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Group Title: young man's gift of literature, science, and morality
Title: The young man's gift of literature, science, and morality
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002117/00001
 Material Information
Title: The young man's gift of literature, science, and morality
Physical Description: viii, 192 p. : col. ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pinckney, Cotesworth
Buffum, Job ( Publisher )
Moody, Charles C. P ( Charles Cotesworth Pinckney ), d. 1869 ( Printer )
Publisher: J. Buffum
Place of Publication: Boston
Manufacturer: C.C.P. Moody
Publication Date: 1851
Subject: Young men -- Conduct of life -- Early works to 1900 -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: edited by Cotesworth Pinckney.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00002117
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2273
notis - ALJ0826
oclc - 02820931
alephbibnum - 002240280
lccn - 15017288


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
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Full Text

~ lria

4L N








itttraturt, tcitnct, ani JRoralitt.









. . .. IIII ...... ... .IHI

Entered, according to Act of Congrem, in the year 150,
In the Clerk' O e of the tDistrict Court of Mus.chusetts.

Printed by C. C. P. MOODY,
52 Washington St., Boston.


YOUNG MEN the hope and flower of
every nation! What reflecting mind is
not filled with the deepest interest in every
movement calculated to affect their charac-
ter. Rightly trained, and imbued with a
just sense of their vast responsibilities and
capabilities what may we not hope from them.
It is to them we must look for the perpetuity
of our cherished institutions. The interests
of Literature, of Science, and of Religion,
the peculiar glory of New England, can
only be carried forward and sustained by
the virtuous Young Men of our country.
Let the time be far distant, when some as-
piring demagogue, as in ancient Rome, will


seek to overthrow our liberties, by corrupt-
ing the moral sense of our young men.
Nay, let every young man himself reflect
that the period now passing over him is
of immense, of inconceivable importance.
In entering upon the busy scenes of life,
let him do it with a high and manly purpose
-remembering that every step he takes is
decisive; every action he performs is criti-
cal; every idea he forms is likely to become
a principle, influencing his future destiny.
They who are just launched upon the broad
ocean of life, with the gale of hope swelling
their sails, should look well to their pilot,
their chart, and to the great way-marks of
a prosperous voyage; lest their beautiful
bark be shattered and wrecked by the
storms and tempests of human passions.
Be upright, be honorable, be truthful, cul-
tivate the heart and the intellect and an


_t _n


approving conscience snal ever De your
It is hoped that in this little volume some
additional incentives to higher attainments
in science, in literature, in sound practical
knowledge, and in pure morality, may be
gathered by every young man who reads
its pages. The Tale, commencing on the
107th page, was written by a young man
engaged in the active, laborious pursuits of
life, and is a good illustration of what may

be done by the cultivation of
under difficulties.

the intellect
c. P.

-~e I II I- Ir r I I ---- II -I~~ C- -~--~-I--

- - 0 - -

am- mm


Durability of the Bible,....... .................9
Physical View of the United States,..R.S. Storr,.. 11
Elihu Burritt,.. .............. ... ......... 14
The Party Man,................,...............17
Early Marriages,........... ....... ..Nat. Int...20
Idleness,.... ... ... ... .. .. ...... ... .Anon,..22
Home,.................. ............ ..non,.. 24

A Good Son,............

Albert Gallatin,....
William Wirt to his
Beauty in Nature,,.
Keep your Temper,
The Smithsonian In

Live for



S 06 0

Redeeming Time,........
Family Government........
Be Wide Awake,.........
Married Life,..............
An Every Day Occurrence,.
Eli Whitney,..............
Mir. Calhoun's Funeral,.....
Chapter of Young Men, **
Phenomena of Sound,......

0**& 40 a # D a#;A 0 *0 &

er, . .. .. ,

.... .Am. Messenger,.

..... ... ...Anon,,
,, ,0,,*,, A 44,tA |,
.. .a s, A. James,.
.... ,Am. Traveler,.
..**... ... ...Anon,.
.Bridgewater Treatise..
,..... ,.C.. ,., ,,.,,
.......... ;rI. Ihv .,





* * V # .a 0 *.

S6 0 0 # 0 a 0

D reas,.................... .......
Lindley Murray,...........,....
Illustrious Mechanics,.......... ,.
Claims of Science on Young Men,..
The Morning,............... .....
Love of God,........ ...... ......
Character,.,... .... ...., ...,....
Sunrise, ..........................
Mental Cultivation,. ..............
Man Improvable,. ..............
The Hypocrite,........... .......
Our Lost Time,.................
Religious Gems,..... .........*...

. .

Wives of Intellect and Fancy,. G. F Bannister,.. 107
Punctuality,..............,,,, .. Merch. Ledger,.. 156
A Cheerful W ife,... .........................158
Co-operation of the Wife,...........,........ 158
A Brother's Love,..................*...... ... *.159
For Husbands,.... .... .......,....... ... 162
Advice to Young Men,...........D. DSanford, .163
How to Prosper in Business,, ..... *............173
Evil Consequences of Smoking,. ............ .177
Youth and Marriage,.,,... ,,,.*...............179
The Young Man's Curse,.* .. ... ..,........180
Necessity of Self-Acquaintance,... G. W. Light,. 182
How to make a Man,... .,,,...... H. Greely,.. 191



Pride, ....................

sre ~I -- -------- ---------- C- I ----~ II -




Let not any thing, however plausible,
be substituted for the Bible; let nothing
supersede it. The history of an ancient
Church teaches a lesson never to be forgot-
ten. The Jews had a written word, found-
ed on stupendous miracles ; but they turned
aside from the fountain of living waters,
and had recourse to the broken cisterns of
human tradition. The result.of it was, that
when Barabbas came, they said, Let him go
free: when the Lord of Glory came to his
own, they cried, Away with him; crucify
him. And the final issue of this preference
of tradition to the word of God was, that
the Romans quickly gathered around the



foredoomed Jerusalem; the Roman eagle
spread his wings, where the cherubim had
been; the firebrands of the soldiery were
placed amidst the carved work of the tem-
ple; the altar was overturned; the glory
departed. And Josephus, the chronicler of
the departed glory, warns us, as he records
the Ichabod that rests on it, that it is an
evil and a bitter thiing to make void the
word of God by the traditions and com-
mandments of men. It is only when men
lose sight of this book, that they take up
other things. It is when we turn our backs
upon the Sun of Righteousness, that we
begin to light up the twinkling taper of
earthly tradition. It is when we have lost
our way to the fountain-fullness that is in
Scripture, that our vitiated taste is pleased
with the dribblings of an earthly and pol-
luted stream. The blessed book! we know
that it shall never perish. Those stars may
be expunged from the firmament, but the
Word of God abideth for ever. It shall be
embraced by all lands ; it shall be possessed


by every people; it shall be the glory of all
time, the comfort of all hearts, and the or-
nament of all the habitations of the children
of men. It shall be translated into every
speech: earth's thousand tongues shall
repeat its melodies, from the pine-covered
forests of the north to the palm-groves of
the east. Its music shall mingle with the
hum of great capitals, and blend with the
breezes of the desert scene. Then it shall
be seen, that what man calls great has its
end; what God pronounces true endures for
ever and ever.


THROUGH God's favor we have a pleasant
land, of whose extent and capabilities no
mind but faintly conceives. Exclusive of
the late acquisitions from Mexico, the area
of the United States admits of division into
three hundred and seventy-six States as


large as Massachusetts; and, including the
territories ceded by Mexico, the number of
such States rises to four hundred and forty-
eight. Three millions two hundred and
fifty thousand square miles form a broader
field than twenty-six kingdoms like Great
Britain would cover, and is exceeded only
in five hundred thousand quare miles by all
Europe embracing three empires, six-
teen kingdoms, and more than forty other
independent States. And it has been said,
less accurately, perhaps, than elegantly,
that plains here open to our view as
boundless as the ocean; mountains that
look down upon the clouds; slopes that
cover thousands of miles in extent, and
rivers co-extensive. Nature paints on her
largest scale ; all her figures are colossal;
all her features bold and strongly marked."
If perchance, loftier mountains, broader
streams, or more extensive plains be found
elsewhere, there are yet none richer in
their productions, more accommodating to
the demands of commercial enterprise, nor


more abundant in their returns to the hand
of industry. Its mineral, vegetable, and
animal resources, are proved exhaustless,
by the developments of advancing years.
Its ten thousand miles of continuous coal
field, its iron mountains, and newly discov-
ered mines of lead and copper, of silver
and gold; its numberless lakes and rivers;
its verdant hill tops, fruitful valleys, and
beautiful prairies rolling like the sea, baffle
description, while they indicate the purpose
of high heaven to make it forever the glory
of all lands. That ancient land whose
brooks of water, fountains and depths
springing out of valleys and hills," are cel-
ebrated in inspired song-"a land of
wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees,
and pomegranates; a land of -oil, olive, and
honey -whose stones were iron, and out
of whose hills brass was dug,"-was rich
indeed, salubrious, and blessed of Heaven;
but our own country is richer still, as
healtful too, sharing more largely in all that
ministers to human welfare.


ELIHU BURRITT was born in New Britain,
Connecticut, on the 8th day of December,
1811. His father bore the same name, and
was an honest, industrious, benevolent shoe-
maker, who reared a family of five sons and
five daughters by labor. Of his sons Elihu
is the youngest. The parents of this illus-
trious man were both dead when he was a
little over sixteen; and having been con-
strained by love and duty to toil for them,
and forego the privileges of education, he
he had at that period received only one
quarter's schooling at the district school.
This short term had been sufficient, how-
ever, to enable him to acquire the power of
reading, and he devoured all the books that
came in his way with that avidity which an
inordinate appetite could alone stimulate.
When he was twenty-one, his brother
Elijah, with whom he lived, and who was a
teacher, prevailed upon him to study math-


ematics, and Latin and French. He com-
plied, having no higher object in his studies
than that of qualifying himself for a land-
surveyor, and being able to read a few
works in their original tongue; but his win-
ter's studies were the prelude to one of the
most gigantic courses of mental labor and
acquirement that the mind of man ever tri-
umphed over. Alternately laboring with
his hand and head, he earned his daily
bread by the sweat of his intellectual brow,
and gradually became probably the first
linguist in the world.
Elihu Burritt possesses all the pre-requi-
sites of a cosmopolitan apostle of peace ; he
is master of fifty languages, and his sympa-
thies for the good and true are as extensive
as the world wide.
Says an English writer, "When we
grasped this remarkable man by the hand
that had gained him bread and the power
to independently pursue his herculean stu-
dies, and looked upon his face which was
lighted up with the vast intelligence that


slumbers in fifty tongues, we thought that
we had never been so powerfully struck
with a sense of man's duality, of the digni-
ty of labor, and of the modesty of superla-
tive mind; we rejoiced in contemplating
Elihu Burritt as a protest in favor of his
class. He was an illustration of the capa-
city of the people-a grand illustration, we
confess--and of the compatibility of willing,
joyous toil with high and vast attainments.
Elihu Burritt is a working-man in his very
essence-he could not be an idler or he
would die. He must either work with the
head or hand-he must labor or become a
nonentity. He looks upon labor as a prin-
ciple deriveable immediately from the Crea-
tor, and analogous to Him; it is from Him
and of Him when, like the artisan's and
Christian philanthropist's, it is constructive,
and consequently he considers his estate,
as a toiling, producing man, the most digni-
fled on earth."




He has associated his ambition, his inter-
ests, and his affections, with a party. He
prefers, doubtless, that his side should be
victorious by the best means, and under
the championship of good men; but rather
than lose the victory, he will consent to
any means, and follow any man. Thus,
with a general desire to be upright, the
exigency of his party pushes constantly to
dishonorable deeds. He opposes fraud by
craft; lie by lie; slander by counter-
aspersion. To be sure it is wrong to mis-
take, to distort, to suppress, or color facts;
it is wrong to employ the evil passions; to
set class against class; the poor against the
rich, the country against the city, the
farmer against the mechanic, one section
against another section. But his oppo-
nents do it, and if they will take advantage


corruption, he must, or
He gradually adopts t

lose by
two char-

_ __ ___ ____ __


actors, a personal and a political character.
All the requisitions of his conscience he
obeys in his private character; all the
requisitions of his party, he obeys in his
political conduct. In one character he is a
man of principle; in the other, a man of
mere expedients. As a man, he means to
be veracious, honest, moral; as a politician,
he is deceitful, cunning, unscrupulous,
anything for a party. As a man, he
abhors the slimy demagogue; as a poli-
tician, he employs him as a scavenger. As
a man, he shrinks from the flagitiousness of
slander; as a politician, he permits it,
smiles upon it in others, rejoices in the suc-
cess gained by it. As a man, he respects
no one who is rotten in heart; as a poli-
tician, no man through whom victory may
be gained can be too bad. As a citizen,
he is an apostle of temperance; as a poli-
tician, he puts his shoulder under the men
who deluge their track with whiskey,
marching a crew of brawling .patriots pug-
naciously drunk, to exercise the freeman's



noblest franchise the VOTE. As a citizen,
he is considerate of the young, and coun-
sels them with admirable wisdom; then, as
a politician, he votes for tools, supporting
for the magistracy worshipful aspirants
scraped from the ditch, the grogshop, and
the brothel; thus saying by deeds which
the young are quick to understand: I
jested when I warned you of bad company;
for you perceive none worse than those
whom I delight to honor." For his re-
ligion he will give up all his secular inter-
ests; but for his politics he gives up even
his religion. He adores virtue, and re-
wards vice. Whilst bolstering up unrighte-
ous measures, and more unrighteous men,
he prays for the advancement of religion,
and justice, and honor. I would to God
that his prayer might be answered upon his
own political head; for never was there a
place where such blessings were more
needed I am puzzled to know what will
happen at death to this public Christian,

but most unchristian



THE children of very young parents are
generally deficient in strength of body and
mind, and commonly die young. Franklin
was the fifteenth child of his father, and
the eighth of his mother; and more still,
he was the youngest child for five succes-
sive generations on the mother's side, from
whom more than his father, he inherited his
eminent talents. Pitt, Fox, and Burke,
were each the youngest child of their
respective families. Daniel Webster is the
youngest by a second marriage; so was
also Lord Bacon, whose father was fifty,
and his mother thirty-two years of age at
his birth. Judge Story's mother was
forty-four years of age at his birth. Ben-
jamin West was the tenth child of his
parents; and Dr. Doddridge was the
twentieth child by one father and mother.
It is a proverb that the youngest children
are the smartest."- And why ? evidently


because the parents are mature in mind
and body, and consequently transmit a
high order of mentality to their offspring.
Does the intelligent farmer expect a
healthy and luxuriant crop when he seeds
with dwarfish green corn or unripe
potatoes ? And why not bring in requisi-
tion as much science and common sense to
propagate the "human form divine," as
" potatoes and cabbage ? Grant that
early marriages would obviate much of
the vice and wickedness which is now
almost unavoidable, is not the remedy worse
than the disease if it be the means of bring-
ing into existence a race of puny, ill-formed
children, a majority of whom die before
they arrive at maturity? But the evil
does not end here. Those who live and
transmit their mushroom constitution to
their offspring, and thus most effectually
are the iniquities of the fathers visited
upon their children."



Hard work for those who are not used to
it, and dull work for those who are. Idle-
ness is a moral leprosy, which soon eats its
way into the heart and corrodes our happi-
ness, while it undermines our health.
Nothing is so hard to do, as to do nothing.
The hypochondriacal Countess, who en-
vies every cinder-wench she sees," is much
more to be pitied than the toiling drudge,
who "1 sighs for luxury and ease."
Idleness is costly without being a luxury.
Montagne always wound up the year's ac-
count of his expenses with the following
entry: Item for my abominable habit
of idleness, a thousand livres."
Idlers may deserve our compassion, but
few things are more displaced than the
contempt lavished upon them as useless
members of society; sometimes such scorn
is only masked envy; where it is real it is
wrong. All rich idlers may be termed the






habit; they must either have achieved
independence by their own exertions or
by those of their ancestors, for almost all
wealth can be traced back to labor, or
genius, or merit, of some sort. And why
do the revilers of the idle, labor and toil
with such perseverance ? that they may
imitate those whom they abuse, by acquir-
ing an independence and becoming them-
selves idle. The sight of luxurious ease is
the best stimulus to exertion. To suppose
that the pleasure of overtaking is greater
than that of pursuing the game, may be a
mistake, but it is a beneficial one, and
keeps society from stagnation. Rich idlers
are the advancers of civilization, the best
encouragers of industry the surest pat-
rons of literature and the arts. Nor is
there anything invidious in their good for-
tune, for every one may aspire to rival or
surpass it, which is not the case with
hereditary distinctions.
We toil for leisure only to discover, when



I 1 III Irr I


we have succeeded in our object, that leis-
ure is a great toil. How quickly would
the working classes be reconciled to what
they term the curse of compulsory occupa-
tion, if they were doomed only for a short
time to the greater curse of compulsory
idleness! Quickly would they find, that it
it is much better to wear out than to rust


How sweet are the endearments of home;
how many loved associations'cluster around
it. There a father's guiding, sustaining
influence is felt; there, too, a mother's
watchful love, tenderly watching over the
helpless hours of infancy, guiding her
youthful minds by her counsel and exam-
pie, sympathizing in all the joys and sor-
rows of her little household. There, too,
a circle of brothers and sisters, sharing
each other's pleasures, happy in each

HOME. 25

other's love. With home, are associated
our fondest recollections, our earliest
recollections, our earliest remembrances.
To that spot the heart fondly turns -
there its warmest affections centre. The
weary traveller turns towards it with long-
ing eyes; other places may be more beauti-
ful, other spots may be surrounded with
wealth and affluence, while poverty and
sorrow may be inmates of his lonely
dwelling, yet still it is dear to him.- The
stranger, in foreign climes, pines for home;
accents of love and kindness may fall upon
his ear, but it is not a mother's or a sister's
gentle voice. Man, driven on by restless
passions, may roam through the world in
search of pleasure, lured on by ambitious
hopes of fame and honor; he may engage
in science or political strife, or he may lead
his fellow-men to the battle-field, there to
do the work of death, to make widows and
orphans, to spread ruin and devastation on
every side, and all to gratify his thirsting
ambition. Or he may climb the heights of


science, to enrol his name in the annals of
genius; but it is to the quietude of home
that he looks for peace and true happiness.
O, when friends are cold and unkind, when
the world withdraws its sympathies, it is
then we turn to home, to seek in the bosom
of those who are dearest to us, that sym-
pathy and affection which the heart fondly
craves. Although home is thus lovely and
attractive, yet it is no earthly paradise,
unless each member, as he crosses the
threshold, leaves behind him his own selfish
inclinations. It can be made happy, but
it will require sacrifice and self-denial on
the part of its members, to make it so.

THE good and dutiful son is one who
honors his parents by paying unto them the
utmost deference and respect; by a reve-
rential awe, and veneration, and respect;
a filial affection for their persons, and a
tender regard for their safety and preserva-


tion; a constant and cheerful attendance to
their advice, and a ready and implicit obe-
dience to their commands. As he becomes
more sensible of his obligations to them, he
grows every day more willing and more
solicitous to pay them. He employs his
youth to support their age; his abundance
to relieve their wants; his knowledge and
strength to support their infirmities and
decay. He is more careful of his charac-
ter and reputation in the world, because
their's depends upon it. Ever anxious for
their welfare, and attentive to their happi-
ness, he endeavors, by every method in his
power, to prolong their days, that his own
may be long ii the land. He rests as-
sured, that God will not only bless obedient
children here, but will reward them with
him forever; where we shall join, son and
father, daughter and mother, wife and hus-
band, servant and master; all the relations
and connections of this life, to honor one
great Parent, Protector, Lord and Master
of all.





MAINTAIN a constant watch at all times
against a dogmatic spirit; fix not your
assent to any proposition in a firm and un-
alterable manner, till you have some firm
and unalterable ground for it, and till you
have arrived at some clear and sure evi-
dence ; till you have turned the proposition
on all sides, and searched the matter
through and through, so that you cannot
be mistaken. And even where you think
you have full grounds for assurance, be not
too early nor too frequent in expressing this
assurance in too peremptory and positive a
manner, remembering that human nature is
always liable to mistake in this corrupt and
feeble state.


THis name
have studied




all those who
this country.


- -


It may be said that his history began with
that of our country. The halls of Con-
gress rang with his eloquence. At one
time he saved the country from bank-
ruptcy; was a commissioner at Ghent, an
ambassador to the court of England, and
France, and Secretary of the Treasury.
In 1849, he was called to his final resting
place, being the last survivor of the cabinet
of Jefferson and Madison. Mr. Gallatin
was born at Geneva, January, 1761. His
father died when he was-only four years of
age, and he came to America at the age of
nineteen. His career was commenced in
the service of his adopted country, in
Maine, then a part of Massachusetts. He
had the command, in 1780, of a small fort in
Passamaquoddy Bay, which was garrisoned
by volunteers and Indians. He afterwards
officiated at Harvard College as Professor
of the French language. Having received
his patrimony from Europe, he proceeded,
in 1784, to Virginia, and there became the
purchaser of lands. In 1786, he estab-


listed himself in Pennsylvania; soon after
which he was elected a member of the
convention of that State to amend the
constitution, and subsequently a member
of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, where
his financial abilities were exhibited, which
afterwards rendered him so eminent in the
administration of the national treasury.
He was elected a Senator of the United
States in 1793, where his eligibility was
assailed on the ground, that though an
American anterior to the adoption of the
Constitution, nine years had not elapsed
since his formal naturalization in Virginia,
and his seat was vacated by a strictly party
vote. Immediately on the decision of the
Senate being promulgated, and without his
knowledge, Mr. Gallatin was elected a
member of the House of Representatives,
and, while there, was distinguished as an
able, honest legislator. In 1801, Mr. Jef-
ferson called him to a seat in his cabinet.
In 1813, he was at St. Petersburg as one
of the envoys extraordinary, to negotiate


with Great Britain, under the mediation of
Russia; and at Ghent, with John Quincy
Adams and Jonathan Russell, together
with Henry Clay and James A. Bayard,
where they signed the Treaty of Peace.
Geography was a favorite study with Mr.
Gallatin; no one surpassed him in this
department of science. Soon after his
arrival in Boston (1781,) he went to the
roof of the house at which he put up, to
see the features of the country around, and
discovered the blue hills of Milton, the
highest land in sight, and the next day set
out on foot with a companion, and reached
their summit; there he discovered, in a
north-westerly direction, other high lands,
which he determined to visit; and on the
following day set out on foot with his com-
panion in search of them. They proved to
be in the town of Princeton, Worcester
County. He ascended the highest point
and surveyed the country around as hereto-
fore. The tavern at which he stopped was
kept by a man who had that curiosity


which is manifested by some landlords at
the present day, to know the whole history
of their guests. Observing Mr. Gallatin's
French accent, he said: Just from
France, eh! You are a Frenchman I
suppose." "No !" said Mr. G., I am
not from France." "You can't be from
England, I am sure ?" "No!" was the re-
ply. From Spain ? No !" "From
Germany ?" No!" Well, were on
earth are you from, then, or what are
you?" eagerly asked the inquisitive land-
lord. "I am a Swiss," replied Mr. Gal-
latin. Swiss, Swiss, Swiss !" exclaimed
the landlord with wonder; "which of the
ten tribes are the Swiss ?"
While in Virginia, Mr. Gallatin was for
a time engaged in surveying, and first met
General Washington at the office of a land
agent, where, with others, they were met
in reference to the location of a road.
General Washington took his seat at a pine
table and wrote down the particulars stated
by those assembled. Mr. Gallatin was in


the crowd, and feeling uneasy at the inde-
cision of the General, when the point was
so plain to him, suddenly interrupted the
General by saying: Oh, it is plain
enough such a place (a spot just men-
tioned) is the most practicable." The
good people stared at the young surveyor
(for he was only known as such) with sur-
prise at his boldness in thrusting an opinion
upon the General, unasked. This inter-
ruption put a sudden stop to General
Washington's enquiries. He laid down his
pen, raised his eyes from his paper, and
sternly looked at Mr. Gallatin, without
saying a word. Resuming his former atti-
tude, he made a few further enquiries,
when, suddenly stopping, he threw down
his pen, and, turning to Mr. Gallatin, said,
" You are right, sir." After the separa-
tion of the party, General Washington
inquired who the young man was that
interrupted him; made his acquaintance,
learnt his history, and urged Mr. Gallatin
to become his land agent, which was


declined. Few men have done more for
their country. In reference to his declin-
ing years, Mr. Gallatin said: The true
rule is never to suffer your faculties to get
rusty, and never to overtask them.

I want to tell you a secret. The way
to make yourself pleasing to others, is to
show that you care for them. The whole
world is like the miller at Mansfield, "who
cared for nobody no, not he,-- because
nobody cared for him." And the whole
world will serve you so, if you give them
the same cause. Let every one, therefore,
see that you do care for them, by showing
them, what Sterne so happily calls, the
small sweet courtesies of life," those
courtesies in which there is no parade;
whose voice is too still to tease, and which
manifest themselves by tender and affection-
ate looks, and little kind acts of attention,-


giving others the preference in every little
enjoyment at the table, in the field, walking,
sitting or standing. This is the spirit that
gives to your time of life, and to your sex,
its sweetest charm. It constitutes the sum
total of all the witchcraft of woman. Let
the world see that your first care is for
yourself, and you will spread the solitude of
the Upas tree around you, in the same way,
by the emanation of a poison which kills
all the juices of affection in its neighbor-
hood. Such a girl may be admired for her
understanding and accomplishments, but
she will never be beloved.
The seeds of love can never grow but un-
der the warm and genial influence of kind
feelings and affectionate manners. Vivac-
ity goes a great way in young persons. It
calls attention to her who displays it; and,
if it then be found associated with a generous
sensibility, its execution is irresistible.
On the contrary, if it be found in alliance
with a cold, haughty, selfish heart, it pro-
duces no further effect, except an adverse


one. Attend to this my daughter. It
flows from a heart that feels for you all the
anxiety a parent can feel, and not without
the hope which constitutes the parents high-
est happiness. May God protect and bless
Your affectionate father,


Beauty hideth everywhere, that Rea-
son's child may seek her; various in al-
things, setting up her home in each,-
shedding graciously around an omnipres-
ent smile." Now dear reader, we trust
that you are a lover of Nature, desir-
ous of being more familiar with the products
of the soil, and the wonderful formation of
those plants which daily meet the eye; if so,
why not devote a little time for your own
and other's amusement, as did Charles Curi-
ous, who discourses somewhat as follows.


The leaf of the common garden rhu-
barb, is a fine display of the order of veg-
etable nature. It is common to find them
about two feet square. I found that on the
surface of a single leaf, could be traced'
more than two miles of distinct canals,
through which the nourishment passed, to
give life to the leaf. These canals being
about the sixteenth of an inch apart, divided
the leaf into 130,000 fields, each as distinct
to the eye as the division walls of the well
cultivated farm. There are lateral fibres
more minute than the unaided eye can dis-
cover, passing in close contiguity through
these small fields, and could all the canals
for circulation in a single leaf be extended
in one line, they would probably reach the
distance of ten miles."


Few men in public or private life escape
the tongue of scandal. There is a propen-


sity in human nature to cover its own de-
fects by prating of the misdeeds of others.
And it is not easy for the Christian even,
always to hold his peace when idle tongues
-are dealing with his fair name. If wise,
however, he will do so, and let a lie die a na-
tural death, instead of galvanizing it into life
by the battery of passion.
There is much good sense and sound phi-
losophy in the following extract from the
private note of a valued correspondent:-
SI like," he writes, the story of the black-
smith who was requested to bring a suit for
slander. He said he could go into his shop
and hammer out a better character in six
months, than all the courts in Christendom
could give him. I lately saw a piece which
did me great and outrageous wrong. So I
sat down and wrote six practical pieces for
the press, and let t the thing pass. I found
this the best way of keeping my temper. I
think it more likely to give me a fair name
with good people, than those everlasting de-



Mr. James Lewis Smithson, a natural
son of the Duke of Northumberland, and a
gentleman of some repute as a scientific
chemist, died in 1830. He was noted for
his skill in analyzing minute quantities;
and it was he who caught a tear as it fell
from a lady's cheek, and detected the salts
and other substances which held it in solu-
tion. Mr. Smithson was a Fellow of the
Royal Society, and intended to bequeath
his large wealth to that body at his death;
but taking offence at some real or fancied
slight towards him on their part, he altered
his will, and left his property to the govern-
ment of the United States of America, to
found at Washington, under the name of
the Smithsonian Institution, an establish-
ment for the increase and diffusion of knowl-
edge among men."
It appears that the amount of the be-
quest, 515,169 dollars (above 100,000,)




was paid into the United States Treasury
in 1838. Some years were suffered to
elapse before the preliminary arrangements
were determined on; at length, in 1846,
the fund, then nearly 765,000 dollars, was
placed under the control of the Board of
Regents" chosen to conduct the Institution.
The Board consists of the Vice President
of the United States, the Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court, and the Mayor of
Washington, together with twelve other
members, three of whom are appointed by
the Senate from its own body, three by
the House of Representatives from its mem-
bers, and six citizens appointed by a joint


of both houses.


Thousands of men breathe, move, and
live-pass off the stage of life, and are
heard of no more. Why? They did not
a particle of good in the world; and none



were blest by them; none could point to
them as the instruments of their redemp-
tion; not a line that they wrote, not a word
that they spoke could be recalled, and so
they perished-their light went out in dark-
ness, and they were not remembered more
than the insects of yesterday. Will you
thus live and die, 0 man immortal! Live
for something. Do good, and leave behind
you a monument of virtue that the storm of
time can never destroy. Write your name
by kindness, love, and mercy, on the hearts
of the thousands you come in contact with
year by year, and you will never be forgot-
ten. No, your name-your deeds-will be
as legible on the hearts you leave behind,
as the stars on the brow of evening. Good
deeds will shine as brightly on the earth as
the stars of heaven.

DEAN SWIFT, when he claimed at the
usual time the degree of A. B., was so


deficient as to obtain it only by special
favor, a term used to denote a want of
merit. Of this disgrace he was so ashamed
that he resolved to study eight hours a
day, and continued his industry for seven
years, with what improvement is sufficiently
known. This part of his history deserves
to be remembered; it may afford useful
admonition to young men, whose abilities
have been made for a time useless by
their passion for pleasure, and who, having
lost one part of life in idleness, are tempted
to throw away the remainder in despair.


EVERY nation has stamped a great value
on the family compact, and guarded it with
the most powerful sanctions. It is by the
fireside, and upon the family hearth, that
patriotism, and every public virtue grows;
as it is in disordered families that factious
demagogues, and tyranical oppressors are


trained up to be their neighbor's scourge.
It is there that the thorn and the brier, to
use the similie of the prophet, or the myrtle
and the fir tree are reared, which are in
future time to be the ornament and defence,
or the deformity and misery of the land.


ABOUT tny honest employment Provi-
dence throiO in your way. Keep at it-
heartily and earnestly at it. Don't slack
up and be languid. Hold on. We will
give you a dish of capital reasons and a
variety of them.
1. That is the way to be happy. "I
have lived," said Dr. Adam Clarke, "long
enough to know that the great secret of
human happiness is this: never suffer your
energies to stagnate. The old adage of
Stoo many irons in the fire," conveys an
untruth. You cannot have too many--




poker, tongs and all--keep them all
2. That is the way to accomplish a vast
deal in a short life. The late Wm. Hazlitt
remarked, There is room enough in
human life to crowd almost every art and
science into it. The more we do, the more
we can do; the more busy we are, the more
leisure we have."
3. That is the way to be contented.
The unemployed are always restless and
uneasy. Occupation quiets the mind by
giving it something to do. Idleness makes
it, like an empty stomach, uneasy. The
mate of a ship, having put everything to
rights, called on the captain for what next
should be done. Tell them to scour the
anchor," was the reply, on the principle
that occupation, however needless, saves
from the discontent of idleness.
4. That is the way to keep out of bad
company. He will rove who has not rest
for his mind in some occupation. And


he will fall in with

other rovers.




They are birds of a feather. And, as
gathered burning brands augment the
flame and heat, so do gathered rovers and
loafers and idlers augment the taste and
activity of each other's minds for evil
5. That is the way to disappoint Satan.
He comes up to the idler with assurance of
a victim; from the well occupied he departs
as a roaring lion robbed of his prey. The
one welcomes, the other repulses him.
6. That is the way to pay due respect to
counsel from the highest of all counsellors.
" Diligent in business," says the Divine
Record Do something therefore the
right thing-do it-keep on doing it.
Be wide awake about it.


In considering
duties, we must be
has its full share.

our public and social
aware that married life
When men marry and


settle down in life, the world generally
looks on with approbation, and its congratu-
lations arc warmly given. The reason is
obvious: "In marrying, a guarantee is
given society for our good behavior."
But married life is not always as happy
as it might be, and those who have resolved
to live for each other, sometimes end their
career in mutual dislike. But if it does
come to this, there are often little disagree-
ments, misunderstandings and troubles,
which destroy the peace of married people;
and in general the fault is to be traced to a
want of consideration, a little precipitancy
of action, on one side or the other. Half
the success of married life depends upon
the attention paid to trifles. Uniform kind-
ness of manners is a sure method of pre-
serving domestic quiet. In a recent work
on social life, we have met with much on
the treatment which husbands should give
their wives and wives their husbands. The
advice comes from a sagacious observer of
mankind, and we think we cannot do our


readers a more agreeable service than by
transferring to our pages some of the max-
ims which come from this well-wisher to our
Husbands should always regard their
wives as their equals, and treat them with
kindness, respect, and attention. They
should never address them with an air of
authority, or as a master; nor interfere
with domestic concerns, the employment or
discharge of servants. The wife should
always be supplied with money in propor-
tion to her husband's means, that she may
procure those things indispensable to the
table, and for her personal comfort. Her
reasonable wishes should be cheerfully com-
plied with. Temper never should be shown
at those slight irregularities in the domestic
arrangements which will occasionally occur
in families, and are often caused by ser-
vants. If the wife be a strong-minded and
prudent woman, she is her husband's best
counsellor, and should be consulted in
every difficulty. Many a man has been


saved from ruin by this course, and many a
one ruined by not adopting it. If the hus-
band's circumstances are embarrassed, she
should know it; as women, who are kept in
ignorance of them, often expend money
which they would not do, if they knew the
A wife should never be rebuked or
chidden in company, for any little mistakes
in conversation, or any other cause. Some
men do this constantly, and strike a keener
dart at the feelings of a sensitive woman
than they would by a sharp rebuke in pri-
vate. Anything like an exposure of igno-
rance in company, impairs her respect for
herself and the good opinion entertained of
her by others.
Wives should always receive their hus-
bands with smiles, make their homes agree-
able to them as possible, and gratefully
reciprocate their attentions. They should
study to gratify their wishes with regard to
food, its preparation, the management of
the family in dress, manners and deport-



ment. A wife should never rule or seek to
rule her husband, for such conduct de-
grades both in the estimation of others.
Cheerful compliance with his wishes-- in-

deed, the a
arguments I
avoided, wl
private. M
tered by id
cause for t
fere in the
their advice
should never
opinion, no
fections of
most intima
the pledges

anticipation of them, should be
studied. All altercations and
leading to ill-humor, must be
tether before strangers or in
carried life is too often embit-
tie disputes, without any real
iem. Wives should not inter-
ir husband's business, unless
e is particularly asked. They
r speak of their differences of
r of the failings and imper-
their husbands, even to their
te friends. For in spite of all
given of secrecy, tlese things
y, thse t

will soon become known to a numerous
circle. This is a very common mistake,
and many an unsuspecting husband is the
object of very improper remarks. Wives
should, at every opportunity, cultivate their
own minds, that they may be rational com-


panions. In their expenditure they should
remember the vicissitudes of life, and not
incur expenses which may prove inconve-
nient or injurious. They should, in domes-
tic life, think nothing a trifle which may
interrupt its harmony, or give real uneasi-
ness. If disposed to economise in their
household affairs, they should never do it
at the expense of the poor women who are
in their employment, the seamstress or the
laundress. Some women are parsimonious
to the extreme in the wages they allow,
only to be extravagant and wasteful in
their own personal expenditures. This is
an offence which will bring upon any family
in which it is permitted, sooner or later,
retributive justice.


The apple which falls from the tree is
met by the earth; not half way, but at a
distance fitly proportioned to their respective


masses. The moon follows the movement
of the earth with instant obedience, and the
sun with prompt humility bends his course
to theirs. The sister planets with their
moons are moved by sympathy with earth,
and the stars and most distant clusters of
the universe obey the leading of the sun.
Thus, throughout all the fields of space,
wherever stars or suns are scattered, they
move for the falling apple's sake. Nor is
the motion slowly taken up. The moon
waits for no tardy moving impulse from the
earth, but instantly obeys. The speed of
light which reaches the sun in a few min-
utes, would be too slow compared with this.
Electricity itself, coursing round the earth
a thousand times an hour, can give us no
conception of the perfectly simultaneous
motions of gravity. There are stars visible
to the telescopic eye, whose light has been
ages on its swift winged course before it
reached this distant part of space ; but they
move in instant accordance with the falling
fruit. True it is, that our senses re-


fuse to bear witness to any motion other
than the apple's fall, and our fingers tire
if we attempt to write the long list of figures,
which our Arabic notation requires to ex-
press the movement thereby given to the
sun. Yet that motion can be proved to exist
and the algebraist's formula, can represent
its quantity. Thou who hast raised thy
hand to do a deed of wickedness, stay thine
arm The universe will be witness of thine
act, and bear an everlasting testimony
against thee; for every star in the remot-
est heavens will move when thy hand moves,
and all the tearful prayers thy soul can
utter, will never restore those moving orbs
to the path from which thy deed has drawn


MR. WHITNEY, was born in Westborough,
Massachusetts, December 8, 1765. His
early years were spent in assisting his


father, who was a farmer, residing in the
south part of the town. His father belonged
to that class of men who, in their frugal,
quiet way, were somewhat satisfied to do
what their fathers had done before them.
The activity of young Whitney's mind, lead
him often to retreat from the labors of the
farm, for which he did not evince a great
fondness, to the workshop of his father,
where his taste for mechanics could be grat-
ified. Among the anecdotes related of his
early years, it is said that his father having
occasion to leave home for a few days, on
his return, enquired, as was his custom, into
the occupation of his boys while he was
absent. A good account was given of all
of them except Eli, of whom his housekeep-
er reluctantly said, that he had been making
a fiddle.-" All" said his father, with his
characteristic shake of the head, I fear
that Eli will have to take out his portion in
fiddles." We cannot wonder much at the
father's forebodings, when we see how fre-
quently idle,dissolute boys take up the fiddle,


or follow its sound. It is said however, that
this fiddle proved to be a very good one.
About this period, his stepmother (who
had recently become such) was in possession
of a set of knives and forks, which were
highly prized by her, as a superior article.
Eli observed to her that they were well
made, but that if he had proper tools, he
thought he could produce as good, by his
own manufacture. The mother was offen-
ded, thinking that he intended to undervalue
that which she so much prized, but it was
not long after, that one of the knives became
broken, and he supplied its place so perfect-
ly, that it was not to be told from the others,
except for the want of the stamp, which he
had not the tools suited to impart to it.
Although but about thirteen years of age,
his reputation as a skilful mechanic had
become so general in town, that the people
were in the habit of bringing to him mechan-
ical jobs to execute, which were performed
with such neatness, as always to satisfy, and
not unfrequently to astonish those who


beheld his work. When about sixteen
years of age, young Whitney persuaded his
father to furnish him with the necessary
implements for making nails, which, at that
time bore a great price, and for two years
he was employed profitably in this occupa-
tion, the father taking good care to reserve
to himself all the profits arising from the
About this period, he determined to
acquire a collegiate education. By much
perseverance and labor, as a mechanic, and
keeping school, he succeeded in procuring
the means necessary to defray his expenses
as well as the knowledge requisite to enable
him to enter Yale College in the year 1789,
when about twenty-four years of age.


THE day set apart for the reception of
the remains of Mr. Calhoun was a day


which will long be remembered in Charles-
ton. There was that deep-felt respect and
veneration for his character pervading the
community, which made what otherwise
would have been but a grand and imposing
pageant, exceedingly solemn and interest-
ing. His stern and incorruptible integrity
in public life, and the spotless purity of his
private character, associated as these were
with talent of the most exalted kind,
rendered him a "bright particular star,"
whose disappearance from our sky must
necessarily excite no common emotion.
The Sabbath stillness of the morning of
that day, the entire cessation of the labor
and tumult of ordinary life, the spectacle
of a whole city congregated around the
bier of the mighty dead, the solemnity and
propriety of demeanor which, in harmony
with the outward signs of mourning, were
everywhere visible, extending down to the
very lowest stratum of society- these con-
stituted an impressive and sincere homage
to illustrious talent and virtue, which no


man but Calhoun could have called forth,
and which no city but Charleston could
have rendered. The population that dark-
ly hung on the skirts of the funeral proces-
sion (a mile long,) conducted themselves
with a decorum and quietness quite in con-
trast with the massive lowborn rowdyism
which will have a place in the picture"
on all public occasions in Philadelphia and
New York.
Everything was done-and done in the
best possible manner that could indicate
the sorrow of the City and the State, in
view of such a bereavement. The scene
was specially interesting when, in presence
of the multitude that filled the Citadel
Square, and who stood the while uncovered,
the Chairman of the Senate Committee, in
brief but eloquent words, resigned their
charge to the Governor of the State, who,
replying with dignity and solemnity, then
committed the remains to the care of the
City authorities. Two hundred citizens,
all of the highest respectability, in watches


of twenty each, kept guard during the in-
terval between the reception at the City
Hall at the close of the procession, and the
interment in St. Phillip's churchyard, after
religious services, on the following day.
On this last occasion, Bishop Ladsden, an
early associate of Mr. Calhoun's officiated,
and an elegant funeral oration was pro-
nounced by Rev. J. W. Miles, Professor in
the Charleston College. Many days from
that time, flowers, fresh every day, were
laid by fair hands on the marble which
now covers all that was mortal of JOHN
It was grateful and soothing to the feel-
ings of the friends and admirers of the
illustrious dead, as, indeed, it was henora-
ble to our nature, that such homage should
have been paid to his memory at Washing-
ton, by those who were farthest from coin-
ciding with him in political views. Massa-
chusetts spoke then, in tihe Senate, in the
tones of an eloquence which belongs but to


one living man ; and in the House of Rep-
resentatives her homage to the dead was
scarcely less splendid.


ALEXANDER, of Macedon, extended his
power over Greece, conquered Egypt, re-
built Alexandria, overrun all Asia, and
died at thirty-three years of age.
.Hannibal was but twenty-six, when, after
the fall of his father Hamilcar, and Asdru-
bal, his successor, he was chosen com-
mander-in-chief of the Carthagenian Army.
At twenty-seven he captured Saguntum
from the Romans. Before he was thirty-
four, he carried his arms from Africa into
Italy, conquered Publius Scipio on the
banks of the Ticinus, routed Sempronius
near the Trebia, defeated Flaminus on his
approach to the Appenines, laid waste the
whole country, defeated Fabius Maximus
and Varro, marched into Capua, and at the


age of thirty-six was thundering at the
gates of Rome.
Scipio Africanus was scarcely sixteen
when he took an active part in the battle of
Cannae, and saved the life of his father.
The wreck of the- Roman Cavalry chose
him then for their leader, and he conducted
them back to the capitol. Soon after he
was twenty, he was appointed pro-consul of
Spain, where he took New Carthage by
storm. He soon after defeated, successive-
ly, Asdrubal, (Hannibal's brother,) Mago,
and Hann; crossed over into Africa, nego-
tiating with Syphax, the Massasylian king,
returned to S ain, quelled the insurrection
there, drove the Carthagenians wholly from
the peninsula, returned to Rome, devised
the diversion against the Carthagenians by
carrying the war into Africa, crossed
thither, destroyed the army of Syphax,
compelled the return of .Hannibal, and
defeated Asdrubal a second time.
Charlemagne was crowned king of the
Franks before he was twenty-six. At the


age of twenty-eight
Aquitania, at the ac
made himself master
and French empires.
Charles XII., of

he had conquered
ge of twenty-nine he
of the whole German

Sweden, was declared

of age by the States, and succeeded his
father at the age of fifteen. At eighteen
he headed the expedition against the
Danes, whom he checked; and with a
fourth of their numbers, he cut to pieces
the Russian army, commanded by the Czar
Peter, at Narva crossed the Dwina,
gained a victory over the Saxons, and car-
ried his arms into Poland. At twenty-one
he had conquered Poland, and dictated to
her a new sovereign. At twenty-four he
had subdued Saxony, and at twenty-seven
he was conducting his victorious troops into
the heart of Russia, when a severe wound
prevented his taking command in person,
and resulted in his overthrow and subse-
quent treacherous captivity in Turkey.
Lafayette was a major general in the
A.ierican army at the age of eighteen;


0 1 1 "1 1 .1 -..-.-~- - -


was but twenty when he was wounded
at Brandywine; but twenty-two when he
raised supplies for his army, on his own
credit, at Baltimore ; and but twenty-three
when raised to the office of commander-in-
chief of the national guards of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte commenced his mil-
itary career as an officer of artillery, at the
age of seventeen. At twenty-four he suc-
cessfully commanded the artillery at the
seige of Toulon. His splendid and victori-
ous campaign in Italy was performed at the
age of twenty-seven. During the next
year, when he was about twenty-eight, he
gained battle after battle over the Austri-
ans in Italy, conquered Mantua, carried
the war into Austria, ravaged the Tyrol,
concluded an advantageous peace, took
possession of Milan and the Venitian
republic, revolutionized Genoa, and formed
the Cisalpine Republic. At the age of
twenty-nine he received the command of
the army against Egypt; scattered the
clouds of Mameluke cavalry, mastered Al-


exandria, Aboukir and Cario, and wrested
the land of the Pharaohs and Ptolemies
from the proud descendants of the prophet.
At the age of thirty he fell among the
Parisians, like a thunderbolt, overthrew the
directorial government; dispersed the coun-
cil of five hundred, and was proclaimed
first consul. At the age of thirty-one he
crossed the Alps with an army and
destroyed the Austrians by a blow at
Marengo. At the age of thirty-two he
established the Code of Napoleon; in the
same year he was elected consul for life by
the people ; and at the age of thirty-three
he was crowned emperor of the French
William Pitt, the first Earl of Chatham,
was but twenty-seven years of age, when,
as a member of Parliament, he waged the
war of a giant against the corruptions of
Sir Robert Walpole.
The younger Pitt was scarcely twenty
years of age when, with masterly power,
he grappled with the veterans of Parlia-


ment, in favor of America. At twenty-two
he was called to the high and responsible
trust of chancellor of the exchequer. It
was at that age when he came forth in his
might on the affairs of the East Indies.
At twenty-nine, during the first insanity of
George III., he rallied around the Prince
of Wales.
Edmund Burke, at the age of nineteen,
planned a refutation of the metaphysical
theories of Berkley and Hume. At twenty
he was in the temple, the admiration of its
inmates for the brilliancy of his genius and
the variety of his acquisitions. At twenty-
six he published his celebrated satire, enti-
tled A Vindication of Natural Society."
The same year he published his Essay on
the Sublime and Beautiful so much ad-
mired for its spirit of philosophical investi-
gation and the elegance of its language.
At twenty five he was first lord of the
George Washington was only twenty-
seven years of age when he covered the


retreat of the British troops at Braddock's
defeat; and the same year was appointed
commander-in-chief of all the Virginia
General Joseph Warren was only twenty-
nine years of age, when, in defiance of the
British soldiers stationed at the door of the
church, he pronounced the celebrated ora-
tion which aroused the spirit of liberty and
patriotism that terminated in the achieve-
ment of independence. At thirty-four he
gloriously fell, gallantly fighting in the
cause of freedom, on Bunker Hill.
Alexander Hamilton was a lieutenant-
colonel in the army of the American Revo-
lution, and aid-de-camp to Washington, at
the age of twenty. At twenty-five he was
a member of Congress from New York ; at
thirty, he was one of the ablest members of
the convention that formed the Constitution
of the United States. At thirty-one he
was a member of the New York conven-
tion, and joint author of the great work
entitled the "Federalist." At thirty-two


he was secretary of the treasury of the
United States, and arranged the financial
branch of the government upon so perfect
a plan, that no great improvement has ever
been made upon it by his successors.
Thomas Haywood, of South Carolina,
was but thirty years of age when he signed
the glorious record of the nation's birth,
the Declaration of Independence; Elbridge
Gerry, of Massachusetts, Benjamin Rush
and James Wilson, of Pennsylvania, were
but thirty-one years of age; Mlatthew
Thornton, of New Hampshire, thirty-two;
Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Arthur
Middleton, of North Carolina, and Thomas
Stone, of Maryland, thirty-three; and
William Hooper, of North Carolina, but
John Jay, at twenty-nine years old, was
a member of the Revolutionary Congress,
and being associated with Lee and Living-
ston, on the committee for drafting an
address to the people of Great Britain,
drew up that paper himself, which was con-


sidered one of the most eloquent produc-
tions of the time. At thirty-two he penned
the old constitution of New York, and in
the same year was appointed chief justice
of that State. At thirty-four he was ap-
pointed minister to Spain.
At the age of twenty-six, Thomas Jef-
ferson was a leading member of the Colo-
nial Legislature in Virginia. At thirty he
was a member of the Virginia Convention;
at thirty-two a member of Congress; and
at thirty-three, he drafted the Declaration
of Independence.
Milton, at the age of twenty, had writ-
ten his finest miscellaneous poems, includ-
ing his L'Allegro, Penseroso, Comus, and
the most beautiful of Monodies.
Lord Byron, at the age of twenty, pub-
lished his celebrated satire upon the English
Bards and Scotch Reviewers; at twenty-
four, the two first Cantos of Childe Harold's
Pilgrimage. Indeed, all the vast poetic
treasures of his genius were poured forth in
their richest profusion before he was thirty-


four years old; and he died at thirty-seven.
Miozart, the great German musician,
completed all his noble compositions before
he was thirty-four years old, and died at
Pope wrote many of his published poems
by the time he was sixteen years old; at
twenty his Essay on Criticism; at twenty-
one the Rape of the Lock; and at twenty-
five his great work, the translation of the
Sir Isaac Newton had mastered the
highest elements of the mathematics and
the analytical method of Des Cartes before
he was twenty; had discovered the new
method of infinite series of fluctions, and
his new theory of light and colors. At
twenty-five he had discovered the new
principles of the reflecting telescope, the
laws of gravitation, and the planetary sys-
tem. At thirty he occupied the mathemat-
ical chair at Cambridge.
Dr. Dwight's conquest of Canan was
commenced at the age of sixteen, and


finished at twenty-two. At the latter age,
he composed his celebrated dessertation on
the history, eloquence and poetry of the
Bible, which was immediately published
and republished in Europe.

Years may pass over our heads without
affording an opportunity for acts of high
beneficence or extensive utility. Whereas
not a day passes, but, in the common trans-
actions of life, and especially in the inter-
course of domestic society, gentleness finds
a place for promoting the happiness of others,
and for strengthening in ourselves the habit
of virtue. There are situations not a few
in human life, where the encouraging recep-
tion, the condescending behaviour, and the
look of sympathy, bring greater relief to
the heart than the most bountiful gift.




In the Artic regions persons can converse
at more than a mile distant when the ther-
mometer is below zero. In air, sound tra-
vels from 1130 to 1142 feet per second.
In water, sound passes at the rate of 4708.
feet per second. Sound travels in air about
900 feet for every pulsation of a healthy
person at 75 in a minute. A bell sounded
under water may be heard under water at
1200 feet distant. Sounds are distinct at
twice the distance on water that they are
on land. In a balloon, the barking of dogs
on the ground may be heard at an elevation
of three or four miles. On Table Mountain,
a mile above Cape Town, every noise in it,
and even words, may be heard distinctly.
The fire of the English on landing in Egypt
was plainly heard 130 miles on the sea.
Dr. Jameson says, in calm weather we
heard every word of a sermon, at the
distance of two miles. Water is a better


conductor of sound than air. Wood is also
a powerful conductor of sound, and so is
flannel or riband. Sound affects particles
of dust in a sunbeam, cobwebs, and water
in musical glasses; it shakes small pieces
of paper off a string in concord. Deaf
persons may converse through deal rods
held between the teeth, or held to the throat
or breast. Echoes are formed by elliptical
surfaces combined with surrounding surfa-
ces, or by such of them as fall into the
respective distances of the surface of an
ellipse, and are therefore directed to the
other focus of the ellipse; for all the dis-
tances from both foci to such surface are
equal, and hence there is a concentration of
sounds at those points direct from one focus,
and reflected back again from the other
focus. An echo returns a monosyllable at
70 feet distance, and another syllable at
every 40 feet additional. The echo of artil-
lery is increased or created by a cloud, or
clouds. Miners distinguish the substance
bored by the sound; and physicians distin-


guish the action of the heart or lungs by a
listening tube. Gamblers can distinguish,
in tossing money, which side is undermost,
though covered by the hand.


There is no vice to which the human race
are so prone, and none so unsuitable to their
nature and condition, as pride that self
love which springs up so rapidly in our souls,
and leads us to view our own qualifications
through a magnifying medium, which gives
existence and reality to the phantoms of
imagination. Pride commences with our
life, grows with our growth, and spreads
through all our conversation and conduct.
She accompanies us through every stage,
condition, and circumstance of our terrestrial
course. She intermingles with almost every
action we perform, and every pursuit in
which we engage. She attends us to the
grave, in all the pomp, solemnity, and ex-


pease of funeral. She engraves her osten-
tatious inscriptions on the stone that covers
the mouldering body; and when that copy
is incorporated with its original dust, and
these words of vanity are no longer legible,
she attempts, by escutcheons and pedigrees
and genealogical legends, to perpetuate the
name which wisdom had perhaps consigned
to oblivion. This is more or less the foible,
this the deformity, this the deep-rooted vice,
of all mankind. Pride appears in the cot-
tage as well as in the palace; she sits on
the workman's bench as well as on the
monarch's throne ; she struts driving a flock
of sheep as well as marching at the head of
a victorious army.

There is not in the world a surer sign of
a little soul than the striving to gain respect
by such despicable means as dress and rich
clothes: none will depend on these ornar
ments but they who have no other.


LINDLEY MURRAY, the prince of Eng-
lish grammarians,' was born in the memora-
ble year 1745, at Swetara, near Lancaster,
in the state of Pennsylvania. His father
was an active and enterprising person, very
anxious to improve his circumstances, and
to raise his family to independence. Whilst
he was following the occupation of a miller,
he thought of devoting his attention to some
other branch of business, and began trading
to the West Indies, to which he made seve-
ral successful voyages. Latterly, he became
an extensive ship-owner, and engaged in a
great variety of mercantile pursuits, by
which he amassed a considerable fortune.
To his mother, an amiable and clever
woman, young Murray owed much, and he
was sensible of it. He held her in great
esteem, and cherished towards her the feel-
ings of a most affectionate and devoted son.
Both his parents were members of the Soci-
ety of Friends, and they were pious and


exemplary persons. The Bible was read
daily in the family; and one of the first
things which made a strong impression on
his mind was seeing his father shedding
tears as he sat in a corner of the room, pe-
rusing, by himself, the sacred page.. This
may appear to some a trifling incident; but
such was its influence upon the mind of
Lindley Murray that he continued to refer
to it with gratitude and gladness till the end
of his days.
Lindley was the eldest of twelve children.
In his infancy he was very delicate. He
was playful and frolicsome, however; and,
being weak and sickly, he was greatly in-
dulged, especially by his grandmother, who
lived in the family. Indeed, he was, in
every sense of the term, a 'spoiled child;'
and, as was to be expected, became very
peevish and obstinate. He was full of mis-
chief and tricks, some of which indicated
anything but an amiable disposition. As he
was not corrected, he became so forward
and ungovernable that it was found ncccs-


sary to remove him from the observation of
his indulgent grand-mother, and place him
under the care of an aunt. She was a
woman of great kindness, as well as firmness
of character; and it was not long till the
wayward, mischievous boy found that he
was under a very different kind of training
from that to which he had formerly been
subjected. To this discreet and excellent
relative he was much indebted; and in
after-life he frequently confessed that to her
wise and salutary management he owed in a
great measure his future eminence.
When about seven years of age, he was
sent to the city of Philadelphia, that he
migrht have the benefit of a better educa-
tion than could be had at Swctara. But he
was not long at the academy of Philadelphia
till he removed with his parents to North
Carolina. Their residence there was tem-
porary, and in 1753 they settled at New
York. Lindley was sent to one of the best
seminaries in the city, and every attention
was paid to his education by his parents and


teacher. Notwithstanding his fondness for
play, he scarcely ever neglected to perform
the tasks which were prescribed to him, and
he did so to the satisfaction of his teacher.
He made great progress in his education, and
gained a reputation for talent and scholarship.
From school, young Murray was removed
at a very early age to the counting-house of
his father, who was most desirous that his
son should follow the mercantile profession,
though all his efforts ant solicitations to this
effect failed.
When between seventeen and eighteen
years of age, he became so attached to liter-
ary pursuits, that the counting-house had
no charms for him. To follow his father's
business to be a merchant he would
not consent; it seemed to him a most unin-
teresting and unintellectual employment.
He communicated his wishes to his father,
and expressed his intention to follow the
legal profession; but his proposal was strong-
ly objected to. His father reminded him of
its temptations-of the small return it


would yield him compared with what ho
would receive if he became a merchant -
and the anxiety he felt that he should assist
him in his mercantile pursuits; but all argu-
ment and persuasion failed ; he was deter-
mined to follow a literary profession, though,
in his father's estimation, it was neither so
lucrative nor so honorable as that of a mer-
The office in which Murray was placed
to acquire a knowledge of the law was one
of the best which could be had in the city
of New York. The principal was Benjamin
Rissam, Esq., an intimate friend of his
father's, a man of great integrity and emi-
nence in his profession. John Jay, Esq.,
afterwards governor of New York, was his
fellow-student-a young man who then
gave indications of talent and excellence.
With these advantages he prosecuted his
studies with zeal and alacrity, and at the
close of the fourth year he was called to the
bar, and received license to practise both as
counsel and attorney, according to the cus-


tom of that time. His success exceeded his
expectations; and at the age of twenty-two
he married 'a young woman of personal
attractions, good sense, a most amiable dis-
position, and of a worthy and respectable
Shortly after his marriage his father's
business required him to go to England, and
to remain for a time in that country. Cir-
cumstances connected with his own profes-
sion rendered it necessary for him to go
there likewise. In 1771 they returned to
New York, where he resumed the practice
of the law. He was exceedingly attentive
and laborious, and was generally esteemed
for his professional knowledge, as well as his
private worth. He never encouraged litiga-
tion, even when he saw it to be for his own
pecuniary advantage. He uniformly recom-
mended a settlement of differences by arbi-
tration, and never, in the whole course of
his practice, did he undertake a case about
the justice of which he had a doubt, or ad-
vocate the claims of an individual which he


thought unreasonable. He gained for him-
self the reputation of 'an honest lawyer;' and
in consequence of his integrity as well as
his ability he acquired great celebrity, and
enjoyed for many years great success.
Subsequently he removed to England, and
settled in the village of Yorkshire, where he
published his 'Grammar of the English
Language.' This work, which has gained
such celebrity, was completed in less than a
year. It was commenced in the spring of
1794, and published in the spring of 1795.
He was induced to write it by some of his
friends,who had established a school for young
females in York. The first teachers were
but indifferently qualified in this respect.
These young persons he kindly instructed
in this particular branch of education at his
own house, and afterwards, chiefly at their
request, published the grammar. He never
designed it to be used beyond this school,
but it soon found its way into other semina-
ries. It became in a short time a standard
book, and for several years new editions of


from 10,000 to 12,000 were published.
The number of copies sold of C The Abridg-
ment of the Grammar,' which appeared in
1795, has exceeded a million.
He died on the 16th of February, 1826.
His endowments, intellectual and moral,
were of a superior order; and few men have
left behind them a higher reputation for wis-
dom, piety, and benevolence. HiTs writings
are a standing memorial of his literary and
intellectual qualifications; and his conduct
in all the relations of life testifies that he
was a virtuous, generous, noble-minded man.
Mr. Murray was a member of the Society
of Friends. He, as might be expected, was
much esteemed by them, and they greatly
mourned his loss. He was one of their
brightest ornaments. But though attached
to that highly respectable body of Christians,
he was not a bigot: he had a great respect
for religious persons of every name; and
used his influence to heal the breaches which
unhappily exist in the Christian church.
He' loved the brotherhood,' and he longed


for the day when Christians would be of
' one mind.' His testimony on this point is
so excellent, and so necessary to be remem-
bered in these latter days, that we must give
it at length:-
We are long in learning to judge wisely
of one another, and to make charitable
allowances for difference of understanding,
disposition, education, &c. Mankind are
all brethren, the children of one Father;
they should, therefore, when we believe
them'to be sincere and upright, be received
as fellow-partakers of the same privileges.
. . I respect piety and virtue wher-
ever I meet them. It would be a proof of
my own superficiality or depravity if I valued
a truly religious man the less for the name
and the profession which he sustains. I
trust that I shall ever be influenced by the
cheering sentiment that every man who sin-
cerely loves God and works righteousness is
accepted by him, and is entitled to universal
esteem and regard.'


ADAM, the father of the human race,
was a gardener. He had, however, a
strange propensity for tasting unwholesome
fruit, which produced very injurious effects,
both upon himself and his offspring.
Noah was a shipwright and a husbandman;
he navigated the whole earth in his ark, and
got seas over in his vineyard.
Solomon was an architect, a poet and a
philosopher; his conduct, however, was not
always by line and rule; he trod the circle
of dissipation, was erratic in his imagina-
tions, and violated his own maxims. His
conscience and strength of mind, however,
reclaimed him, and his repentance is the
most beautiful of the works which he has
left for the contemplation of his species.
The Apostle Paul was a tent-maker, and
labored with his hands at his vocation, while
he endeavored to infuse into the minds of


his fellow men, the important truths of
revelation. While he screened them with
earthly tabernacles from the weather, he
held above their souls the aegis of divine
Matthew was a poor fisherman, he relin-
quished his humble calling for that of a
missionary, and toiled assiduously to draw
men from the fiery billows of perdition.
Quintus Cincinnatus was a ploughman,
and was invoked to the government and
dictatorship of Rome. His labors in the
political field were as successful as those
upon the soil.
Arsaces was a private mechanic, and was
called to found the Parthian Empire. He
built up a powerful nation, and erected for
himself a mausoleum of fame which is in-
Tamerlane, the conqueror of Asia, was
also a mechanic; he rough hewed Bajazet,
and carved his way to fortune and glory.
Massaniello, a Neapolitan fisherman, was
raised to the command of fifty thousand


men, and gave up fish lines for lines of
bayonets, and river seines for scenes of
John, of Leyden, in Germany, was a
tailor, and rose to the dignity of a king.
He cut out a bad piece of work, however,
and afterwards came to a miserable end.
His goose did not fly well.
Zeno, the famous Bishop of Constantia,
who had the largest diocese in that country,
was a weaver. He directed his attention
to habits both of soul and body.
Stephen Tudiner, a hatter in upper Aus-
tria, was made general, and commanded an
army of sixty thousand. He made hats for
others, but preferred for himself a chapeau.
Walmer, a shoemaker, succeeded him in
command, but was slain by 'Count Papen-
heim. He converted his awl into a sword;
"his last state was worse than the first."
Mr. Edmund, of Sterling, in Scotland,
showed such unparalleled bravery in the
Sweedidh wars, under that thunderbolt of
war, Gustavus Adolphus," that he was


made a general. A maker of bread might
be supposed to know how to rise.
Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia,
worked at ship-building. He learned the
Russian Bear how to manage a boat.
Charles II., of England, was a turner of
ivory, nor could the affairs of state divert
him from his morning task at the lathe. He
turned his mind, however, to other amuse-
ments, which tasked his health, and pared
away his reputation.
Louis XIV., of France, was one of the
best watchmakers of his reign. He forgot
the burdens of power, in following the light
footsteps of time, and escaped the flutter-
ings of parasites, on the pinions of chro-
William IV., of England, was a sailor,
and rose from the forecastle to the throne.
He managed the ship of State with nauti-
cal address, and beat her a considerable
way up the harbor of Reform.
Benjamin Franklin was printer, philoso-
pher, and statesman. He drew lightning


from heaven, and left his name in large
caps upon the annals of his country.
George Washington, Andrew Jackson,
and William Henry Harrison, were farm-
ers. From the pursuit of agriculture, they
went forth to pursue the enemies of their
country, and from the fields of death gath-
ered the Golden Immortal."
Sir Richard Arkwright, who first con-
ceived the idea of spinning cotton by means
of machinery, passed the earlier years of
his life in pursuing the humble occupation
of a barber. His genius proved brighter
than his razors.
John Leslie, professor of natural philoso-
phy, in Edinburg, was the son of a poor
farmer in Largo, Scotland. He was
employed in the capacity of'a herdsman.
His pencil was a stick, and the ground his
slate. From being the companion of cattle,
he became the peer of learned men.
William Gifford was bound out to a shoe-
maker, after having served a number of
years as cabin boy. Being too poor to


purchase stationery, he used to hammer out
as smoothly as possible, small bits of leather,
on which he traced problems with his awl.
In latter years, his critical awl pierced the
souls of many luckless scribblers.

SCIENCE has a powerful claim upon the
attention of young men, from the benefit
it has conferred, and is yet capable of con-
ferring, upon society. If the Gospel be
the best gift of Heaven to men, signalized
from all other gifts by the infinite precious-
ness of its benefits, and the unspeakable
love of which these are the proof and the
fruit, science is also eminently distinguished
by its character of beneficence. It is to
things of time what religion is to things of
eternity. It bears pleasant fruit wherever
it has taken root and grown. If it is not
the prime instrument of civilization (for this


honor, too, must be awarded to the Gospel,)
it at least advances its character, increases
its resources, and confers some of the most
precious benefits which men possess. Sci-
ence has opened up all seas to our ships,
and all lands to our commerce. It has
prevailed against winds and tides, and
marked out for us a distinct pathway over
the pathless ocean. It has brought to-
gether the opposite ends of the earth, and
brought to our homes all the varied pro-
ducts of every various clime. Science
-spreads our tables for us, and furnishes us
with clothing. It has increased our capac-
ities of motion, and promises to bring us yet
greater benefits in the time to come.
For who will say that science has reached
its limits, that no further progress is to be
made, and no better fruit reaped from it ?
Such a conclusion would be alike unwar-
ranted by the experience of the past, and
by the nature of science itself. The dis-
coveries most fraught with blessings to man
are all comparatively of recent origin, and


almost every day is adding to their number.
The face of society has been almost entirely
changed by them within the memory of an
existing generation. It is not long since
the first steam-ship was launched, and we
are every day learning more of the count-
less variety of ways in which the power of
steam may be made available to the use
and the comfort of man; and even con-
templating what we have already acquired,
who is there who would not account James
Watt one of the most generous benefactors
of our race ? Who is there that would
not wish to possess a fame as wide-spread
and as deserved as his ? But surely such
discoveries as his are not beyond the reach
of possibility. They are not beyond the
reach of the humblest disciple of science;
and it ought to give an impulse to your
minds to' know this fact, to labor in the
hope that even you may be rewarded
by some discovery which shall not only
gain for you an imperishable renown, but



which shall crown all posterity with man-
ifold benefits. The laurel of the con-
queror is stained with blood, and his path
marked by desolation. The conquests of
the man of science are more honorable and
more pure. His path is like the fertilizing
river, which covers the earth with riches,
and adorns it with beauty. Why not enter
upon and prosecute this path ?
Science has its special claims upon the
Christian youth, because of the position to
which it elevates the possessor of it. The
ignorant Christian incurs the contempt of
the world, lie incurs such contempt, it is
true, most unjustly, for lie who knows his
Bible, and is walking in the light of its
truth, is in reality in possession of a higher
philosophy than the proud infidel who
despises him. At the same time, it is im-
portant to take the argument from the infi-
del, that the Christian believes his Bible
because he is the victim of a blind supersti-
tion, and is ignorant of that which wise men
ought to know. The cultivation of science


would produce this result, and might oper-
ate most beneficially in securing for Chris-
tianity the respect of the world, and
possibly in inducing them to believe and
embrace it. The Apostle Paul, when
addressing the learned audience who as-
sembled to hear him at Athens, did not
disdain to commend himself to them by
displaying his knowledge of their literature.
We find him, in his brief discourse, quoting
from their own poets, and showing that he
was not a believer in the Gospel because he
was ignorant of every other subject. And
doubtless there was wisdom in seeking to
commend his doctrine in this way to a
learned and contemptuous people, who re-
garded all men besides themselves as bar-
barians. And in the history of the church,
Christianity has certainly lost nothing, but
may have gained much, through the scien-
tific acquirements of those who have pro-
fessed it. It is a felt advantage to the
cause of Christianity that we have the
name of Sir Isaac Newton on its side.


This fact helps to commend the study of it
to those who have become vain in their
foolish philosophy. It has put to silence
many an objection, and demonstrated that
our holy faith is capable of securing the
cordial assent of the greatest and most
powerful minds which adorn the annals of
philosophy. On the other hand, it is far
from desirable that science should be
allowed to remain as the exclusive posses-
sion of the enemies of religion, and that
the acquisitions of men in secular knowl-
edge should be unsanctified. How much
better were our Christian men also our sci-
entific men-that those who are the direc-
ors of the world's mind should also be
lights in the firmament of religion. Nor,
in the common intercourse of life, is it with
out obvious and eminent advantage that the
Christian youth shall be in a position in
which, however much the scorner may
mock his piety, he may stand forth as his
equal or superior in all intellectual acquire-
ments. He should not be exposed to the


charge of being weak-minded and ignorant.
And the Christian youth should be stimu-
lated to avoid the charge, not only because
it is disgraceful to underlie it, but because
his liability to it will deservedly make his
Christianity itself less influential and ef-
fective for good.
I have anticipated much of what might
have been said regarding the way in which
the study of science should be regulated.
I shall only now make the following brief
1. Those who are engaged in business
and have a calling to attend to, should take
care not to let their study of science inter-
fere with that calling. Of most of young
men it is true that their time has been lent
to their employers, and it would obviously
be sinful in them to neglect the business
intrusted to them, even for such a praise-
worthy object as the study of science. If
the study of science be commenced and pro-
secuted under a violation of a plain moral
duty, it can lead to no beneficial issue, and


it were better to abandon it altogether.
But while young men ought to do their
employers' work, it were well also that the
employers should not be so exacting in their
demands, as to preclude young men from
the possibility of prosecuting any kind of
study with success.
2. Let not science take precedence of
religion. This were to alter the proper
relations of things. The most important
should be first. Science is fitted to become
the handmaid of religion. It is destructive
to both when science takes the place and
the authority of a mistress.
3. The study of science is to be prose-
cuted with a humble mind. Humility is
the foundation of greatness both in science.
and religion. Pride is ruinous to both. It
was the humility of Newton which consti-
tuted his greatest glory. He felt himself
as a child gathering shells beside the
great ocean of truth." And if, with his
mighty acquisitions, he could sincerely ex*
perience and give utterance to such a feel-


ing, how much more is it becoming in those
who can scarcely yet be said to have begun
to gather the shells, but who have been
merely hearing the sound of the mighty
billows of the ocean! He who has begun
to entertain the conceit that he knows some-
thing, would do well to retrace his steps,
and become persuaded that he knoweth
nothing yet as he ought to know.

The sweetness of the morning is perhaps
its least charm. It is the renewed vigor it
implants in all around that affects us-man,
animals, birds, plants, vegetation, flowers.
Refreshed and soothed with sleep, man
opens his heart; he is alive to nature and
nature's God, and his mind is more intelli-
gent, because more fresh. He seems to
drink of the dew like the flowers, and feels
the same reviving effect.


'God is love.' All his perfections and
procedures are but so many modifications of
his love. What is his omnipotence but the
arm of his love ? What his omniscience
but the medium through which he contem-
plates the objects of his love ? What his
wisdom but the scheme of his love ? What
are the offers of the gospel but the invitations
of his love ? What the threatening of the
law but the warnings of his love ? They
are the hoarse voice of his love, saying,
'Man do thyself no harm.' They are a
fence thrown round the pit of perdition to
prevent rash men from rushing into ruin.
What was the incarnation of the Saviour
but the richest illustration of his love ?
What were the miracles of Christ but the
condescension of his love ? What were the
sighs of Christ but the breath of his love ?
What were the prayers of Christ but the
pleadings of his love? What were the


tears of Christ but the dew-drops of his love ?
What is heaven but the Alps of his mercy,
from whose summits his blessings, flowing
down in a thousand streams, descend to
water and refresh his church situated at
its base

Men are to be estimated, as Johnson
says, by the mass of their character. A
block of tin may have a grain of silver,
but still it is tin, and a block of silver may
have an alloy of tin, but still it is silver.
The mass of Elijah's character was excel-
lence, yet he was not without alloy. The
mass of Jehu's character was base, yet he
had a portion of zeal which was directed by
God's great ends. Bad men are made the
same use of as scaffolds: they are employed
as means to erect a building, and then taken
down and destroyed.

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