• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Captain John Smith
 Philip Randolph
 The adventures of Daniel Boone
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: American historical tales for youth
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002142/00001
 Material Information
Title: American historical tales for youth
Alternate Title: American historical tales
Physical Description: 201, 177, 174, <2> p., <3> leaves of plates : ill., port. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hawks, Francis L ( Francis Lister ), 1798-1866
Finden, Edward Francis, 1791-1857 ( Engraver )
D. Appleton and Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: D. Appleton & Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1852
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Biographies   ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
collective biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
General Note: Each of the three parts also issued separately.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follows text.
General Note: One illustration engraved by E. Finden after Lieut. Hood, R.N.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002142
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002231319
oclc - 23524188
notis - ALH1687

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Captain John Smith
        The birth of John Smith
            Page A-13
            Page A-14
            Page A-15
            Page A-16
            Page A-17
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            Page A-31
            Page A-32
            Page A-33
        Smith escapes from his captivity
            Page A-34
            Page A-35
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        Noble conduct of Smith
            Page A-50
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        Smith is received by Powhatan in great state
            Page A-71
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        The adventures of Captain Smith during two voyages made in an open boat, for the purpose of exploring Chesapeake Bay
            Page A-87
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        Smith enters upon his new duties as President
            Page A-115
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        Powhatan by stratagem obtains arms at Jamestown
            Page A-145
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        New charter granted by the king to the Virginia Company
            Page A-169
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        Smith's first voyage to New England in 1614
            Page A-180
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    Philip Randolph
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    The adventures of Daniel Boone
        Page C-13
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        Appendix
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    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text








































0 H 1 I'i H







AMEARCAIN


HISTORICAL TALES







YOUTH.


NEW-YORK:
D. APPLETON & CO., 200 BROADWAY
M.DCCC.LII.












CHAPTER I


The birth of John Smith-His boyish restlessness
-His early adventures and wanderings--
His return home-His wanderings resumed-
-dfter strange adventures, he enlists as a soldier
against the Turks-His brilliant exploits as a
soldier-He is taken captive at last and sold as
a slave to the Bashaw Bogal-He sends him to
Constantinople.

IN the life of Henry Hudson* Captain John
Smith is spoken of as his "earliest and most
cherished companion." Of all the remarkable
men, who visited this new world for the purpose
of planting colonies, and subduing the wilder-
ness, there was none more remarkable than John
Smith. His life was a perfect romance, filled
with wild and roving adventures; and I think
my young countrymen will be both instructed
and pleased by reading his history. Here, there-
fore, it is.
See volume I. of A Library for my Young Countrymen.
2





JOHN SMITH.


Unfortunately, we knew but little of the early
days of Hudson; but Smith we can follow from
his boyhood up. He was born in Willoughby,
in the county of Lincolnshire, in England, of
respectable parents, in the year 1579, and, from
the earliest boyhood, began to shew his restless,
roving disposition. He was sent to school, a
very young lad, and soon distinguished himself
among his school-fellows for his bold, manly,
and adventurous sports. But books and schoolboy
confinement did not please him. Scarcely yet
thirteen years old, he sold his satchel, books,
and whatever other articles he could part with,
to raise money, that he might go to sea. All
this was unknown, at the time, to his friends,
and he would probably have succeeded in get-
ting away, had not the death of his father oc-
curred at the time, and thereby prevented it.
Now he was left in the hands of guardians. At
the age of fifteen they placed him as an ap-
prentice to a merchant at Lynn, hoping that this
might suit his turn of mind, and prove both
profitable and pleasant to him. Smith seems at
first to have liked this, for his thoughts were
still upon the ocean, and he hoped from time to
time that his master would send him to sea in
his service. But at last, disappointed in this, the




JOHN SMITH.


counting-house became wearisome to him, and
he resolved to leave. With only ten shillings
in his pocket, therefore, which he says was
given to him by his friends to get rid of him,"
he left his employer. It was not long before
young Smith began to fear he had made a sad
mistake. Afraid to report himself to his guard-
ians, and fearful that, if he remained in England,
they would find him, and put him to some other
employment, it is said, he wandered about in
his poverty, scarcely knowing what to do; his
heart resolved only upon this one thing, to start
abroad as soon as he could. He was a boy of
too much principle to steal, and yet he was too
poor to carry out his wishes. The story runs,
that in this sad state of mind, after wandering
another weary day, he was fortunate enough, in
stopping at a public-house, to meet with a noble-
man who was about embarking for France, and
Smith was made happy, when he was allowed
to enter his train, and go along with him. They
journeyed on together now, until they reached Or-
leans, in France, but here, from some cause, they
parted. Whether the nobleman (as has been
said) found Smith wild and ungovernable, or
whether it was that he no longer had need of
his services, here he dismissed him. Yet he





JOHN SMITH.


treated him with great generosity, fo: he gave
him money, that he might return to England,
and live among his friends.
Yet Smith had no thought of returning home,
and now it was that his travels fairly com-
menced. He first went to Paris, and after
spending a little time there, he started for Hol-
land. There was in him always a love of
military' life, a sort of military ardor; and
I have supposed that he moved toward the
"'Low Countries," because, at that time, this
was the battle-ground of Europe. A struggle
was then going on between this country and
Spain. Certain it is, that he had scarcely reach-
ed the country, when he enlisted as a soldier; and
now, for some time, he served in the army,
greatly delighted with his new occupation. His
restless spirit, however, grew weary at last, even
of this. Meeting with a Scotch gentleman, (Mr.
David Hume,) he was supplied by him with
money, and letters to his friends in Scotland,
and advised to go with him to that country.
The principal inducement for his going was, (as
his Scotch friend assured him,) that he would
there find friendship and favor at the hands of
King James. Now, then, he embarked for Scot-
land. After suffering from shipwreck, and a





JOHN SMITH


violent fit of sickness, he at length arrived there,
and delivered his letters. These letters procured
for him kind attention, and he was treated with
great hospitality-though as far as the king
was concerned, he met with little patronage and
encouragement. His heart, therefore, began to
turn homeward, and he soon started off for his
native town, Willoughby.
Upon his arrival, his friends were all delighted
to see him, and were greatly pleased to hear him
recount his travels. But this being over, he soon
tired of the companions around him: and now
he went to the woods and built him a little
booth, where he might live alone to himself.
Here he became very industrious in pursuing
his studies. His fondness for a soldier's life
set him upon the study of military history and
tactics; and from time to time he would amuse
himself with sports of hunting and horseman-
ship. His books, his horse, and his lance were
almost the only objects that interested him. Af-
ter a time, it became generally known that
he was living in this quiet way: his strange
habits were much talked of, and this induced an
Italian gentleman, who was himself a great
horseman, to visit him. He soon made the ac-
quaintance of Smith, (for their tastes were alike,)
2*





JOHN SMITH.


and at length persuaded him to leave his retire-
ment, and come back into the world. His little
lodge, therefore, was now deserted.
His restless spirit soon prompted him again
to roam. He now had the means of travelling,
(for he had received his portion of his father's
estate,) and in spite of the remonstrances and
entreaties of his friends, he resolved upon start-
ing once more. Again led, I suppose, by his mili-
tary ardor, he embarked for Flanders, hoping to
play the part of a soldier against the Turks. But
here his plans were altered. Accidentally meet-
ing with four Frenchmen, (one of whom passed
for a nobleman, and the other three for his attend-
ants,) he was persuaded to join them, and travel
with them into France. These men were vil-
lains, who noticing the youth and inexperience
of Smith, (for he was now only nineteen, some
say seventeen, years of age,) had resolved upon
robbing him. They all accordingly embarked for
France. It was a dark night when they arrived
at St. Valery, in Picardy; and now these im-
postors had made so much of a friend of their
captain, who was a villain like themselves, that
they were prepared to carry their plan into ex-
ecution. Accordingly, these four Frenchmen,
with the captain at their head, now went ashore






JOHN SMITE.


m the boat, taking with them the trunks of
Smith. The next morning the captain returned
with the boat. Upon being asked why he had
been gone so long, he stated, that he had been
prevented from returning by the high sea: but
the truth was, he had delayed only that his
thievish companions might escape with their
plunder before it was possible to overtake them.
The crew suspected the villany of the com-
mander, (for the luggage of Smith was now
missed,) and it is said that they proposed to
Smith to kill him, and seize the vessel and car-
go. This, however, he very properly refused to
do, and thus went ashore, poor and friendless.
Indeed, his poverty was now so great, that he
sold part of his clothing to pay his passage.
One of the sailors now took compassion upon
him, and paying his expenses, they travelled to-
gether as far as Mortaine, where the villains
lived, (for this sailor, it seems, knew them.) His
journey proved useless, as far as his trunks were
concerned, for being poor and without friends,
he found it impossible to recover any part of his
property. His desolate situation, however, called
out the sympathy of many good people, and he
was invited to their homes, kindly treated, and
supplied with further sums of money.







JOHN SMITH.


Still eager to pursue his travels, and unwilling
to remain, receiving favors which he could not
return, he resolved upon leaving this place.
With a light heart, therefore, he started on foot
toward the sea-shore, hoping, in some one of
the seaport towns, to find a ship in which he
might embark. In his wanderings, his money
was soon again exhausted. It was during this
journey that he accidentally met one day, near
Dinan, one of the villains who had robbed him.
Without saying a word, they both instantly drew
their swords. A crowd gathered around them;
Smith had wounded him, and he forced the
Frenchman to confess his guilt before the whole
multitude. This, however, was all he obtained,
for he found none of his property. Before he
reached the sea-shore, he suffered many priva-
tions. It is said, that after wandering one day
through a forest, he was so much exhausted to-
ward evening, by fatigue and exposure, that he
threw himself down by a fountain, expecting to
die there; and would probably have died, had
not a kind farmer discovered him, and once more
supplied his wants.
He now remembered an old friend, whom he
had seen before, (the Earl of Ployer,) and knew,
if he could reach hini, he would receive sympathy





JOHN SMITH.


and assistance. Accordingly, he managed to
reach the home of this friend, and found all his
hopes realized. The Earl treated him with
marked kindness, and furnished him with money
for his journey. He now travelled along the
French coast to Bayonne, and thence crossed
over to Marseilles, noticing particularly, by the
way, any and every thing that fed his passion
for naval and military exploits. At Marseilles
he found a ship ready to sail for Italy.
In this ship it happened that there were a
number of pilgrims, going to Rome. Smith,
however, took passage with them, and new
troubles soon met him on the voyage. A storm
at first drove the vessel into the harbor of Tou-
lon: after the tempest had passed away, and
they were again on their voyage, head winds
ere long met them, and they were forced to an-
chor under the little island of Saint Mary, off
Nice, in Savoy. Here the pilgrims began to
murmur and complain. Their bigotry and mad-
ness induced them to suppose that Smith was
the cause of their troubles, because he was what
they called a heretic. They abused him, because
he was a Protestant, and Queen Elizabeth of
England, because she was known to protect
the Protestant religion: and they were scarcely





JOHN SMITH.


again under way, when their madness carried
them so far, that they seized Smith, and without
any mercy, threw him overboard. What became
of the pilgrims, I cannot say, but a merciful
Providence watched over Smith, and sustained
him through the struggle of swimming back to
the island. Weak and exhausted, he was in a
pitiable condition. He found no one near him-
yet, with a heart of hope, he raised signals,
trusting that some ship passing by might mark
his distress. Fortunately, next day, a ship of
Saint Malo put in at the island for shelter, and
doubly fortunate he was when he found that the
commander of this ship was Captain La Roche,
a friend and neighbor to his old friend, the Earl
of Ployer. Of course, Smith now met with every
attention. In a little time the vessel proceeded
on her voyage to Alexandria, in Egypt. Thence
she coasted the Levant. On her return home-
ward, she fell in with a Venetian vessel. The
French captain tried to speak her, but was an-
swered only by a broadside," (the French ship
being mistaken, I suppose, for a pirate.) A
sharp action now commenced-Smith bearing
a bold part in it. After a hard contest, the
Venetian ship was taken, and found to be very
richly laden. All that was valuable was seized,






JOHN SMITH.


and the conquerors divided the spoils. Smith,
for his valor, received as his share, a box Con-
taining a thousand sequins, (about two thousand
dollars.) At his own request now he was landed
on the shore of Piedmont, and, with abundance
of money, travelled through Italy, marking every
thing that was interesting. His desire for mili-
tary glory was, however, still uppermost in his
heart, and crossing the Adriatic, he travelled on
till he came to Gratz, in Styria, the seat of Fer-
dinand, the Archduke of Austria. War was at
this time raging between the Germans and the
Turks; and Smith, finding two of his country-
men at the place, was soon introduced to Lord
Eberspaught, Baron Kizel, Count Meldritch,
and other officers of distinction. He at once en-
listed as a volunteer, to serve in the army against
the Turks.
It was not long now, before his genius had
full scope to shew itself. The Turkish army,
(twenty thousand strong,) under Ibrahim Pasha,
having ravaged the neighboring country, were
now laying siege to the strong town of Olym-
pach. Lord Eberspaught was here, shut up with
his army, and cut off from all supplies and com-
munication with his friends. Smith served in
Baron Kizel's army, who was endeavoring to







JOHN SMITH.


help Eberspaught in his perilous condition. De-
sirous of sending a message to him, and finding
it impossible, Smith now proposed to try his
plan for communicating with him-a plan of
which he had formerly talked with Eberspaught.
This was by means of a telegraph, which he had
invented. Kizel consented, and Smith now went
at night with a guard, to a hill in sight of the
town, yet far enough to be unobserved by the
Turkish army. Raising his signals, he conveyed
to Eberspaught this message : Thursday night
I will charge on the east; at the alarm sally
thou." The signal was understood, and the an-
swer came back, "I will."* Making ready for
Thursday night, he prepared a number of
matches on a string. which he extended in a
line, in a certain direction. Just on the eve of
the attack, these matches were fired, and ex-
ploded like a roar of musketry. The Turks,
thinking they were attacked in that quarter, sal-
lied out to meet the enemy. Kizel, with his
army, rushed upon them at the -moment-the

Smith's method of communicating was by means of
torches. Each letter from A to L was designated by shew-
ing one torch as many times as corresponded to the letter's
place in the alphabet-each letter, from M to Z, was desig-
nated by shewing two torches after the same manner. The
end of a word was signified by shewing there s lights.





JOHN SMITH.


men in the garrison moved at the same time-
the Turks were routed, numbers of them were
slain, numbers driven into the river and drown-
ed, and two thousand of Kizel's men enter-
ed the garrison. The next day, the enemy
was glad to abandon the siege. This gallant
action gained great applause for Smith, and he
was at once appointed to the command of a troop
of two hundred and fifty horse, in the regiment
of Count Meldritch.
Flushed with success, the Emperor of Ger-
many now resolved to prosecute the war boldly,
and for this purpose three large armies were
raised. Smith served in that commanded by the
Archduke Matthias, the Emperor's brother. The
principal command of this force, however, devolv-
ed upon the lieutenant, the Duke Mercury, and
Smith seems to have shared his particular confi-
dence. Ere long, they laid siege to Alba Re-
galis, in Hungary. This was a town strongly
fortified by the Turks. Smith's skill here an-
noyed the enemy greatly, for he managed to
throw bombs from a sling, in the midst of them,
and two or three times succeeded in setting the
place on fire. After an obstinate resistance, this
place was taken with great loss to the Turks.
So unexpected was this result, that the Turks





JOHN SMITH.


could hardly believe themselves routed: and it
is said, that one of their Bashaws, upon hearing
the sad news, would eat nothing,the whole day,
but threw himself upon the ground, and con-
tinued to pray to Mahomet to deliver his coun-
trymen. The Sultan, however, could not rest
satisfied with this defeat, and sent an army of
sixty thousand men to recapture the place. The
Duke Mercury, hearing of the approach of this
vast number, was not dismayed, though his num-
bers were comparatively small.: He marched
out to meet them, and, after a desperate battle,
defeated the Turks once more. The fight must
have been tremendous, for six thousand of the
Turks (it is said) were left dead upon the field.
Smith bore himself as usual, gallantly, through
the whole, escaping narrowly with his life. His
horse was shot under him, and he was severely
wounded.
In a little time, he was again at the head of
his own company, and with Count Meldritch,
marched into Transylvania. Here the Turks
were committing their ravages, and the Count
felt peculiarly excited against them, because his
family possessions lay in that region. A strong
body of Turks, after scouring the country, had
now fortified themselves in the town of Regal,





WOIN aMMtt.


among the mountains of Transylvania, and here
they felt secure. With eight thousand men
Meldritch laid siege to this place. Fortunately,
he was soon after joined by Prince Moyses, with
nine thousand more. The place was so strong by
nature, and so strongly garrisoned, that the siege
proved long, and seemed, indeed, almost useless.
The Turks, feeling their strength, began to grow
insolent. At length one of their number, the
Lord Turbishaw, (for the purpose, as was
said, of amusing the Turkish ladies,) sent a chal-
lenge to any man of the Christian troops, who
dared come out to fight him. Lots were now
cast, to see who should accept this challenge;
and the lot fell upon Smith. The time for the
meeting approached, and the battlements of the
town were lined with ladies to witness it. Lord
Turbishaw, elegantly dressed in a magnificent
suit of armor, which blazed with gold, silver,
and jewels, now rode out into the field. Three
men attended him, one bearing his lance, and
two others moving by the side of his horse.
Smith rode out to meet him, attended only by a
page, who bore his lance. The trumpets now
sounded, (as the signal for battle,) and the
conflict commenced. It was soon ended; for
Smith, with his lance, thrust the Turk through






JOHN SMITH.


the head, and he fell dead from his horse. Great
was the shout of joy now raised by the Christian
troops; and loud the lamentations among the
Turkish ladies. The conqueror now cut off the
head of Turbishaw, and bore it back in triumph
among his comrades, leaving his dead body ly-
ing upon the ground. This defeat was more
than the Turks could well bear, and a particular
friend of Turbishaw's, named Grualgo, was in-
flamed with rage. Burning to revenge the death
of his friend, he sent now a special challenge'to
Smith, to meet him. The challenge was at once
accepted, and the next day fixed for the meet-
ing. It was agreed this time that the conqueror
should have the horse and the armor of the de-
feated. In the morning they met. At their first
attack, their lances were shivered-their pistols
were then discharged, and both were wounded,
Smith slightly, the Turk severely, in the arm.
Smith now had the advantage. The Turk, from
the wound in his arm, being unable to manage
his horse, was easily slain; his head was also
taken from his body, and carried triumphant-
ly to the Christian troops. His horse and his
armor too, were now the trophies of the con-
queror. Proud of his success, in a haughty
spirit, Smith (by permission of his commander)





JOHN SMITH.


now sent his challenge to the Turks. If the
ladies, he said, still desired amusement, and
would choose their champion, he would add his
head to the number he had taken, or lose his
own. A champion was soon found in the per-
son of a ferocious Turk, named Bonamolgro-
the challenge accepted, and terms agreed upon.
As Bonamolgro was the challenged person, and
had the choice of arms, having seen Smith's
skill in using the lance, he avoided this, and se-
lected for the weapons, pistols, battle-axes, and
swords. The next day they met; their pistols
were first fired, without injuring either party,
and then they fought with battle-axes. The
Turk was more skilled than Smith in the use of
this; and dealing him a heavy blow, he un-
horsed him, while his battle-axe fell from his
hand. The ramparts now rung with the shouts
of ladies, who supposed Smith was discomfited.
But Smith was a fine horseman, and this saved
him. In an instant, he rallied from the blow,
remounted his horse, and by dexterous manage-
ment of the animal, succeeded, not only in avoid-
ing the blows aimed at him by the Turk, but at
a favorable moment ran him through with his
sword. BonamolgM fell to the ground, and his
head was also taken. The Turks were no dis-





JOHN SMITH.


heartened, and ere long the town was cap-
tured.
The triumph of the Christian forces was now
great; but Smith's triumph was greater, for he
was the special hero of the occasion. He was
conducted to the pavilion of his general by a
military procession of six thousand men. Be-
fore these were led three horses, and in front of
all were the three Turks' heads, borne on the
points of three lances. Here hd was received
with great honor. The general embraced him
warmly, presented him with a horse, richly ca-
parisoned, a cimeter and belt, worth three hun-
dred ducats; and, best of all, in Smith's estima-
tion, made him the major of a regiment of men.
Nor was the honor of his exploits yet ended; for
afterwards, when the Prince of Transylvania
heard of his valor, he presented to Smith his
picture, set in gold; gave him a pension of three
hundred ducats a year, and granted him a coat
of arms, bearing three Turks' heads in a shield.
The motto of the coat of arms was this: Vin-
cere est vivere." His fame was soon known at
home,.as well as abroad; for this patent of the
Prince was afterwards admitted and recorded, in
the College of Heralds, in England, by Sir Henry
Segar, garter king at arms. Smith (it is said)






JOHN SMITH.


always remembered this occasion with great ex-
ultation, and to the last day of his life was proud
of this motto.
His passion for a soldier's life naturally enough
grew stronger as he advanced in distinction, and
he was soon again in activeservice. In Wallachia,
which was at this time a Turkish province, the
inhabitants revolted against the reigning prince,
and proclaimed a new one Pressed with a
hard struggle, they applied to the Emperor of
Germany to aid them, and he at once took ad-
vantage of their position, and met their entreaty.
Couni Meldritch, Smith, and other officers, with
an army of thirty thousand men, went to the
assistance of the new prince. The deposed
prince, resolute upon maintaining his place, had
gathered together his forces, and now met them
with an army of forty thousand Turks and Tar-
tars. A desperate and bloody struggle followed:
the army of the Turks was routed, and only fif-
teen thousand made good their retreat. Twenty-
five thousand Turks (it is said) lay dead or
wounded upon the field, and the province was
now subject to the' Emperor.
With a strong I&, the deposed prince was
still bent upon holdfig his place. He gathered
his troops again together, and was ere long heard






JOHN SMITH.


of in the province of Moldavia. Count Meldritch
and Smith again met him. After several skilful
and successful skirmishes against him, they seem
to have been flushed with pride; and now pressing
eagerly on in a narrow and mountainous pass, near
the town of Rottenton, they were surprised by an
ambuscade. Here an army of forty thousand
men rushed suddenly upon them; the Christian
troops fought boldly and desperately, but to little
or no purpose. They were overpowered by num-
bers, and all were slain or wounded, except
about thirteen hundred men, who, with Count
Meldritch at their head, escaped by swimming a
river. In this unfortunate struggle, Smith was
badly wounded, and left (as his friends sup-
posed) dead upon the field. In this, however,
they were deceived. The Turks discovered him,
bleeding among the heaps of the dead, and the rich-
ness of his dress and armor, as it turned out, saved
his life. Supposing him to be a man of rank
and distinction, they were too cruel to despatch
him, but saved him, that he might suffer a more
lingering and degrading torment than death.
His wounds were dressed, and after he had suffi-
ciently recovered, he, Nlynany others of the
poor prisoners, were takro a Turkish town,
and there sold as slaves, in the market-place.






JOHN SMITH. j3

It was Smith's lot to be purchased by the Ba-
shaw Bogal; and he now sent him as a present
to his mistress, Tragabigzanda, in Constantino-
ple, accompanying the present with this false-
hood, that Smith was a Bohemian nobleman,
whom he had made prisoner in war













CHAPTER IL


Smith escapes from his captivity-He wanders
through Russia and Poland, and is kindly
entertained-Cordial meeting with his old
friends, in Transylvania-He journeys to
France, Spain, and .Morocco-Returns to
England-Happiness of his friends at meet-
ing him-Meets with Bartholomew Gosnold,
and determines to sail for the JNew World-
Patent of King James for settling Virginia-
Their ships sail-Unkind treatment of Smith on
the voyage-The Colonists reach Jamestown-
Smith is refused his place as one of the
Council.

SMITH fared fortunately in the hands of ins
Turkish mistress. Being able to speak Italian,
and struck with the manly and noble bearing of
the captive, she from time to time held con-
versations with him, and learned the utter false-
hood of the Bashaw's me to her. Instead of
a Bohemian nobleman, s discovered that the
prisoner was an Englishman of good family, and







JOHN SMITH.


promising prospects; that he was a soldier of
fortune, who had fallen into his present position
in the struggle near Rottenton, and had never
seen the Bashaw, till they met in the market-
place. Smith now told her the whole story of his
wanderings, and the lady was captivated by the
man, and his adventures. Finding her heart
drawn toward him, and fearing that he might
be ill-used, or again sold, she resolved to do
what she could for his protection. She sent him
therefore to her brother Timour, the Bashaw of
Nalbraitz, who lived in the country of the Cam-
brian Tartars, on the borders of the Sea of
Azoph. To secure his good treatment, she sent a
letter with him, requesting her brother to treat
him kindly, and frankly telling him, that she felt
a deep attachment for the prisoner. Her letter,
however, instead of helping Smith, as she de-
signed, only outraged her brother. He was
greatly indignant at the thought, that his sister
should love a Christian slave. In an hour after
his arrival, he was stripped of all his clothing-
his head and beard were shaved-an iron collar
was fastened round his neck-and clothed in a
suit of hair cloth as sent out to hard labor
among other poor ristian slaves.
Smith's situation was now pitiable enough;





JOHN SMITH


but his bold spirit was unconquered. His cor
panions in misery were sad and in despair; yet
he, though well nigh driven to despair; had ever
the hope of being again free, and watched every
opportunity of making his escape. He thought
first of running away, but he found that he was
watched so closely, that he could not move with-
out being seen. Day after day, therefore, he la-
bored on, but with a heart of hope, that he
should one day be rid of his bondage. How
long he was in captivity here, I cannot say, but
he at last made his escape in the following
manner.
He was employed one day in threshing corn,
at a farm-house, in a field, about three miles
from the place where his tyrannical master liv-
ed. The master was in the habit, at times, of
visiting the laborers at their work, and at such
times, not unfrequently, treated them with great
cruelty. On this occasion he visited the farm-
house, and having a personal dislike to Smith,
was not satisfied with abusing him, but beat
him and kicked him violently. This was more
than the proud spirit of Smith could endure.
Watching his opportuni erefore, when no
one was present, he gave a blow with his
threshing flail, and laid him senseless at his feet





JOHN SMITH.


No time was now.to be lost. He at once dressed
himself in the Bashaw's clothes, hid his body un-
der the straw, filled a bag with corn, closed the
doors, mounted the Bashaw's horse, and gallop-
ed off into the wilderness. He was now free, but
in the midst of a wild desert, ignorant of his way.
In this desert he wandered for two or three
days, not knowing whither he was going, and
fortunately meeting no one who might have
marked his iron collar, known him as a slave,
and possibly recaptured him, or given notice, at
least, of his flight. At length it was his good
fortune to reach a cross-road,- where a sign-post
directed him, on the main road to Russia. Keep-
ing this road, at the end of sixteen days, (dur-
ing which time his bag supplied him with his
only food,) he reached Ecopolis, upon the river
Don, where there was a garrison of the Russians.
The commander of the garrison, learning he was
a Christian, t;ezed him with great kindness;
his iron collar was taken off, and letters were
given to him, introducing him very kindly to the
other governors in that region. He now travelled
on through Russia and Poland, meeting every
where with kind ftion. It was in some part
of this journey thalre met with the lady Calla-
mata, who took a deep interest in him, and of






JOHN SMITH.


whom Smith ever speaks with the utmost grati-
tude. At length he reached Transylvania. Here
he was welcomed with the greatest enthusiasm.
His fame was well known, and his old comrades
crowded around him, rejoicing once more to see
a friend, whom they supposed lost to them for
ever. At Leipsic he had a joyful meeting with
his old commander, Count Meldritch; and the
Prince of Transylvania, (it is said,) hearing of
his arrival, sent for him, and gave him a present
of fifteen hundred ducats, to repair his losses.
Smith seems to have been so touched with this
kindness, that he was almost ready to listen to
the entreaties of these friends, and make his
home in their country. One thing alone pre-
vented, and that was the longing desire, which
naturally enough rested in his heart, to visit
once more his native land. Who loves not the
spot where he was born, and where he played in
his boyhood? With a sad heart, therefore, he
tore himself from these friends, and journeyed
on. He passed through France, Germany, and
Spain, observing, as was his custom, every thing
attentively on his way. Now he was turned
aside from going directly L e, by his old passion
for military life. Learning that a civil war had
broken out, in the kingdom of Morocco, he im-





JOHN SMITH.


mediately sailed for that country, with the in-
tention of embarking in the struggle. Upon his
arrival, however, not being pleased with either
of the contending parties, he determined to take
no part in it whatever, and ere long set sail for
England. Strange adventures were still in his
way: for in his homeward course, he bore his
part in another naval battle. The ship in which
he sailed was attacked by two Spanish vessels
of war, and, after a desperate and bloody fight,
they were driven off. He soon now made his
landing in England, having (it is reported) in
his possession one thousand ducats, which, in ad-
dition p some property which he held in Eng-
land, enabled him, for the time, to feel quite in-
dependent.
Great was the joy between Smith and his
friends now, in his native land. While he glad-
ly told the story of his travels, they forgot the
sorrows of his exile in the delight of hearing
him. Their joy, however, was soon again over-
cast, for his untired spirit began to pant for
other adventures, and they knew that it was idle
to attempt to restrain him. The circumstances
which now roused & spirit, are circumstances
in which we, as Americans, are nearly in-
terested





JOHN SMITH.


At this time, well nigh all Europe was filled
with a desire for maritime discoveries, and no-
where was this desire more ardent than in Eng-
land. Several voyagers had now crossed the
western waters, and seen portions of that New
World which had been discovered by Columbus.
Returning home, they had marvellous stories to
tell of its richness and beauty. More than this
had been done. Attempts had been made to
colonize a part of the new continent. The bold
genius of that noble Englishma:, Sir Walter
Raleigh, had (even during the reign of the pre-
ceding sovereign, Queen Elizabeth) attempted
to plant a group of adventurers upon Roanoke
Island, off the coast of Carolina; and though
this effort, with others, had failed, the desire for
the same sort of adventure was still strongly felt
in England; and as new tidings came from
time to time of the beauty of the new world, this
desire only increased. It happened about the
time of Smith's return home, that Bartholomew
Gosnold (who, in 1602, had made a voyage to
New England) was talking largely of the pros-
pects of the new world, and was himself desir-
ous and ready to make another adventure there,
for the purpose of planting a colony and sub-
duing the wilderness. Meeting with Smith, he





JOHN SMITH.


found one ready to listen to his story and plans.;
a strong friendship was soon formed between
them, and they determined to link their hopes
together in this new undertaking. They now
set resolutely to work, to secure sufficient patron-
age to carry out their design. Other voyagers
returning home, confirmed from time to time the
statements of Gosnold, and animated them the
more in their efforts. Ere long, they found sev-
erdl noblemen" and gentlemen, of like feeling
with themselves, (among whom we should espe-
cially remember Edward Maria Wingfield, a
merchant, Robert Hunt, a clergyman, and Rich-
ard Hackluyt,) and now they asked of King
James a royal patent, for making new dis-
coveries, and planting a colony in Virginia.
The king met these proposals, and on the 10th
of April, 1606, issued his letters patent to Sir
Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard
Hackluyt and others. By these letters, they
were allowed to possess all the territories in
North America, lying between the thirty-fourth
and forty-fifth degrees of north latitude, and all
islands within the same latitudes, within one hun-
dred miles of the shore. These adventurers, I
believe, had asked the privilege of establishing
two colonies. At all events, they were divided
4*





JOHN S. ITII.


into two companies-ore known as the London
or South Virginia Company-the other, as the
Plymouth Company. The two companies were
to ,make their settlements within the territory
granted-one in the southern, the other in the
northern part of it, and their colonies were to be
kept one hundred miles apart These colonies
were to be governed by two councils, as they
were called, both selected by the king-one coun-
cil to reside in England, while the other resided
in the colony, and all laws made by the Colo-
nial Council were to be subject to repeal or al-
teration by the king or Supreme Council at home.
These terms were the best the petitioners could
obtain, and the London Company resolved at
once to act under them.
Some little delay was experienced in making
all ready, so that the 19th of December arrived,
before their ships were ready to sail from Eng-
land. On that day three ships, one of one hun-
dred, another of forty, and another of twenty
tons, under the command of Captain Christopher
Newport, fell down the Thames, bound on a
voyage for Virginia. Of course, they were well
stocked with men and provisions for a colony.
Among the leading men on board, were Barthol
omew Gosnold, Captain Smith, Edward Wing-






JOHN SMuIT


field the merchant, and Robert Hunt the clergy-
man. They had with them, among other things,
a sealed box, containing orders for government
in Virginia," which box was not to be opened
until their arrival there.
The ships were now detained for more than
six weeks off the coast of England, by head
winds; and murmurings and complaints arose
among the adventurers. These, however, were
allayed, in some degree, by the affection and per-
severance of the good clergyman, Mr. Hunt.
Though a sick man, he forgot his own troubles
to make them happy. There were some on
board who hated (it seems) him, and his profes-
sion, yet all this" (we are told) could never
force from him so much as a seeming desire to
leave the business, but he preferred the service
of God in so good a voyage, before any affection
to contest with his Godless foes, whose disastrous
designs (could they have prevailed) had even
then overthrown the business, so many discon-
tents did then arise, had he not with the water
of patience, and his Godly exhortations, (but
chiefly by his true devoted examples,) quenched
those flames of envy and dissension."* At


* Smith's Virginia-Vol. I., page 150.





JOHN SMITH.


length, with a fair wind, they shaped their
course for the new world, by the old route of the
Canaries and West India Islands. They had
scarcely reached the Canaries, when their mur-
murings became louder than ever, and it seems
now that poor Smith was unconsciously the prin-
cipal cause of them. His bold and manly bear-
ing, together with his conversation, had excited
the suspicion and jealousy of some of his com-
panions. They declared that he had the desire
and intention of murdering the council, and
making himself king of Virginia, and that he
had conspirators among the crew for that pur-
pose. Smith was too proud to make any expla-
nation, when he felt perfectly innocent, and the
consequence was, that he was now seized and
confined as a prisoner for the rest of the voyage.
They were also, it is said, outraged with Mr.
Hunt as his friend, and I presume his profession
and prudence alone saved him from the same
fate. They now steered from the Canaries, to
the West Indies. Among these islands they
spent three weeks, recruiting for their farther
voyage, and seem to have been much pleased
with the appearance of this new and strange
region. Thence they moved off for Virginia.
Visited with unsteady weather, for some tinip





JOtM SM iR.


they made but little progress-and having at one
time lost their reckoning for three days, many
of them became dissatisfied again, and urged
strongly a return to England. Fortunately, a
fine breeze relieved them in this time of discon-
tent, and on the 26th day of April, 1607, they
saw land, and entered Chesapeake Bay. The
land first seen was on the north side of the en-
trance to the bay. To this they gave the name
of Cape Henry, and to the point on the south side
of the entrance, the name of Cape Charles, both
in honor of the sons of King James. They sailed
into the first broad river which opened before
them, naming it after their king, James River.
For seventeen days now, they busied themselves
in finding a convenient spot for their settlement,
and during this period landed several times, and
met the savages of the country. The first land-
ing was at Cape Henry, where thirty of the ad-
venturers went ashore. Here they found on
the flats abundance of oysters laying as thick
as stones," and the land was covered with wild
flowers and fine strawberries. They were at-
tacked by five savages, and two of their number
badly wounded, before they drove them off with
their muskets. Again they landed at Point
Comfort, on the north side of the mouth of James





JOHN SMITr.


River, (a place so named by themselves because
they found good anchorage there, which gave
them great comfort.) They met now some In-
dians, who at first were frightened, but upon one
)f the white men's laying his hand upon his
neart, the savages felt that their intentions were
peaceable, and came directly to them, inviting
them to visit their town Kecoughtan, the place
where Hampton is now built. The invitation
was accepted, and when they reached the town,
both parties were well pleased. The Indians
feasted the strangers on cakes of Indian corn,
and entertained them with tobacco and a dance,
while the whites, in their turn, presented to them
beads and other trinkets. Then the chief 6f the
Rappahannas, hearing of them, sent a messenger
to invite them to come and see him, and to guide
them to his home. This invitation was also ac-
cepted, and they were received in great state by
the chief and his people. They stood upon the
banks of the river to meet them as they landed.
As soon as they were ashore, the chief came be-
fore them at the head of his train, playing on
a flute made of a reed, with a crown of deer's
hair colored red, in fashion of a rose, fastened
about his knot of hair, and a great plate of cop-
per on the other side of his head, with two long





JOHN SMITH.


feathers in fashion of a pair of horns, placed in
the midst of his crown. His body was painted
all with crimson, with a chain of beads about
his neck; his face painted blue besprinkled with
silver ore; his ears all behung with bracelets of
pearl, and in either ear a bird's claw through it,
beset with fine copper or gold." He now had
his mat spread upon the ground, and while his
people all stood around him, sat down and smok-
ed his pipe of tobacco. This being over, he
made signs to the whites to follow him to his
town. He went first, leading the way, the
Indians and whites all following, and after pass-
ing through beautiful woods and rich fields of
corn,they at length ascended a steep hill, and were
at the palace of the chief of the Rappahannas.
Here they were treated with great hospitality.
Ascending the river, they afterwards saw a body
of Indians, standing on the shore all armed, and
their chief, Apamatica-holding in one hand his
bow and arrow, and in the other his pipe of to-
bacco-boldly demanded what they had come
for. They made signs of peace, and were again
kindly entertained by him. Still passing in, at
the distance of thirty-two miles from the mouth
of the river, they found the shore on the north
side bold, and covered with heavy timber; and






JOHN SMITH.


the water near by being six fathoms deep, they
were enabled to moor their ships to the trees on
the land. The appearance of this spot pleased
them more than any they had seen; and upon
being visitedby the chief of the Pashipays, who
offered them as much land as they needed for
their purpose, and gave them a deer for their en-
tertainment, they determined here to make their
settlement. It was now the 13th of May-they
went ashore, pitched their tents, and gave to the
spot the name of Jamestown. When the sealed
box containing their orders was opened, it was
found that Bartholomew Gosnold, John Smith,
Edward M. Wingfield, Christopher Newport,
John Ratcliff, John Martin, and George Kendall,
were named as the council for the colony. Their
instructions were to choose a president from
among their number, for one year, and he, with
the help of the other counsellors, was to manage
the affairs of the colony. Matters of importance
were to be examined by a jury, but determined
by the major part of the council, in which the
president had two voices." Edward M. Wing-
field was at once chosen president, and with all
the others, except John Smith, sworn into office.
They were still jealous and suspicious of this
man, (from no good cause whatever, as we shall






JOHTIuTHr. 49

see,) and thus refused him the place to which
he had been appointed. In fact, they even
went so far as to set forth a declaration to the
whole colony, showing why he was not admitted
to his office.
5












CHAPTER HI.

Noble conduct of Smith-Beginning of James-
town-Wingfield's imprudence in not prepar-
ing a fort, and having the men drilled to mil-
itary exercises-Smith visits the chief Powha-
tan-. ttack upon Jamestown by the savages-
Smith demands a trial, and is acquitted-.New-
port sails for England-Sufferings of the col-
ony-Selfishness of Wingfield-He tries to
escape from the colony, is prevented, and de-
posed from the Presidency-Ratcliff is made
President-Being a weak man, the care of the
colony falls upon Smith-His excursion to
Kecoughtan, to obtain supplies-His adven
tures up the Chickahomony river-Is made
a prisoner by the Indians-His treatment by
the savages-Presents his compass to Opecan-
chanough, and saves his life thereby-Writes to
Jamestown-Is led about among various tribes,
and at last brought to Werowcomoco, the resi-
dence of Powhatan.
THE injustice done to Smith formed good
ground for a quarrel, (and he had some friends
among the colonists,) but his own magnanimity






JOHN SMITH.


prevented it. They were all in a wilderness,
and much was to be done ere they could call
themselves at home. He forgot his own trouble,
therefore, in thinking of the good of the colony.
All hands now set resolutely to work. Some
went to clearing the forests, some to digging and
preparing garden-spots, some to making nets,
fixing up their fishing-tackle, &c. The Council
planned a fort, but from some cause, President
Wingfield did not desire a regular fortification,
and to please him, the fort was made to consist
only of the boughs of trees, loosely laid together
in the shape of a half moon. Some of the Coun-
cil, too, were in favor of having the men regular-
ly drilled to military exercises, that they might
be ready at any time to meet an attack from the
savages, which attack they thought not unlikely
to take place; but this too was thought idle by
President Wingfield, and consequently was neg-
lected.
Desirous of learning something of the coun-
try, Newport and Smith were despatched with
twenty men, to discover the head of the river.
They passed, as they went up, many small
habitations, and on the sixth day reached the
falls of the river, where they erected a cross,
and took possession of the country in the name






JOHN SMITH.


of King James. Near by, they visited the famous
Indian town, Powhatan. This consisted only of
twelve houses, pleasantly situated upon a sloping
hill, and was at the time the residence of the cele-
brated chief after whom it was named. Powhatan
(whose name rang through that region as the
greatest of Indian chiefs) received them with
great kindness, and was greatly delighted with
a hatchet, which was presented to him by Cap-
tain Newport. Some of his men seem to have
been suspicious of the English, and murmured
at their coming among them; but Powhatan re-
buked them, saying, Why should we be of-
fended ? they hurt us not, nor take any thing
by force: they want only a little ground, which
we can easily spare." The English now left
him and returned to Jamestown.
Great was their surprise, on reaching home,
to find that the colony had been attacked by the
savages--seventeen of their companions wound-
ed, and one boy killed. It was fortunate too
that they heard nothing worse than this: for the
whole company came near being massacred.
The colonists had not looked for the attack, and
were all unarmed, and the only thing that saved
them was, that a cross-barre shot from the ships
struck down a bough of a tree in the midst of






JOHN SMITH.


the Indians, and caused them to retire." The
president now saw his folly-the fort was at
once palisadoed-five pieces of artillery were
mounted upon it; and it was ordered that, after
this, the men should be armed and drilled
to their exercises. A regular guard was estab-
lished at night, also in the settlement, and the
men were cautioned about straggling into the
forests.
Six weeks had passed away, and the ships
were well nigh laden for a return to Eng-
land. The accusers of Smith now came for-
ward, and, in pretended mercy, offered to send
his case home, to be judged by the Council in
England. They were unwilling to try him them-
selves, (they said,) because they did not wish to
blacken his reputation, and perhaps take away
his life. Conscious of his innocence, Smith
spurned their proposal. He knew that his whole
conduct had been uniformly for the good of the
colony, and he now demanded that it should be
rigidly looked to-that he should be tried upon
the spot. The witnesses were brought for-
ward. Falsehood after falsehood was soon de-
tected among them. Some of them were convicted
of perjury, and the whole company at once saw
his innocence. His accusers were now con-
5*






TOHN SMITH.


founded. It was seen that Wingfield's jealousy
of Smith had urged false witnesses against him,
and it was decided that the president should pay
him two hundred pounds for the injury he had
done him. His property was at once seized, and
the two hundred pounds raised and paid over to
Smith, who immediately placed it in the public
treasury, for the good of the colony. Thus,
after a patient imprisonment of thirteen weeks,
he triumphed over his enemies; and his generous
and noble conduct had made him the most
popular man in the colony. He was now ad-
mitted to his place in the council, and by his in-
fluence and that of the good preacher, Mr. Hunt,
other little difficulties, which had arisen among
the colonists, were soon settled. The next Sun-
day they all went in harmony to the communion:
the neighboring Indians soon after came in, de-
siring terms of peace, and on the 22d of June,
Captain Newport was enabled to sail home-
ward, bearing good news along with him. He
left behind him, at Jamestown, one hundred and
four souls, and promised to be back among them
in twenty weeks, with fresh supplies.
Thus left, the colonists ere long began to suf-
fer for the want of provisions; indeed, the want
(it is said) was felt at times before, and had been






JOHN SMITH.


relieved at such times, by such supplies from the
ships' stores as the sailors could furnish. Some,
from this circumstance, have supposed that the
company at home was at fault, in not fitting out
the expedition better, and supplying it with ampler
provisions; but this censure would hardly seem to
be just. The truth is, the colonists, instead of a
voyage of two months, (as was calculated,) had
made one of five, and consumed during this time
a large part of their stores; and then they had ar-
rived in Virginia too late for the spring plant-
ing, and thus failed in another expectation.
This seems to have caused the difficulty. Be
this as it may, the want occurred, and they were
now reduced to a regular daily allowance of a
half pint of barley, and a half pint of wheat.
To make their fare worse, the grain, from
having been so long in the ship's hold, was
filled with insects. Yet this diet they gladly
received, adding to it, from time to time, such
fish as they could take from the river. They
still kept on with their labors, however, exposed
as they were to the scorching rays of the sun by
day, and lying upon the ground, with a poor
shelter over them, at night. As might have
been expected, starvation, exposure, and anxiety,
brought on disease before the end of the fall






JOHN SMITH.


season. By the end of September, fifty of their
number had died, among whom was Bartholo-
mew Gosnold. The rest were now divided into
three watches, (for they still kept up the pre-
caution of a watch,) and of these not more than
five in each watch were fit for duty at one
time. During this period of sad distress, the presi-
dent (it is said) thought only of himself. He
was well through the whole of it; and is charged
with having seized and secreted provisions for
his own use. His after conduct seems to con-
firm the charge-at least it shews that he had
but little sympathy with the sufferers. He,
with Kendall, was soon detected in a plan which
they had formed for seizing the pinnace, which
belonged to the colony-deserting the settle-
ment, and escaping to the West Indies. The
settlers were now enraged, and at once took
from him the presidency, and banished Kendall
from the council. John Ratcliff was chosen
president in his place, and he, with Martin and
Smith, were now the only members of the coun-
cil left.
Ratcliff and Martin were men of little courage
or resolution, and thus the management of the
colony fell almost altogether upon Smith; nor
could it have fallen upon a better or abler man.






JOHN uMITH.


The first thing to be done was to obtain supplies,
and these they soon had without any difficulty.
Fortunately, their Indian neighbors proved friend-
ly, and came in, bringing such quantities of food
as they could spare. Their hearts were new
cheered; and Smith, knowing that it was neces-
sary to make preparations for the approaching
winter as rapidly as possible, at once set the
men to work, resolutely leading the way himself.
His words and his example encouraged them
They commenced cutting timber for building
houses, and mowing and binding thatch for cov-
ering them; so that in a little time, Jamestown
was a comfortable village, in which every man
had a shelter and home, except Smith himself.
The stock of provisions which the Indians had
brought in being now nearly exhausted, it was
necessary to look out for more. He chose, there-
fore, five or six of the best men as his compan-
ions, and, well armed, they went down the river
in the shallop to Kecoughtan, the place where
Hampton now stands. Here they found but lit-
tle good feeling toward them. The Indians,
knowing their necessity, and the starving state
of the colony, treated them with great contempt.
When they offered to trade with them, the sava-
ges would give them only an ear of corn for a






JOHN SMITH.


sword, a musket, or one of their garments Pro-
voked by such conduct, and finding that they
were not likely to obtain anything by kind and
gentle treatment, Smith now resolved upon a
bold experiment. He ordered the boat to be
drawn ashore, and his men to fire their muskets.
The frightened Indians now fled to the woods for
shelter: and the party immediately went to their
houses, searching for corn. Of this they found
an abundance: but Smith would not allow them
yet to touch it. Fearing the treachery of the In-
dians, he supposed they would soon appear again
and make a general attack upon him. He there-
fore made ready for them: nor was he disap-
pointed. In a little time some sixty or seventy
of them, painted of different colors, were seen
advancing in the form of a hollow square, bring-
ing their idol Okee in the midst of them. This
idol was nothing more than a figure made of
skins, stuffed with moss, and ornamented with
chains of copper. The savages were armed
with clubs, bows and arrows, and approached in
great confidence, singing and dancing. Smith
and his men again discharged their muskets,
bringing many of them*to the ground, and
with them their idol Okee. The battle was at
once over; the rest now fled to the woods, and






JOHN SMITH.


soon after sent some of their number to beg for
peace, and to recover their idol. Smith, now tri-
umphant, was in a condition to make his own
terms. He agreed that if six of them, unarmed,
would come and load his boat with corn, he
would return their idol, be their friend, and give
them presents of beads, hatchets, and copper.
The terms were faithfully performed on both
sides; indeed, the Indians were so much pleased,
that they brought, besides, venison, turkeys, and
other game, and kept up their singing and dauc-
ing until the white men left for Jamestown.
Finding himself so successful in this enterprise,
Smith now, from time to time, as provisions were
needed, continued his excursions-sometimes on
foot, sometimes in the boat. He discovered most
of the branches of the James river, and explored
the country extensively. In one of his excur-
sions, he was particularly struck with the fertile
banks of the Chickahomony river, and marked
it as a region where, in time of want, he might
probably obtain plentiful supplies from the In-
dians. But his efforts at aiding the colony were
continually thwarted by bad management during ,
his absence. Ratcliff and Martin were weak
men, and allowed the stores to be wasted, which
he with so much labor procured. They suffered






JOHN SMITH.


too, the natives to come into the settlement from
time to time, trading, and the whites in their bar
gains outbidding one another at times, soon
taught the savages to set a high value upon all
their articles, and to complain if they did not
always receive the highest prices. Thus, a dis-
contented spirit soon prevailed among them.
Troubles, too, were continually fostered by bad
men in the colony. Wingfield and Kendall, dis-
satisfied at their treatment, made loid complaints,
and at one time, during Smith's absence, plotted
to steal the shallop, (which had been made
ready for a trading voyage,) and make their
escape to England. Smith returned in time, how-
ever, to prevent this, though it was done with
difficulty. It was necessary to do it forcibly, and
Kendall was killed. Soon after this, Ratcliff,
with a man named Archer, equally dissatisfied,
attempted the same thing, but these also were
prevented from carrying out their plans. Yo,
perceive, therefore,what struggles Captain Smith
had to encounter He had enemies around him
in the savages, and enemies at home in the colo-
ny, while almost from day to day he had to pro-
vide for the wants of his well nigh starving
countrymen. Yet he was resolved to keep pos-
session of the country, and difficulties only roused






JOHN SMITH.


nim the more, to carry out this strong resolution
Fortunately, as winter approached, a plentiful
supply of wild fowl were taken, and making
friends of the Indians from time to time, they
brought him quantities of corn, beans, and pump-
kins. He was in fact now the father of the
colony: the people turned to him in all their
troubles, and by looking closely to their wants,
he managed to secure most of them as warm
friends to himself.
It is well nigh impossible to please all men:
and Smith soon found that some few were com-
plaining of him, that he had not done all that he
could for their relief. He had, as I have told
you, discovered the Chickahomony river-and
the complaint now was, that wanting resolution,
he had not explored it to its source, made friends
of the Indians there, and opened the way for a
continued supply from them. Resolved that such
a complaint, however groundless, should no lon-
ger exist, he now fitted up the boat, and taking
some of the men, started for that river. He went
so high up the stream this time, that he was forced
to cut the trees that had fallen into the river, that
the boat might pass through. At length, having
moved up as high as the boat would float, she
was dragged ashore to a safe place, and the men
6






JOHN SMITH


were ordered to remain there with her, until he
should come back. Taking now two of his
men, with two Indians as guides, he moved up in
an Indian canoe, to the meadows at the head of
the river. Here he left his two men with the
canoe, and with the guides passed on for many
miles over the meadows. Smith's men disobey-
ed his orders, and consequently brought trouble
upon the whole party. Instead of remaining
with the boat, they went straggling into. the
woods, and ere long were discovered by a party
of three hundred Indians. These Indians were
commanded by Opechancanough, the brother of
Powhatan. The crew -all escaped with great
difficulty, except one man, who was made pris-
oner. The Indians now forced him to tell all
that he knew, and particularly where Captain
Smith was, and then put him to death. Follow-
ing the stream in search of him, they came, be-
fore a great while, to the two men left with the
canoe. These poor fellows were sleeping by a
fire which they had kindled, and were instantly
murdered. Ere long they discovered Smith in
the meadows, and immediately let fly their ar-
rows at him. One of these struck him in the
leg, and wounded him badly. His situation was
perilous enough, but he did not for a moment






.tm W sMrrH.


lose his presence of mind. He instantly seized
one of his Indian guides, and tied him with His
garter to his left arm. This man he used as his
shield; and having his gun with him, he kept up
a fire upon them as fast as he could. Three of
them fell dead, and several were wounded. For-
tunately, his gun carried farther than their bows,
and they kept at some distance. During all this
time, he was retreating as rapidly as he could to-
ward the canoe; but watching his enemies, and
not marking his footsteps, he with his guide sunk
to the middle in a hole in the meadow, and
stuck fast in the mud. His courage had so
amazed the Indians, that they dared not approach
him, helpless as he was, and incapable now of
doing them any injury. At last, almost dead
with cold, he threw away his arms, and begged
that he might be taken. They now came up,
dragged him out, and led him to the fire. Here
he saw the dead bodies of his two countrymen,
and knew at once what would probably be his
fate. Still he was calm. The Indians chafed
his cold limbs, and he now called for their chief
Opechancanough. Knowing that to beg for his
life was only to lose it, when the chief came be-
fore him he drew from his pocket his ivory
compass and dial, which he carried to guide him






JOHN SMITH.


in his wanderings, and presented it to him. The
chief and his people were greatly pleased. The
motions of the needle, which they could see but
not touch, delighted and astonished them. Smith
had been in the country long enough to know
something of their language, and marking their
feelings, he now began to explain to them the
use of the compass-the discoveries that had been
made by means of it-to talk of the earth, the
skies, sun, moon, and stars, and how the sun did
chase the night round about the world continually,
the greatness of the land and sea, the diversity of
nations, variety of complexions,"* &c., while the
savages stood amazed with admiration.
In a little time, however, their astonishment
was over, and they were ready to execute him.
They now tied him to a tree, and prepared with
their bows and arrows to despatch him. Just at
this time, the chief held up the ivory compass,
the savages threw down their arms, and forming
themselves into a military procession, led the
poor captive in triumph toward their village
Orapaxe. They were very particular in arrang-
ing the order of this triumphal march. They
ranged themselves in single file, their chief or
king being in the midst, and before him were
SSmith's Virginia-Vol. I., page 168.







JOHN SMITH.


borne the swords and muskets taken from Smith
and his companions. Next to the chief came
Smith, held by three of the stoutest of their
number, a-id on each side a file of six archers.
When they arrived at the village, the old men,
women, and children came out to meet them,
and were greatly amazed and delighted when
they saw the prisoner. Some strange manoeu-
vres were now performed by the warriors, and
at length they formed themselves into a circle
around Smith and their chief, and commenced
dancing and singing. Their looks and sounds
were strange enough to Smith. They were all
painted, dressed up in furs and feathers, and be-
sides yelling, made a great noise by brandishing
their rattles, which were made of the tails of rat-
tlesnakes. This circular dance was performed
three times, and Smith was then conducted to a
long hut, and forty men placed there to guard
him. Here he was feasted so bountifully with
Indian bread and venison, that he began to think
they were fattening him only to kill and devour him.
Kindness will win the heart of almost any
man, and Smith now perceived the effect of it
upon the heart of a savage. One of the Indians,
to whom it seems he had formerly given some
green beads, and other trifling trinkets, now came,
6*






JOHN SIITI.


presenting to him a garment of furs, to protect
him from the cold. The name of this man was
Maocassater, and it deserves to be remembered.
Very different from this was the conduct of
another Indian, an old man, who tried to kill
him, because his son was dying. Whether it was
that he supposed that Smith, by some enchant-
ment, had made his boy sick, or whether the son
had been wounded in battle, we are not told.
At all events, the old man's revenge was curbed,
and the prisoner was conducted by his guard to
the dying youth. He now told them that he had
a medicine, at Jamestown, that would cure him,
if they would allow him to go and bring it, but
this they refused to do. They were unwilling
to part with him, for they were all making
ready for an attack upon Jamestown, and cal-
culated upon great assistance from him. They
needed him as a guide, and now they made
large offers to secure his services. They promised
him his life, liberty, and as much land as he
should wish for, if he would only aid them. Smith
told them of the great difficulty of the under-
taking, talked to them of the guns, mines, and
other defences of the place. All this terrified
them, but did not dissuade them from their in-
tention. He was now permitted to write a note






JOHN SMITH.


to Jamestown, asking for the medicine, and
some other things that he desired, and some of
the Indians were to deliver it. Taking advantage
of this, he tore a leaf from his pocket-book, and
wrote the note, asking for what he needed,
telling his countrymen of his situation, of the
designs of the savages, and the best way of
frightening the messengers, when they should
arrive there. Through frost and snow the mes-
sengers made their way, and ere long came near
Jamestown. The whites, seeing them, sallied
out to meet them, and the frightened Indians,
dropping their note, ran away. At night, tak-
ing courage, they returned, and discovered all
the articles which Smith had sent for, on the
very spot where he told them they would find
them. Gathering them up, they now returned
homeward, telling their countrymen of the mar-
vellous sights that they had seen; and wonder-
ing, most of all, at the power of the speaking
leaf, which had secured for Smith the articles
sent for.
What they had seen, induced the savages to
give up the thought of an attack upon James-
town, and looking upon Smith as a wonderful
man, they now led him about the country, mak-
ing a show of him. They passed with him





JOHN SMITH.


through several tribes of Indians, 'on the Rap-
pahannoc and Potowmac rivers, and at length
brought him to Pamunkee, the home of Ope-
chancanough. Halting here, they performed a
strange ceremony, the design of which (as they
said) was to find out whether Smith's feelings
toward them were those of a friend or enemy.
The ceremony was as follows:
Early in the morning a great fire was made
in a long house, and a mat spread, on the one
side as on the other; on the one they caused
him to sit, and all the guard went out of the
house, and presently came skipping in a great
grim fellow, all painted over with coal, mingled
with oil; and many snakes, and weasels' skins,
stuffed with moss, and all their tails tied together,
so as they met on the crown of his head in a
tassel; and round about the tassel was a coronet
of feathers, the skins hanging round about his
head, back, and shoulders, and in a manner
covered his face; with a hellish voice, and a
rattle in his hand. With most strange gestures
and passions, he began his invocation, and en-
vironed the fire with a circle of meal: which
done, three men, like devils, came pushing in,
with the like antic tricks, painted half black,
half red; but all their eyes were painted white






JOHN SMr H.


and some red strokes, like mustachios, along
their cheeks: round about him, these fiends
danced a pretty while, and then came in three
more as ugly as the rest, with red eyes and white
strokes over their black faces; at last they all
sat down right against him; three of them on
the one hand of the chief priest, and three on
the other. Then all, with their rattles, began
a song; which ended, the chief priest laid down
five wheat corns: then straining his arms and
hands with such violence that he sweat, and his
veins swelled, he began a short oration: at the
conclusion, they all gave a short groan, and
then laid down three grains more. After that
began their song again, and then another ora-
tion, ever laying down so many corns as before,
till they had twice encircled the fire; that done,
they took a bunch of little sticks, prepared for
that purpose, continuing still their devotion, and
at the end de1every song and oration, they laid
down a stick between the divisions of corn. Till
night, neither he nor they did eat or drink, and
then they feasted merrily, with the best pro-
visions they could make. Three days they used
this ceremony: the meaning whereof, they told
him, was to know if he intended them well or
no. The circle of meal signified the country,






JQO IU:SMAhb.


the circle of corn the bounds of the ea, ,rid Ei
sticks his country. They imagined the world to
be flat and round, like a trencher, and they in
the midst."* Smith, of course, did. not under-
stand the meaning of all this, not did he know,
at the end of it, whether they discovered him to
be a friend or foe.
This ceremony being over, they brought him
a bag of gunpowder, telling him thait they
should mingle it with their cori, and plant it the
next season. He was now itivited by Opitcha-
pan (one of the brothers of Powhatan) to come
and visit him. He went to his home, and was
welcomed "with platters of bread, fowl, and
wild beasts;" but, as usual, not one of the savages
would eat with him. After this they brought
him to Werowocomoco, the residence of their
great Emperor Powhatan


0 mith's Viroiia, val. L. page. qj.













CHAPTER IV.


Smith is received by Powhatan in great state-
The savages propose to kill him-His life is
saved by the Princess Pocahontas-He is re-
leased and returns to Jamestown-Troubles at
Jamestown-He soon restores order-Kindness
of Pocahontas--Srrival of Captain .Newport,
in 1607-His visit to Powhatan-Strange
trafficking-Fire at Jamestown-Sufferings
in the colony-.Newport sails homeward-
Smith rebuilds the town-Arrival of Captain
.Nelson-Disturbance between Smith and Pow-
hatan-Bold conduct of Smith-Peace is re-
stored-Nelson sails for England.

WERowocoMoco, the home of Powhatan, is
stated to have been "on the north side of York
River, in Gloucester county, about twenty-five
miles below the fork of the river." When
Smith arrived in this village, more than two
hundred savages came around him, gazing at
him as "though he had been a monster." He
was not yet brought into the presence of thi





JOHN SMITH.


chief, until due preparations had been made
for receiving him. All being ready, he at
length came before Powhatan. In a long hut,
in the midst of which there was a large fire, he
found him seated upon a sort of throne, while
his two young daughters sat on either side of
him. He was dressed in a heavy robe of rac-
coon skins. On each side of the hut there were
two rows of men, and behind them as many
women, with their heads and shoulders painted
red. Some had their heads decked off with the
white down of birds, and some had strings of
white beads around their necks. When Smith
came in, they all gave a great shout. The
queen of Apamatox brought him water to wash
his hands-while another damsel brought him a
bunch of feathers, to serve as a towel to dry
them. After this, they feasted him with their
best provisions, and then they consulted among
themselves, as to what should be done with him
Smith soon understood his fate, when, at the
end of this consultation, two large stones were
brought in, placed before Powhatan, and he
seized and dragged toward them. His head
was laid upon them, and now the savages raised
their clubs to beat out his brains. The king's
daughter, Pocahontas, (it seems,) had entreated





JOHN SMITH.


that his life might be spared, but all her en-
treaties had proved useless. Just at this mo-
ment, she rushed toward the captive, folded his
head in her arms, and laid her own upon it. In
an instant more, poor Smith would have been
despatched. The king's heart was now soften-
ed: he consented that the prisoner should live,
to make hatchets for him, and bells and beads
for his daughter.
Whether farther entreaties of Pocahontas pre-
vailed or not, we are not told; but certain it is,
that in a little time the king was even more
generous to the prisoner. Two days after this,
he caused Smith to be carried to a great house
in the woods," and there to be left, seated alone
.pon a mat, before a large fire. "Not long
aftc;, from behind a mat that divided the house,
vas made the most doleful noise he ever heard:"
.tnd in rushed Powhatan, painted black, and
disguised "in a fearful manner," followed by
two hundred other savages, as black as him-
self. The chief now told him that they were
friends, and that he might return to Jamestown.
He had but one favor to ask of him, which was,
that he would send him "two great guns, and
a grindstone," and he promised, in return, to
" give him the country of Capahowosick, and
7





JOHN SMITH.


to esteem him for ever as his son, Vantaquoud."
So, with twelve guides, Smith was started home-
ward. Night came on, and they quartered in
the woods, Smith expecting (as he had done all
this long time of his imprisonment) every hour
to be put to one death or other; but Almighty
God (by his divine providence) had mollified the
hearts of those stern Barbarians with compassion."
Early the next morning they reached James-
town, and Smith treated his guides with great
hospitality. He now shewed to Rawhunt, the
trusty servant of Powhatan, (who was one of
the guides,) the two large guns and the grind-
stone for his master. The Indians tried to lift
them, but found they were too heavy. Smith
now had the guns loaded with stones, and dis-
charged at a tree covered with icicles. The
loud report, and the rattling of the icicles, fright-
ened the savages, and they ran away. In a lit-
tle time, however, they came back, and after
being loaded with trinkets and other presents,
for Powhatan and his daughter, they left him.
It was well that Smith came home just at
this time. His presence, of course, had been
missed, and all was now confusion at James-
town. The men had got to quarielling, and a
large party had seized the pinnace determined





JOHN SMITH.


to leave the country. At the risk of his life once
more, he checked this plot. He brought his
guns to bear, and threatened to sink the pin-
nace, if they attempted to move off. Inflamed
with anger, these discontented men (the presi-
dent among the number) now conspired against
his life. They said he deserved to die, because
he had caused the death of the two poor fellows
who had been murdered at the canoe, in the
meadows. Their design proved idle, for they
knew in their hearts that he was an innocent
man, and they soon had the worst of this effort;
for we are told, "he quickly took such order
with such lawyers, that he laid them by the
heels, till he sent some of them prisoners for
England."
After this a better spirit soon prevailed. Smith
now cheered his countrymen, by telling them of
the rich domains of Powhatan, the plentiful
supplies that might be obtained there, and the
great kindness and liberality of the chief. He
spoke, too, of the generosity of Pocahontas, and
what aid they might expect from her. They
soon learned for themselves to understand her
fidelity. From time to time, she would come,
with her train of female attendants, to James-
town, bringing them stores of provisions to re-





JOHN SMITH.


lieve their wants. Smith had made warm friends,
also, of other Indians. The savages would now
come in bringing presents to him, and trading
with him at such prices as he fixed. Many of
them had learned (it is said) to look upon him
as a supernatural being.
In the latter part of the year 1607, two ships
sailed from England to the colony-the one
commanded by their old friend Captain New-
port, the other by Captain Nelson. Nelson, (it
appears,) after coming as far as Cape Henry,
had his ship dismasted, and contrary winds now
drove him in distress to the West Indies. New-
port, more fortunate, arrived in safety. It hap-
pened, that Smith had predicted his arrival about
this time, and while the colonists of coursewere
happy upon his return, the Indians looked upon
Smith as a prophet. They knew that Smith
worshipped the God who created all things,"
and now they would talk of the God of Captain
Smith."
Whether it was that some of the council were
foolishly jealous of Smith's influence over the
Indians, or whether it was only imprudence,
certain it is, that they were in the strange habit
of giving the Indians higher prices for their ar-
ticles than Smith had fixed; and now, when the





JOHN SMITH.


sailors arrived, they were allowed to trade with
the savages just as they pleased. The conse-
quence was, that it was soon found impossible to
obtain as much for a pound of copper, as had
been before procured for an ounce. Newport,
too, in sailor-like style, was very lavish in his
dealings with the natives, and especially in
making rich presents to Powhatan, whom he
desired to impress with an idea of his greatness
The arrival of the ship, therefore, made some
little trouble.
Smith had talked much of Newport, and his
conversations, together with the presents, had
made Powhatan very desirous of seeing him again.
The boat was therefore now made ready, and
Captain Smith, Captain Newport, and a Mr.
Scrivener, (a gentleman who had come out on
the last voyage of Newport, and was now a
member of the council,) together with a guard
of forty chosen men, started on a visit to the
chief. When they arrived at Werowocomoco,
Newport, who was unacquainted with the coun-
try, began to suspect treachery on the part of the
savages. This place, you know, had been the
home of Powhatan, but thinking it too near to
the English, he had removed now to the village
Orapaxe. Smith tried to convince him that his






JOHN SMITH


fears were idle, but finding it impossible, under-
took with twenty men to go on alone. But he
began ere long to suspect mischief himself. He
had to pass many creeks and streams, and find-
ing the bridges over these to be made only of
poles, with bark thrown over them loosely, sup-
posed that they might be only traps or snares for
the white men. It seems, however, that he had
some Indian guides, and he made them pass over
first, to assure himself of safety. Thus he passed
on, until he was at length met by a party of
three hundred savages, who kindly conducted
him to the home of the chief. Entering the
village, he was received with great shouts of joy,
and then a splendid feast was prepared for him.
Powhatan again received him in great state.
Smith found him clothed in a fine robe of skins,
seated upon his bed of mats, his pillow of
leather embroidered after their rude manner,
with pearl and white beads," while at his head
and feet sat a handsome young woman." Other
women stood around, having their heads and
shoulders painted red, and strings of white beads
hanging about their necks. Before these sat
"some of his chiefest men." He was welcomed
heartily by the chief, as an old friend. A guard
of five hundred men was appointed to attend






JOHN SMITH.


upon him, and the king's proclamation was is-
sued, that no Indian should do harm to Smith or
any of his followers, under penalty of death.
Then the savages commenced apew their feast-
ing, with dancing and singing; and when night
came, the party quartered with Powhatan.
The next day Captain Newport arrived, and
was also treated with great kindness. He had
with him an English boy, named Thomas Sal,
vage, whom he gave to Powhatan, calling
him his son. In return, Powhatan gave
him Jamontack, one of his trusty servants.
Now they commenced again their dancing and
feasting. Three or four days were spent in this
way, together with trading, for Newport had
brought along with him many articles of traffic.
Powhatan bore himself like a chief, and the
whites admired him very much; but before the
visit was over, he proved himself to be a cunning
old man, and would have outwitted them all, but
for the superior cunning of Captain Smith. I
will tell you of his stratagem.
While Newport was trading with him, the old
chief became greatly dissatisfied, at what he
thought bargaining and trafficking in a small
way. He said therefore to him, Captain.New-
port, it is not agreeable to my greatness, in thi






JOHN SMITH.


peddling manner to trade for trifles; and I es-
teem you also a great Werowance. Therefore,
lay me down all your commodities together:
what I like I will take, and in recompense give
you what I think fitting their value." Captain
Smith was acting as interpreter between them,
and seeing at once the cunning of the chief, ad-
vised Newport not to agree to it. But Newport,
desirous of making a display, and thinking he
could manage the matter himself, immediately
consented, and spread out all his wares. Pow-
hatan instantly selected such articles as pleased
him, but when he came to making payment for
them, set such a high value upon his corn, that
Newport did not receive four bushels where he
expected twenty hogsheads." Smith was natu-
rally enough provoked at Newport's folly, and
determined that, if possible, the savage should
be no gainer by it. He now took out some
wares of his own: among other things, some
blue glass beads, which, as if accidentally, he
placed where Powhatan might see them. The
king was at once struck with them, and greatly
desired to have them. But Smith could not con-
sent to part with them. They were made (he
said) of a rare substance of the color of the
skies, and not to be worn but by the greatest






JOHN SMITH.


kings in the world." This only increased the
desire of the chief: but the more he longed for
them, the more unwilling was Smith to let them
go. At last, as a favor, he allowed the king to
trade for some of them, and now, for his glass
beads, he received two or three hundred bushels
of corn. After this, they parted good friends,
and the party went off to see Opechancanough,
king of Pamunke. Here they made another
good bargain with their blue beads. Indeed,
blue beads became now of such high value, that
they were all bought up at almost any price, and
none but the kings, their wives, or their daugh-
ters allowed to wear them.
They now returned to Jamestown, well laden
with provisions. Scarcely, however, had they
stored them away, when unfortunately a fire
broke out in the town, and consumed well
nigh everything. Their houses, made of wood,
and thatched with reeds and straw, were like
tinder for the flames, and quantities of arms,
bedding, clothing, and provisions were alike de-
stroyed. In this fire, their clergyman, Mr. Hunt,
"lost all his library, and all he had but the
clothes on his back, yet none ever heard him
repine at his loss." Indeed, most of the colonists
appear to have borne the calamity as well as






JOHN SMITH.


could have been expected. They saved what
provisions they could from the flames, and by
prudent management, there might still have been
enough for present wants, but for the delay of the
ship. Instead of returning homeward promptly,
Newport and his crew were seized with a gold
fever." They were busy every day in digging
the earth, and loading the ship with what they
thought so much treasure. Thus they delayed sail-
ing for fourteen weeks, during all which time there
were of course so many more mouths to be filled
in the colony. Smith and Scrivener were both
sensible men, and looked upon all this search for
gold as idle; but still they could not induce
Newport to leave earlier. At length the ship
was ready to sail, and the poor half-starving set-
tlement had to furnish supplies ere she could
move off. They were furnished cheerfully, for
her departure was regarded as a blessing. Wing-
field and Archer, too, to the great joy of the de-
cent part of the colony, were sent home in her
Upon reduced allowances, their sufferings now
increased. The winter was a very severe one,
many of the men houseless, and though Smith
did all that he could for their relief, before the
cold season was ended, more than half of them
had died.






JOHN SMITH.


As the spring approached, Smith and Scriv-
ener set resolutely to the work of rebuilding
Jamestown. A new church was erected, the
storehouse and palisadoes were repaired, and
new dwelling-houses put up. The fields, too,
were prepared under their direction, and corn
was planted. While they were engaged in all
this, to their surprise, Captain Nelson arrived in
the Phoenix, from the West Indies. He had
spent his winter there, (after being driven, as
you will remember, from the coast of Virginia,)
and now, to their great joy, came laden with am-
ple provisions for the colony, for six months.
Nelson was a man of good spirit; his heart
was touched with the sorrows of his country-
men, and he kindly served them in any way that
he could. He moved freely among them, en-
couraging them by his words and actions, and
rousing their drooping spirits. In this way he
succeeded in awakening a spirit of enterprise,
even in the inefficient president; for he now
urged Smith "to discover and search the com-
modities of the Monacan's country, beyond the
falls of James river," that he might profitably
relade the ship for a return homeward. Sixty
men were allotted to him for this adventure,
and in six days, Smith had so drilled them to






JOHN surra.


their arms, that they were ready for the enter-
prise. He was for loading the vessel with cedar,
while Martin and some others, were foolishly in-
tent upon filling her also with golden dirt."
Just as he was about starting, a difficulty oc-
curred, which kept him at home. The difficulty
was this.
When Newport was on the point of starting,
Powhatan had sent him as a present, twenty
turkeys, and in return, asked that he might re-
ceive twenty swords. Newport had imprudent-
ly given them to him; and now the chief sent a
like present to Smith, making a similar demand.
Smith refused to meet it, and the chief set his
men at once upon various stratagems, to seize
the arms of the colonists. Sometimes they
would enter Jamestown, and take them by force,
or steal them-then they would surprise the
men at their work, and annoy them in every
possible way. Notwithstanding this insolence,
nothing was done in return, until they meddled
with Smith. The colonists had orders from
home, to keep peace with Powhatan and his
people, and they were desirous of obeying. But
their insolence had now touched him, and Smith
at once took the matter into his own hands."
He sallied out with a party, seized some of






JON SMITnH


the .Indians and whipped them, and then re-
turned, bringing with him seven prisoners, as
hostages for their good behavior. But good
behavior was not in them. They, in return,
finding two straggling soldiers, seized them as
prisoners: and now they advanced almost to
the fort, in strong numbers, demanding their
seven countrymen, and threatening immediate
death to the whites, if they were not delivered up.
Smith instantly sallied out amongst them again,
and, in less than an hour, so completely cured
their insolence, that they surrendered the two
white men, and were glad to sue for peace. In
making terms of peace, he forced them to
tell their intentions. They declared, that what
they had done was by order of Powhatan, and
that his design was to get possession of their
weapons, that he might destroy the whites.
Powhatan soon.finding his plans discovered, sent
his favorite daughter, Pocahontas, with presents
to Smith, begging that he would excuse all in-
juries that might have been done by any of his
"untoward subjects," and assuring him of his
love for ever. But Smith was not to be deceived
in this way. He punished the savages, there-
fore, as he thought they deserved; and then
delivered up the prisoners, declaring, that it






JOHN SMITH.


was merely for the sake of the princess that he
spared their lives.
The Council, fearful that all this might make
an enemy of Powhatan, were dissatisfied with
Smith; but in a little time they perceived their
error. The truth was, it was the only way of
teaching the savages not to molest the settle-
ment; and when they soon after discovered,
that instead of "having peace and war twice
in a day," (as had been the case for some time,)
they enjoyed uninterrupted quiet, they were per-
fectly contented.
The ship was soon sent home, laden with
cedar, as Smith advised; and Martin, instead of
loading her with "golden dirt," as he desired,
was himself allowed to return home in her. He
had proved himself to be a weak and almost
useless man in the colony, and they were well
pleased at his departure.













CHAPTER V.


The adventures of Captain Smith during two
voyages made in an open boat, for the purpose
of exploring Chesapeake Bay.

ORDER being somewhat restored, Smith now
prepared for further adventures. His design
was to explore the lands on Chesapeake Bay,
and become acquainted with the inhabitants.
As the ship hoisted sail, therefore, on the second
day of June, with fourteen men he embarked in
an open barge, and moved down the river.
Parting with the ship at Cape Henry, they
passed directly across the mouth of the bay,
and discovered, to the east of Cape Charles, a
group of islands, to which they gave the name
of Smith's Isles." This name, I believe, they
still bear. Soon after, in turning the last men-
tioned cape, they saw two savages, who boldly
demanded who they were, and what they came
for. Presently they seemed more friendly, and
directed them to .Accomack, the home of their





JOHN SMITH.


chief. Upon reaching him, they were received
with great kindness. Leaving him, they coasted
along the eastern shore of the bay, searching
every inlet fit for harbors and habitations."
Sometimes they landed upon the main land, and
then upon the low islands which skirted the
shores, to one group of which they gave the
name of Russel's Isles," in honor of Doctor
Russel, their surgeon. This group is now known,
I think, by the name of the Tangier Islands.
Suffering now for a supply of fresh water, they
procured such as they could, and moving still
farther north, were ere long, as they came near
another group of islands, visited by a violent
tempest. Their mast and sail were blown over-
board, and with great labor they kept their
barge from sinking. These islands, now known
as Watt's Islands, received from them the strange
name of Limbo, on account of their disaster
Here they were forced to remain two days. At
length, the storm abated, and having repair-
ed the sail with their shirts, they passed over
to the eastern shore, and entered the river
Wicomico. The natives, seeing them, "ran
amazed in troops from place to place, and
divers got into the tops of trees." Regarding
them as enemies, they discharged volleys of ar-





JOHN SMITH.


rows at them, but the barge was anchored too
far from them, to suffer any injury. The next
day the party landed, and entering their deserted
huts, left copper trinkets, beads, and looking-
glasses. When the savages found these, they
were greatly pleased, and-soon became friendly.
Here, upon this river, we are told,* lived the
people of Sarapinagh, Nause, Arseek, and Nan-
taquak, the best merchants of all other sav-
ages."
"Finding this eastern shore shallow broken
isles, and for most part without fresh water,"
they determined to pass over to the western
shore of the bay. Proceeding some distance
further north without discovering any thing
remarkable, they crossed, and came coasting
down the western side, marking all the creeks
and rivers. To the first large river which they
entered on this side, they gave the name of
Bolus, because the clay, in many places, did
grow up in red and white knots, as gum out of
trees," which made them "think it bole am-
moniac." The river is now known by the Indian
name Patapsco. Here the crew commenced
murmuring. Their bread had been damaged by
the rain; in an open boat, exposed to all weather
Smith's Virginia, vol. i. page 175.
8*





JOHN SMITH.


they had spent twelve or fourteen days toiling
at the oar, and they now urged Smith to return
homeward. But he was for making farther
discoveries, and answered them in the following
words, which at once shew his spirit and reso-
lution :-
Gentlemen, if you would remember the
memorable history of Sir Ralph Lane, how his
company importuned him to proceed in the dis-
covery of Moratico, alleging they had yet a
dog, that being boiled with sassafras leaves,
would richly feed them in their return: then
what a shame would it be for you, (that have
been so suspicious of my tenderness,) to force
me to return, with so much provision as we
have, and scarce able to say where we have
been, nor yet heard of that we were sent to
seek ? You cannot say but I have shared with
you in the worst which is past; and for what
is to come of lodging, diet, or whatsoever, I am
contented you allot the worst part to myself.
And for your fears, that I will lose myself in
these unknown large waters, or be swallowed
up in some stormy gust: abandon these childish
fears, for worse than is past is not likely to happen,
and there is as much danger to return as to pro-
ceed. Regain, therefore, your old spirits, for re-






JOHN SMITH.


turn I will not, (if God please,) til' k have seen
the Massawomeks, found Patawomek, or the
head of this water you conceit to be endless."*
Some of the discontented were now ashamed,
out others who were half sick, still complain-
ed, and to please them, Smith reluctantly
started homeward. Passing southwardly, ere
long they fell in with the mouth of the rivet
Potomac. As the stream came rolling broad
and beautiful into the bay, the spirits of the men
revived, and now they "were all content to
take some pains to know the name of that seven
mile broad stream." They sailed thirty miles
up the river, without finding any inhabitants. At
length, seeing two savages, they were conducted
by them up a little creek, where they soon dis-
covered multitudes of the natives. The truth was,
it was an ambuscade. Three or four thousand
savages were lying in wait here, ready to in-
snare them; and now they came forward with
hideous yells, making threatening gestures to-
ward them. Smith was not frightened, but pre-
pared very coolly for an encounter. As an an-
swer to their threats, he commanded his men to
discharge their muskets over the water. This
was sufficient. The grazing of the balls upon
Smith's Virginia, vol. i. pages 176, 177.





JOHN SMrrH.


the water, and the loud echo of the report
through the woods, terrified the natives. They
threw down their bows and arrows, sued for
peace, and at once exchanged hostages. James
Watkins (one of Smith's party) was now sent
six miles higher up, to the residence of their
king. In a little time these Indians became un-
usually friendly, and frankly told Smith their
whole plan. They had for some time been y-
ing in wait for the party, in the hope of cutting
them off. To this deed they had been excited
by Powhatan, who had heard of Smith's in-
tended expedition up the bay, through some of
the worthless and discontented men at James-
town. These miserable men, because Smith
had prevented them from deserting the colony,
had thus, in revenge, attempted a plot for his
destruction.
They now moved up the river as far as their
boat would float. In their progress they some-
times met Indian canoes, laden with bear's any
deer's flesh, and readily obtained supplies; then
again they would fall in with hostile and threat-
ening savages, or others whose character then
doubted; but Smith's prudence and courage were
ample always for this kind of difficulty. He
had one regular mode of proceeding. When he





JOHN SMITH.


met the savages, he always put on a bold face:
if they seemed to desire peace, he would at
once demand their bows and arrows, and one
or two of their children, as pledges for their sin-
cerity. If they complied with the demand, he
regarded them as friends; if they refused, they
were looked upon as enemies, and treated ac-
cordingly.
Having frequently heard of a rich mine m
this neighborhood, Smith determined to visit
it. An Indian guide was procured, and in a
little time some of the party reached it. They
commenced digging the earth, and soon filled
several bags with just such stuff as Newport had
taken home for so much silver ore, but which
proved utterly worthless. The Indians thought
much of this mine. It produced a substance
"like antimony," which, after washing, they
used as paint, to beautify themselves and their
idols. This paint (we are told) only made
them look like blackamoors, dusted over with
silver," but they thought it very beautiful. The
party, though they discovered no mineral trea-
sures, found some profit in this adventure, for
they returned to the barge well laden with ot-
ter's, bear's, and martin's skins, which they ob-
tained from a straggling party of savages.






JOHN SMITH.


They now came down the Potomac, seeing no-
thing farther, worthy of remark, except the great
quantities of fish in the water.
The men being now in better humor, Smith
was in no hurry to return homeward, and
therefore resolved to move up the Rappahan-
nock, and visit his old Indian acquaintances,
where he had once been in captivity. As the
barge came near the mouth of the stream, she
ran aground, and while they were waiting for
the flood tide to take her off, the men amused
themselves by catching fish in a curious way.
Quantities of them had been left by the tide upon
the flats, and sticking them with the points of
their swords, they "took more in an hour than
they could eat in a day." Sporting in this way,
Smith met with an accident, which alarmed him
and all his friends, and at once gave a name to
the place, which it still bears. Having stuck
his sword into a stingray, (a curious fish, with
a long tail, having stings at the end of it,) the
fish raised his tail, and struck him on the wrist.
No blood followed the wound, but in a little
time he was seized with the most violent pain,
and in four hours, his hand, arm, and shoulder
were so much swollen, that Smith himself, as
well as his companions, supposed he was dying





JOHN SMITH.


With great calmness, he directed where they
should bury his body, and with sorrowful hearts
they "prepared his grave in an island hard by."
Their sad labors, however, proved unnecessary.
The surgeon, Dr. Russel, having probed the
wound, by means of a certain oil so far relieved
the pain and swelling, that Smith, as night ap-
proached, was so much better that he was able
to eat a part of the fish for his supper. The
point of land where this occurred, took the name
of Stingray Point.
It was the twenty-first of July when they
reached Jamestown; having been absent more
than six weeks. As they came near the town,
Smith determined to frighten old President Rat-
cliffe. The old man was known to be weak and
inefficient, and the crew were all ready to enjoy
the frolic. With the colored earth from their
bags, they painted the barge and decked her off
with strange streamers in such a way, that they
succeeded admirably. The terrified old man
roused the colonists, supposing that a party of
Spaniards were approaching to attack him.
When they landed and shewed themselves, they
all enjoyed a hearty laugh.
As usual, Smith found that his absence had
produced confusion in the colony. The presi-






JOHN SMITH.


dent had been rioting upon the public stores, and
was now engaged in building for himself a house
in the woods, where, living alone, he might es-
cape the murmurs of the people. Even the poor
colonists who were sick had been neglected;
this added to the discontent, and now the gener-
al cry was, that Ratcliffe was not fit for presi-
dent, and ought to be deposed. He was conse-
quently turned out of his office, and Smith chosen
to fill his place. The captain had not yet ex-
plored the bay as thoroughly as he desired, and
his design was to be off again as soon as possible.
He remained therefore but three days at James-
town, cheering the men by the story of his ad-
ventures, dividing provisions amongst them, and
making other arrangements for their comfort;
and then appointing Mr. Scrivener to 'act as his
deputy during his absence, was ready for his
departure.
On the twenty-fourth of July, with twelve
men, he again started. Contrary winds detained
them for two or three days at Kecoughtan, where
the savages treated them with great hospitality.
To amuse them in return, they set off at night a
few rockets, which alarmed the natives, and gave
them a wonderful idea of their greatness. The
wind now changing, they proceeded on their





JOHN SMITH.


voyage, and anchored at night off Stingray Point.
The next day they crossed the mouth of the Po-
tomac, and reached as far as the river Bolus, or
Patapsco. Hastening onward, they came ere
long to the head of the bay. Here they dis-
covered four streams, all of which they explored
as far as their boat could sail, and found inhabi-
tants on the banks of two of them only. As
they crossed the bay, they spied seven or eight
canoes filled with Indians, who proved to belong
to the tribe of the Massawomeks, a warlike
people of whom Smith had often heard. It
seems that only six men in the barge were now
able to stand; (the rest being sick;) yet as these
Indians shewed signs of hostility, Smith prepared
to meet them. The whites dropped their oars,
and under a press of sail soon came near them.
To give them the appearance of strength in the
eyes of the Indians, they now resorted to a strat-
agem. The hats of the sick men were hoisted
upon .sticks, and between every two sticks, a
man was stationed with two muskets. The
savages, counting the hats, were readily deceived
as to the number of men, quickly paddled F^'
the shore, and there stood gazing at the barge.
It was a long time, before any of them could be
induced to come on board. At length they sent





JOHN SMITH.


two of their number unarmed in a canoe, while
the rest all followed, to help them if it became
necessary. Their fears were soon over. When
the two reached the barge, upon bells and other
trinkets being presented to them, they persuaded
their companions to come on board. In a little
time they were trading freely, and by means
of signs talking freely with the whites. Veni-
son, bears' flesh, fish, bows, arrows, clubs, tar-
gets, and bear-skins, were readily exchanged for
such things as the whites could spare. They were
at war with the Tockwoghe Indians, (a people
living upon the Tockwoghe, or what is now
known as the Sassafras River,) and these Mas-
sawomeks were just returning from a battle,
with their wounds still bleeding.
Soon after, upon entering the Tockwoghe
River, they found the barge surrounded by fleets
of canoes "filled with fierce looking warriors."
These were Tockwoghes. Fortunately, one of
these Indians could speak the language of Powha-
tan, and he persuaded his companions to hold a
friendly parley" with the whites. Upon coming
.,,.., and seeing Smith's party in possession of
some of the weapons of the Massawomeks, they
at once concluded that they had been at war
with that nation; and now they conducted them





JOHN SMITH.


in triumph, to their strong pallisadoed town.
Here, mats were spread for them to sit upon,
and they were entertained with songs, dancing,
and feasting. These Indians had hatchets, knives,
and pieces of iron and brass, which they said they
received from the Susquehanocks, a tribe living
on the Susquehanock River, two days' journey
higher than the barge could pass." This tribe
they reported to be, like themselves, "mortal
enemies to the Massawomeks." Smith was de-
sirous of seeing these people, and prevailed upon
the Tockwoghes to send an interpreter, to invite
them to come and visit him. In answer to this
invitation, in three or four days, sixty of them
came down, laden with presents of venison, bask-
ets, targets, bows and arrows. A curious scene
now occurred with these men, which will at once
show the proper habits of Smith, and the light
in which they regarded him.
It was his daily custom to have "prayers and
a psalm" with his men. The poor savages,
marking his devotions, were struck with wonder,
and soon commenced theirs. "They began in
a most passionate manner to hold up their hands
to the sun, with a most fearful song: then em-
bracing the captain, they began to adore him in
like manner: though he rebuked them, yet they






JOHN SMITH.


proceeded till their song was finished: which
done, with a most strange furious action, and a
hellish voice, began an oration of their loves;
that ended, with a great painted bear's skin they
covered him; then one ready with a great chain
of white beads, weighing at least six or seven
pounds, hung it about his neck; the others had
eighteen mantels, made of divers sorts of skins
sewed together; all these with many other toys
they laid at his feet, stroking their ceremonious
bands about his neck, for his creation to be their
governor and protector, promising their aid,
victuals, or what they had, to be his, if he would
stay with them, to defend and revenge them of
the Massawomeks." Their promises and en-
treaties did not prevail, and in a little time Smith
.with his party moved off from the Tockwoghe
River, leaving them very sorrowful for their
departure."
SComing down the bay, they continued ex-
ploring every inlet and headland, and giving
names to them in honor of some of their compa-
ny. To mark their right of possession as dis-
coverers, after moving up the streams as far as
their barge would float, they would erect crosses,
or boring holes in the trees, would deposit
ai them notes or crosses of brass. The Patuxent






JOHN SMITH.


River was particularly explored, and they again
visited the Potomac, on both of which streams
they were treated kindly by the inhabitants.
Ere long they entered the Rappahannock.
Here they met a friendly people known as the
Moraughtacunds, and among them an old Indian
acquaintance. This was a man by the name of
Mosco-a curious looking fellow who had served
as their guide to the mine on the Potomac, on
their former visit. Unlike-most of his country-
men, this man had a black bushy beard, of which
he was very proud, and thinking he resembled
the whites, was very happy to call them his
countrymen." His home (I believe) was on the
Potomac, but like most Indians, he was a wan-
derer. Mosco was very kind, and urged Smith
in no case to visit the Rappahannocks, stating
that they were a hostile people, and would pro-
bably kill them for being friends to the Moraugh-
tacunds. These Moraughtacunds, it appeared,
had lately stolen three women from the chief of
the Rappahannocks, and the tribes were on no
friendly terms. Mosco's words weighed little
with Smith He supposed that his whole state-
ment, was only a cunning story invented to
keep his men trading where they were, and
therefore passed on up the river. Mosco, ac-
9*






JOHN SMITH.


companies him, still repeating what he had said,
and this induced Smith to take one precaution.
The Massawomeks, you will remember, had given
them, among other things, some targets. These
were nothing more than shields made of little
small sticks, woven betwixt strings of their
hemp and silk grass, as is our cloth, but so firm-
ly that no arrow can possibly pierce them." These
targets were now set up as a sort of breast-work
in the bow of the boat, in case of danger. Pre-
sently the danger was at hand. Upon coming
near a little creek, they discovered some canoes
at the shore, and upon seeing the savages, offer-
ed to exchange hostages. The Indians, after
consultation, readily consented. Five of them
now walked out in the stream to the barge,
bringing their man, and proposing to receive one
of the whites in return. They came without
clubs, bows, or arrows, and seemed in every way
friendly. The caution of Smith, however, in
duced him to send one of his men (Anas Tod
kill) ashore, to observe if there were any signs
of an ambuscade. The man performed his part
well, though he came near losing his life. Upon
landing, he said he wished to go over the land
to bring some wood. The Indians refused to
allow him to go, unless the barge would enter the






JOHN SMITH.


creek, and come near the shore. This seemed
strange; but Todkill, being a resolute man,
started onward. Now he perceived their cun-
ning. He had not gone far, when he discovered
some two or three hundred Indians lurking
behind the trees. He turned back, calling to
his countrymen that they were betrayed. The
hostage in the barge instantly leaped into the
water, but was instantly killed. The savages
pursued Todkill with clouds of arrows; the party
in the barge discharged their muskets, and pull-
ed for the shore. Todkill fell wounded, but his
countrymen were now on the land and rescued
him. Thus Mosco's words had proved true;
and to reward him for his fidelity, Smith, after
gathering and breaking all the arrows that could
be found, presented to him the canoes of the
Rappahannocks.
Notwithstanding this unkind reception, Smith
was resolved to proceed up the river. The rest
of the day, therefore, was spent in fixing the
barge in better condition for any farther attack.
Targets were now raised along the sides, making
a thorough breast-work all around the barge.
The next morning they started, and in a little
time felt the benefit of this prudence. As they
reached a narrow pass in the river, they heard





JOHN SMITH.


the sudden twang of bowstrings, and arrows
fell fast around them. Mosco fell flat in the
boat, crying out "the Rappahannocks." Upon
looking out they saw no enemy. The banks of
the stream were lined with beautiful greet
bushes: all was still, and they were at a loss to
understand where an enemy could be. Ere long
they saw the branches moving, and discovered
the stratagem. It seems that thirty or forty
Rappahannocks had "so accommodated them-
selves with branches as to look like little bushes
growing among the sedge." The whites in-
stantly discharged their muskets; the savage
fell down in the sedge, and the barge moved on
After passing on about half a mile, upon looking
back they saw these enemies, who now showed
themselves openly, "dancing and singing very
merrily." Thus Mosco's words were verified a
second time.
In their farther ascent up this river, they
met nothing but kindness. Some of the men
(who from exposure had been sick) now re-
covered, with the exception of one, a worthy
man, whose death was much lamented by his
comrades. This was Richard Fetherstone. On
the shore of a "little bay" his companions dug
his grave, and in honor of his good character





JOHN SMITH. *


and-services, as his body was laid in the ground;
the guns were fired over him, and the place
marked as "Fetherstone's Bay."
Being now at the falls of the river, they went
ashore, and some commenced setting up crosses
and marking their names upon trees, while others
wandered about in search of" stones, herbs, and
springs of water." They had taken the precau-
tion to post a sentinel on duty, and as an arrow
fell by him, he gave the alarm. Scarcely had
they rallied and seized their arms, when they
were attacked by a hundred savages. Sheltered
behind the trees, the Indians kept up the fight
for a half hour and then retreated. Mosco's
services here, proved very valuable in bringing
about this retreat. He discharged his arrows
among them so rapidly, that the retreating men
imagined that a body of Indians was in league
with the whites, and that their position was des-
perate. After the skirmish was over, upon look.
ing around, they discovered one of the enemy
lying upon the ground, bleeding freely. He
had been badly wounded by a ball, and Mosco,
savage like, would soon have despatched him
by beating out his brains. From this cruelty,
however, he was restrained. The poor fellow's
wounds were dressed by Dr. Russel the surgeon,






JOHN SMITH.


and in an hour or two, he was able to eat and
speak. Mosco now questioned him, to know
who he was. He said he belonged to the tribe
of Hassininga, one of the four composing the
nation of the Mannahocks. When asked why
his people had in this manner attacked the whites
who came among them in peace and kindness,
he answered that they had heard the whites
" were a people come from under the world to
take their world from them." Mosco asked him
how many worlds there were. He replied that
"he knew no more but that which was under
the sky that covered him, which belonged to the
Powhatans, the Monacans, and the Massawo-
meks that were higher up in the mountains."
When asked what there was beyond the moun-
tains, his answer was, the sun." The Mona-
cans," he said," were their neighbors and friends,
and did dwell as they, in the hilly countries by
small rivers, living upon roots and fruits, but
chiefly by hunting. The Massawomeks did dwell
upon a great water, and had many boats, and so
many men that they made war with all the
world.* For their kings, they were gone every
one a several way with their men on hunting
Stith, in his history of Virginia, supposes these Massawo.
meks may have been the same as the Six Nations"





JOHN SMITH.


but those with him came thither a fishing till
they saw us, notwithstanding they would be all
together at night at .Mahaskahod."* After this,
the whites presented him with many toys, and
persuaded him to go along with them. Mosco
now urged that they should immediately leave
this region, for he suspected treachery. But
the captive begged that they would stay till night,
and see the kings of the Mannahocks. who would
befriend them for their kind usage of him. In
spite of the remonstrances of Mosco, they de-
termined to remain, and he, shewing that he still
had his own thoughts, busied himself all day in
preparing his arrows.
All this time the chief of Hassininga was mov-
ing among his countrymen, and consulting as to
what should be done. At night the English de-
parted, and ere long they were attacked from the
banks by the Mannahocks. They followed them
all night, yelling, and hallooing, and shooting their
arrows. They could be brought to no terms of
peace, for their noise was so loud that the voice
of their countryman in the barge could not be
heard. When morning dawned, the barge an-
chored, and Amoroleck, (this was the name of
their captive countryman,) shewing himself, was
Smith's Virginia-Vol. I., page 187






JOHN SMITH.


able to speak to them. He told them that he
had been used very kindly; that there was one
of the Potomacs along who would have killed
him, but the whites had saved him; that he
could have his liberty if they would be friends
to the whites, and even if they chose rather to
be enemies, they could do them no possible harm.
Upon this, they all hung their bows and quivers
upon the trees, and two now came swimming to
;he barge, the one bringing upon his head a bow,
the other a quiver of arrows. These were pre-
sented to Captain Smith in token of submission.
He treated them very kindly, and told them that
if the other three kings would do the same thing,
he would be a friend to their nation. This was
hardly demanded, before it was assented to. The
parties now went ashore upon a low point of
land near by, the acts of submission were per-
formed, and Amoroleck was delivered up to his
countrymen. The whites were soon again on
their way, leaving upon the shore four or five
hundred Indians, singing, dancing, and making
loud rejoicings.
As they came down the river, they found
all the friendly Indians greatly rejoiced to hear
of their success over the Mannahocks, for these
people were not looked upon as friends by




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