lord Baltimore, he re
fused to submit to his authority. Being convicted of murder
and other high crimes, he fled; but, in 1645, he returned, and
heading a party of insurgents, for a time overthrew the govern
ment. The next year, order was restored, and Calvert, the gov
ernor, who had been obliged to flee, resumed his office.
In 1652, Lord Baltimore was deprived of the government, by
the English parliament; but at the restoration in 1660, Philip
Calvert was appointed governor, and the ancient order of things
was restored. In 1689, on the accession of William and Mary,
persons in their interest usurped the government of the colony;
but in 1716, the proprietor was restored to his rights. From this
time until the revolution, he continued to enjoy them; but, at
this latter date, the people assumed the government to them
26. In 1633, the first house was erected in Connecti-
cut. This was a trading-house at Windsor, the mate-
rials of which a party of Plymouth adventurers trans-
ported in a vessel up Connecticut river.
The first discoveries made of this part of New England were
of its principal river, and the fine meadows lying upon its banks.
Whether the Dutch at New Netherlands, or the people of New
Plymouth, were the first discoverers of the river, is not certain.
Both the English and Dutch claimed this honor, and both pur
chased and made a settlement of the lands upon it nearly at the
In 1631, Wahquimicut, a sachem upon the river Connecticut,
made a journey to Plymouth and Boston, earnestly soliciting the
governors of each of the colonies to send men, to form settle-
ments upon the river. He represented the country as exceed-
mgly fruitful, and promised that he would supply the English,
if they would make a settlement there, with corn annually, and
give them eighty beaver-skins. He urged that two men might
be sent to view the country. Had this invitation been accepted,
it might have prevented the Dutch claim to any part of the lands
upon the river, and opened an extensive trade in hemp, furs,
and deer-skins, with all the Indians upon it, and far into Canada.
The governor of Massachusetts treated the sachem and his
company with generosity, but paid no further attention to his
proposal. Mr.Winslow, the governor of Plymouth, judging it
worthy of attention, himself made a journey to Connecticut,
discovered the river, and the lands adjacent.
Two years from this time, the people of Plymouth began to
make preparations for erecting a trading-house, and establishing
a small company upon the river. In the mean time, the Dutch,
having heard of the intended enterprise of the people of Plym-
outh, sent a party to the river, who erected a fort, where the
city of Hartford is now situated.
Having at length prepared the frame of a house, William
Holmes, who commanded the Plymouth expedition, proceeded
in a vessel with his party for Connecticut. He had a commis-
sion from the governor of Plymouth, and a chosen company to
accomplish his design. After entering the river, he found that
the Dutch had entered before him, constructed a light fort, and
planted two pieces of cannon. This was erected at the place since
called Hartford. The Dutch forbid Holmes going up the river,
stood by their cannon, and ordered him to strike his colors, or they
would fire upon him. But being a man of spirit, he assured them
that he had a commission from the governor of Plymouth to go
up the river, and that he must obey his orders. They poured
out their threats ; but he proceeded, and, landing on the west side
of the river, erected his house below the mouth of the little river
in Windsor. The house was covered with the utmost despatch,
and fortified with palisades. The Dutch, considering them as
intruders, sent, the next year, a band of seventy men t6 drive
them from the country; but finding them strongly posted, they
relinquished the design.
27. In the autumn of 1635, a company, consisting
of sixty men, women, and children, from the settlements
of Newtown and Watertown, in Massachusetts, com-
menced their journey through the wilderness to Con-
necticut river. On their arrival, they settled at Wind.
sor, Wethersfield, and Hartford.
They commenced their journey on the 15th of October. A
wide wilderness spread before them. With incredible difficulty
PERIOD 11.-1607 TO 1689
they made their way through swamps and rivers, over hills and
mountains. So long were they on their journey, and so much
time was spent in passing the river, and in getting over their cattle,
that, after all their exertions, winter came upon them before
they were prepared. This was an occasion of great distress and
damage to the planters. By the 15th of November, Connecticut
river was frozen over, and the snow was so deep, and the sea.
son so tempestuous, that a considerable number of the cattle,
which had been driven from Massachusetts, could not be brought
across the river. The people had so little time to prepare their
huts and houses, and to erect sheds and shelters for their cattle,
that the sufferings of man and beast were extreme.
It being impracticable to transport much provision or furni-
ture through a pathless wilderness, they were put on board sev-
eral small vessels, which were either cast away or did not ar-
rive. Several vessels were wrecked on the coasts of New Eng-
land, by the violence of the storms. Two shallops, laden with
goods from Boston for Connecticut, were cast away, and the men,
with very thing on board, lost. A vessel with six of the Con-
necticut people on board, which sailed from the river for Boston,
early in November, was, about the middle of the month, cast
away in Manamet bay. The men got on shore, and, after wan
during ten days in a deep snow and a severe season, without
meeting any human being, arrived, nearly spent with cold and
fatigue, at New Plymouth.
About the first of December, provisions generally failed in
the settlements on the river, and famine and death looked the
inhabitants in the face. Some of them, driven by hunger, at-
tempted their way, in this severe season, through the wilderness
from Connecticut to Massachusetts. Of thirteen, in one com-
pany, who made this attempt, one, in passing the rivers, fell
through the ice, and was drowned. The other twelve were ten
days on their journey, and would all have perished had it not
been for the assistance of the Indians. Such was the general
distress early in December, that a considerable part of the new
settlers were obliged to abandon their habitations. Seventy per-
sons, men, women and children, determined to go down the
river to meet their provisions, as the only expedient to preserve
their lives. Not meeting with the vessels which they expected,
they all went on board the Rebecca, a vessel of about sixty tons.
This, two days before, was frozen in, twenty miles up the river;
but, by the falling of a small rain, together with the tide, the ice
became so broken, that she was enabled to get out. She ran,
however, upon the bar, and the people were forced to unlade
her to get her off. She was related, and in five days reached
The people who kept their stations on the river, suffered in ar,
extreme degree After all the help they were able to obtain, b
hunting and from the Indians, they were obliged to subsist on
acorns, malt, and grains. Numbers of cattle, which could not
be got over the river before winter, lived through without any
thing but what they found in the woods and meadows. They
wintered as well, or better, than those which were brought over,
and for which all the provision possible was made. However, a
great number of cattle perished. The Windsor people lost in
this single article about two hundred pounds sterling. Their
other losses were very considerable.*
28. During the same year, 1635, in which the above
towns were settled in Connecticut, John Winthrop, son
of the governor of Massachusetts, arrived from England,
with a commission as governor of Connecticut, under
Lbrd Say and Seal, and Lord Brooke, to whom the coun.
cil of Plymouth had sold, in March, 1631, a patent of
% This patent included that part of New England which extends
*om Narraganset river one hundred and twenty miles on a
straight line, near the shore, towards the south-west, as the coast
lies, towards Virginia, and within that breadth, from the Atlantic
ocean and the South sea. This is the original patent of Con-
Soon after Winthrop's arrival at Boston, he despatched a bark
of thirty tons, with twenty men, to take possession of Connecti-
cut river, and to build a fort at its mouth. This was accordingly
erected, and called Saybrook fort. A few days after their arri-
val, a Dutch vessel from New Netherlands appeared, to take pos-
session of the river; but, as the English had already mounted
two cannon, their landing was prevented.
The next June, 1636, the Rev. Messrs. Hooker and Stone,
with a number of settlers from Dorchester and Watertown, re-
moved to Connecticut. With no guide but a compass, they
made their way one hundred miles over mountains, through
swamps and rivers. Their journey, which was on foot, lasted a
fortnight, during which they lived upon the milk of their qows.
They drove one hundred and sixty cattle. This party chiefly
settled at Hartford. Mr. Hooker and Mr. Stone became the pas-
tors of the church in that place, and were both eminent as men
and ministers. The death of Mr. Hooker occurred in 1647.
About the time of his departure, a friend, standing by, said, Sir,
you are going-to receive thp reward of all your labors." He re-
plied, Brother, I am going to receive mercy." Mr. Stone died
5 Robbins's New England Fathers
54 PERIOD 11.-1607 TO 1689.
29. This year, 1636, Roger Williams, having been
banished from the colony of Massachusetts in 1634, re,
moved with his family to Mooshawsic, and began a
plantation, which he called Providence. From this we
date the settlement of RHODE ISLAND.
Mr. Williams, who thus commenced the settlement of Rhode
Island, came from England in 1631; and, having resided a short
time at Plymouth, removed to Salem, in Massachusetts, and be-
came the pastor of the church in that place. During his con.
nection with the people of Salem, he promulgated opinions
which were contrary to those prevalent at that day in the colo-
nies, and among them, "that the civil magistrate is bound to
afford equal protection to every denomination of Christians."
On account of this doctrine, he was sentenced to depart out of
the territory. At first he repaired to Seeconk, where he pro
cured a grant of land from the Indians. Being informed, how-
ever, by the governor of Plymouth, that the land was within the
limits of that colony, he proceeded to Mooshawsic, where, in 1636,
with those friends who followed him, he began a plantation. He.
purchased the land of the Indians, and, in grateful acknowledg-
ment of the kindness of heaven, he called the place Providence.
Acting in conformity with the wise and liberal principle, for
avowing and maintaining which, he had suffered banishment,
he allowed entire freedom of conscience to all who came within
his borders. And to him must be given the glory of having first
set a practical example of the equal toleration of all religious
sects, in the same political community. His labors were not
confined to h'., civilized brethren. He labored to enlighten, im-
prove, and conciliate the savages. He learned their language,
travelled among them, and gained the entire confidence of their
chiefs. He had often the happiness, by his influence over them,
of saving from injury the colony which had proclaimed him an
outlaw, and driven him into the wilderness."*
In 1638,William Coddington and seventeen others, being per.
secuted for their religious tenets in Massachusetts, followed Mr.
Williams to Providence. By his advice, they purchased of the
Indians the island Aquetneck, and began a settlement on the
northern part of it. Others followed the next summer, and com-
menced another settlement on the south-western side-dividing
the island into two townships, Portsmouth and Newport. They
formed themselves into a body politic, and elected Mr. Codding-
ton chief magistrate.
In 1640, the inhabitants of Providence agreed upon a form of
government. Rhode Island, so called from a fancied resem
balance to the ancient island of Rhodes, soon began to be exten
History of the United States
sively settled, both on account of its natural fertility, and also on
account of the religious freedom allowed to all denominations.
In 1644, Roger Williams visited England, as agent of the set-
tlers, and obtained of the Earl of Warwick, one of the Plymouth
company, a free charter of incorporation for Providence and
Rhode Island plantations.
In 1663, a royal charter was granted to them, by Charles II.
This charter constituted an assembly, consisting of a governor,
deputy-governor, and ten assistants, with the representatives
from the several towns, all to be chosen by the freemen.
In 1686, Andros being made governor of New England, he
dissolved the charter of Rhode Island,*and appointed a council
to assist him in governing the colony. Three years after, Wil-
liam, Prince of Orange, ascended the throne of England, and
Andros was seized and imprisoned; (Period iii. Sec. 1.) upon
which the freemen assembled at Newport, and, having resumed
their charter, restored al.the officers whom Andros had displaced.
30. The year 1637 is remarkable, in the history of
Connecticut, for the war with the Pequots, a tribe of
Indians, whose principal settlement was on a hill, in
the present town of Groton.
Prior to this time, the Peguots had frequently annoyed the
infant colony, and in several instances had killed some of its in-
habitants. In March of this year, the commander of Saybrook
fort, with twelve men, was attacked by them, and three of his
party killed. In April, another portion of this tribe assaulted
the people of Wethersfield, as they were going to their fields to
labor, and killed six men and three women. Two girls were
taken captive by them, and twenty cows were killed.
In this perilous state of the colony, a court was summoned at
Hartford, May 1. After mature deliberation, it was determined
that war should be commenced against the Pequots.
Ninety men, nearly half the fencible men of the colony, were
ordered to be raised; forty-two from Hartford, thirty from Wind-
sor, and eighteen from Wethersfield.
With these troops, together with seventy river and Mohegan
Indians, Capt. Mason, to whom the command of the expedition
was given, sailed down the river Connecticut to Saybrook. Here
a plan of operations was formed, agreeably to which, on the 2ith
of May, about the dawn o4 day, Capt. Mason surprised Mystic,
one of the principal forts ol the enemy, in the present town of
Stonington. On their near approach to the fort, a dog barked.
and an Indian, who now discovered them, cried out, O wanux!
O wanux !" Englishmen I Englishmen!
The troops instantly pressed forward, and fired. The destruc
tion of the enemy soon became terrible, but they rallied at length
56 PERIOD ii.-1607 TO 1689.
and made a manly resistance. After a severe and protracted
conflict, Capt. Mason and his troops being nearly exhausted,
and victory still doubtful, he cried out to his men, We must burn
At the same instant, seizing a firebrand, he applied it to a wig-
wam. The flames spread rapidly on every side; and as the
sun rose upon the scene, it showed the work of destruction to
be complete. Seventy wigwams were in ruins, and between five
and six hundred Indians lay bleeding on the ground, or smoul-
dering in the ashes.
But, though the victory was complete, the troops were now in
great distress. Besides two killed, sixteen of their number were
wounded. Their surgeon, medicines, and provisions, were oh
board some vessels, on their way to Pequot harbor, now New
London. While consulting what should be done in this emer-
gency, how great was their joy to descry their vessels standing
directly towards the harbor, under a prosperous wind !
Soon after, a detachment of nearly two hundred men, from
Massachusetts and Plymouth, arrived to assist Connecticut in
prosecuting the war.
Sassacus, the great sachem of the Pequots, and his warriors,
were so appalled at the destruction of Mystic, that they fled
towards Hudson's river. The troops pursued them as far as a
great swamp in Fairfield, where another action took place, in
which the Indians were entirely vanquished.
This was followed by a treaty with the remaining Pequots,
about two hundred in number, agreeably to which they were di
vided among the Narragansetts and Mohegans.
Thus terminated a conflict, which, for a time, was eminently
distressing to the colonies. This event of peace was celebrated
throughout New England, by a day of thanksgiving and praise.
31. During the expedition against the Pequots, the
English became acquainted with Quinnapiak, or New
Haven; and the next year, 1638, the settlement of that
town was effected. This, and the adjoining towns, soon
after settled, were distinguished by the name of the
COLONY OF NEW HAVEN.
Among the founders of this colony, which was the fourth in
New England, was Mr. John Davenport, for some time a dis-
tinguished minister in London. To avoid the indignation of the
persecuting Archbishop Laud, in 1633, he fled to Holland. Hear-
ing, while in exile, of the prosperity of the New England set-
tlements, he meditated a removal to America. On his return
to England, Mr. Theophilus Eaton, an eminent merchant in
London, with Mr. Hopkins, afterwards governor of Connecticut,
and several others, determined to accompany him. They ar-
rived in Boston in June, 1637.
This company were inclined to commence a new plantation,
and lay the foundation of a separate colony. Though the most
advantageous offers were made them by the government of Mas-
sachusetts, to choose any place within their jurisdiction, they pre-
ferred a place without the limits of the existing colonies. They
accordingly fixed upon New Haven as the place of their future
residence, and on the 18th of April, they kent their first Sabbath
in the place, under a large oak tree, where Mr. Davenport
preached to them.
32. The following year, January 14, 1639, the three
towns on Connecticut river, Windsor, Hartford, and
Wethersfield, finding themselves without the limits of
the Massachusetts patent, met, and formed themselves
into a distinct commonwealth, and adopted a consti-
This constitution, which has been much admired, and which,
for more than a century and a half, underwent little alteration,
ordained that there should annually be two general assemblies,
one in April, the other in September. In April, the officers of
government were to be elected by the freemen, and to consist
of a governor, deputy-governor, and five or six assistants. The
towns were to send deputies to the general assemblies. Under
this constitution, the first governor was John Haynes, and Roger
Ludlow the first deputy-governor.
33. The example of the colony of Connecticut, in
forming a constitution, was followed, the next June, by
the colony of New Haven. Both constitutions were
In October following, the government was organized, when
Mr. Eaton was chosen governor. To this office he was annually
elected, till his death, in 1657. No one of the New England
colonies was so much distinguished for good order and internal
tranquillity as the colony of New Haven. Her principal men
were distinguished for their wisdom and integrity, and directed
the affairs of the colony with so much prudence, that she was
seldom disturbed by divisions within, or by aggressions from the
Indians from without.
Having been bred to mercantile employment, the first settlers
belonging to this colony were inclined to engage in commercial
pursuits; but in these they sustained several severe losses; and,
among others, that of a new ship of one hundred and fifty tons,
which was foundered at sea, in 1647,and which was freighted with
58 PERIOD ii.-1607 TO 1689.
a valuable cargo, and manned with seamen and passengers from
many of the best families in the colony. This loss discouraged,
for a time, their commercial pursuits, and engaged their atten-
tion more particularly in the employment of agriculture.
34. This same year, 1639, Sir Ferdinando Gorges
obtained of the crown a distinct charter, in confirmation
of his own grant (Sec. 18) of all the lands from Piscat-
aqua to Sagadahoc, styled the PROVINCE OF MAINE;
soon after which, he formed a system of government
for the province, and incorporated a city near the moun-
tain Agamenticus, in York, by the name of Georgeana;
but neither the province nor city flourished. In 1652,
the province was taken under the jurisdiction of Massa-
chusetts, by the request of the people of Maine, and
continued in this connection till 1820, when it became
a separate and independent state.
It would exceed our limits to examine the different grants of
territory, which were made, at different times, of the state of
Maine. In 1652, at the time the province was taken under the
jurisdiction of Massachusetts, it was made a county by the name
of Yorkshire. It had the privilege of sending deputies to the
general court at Boston. Massachusetts laid claim to the prov
since, as lying within her charter of 1628, and, after various con-
troversies, the territory was incorporated with her in 1691. In
1786,1787, 1802, and 1816, efforts were made by a portion of
the people of Maine to become separate from Massachusetts
proper; but to this a majority of the inhabitants were averse.
In 1818, however, this measure was effected; and, on the
3d of March, 1820, the district, by an act of congress, became
an independent state.
35. The next event of importance in our history, is
the union of the colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth,
Connecticut and New Haven, by the name of THE
UNITED COLONIES OF NEW ENGLAND. The articles of
this confederation, which had been agitated for three
years, were signed May 19th, 1643.
To this union the colonies were strongly urged, by a
sense of common danger from the Indians, (a general
combination of whom was expected,) and by the claims
and encroachments of the Dutch, at Manhattan, New
By these articles of union, each colony retained its distinct and
separate government. No two colonies might be united into one,
nor any colony be received into the confederacy, without the con-
sent of the whole. Each colony was to elect two commissioners,
who should meet annually, and at other times, if necessary, and
should determine all affairs of war and peace, of leagues, aids,
charges, and numbers of men for war," &c. Upon notice that
any colony was invaded, the rest were immediately to despatch
This union subsisted more than forty years, until the charters
of the colonies were either taken away, or suspended, by James
II. and his commissioners.
In 1648, Rhode Island petitioned to be admitted to this con-
federacy, but was denied, unless she would be incorporated with
Plymouth, and lose her separate existence. This she refused,
and was consequently excluded.
The effects of this union on the New England colonies were,
in a high degree, salutary. On the completion of it, several In-
dian sachems, among whom were the chiefs of the Narragansett
and Mohegan tribes, came forward and submitted to the English
government. The colonies also became formidable, by means of
it, to the Dutch. This union was also made subservient to the
civil and religious improvement of the Indians.
Prior to this period, Mr. Mayhew and the devoted Elliot had
made considerable progress towards civilizing the Indians, and
converting them to Christianity. They had learned the Indian
language, and had preached to the Indians in their own tongue.
Upon a report in England of what these men had done, a so.
city was formed for propagating the gospel among the Indians,
which sent over books, money, &c. to be distributed by the com-
missioners of the United Colonies.
The Indians, at first, made great opposition to Christianity;
and such was their aversion to it, that, had they not been over.
awed by the United Colonies, it is probable they would have put
to death those among them who embraced it. Such, however,
were the ardor, energy and ability of Messrs. Mayhew and Elliot,
aided by the countenance and support of government, and blessed
by Providence, that, in 1660, there were ten towns of converted
Indians in Massachusetts. In 1695, there were not less than
three thousand adult Indian converts in the islands of Martha's
Vineyard and Nantucket.
36. 1662. The colony of Connecticut, having pe.
titioned King Charles II. through Governor Winthrop,
for a charter of incorporation, his majesty, in accordance
with their wishes, issued his letters patent, April 2d,
constituting them a body corporate and politic, by the
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
name of The Governor and Company of the English
Colony of Connecticut, in New England, in America.
The territory granted to Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brooke,
in 1631, (Sec. 28,) and confirmed by this charter to Connecticut.
was bounded east by Narragansett river; south by Long Island
sound; north by Massachusetts; and extended west to the Pa
The charter of Connecticut ordained that there should be a
governor, deputy-governor, and twelve assistants, to be chosen
annually. The charter instituted two general assemblies for
each year, to consist of the above officers, and deputies from the
towns; the former to compose the upper, and the deputies the
lower, house. The government under the charter was essentially
the same with that which the people had themselves adopted in
1639, (Sec. 32,) and continued to be the constitution of the colo-
ny and state of Connecticut, until the year 1818, when a con-
vention was assembled which framed a new constitution.
This charter included the colony of New Haven; but not be.
ing agreeable to that colony, it did not unite with Connect icu
until two years after. The granting of a charter to Connecticut
was followed, the next year, 1663, by a similar grant to Rhode
Island and Providence plantations, as already noticed. (Sec. 29.)
37. In 1664, Charles II. granted to his brother, the
Duke of York and Albany, the territory included in the
several colonies of New York, New Jersey, and Dela-
ware. In the course of the same year, the latter de-
spatched an expedition, under command of Col. Richard
Nichols, to the Dutch colony at Manhattan, which had,
for many years, denied the right of the English to con-
trol it. This expedition arrived at Manhattan in Au-
gust, and demanded a surrender of the territory to his
English majesty. The Dutch governor, being unpre-
pared for defence, complied with the demand, and the
whole country passed into the hands of the English. In
honor of the duke, the two principal Dutch settlements
were now named New York and Albany
The first settlement of the Dutch at Manhattan, in 1613, and
their surrender to the English the same year, have already been
noticed. (Sec. 9.) Soon aer, however, they revolted; and, the
claims of the English being neglected, they continued to man.
age for themselves, until the above year, 1664.
Nichols having entered the harbor, Stuyvesant, the )Dutch gov.
ernor, sent a letter to him, to desire the reason of his approach,
To this the latter replied, the ne.t day, by a summons to sure
render. Stuyvesant, determining on a defence, refused to sur*
render; but, at length, finding himself without the means of
resistance, and that many of the people were desirous of passing
under the jurisdiction of the English, he surrendered the govern
ment into the hands of Col. Nichols, who promised to secure to
the governor and inhabitants, their liberties and estates, with
all the privileges of English subjects. The administration of
Nichols continued for three years, and was marked by great
integrity and moderation. Upon his return to England, m 1667,
he was succeeded by Col. Lovelace, who administered the gov-
ernment with equal moderation.
38. A short time previous to the surrender of the
Dutch, the Duke of York conveyed to Lord Berkley and
Sir George Carteret the territory of New Jersey. This
name was given it in compliment to Carteret, who had
been governor of the Isle of Jersey, in the English
channel. Soon after the grant, but before it was known,
three persons from Long Island purchased of the natives
a tract, which was called Elizabethtown grant, and a
settlement was begun at Elizabethtown. Other towns
were soon settled by emigrants from the colonies and
from Europe. In consequence of these opposite claims
to the territory, much discord prevailed between the pro-
prietors and the inhabitants.
The first settlement within the limits of New Jersey was made
by the Danes, about the year 1624, at a place called Bergen.
Some Dutch families, also, about the same time, planted them-
selves on the Jersey side, near New York. In 1626, a colony
of Swedes and Finns purchased land on both sides of the river
Delaware, and formed a settlement on its western bank. In 1640,
the English began a plantation at Elsingburgh, on its eastern
bank. But this was soon after broken up by the Swedes, with
the assistance of the Dutch from Manhattan. From this time,
until 1655, the Swedes held possession of the country on both
sides of the Delaware, when the Dutch governor, Stuyvesant,
subdued them. The Dutch now held possession until 1664, when
the territory passed into the hands of the English.
39. The next year, 1665, Philip Carteret, who had
been appointed governor by the proprietors, arrived at
Elizabethtown, which he made the seat of government
. PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
He administered the government according to a consti-
tution which the proprietors had formed.
This constitution ordained a free assembly, consisting of a
governor, council, and representatives; the latter to be chosen
by each town. The legislative power resided in the assembly;
the executive in the governor and council. (See Sec. 46.)
40. DELAWARE was also included in the grant to the
Duke of York. At this time, it was in possession of
the Dutch; but an expedition being sent against it under
Sir Robert Carr, it surrendered, October 1, 1664; soon
after which it was placed under the authority of the
English governor of New York.
Delaware was first settled in 1627, by a number of Swedes and
Finns, who, at the instance of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Swe-
den, emigrated to America. They landed at Cape Henlopen,
which, on account of its beauty, they called Paradise Point; the
Delaware they named Swedeland Stream.
The Dutch at New Netherlands laid claim, however, to the
territory; and mutual contests subsisted for a long time between
them and the Swedes. After several times changing masters,
the territory finally surrendered to the Dutch, who held posses-
sion of it at the time of the English expedition against it under
Carr, in 1664. It was now considered a part of New York. In
1682, however, the Duke of York sold the town of New Castle,
and the country twelve miles around it, to William Penn, and,
some time after, the territory between New Castle and Cape
Henlopen. These tracts, then known by the name of Territo-
ries," constitute the present state of Delaware. Until 1703, they
were governed as a part of Pennsylvania; but, at that time, they
had liberty from the proprietor to form a separate and distinct
assembly; the governor of Pennsylvania, however, still exercis-
ing jurisdiction over them. (Sec. 49.)
After the reduction of New York by Col. Nichols,
( he, with Sir Robert Carr, George Cartwright,
a uel Maverick, proceeded to New England, un-
er a commission from King Charles, to hear and de.
termine complaints and appeals, in all causes, as well
military as criminal and civil," within New England, and
to proceed in all things for settling the peace and secu-
rity of the country.
The conduct of these commissioners was exceeding.
ly arbitrary and offensive to the colonies. Under pre-
text of executing their commission, they received com-
plaints against the colonies from the Indians; required
persons, against the consent of the people, to be ad-
mitted to the privileges of freemen, to church member-
ship, and full communion; heard and decided in causes
which had already been determined by the established
courts; and gave protection to criminals. After involv-
ing the colonies in great embarrassment and expense,
they were at length recalled, and the country saved from
42. The settlement which next claims our notice is
that of CAROLINA, SO called in honor of Charles IX.,
under whose patronage the coast had been discovered
in 1563. The territory thus named included the lands
between the 30th and 36th degrees of north latitude,
and extending from the Atlantic ocean to the South sea.
In 1663, this tract was conveyed %y Charles II., king of
England, to Lord Clarendon and seven others, with am-
ple powers to settle and govern it.
Before the above grant to Clarendon, (between 1640 and
1650,) a settlement was begun in Albemarle county, by planters
from Virginia and emigrants from other places. This settlement
was placed under the superintendence of Gov. Berkley of Vir-
The second settlement was made in 1665, near the mouth of
Clarendon or Cape Fear river, by emigrants from Barbadoes, who
invested Sir John Yeomans with the authority of governor
Both the above were within the present limits of North Carolina.
The third settlement was at Port Royal, in the present limits
of South Carolina, under direction of Governor Sayle, 1670. In
1671, he founded Old Charleston, on the banks of the river Ash-
Iy. In 1680, this location was abandoned for Oyster Point, on
which was commenced the present city of Charleston
In the year 1671, Gov. Sayle dying, Sir John Yeomans, gov-
ernor of Clarendon, was appointed to succeed him. In conse-
quence of this, the inhabitants of this latter settlement, within a
few years, removed to that of Charleston, and the three govern-
ments consequently were reduced to two. Being widely separated,
the distinctive names of North and South Carolina began to be
used in respect to them.
During the administration of Gov. Sayle, a constitution, pre-
64 PERIOD i.-1607 TO 1689.
pared at the request of the proprietors, by the celebrated Mr
Locke, was attempted to be put in force.
By this constitution, a president of a palatine court, to consist
of the proprietors, was to be chosen for life. An hereditary no
ability was to be established, consisting of landgraves and caciques
A parliament, chosen once in two years, was to be held, consisting
of the proprietors, of the nobility, and of representatives from each
district. All were to meet in one apartment, and to have an
equal voice. No business, however, could be proposed in parlia-
ment, until it had been debated in a grand council, to consist of
the governor, nobility, and deputies of proprietors.
This constitution it was found impossible to reduce to practice.
Great opposition was made to it; and in Albemarle an insurrec-
tion was occasioned by an attempt to enforce it. It was, there
fore, at length, abandoned, and the former proprietary government
restored. This latter sort of government continued from 1669 to
1719, when the charter was vacated by the crown, and the gov-
ernment taken under the royal protection. In 1729, the proprie-
tors surrendered their right to the government, and interest in the
soil, to the king, upon which the province was divided into North
and South Carolina, and their governors and councils were ap-
pointed by the crown. (See Period III. Sec. 20.)
43. The year 1675 was distinguished for a memorable
war, in New England, with the Indians, called King
Philip's war; by which the peace of the colonies was
greatly disturbed, and their existence, for a time, serious-
For several years previous to the opening of the war, the In-
dians had regarded the English with growing jealousy. They
saw them increasing in numbers, and rapidly extending their
settlements. At the same time, their own hunting grounds were
visibly narrowing, and their power and privileges sensibly de-
creasing. The prospect before them was humbling to the
haughty descendants of the original lords of the soil.
The principal exciter of the Indians, at this time, against the
English, was Philip, sachem of the Wampanoags, grandson and
successor of Masassoit, who, fifty years before, had made a treaty
with the colony of Plymouth. (Sec. 14.) The residence of Philip
was at Mount Hope, in Bristol, Rhode Island.
The immediate cause of the war was the execution of three
Indians by the English, whom Philip had excited to murder one
Sausaman, an Indian missionary. Sausaman, being friendly to
the English, had informed them that Philip, with several tribes,
was plotting their destruction.
The execution of these Indians roused the anger of Philip, who
Immediately armed his men, and commenced hostilities. Their
first attack was made June 24th, upon the people of Swanzey
in Plymouth colony, as they were returning from public worship,
on a day of humiliation and prayer, which had been appointed
under an apprehension of an approaching war. Eight or nine
persons were killed.
The country being immediately alarmed, the troops of the
colony repaired to the defence of Swanzey. On the 28th, a com
pany of horse and a company of foot, with one hundred and ten
volunteers from Boston, joined the Plymouth forces. The next
morning, an attack was made upon a party of Philip's men, who
were pursued, and five or six of them killed. This resolute con-
duct of the English made a deep impression on the enemy.
Philip, with his forces, left Mount Hope the same night; mark
ing his route, however, with the burning of houses, and the
scalping of the defenceless inhabitants.
It being known that the Narragansets favored the cause of
Philip, he having sent his women and children to them for pro
section, the Massachusetts forces, under Capt. Hutchinson, pro.
needed forthwith into their country, either to renew a treaty with
them, or to give them battle. Fortunately, a treaty was conslud-
ed, and the troops returned.
On the 17th of July, news arrived that Philip, with his war.
riors, was in a swamp at Pocasset, now Tiverton. The Massa-
chusetts and Plymouth forces immediately marched to that place,
and the next day resolutely charged the enemy in their recesses.
As the troops entered the swamp, the Indians continued to retire.
The English in vain pursued, till the approach of night, when
the commander ordered a retreat. Many of the English were
killed, and the enemy seemed to take courage.
It being impossible to encounter the Indians with advantage
in the swamps, it was determined to starve them out; but Philip,
apprehending their design, contrived to escape with his forces.
He now fled to the Nipmucks, a tribe in Worcester county,
Massachusetts, whom he induced to assist him. This tribe had
already commenced hostilities against the English; but, in the
hope of reclaiming them, the governor and council sent Captains
Wheeler and Hutchinson to treat with them. But the Indians,
having intimation of their coming, lurked in ambush for them,
fired upon them as they approached, killed eight men, and mor-
tally wounded eight more, of whom Capt. Hutchinson was
The remainder of the English fled to Quaboag, Brookfield.
The Indians, however, closely pursued them into the town, and
burnt every house excepting the one in which the inhabitants had
taken refuge. This house also, at length, they surrounded, and
" for two days continued to pour a storm of musket balls upon it,
and although great numbers passed through the walls, but one
person was killed. With long poles they next thrust against it
PERIOD 11.-1607 TO 1689.
brands and rags dipped in brimstone; they shot arrows of fire;
they loaded a cart with flax and tow, and, with long poles fastened
together, they pushed it against the house. Destruction seemed
inevitable. The house was kindling, and the savages stood ready
to destroy the first that should open the door to escape. At this
awful moment, a torrent of rain descended, and suddenly extin-
guished the kindling flames."
On the 4th of August, Major Willard came to their relief,
raised the siege, and destroyed a considerable number of the as-
During the month of September, Hadley, Deerfield, and North-
field, on Connecticut river, were attacked: several of the inhab-
itants were killed, and many buildings consumed. On the 18th,
Capt. Lathrop, with several teams, and eighty young men, the
flower of the county of Essex, were sent to Deerfield to trans-
port a quantity of grain to Hadley. On their return, stopping
to gather grapes at Muddy brook, they were suddenly attacked
by near eight hundred Indians. Resistance was in vain; and
seventy of these young men fell before the merciless enemy, and
were buried in one grave. Capt. Mosely, who was at Deerfield,
hearing the report of the guns, hastened to the spot, and, with a
few men, attacked the Indians, killed ninety-six, and wounded
forty, losing himself but two men.
Early in October, the Springfield Indians, who had hitherto
been friendly to the English, concerted a plan, with the hostile
tribes, to burn that town. Having, under cover of night, received
two or three hundred of Philip's men into their fort, with their
assistance they set fire to the town. The plot, however, was dis-
covered so seasonably, that troops arrived from Westfield in time
to save the town, excepting thirty-two houses, which had been
Soon after hostilities were commenced by Philip, the Tarren-
teens began their depredations in New Hampshire and the
Province of Maine. They robbed the boats and plundered the
houses of the English. In September, they fell on Saco, Scar-
borough, and Kittery, killed between twenty and thirty of the
inhabitants, and consigned their houses, barns and mills to the
Elated with these successes, they next advanced towards Pisoata.
qua, committing similar outrages at Oyster river, Salmon Falls,
Dover and Exeter. Before winter, sixty of the English, in that'
quarter, were killed, and nearly as many buildings consumed.
The Eastern Indians, however, had real cause of complaint.
One cause was the cruel treatment practised upon the family of
Squando, sachem of the Saco Indians, by a party of Englis
seamen, who, having heard'that Indian children could swim by
instinct, overset their canoe, in which were Squando's squaw
and infant child, for the purpose of testing the truth of the re-
port. This act, wanton as well as childish, the savage justly
resented; and the more so, as the infant some time after died,
owing, as the chief imagined, to an injury which, at that time
it received. Added to this, several Indians having been enticed
on board a vessel, had been iniquitously sold for slaves. To re-
dress these and similar wrongs, the Indians commenced hos-
Notwithstanding the Narragansets had pledged themselves, by
their treaty, not to engage in the war against the English, it was
discovered that they were taking part with the enemy. It was
deemed necessary, therefore, for the safety of the colonies, early
to check that powerful tribe.
Accordingly, Gov. Winslow, of Plymouth, with about one
thousand eight hundred troops from Massachusetts and Con-
necticut, and one hundred and sixty friendly Indians, com-
menced their march from Pettysquamscot, on the 19th of
December, 1675, through a deep snow, towards the enemy, who
were in a swamp about fifteen miles distant
The army arrived at the swamp at one in the afternoon. Some
Indians at the edge of the pwamp were fired upon, but fled.
The whole army now entered and pursued the Indians to their
This stood on a rising ground, in the middle of the swamp
68 PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
It wata work of great strength and labor, being composed of pal
sades, and surrounded by a hedge about sixteen feet in thickness.
One entrance, only, led to the fort, through the surrounding
thicket. Upon this the English providentially fell, and, without
waiting to form, rushed impetuously towards the fort. The
English captains entered first. The resistance of the Indians
was galant and warlike. Captains Johnson and Davenpoit,
with many of their men, fell at the entrance. At length, tie
English fell back, and were obliged to retreat out of the fort.
At this crisis, the army being on the point of a fatal repulbe,
some Connecticut men, on the opposite side of the fort, discov-
ered a place destitute of palisades: they instantly sprang into
the fort, fell upon the rear of the Indians, and, aided by the rest
of the army, after a desperate conflict, achieved a complete
victory. Six hundred wigwams were now set on fire, and an
appalling scene ensued. Deep volumes of smoke rolled up to
heaven, mingled with the dying shrieks of mothers and infants
which, with the aged and infirm, were consumed in the flames.
Even at this distant period, we cannot recall this scene without
horror, and can justify the severity of our ancestors only by ad-
mitting its necessity for self-preservation.
The Indians in the fort were estimated at four thousand: of
these, seven hundred warriors were killed, and three hundred
died of their wounds; three hundred were taken prisoners, and
as many women agd children; the rest, except such as were
The victory of the English, complete as it was, was purchased
with blood. Six brave captains fell; eighty of the troops were
killed or mortally wounded; and one hundred and fifty were
wounded who recovered.
From this defeat the Indians never recovered. They were
not yet, however, effectually subdued. During the winter, they
continued their savage work of murdering and burning. The
towns of Lancaster, Medfield, Weymouth, Groton, Springfield,
Northampton, Sudbury, and Marlborough, in Massachusetts, and
of Warwick and Providence in Rhode Island, were assaulted,
and some of them partly, and others wholly, destroyed. In
March, Captain Pierce, with fifty English, and twenty friendly
Indians, were attacked, the former of whom were all slain, and
nearly all of the latter. In April, Capt. Wadsworth, while
marching with fifty men to the relief of Sudbury, was surround-
ed, and the whole were either killed on the spot, or reserved for
long and distressing tortures.
The success of the Indians, during the winter, had been
great; but on the return of spring, the tide turned against them.
The Narraganset country was scoured, and many of the
natives were killed, among whom was Canonchet, their chief
On the 12th of August, 1676, the finishing stroke was.given to
the war in the United Colonies, by the death of Philip. After
his flight from Mount Hope, he had attempted to rouse the
Mohawks against the English. To effect this purpose, he killed,
at various times, several of that tribe, and charged it upon the
English. But, his iniquity being discovered, he was obliged
hastily to flee, and returned to Mount Hope. -
Tidings of his return being brought to Captain Church, a
man who had been of eminent service in this war, and who was
better able than any other person to provide against the wiles of
the enemy, he immediately. proceeded to the place of Philip's
concealment, near Mount Hope, accompanied by a small body of
men. On his arrival, which was in the night, he placed his men
in ambushes round the swamp, charging them not to move till
daylight, that they might distinguish Philip, should he attempt
to escape. Such was his confidence of success, that, taking
Major Sandford by the hand, he said, It is scarcely possible
that Philip should escape." At that instant, a bullet whistled
over their heads, and a volley followed.
The firing proceeded from Philip and his men, who were
now in view. Perceiving his peril, the savage chief, hoping to
effect his escape, hastily seized his powder-horn and gun, and
fled ; but, directing his course towards a spot where an English-
man and an Indian lay concealed, the former levelled his gun;
but, missing fire, the Indian drew, and shot him through the
Capt. Church ordered him to be beheaded and quartered.
The Indian who executed this order, pronounced the warrior's
epitaph: You have been one very great man. You have made
many a man afraid of you. But so big as you be, I will now
chop you to pieces."
Thus fell a savage hero and patriot-of whose transcendent
abilities our history furnishes melancholy evidence. The advan-
tage of civilized education, and a wider theatre of action, might
have made the name of Philip of Mount Hope as memorable as
that of Alexander or Caesar.
After the death of Philip, the war continued in the Province
of Maine, till the spring of 1678. But westward, the Indians
having lost their chiefs, wigwams, and provisions, and perceiv-
ing further contest vain, came in singly, by tens, and by hun-
dreds, and submitted to the English.
Thus closed a melancholy period in the annals of New Eng-
land history; during which, six hundred men, the flower of her
strength, had fallen; twelve or thirteen towns had been destroy-
ed, and six hundred dwelling-houses consumed. Every eleventh
family was houseless, and every eleventh soldier had sunk to his
grave. So costly was the inheritance which our fathers have
transmitted to us!
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
44. The grant of the territory of New York, by
Charles II., to his brother the Duke of York, in 1664,
has already been noticed, (Sec. 37,) as also its capture
from the Dutch, the same year. In 1673, a war com-
mencing between England and Holland, the latter sent
a small fleet to New York, to which the town immediate.
The following year, 1674, the war terminated in a
treaty between England and Holland. By this treaty
New York was restored to the English. To prevent
controversy about his title to the territory, the Duke
of York took out a new patent, and appointed Sir
Edmund Andros governor, who entered upon the duties
of his appointment in October of the same year.
The administration of Andros, however, was arbitra-
ry and severe. He admitted the people to no share in
legislation, but ruled them by laws to which they had
never given their assent.
Connecticut also experienced the weight of his oppression and
despotism. That part of her territory west of Connecticut river,
although long before granted to the colony of Connecticut, was
included in the grant to the Duke of York. By virtue of this
grant, Andros now claimed jurisdiction over the territory, and
in July, 1675, made an attempt with an armed force to take pos-
session of Saybrook Fort.
The governor and council of Connecticut, having notice of his
design, despatched Capt. Bull to defend the fort. On the arrival
of Andros at the mouth of the river, after making a show of
force, he invited Capt. Bull to a conference. This was granted;
but no sooner had he landed, than he attempted to read his com-
mission and the duke's patent. This Capt. Bull firmly and
positively forbid; and Sir Edmund, finding the colony determin-
ed, at all events, not to submit to his government, relinquished
his design, and sailed for Long Island.
45. The year 1676, so distinguished, in the annals of
New England, for the termination of Philip's war, was
not much less distinguished, in respect to Virginia, by
an insurrection known by the name of Bacon's rebel.
lion," the evil effects of which lasted more than thirty
years. The principal causes of this rebellion are said
to have been the oppressive restrictions imposed upon
theii commerce-the granting of large tracts of land by
Gov. Berkley to his favorites, which belonged to the
colony-and the imposition of extravagant taxes.
The dissolution of the charter of Virginia by James I., in 1624,
and the subsequent appointment of Sir William Berkley, as
governor, by Charles I., with the privilege to the people of elect-
ing their own representatives, have been noticed Sec. 24. For
this privilege, they were so grateful, that the Virginians continu-
ed faithful to the royal cause, even after Cromwell had usurped
the government. This loyalty brought upon them the vengeance
of parliament in 1G52, at which time a fleet was despatched to
reduce them to submission. At this time, Gov. Berkley was
obliged to retire.
About the time of Cromwell's death, but before that event
took place, the Virginians proclaimed Charles II., and invit-
ed Berkley to resume his authority. On the accession of
Charles, he confirmed Berkley in his office. But from this time,
the conduct of the governor was odious and oppressive. Agents
were sent to England, to lay their grievances at the foot of the
throne; but agents were .unsuccessful, and, at length, the dis-
content of the people ripened into a formidable insurrection..
The head of the insurgents was Nathaniel Bacon, an English-
man, who, soon after his arrival, had been appointed a member
of the council. He was a young man of commanding person,
and distinguished for ambition, energy and enterprise.
The colony, at this time, being engaged in war with the Sus-
quehannah Indians, Bacon despatched a messenger to Gov.
Berkley, requesting a commission to proceed against them.
This commission the governor refused, and, at the same time,
ordered Bacon to dismiss his men, and, on penalty of being
declared a rebel, to appear before himself and the council. Ex-
asperated by such treatment, Bacon, without disbanding his force,
proceeded, in a sloop, with forty of them, to Jamestown. Here a
sharp contention ensued, upon which Berkley illegally suspend-
ed him from the council. Bacon departed in a rage, with his
sloop and men; but, through the agency of the governor, he was
not long after seized and brought to Jamestown.
Finding that he had dismissed Bacon from the council illegal-
ly, he again admitted him, and treated him with a show of kind
ness. Upon this, Bacon renewed his request for a commission;
but, receiving a denial, he privately left Jamestown, and, collect-
ing six hundred volunteers, returned to demand of the assembly,
then in session, the required commission. Being overawed, the
assembly advised the governor to grant it. But, soon after Bacon
had departed, the governor, by the same advice, issued a procla-
mation, denouncing him as a rebel.
Hearing what the governor had done, Bacon, instead of
PERIOD 1I.-1607 TO 1689.
marching against the Indians, returned to Jamestown, wreaking
his vengeance upon all who opposed him. Finding it in vain to
withstand him, the governor fled across the bay, and the council
dispersed, leaving Bacon in possession of supreme power.
At length, the governor, with a small force, under command
of Major Robert Beverly, crossed the bay to oppose the malecon-
tents. Civil war had now commenced. Jamestown was burnt
by Bacon's followers; various parts of the colony were pillaged,
and the wives of those that adhered to the governor's party were
carried to the camp of the insurgents.
In the midst of these commotions, it pleased the Supreme
Ruler to withdraw Bacon by a natural death. The malecontents,
thus left to recover their reason, now began to disperse. Two of
Bacon's generals surrendered, and were pardoned, and the peo-
ple quietly returned to their homes.
Upon this, Berkley resumed the government, and peace was
restored. This rebellion formed an era of some note in the
history of Virginia, and its unhappy effects were felt for thirty
years. During its continuance, husbandry was almost entirely
neglected, and such havock was made among all kinds of cattle,
that the people were threatened with famine. Sir William
Berkley, after having been fbrty years governor of Virginia, re-
turned to England, where he soon after died.
Three years after, 1679, Lord Culpepper was sent over as gov-
ernor, with certain laws prepared in conformity to the wishes ot
the ministry of England, and designed to be enacted by the
assembly in Virginia. One of those laws provided for raising a
revenue, for the support of government. It made the duties
perpetual, and placed them under the direction of his majesty.
Out of the duties, Culpepper dishonestly took, as his salary, two
thousand pounds, and one hundred and sixty pounds, in addition,
On presenting these laws to the assembly, Culpepper informed
them that, in case they were passed, he had instructions to offer
pardon to all who had been concerned in Bacon's rebellion; but,
if not, he had commissions to try and hang them as rebels, and
a regiment of soldiers on the spot to support him. Thus threat-
ened, the assembly passed the laws.
From this period to the occurrence of the French war, no
events are to be found, in the history of Virginia, of sufficient
importance to be noticed in the present pages.
46. In the year 1676, the province of New Jersey
was divided into East and West Jersey, and continued
thus divided until 1702, when the proprietors surrender
ed the government to the crown, under Queen Anne,
upon which, the two provinces were united into one, and
Lord Cornbury was appointed governor over this and the
province of New York. This arrangement of a single
governor for the two provinces continued till the year
1738, (although each chose a separate assembly;) but at
this time, the people of New Jersey having petitioned
for an alteration, his majesty appointed Lewis Morris to
the chief magistracy of the latter province.
An account of the settlement of New Jersey, and the grant
of it by the Duke of York to Lord Berkley and Sir George
Carteret, in 1664, will be found at Sec. 38. In 1665, Carteret
assumed the government, by agreement with Berkley. (Sec. 39.)
In 1674, Lord Berkley made a conveyance of his half to John
Fenwick, in trust for Edward Billinge and his assigns. Bil-
linge, being in debt, presented his interest in the province to his
creditors, William Jones and others, being appointed trustees to
dispose of the lands.
In the division of 1676, Carteret took East Jersey, the govern-
ment of which he retained; and the trustees of Billinge, West
Jersey. The Duke of York, though he had conveyed away his
powers of government, when he sold the province to Berkley and
Carteret, in 1664, unjustly claimed West Jersey, as a ndency
of New York. These claims (f the duke, Sir Edmu* Andros,
his governor in America, attempted to assert, and actually ex-
tended his jurisdiction over the province. But, at length, through
the discontent and remonstrances of the citizens, the subject was
referred to commissioners, who decided against the Duke of
York; upon which, in 1680, he relinquished his claims to the
In 1682, Carteret, disgusted with the people, sold his right to
East Jersey to William Penn and others, who immediately sold
one half of it to the Earl of Perth and his associates. Robert
Barclay, the celebrated author of the Apology for the Quakers,"
was the next year made governor of East Jersey.
In 1686, both the Jerseys and New York were annexed to
New England, in which connection they continued till the acces-
sion of William and Mary to the throne of England, in 1689.
" A government under the proprietors of both the Jerseys had
become extremely disagreeable to the inhabitants, who, from
various causes, became so uneasy, that the proprietors surrender-
ed the government of East and West Jersey to the crown in
1702, which Queen Anne very readily accepted."
The two provinces were now united into one, and Lord
Cornbury was appointed governor over the united colony, and
received his commission and instructions from the queen.
The freemen chose the house of representatives, consisting
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
of twenty-four members, but the governor and council, consisting
of twelve members, were appointed by the crown.
47. In 1677,'a controversy which had subsisted for
some time between the colony of Massachusetts and the
heirs of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, relative to the province
of Maine, was settled in England, and the colony
adjudged to Gorges' heirs. Upon this, Massachusetts
purchased the title for one thousand two hundred pounds
sterling, and the territory, from that time till 1820, was
a part of Massachusetts.
Both the colony of Massachusetts and the heirs of Gorges
claimed the province of Maine; the former by virtue of her
patent of 1628, (Sec. 21.) which was construed as including that
territory; the claim of the latter was founded upon a charter
granted to Gorges in 1639. (Sec. 34.)
48. Two years after this adjustment, viz. in 1679, a
commission was made out, by order of Charles II., for
the separation of New Hampshire from the jurisdiction
of Massachusetts, and its erection into a royal province.
The form of government sent over by the king, ordained a
president and council to govern the province, with an
assembly, &c., the assembly to be chosen by the peo-
ple; the president and council to be appointed by the
In 1629, the Plymouth company granted to John Mason the
territory called New Hampshire. About the year 1640, the
settlements now being considerable, the patent holders agreed to
assign their right of jurisdiction to Massachusetts. The colony
of New Hampshire, therefore, remained under the government
of Massachusetts, until it was separated by the king's commis-
son, in 1679.
The first legislative assembly, under the above commission,
was convened March 16, 1680, when the colony of New Hamp-
shire was declared to be independent of Massachusetts. This
separation, however, was disagreeable to most of the people: for
near forty years, they had enjoyed under Massachusetts the privi-
lege of choosing their own rulers, and had derived great peace
and harmony from an impartial government. Nor did this prov-
ince long enjoy tranquillity. Mason, grandson of the Mason to
whom New Hampshire had been originally granted, came over
the next year, and demanded, by virtue of his claims to the soil,
a seat in the council. This being granted, he soon after return.
ed to England, and surrendered a part of his claims to the king,
and mortgaged the remainder to Edward Cranfield, who was
appointed lieutenant-governor, and shortly after repaired to New
It is necessary to add, that the Rev. Mr. Wheelright and oth-
ers, in 1629, the same year that the grant was made to Mason by
the Plymouth company, bought of the Indians a large tract of
land in New Hampshire. The same land was, therefore, claimed
under both these grants, and the foundation thus laid of serious
disputes in the colony.
Cranfield, finding it for his interest to favor the claim of
Mason to the province, soon called upon the inhabitants to take
their leases under him. Suits were instituted against all the
landholders who neglected this call, and the jurors, being selected
by Cranfield, and interested in the result, uniformly gave judg-
ment against them.
Under these oppressions, the people despatched an agent, with
complaints to his majesty, against the governor. After a hearing
by the lords of trade, the iniquitous conduct of Cranfield was
represented to the king, who recalled him.
It may be proper to add, that the above controversy about the
claims of Mason continued long to disturb the peace of the
provisve, and was not finally terminated until the death of
Samuel Allen, in 1715, to whom the heirs of Mason had sold
their claim for seven hundred and fifty pounds: upon his demise,
no one appeared to renew the claims, and the question dropped.
49. In 1681, King Charles II. granted to William
Penn, son of Admiral Penn, in consideration of debts
due the latter, for services done to the crown, the territo-
ry of PENNSYLVANIA, so named by the king after Penn
This patent encroached on the territory of Lord Baltimore in
Maryland, one whole degree, or sixty-nine miles and a half; and
on the north, nearly three hundred miles, across the whole terri-
tory conveyed to Connecticut, in 1631,* and confirmed by the
royal charter of 1662. Hence arose contentions between the
colonies of Pennsylvania and Connecticut, about boundaries,
that were not settled till a century after. Within a short time
from the date of the grant by King Charles to Penn, two other
conveyances were made to him by the Duke of York. One
was a bill of sale of New-Castle, and a territory of twelve miles
around it. The other was a bill granting a tract south of the
former, as far as Cape Henlopen. These two deeds embraced
See Sec. 36, where the boundaries of the territory granted to Connecti-
tit abs given.
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
the whole state of Delaware, known at that time by the name of
Having thus obtained possession of a valuable territory, and
desirous of founding a colony upon it, Penn offered the lands for
sale, at the rate of one thousand acres for twenty pounds, or at
an annual rent of one penny per acre. Many persons, chiefly
Quakers, were induced to purchase; and in the fall of the same
year, three ships, with settlers, sailed for Pennsylvania. At the
same time, Penn addressed a letter to the Indians, residing on
the territory, assuring them of his pacific disposition, and his
determination, should difficulties arise between them and the
emigrants, to have them settled on principles of equity.
The next year, Penn published a form of government, by whicl6
the supreme power was lodged in a general assembly, to consist
of a governor, council, and house of delegates; the council and
house to be chosen by the freemen; the proprietor and govern-
or to preside, and to have a treble voice in the council, which
was to consist of seventy-two members.
It was also agreed, that every person of good moral character,
professing his faith in Christ, should be a freeman, and capable
of holding any office; and that none who believed in one God
should be molested in his religion, or be compelled to attend or
maintain religious worship.
In October, Penn, with two thousand planters, mostly Quakers,
arrived at New-Castle, which was a part of the Territories."
Upon this tract he found already settled about three thousand
Dutch, Swedes and Finns. He proceeded to Chester, where, in
December, he convoked an assembly; but, so few delegates
appearing, he ordered that, instead of seventy-two, three mem-
bers only should constitute the council, and nine the house of as-
sembly. This assembly annexed the Territories to the province.
Penn now entered into a treaty with the Indians, of whom he
purchased large tracts of territory; at the same time, he com-
menced the city of Philadelphia, which, in one year, increased
to a hundred houses and cottages.
Pennsylvania had a more rapid and prosperous settlement than
any of the other colonies. This was doubtless owing, in part, to
its healthful climate and fruitful soil; partly to the fact, that the
great obstacles of settlement had been overcome by the other
colonies; and partly to the religious tolerance, mildness, and
equity, which characterized its laws and their administration.
In 1683, Penn convened a second assembly, which was held in
Philadelphia; and, at the request of the freemen and delegates,
granted them a second charter, by which eighteen persons were
to form the council, and thirty-six the assembly. At this time it
was ordained, that, to prevent law-suits, three arbitrators, to be
called peace-makers, should be chosen by the county courts, to
bear and determine small differences between man and man-
that children should be taught some useful trade-that factors
wronging their employers should make satisfaction, and one
third over-that all causes of rudeness, cruelty and irreligion
should be repressed-and that no man should be molested for his
religious opinions." To these wholesome regulations Penn-
sylvania was indebted for her great prosperity and rapid settle-
In 1684, Penn returned to England, leaving the administration
of the government in the care offive commissioners. Soon after,
James II. abdicated the throne. For this monarch Penn felt
a sincere regard, and continued, even after his expulsion from the
throne, to administer the colonial government in his name. This
exciting the displeasure of William, successor of James, his
friends caused Penn to be imprisoned several times; and the gor-
ernment of the colony was taken from him and given to Col.
Fletcher, governor of New York. But, some time after, the
charges of disloyalty to William having been proved to be un-
founded, he was permitted to resume the exercise of his rights;
whereupon, he appointed William Markman to be his deputy-
In 1699, Penn made a second visit to Pennsylvania. Finding
discontents had crept in, in relation to the government, he
humanely prepared a new charter, on still more liberal principles.
This was offered Oct. 28, 1701, and accepted on the same day, by
the people of Pennsylvania; but the "Territories," now Dela-
ware, declining, they were allowed a distinct assembly, under the
same governor. The assembly was first convened in 1703.
Having thus settled affairs, Penn again returned to England,
leaving the executive authority to be exercised by a deputy-gov-
ernor. Discontentment, however, again appeared, and at times
the deputy-governors became quite obnoxious to the people. Still
the colony prospered; they lived in great harmony with the In-
dians, and increased in numbers and wealth.
At length, about the commencement of the revolutionary war,
the people formed a new constitution, by which the proprietor was
excluded from all participation in the government; and, by way
of discharging all quit-rents due from the inhabitants, he was
allowed 370,000 dollars.
50. In the year 1684, June 18, an event highly
interesting to the colony of Massachusetts occurred in
England. This was a decision, in the high court of
chancery, that she had forfeited her charter, and that
henceforth her government should be placed in the
hands of the king.
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
The person chiefly instrumental in bringing about this event
was Edmund Randolph, a man who had long been the enemy of
the colonies, and who, for several years, had filled the ears of the
king with complaints against them, for violating the acts of
To answer to these complaints, Massachusetts repeatedly in
curred the expense of sending agents to England, and of maintain-
ing them there; but his majesty would accept of no conditions
short of a surrender of her charter. As she would not make this
surrender voluntarily, it was violently wrested from her.
Before King Charles had time to adjust the affairs of
the colony, he died, and was succeeded by James II.
Soon after his accession, similar proceedings took place
against the other colonies. Rhode Island submitted,
and relinquished her charter. Plymouth sent a copy of
her charter to the king, with an humble petition, that he
would restore it. Connecticut voted an address to his
majesty, in which she prayed him to recall the writ that
had been filed against her, and requested the continu-
ance of her charter.
The petitions and remonstrances of the colonies were,
however, of no avail. Both the heart and hand of the
king were manifestly against them. After all their
hardships and dangers in settling a wilderness, they had
no other prospect before them than the destruction of
their dearest rights, and no better security of life,
liberty, and property, than the capricious will of a
In pursuance of this cruel policy towards the colo-
nies, two years after the charter of Massachusetts was
vacated, King James commissioned and sent out Sir
Edmund Andros as governor of all New England,
On his arrival at Boston, Dec. 20, 1686, he entered
upon his administration; which, at the commencement,
was comparatively auspicious. In a few months, how-
ever, the fair prospect was changed. Among other
arbitrary acts, restraints were laid upon the freedom of
the press and marriage contracts. The liberty to wor-
ship after the Congregational mode was threatened, and
the fees of all officers of government were exorbitantly
and oppressively enhanced.
in October, Sir Edmund and suite, with a guard of about sixty
regular troops, went to Hartford, where the assembly of Con-
necticut was in session. He entered the house of the assembly,
demanded the charter of Connecticut, and declared the colonial
government to be dissolved.
Extremely reluctant to surrender the charter, the assembly
intentionally protracted its debates till evening, when the charter
was brought in, and laid on the table.-Upon a preconcerted signal,
the lights were at once extinguished, and a Capt. Wadsworth,
seizing the charter, hastened away under cover of hight, and
secreted it in the hollow of an oak. The candles, which had
been extinguished, were soon relighted without disorder; but the
charter had disappeared. Sir Edmund, however, assumed the
government, and the records of the colony were closed.
The condition of the New England colonies was now
distressing, and, as the administration of Andros was
becoming still more severe and oppressive, the future
seemed not to promise alleviation. But Providence was
invisibly preparing the way for their relief. On the 5th
of Nov. 1688, William, Prince of Orange, who married
Mary, daughter of James II., landed at Torbay in Eng-
land, and, compelling James II. to leave the kingdom,
assumed the crown, being proclaimed Feb. 16th, 1689,
to the general joy of the nation.
51. MANNERS OF THE COLONISTS. In the colonies
of North America, at the close of this period, three
varieties of character might be distinguished. In New
England, the strict Puritanical notions of the people
wrought a correspondent austerity upon the manners of
society. Placing implicit faith in the Scriptures, they
moulded their government, and shaped private character
and morals, upon a severe and literal construction of
them. They were devout, patriotic, industrious, and
public-spirited; and though of a grave, reflecting ex-
terior, they often showed that shrewd inquisitiveneu%
80 PERIOD II.-1607 To 1689.
and keen relish of a jest, which are still characteristic
of the New Englanders.
The laws of the colonies throw some light on the views and
manners of the people. As examples, in 1639, the drinking of
health was prohibited by law in Massachusetts. In 1651, the
legislature of that colony prohibited all persons, whose estate did
not exceed two hundred pounds, from wearing any gold o: silver
lace, or any bone lace above two shillings per yard." The law
authorized the selectmen to take notice of the costliness and fashion
of the apparel of the people, especially in the wearing of ribands
and great boots." The New Haven colony, in 1639, resolved that
they would be governed by the rules of Scripture; and that church
members only should act in the civil affairs of the plantation.
In 1647, the colony of Connecticut expressed their disapproba-
tion of the use of tobacco, by an act of assembly, in which it was
ordered, that no person, under the age of twenty years, nor any
other that hath already accustomed himself to the use thereof,
shall take any tobacco, until he shall have brought a certificate,
from under the hand of some, who are approved for knowledge
and skill in physic, that it is useful for him; and also, that he hath
received a license from the court for the same. All others, who
had addicted themselves to the use of tobacco, were, by the same
seurt, prohibited taking it in any company, or at their labors, or
on their travels, unless they were ten miles at least from any
house, or more than once a day, though not in company, on pain
of a fine of sixpence for each time ; to be proved by one substan-
tial witness. The constable in each town to make presentment of
such transgressions to the particular court, and upon conviction,
the fine to be paid without gainsaying."
In the Colony of Newo York, during this period, the manners of
the colonists were strictly Dutch-with no other modifications
than the privations of a new country, and the few English among
them, necessarily effected. The same steadfast pursuit of
wealth; the same plodding industry; the same dress, air, and
physiognomy, which are given as characteristic of Holland, were
equally characteristic of the inhabitants of New Amsterdam.'
In Virginia, the manners of the colonists were those
of the less rigid English, rendered still more free and
voluptuous by the influence of a softer climate and a
more prolific soil.
Stith says of the first settlers of this colony, that some emigrat-
ed to escape a worse fate at home :" others, it is said, sought to
repair fortunes by emigration, which had been ruined by excess.
Many persons, however, of high character, were among the emi-
grants and amidst the licentiousness of the Virginia colony
were found, at the close of this period, the seeds of that franks
ness, hospitality, taste, and refinement, which distinguish the peo
pie of the south at this day.
Other national peculiarities might be noticed, as those of the
Finns in Delaware, those of the Quakers in Pennsylvania, &c.;
but, at this period, they were too limited to require a distinct
notice in our work.
52. RELIGION. The colony of Virginia, from its
earliest existence, was exclusively devoted to the Church
For several years, its unsettled state prevented that attention to
a religious establishment, which afterwards the subject received.
At the expiration of thirteen years from the founding of the colony,
there were but eleven parishes, and five ministers: the inhabit-
ants of the colony did not, at this time, however, much exceed
two thousand persons. *
In 1621, the colony received a large accession to its numbers,
and the governor and council were instructed to take into spe-
cial regard the service of Almighty God, and the observance of
his divine laws; and that the people should be trained up in true
religion and virtue." At the same time, the Virginia Company
ordered a hundred acres of land, in each of the buroughs, to be
laid off for a glebe, and two hundred pounds sterling to be raised,
as a standing and certain revenue, out of the profits of each
parish, to make a living: this stipend was thus settled-that the
minister shall receive yearly five hundred pounds of tobacco, and
sixteen barrels of corn; which were collectively estimated at two
hundred pounds sterling. In 1642, the assembly passed a law
prohibiting all, but those who had been ordained by English
bishops, from preaching.
In 1650, during the time of Governor Berkley, the parishes of
the colony were further regulated, the religion of the church of
England was confirmed and established, and provision made for
the support of the ministers. The maintenance of a minister
was put at sixteen thousand pounds of tobacco, which, as valued
at that time, at ten shillings per hundred, was about eighty
pounds sterling. But, in addition to this, he had a dwelling-house
and glebe; also, four hundred pounds of tobacco, or forty shil-
lings, for a funeral sermon, and two hundred pounds of tobacco,
or twenty shillings, for performing marriage by license, or five
shillings when the banns were proclaimed. The tobacco destined
for Se minister was brought to him well packed in hogsheads,
prepared for shipping. To raise this crop, twelve negroes were
The special object of the New England planters, in settling the
country, was the enjoyment of their religious opinions, and the
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
free exercise of religious worship, without molestation. Early
attention was, therefore, paid to the gathering of churches, and
the regulation of religion. They were Calvinists in doctrine,
and Congregational in discipline.
Each church maintained its right to govern itself. They held
to the validity of Presbyterian ordination, and the expediency of
synods on great occasions. From the commencement, they used
ecclesiastical councils, convoked by particular churches, for
advice, but not for the judicial determination of controversies.
In each of the churches, there was a pastor, teacher, ruling
elder, and deacons. The pastor's office consisted principally in
exhortation : upon the teacher devolved the business of explain-
ing and defending the doctrines of Christianity. The business of
the ruling elder was to assist the pastor in the government of the
Early provision was made for the support of the ministry. On
the arrival of the colonists of Massachusetts Bay, at Charlestown,
before landing, a court of assistants was hald; and the first question
proposed was, How shall the ministers be maintained ? The
court ordered that houses be built, and salaries be raised for them,
at the public charge. Their two ministers, Mr. Phillips and Mr.
Wilson, were granted a salary-the former thirty pounds per
annum, and the latter twenty pounds, until the arrival of his wife.
After the settlement of the several colonies, all persons were
obliged by law to contribute to the support of the church. Spe-
cial care was taken that all persons should attend public worship.
In Connecticut, the law obliged them to be present on the Lord's
day-on all days of public fasting rnd thanksgiving, appointed by
civil authority-on penalty of five shillings for every instance of
By the year 1642, twenty-two years from the landing of the
pilgrims at Plymouth, there had been settled in New England,
seventy-seven ministers, who were driven from the parent coun-
try; fifty towns and villages had been planted, and thirty or forty
In 1637, the. first synod convened in America, sat at Newtown,
Massachusetts, and was composed of all the teaching elders in the
country, and messengers of the several churches. Magistrates
also were present; and spoke as they thought fit. The object of
calling this synod was to inquire into the opinions of one Ann
Hutchinson, a very extraordinary woman, who held public lec-
tures in Boston, and taught doctrines considered heretical. The
whole colony was agitated and divided into parties. The synod,
after a session of three weeks, condemned eighty-two erroneous
opinions, which had become disseminated in New England.
The Dutch Reformed Church was introduced into
New York with the first settlers, and was generally
embraced by the Dutch population of that colony
The Roman Catholics first came to America in 1632:
they settled in Maryland, and now constitute a respecta-
ble and numerous portion of the inhabitants of tha'
The first Baptist church in America was formed at
Providence, in 1639, under the celebrated Roger Wil-
liams. Their sentiments spreading into Massachusetts,
in 1651, the general court passed a law against them,
inflicting banishment for persisting in the promulgation
of their doctrines.
In 1656, the Quakers making their appearance in
Massachusetts, the legislature of that colony passed
severe laws against them.
No master of a vessel was allowed to bring any one of this sect
into its jurisdiction, on penalty of one hundred pounds. Other
still severer penalties were inflicted upon them in 1657, such as
cutting their ears, and boring their tongues with a hot iron, &c.
They were at length banished on pain of death, and, for refusing
to go, were executed in 1659.
Without intending to justify these severities toward the Bap.
tists, Quakers, and other sectaries, it is still proper to state, as
some apology for them, that the conduct of the leaders of these
sects was often calculated, and no doubt designed, to provoke
persecution. They sought improper occasions to inculcate their
peculiar tenets, departed unnecessarily from the decencies of
social intercourse, and rudely inveighed Against established and
cherished opinions. In this way, thepeace of the colonies was
disturbed, and that unanimity of religious sentiment, which had
hitherto existed, was broken. Our forefathers sought to avert
these evils by the arm of civil power; not yet having learnt that
persecution is a ready way to propagate the sentiments of the
In the year 1646, a synod met at Cambridge, which, by
adjournment, protracted its session to 1648, when it dissolved
This synod composed and adopted the Cambridge Platform,'
and recommended it, together with the Westminster Confession
of Faith, to the general court and to the churches. In this synbc
were present the ministers and churches of Connecticut and
New Haven, who united in the form of discipline which it rec-
ommended. This, in connection with the ecclesiastical laws, was
the religious constitution of Connecticut, until the compilation of
the Saybrook Platform, a period of about sixty years.
53. TRADE AND COMMERCE. The colonies, during
this period, had little other trade than with England,
PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
though the West India trade had begun, and there was
some commerce with Canada, and a few ports on the
European continent. The colonies imported from Eng-
land all their merchandise; and exported thither to-
bacco, peltry, and at length some beef, pork, grain, and
fish. The importations from England, however, much
exceeded the exports thither.
During the first thirty years of the colony of Virginia, their
exports were confined to tobacco. But the price of it fell, at
length, from three shillings and sixpence per pound, to twenty
shillings per hundred, in consequence of which, a trade was
opened with the frontier Indians and the Five Nations. The
skins of the deer, elk, and buffalo, and the furs of the otter, hare,
fox, muskrat, and beaver, were procured for rum, hatchets,
blankets, &c. These skins and furs were exported to Eng-
land. English grain and Indian corn were also exported to a
considerable extent. Although the Virginians owned a few ves-
sels, the greater part of the trade was carried on by English ves-
sels, during this period. They brought to the colony English
manufactures, and took tobacco, furs, skins, grain, tar, pitch, &c.,
in return. The Virginians also carried on some trade with
The principal article of export from New England, during this
period, was peltry, which was procured of the Indians, for goods
of small value. In 1639, a fishing trade was begun at Cape
Anne, and in 1641, three hundred thousand codfish were sent to
The first vessel directly from the West Indies was a Dutch
ship of one hundred and sixty tons, which arrived at Marblehead,
1635. The first American vessel that made a voyage to the West
Indies was a pinnace of thirty tons, in 1636. The ship Desire,
of Salem, made a voyage, in 1638, to New Providence and Tor-
tuga, and returned laden with cotton, tobacco, salt, and negroes.
This was the first introduction of African slaves into New Eng-
land. The first importation of indigo and sugar from the West
Indies, mentioned in our accounts, was made in 1639. In 1642,
a Dutch ship exchanged a cargo of salt for plank and pipe-staves,
the first exports of lumber from New England. The next year,
eleven ships sailed for the West Indies with lumber.
In 1678, the annual exports of the New York colony, besides
beef, pork, tobacco, and peltry, were about sixty thousand bush-
els of wheat. About ten or fifteen vessels, on an average, of
one hundred tons, English and colonial, traded to this colony
in a year.
.M4. AGRICULTURE. Early attention was paid to agri-
culture. The first business of the settlers was to cleat
the forests, and supply themselves with food from the
soil. But the fertility of the earth taught them soon to
look to agriculture as a source of wealth, as well as of
subsistence. It therefore became the leading object of
industry in the colonies.
The method adopted by the first settlers to clear the land was
slow and laborious, compared with the present modes. They
used generally to cut down the trees, and dig up the stumps, be
Tobacco was early cultivated in Virginia, and soon began to
be exported. The year after the colony landed, the people
gathered corn of their own planting, the seed of which they re-
ceived of the Indians. Vineyards were attempted, and experienced
vine-dressers were sent over for the purpose of attending them.
Flax, hemp, barley, &c., were cultivated to a considerable extent
Rye was first raised in Massachusetts in 1633. Ploughs were
early introduced into the country.
Neat cattle were first introduced into New England by Mr.
Winslow, in 1624. In 1629, one hundred and forty head of cat-
tle, with horses, sheep, and goats, were imported into Massachu-
setts Bay. In a few years, they became so numerous as to supply
all the wants of the inhabitants. In 1623, the cattle in Virginia
had increased to above one thousand head.
New York raised considerable beef and pork for exportation,
and in 1678, there were exported from the province sixty thousand
bushels of wheat.
55. ARTS AND MANUFACTURES. The colonists, dur-
ing this period, being chiefly occupied in gaining a sub-
sistence, and in protecting themselves against their ene-
mies, had occasion for few articles beyond the necessa-
ries and comforts of life. Arts and manufactures, there.
fore, received but little encouragement, beyond the
construction of such articles, and even those were
In 1620, one hundred and fifty persons arrived in Virginia,
from England, for the purpose of manufacturing silk, iron, pot-
ash, tar, pitch, glass, salt, &c.; but they did not succeed. In
1673, Chalmers says of New England, There be five iron works
which cast no guns-no house in New England has above twen-
ty rooms-not twenty in Boston have ten rooms each-a dancing
school was set up here, but put down-a fencing school is al.
lowed. There be no musicians by trade. All cordage, sail-cloth
and mats, come from England-no cloth made there worth four shil.
lings per yard-no alum, no copperas, no salt, made by their sun "
86 PERIOD II.-1607 TO 1689.
The first buildings of the settlers were made of logs, and thatched,
or were built of stone. Brick and framed houses were soon built
in the larger towns, and afterwards in the villages. The frames
and brick were, however, in some instances, imported. The first
mill in New England was a wind-mill, near Watertown; but it
was taken down in 1632, and placed in the vicinity of Boston.
Water-mills began to be erected the next year. The first attempt
to build water-craft, in New England, was at Plymouth, in 1626. A
house-carpenter sawed their largest boat into two parts, and length-
ened it five or six feet, built a deck, and rigged it into a conve-
nient vessel, which did service for seven years. The first vessel
built in Massachusetts was a bark, in 1631, called The Blessing
of the Bay. In 1633, a ship of sixty tons was built at Medford.
In 1636, one of one hundred and twenty tons was built at Mar-
blehead. In 1641, a ship of three hundred tons was launched at
Salem, and one of one hundred and sixty tons at Boston. From
this time, ship-building rapidly extended in the northern colonies.
The first printing in New England was executed in 1639, by
one Day. The proprietor of the press was a clergyman, by the
name of Glover, who died on his passage to America. The first
article printed was the Freeman's Oath, the second an almanac,
and the third an edition of the Psalms. No other printing-
press was established in America during this period. John
Elliot, the celebrated missionary, having translated the Bible into
the Indian language, had it printed at Cambridge, in 1664.
The mode of travelling considerable distances was on foot, or
on horseback, there being no carriages for that purpose, and the
roads from one village to another being only narrow foot-paths,
56. POPULATION. We may estimate the population
of the English American colonies, at the close of this
period, at about 200,000.
It is impossible to ascertain very exactly the population of the
American colonies at the close of this period. The estimates
made by writers are vague and often contradictory. The estimate
of Dr. Humphries in 1701, which seems as well entitled to credit
as any other, is as follows:-
Massachusetts........... 70,000 New York.............. 30,000
Connecticut............. 30,000 Jerseys................ 15,00C
Rhode Island........... 10,000 Pennsylvania........... 20,000
New Hampshire........ 10,000 Maryland .............. 25,000
New England........... 120,000 North Carolina.......... 5,000
Mid. and S. Colonies..... 142,000 South Carolina......... 7,000
Total............ 262,000 142,000
Making a deduction from this account, so as to bring the esti.
mate to the close of our period, we state the whole white popu-
lation of the English American colonies, in 1689, at about two
57. EDUCATION. In New England, schools were
founded, at the outset of the colonies, for the education
of all classes: in the southern colonies, provisions for
the education of the higher classes only were attempted
during this period.
Scarcely had the American colonists opened the forests, and
constructed habitations, before they directed their attention to
the object of education.
Previously to 1619, the king of England authorized the col-
lection of moneys throughout the kingdom, to erect a college in
Virginia, for the education of Indian children: one thousand
five hundred pounds were collected for this purpose, and Hcnrico
was selected as a suitable place for the seminary. The same
year, the Virginia company granted ten thousand acres of land
for the projected university. This donation, while it embraced
the original object, was intended also for the foundation of a
seminary of learning for English scholars.
In addition to a college, the colonists, in 1621, instituted a
school at Charles' City for the benefit of all the colony, which
they called the East India School. For the maintenance of the
master and usher, one thousand acres of land were appropriated,
with five servants and an overseer. From this school, pupils
were to be transferred to the college at Henrico, when the
latter should be sufficiently endowed. These establishments
in Virginia, however, failed of success, and, in 1692, their funds
were given to William and Mary's college, which we shall no-
Still more attentive to education were the northern colonies.
In 1630, a general court of Massachusetts Bay appropriated the
sum of four hundred pounds towards the commencement of a
college. In 1637, the college was located at Newtown, which,
not long after, was called Cambridge, in memory of Cambridge,
in England, where many of the colonists had received their edu-
cation. Mr. John Harvard, a worthy minister, dying at Charles-
town about this time, bequeathed nearly eight hundred pounds
to the college, in consideration of which legacy it was called
after him. In 1642 was held, the first commencement, at which
nine were graduated.
To this institution the plantations of Connecticut and New
Haven, so long as they remained unable to support a similar one
at home, contributed funds from the public purse; and sent to
it such of their youth as they wished to be educated. Private
PERIOD 11.-1607 TO 1689.
subscriptions were also made from the United Colonies, to aid
Great attention was also paid by all the colonies to the sub-
ject of common schools. As a specimen of the arrangements
common to the New England colonies, we may notice those of
Connecticut. By her first code, in 1639, only six years from the
time the first house was erected within the colony, it was or-
dered that every town, consisting of fifty families, should main-
tain a good school, in which reading and writing should be well
taught; and that in every county town a good grammar school
should be instituted. Large tracts of land were appropriated by
the legislature as a permanent support of these schools, and the
selectmen of every town were required to see that all heads of
families instructed their children and servants to read the Eng
lish tongue well.
58. At the commencement of this period, our history present
ed us with a continent, over whose surface an interminable wil
derness had for ages cast its deep and solemn shade. If we
approach the shore, and look through the gloom that gathers
over it, the scenes which strike the eye ar6 Indians at their war
dance, or, perhaps, flames curling round some expiring captive
or wild beasts mangling their prey.
Passing from this point of time to the close of our period, a
space of eighty-two years, the prospect is greatly changed. We
now see smiling fields and cheerful villages, in the place of dis-
mal forests; instead of beasts of prey, we see grazing herds;
instead of the kindling fagot, we witness the worship of Jesus
Christ; and instead of the appalling war-whoop, we listen to the
grateful songs of David. In the beautiful words of Scripture,
the wilderness has begun to blossom as the rose, and the desert is
becoming vocal with the praises of God.
But how is it that a change so wonderful has been brought to
pass ? We have indeed seen the hardy spirit of enterprise leav-
ing the luxuries of Europe, and plunging into the forests of
America. But we have also seen our forefathers struggling with
difficulties, and often trembling on the very brink of ruin. We
have seen them amidst Indian war, desolating famine and pesti-
lence; and we have wondered, after the storm has passed, to
see them rise with renovated strength, and seem to gather
power and advantage from circumstances calculated to over-
Admitting, then, the extraordinary energy, wisdom, enterprise,
and hardihood, of the first settlers of America, still we are driven
to the admission of a benign Providence working in their favor
and mysteriously establishing their strength and security, by ex-
ercising them for years with danger, trial, and misfortune.
Nor are these the only considerations which excite our admi-
ration in regard to the first settlers of North America. Although,
in the eloquent words of Mr. Walsh, It was their peculiar lot,
at one and the same time, to clear and cultivate a wilderness;
to erect habitations and procure sustenance; to struggle with a
new and rigorous climate; to bear up against all the bitter rec-
ollections inseparable from distant and lonely exile; to defend
their liberties from the jealous tyranny and bigotry of the mother
country; to be perpetually assailed by a savage Toe, the most subtle
and the most formidable of any people on the face of the earth:"
still, they looked forward to the welfare of future generations;
laid broad and deep foundations for religious institutions; made
the most careful provisions for learning; and enacted wholesome
laws, the benefit of which is distinctly felt to this day.
It may be further remarked, that history shows the influence
of the manners of a people upon their government, and the
reciprocal influence of government upon the manners of a
people. The history of thii period furnishes striking examples
of this. In Virginia, the free and licentious manners of society
produce a government unsteady and capricious. This govern-
ment reacts upon their manners, and aids rather than checks
their licentiousness. On the contrary, ii New England, the
severe Puritanical manners of the people produce a rigid, ener-
getic government, and the government returns its Puritanical
influence back upon the manners of the people.
DISTINGUISHED FOR THE WARS OF KING WILLIAM,
QUEEN ANNE, AND GEORGE II.
Extending from the Accession of William and Mary to
the Throne of England, 1689, to the Declaration of
the War by England against France, 1756, called
"the French and Indian War."
&c. 1. The news of William's accession to the throne
of England excited great joy throughout the colonies.
Under the sudden impulse of their feelings, the inhab-
itants of Boston imprisoned Sir Edmund Andros, with
about fifty of his associates, until they were ordered to
England, to answer for maleadministration. Connect
cut and Rhode Island resumed their charters, and were
permitted by his majesty to reestablish their former gov-
ernments. Massachusetts soon after obtained a new
charter, which, in some respects, was less favorable to
the colony, but, in others, more so, than its former one.
Andros had formerly been governor of New York,
under the Duke of York, in which province his ad-
ministration had been distinguished for measures both
arbitrary and severe. Subsequent governors, under the
duke, and after he came to the throne, had generally pur-
. sued a similar course. The discontents of the people
had been gradually increasing, and they were ready for
revolution, when the above intelligence of the proceed.
ings at Boston arrived. A revolution soon commenced.
WARS OF WILLIAM III., ANNE, AND GEORGE II. 91
and, although attended by unhappy events, issued in the
restoration of the rights of the people, and the formation
of a constitution, which laid the foundation of their pro-
From the reduction of New York, in 1664, to 1683, the people
had no share in the government. In 1681 the council court of
assizes, and corporation, had solicited the Duke of York to per-
mit the people to choose their own rulers. Accordingly, the next
year, Thomas Dongan, a papist, was appointed governor, with
instructions to call an assembly, to consist of a council of ten,
and of eighteen representatives, elected by the freeholders.
On the accession of the Duke of York to the throne, under
the title of James II., he refused to confirm to the people the
privileges granted them while he was duke. No assembly was
permitted to be convened; printing-presses were prohibited, and
the more important provincial offices were conferred on papists.
Such was the state of things when intelligence of the
seizure of Andros arrived. This gave a spring to the general
dissatisfaction, which burst forth into open resistance to the ex-
One Jacob Leisler, with several others, immediately took pos-
session of the fort. Gov. Dongan had just embarked for Eng-
land, leaving the administration of the government, during his
absence, to Charles Nicholson, at that time his deputy. Nichol-
son and his officers made what opposition to Leisler they were
able; but, he having been joined by six militia captains, and
four hundred and seventy me Nicholson absconded. Upon this,
Leisler assumed the supreme command.
This assumption of Leisler was far from being pleasant to the
council and magistrates, at the head of whom were Col. Bayard and
the mayor. Finding it impossible, however, to succeed against
Leisler in New York, they retired to Albany, and there employed
their influence to foment opposition. Both Leisler, in New York,
and the people at Albany, held their respective garrisons in the
name of William and Mary; but neither would submit to the
authority of the other.
While affairs were in this posture, a letter from the Lords Car-
mathen and Halifax arrived, directed "To Francis Nicholson,
Esq., or, in his absence, to such as, for the time being, take care
for preserving the peace and administering the laws," &c. Ac-
companying this letter was another of a subsequent date, vest-
ing Nicholson with the chief command.
As Nicholson had absconded, Leisler construed the letter as
directed to himself, and from that time assumed the title and
authority of lieutenant-governor. The southern part of New
York generally submitted to him; but Albany refusing subjec-
PERIOD III.-1689 TO 1756.
tion, Milborn, his son-in-law, was sent to reduce them. In hra
first attempt he failed; but during the ensuing spring, 1690, he
took possession of the fort, and the inhabitants submitted.
On the 19th of March, 1691, Col. Sloughter arrived at New
York, in the capacity of the king's governor. Nicholson and
Bayard, who had been imprisoned by Leisler, were released.
The latter was obliged to abandon the fort, and, with Milborn,
his son-in-law, was apprehended, tried for high treason, and
condemned. Their immediate execution was urged by the peo-
ple ; but the governor, fearful of consequences, chose to defer it.
To effect their pitrpose, an invitation was given him by the citi-
zens to a sumptuous feast, and, while his reason was drowned
in intoxication, a warrant for their execution was presented to
him and signed. Before he recovered his senses, the prisoners
were no more.
Measures so violent greatly agitated the existing parties; but,
in the end, the revolution which had taken place, restored the
rights of Englishmen to the colony. Gov. Sloughter convoked
an assembly, which formed a constitution. This, among other
provisions, secured trials by jury, freedom from taxation, except
by the consent of the assembly, and toleration to all denomina-
tions of Christians, excepting Roman Catholics.
It may be added, in this pace, that the civil history of New
York, from this period to the French war, presents few events
of special interest to the young. The governors, who succeeded
Sloughter, during the above interval, were Fletcher, 1692; the
Earl of Bellamont, 1698; Lord Cornbury, 1702; Hunter, 1710;
Burnet, 1720;'Montgomery, 1731; Crosby, 1732; Clark, 1736;
George Clinton, 1743. In general, these governors were strong-
ly attached to the interests of the crown, and often apparently
more solicitous to subserve their own selfish purposes than to
advance the permanent welfare of the colony. Hence collis-
ions frequently arose between them and the colonial assemblies,
which disturbed the general peace, and retarded the prosperity
of the colony.
2. 1690. While the northern colonies were troubled
as noticed in the preceding section, those of the Caro.
linas were in a similar state of dissension and distress.
To allay these, in the northern colony, Seth Sothel was
appointed chief magistrate; but, proving corrupt in his
administration, he was banished by the assembly, in
1690; immediately after which, he repaired to Charles-
ton, and usurped the government of the southern colony.
Added to this, a quarrel arose, between the proprietors
and the English inhabitants, in relation to a body of
WARS OF WILLIAM III., ANNE, AND GEORGE II. 93
French Protestants, which had planted themselves in the
county of Craven-the proprietors demanding for them
the privilege of electing representatives, which was stren-
uously refused by the English Episcopalians. Such be-
ing the general turbulence and disorder of the times,
Sir John Archdale, one of the proprietors, was sent over,
in 1695, as governor of both the Carolinas, with full
powers to redress grievances, and to adjust, if possible,
existing difficulties. These objects, by his singular wis-
dom and address, he in a measure accomplished.
In respect to the deep-rooted prejudices existing against the
above French Protestants, Archdale found itto be the part of wis-
dom to leave them to be softened and removed by time. This a
few years effected. The amiable deportmentof the refugees so won
upon the English, that they were cheerfully admitted to all the
rights of citizens and freemen.
At a subsequent date, the repose of the southern colony was
great ll disturbed by the passage of a law by the general assem-
bly, establishing the Episcopal religion, and excluding dissenters
from a seat in the assembly. This gave birth to bitter animosities,
and as bitter contentions. Complaints being made to Queen Anne,
then on the throne, the law was declared to be void. This agitat-
ing question being thus put at rest, the colony again enjoyed the
blessings of domestic quiet. (See Sec. 17, 20.)
3. About this period, 1692, commenced in Danvers,
then a part of Salem, Massachusetts, a singular infatu-
ation on the supposed prevalence of witchcraft. In a
short time, this infatuation pervaded several parts of
New England, producing, in its progress, the greatest
distress in private families, and disorder and tumult
throughout the country.
The first suspicion of witchcraft in New England, and in the
United States, began at Springfield, Massachusetts, as early as
1645. Several persons, about that time, were accused, tried and
executed in Massachusetts; one-at Charlestown, one at Dorches-
ter, one at Cambridge, and one at Boston. For almost thirty
years afterwards, the subject rested. But, in 1687 or 1688, it was
revived in Boston; four of the children of John Goodwin uniting
in accusing a poor Irish woman with bewitching them. Unhap-
pily, the accusation was regarded with attention, and the woman
was tried and executed.
Near the close of February, 1692, the subject was again re
PERIOD I11.-1689 TO 1756.
rived, in consequence of several children in Danvers, Salem,
beginning to act in a peculiar and unaccountable manner. Their
strange conduct continuing for several days, their friends betook
themselves to fasting and prayer. During religious exercises,
it was found that the children were generally decent and still;
but after service was ended, they renewed their former inexpli-
cable conduct. This was deemed sufficient evidence, that they
were laboring under the influence of witchcraft.
At the expiration of some days, the children began to accuse
several persons in the neighborhood of bewitching them. Un-
fortunately, they were credited, and the suspected authors of the
spell were seized and imprisoned.
From this date, the awful mania rapidly spread into the neigh-
boring country, and soon appeared in various parts of Essex,
Middlesex, and Suffolk. Persons at Andover, Ipswich, Glouces-
ter, Boston, and several other places, were accused by their
neighbors and others.
For some time, the victims were selected only from the lower
classes. But, at length, the accusations fell upon persons of the
most respectable rank. In August, Mr. George Boroughs, some
time minister in Salem, was accused, brought to trial, and con-
demned. Accusations were also brought against Mr. English, a
respectable merchant in Salem, and his wife; against Messrs.
Dudley and John Bradstreet, sons of the then late Governor
Bradstreet; against the wife of Mr. Hale, and the lady of Sir
The evil had now become awfully alarming. One man, named
Giles Corey, had been pressed to death for refusing to put him-
self on a trial by jury; and nineteen persons had been executed,
more than one third of whom were members of the church
One hundred and fifty were in prison, and two hundred were
At length, the inquiry was anxiously suggested, Where will
this accumulating mischief and misery end? A conviction be-
gan to spread, that the proceedings had been rash and indefensi-
ble. A special court was held on the subject, and fifty, who were
brought to trial, were acquitted, excepting three, who were after-
wards reprieved by the governor. These events were followed
by a general release of those who had been imprisoned. "Thus
the cloud," says the late President Dwight, which had so long
hung over the colony, slowly and sullenly retired; and, like the
darkness of Egypt, was, to the great joy of the distressed in-
habitants, succeeded by serenity and sunshine."
We, who live to look back upon this scene, are wont to con-
template, with wonder, the seeming madness and infatuation
not of the weak, illiterate, and unprincipled, but of men o?
sense, education, and fervent piety. Let us consider, however
that, at this period, the actual existence of witchcraft was taken
WARS OF WILLIAM III., ANNE, AND GEORGE II. 95
for granted, and that doubts respecting it were deemed little less
than heresy. The learned Baxter, who lived at this time in
England, where the same notions on this subject prevailed, pro-
nounced the disbeliever in witchcraft, an obdurate Sadducee;"
and Sir Matthew Hale, one of the brightest ornaments of the
English bench, repeatedly tried and condemned those as cnm
inals who were accused of witchcraft.
In conclusion, it may be remarked, that no people on earth are
tww more enlightened on this subject than are the people of
America Nothing of a similar kind has since existed, and
probably never will exist. Stories of wonder, founded upon an-
cient tradition, or upon a midnight adventure, sometimes awe
the village circle on a winter's night; but the succeeding day
chases away every ghost, and lulls every fear. It becomes the
present generation to advert with gratitude to their freedom
from those delusions which distressed and agitated their ancestors,
rather than to bestow invectives upon them, since they could
plead, in palliation of their error, the spirit of the age in which
4. Scarcely were the colonies relieved from the op-
pression of King James, before they were visited with
troubles of a nature still more distressing. The revolu-
tion, which followed the accession of William and Mary,
had indeed restored their liberties, but it involved them
in a war both with the French and Indians, which con-
tinued from 1690 to the peace of Ryswick, in 1697,
commonly called King William's War."
King James, on leaving England, fled to France. Louis XIV.,
king of France, attempting to support him, kindled the flame of
war between his own country and England. The subjects of
Louis, in Canada, of course, directed their arms against the colo-
nies of New England and New York, and instigated the Indians
to join them in their hostilities.
The governor of Canada, at this time, was Count
Frontenac, a brave and enterprising officer. Inflamed
with the resentment which had kindled in the bosom of
his master, he fitted out three expeditions, in the dead
of winter, against the American colonies--one against
New York, a second against New Hampshire, and a
third against the Province of Maine. Each of these
parties, in the execution of their orders, marked their
progress with plunder, fire, and death.
PERIOD 11I.-1689 TO 1756.
The party destined against New York, consisting of about three
hundred men, fell upon Schenectady, a village on the Mohawk,
in February. The season was cold, and the snow so deep, that
it was deemed impossible for an enemy to approach. The attack
was made in the dead of the night, while the inhabitants were in a
profound sleep. Not a sentinel was awake to announce the ap-
proaching danger. Care had been taken, by a division of the
enemy, to attack almost every house in the same moment. When
the preparations were ready, on a preconcerted signal, the ap-
palling war-whoop was begun; houses were broken open and
set on fire; men and women were dragged from their beds, and,
with their sleeping infants, were inhumanly murdered. Sixty
persons perished in the massacre, thirty were made prisoners,
while the rest of the inhabitants, mostly naked, fled through a
deep snow, either suffering extremely, or perishing in the cold.
The second party, directing their course to New Hampshire,
burned Salmon Falls, killing thirty of the bravest men, and car-
rying fifty-four of the inhabitants into a miserable captivity.
The third party, proceeding from Quebec, destroyed the set-
tlement of Casco, in Maine, and killed and captured one hun-
5. Roused by these proceedings of the French, the
colony of Massachusetts resolved to attack the enemy
in turn. Accordingly, an expedition, consisting of seven
vessels and eight hundred men, under command of Sir
William Phipps, sailed for the reduction of Port Royal.
in Nova Scotia, which was easily and speedily effected.
This was soon followed by a second expedition, under
the same commander, by the colonies of New York,
Connecticut, and Massachusetts, united, for the reduc-
tion of Montreal and Quebec. A combination of un-
fortunate circumstances, however, defeated the design,
and the expedition, after encountering numerous disas-
The plan was, for the troops of New York and Connecticut,
consisting of about two thousand, to penetrate into Canada, by
Lake Champlain, and to attack Montreal, at the same time that
the naval armament, consisting of between thirty and forty ves-
sels, with a similar number of men, should invest Quebec. The
troops destined for Montreal, not being supplied either with boats
or provisions, sufficient for crossing the lake, were obliged to re-
turn. The naval expedition did not reach Quebec untif October.
After spending several days in consultation, the landing of the
troops was effected, and they began their march for the town
WARS OF WILLIAM III., ANNE, AND GEORGE II. 97
At the same time, the ships were drawn up; but the attack, both
by land and water, was alike unsuccessful. The troops were
soon after re-embarked; and the weather, proving tempestuous,
scattered the fleet, and terminated the expedition.
The success of the expedition had been so confidently antici-
pated, that provision had not been made fbr the payment of the
troops: there was danger, therefore, of a mutiny. In this ex-
tremity, Massachusetts issued bills of credit, as a substitute for
money; the first emission of the kind in the American colonies.
6. The failure of the expedition to Quebec was hum.
bling to New England, and productive of other unhappy
consequences. The Indian tribes, Mohawks, Oneidas,
Senecas, Onondagas, and Delawares, called the Five Na-
tions, settled along the banks of the Susquehannah, and
in the adjacent country, who were in alliance with Great
Britain, and had long been a safeguard to the colonies
against the French, became dissatisfied. They blamed
the English for their inactivity, and manifested a dispo-
sition to make peace with the French.
To restore the confidence of the Indian allies, Major Peter
Schuyler, the next year, 1691, at the head of three hundred Eng-
lish soldiers, and as many Mohawk Indians, made an attack on
the French settlements north of Lake Champlain. De Callieres,
governor of Montreal, was waiting to oppose him. After seve-
ral irregular, but successful conflicts, Schuyler made good his
retreat, having killed thirteen officers and three hundred men.
New York found great security against the encroachments of
the French, in the Five Nations, who now carried on a vigorous
war, along the river St. Lawrence, from Montreal to Quebec.
But the eastern portion of the country, particularly New Hamp-
shire, suffered exceedingly; the storm falling with the greatest
severity upon them. Both Connecticut and Massachusetts raised
troops for their defence; but such was the danger and distress
of the colony of New Hampshire, that the inhabitants were upon
the point of abandoning the province.
The winter of 1696 was unusually severe. Never had the
country sustained such losses in commerce; nor had provisions,
in any period of the war, been more scarce, or borne a highly
7. In the midst of these distresses, the country was
threatened with a blow, which it seemed impossible that
it should sustain. The Marquis Nesmond, an officer
of high reputation, was despatched from France, with
98 PERIOD II.-1689 TO 1756.
ten ships of the line, a galliot, and two frigates. Count
Frontenac, from Canada, was expected to join him at
Penobscot, with one thousand five hundred men. With
this force, they were to make a descent on Boston; to
range the coast of Newfoundland, and burn the ship-
ping which should fall in their way. To finish their
work of destruction, they were to take New York,
whence the troops, under Frontenac, were to return to
Canada, through the country, wasting and destroying
the regions through which they should pass. But De
Nesmond sailed too late for the accomplishment of his
purpose. On his arrival on the coast, not being able to
join Frontenac in season, the expedition failed, and the
colonies were saved. At length, December 10, 1697, a
treaty was concluded between France and England, at
Ryswick, in Germany, by which it was agreed, in gen-
eral terms, that a mutual restitution should be made of
all the countries, forts, and colonies, taken by each party
during the war.
King William's war, which was thus brought to a close, had
been marked by atrocities, on the part of the French and Indians,
until then unknown in the history of the colonies. Infants,
when they became troublesome, were despatched by being dashed
against a stone or tree ; or, to add to the anguish of a mother,
her babe was sometimes lacerated with a scourge, or nearly stran-
gled under water, and then presented to her to quiet. If unable
soon to succeed in this, it was too effectually quieted by the hatch-
et, or left behind to become the prey of prowling beasts. Some
of the captives were roasted alive; others received deep wounds
in the fleshy parts of their bodies, into which sticks on fire were
thrust, until, tormented out of life, they expired.
The details of individual sufferings, which occurred during this
war, were they faithfully recorded, would excite the sympathies
of the most unfeeling bosom. One instance only can we relate.
In an attack, by a body of Indians, on Haverhill, Massachu-
setts, in the winter of 1697, the concluding year of the war, a
party of the assailants, burning with savage animosity, approached
the house of a Mr. Dustan. Upon the first alarm, lie flew from
a neighboring field to his family, with the hope of hurrying them
to a place of safety. Seven of his children he directed to flee,
while he himself went to assist his wife, who was confined to the
bed with an infant a week old. But before she could leave her
bed, the savages arrived.
WARS OF WILLIAM III., ANNE, AND GEORGE II. 99
In despair of rendering her assistance, Mr. Dustan flew to the
door, mounted his horse, and determined, in his own mind, to
snatch up and save the child which he loved the best. He fol-
lowed in pursuit of his little flock; but, upon coming up to
them, he found it impossible to make a selection. The eye of the
parent could see no one of the number that he could abandon to
the knife of the savage. He determined, tlrefore, to meet his
fate with them; to defend and save them froln their pursuers, or
die by their side.
A body of Indians soon came up with him, and, from short dis-
tances, fired upon him and his little company. For more than a
mile, he continued to retreat, placing himself between his chil-
dren and the fire of the savages, and returning their shots with
great spirit and success. At length, he saw them all safely
lodged from their bloody pursuers, in a distant house.
It is not easy to find a nobler instance of fortitude and courage,
inspired by affection, than is exhibited in this instance. Let us
ever cultivate the influence of those ties of kindred, which are
capable of giving so generous and elevated a direction to our
As Mr. Dustan quitted his house, a party of Indians entered it.
Mrs. Dustan was in bed; but they ordered her to rise, and, before
she could completely dress herself, obliged her and her nurse, a
Mrs. Teff, who had vainly endeavored to escape with the infant,
to quit the house, which they plundered and set on fire.
In these distressing circumstances, Mrs. Dustan began her
march, with other captives, into the wilderness. The air was
keen, and their path led alternately through snow and deep mud;
and her savage conductors delighted rather in the infliction of
torment than the alleviation of distress.
The company had proceeded but a short distance, when an In-
dian, thinking the infant an incumbrance, took it from the nurse's
arms, and violently terminated its life. Such of the other cap-
tives as began to be weary, and incapable of proceeding, the In
dians killed with their tomahawks. Feeble as NIrs. Dustan was,
both she and her nurse sustained, with wonderful energy, the
fatigue and misery attending a journey of one hundred and fifty
On their arrival at the place of their destination, they found
the wigwam of the savage, who claimed them as his personal
property, to be inhabited by twelve Indians. In the ensuing
April, this family set out, with their captives, for an Indian settle-
ment still more remote. The captives were informed that, on
their arrival at the settlement, they must submit to be stripped,
sc6urged, and run the gantlet, between two files of Indians.
This information carried distress to the minds of the captive
women, and led them promptly to devise some means of escape.
Early in the morning of the 31st, Mrs Dustan, awaking hes
PERIOD III.-1689 TO 1750.
aurse and another fellow-prisoner, they despatched ten of the
twelve Indians while asleep. The other two escaped. The
women then pursued their difficult and toilsome journey through
the wilderness, and at length arrived in safety at Haverhill
Subsequently, they visited Boston, and received, at the hand of
the general court, a handsome consideration for their extraordi
nary sufferings and heroic conduct.
8. Scarcely had the colonies recovered from the
wounds and impoverishment of King William's war
which ended in 1697, before they were again involved
in the horrors of another war with the French, Indians,
and Spaniards, commonly called Queen Anne's War,"
which continued from 1702 to the peace of Utrecht
March 31st, 1713.
By the treaty of Ryswick, (See. 7.) it was in general terms
agreed, that France and England should mutually restore to each
other all conquests made during the war. But the rights and
pretensions of either monarch to certain places in Hudson's Bay,
&c. were left to be ascertained and determined, at some future
day, by commissioners.
The evil consequences of leaving boundaries thus unsettled,
were soon perceived. Disputes arose, which, mingling with
other differences of still greater importance, led England to
declare war against France and Spain, May 4th, 1702.
9. The whole weight of the war in America unex
pectedly fell on New England. The geographical po.
sition of New York particularly exposed that colony to
a combined attack from the lakes and sea; but just be-
fore the commencement of hostilities, a treaty of neu-
trality was concluded between the Five Nations and
the French governor in Canada. The local situa-
tion of the Five Nations, bordering on the frontiers of
New York, prevented the French from molesting that
colony. Massachusetts and New Hampshire were thus
left to bear the chief calamities of the war.
The declaration of war was immediately followed by
incursions of French and Indians from Canada into
these colonies, who seized every opportunity of anpoy-
ing the inhabitants, by depredation and outrage.
On Tuesday, February 29th, 1704, at day-break, a party (,f
French and Indians, three hundred in number, under command