• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 I
 II
 III
 IV
 V
 VI
 VII
 VIII
 IX
 X
 XI
 XII
 XIII
 XIV
 XV
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Stories of England and her forty counties
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002137/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stories of England and her forty counties
Physical Description: <12>, 180, <6> p., <6> leaves of plates : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Geldart, Thomas, 1819 or 20-1861
Jarrold and Sons
R. Y. Clarke and Co ( Publisher )
Hamilton and Co ( Publisher )
Whittaker & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Jarrold and Sons :
R.Y. Clarke and Co. :
Hamilton and Co. :
Whittaker and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Jarrold and Sons
Publication Date: 1852
Edition: 3rd ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- England   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Mrs. Thomas Geldart.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement follows text, also on the endpapers and flyleaves of both the front and back covers.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002137
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002230200
oclc - 45892543
notis - ALH0548
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page 1
        Front page 2
        Front page 3
        Front page 4
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    II
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19A
        Page 19B
    III
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27A
        Page 27B
        Page 27
        Page 28
    IV
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    V
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    VI
        Page 46
        Page 47A
        Page 48
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    VII
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    VIII
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    IX
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    X
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    XI
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103A
        Page 103B
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111A
        Page 112
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    XII
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    XIII
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145A
        Page 146
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    XIV
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    XV
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Back Matter
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Back Cover
        Page 191
    Spine
        Page 192
Full Text










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e000 questions of tile coi honestt pienomena ol life. :
SAllion Gide to English History

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STORIES OF ENGLAND.










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OF NG L AND


AND HER


FORTY COUNTIES.


BY MRS. THOMAS GELDART,

Author of" The Nursery Guide," Truth is Everything," Stories
of Ireland," Stories of Scotland," 4-c. f4c.


THIRD EDITION.


LONDON:
JARROLD AND SONS, 47, ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD;
R. Y. CLARKE AND CO.; HAMILTON AND CO.;
AND WHITTAKER AND CO.
M DCCCLII.


S TORIBS










qj,










PREFACE.


The aim of the writer of this little work has been
to impress on the mind of the child, by means of
association, the name and peculiarities of each division
of his own country. Many of us may recall the
difficulties which beset us in our early geographical
studies. Those long uninteresting names were but
as so many letters without meaning; but these
names must be learned first we were told, their history
afterwards.
Now, the writer believes that the name and history
may be learned, and best learned, together. The
name of Newcastle will not be soon forgotten when
associated with a coal mine, nor that of Carlisle when
the child has heard the story of Mary, Queen of Scots.
How far she has succeeded must be left to the expe-
rience of teachers to decide. That there is no royal
road to learning, that nothing worth knowing can be
attained without effort, the writer gladly concedes, but
that there may be a pleasant road, the "Stories of
England" will, she trusts, prove both to teachers' and
pupils' content.
The use of a map will be found very important;
indeed, as an efficient means of instruction, this little
volume will greatly fail without its assistance.

















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I.
PAGE
Introductory 1

CHAPTER II.

Division of Great Britain-Northumberland-Newcastle-
Mr. Grainger-Harry's visit to a Coal Mine-Castles 7

CHAPTER III.

Cumberland-Its capital, Carlisle-The Castle-Story of
Queen Mary-Walk amongst the Cumberland Mountains
-Mountain Tarns 19

CHAPTER IV.

Westmoreland- Kendal- Manufactures-Durham-Mustard
-A Battle Field-Glory-Stockton-Flax and Hemp 29

CHAPTER V.

The largest County in England-York Minster-Martin-
Woollen Cloth-Pomfret Castle-Lancashire-Cotton
Spinning-A Port 36




viii.


CHAPTER VI.
PAGO
The four Counties adjoining Wales-Cheshire-Cheese-
making-The old town of Chester-Shropshire-Coalbrook
Dale-Iron-its uses-The King's Oak-Story of Charles
the Second 46

CHAPTER VII.

Herefordshire Cider Fermentation Monmouthshire -
Chepstow-Tintern Abbey-Monasteries-Life of Monks 58

CHAPTER VIII.

North Midland Counties-Derbyshire-Derby-Silk Worms
-Matlock-Caverns and Petrifactions-A Visit to an old
Hall-Habits of our Forefathers-Tapestry 66

CHAPTER IX.

Staffordshire -Potteries- Newcastle-under-Line-Warwick-
shire-Birmingham-Manufactures 78

CHAPTER X.

Worcestershire-Battle of Worcester-Huntingdonshire-
Huntingdon-Cromwell's Birth-place-Northamptonshire
-Fotheringay Castle-Rutlandshire-the smallest County
-Leicestershire-Story of Richard III.-Cambridgeshire
-University-Newmarket Races 86

CHAPTER XI.

South Midland Counties-Gloucestershire-Edward II.-
Somersetshire Bath Hot Springs Bristol Sugar
Refining-Rum-Distillation-Glass Houses-Wiltshire-
Salisbury-Druids-Berkshire-Windsor Castle-Surrey 99





ix.


CHAPTER XII.
PAGB
Middlesex-London-Its great River-Seven Bridges-Cus-
tom House-St. Paul's-The Plague-Monument-Great
Fire-Tower-Westminster Hall and Abbey-Regent Street
-Parks-Zoological Gardens-British Museum-Hampton
Court-Story of Wolsey-Greenwich Hospital 116

CHAPTER XIII.

Hertfordshire -Malting- Bedfordshire- Straw Plaiting-
John Bunyan-Buckinghamshire-Lace making-Olney-
Cowper-Eastern Counties-Lincolnshire-King John-
Norfolk-Norwich Castle-Suffolk-Ipswich-Wolsey's
Birth-place-Essex-Epping Forest-Dick Turpin 134

CHAPTER XIV.

The Six Southern Counties-Kent-Hop Picking-Story of
Thomas a Becket-Canterbury Cathedral-Paper Making
-Dover-Visit of the Romans-Sussex-Hastings -
William I.-Battle Abbey-Brighton-Hampshire-Win-
chester-Story of William Rufus-George III., &c.-Isle
of Wight -Dorsetshire- Weymouth-Portland Stone-
Devonshire Eddystone Lighthouse, &c.- Cornwall -
Copper and Tin mines-Remains of a Saxon Church
-Conclusion 151

CHAPTER XV.


Concluding Chapter


. 174
















gist of (nutabibig,




PAGE
Collier at Work ................................... ..... 7
Norwich Castle ..................... ... ............... 18
Keswick and Derwentwater .................................. 27
Boscobel House ............................................. 46
The Salt Mine .................................... ........ 47
Tintern Abbey .......................... ....................... 58
Monk at his Devotions....................................... 64
Haddon Hall.................................................... 66
The River Avon, near Bristol ............................. 102
Stonehenge ..................................................... 110
Horse Armoury in the Tower ................................ 116
Instruments of Torture .. ................................... 125
Nelson's Pillar ................................................... 134
Norwich Cathedral ............................................ 145
Yarmouth Cart ................................................. 14.6
Hop Picking ....................................... 151
King Charles's Window ................................... 165
Eddystone Lighthouse ........................................ 168













STORIES OF ENGLAND

10fs tr ijortg ntutl.



CHAPTER I.
Introductory.
IN this wide earth of ours, the wisest man
may find every day some new wonder, something
to learn, and to discover; and the little child
who comes into the world ignorant of everything,
will, as he begins to think, be astonished to find
how much there is for him to learn. There are
countries and cities and towns in this great world,
the names of which he has never even heard;
things which he uses every day, of which as yet
he has no knowledge. By the winter fire-side,
in the quiet parlour at home, he can scarcely
turn his eye on any object, which would not, if
it could speak, tell him a story of some far-off
place from which it was brought. Now the
knowledge of these far-off places is a very useful
and a very pleasant knowledge. Few little
children can take long journeys to see the
B




STORTTES OF ENGLAND.


wonders even of their own country; but to read
in our homes of that which others have seen, is
certainly the next pleasantest thing to seeing
them for ourselves. The country in which you
live is but a very small part of the great earth,
and yet it is about this country alone that I am
going to write a little book, in the hope that it
may lead you to desire to learn yet more, not
only of your own but of other countries also.
If you look at a picture, or as it is called, a
map of the world, for the first time, it will give
you no idea of its real shape, for the world is not
flat like the map, but is solid and nearly round.
An orange will perhaps give you a better idea
of the shape or form of the earth than anything
else. You see that it is not quite round, but
a little squeezed or compressed at each end.
The earth not only resembles the orange in
being nearly round, but like the orange is full
in the inside also; and in no place that man has
discovered is it hollow. Within the orange is
pulp and juice; within the earth (that is beneath
the ground) are found stones, water, and many
useful things which you see every day in
different forms, such as iron, of which the stoves
are made-coals, so useful for making fires-tin
and copper, which are used for kettles and
saucepans, beside many other things-silver, of
which spoons, and the half-crowns, shillings,


2





ISLANDS.


and sixpences, are made. If we divide a globe
or ball, the half of that globe or ball is called a
hemisphere; and if you cut an orange exactly
in halves through the eyes, you may call each
half a hemisphere. One side of the round world
or globe on which we live is called the Eastern,
and the other side the Western Hemisphere.
The meaning of East and West I will tell you
presently. In the Western Hemisphere is a
great country or continent called America, and
many large islands. On the other side of the
globe or Eastern Hemisphere are three other
great continents, whose names are Europe, Asia,
and Africa, besides islands, amongst which is
that on which you live. I have spoken of
islands,-now as we are to talk a great deal
about an island, you must first learn what an
island is. It is a piece of land with water all
round it. There are some large and some small
islands. There is one island called Australia,
which is larger than the whole of Europe; but
the island you inhabit, is small compared with
many.
I must tell you the meaning of the words
North, South, East, and West, for they are
words which you will often hear. When you
are looking at a map, the top part is called the
North, the bottom the South, the right hand
or the side nearest to your right hand the East,
B2




STORIES OF ENGLAND.


and the side to your left hand the West. But
you would like to know out-of-doors which is
the North and South, East and West. I will
tell you. The sun always rises, or at least you
always see it first, in the East. He does not
really rise-for he never moves-it is the earth
that moves; but the place in which the sun first
appears in the morning is called the East,
and the place where he seems to sink or dis-
appear at night is called the West. If you
stand then with your right hand towards the
place where the sun first appears in the morning,
and your left towards the place where you saw
him disappear at night, the North will be before
you, and the South behind you. I hope that
this is clear to you, for it is very important that
you should know it. How the earth moves, and
how day and night are caused, and the seasons
as they come, making Spring, Summer, Autumn,
and Winter, you must ask some kind papa or
mamma or teacher to show you by candle-light
one evening with an orange, (which you must
fancy to be the world), and the lamp or candle,
(which will do for the sun). It can be then
shewn to you much better than I can describe it.
There is one thing more I must name before
I tell you about the island on which you live.
The earth is not, as I think you know, made up
of dry land, but a great part of it is water.





SEAS.-RIVERS.-MOUNTAINS.


There are large pieces of water called Seas-
deep salt water; the larger seas are called
Oceans. These oceans and seas which surround
the great countries of which I have told you,
have all names given to them. There are, too,
within these countries, portions of water called
Lakes. A piece of water surrounded by land is
called a lake; and in our own island there are
many lakes. There are Rivers also, or running
streams of water, which come out of the ground.
All rivers, even the largest in the world, have
but small beginnings. They begin as little
streams or rivulets, and run some way perhaps
without being noticed or scarcely seen. Then
some other stream joins them, and then another
and another, until at last they spread and grow
into deep wide waters which we call rivers, and
which never stop till they join some large river.
or reach the sea.
Our island has Mountains too; not so high
indeed as many mountains in other countries,
but still I think that the lowest of our mountains
would surprise and delight a child who had never
seen one. You have, all of you, I have no doubt,
seen a hill of some kind, and from a hill you
may form an idea of a mountain; but a mountain
is as much higher than a common hill, as the
hill is higher than the little heaps thrown up by
the ants, which we call ant-hills.
B3





6 STORIES OF ENGLAND.

Mountains are generally in ranges, and some
of these ranges extend for many miles: and now
I think that I have told you enough for the
present. There are many things which I can
only explain as I come to them; and if I make
use of any word that you do not understand, do
not think it is of no consequence, but ask some
one older and wiser than yourself to tell you its
meaning.










CHAPTER II.


Divisions of Great Britain-Northumberland -Newcastle -Mr.
Grainger-Harry's visit to a Coal Mine-Castles.


COLLIEB AT WORK.


IN the last chapter you were told the meaning
of the word Island, but the name of the island
in which you live you have yet to learn. You
live in the island of Great Britain. Great
Britain is the name given to the three countries
called England, Wales, and Scotland, which
form parts of one large island. They were not
always governed by the same king, nor under
the same laws as they are at present; each





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


country having its own king or queen, and
managing its affairs in its own way. If you look
at a map of Great Britain, you will see that these
countries are close together; and the English,
Scotch, and Welsh, instead of agreeing as good
neighbours should do, were continually envying
and disturbing one another. To live in peace was
a lesson which in those early days people had yet
to learn. Now look again at the map, and you
will find that Scotland is the most Northerly of
the three countries. It is divided from England
only by a chain of hills called the Cheviot Hills,
and by the river Tweed. The country of Wales
lies to the West and rather to the South of
England, and has no division except at the
lower part, where a piece of water called the
Bristol Channel flows some little way inland.
A Channel is the name given to a place where
the sea is contracted or made narrow by two
opposite lands, and the water thus caused to
flow for a time in a narrow passage. If you
look at the Bristol Channel on the map, you will
see what I mean, and also in what way it divides
part of the South of England from the South of
Wales.
To the West of England and Wales, and
divided from it by a narrow sea, is an island, the
name of which is Ireland, which belongs to the
King or Queen of Great Britain. England,




FORTY COUNTIES.


Wales, and Scotland, bear the name of Great
Britain; and England, Wales, Scotland, and
Ireland, together with a few very small islands,
are called the British Isles.
The oceans and seas which surround the
British Isles, are the Atlantic Ocean on the
North and West-the Irish Sea or the St.
George's Channel between England and Ireland
-the North Sea or the German Ocean to the
East-the Bristol Channel to the West-and
the British Channel to the South of England.
I have mentioned the name of each part of
the British Islands, but I shall not be able to
give you any of the history of Scotland, Wales,
or Ireland in my present little book. It is of
England alone that I shall speak.
England is divided into forty parts called
Counties-not countries, remember, but counties.
Of the first of these counties I will tell you at
once. We have been a long time coming to it,
but I hope that no child will have been so unwise
as to skip the last few pages as dry or dull. In
everything worth learning there are many things
very needful to know that are not very amusing
to learn.
NORTHUMBERLAND is the name of that
county of England that lies nearest to the
North. It has a long name, but easy to
remember if you know that it is the most




STORIES OF ENGLAND.


Northerly county of England. The Northern
part of Northumberland is divided from Scotland
by the river Tweed and the Cheviot Hills; to
the East flows the German Ocean, and to the
South and West are other counties, the names
of which you will hear iii time.
There are several towns and villages in
Northumberland-I shall tell you the names of
but a few. Each county has its capital, or more
properly, its county town-which is generally,
but not always, the largest town in the county.
The capital of Northumberland is Newcastle.
A few years ago, Newcastle was a dirty, ill-built
place ; its narrow hilly streets were badly paved,
and parts of the town were very unhealthy. In
time, however, old houses were pulled down-
rough streets levelled and well-paved-grand
buildings appeared, built of beautiful white
stone-tall spires of several pretty churches
were seen-columns and pillars in fine open
squares-a new post-office-and one of the
handsomest market-places in England was built,
which is covered with an elegant roof. Here
the market-women may sit dry and warm on
cold rainy days without any need for their ugly
sheds, or worse still, great patched cotton
umbrellas. I have seen a shower of rain throw
an open market-place into droll confusion: old
women covering up their goods in a hurry; the


10





NEWCASTLE-MR. GRAINGER.


opening of their umbrellas, and the pulling on
their great caped cloaks, with the noise of
many tongues, make bustle enough. With the
exception of the noise of tongues, all is very
different in Newcastle market-place. These
great improvements in Newcastle were the work
of one man, who once was a little child, as young
and ignorant as any of you. A person of the
name of Grainger built the new parts of the
town: I do not, of course, mean that Mr.
Grainger built the houses and churches with his
own hands; but he drew the plans, and taught
other persons how to build them. And the man
that has done all this, was once a little boy in a
charity school, without any rich friends to help
him on in the world. He learned the trade of
a carpenter and builder, and he was taught little
besides. His father was a porter, and his mother
used to make gloves and mend stockings. They
could not afford to send their boy to a good
school, and how he gained all his knowledge I
cannot tell you; but I suppose that whatever
he learned, he learned well; and it is wonderful
what a boy may do by taking pains, and not
minding trouble. He was, no doubt, a clever
boy; but had he been an idle one, he would
never have been the great and useful man that
he now is, nor have had the pleasure of knowing
that the changes in his native town are owing to
his perseverance and labour.


11





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


Newcastle is built on the sides and at the
foot of a high hill; and the river Tyne, which
runs through the town, gives it the name of
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. You must remember
this, as there is another town in England called
Newcastle. The river Tyne is crowded with
ships, constantly employed in taking away the
coals which are dug out of the mines at Newcastle
and the country around.
Have you ever thought where coals come
from? Perhaps not, so I will tell you. Coals
are found in deep places of the earth, called
mines, or pits, or collieries. As we come near
Newcastle, we see large engine houses, and
great beams moving up and down, for the
purpose of pumping the water out of the coal
pits. For you know that when we dig to some
depth in the ground, we come to water. The
water which was found in the coal mines was
for some time a great hindrance to working in
them; and until the steam-engine was brought
into use, it took the hard labour and time of
many men to do that which this useful engine
does quickly and easily in a few days.
I have never been down a coal mine, but I
think that you may like to hear of the visit
which a little boy, called Harry, once paid to a
coal mine, when he was travelling with his papa.
-The story of Harry is one of the most amusing,
as well as instructive, which a child can read.


13





EHABR AND THE COAL PIT.


I should be sorry that amongst the many new
books that are written for children, some of the
good old ones should be forgotten: but perhaps
some of you have already read the book to which
I allude-" The Story of Harry and Lucy, by
Miss Edgeworth." For those who may not have
seen the account of Harry's journey, I will write
a little of his visit to the coal pit. When Harry
came to the entrance of the pit, he felt rather
afraid, for on looking down the shaft, or entrance
to the mine, it appeared to him like a dark deep
well. The gentleman who went with Harry and
his papa, saw that Harry's face looked rather
red and frightened, so he said, "I think you
are afraid to go, Harry." But Harry said,
"No, not if papa goes."
His papa then got into a sort of bucket, which
was hooked to a rope, and let down the shaft by
means of the steam-engine. Soon the bucket
was out of sight; and, after having placed
Harry's papa safely on the ground, appeared
again, drawn up by the same useful, busy engine,
that was always at work-" Servant of all work,"
Harry called it, and he was nearly right. Now
it was Harry's turn, and he boldly entered the
bucket. One of the colliers (for so the workmen
in the mine are called) went down in the bucket
with him. "Now Sir," said the collier to Harry,
" keep quite still, and lay fast hold of the rope."


18





8TONIES OF ENGLAND.


Harry did as he was told, and before he had
much time to feel afraid, or to think how dark
it was, he was safe on his feet, and glad enough
to take hold of his papa's hand. They had to
go still further in the same manner, and great
was Harry's wonder to see this busy little world
underground. Men at work hewing down lumps
of coal from the sides of the mine with large
axes, and other men and some boys loading
little waggons with the coal already hewn down,
and about to be taken up the shaft. Harry was
much amused with watching the trains of waggons
running along a kind of railroad, and drawn up
the shaft by the engine. Happy and busy as
the colliers seemed, Harry was sorry to hear
that sometimes sad accidents occurred to the
men. Now and then the mine falls in, owing
to the workmen having hewn away too much
coal; large pillars of which should be left for
the support of the roof. When an accident
like this happens, all the poor colliers at work
there are crushed with the weight of the roof,
and are killed. In consequence of this, the
mine itself is sometimes lost. A few years ago,
at the town of Whitehaven, in Cumberland, the
roof of a mine worked some way under the sea
fell in, owing to the weight of the water which
broke in, and thus many lives were destroyed.
The bodies of the men were never found; and


14





FIRE DAMP.-SAFETY LAMP.


by the wish of the friends, the burial service
was read at the shaft of the mine. This sad
accident arose entirely from taking away too
many of the coal pillars.
Sometimes, in opening a new part of a mine,
they meet with bad air, which, if a lighted torch
or candle is brought near, takes fire, and the
whole mine is blown up, or explodes, and the
loss of life is great. This bad air is called
"fire damp." Some accidents also occur from
the effects of a vapour called choke damp;"
and although there have been great precautions
taken, and some clever inventions made to
prevent them, they continue to occur, though
not so frequently as in former years. A very
clever man, who was called Sir Humphrey Davy,
invented a lamp, by which the mines are lighted.
It is called a Safety Lamp, and is a kind of
lantern covered with fine gauze wire, through
which the flame will not pass; and thus one
cause of explosion in mines is greatly prevented.
Accidents, however, still take place at times
from carelessness, either in allowing the lamp to
get out of order, or in neglecting to observe the
way in which it burns when danger is at hand.
I have not told you all the wonders that Harry
saw in the coal mine, but you can read them for
yourselves one day in that and in other books.
Now I think that you have heard enough about
c2


16




STORIES OF ENGIAND.


Newcastle to make you remember that it is
the capital town of Northumberland, the most
northernly county in England. There are several
towns and villages in Northumberland, as famous
for their coal mines as Newcastle; but the coal
trade is carried on at this town on account of
the river, which enables the ships to come and
carry the coals away to other towns and counties.
There are many ruins of old castles in this
county, or at least, on the divisions of the two
countries of England and Scotland. They are
remains of the strong Border castles. The
divisions of the two countries are called the
Borders. I must tell you in this place a little
about castles; for although the name of castle is
known by most children, from the time that they
can build what they call castles with wooden
bricks upon the nursery floor, I think it very
likely that they have but few of them seen a
real castle, or if they have seen one, have never
thought of the use which was made of it, or the
purpose for which it was built.
In the early history of our island, when wars
with neighboring countries were frequent, and
when the rich and powerful oppressed the poor,
castle-building was very common. Each castle
had a lord, who reigned over a set of dependents;
and besides the castles which private persons
built, royal castles were frequently erected for


16







the defence of the country. The materials of
which they were built varied, but the manner
of building seems to have been pretty much the
same. The first outwork was the barbican or
watch tower, for the purpose of observing the
approach of any visitors from a distance, and
adjoined the draw-bridge, which, as you may
suppose from its name, was a moveable bridge.
The next work was the castle ditch or moat,
which was wet or dry according to the situation
of the castle. Over the moat, by means of the
draw-bridge, you passed to the ballium, a space
within the outer wall. The entrance into this
space was by a strong gate between two towers,
secured by a portcullis or falling door, armed
with iron spikes like a harrow, which could be
let fall at pleasure. Over the gate were rooms
for the porter or gate-keeper. On a height,
and generally in the centre, was the keep, called
sometimes the tower. This was often surrounded
by another moat and drawbridge, and more walls
and towers. In large castles, it was usually a
high tower of four or five stories, having turrets
at each corner. The walls of the keep were of
great thickness; and this part is all that remains
of many of the old English castles. The rooms
were gloomy enough; glass was not used for
windows in private houses, and would have been
of little use in castles. Small openings in the
c3


17


CASTLES.





18 STORIES OF ENGLAND.

wall served to admit light, and to enable those
within to discharge their arrows. Dull indeed
must have been the life in such dwellings, even
to the lord of the castle and his family; but too
often there were prisoners confined in gloomy
vaults and dungeons below, who could hear no
sound, but the rattling of the chains and fetters
that bound them, and who dragged out their
miserable lives, ended perhaps by starvation, or
in some violent manner. The view of a castle
annexed to this chapter, will, perhaps, give you
an idea of the general style of such buildings.








































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CHAPTER III.


Cumberland-Its capital, Carlisle-The Castle-Story of Queen
Mary-Walk amongst the Cumberland Mountain--Mountain
Tarns.

THE next county to Northumberland is
CUMBERLAND. The north of Cumberland, as
well as Northumberland, borders on Scotland.
To the north-west of Cumberland flows a
piece of water, called the Solway Firth; to
the east are the counties of Northumberland
and Durham; and to the south, Westmoreland
and Lancashire.
Cumberland is in many parts a beautiful
county. Carlisle, the capital, is a fine old city,
which stands pleasantly on the river Eden. I
went to Carlisle some years ago, on my way to
Scotland; and although I only stayed two or
three hours, I saw a great deal which interested
me very much, and perhaps it may please you
to hear about it.
It was early one Saturday morning that we
drove into Carlisle. The railroad was not
finished at that time, but Carlisle was a great
place for the meeting of coaches from different
places. It is now noted for being the point






STORIES OF ENGLAND.


where many important railroad lines join, and
no stage or mail coaches are to be seen. It was
a market-day, and a very busy market it seemed.
I think that a market is a very pretty sight, even
if it is not a covered market, as at Newcastle.
The rosy farmers' wives and daughters behind
their stalls, inviting the visitors to try their fine
fruit, or to buy the white plump fowls-the
many busy hands and eager faces-form an
amusing picture. On this summer's morning
of which I speak, the market was quite gay with
strawberries and cherries, which were sold in
pretty baskets, and tempted us to buy some
to eat on our journey. But we had not much
time to spend in the Market-place, which we left
to visit the Cathedral, a very ancient building;
and I must not forget that you may not know
what a cathedral is, unless you may happen to
live in a place where there is one. A cathedral
is the principal church in a city, and often
handsomer, larger, and more ornamented than
the other churches. Most of our cathedrals have
been built many years. A place where one of
these large churches or cathedrals is built, is
called a city. You must remember this. A
town, however large, is never called a city,
unless it has a cathedral in it.
We did not go inside that of Carlisle, for we
were anxious to visit the Castle, in which we felt


20





CABm SLJ CASTE.


great interest. This castle is just such an one as
I described to you in the last chapter, having its
keep, moat, and portcullis in good preservation.
There is a fine view from the castle walls, and in
the distance we could see some of the hills of
Scotland: they reminded me then of the sad
story of the Queen of that country, of which I
will tell you a little. You may remember I told
you that Scotland bad not always been governed
by the same king or queen as England. The
English and Scotch never could agree; and as
they lived so near together, the people in
Northumberland and Cumberland were often
quarrelling with those who lived in the south
of Scotland. Many of the English kings were
very envious of Scotland, and a great many
battles were fought, to get possession of it.
But after all, it was not gained by fighting;
and you shall soon learn how it was that
Scotland became united to England. At the
same time that there was a Queen of England,
there was also a young Queen of Scotland.
They were cousins, but they had not much love
to one another. The name of the English
Queen was Elizabeth: she is called by many
persons a great and wise queen, but I think
more because of the great men that lived in
her reign, than on account of her own wisdom
and greatness. However that may be, she





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


was certainly a very vain and jealous woman,
particularly jealous of her cousin Mary, Queen
of Scotland, who was young and beautiful, and
whose sorrows at least might have moved her to
pity. Mary married Francis, King of France,
when she was very young, and before she was
eighteen, he died. She then came back to
Scotland, where she found the people unruly,
and full of quarrels amongst themselves. She
does not appear to have managed them very
wisely; but it is hard to lay all her mistakes to
her own account, for she had bad advisers; and
perhaps her greatest mistake was in choosing
such men for her counsellers. Soon after her
return to Scotland, she married again, and chose
a foolish bad man for her husband, so that they
had very little happiness together. I do not
think she was a wicked woman; at least, not so
wicked as many persons have said. She was
foolish and light, and loved music and dress
much better than grave and more useful things.
She had one little boy, whose name was James,
who, when he grew to be a man, became King
over England as well as Scotland, because he
was the nearest relation of the English Queen,
Elizabeth. It is thus that at her death England
and Scotland became one kingdom. It would
take me too long to tell you of all Queen Mary's
quarrels with her own people. They certainly


22






MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTLAND.


treated her very cruelly, and after accusing her
of doing many bad things, they imprisoned her
in her oivn country, in the castle of Loch Leven.
She managed one night to escape-; and gathering
her friends together, a battle was fought, in
which she was defeated, and obliged to flee from
Scotland. She did not at first know where to
go: she thought of France, where the happiest
part of her life had been spent; but England
was near, and she remembered too that England's
Queen was her own cousin; so she wrote a letter
to Elizabeth, to tell her how full of trouble she
was-that she was driven from her own country,
and begged her to let her come and live in
England a short time. Elizabeth was a deceitful
woman, or else a very changeable one, for in her
reply, she led Mary to think that she might
come to England in safety. She came from
Scotland by water, and landed at Workington,
a town in Cumberland, with a very few of the
people who yet loved her, and then proceeded
to Carlisle. When she arrived at Carlisle, she
was received by some of Queen Elizabeth's
friends, but was soon informed that she must
dismiss her followers, with the exception of a
few ladies. She found that Carlisle Castle was
to be her residence for the present, and soon
discovered that instead of finding a home in
England, she had found a prison; for Elizabeth


23





MS oS -OF IEN~LAND.


seemed suddenly to think that Mary had done
many of the wrong things of which her enemies
had accused her, and therefore made her a
prisoner. But the true reason for her conduct
was her fear of the anger of the Scottish people,
if they found her taking the side of their weak
and injured Queen. She did not think of the
rule-" Do unto others as you would that they
should do unto you." It made me very sad
when I saw the green terrace where Mary was
allowed to walk, for I remembered the story of
her life in England, She never returned to
Scotland. Carlisle was her first, but not her
last prison. Queen Elizabeth sent her from one
place of confinement to another, still refusing to
see her, and still writing deceitful promises to her
cousin. Years went on, and Mary's fine brown
hair turned white with sorrow, more than with
age: her beautiful face grew full of lines and
wrinkles, and her light and merry temper was
soured and gloomy. At length, after eighteen
years spent in imprisonment, and many attempts
on Mary's part to gain her freedom, Elizabeth
sent a messenger to Fotheringay Castle, in
Northamptonshire, Mary's last prison, to tell
her that she must die. Mary was not very
sorry to hear this. She had had no pleasure in
her life for many years; and from some of her
letters and conversations, it is to be hoped that






LAKES OF CUMBERLAND.


she repented of the follies of her youth. In
those days it was the custom, when any great
persons were condemned to death, to behead
them. The way in which this was done I will
tell you. The poor creature was made to kneel
down before a block of wood, on which his head
was placed: his eyes were bound, and a man
called an executioner then cut off the head with
a sharp axe. If this was skilfully done, the
head was severed at one blow; but sometimes
the sufferings of the victim were great, three or
four blows being required to put an end to his
life. After Mary had been beheaded, when her
body was removed by her ladies, her favorite
dog was found hidden beneath the rich folds of
her velvet dress. This is all I can tell you of
Mary's history now, but I think you have heard
sufficient to make you remember the city of
Carlisle and its old castle.
The mountains and lakes of Cumberland are
very beautiful. The mountain of Skiddaw rises
3500 feet above the lake Bassenthwaite. In
summer time a great many persons from all
parts of England visit Cumberland, to see the
beauties of the lake and mountain scenery.
Near the town of Keswick is the lake of
Derwentwater, on which one rainy day I went
in a little boat many years ago, to see the
beauties of the country and mountains around.
D


25





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


The rain, though it fell fast, did not take away
from our pleasure, for we were most of us young
and gay; but we saw but little of Skiddaw,
which seemed to have put on a thick veil, so
many clouds hung over it. The little waterfall
of Lodore, however, was very lovely, and quite
repaid us for our wet walk to see it. We had
one great disappointment on this day, for we had
long counted on seeing the black lead mine at
Borrowdale; but as the rain was so very heavy,
we were obliged to give up that pleasure. You
know one of the uses of black lead, I have no
doubt, but you have not perhaps thought whence
the lead of your pencils is brought. The best
lead we have comes from the mines at Borrow-
dale, in Cumberland. The next time you draw
with one of your cedar pencils, you must think
of this. Plumbago is the proper name of this
substance, there being in reality no lead in its
composition. It consists of 90 parts of charcoal,
and 10 of iron. On the spot it is called wad by
the miners. It is not found in veins, as most
minerals are, but in irregular masses. In order
to mske pencils, the black lead is sawed into
square slips, and fitted into a groove made in a
piece of wood, and another piece of wood is
glued over. Cedar is generally used for the
purpose. There are many curious and beautiful
things to be seen in Cumberland, of which I


26





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MOUNTAIN TARN.


should like to tell you, but it would take more
room and time than I have at present.
The smaller mountain lakes, or tarns, as they
are called in the north of England, are some-
times more beautiful than the larger lakes. I
once went a pleasant walk up a very wild and
hilly path, to see one of these tarns, which was
far above the lakes I had just seen. After a
long and weary walk, when I turned round, I
saw villages and lakes lying far below; and, hilly
as the path had seemed, I had no idea that I had
climbed so high. The little view of Keswick
and Derwentwater will give you a good notion
of the view I saw.
There was a neat but poor house among these
mountains, and I was inclined to pity the poor
people who lived there; but they looked so
contented and happy, that- my pity was wasted
on them. The man was a merry-looking rake
maker, and lived with a cheerful rosy-faced
sister who was busy milking her cow, and
looked clean and healthy. She said that this
quiet country life and lone house was very well
in summer time, and when they had health and
strength, but there were many long days in
winter when she should be glad to hear the
voice of a visitor. Sometimes for weeks
together, when the snow was thick and un-
tracked, they could not go to church, nor to
D2


27





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


the village for what they needed. She said too,
that once when her mother was ill, and they
were far from the doctor, she had many sad,
anxious hours, and she gave a very mournful
account of the sad funeral journey, when she
died, down the mountain path which we had
climbed so merrily. The man amused us by
showing us some lucifer matches, as something
quite new and very wonderful. He had not
even heard of the death of King William,
which had taken place many weeks before, and
asked us as a favour to send him a newspaper
now and then, which, he said, would be a great
pleasure to him.
The town of Whitehaven, in Cumberland, is
famous for its collieries and ship-building. It
has a new and handsome pier, but there is not
much that is very interesting in the town or the
country around.
I think that I have now told you as much of
the county of Cumberland as you will remember.
You must really see a lake with its wooded and
sloping banks, and a mountain with its rugged
sides, to have an idea of the beauty of the
country in this part of England.


28









CHAPTER IV.


Westmoreland Kendal Manufactures-- Durham -Mustard -A
Battle Field-Glory-Stockton-Flax and Hemp.

THE county to the south of Cumberland is
WESTMORELAND, a small county, but full of
beauty and interest. It is something the shape
of a vine leaf. It has Cumberland on the north
and north-west, Yorkshire on the east, Lanca-
shire and the Irish Channel on the south and
south-west. The largest lake in England is
Windermere, it lies between this county and
Lancashire. Although the largest, I cannot
say that I think it the most beautiful of the
English lakes. It has more the appearance of
a fine river than a lake, and the banks are
planted almost entirely with larch trees, which
though pretty when mixed with other trees,
have not a very nice appearance alone.
The capital of Westmoreland is Appleby, a
small and ill-built place, of which I can tell you
nothing that will interest you. Kendal is a
much more important town, and very pleasantly
situated. It is noted for its manufacture of
woollen goods and knitted stockings. I shall
have a great deal to tell you of manufactures, so
D3





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


I think you had better be quite sure of the
meaning of the word, which I will explain to you.
Some articles which you use every day pass
through many changes before they become fit
for use. When you look at the wool on a
sheep's back, you would be puzzled to find any
resemblance between it and the cloth of which
your papa's coat is made. That which appears to
you common earth or clay, is very unlike the
pretty mugs and tea-cups on the tea-table. But
it is true that the cloth of a coat is made from
the wool on a sheep's back, and the beautiful
china which you admire was once a kind of clay.
The changes wrought in these things are the
result of man's labour and skill. God has given
him a mind capable of constant improvement,
so that we can see no end to his invention, no
bounds to his discoveries. To prove to you
how much he has improved within the last five
or six hundred years, you should read the early
history of your country, and you would find
that the manufactures of Britain then were but
few. There was no china, no cloth, no cotton
goods, no weaving of any kind; and now there
are very few towns in England which have not
some manufacture or other.
Such towns are called manufacturing towns,
and the large houses or workshops where these
manufactories are carried on are called Factories.


30





DURHAM-MUSTARD.


I will soon tell you a little about the manufac-
ture of cloth, which I think will be very
interesting to you.
Kendal has been noted for its cloth manufac-
tures for nearly four hundred years. It was
then that some Flemish weavers, from the
country called Flanders, in Europe, came and
settled at Kendal, and carried on the weaving,
at which they were very expert.
The next county of which I shall have to tell
you is DURHAM. It lies to the south of Nor-
thumberland, and to the North of Yorkshire.
The county of Cumberland lies to its west, and
to the east is the German Ocean.
The western part of Durham is very bleak
and barren, but there are some pretty parts
towards the middle of the county. It is noted for
its breed of cattle. The ancient city of Durham,
the capital of the county, has a fine cathedral.
The river Wear runs through the city, but there
is not much to tell you about Durham.
There are large quantities of mustard grown in
the neighbourhood. I think it is very likely that
some of you that have gardens have watched
the mustard springing up there with great
pleasure, and I suppose most of you have eaten
mustard and cress in the spring. The mustard
which comes to table and is eaten with meat, is
made from the seed of this plant when ground;


31





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


the Durham mustard is thought the best in Eng-
land. A few miles from Durham is a stone
called Nevill's Cross, built on a spot, where, many
years ago, a great battle was fought between the
English and the Scotch. At the time of this
battle Edward the Third, then king of England,
was in France, engaged in a war with the king
of that country. France is a country on the
Continent of Europe. If you look at a map
you will see that parts of France are not far
from England. At a town called Dover, in the
south of England, I have seen the coast of France
very plainly on a clear day. Edward the Third
left his queen, whose name was Philippa, to
govern the kingdom in his absence. It must
have been disagreeable work for a woman to
manage the quarrelsome people of those times,
but very likely it was less so to Philippa, than
it would be to a queen now. The battle at
Nevill's cross ended in the defeat of the Scotch,
and the English took king David and made him
prisoner. Philippa has been called a very
brave woman for her actions at this time, but
I think she appears to much more advantage
soon after this battle, when she joined king
Edward in France, where at her earnest request
the lives of six men were spared, whom her
husband was about to put to death after one of
his victories over the French. There is a great


32





NO GLORY IN WAI.


deal written and said of the glory of war. You
must take care not to be misled by this word,
which belongs less to those commonly called
glorious, than to many of whose acts and suffer-
ings the world has never heard. It often requires
more courage to do a just and good action, to
speak the truth, to deny one's self, or to master a
bad passion, than to enter the battle field, and
meet the sword and the cannon. A little child,
believe me, may be braver than a soldier, and
many a man who has died fighting for his king
and country, may have been a coward in bearing
trials with patience. I do not mean to deny
that there have been good and great men who
have fought in battle; and in old times, it
seemed to be the only way that people knew of
settling their differences and quarrels. Too
often, however, if a king fancied a neighboring
country richer or better than his own, he would
call together his people to help him to obtain it.
The people had very little choice in the matter;
the reaper was taken from the harvest field, the
countrymen from the plough, the father from
his family; all were forced to take up arms,
because their king would not keep the command-
ment, Thou shalt not covet." This, you will
say, takes no little from the glory of war, and
the skill and courage with which men use their
swords and lances does not make the cause in


83






STORIES OF ENGLAND.


which they fought either just or glorious. What
a scene must a battle field have been! On the
day of battle two armies were drawn up in
opposite lines in an open space. At the sound of
a trumpet, they rushed upon one another either
to kill, or to be killed. The clash of their heavy
weapons, the groans of the dying, youth cut
down in health and vigour, the trampling of
horses, the noise of the cannon, and the shouts
of thousands-this is what some people call
GLORY! but may you never think it so; and
whilst you should feel pity and charity for
those who knew no better, be thankful that
there is no war in your own happy country at
present, and that the corn now waves, and the
grass grows over the battle fields in a day of
blessed peace.
The town of Stockton, in Durham, is noted for
making sail-cloth and ropes, both so useful for
ships and fishing boats. Although you may
have been to the sea-side, and seen the large
coarse sails, and the strong ropes of the vessels,
I dare say you have not thought that the
material of which sails and ropes are made, was
once a little plant called hemp, growing to
the height of about six or eight feet. Hemp is
grown in some parts of England, but it is not
thought so good or durable as that which is
brought from Russia, a country in the north


84





STOCKTON.-HEMP AND FLAX. 85

of Europe. Hemp is gathered when ripe; and
the first thing to be done to the plant is to steep
the stalks in water, in order that the outer rind
may crack, and the fibres, or threadlike portions
within, may be taken away more easily. It is
this fibrous part which is used for weaving; but
there is a great deal to be done to it before it
can be woven. The finer hemp is used for
many things beside sail-cloth and ropes. Flax
is also manufactured at Stockton, into damask,
of which table linen, such as dinner cloths and
napkins, is made. Flax is a pretty glass-like
plant, bearing a pale blue flower, and a field of
flax in blossom has a beautiful appearance. It
is grown in some parts of England and Ireland,
and is also brought in large quantities from
Germany and other countries.












CHAPTER V.


The largest County in England-York Minster-Martin-Woollen
Cloth-Pomfret Castle-Lancashire-Cotton Spinning-A Port.

THERE is a county to the south of Westmore-
land and Durham, called YORKSHIRE, which is
the largest in England. It is divided into
three parts called Ridings, one to the north,
a second to the east, and a third to the west.
The capital is York, a curious and very old city.
It was once like many other ancient towns, sur-
rounded by strong walls, and a great part of
these walls remain, though they are, of course,
decaying from age. It was the custom to
build walls round large towns, in early times;
the strong gates of which were locked at a
certain hour every night, after which time it
was difficult to leave the town, and impossible
to enter without the leave of the gate-keeper
or porter. This was needful for the safety of
the citizens in the unsettled state of the country,
for it was seldom that it was quite free from
enemies, and the soldiers would often have
entered by night and attacked the inhabitants,
had it not been for these strong walls. Those





YORK MINSTER.


of York would be of little use now; but the
ruins are still beautiful, and York, with its
narrow streets and old fashioned houses, is an
interesting place. It stands upon the river
Ouse. Its beautiful Cathedral or Minster, as it
is called, is worth taking a journey to see, for
any lover of fine buildings. To describe it to
you would not, I fear, be interesting, but some
of you may one day see it. You may be sure
the York people are very proud of it, but they
have nearly lost it more than once. Part of it
was once struck by lightning; but its greatest
misfortune was a terrible fire in the year 1829,
which destroyed some of its finest ornaments.
A man, named Martin, hid himself till service
was over one afternoon, and set fire to the build-
ing. How he escaped from the flames I do not
know, but I suppose that he found it easy to do
so amidst the crowd, which the flames and smoke
soon drew together. There was scarcely a man in
York who was not anxious to assist in saving
this beautiful Minster. Martin, the author of the
fire, was discovered; and though he was proved
to be mad, some of the York people were so
angry with him, that they would have killed
him if he had been within their reach. He was
saved from their fury and placed in an asylum
near York, where insane people are kept.
Yorkshire has a great many manufacturing
E


387







STORIES OF ENGLAND.


towns; indeed, almost every town in it of any
size is noted for some manufacture.
Leeds is the name of a large town, celebrated
for its cloth manufactures. Three-hundred
years ago, Leeds was a poor little place with
one parish church and a few narrow streets.
The person who wrote its history then, spoke
of it as a pretty quiet little market town." I
think if he could now be set down in one of the
busy streets of Leeds, and could see the tall
smoking chimneys of the great factories, he
would not believe he was in Leeds, at all-that
pretty little market town" of which he wrote.
Wool is the article that is principally manufac-
tured at Leeds. You know, of course, that
wool comes from the backs of sheep, and it is
used in making cloths and stuffs. The wool of
the German sheep is thought to make the best
cloth. Germany is a country in Europe; but a
very large quantity of the wool that is used is
brought from Australia, the largest island in
the world, belonging to Asia. You must have
noticed how tangled and rough the wool of
sheep is. The first thing to be done is to
divide these locks of wool, to comb and make
them smooth. It must also be well washed, to
free it from its dust and dirt. It is next spun or
twisted into what is called yarn, an article some-
thing like worsted. It is then generally dyed,


388






MANUFACTURE OF CLOTH.


but for some purposes it is thought best not to
dye it, till after it is woven. It would take me
too long to tell you the whole process of cloth
making, for there is a great deal to be done to
it before it looks like the cloth with which you
are acquainted. It has to be woven, then
washed, beaten or milled, combed, oiled, and
clipped with great care, before it is fit for use:
but to understand the whole process of weaving
and finishing the cloth, you must know a little
of machinery, or the words that I should be
obliged to use in describing it, would puzzle
without instructing you.
Halifax, Huddersfield, and Bradford, have
also large manufactures for spinning yarn, and
weaving different kinds of stuffs: Sheffield is
famous for making knives and scissors.
The town of Pontefract, or as it is called
Pomfret, is noted for its large fields or planta-
tions of liquorice, which is grown at this place
because of the richness and great depth of the
soil, the roots of the plant going down into it
one or two yards at least. You have, no doubt,
tasted liquorice; but the black sticks in which
you buy it in shops, will give you no idea of it
in its first natural state. It is the juice extracted
from the roots of a plant, or low shrub of that
name. At Pontefract it is prepared in little
cakes or lozenges called Pomfret Cakes, and on
E2


39






STORIES OF ENGLAND.


the back of each is a picture stamped of the old
castle of the town of Pontefract. I will tell you
a story about this castle. Many years ago there
was a King of England, whose name was
Richard. He was the second King of that
name, and called Richard the Second. He was
the only son of Edward the Black Prince, who
obtained that title from the black armour he
wore. As this Prince died when a young man,
Richard came to the throne at the death of his
grandfather Edward the Third, of whom I have
told you already. Richard was at this time but
eleven years of age. It was a sad thing for
Richard that he came to the throne so young.
Instead of having his wrong tempers and disposi-
tions corrected, he was flattered and spoiled,
and grew up a vain and wicked man. His
reign was a miserable one; and at last his people,
tired of his misrule and many acts of cruelty,
took his crown from him. After this the poor
King suffered such poverty, that he often knew
the want of food. He was confined in Pomfret
Castle for some time, and in that place he was
murdered in a manner too cruel to relate. You
may still see this old castle if ever you go to
Pontefract. At a place called Knaresborough,
in Yorkshire, is a wonderful well, known by the
name of the Dropping Well of Knaresborough.
It rises at the foot of a rock composed of lime-


40





LANCASHIRE.-CASTLE.


stone, near the banks of the river Nid. After
running about 20 yards towards the river, it
spreads over the top of a crag 30 feet high, from
whence it falls in a shower. The water is very
cold, and incrusts every thing on which it falls,
with some of the earth collected in its course.
LANCASHIRE lies to the west of Yorkshire,
and has Westmoreland on the north, and
Cheshire on the south, whilst it is bordered on
the west by the Irish Sea. The capital or
county town of Lancashire, though by no means
its most important town, is Lancaster. Lancaster
stands in a very pretty situation. It has a fine
old castle, the views from which are beautiful.
This castle is now used for a prison. I went
over it when I was at Lancaster, but it was a
mournful sight; and though I was very young,
I did not forget the sad looks of the prisoners
for many days, particularly of some of the
younger ones. Some looked hardened and not
ashamed of being there, whilst others appeared
as though they could not bear us to look upon
them. A prison contains a sad picture of man,
shewing to what wretched consequences his
ungoverned passions will lead. The thief, the
drunkard, or the murderer, confined within
the gloomy walls of a prison, was once a
little child. He did not begin with great sins,
but with small ones; or, at least, with such as
E3


41





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


you commit. Perhaps with disobedience, or
with an untruth, and then how easy was his
path downwards. Beware of small beginnings!
The city of Manchester is a large and busy
place, and has more inhabitants than any town
in England, except London. It stands on the
river Irwell, and is noted for its large cotton
manufactories. Manufacturing towns are sel-
dom pleasant; and although Manchester has
many fine buildings and streets, it is not a
handsome place. The tall factories and their
lofty chimnies, from which the smoke is ever
pouring, have not a pretty effect.
I told you that Manchester is noted for its
cotton manufactures. Do you know what
cotton is? Perhaps not; for the gay print
dresses that you see, and the reels of cotton in
mamma's workbox, will not give you any help
in guessing the appearance of cotton before it
is manufactured. Cotton is the down taken
from the pod or seed-vessel of the cotton tree,
which does not grow in England, but is brought
from America, and some parts of Asia. The
blossom of the cotton plant is of a pale yellow.
You know very well the appearance of the seed-
vessels of some plants. Those of beans and
peas are familiar to every child.
The pod of the cotton plant is about the size
of a small apple. When ripe, it is gathered and


42A




MANCHESTER.-COTTON.


dried in the sun. The husk is then taken off,
and the seeds separated from the down or cotton
by a mill. It is then picked from the crushed
seeds. Thus prepared, it is packed, and sent
to England and other countries. After it
arrives, it has to undergo a great many
operations.
When you are old enough, I think it will be
a pleasure to you to go into a cotton factory;
but until you know a little more than most
children do of the uses of the great wheels,
little wheels, and spindles, you would find that
it would only be confusing to you.
In one room you would see large bales of
cotton, which have been brought from other
countries, and men busy unpacking them. It
looks dirty stuff, very unlike the cotton wool
you may have observed at home. But if you
go into another room, you will see how the
dirty wool becomes white. It has to be carded
or pulled to pieces, and then squeezed between
two great rollers, from which it comes white and
soft, like wreaths of snow.
In another room you will see this cotton wool
twisted into threads, not as in old times by
wheels turned by the hand, but by many
spindles, all turned by the great wheel of a
steam engine. You would wonder the reason
that in this room so many children are walking


43




STORIES OF ENGLAND.


backwards and forwards, appearing to do very
little. The fact is, they have but little to do
in spinning the cotton, they have only to
supply the machines with it, to keep every part
of each machine well oiled and free from dirt
and dust, to join broken threads, and to remove
the cotton that is spun to another part of the
factory. After this, it is wound off from the
spindles and made up into skeins, and in this
state is fit to be woven into different kinds of
cloth. There are also the print-works in
Manchester for printing the cloth after it is
woven, which process I shall not explain to you
here.
I must leave room in this chapter to tell you
a little about Liverpool, which is 32 miles from
Manchester, and connected with it by a railway.
This railway was made nearly 20 years ago, in
the year 1830, and was the first great railway ever
made for carrying passengers from one place to
another. Liverpool is, next to London, the
greatest port in England; but I must tell you
something about a port. Those towns are called
ports, which are either at the mouth of some
river, thus connecting them with the sea, or on
the sea-coast itself. Liverpool stands on the
river Mersey, which flows into the sea near the
town. This river at Liverpool is of great width,
and is always crowded with ships from nearly all


44




LIVERPOOL. -SEA- PORT.


parts of the world, bringing to England the
various productions of other countries, and
taking back to those countries many of our
manufactures in exchange. Those things which
are sent from England to other countries are
called exports, because they go out from our
sea-port towns; and those things brought from
other places into our various ports are called
imports. Some of the ships on the Mersey are
laden with cotton-some with rice-and others
with spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs,
and ginger, for which in exchange they take our
calicoes and prints to those places where they
have no manufactures. Liverpool is a fine
place, and many of its buildings are very
handsome.
There is a curious cemetery or burying ground
near the town, made in what was formerly a
deep quarry. A quarry is a place dug, or rather
blasted with gunpowder, out of a hill, for the
purpose of getting stone for pavements or for
building houses. The ground of this cemetery
is nicely laid out, and many of the graves cut
in the sides of the quarry made me think of the
caves or sepulchres in rocks, of which we read
in the Bible, and in one of which Abraham
buried his wife Sarah.


45











CHAPTER VI.


The four Counties adjoining Wales-Cheshire-Cheese-making-The
old town of Chester-Shropshire-Coalbrook Dale-Iron-its
uses-The King's oaK-Story of Charles II.


BOSCOBEL HOUSE.


THERE are four counties adjoining Wales,
which, as you know, is not divided from
England by the sea. The name of the most
northerly of these counties is CHESHIRE, which
has Lancashire to the north, Shropshire and a
part of the Welsh county of Flintshire to the
south, Derbyshire and Staffordshire to the east,
and Denbighshire and Flintshire to the west.
Cheshire is noted for its cheese and
salt trade. The principal salt works are at








I'a




IYe




0 .t l Ir


Ud
rr4
~~C, I



9 1


-4y-L!





V
*ns


t



4
0.


4





CHESHIRE.-SALT MINES.


Namptwich or Nantwich, Middlewich, and
Northwich. Salt is found in mines, but is
usually obtained from salt springs; that which
is found in mines being coarse and dark-coloured.
At Northwich are large pits of rock-salt, from
which the salt is taken in masses. The mode of
procuring salt either from springs or sea-water
is by evaporation. The process of evaporation is
carried on by exposing the liquid or salt water
to the air, or by boiling it over a fire. In
countries where the heat of the sun is sufficient
to cause the needful evaporation, salt is obtained
often from the sea without the aid of fire-heat.
The sea-water is put into salt pans or shallow
pits lined with clay, and as the evaporation
goes on, the salt falls to the bottom, and the
brine is pumped off, leaving a crust of salt two
or three inches thick. This is the means of
procuring the salt called bay-salt, so much used
in preserving meat. In countries where the
sun's heat is too weak to effect this, the liquor
is boiled. The boiling is repeated several times,
the boiler being each time filled up with fresh
brine. When the liquor is sufficiently evapo-
rated, the salt is left in crystals at the bottom of
the pan. It is then taken out, and placed in a
shed to dry.
The uses of salt are many; it is a very
important addition to food-in bread alone a


47






STORIES OF ENGLAND.


great deal is used. In bleaching, in glazing
earthenware, and as manure, it is also useful.
All the places in England in which salt is found
end with the word which; Northwich, Nant-
wich, Middlewich in Cheshire, and Droitwich
in Worcestershire-" which" in the old Saxon
language signifying a salt spring.
There is a great deal of cheese made in many
parts of Cheshire. Cheese is milk or cream
curdled. This is a change which takes place in
milk when warmed and mixed with rennet.
Rennet is obtained by dipping the stomach of a
calf into water, and the water so prepared curds
the milk that is poured into it. The milk is
thus divided into two parts-the curd or thick
part, and the whey or watery part. The curd
is pressed as dry as possible, salted, and formed
into large lumps, which are put into moulds or
vats, and tightly pressed. The yellow colour
of cheeses is given by adding to the milk a
preparation of the pulp covering the seeds of a
South American plant, called Annatto.
There are some other things for which
Cheshire is famous. It has many large
manufacturing towns; Stockport (part of which
is in Lancashire,) and Macclesfield are the
principal.
The capital of Cheshire is Chester, a curious
old city. The houses in the oldest streets are


48





CHEESE.-CHESTER.


built in a very strange way, and at a distance
look as though they were made of black-edged
cards; the outer walls being divided with cross
beams of black wood, and the spaces filled with
very white plaster. There is a foot-path in
some of the streets, raised far above the streets
themselves, so that from the carriage-road you
go up a staircase to most of the best shops.
This long gallery is very ancient, and was
originally meant for a different use from that to
which it is now put. In times of war, the people
of Chester could attack their enemies unseen
from these high places, and pour melted lead
or throw stones on the heads of those below.
Happily, the gallery has no such use now-a-days,
and the good people of Chester may walk under-
neath in the rain without umbrellas. Chester
has an old cathedral: but the stone of which it
is built is so soft, that it is crumbling away.
The city of Chester was first built by the
Romans, a people who conquered England, and
lived in our country many years. The city
walls are more entire than any in England, and
on the top is a fine broad walk, extending more
than two miles; you may, indeed, walk nearly
all round Chester on this path.
We now come to SHROPSHIRE, sometimes
called Salop, which has the county of Cheshire
on the north; Worcestershire, Herefordshire,
F


49






STORIES OF ENGLAND.


and part of Radnorshire, on the south; Denbigh
and Montgomeryshire on the west; and Stafford-
shire on the east. There is a great deal of
cheese made in Shropshire, and there are mines
of coal, lead, and iron, in different parts. The
iron-works at Coalbrook Dale in this county,
are the largest in England. Coalbrook Dale is
in a winding glen or valley, between two high
hills. To tell you every process that iron
undergoes, would not be interesting to you at
present. You know very well the appearance
of iron in the ploughshare, spade, and other
garden tools! also in stoves, ovens, and many
saucepans, as well as the rails on which the
steam-engines and the trains run. But iron, as
it appears when first dug out of the mine, is very
different from any of the things that I have
named. It is found in its natural state in huge
lumps like dark stone, and great labour is
needed before it is fit even for the commonest
uses. The work of making the iron, or melting
this iron stone into pure metal, is called
smelting, and this smelting is carried on at
Coalbrook Dale.
Now I will tell you a story about an oak tree.
There was an old oak in Shropshire, near the
village of Tong, which in its time has had more
visitors than any other oak in the world.
Many years ago, a King, whose name you


50





CIVIL WARS.-PARLIAMENT.


may have heard, had some sad and bloody wars
with his own people. Wars, like quarrels, are
never excusable, or certainly do not appear so
to us, who can read the Bible in our own tongue,
and find there that Jesus Christ brought peace
on earth, and good-will to men; yet some of
the men in King Charles' time appear to have
gone to battle under a sense of duty; and
difficult as it may seem to reconcile it with our
ideas of the duty of peace and love, we may hope
that good, though mistaken men, on both sides
took up arms in these sad and turbulent times.
Wars amongst people of the same country, are
like quarrels in a family, the worst of all. These
wars were called civil wars, and the wars in
Charles the First's time were fought between
him and his parliament.
You should know what is the meaning of the
word Parliament, and I cannot tell you perhaps
in a better place. Great Britain is governed
by a king or queen, but the power of that king
or queen is limited. The Queen may put the
laws of the country in force; but the Lords or
Peers of the land, and the Commons, a number
of men chosen by the people to represent them
or act for them, really assist in governing the
country. These persons meet in two grand
houses in London, called Houses of Parliament,
to carry on the great business of the nation-to
F2


51







STORIES OF ENGLAND


propose new laws, or acts (which, however, are
useless until the Queen gives her consent to
them), and to raise the needful taxes. It was
Charles the First's misfortune not to agree with
his parliament, and many a battle they had
before the sad close of their King's life. Oliver
Cromwell, one of the members of Parliament,
who was at one time a quiet gentleman in the
county of Huntingdonshire, was the chief leader
of the parliamentary army; and from some cause
he gained great power over the people. I will
give you a short account of this extraordinary
man in another part of this book. His is a
very interesting history, and one which you
will read with pleasure, when you are able to
form a correct judgment of his character.
Charles I. was defeated in battle, taken
prisoner, and at last beheaded at Whitehall
Palace, in London. He left several children;
the eldest son was a young man, and at the time
of his father's death was in Holland; but he
came over soon after, and, gathering an army
together, promised pardon to all his people
who would peacefully give up their rebellion,
excepting Cromwell, and those who condemned
his father to death. But the parliament were
not tired of the contest, and would not yield, so
there was more war and more bloodshed; and


_ __ __


52






CHARLES II.--BOSCOBEL HOUSE.


at the battle of Worcester, Charles was forced
to flee from the field, and hide himself from
those who threatened to take his life as well as
his crown.
With a few faithful friends the poor young
king came to Boscobel House, near Tong in
Shropshire. I have an old book giving an ac-
count of Charles 2nd's stay here, of which I will
tell you in a few words. He had not been at
Boscobel many hours before notice was given
by those who watched, that the enemies were near
and would certainly search Boscobel, so Mr.
Gifford, to whom it belonged, took the king to
another of his houses, called Whiteladies, and
here he was put under the care of three brothers,
whose names were Pendrel: "Here" said the earl
of Derby, one of the King's followers, to the
Pendrels, "is the king, take care of him." They
promised to do so, and kept their word. Then the
king was advised to rub his hands on the back of
the chimney and so smear his face; his long hair
was cut close, his buff coat and all his kingly
armour and ornaments were taken from him,
and he was clad in a coarse shirt and green suit,
to disguise him like a countryman; but whilst
they were thus busy, Richard Pendrel ran in to
tell them that a troop of rebels was near, so the
king, weary as he was after the battle, was led
F3







STORIES OF ENGLAND.


out by a back door, bade farewell to his faithful
lords, lest their number should excite the sus-
picion of the soldiers; and in the thickest part
of the wood Charles had to pass the night, the
three faithful Pendrels keeping watch. But
before sunrise, such heavy rain came on, that
not the largest and most leafy tree in the wood
could keep the poor king dry, nor had he any
seat but the cold damp earth. Richard Pendrel,
pitying his state, went into a cottage close by
and brought the king a blanket, which he folded
and placed on the ground for Charles to sit down
upon, and the woman of the house followed him
with butter, milk, and eggs, for the king was
faint. Then the king, thinking I suppose, that
the good woman might betray him, said, Can
you be faithful to a poor cavalier ?" (for this was
the name given to the king's party) and she said
Yes, sir, I will die rather than discover you."
In the wood the king remained all day, and at
night, wishing to set out towards Wales,
whence he knew that he could escape by sea,
from the country, he took a hatchet, and telling
his companion Pendrel to call him Will Jones,"
set out on his way to Madely. He hoped to
be able to cross the river Severn there, but
hearing that the rebels were watching on its
banks, he went back to Boscobel House. Here


54






KING CHARLES II.-THE OAK.


as it was night time, it was thought safe for
him to go in-doors, and glad must the weary
king have been of the kind offices of William
Pendrel's wife, who washed his blistered feet,
and prepared him a supper. When he was a
little refreshed, they entreated him to return to
the wood, and tired as the king was, he was
obliged to comply. And now for the Oak;"
we have been a long time travelling there. Into
the thickest leafed oak in the wood, king Charles
was assisted by Richard and William Pendrel;
and colonel Carlis, a follower of the king, got up
to bear him company. Here they sat all that
night and the next day, and Charles worn out
with his dangers and travels, rested his weary
head on the faithful colonel's knee, and slept
soundly. At last the king was permitted to go
into the house, where he was shewn into a secret
chamber. Every old house had a room of this
kind, sometimes in a thick part of the wall,
sometimes in the roof. Here there was rest at
least, if not safety, for the king, whilst his kind
servant watched continually. On the Sunday,
king Charles, still in his secret room, said he
wished for some meat. Now as the Pendrels
were poor countrymen, I suppose they seldom had
meat, and they had not dared to go and buy any at
market on the Saturday, for fear of suspicion, as it






STORIES OF ENGLAND.


was well known that they could not want meat
for themselves, but the clever fellow William
was determined to gratify the king if possible,
so he went out and stuck his knife into the finest
sheep he could find in a gentleman's sheep-cote.
Great was the king's amusement in cooking
mutton collops for himself in the secret chamber,
and years afterwards when the wanderer was
safe on his father's throne, he and colonel Carlis
used to dispute in joke as to who was the master
cook at Boscobel.
The brothers Pendrel nobly kept their faith,
in spite of the offers of large sums of money
which Cromwell constantly made to any who
would bring him Charles Stuart dead or alive;
and after some more narrow escapes, Charles got
safely away from England. At Cromwell's death,
when Charles returned to his country as king,
he did not forget the three brothers, but sent
for them to London, and with grateful thanks,
handsomely rewarded their services. I wish I
could tell you that the reign of king Charles 2nd
was either good or useful. He did not by acts
show his gratitude to God for his kind care of
him, but lived a gay and sinful life. I have
told you a long story about an oak tree, which
however I hope you will recollect, and when
you are older, you will read many things in


56






KING CHARLES II.-THE OAK. 67

history as interesting as the story of Charles in
the oak. The oak is not now standing, for so
eager were the Royalists to obtain portions of
the tree that sheltered their king, that they
quite destroyed it in their zeal, but it is said
that an oak now grows there which sprung from
one of its acorns. There are still remains of
Boscobel Cottage, where William Pendrel lived.












CHAPTER VII.


Herefordshire- Cider-Fermentation-Monmouthshire-Chepstow
-Tintern Abbey-Monasteries-Life of Monks.


TITKnRN ABBBY.


THE next County I shall speak of is HERE-
FORDSHIRE. It has the county of Shropshire
on the north; Monmouthshire and Gloucester-
shire on the south ; Worcestershire on the east;
and the two Welsh counties of Radnorshire and
Brecknockshire on the west. The county of
Herefordshire is very pretty, and the corn and
fruit which it produces are thought the finest in
England. The apple grows in great abundance,






HEREFORDSHIRE.-.-CIDER.


and from its juice a large quantity of cider is
made. There is no mixture of water or any
other ingredient with the best cider. When
the juice is first drawn from the fruit it is sweet,
but in a few hours it loses a great deal of its
sweet flavour. The manner in which cider is
made, I will tell you. The apples when gathered
are laid in heaps, and allowed to become mellow;
they are then crushed and broken in a mill.
The fruit is placed in piles with layers of clean
straw between them, and the whole mass is then
pressed down, and the juice received into large
tubs. In these tubs it is left to ferment, and
the scum removed as it rises. I think that I
had better explain to you the meaning of fer-
mentation. You know the names of many
liquors which are called fermented; wine, ale,
and porter are of this kind. Fermentation is a
state into which vegetables or fruit pass after
they become quite ripe. Fruit that is allowed
to hang too long on the tree, soon begins to
ferment. You must have noticed the strange
taste of an over-ripe gooseberry. This is but
the beginning of fermentation, of which there
are three stages, the vinous, the acetous, and
the putrid-the first, that is the vinous, is that
which produces the wine, beer, porter, or cider,
in that state in which it is fit to drink; the
second, the acetous, describes that state which






STORES OF ENGLAND.


turns wine into vinegar, and makes the beer,
porter, or cider quite sour; and the third, or
putrid, renders it bad and disagreeable to the
smell or taste. The capital town of Hereford-
shire is Hereford, and stands on the river Wye.
This city has a great trade in cider, but it has very
few manufactures or other objects of interest.
The last of the four counties adjoining Wales
is MONMOUTHSHIRE, which has Herefordshire
and Brecknockshire on the north, Brecknock-
shire and Glamorganshire on the west, and the
Bristol Channel on the south. Some parts of
the county of Monmouthshire are beautiful.
The eastern part is very much wooded, and the
western mountainous. A large number of goats
and sheep are fed upon the hills, and there is a
great deal of limestone found in different parts
of the county, which is burnt in the kilns on
the spot.
The chief towns are Monmouth and Chepstow.
At Monmouth, are the remains of a fine old
castle, in which one of our most warlike kings
(Henry 5th) was born.
Chepstow is a neat town, at the mouth of
the river Wye, and near this place is Piercefield,
where a very remarkable and clever woman,
whose name was Elizabeth Smith, once lived.
I should like you very much to read her life.
There is a great deal in it which would interest


60







MONMOUTH5HIRE.- ABBEYS&


you when you are a little older. You will find
that although Elizabeth Smith was a learned
woman, and could speak and understand several
languages, she didn't think the little things of life
of no importance, and could mend a stocking,
or make a shirt, as well as if she had never
learned Latin or Greek. The grounds at
Piercefield are beautifully laid out, and the
country around is very pretty. On the banks
of the river Wye, and not many miles from the
town of Monmouth, are the remains of Tintern
Abbey, some of the finest ruins in England.
Now I will tell you something about abbeys which
it will be useful to you to know, particularly if
you ever travel. It is surprising how much
pleasure we lose in life by our ignorance of
common things. It would not be very interesting
to you to see the fine arches, and gray walls of
Tintern, unless you knew something of its his-
tory, and the purpose for which it was built by
hands long ago mouldered in the grave.
An abbey or monastery contained a number
of buildings for different uses, and I will describe
some of them to you, in order that you may
have an idea of the system which had so great
an effect on the people of England a few hundred
years ago. I will first tell you a little of the
people who lived in these places. Abbeys or
monasteries were buildings set apart for the
G


61





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


use of the monks, the teachers of religion in
our country. There are many different orders
and degrees amongst the monks, some being
much higher and more important than others.
The principal person in the monastery was called
the abbot, and a very lazy and sometimes wicked
life the abbots lived. The monks were not
allowed to marry, as it was supposed that in
their retired life, they would have more time to
give themselves up to prayer and the service of
God, as well as the study of His Word, which
for many years in the history of our country
was written in the Latin tongue. Copies of
the Bible, even in that language were scarce, so
that the knowledge of the Scriptures was, as
you may suppose, confined to very few; and
those few too often abused the privilege they had,
and gave instruction to the poor very different
from the truths of the Gospel. This ignorance
in the people will, I hope, explain to you many
of the bad acts of persons whose history you
read, and account to you for the wars and
disturbances of old times. As the knowledge of
Jesus the Prince of Peace yet further extends,
so it is to be hoped will the love of peace, in all
at least who profess to love Him.
It was a great mistake in the monks to suppose
that they could serve God better in a building
apart from the world, than they could have done


62






ABBEYS.-MONKS.


in their families or in the active scenes of life.
It is the state of the heart, not the place of the
body that matters, and a man may be very
wicked in a monk's cell, as well as in the busy
streets. There have been some good monks
however, and though the bad and deceitful have
done much harm, we must not forget that to
the labours of the good we owe a great deal.
Before printing was invented, all books were
written, and the monks used to copy a great
many on parchment. Thus they have done
much to preserve many books that would other-
wise have been destroyed.
Abbeys were usually built on low spots, very
often near rivers or places which yielded plenty
of fish, as fish formed the principal food of the
poorer monks. You will generally find the
ruins of monasteries near streams or rivers on
this account. There was always a church or
chapel in a Monastery, in which it was ordered
that seven services should be performed daily,
but these services were often made very short,
and anything but solemn by the monks. There
was a large hall called the Refectory, used for
meals, where they all dined. The abbot's table
was raised above the rest of the hall. At an
abbey in a town called St. Alban's, in Hertford-
shire, there are fifteen steps up to the abbot's
seat.


63





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


Then there was the dormitory, a long room,
divided by a number of partitions into small
chambers, each chamber being just large enough
to hold a bed and a desk.













MONK AT HIS DEVOTIONS.


The cloister was the principal part of the
monastery, formed generally by four paved
walls, covered, and built round a green, where
the monks used to walk. The great hall was a
separate part of the building. In times when
there were few inns, travellers often asked for
a night's lodging at a monastery, which was
given without charge; and glad enough must
the poor old monks have been to see these
travellers, and to hear news of a world which
they professed to have left.


64





TINTERN ABBEY.


There was a prison also in most monasteries;
remains of these dismal places may be seen in
several ruins. Many were confined in these
dungeons for real faults, but many, too, for the
sake of true religion.
But I must not write any more about abbeys.
It would be pleasant to you to visit that at
Tintern, and I think you would be greatly
amused (as I have been in monasteries) in
tracing the uses of the different parts of the
building. You would walk with pleasure
through its long winding galleries, remains of
kitchens, and other offices-over the ground
now covered with weeds, where the monks loved
to walk, and sometimes to labour-and in the
ruined chapels, where, amongst many thoughtless
and hypocritical worshippers, there were some
sincere prayers offered, which God deigned to
hear and answer.
The situation of Tintern Abbey is particularly
beautiful; and when the walls and arches were
entire, and the roof perfect, the building must
have been a fine sight indeed.
We have now come to the end of the four
counties which adjoin Wales. I hope that you
will not forget their names, and the little of
their history that I have been able to give you.


G 3


65










CHAPTER VIII.


North Midland Counties-Derbyshire-Derby-Silk Worms-
Matlock-Caverns and Petrifactions-A Visit to an Old Hall-
Habits of our Forefathers-Tapestry.


RADDON HALL.


THERE are ten counties in England which are
called the North Midland, but I will not tell
you all their names at one time. We will begin
with DERBYSHIRE. Derbyshire has a small
part of Cheshire and Yorkshire on the north;





SILK WORMS.-DERBY.


Nottinghamshire on the east; Leicestershire
and Staffordshire on the south; and part of
Stafford and Cheshire on the west. There are
a great many beautiful and curious productions
in Derbyshire. Some fine marble is found in
the hills, and there is plenty of lead in many
parts. The capital town is Derby, and is
neither a large nor handsome place; but it is
noted for its china manufactory, and silk mills.
Silk is the production of a little insect, much
like a common worm. When first it comes
from the egg, it is very small; but after it has
lived a few weeks, and changed its skin several
times, it becomes a large white worm. It then
leaves off eating, and begins to form a silken
ball. Places are made for the worm, of paper,
on which it may fasten its silk. In ten days
the worm spins, and it is then best to wind off
the silk, as the insect sometimes works its way
through the ball. Silk worms always spin the
best silk, when they are fed entirely on the
leaves of the mulberry tree. Most of the silk,
which we use comes from China, or from the
town of Milan in Italy, a country on the
continent of Europe. There are many silk
manufactories in this town. Silk is manufactured
by us into dresses, shawls, and other articles.
The process of china-making I will tell you
in another place. A few miles from Derby is


67





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


the town of Matlock, and the ride to it before
the railroad was made, I remember to have been
a very pleasant one. The river Derwent, though
not wide, is pretty, and flowed by the side of
the road along which I passed, at the foot of
high rocky hills, covered with light and feathery
fir trees, and thick green brushwood. There is
a range of high hills in this part of Derbyshire,
called the Peak, which I used to fancy was only
one high hill, but this is not the case. The
Peak gives name to a large tract of country in
the county of Derbyshire, between the rivers
Derwent and Dove, and is separated from the
county of Staffordshire by the last named river.
At the base of a huge rock, at the little town
of Castleton, is a noted cavern, the entrance to
which is between two ranges of high rocks. A
little stream issues from the cave, and foams over
crags and masses of limestone. At Castleton is
found the celebrated Fluor Spar, better known
by the name of Blue John." Some very pretty
ornaments are made of this spar, and it is one
of the most beautiful of the productions of the
county. It consists of lime united with an acid,
which has obtained the name offluoric acid.
When I was at Matlock, I went into a cavern
to see some of the stalactites, for which the
county is so famous. Stalactite by itself is a
hard word; but if you were to see a stalactite


68





STALACTITES.-MATLOCK.


in a Derbyshire cavern, you would, I think,
always recollect the name. In this cavern, or
deep place in the side of the hill, I noticed that
which looked like long earthy icicles of different
sizes. You have seen icicles hanging from the
roofs of houses in winter time. It is in this
manner that the stalactites hang from the roof
and sides of the cavern; but their colour is
unlike that of an icicle, being of a yellowish
hue, and not so clear. They are formed by
the stream which flows down the hill, and
oozes through the cavern's roof, having gathered
and dissolved in its course a particular kind of
earth, called calcareous. In course of time, this
earth and water hardens. The stalactites just
formed, I noticed were soft, and easily crumbled
in the hand ; but those which had hung for some
time were extremely hard, and difficult to break
off the sides and roof of the cave.
Matlock is a famous place for curiosities.
We peeped into one of its petrifying wells, in
which we observed a strange collection of eggs,
wigs, shoes, and many other things, which the
Matlock people say will one day be converted
into stone. So it seems, as nothing remains
after a time, but the form of the egg, wig, or
shoe; which, after they are quite covered over
with the water and earth, decay, and leave
nothing but the petrifaction.


69






STORIES OF ENGLAND.


A few miles from Matlock is the Hall of
Haddon, built many hundred years ago. If you
ever see this curious old place, you will have
some idea of the kind of dwellings in which the
English people lived in former times, as well as
of the life they led. Many of the houses of the
great people of the land were built in a similar
way to the castles of which I wrote in the early
part of this book. They were generally built
round one or more courts, while their high
turrets, garden walls, and frequently moats,
rendered them as safe as castles. Haddon Hall
was built in the time of William the Conqueror,
so called because he conquered England. He
was a duke of Normandy, and you will hear a
little of his history in another chapter. Haddon
has been very much added to and altered since
his time, but a hall has stood on the spot ever
since.
I went to Haddon Hall one fine evening in
summer, and was much struck with the appear-
ance of the old grey towers and walls as I came
near the place. The ancient gateway is standing ;
and after toiling up a steep hill, we rang the
bell, which is cracked with age, and waited till
the heavy door was opened. No white-headed
old porter, but a young and cheerful man came
out, and was very well pleased to show us the
house and gardens. We entered the square


70





HADDON-DINTNG HALL.


court around which the apartments are built.
The stone with which the court is paved, is so
slippery with moss, that we could scarcely stand.
We first went into a small room, a kind of
butler's pantry, where we saw the hunting horn,
huge jack boots, and spurs of one of the old
earls of Haddon. The dinner service too was
shown us, which was used for a long time by
the grand people of the house. These plates,
and dishes, and drinking mugs, were not made
either of gold and silver-no, nor of china, nor
even of the coarse white ware which you may
now see on any poor man's table. China or
earthenware was not made in England in those
days, and the people ate of pewter, which I
think was much more suitable than china would
have been, for they were apt at their great
dinners and suppers to drink so much strong ale,
that there would often have been a great deal
of china broken. The dining hall is very large,
and has a curious wooden roof, with a carved
gallery at one end, where the musicians used
to sit and play during meal times. The floor is
made of stone, which in olden times was daily
strewed with rushes or clean straw; and there is
one part called the dais, raised from the rest of
the hall, which you ascend by steps, just in the
same manner as the abbot's table, of which I
told you in the last chapter. A long and well-


71





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


worn table stands in the hall, longer than most
dining tables now-a-days, but not so handsome.
It was the custom for the whole family to
dine together at one board. Master, mistress,
guests and children at the upper end; and at the
lower end, the servants of the house, and the
farming men and labourers belonging to the
master. They were divided by a salt-cellar,
and it was always thought a great affront if any
visitor was placed below the salt. The dinner
hour of the old families of Haddon was much
earlier than that of great folks now, being as early
as twelve at noon. They breakfasted at seven
in the morning, and supped at six in the evening.
Their hours for meals did not differ from ours
more than the meals themselves. There was no
tea and coffee brought over to England till a
much later period, and ale was drank at
breakfast instead.
I wonder what you would think of a breakfast
and dinner such as the Haddon families used to
enjoy. There was bread of different kinds in
plenty, but the other dishes were cooked in a
very strange way. Pork, with eggs, sugar and
raisins, mixed up with white grease, ginger,
small birds, salt, prunes, and saffron, all in one
dish. They ate a great deal of salt fish, and a
roasted peacock was thought very good. Cider,
spiced wine, and beer was drank, both at
breakfast and supper.


72





HADDON.-BED ROOMS.


Now you have some idea of the meals of
your forefathers, I will tell you of a very foolish
amusement they had.
Most great lords or gentlemen kept fools or
jesters in their families to make them merry
when they were dull. The fool was often
more sensible than his master, and many of the
jesters affected their oddities and follies. The
fool wore a high cap and bells. These tinkling
bells ringing whenever he moved were enough
to turn his brain, I should think.
The dining hall at Haddon could not have
been very comfortable, for the doors did not
close well, and there were no chimneys where
the smoke might escape. The fire was made
on a hearth, and the smoke found its way out
where it could, through a hole in the roof or
the cracks left in the windows and doors.
There was an old saying that "no house was
healthy in which a dog could not creep under the
door, and a bird fly through the window-frame."
The bed rooms at Haddon are gloomy and
comfortless. There is but little furniture left in
any of them, excepting a few old chairs, on
which you are requested not to sit down.
There is one bed room, however, in which is
a bed with smart satin hangings, which was
used by Queen Elizabeth, during one of her
visits to Haddon. She was very fond of
H1


73





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


visiting her subjects; but it must have been an
expensive honour for any one to entertain her
and her attendants. Her looking-glass still
hangs in the room, and the bed looks as if she
had lately slept in it, for it is in good repair,
though the embroidered quilt is faded. The
walls of her bed chamber and some others, are
hung with tattered tapestry. Paper for walls
was not made in England till after Queen
Elizabeth's time; and the ladies, having many
hours to spare, used to amuse themselves
with spinning and needlework. Their lords
were often absent, either at court or at war, and
the days would have seemed long and dull in
these gloomy houses, but for such employment;
for there were but few books then to read,
excepting those kept in monasteries. The tapes-
try which the ladies worked was done on canvass,
and some that I have seen, must have been
really beautiful when the colours were fresh.
The cleverer ladies used to trace battle scenes
and copy old pictures on the canvass, I suppose
to suit the taste of their warlike lords; and if
you had paid a visit to the lady of Haddon Hall
after the early dinner and the kitchen duties were
over, you would have seen her busy with her
maids, not only sewing or spinning herself, but
keeping them close to work.
The employment of an earl's lady differed


74





E. WOODVILLE'S JOURNAL.


not a little from those of a lady of the present
day. She was generally well instructed in the
arts of cooking, pickling, and preserving: and
perhaps you have never heard that it was the
custom for brides of all ranks to make their own
wedding cakes, in order to test their skill in
confectionery and baking. I am afraid but few
brides could make a wedding cake now, which
their husbands would like to eat.
The journal of Elizabeth Woodville, after-
wards Queen of Edward IV., will give you an
idea of the kind of life the young ladies of
England led some hundred years ago.
Monday. Rose at 4 o'clock, helped Catherine to
milk the cows; Rachel, the other dairy maid, having
scalded her hand. Made a poultice for Rachel.
Six o'clock. The beef too much boiled; must
talk to cook about it.
Eight o'clock. Went into the paddock and caught
Thump, the little pony; rode nearly six miles
without saddle or bridle.
Ten o'clock. Went to dinner.
Four o'clock. Went to prayers.
Six o'clock. Fed the hogs and poultry.
Seven o'clock. Supper on the table; goose-pie
baked too much.
Nine o'clock. The company fast asleep; these
late hours very disagreeable. Fell asleep.
H2


75





STORIES OF ENGLAND.


Hawking was likewise a great amusement,
both of English ladies and gentlemen, in early
times. This was the art of training hawks for the
purpose of catching and killing other birds, and
was chiefly pursued by persons of high rank.
King Henry VIII. and his daughter, Queen
Elizabeth, were very fond of hawking.
There is a fine old chapel at Haddon Hall;
and in the pew used by the lady of the house is
a hole connected with the kitchen, through
which she could peep at her cook now and
then, during the time of service. Altogether I
felt very glad I did not live five or six hundred
years ago; and greatly as I enjoyed going through
the curious rooms, and walking in the ancient
terraced gardens, it made me sad to remember
how all signs of life had passed away from this
deserted house: but we must now take leave of
Haddon Hall, and I hope some of you may one
day have the pleasure of seeing it for yourselves.
The day after visiting Haddon, I went to Chats-
worth, the splendid mansion of the Duke of
Devonshire. The contrast between the two
would, I think, strike even a child. Haddon,
a decaying relic of old times-Chatsworth, in
all its glory and modern beauty. I have taken
up so much room with my account of Haddon,
that I have but little left for the wonders
of Chatsworth; its picture galleries, its fine


76





CHATSWORTH.


rooms, its park, waterfalls, and conservatories
with rare plants from almost every part of the
world. There you may see the tea plant, the
Indian rubber tree, and many others which would
interest and delight you. I suppose that the
new conservatory is the finest in the world.


H


77









CHAPTER IX.


Staffordshire-Potteries-Newcastle-under-line-Warwickshire-
Birmingham-Manufactures.

STAFFORDSHIRE is a long narrow county
ending almost in a point, having Cheshire on
the north and north-west, Shropshire on the
west, Derbyshire and Warwickshire on the east,
and Worcestershire on the south. The county
of Staffordshire abounds in coal, and is particu-
larly noted for its china factories. The capital
town is Stafford, which has manufactures of
boots and shoes. Lichfield is an ancient city,
and has a fine cathedral, in which are marble
monuments to two celebrated men, who were
born in this city-one to Dr. Johnson, who
wrote an English Dictionary and many other
books, and the other to David Garrick, a great
theatrical performer.
I must tell you a little about the Staffordshire
potteries, where so much earthenware is made.
The clay in some parts of Staffordshire, many
hundred years ago was found to be suitable for
the making of earthenware; but the plates and
basins made by the English even two hundred
years since, were very different from those that




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