CATCHING WILD HORSES-Page 13.
INSTINCT OF ANIMALS,
THEIR CHARACTERS, AND HABITS -
BY THOMAS BINGLEY.
MEBBLLI SHD WITH BNGRAVINOS, FROM DRAWINGS BY T. LAMIA 8 .
LtE.IN Bi> b 6 ..-
C, 8. FRANCIS & CO., 252 BROADWAY.
J. H. FRANCIS, 128 WASHINGTON STREET.
Uncle Thomas resmoes his Stories about the Instoint of 4a
mals,-TeIls about the Horse, and of the Immense H ds
which are to be found on the Plains of South America; of
their Capture by means of the Lasso; the Arab and hbi
Mare; the Gadshill Robber; the Benevolent Planter; til
Lawyer-Highwayman ; as well as several other Curious Stories
about the Intelligence, Affection, and Doeility of the
Horpe.......... .................... ..... ... ...........
Unole Thomas tells about the Beaver, and the Singular Mamua
in whie* t constructs a Dam to onfine the Waters e the
River; Ed #bout the Hut which it builds for its H bbatm .
He tells also about the Curious Nests of the Sociable Gruobeak
and gives a Long and Entertaining Aceount of the White att
of Africa; its Extraordinary Nest; and the Important.hat
which it acts in the Economy of Nature...,............ ...... ..
Unlea Thomas deserbes the Manner in which WIM a Ep-ta. .
ae caught, and relates some Curious Stories d tdl, r g,
Affection, and Intelligence of the Elpaat........,..4.. 5:I^
Uncle Thomas introduces to the Notice of the Young Folks the
Ettrick Shepherd's Stories about Sheep; and tells them some
Interesting Stories about the Goat, and its Peculities.......71
Uncle Thomas relates some Very Remarkable Stories about the
Cat; points out to the Boys the Connexion subsisting
between the Domestic Cat and the Lion, Tiger, &c., and
tells them some Stories about the Gentleness, as well as the
Ferocity of these Animals....... ................................ 89
Uncle Thoma tells about the Tiger; its Ferocity and Power;
and of the Curious Modes which are adopted for its Capture
and Destruction.-Also about the Puma or American Lion,
and introduces some Hunting Scenee in North and South
Ameriea, with other Interesting and Entertai4g Adven.
tures. ................................................... ........ ...12~ 3
Uncle Thomas tells about the Migrating Instinct of Anumals.-
Of the House Swallow of England; and the Esculent
Swallow, whose Nest is eaten by the Chinese.--He tells also
about the Passenger Pigeon of America; of the Myriads
which are found in various parts of the United States; of the
Land.Crab and its Migrations, and of those of the Salmon
and the Common Herring.................................. 44
Uncle Thomas tells about the Baboons, and their Plundering
Excursions to the Gardens at the of Good Hope, Calsoaep
About Le Vaillant's Baboon, Kee, and his Peculiarities; the
American Monkeys; and relates an Amusing Story about a
Young Monkey deprived of its Mother, putting itself under the
Fostering Care of a Wig-Block..............................174
Uncle Thomas concludes Stories about Instinct with several
Intereting Illustrations of the Affections of Ania ls, par.
ticularly of the Instinct of Maternal Aedtel, in the course
of which he narrates the Story of the Cat and the BlackBird;
the Squirrel's Nest; the Equestrian Friends ; d points out
the Beneficent Care of Providenoe in implantin in the
Breasts of each of his Creaures the Instinct which is
necessary for it Security and Protection.....................19
S nuLTRATIVN 1 TE3S
INSTINCT OF ANIMALS.
Uncle Thom resumes his Stories about the Intinet of An.
mal-.-Tell about the Hose, and of the Itrneme fesr J
which as to be found on the Plains of South Amerime; of
their Capture by means of the Laso; the Arab and his
Mare; the Gadshill Robber; the Benevolent Planter; the
LawyerfHighwayman; as well as several other CriourftMe i
about the Intelligence, Affection, and Docility of the eMes.
< COME away, boys, I am glad to see you ag" i
81'ce I. las saw you I have made an extensive
tour, and visited some of the most romantic and '
picturesque scenery idjngland. One day I maf,
give you an account of what I saw, and d.si .
10 STORIES ABOUT lWMiNCT. **
to you the scenes which I visited; but I must
deny myself this pleasure at present I pro-
mised, at our next meeting, to tell you some
TALES ABOUT THE INSTINCT OF ANIMALS and
I propose to begin with the Horse. I like to
interest you with those animals with which you
are familiar, and to draw out your sympathies
towards them. After the STORIES ABOUT DOGS
which I told you, some of them exhibiting that
fine animal in such an amiable and affectionate
character, I am sure it must assume a new in-
terest in your mind. Such instances of fidelity
S and attachment could not fail to impress you
with a higher opinion of the animal than you
before possessed, and show that kindness and
good treatment even to a brute are not without
S I wish to excite the same interest towards
the other animals which, I hope, I have effected
towards the Dog. Each, yeu will find, has been
endowed by Its Creator with particular instin
i 9 ..
THB WILD MHORaSE.
to fit it for the station which it was intended to
occupy in the great system of Nature. Some of
them are wild and ferocious, while others are
quiet and inoffensive; the former naturally repel
us, while those of the latter class as naturally
attract our regard, although, properly speaking,
each ought equally to interest us, in as far as it
fulfils the object of its being. <.:-
But I know you'like stories better than lew
tures, so I will not tire you by lecturing, but
will at once proceed to tell some stories about
Horses, which I have gathered for you."
"Oh no, Uncle Thomas, we never feel tired
of listening to you; we know you have always
something curious to tell us."
Well, then, Frank, to begin at once with
"In several parts of the world there are to be
found large herds of wild horses. In South
America, in particular, the are
Sihabited by them, and, it is st ay
STORIES ABMOT INSTI NCT.
as ten thousand are sometimes found in a single
herd. These flocks are always preceded by a
leader, who directs their motions; and such is
the regularity with which they perform thefr
movements, that it seems almost as if they could
not be surpassed by the best trained cavalry.
It is extremely dangerous for travellers to
encounter a herd of this description. When they
are unaccustomed to the sight of such a mass
of creatures, they cannot help feeling greatly
alarmed at their rapid and apparently irresistible
*proach. The trampling of the animals sounds
like the loudest thunder; and such is the ra-
pidity and impetuosity of their advance, that it
seems to threaten instant destruction. Suddenly,
however, they sometimes stop short, utter a loud
and piercing neighing, and, with a rapid wheel
in an opposite course, altogether disappear. On
such occasions, however, it requires all the care
of the traveller to prevent his horses from break-
ing loose, and escaping with the wild heAd
"In those countries where hoses are so plan- .
tiful, the inhabitants do not take the trouble to
rear them, but, whenever they want one, moqnt
upon an animal which has been accustomed to
the sport, and gallop over the plain towards the
herd, which is readily found at no great ds-
tance. Gradually he approaches some stragglefi
from the main body, and, having selected the
horse which he wishes to possess, he dexterously
throws the la1so (which is a long rope with a
running noose, and which i firmly fied to his
saddle,) in such a manner as to etangie tih
anirmas hid legs; and, with a sudden turn of
his horses he pulls it over on its side. In an
instant he jumps off his horse, wraps his po"cho,
or cloak, round the captive's head, forces a bit
into its mouth, and straps a saddle upon its
back. He then removes the poncho, and the
animal starts on its feet. With equal quiclmk a
the hunter leaps into the addle; and, in spite of
the contortions and kikings of his captive, keep
A 4 3
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
his seat, till, having wearied itself out with its
vain efforts, it submits to the discipline of its
captor, who seldom fails to reduce it to complete
"That is very dexterous indeed, Uncle Tho-
mas; but surely all horses are not originally found
in this wild state. I have heard that the Ara-
bians are famous for rearing horses."
"Arabia has, for a long time, been the country
noted for the symmetry and speed of its horses:
so much attention has been paid to the breeding
of horses in our own country, however, for the
race-course as well as the hunting-field, that the
English horses are now almost unequalled, both
for speed and endurance.
It is little wonder, however, that the Arabian
horse should be the most excellent, considering
the care and attention which it receives, and the
kindness and consideration with which it is treat-
ed. One of the best stories which I ever heard
of the love of an Arabian for his steed, is that
THrB A4 AR Afis maXU.
related .of an Arab from whom one of our envoy
wished to purchase his horse.
The animal was a bright bay mare, of extra
ordinary shape and beauty; and the owner, proud
of its appearance and qualities, paraded it before
the envoy's tent until it attracted his attention.
On being asked if he would sell her, 'What
.will you give me ?' was the reply. That depends
upon her age; I suppose she is past five 7 Guess
again,' said he. Four? ILook at her mouth,'
said the Arab, with a smile. On eaminai
she was found to *be rising three. This, from
her size and symmetry, greatly enhanced her value
The envoy said, I will give you fifty tomans'
(a coin nearly of the value of a pound sterling).
'A little more, if you please,' said the fellow,
somewhat entertained. Eighty-a hundred.' He
shook his head and smiled. The officer at last
came to two hundred tomans. 'Well,' said the
Arabh you need not tempt me farther. You are
a rich elchee (nobleman); you have I horses,
16 a eas Asot trITTIwT.
caels, and mules, and I am tol yoe have fdel
of silver and gold. Now,' added he, 'you want
my mare, but you shall not have her for all you
have got.' He put sprs to his horse, and was
soon out of the reach of temptation.
SSwift as the Arabian horses am, however, they
are frequently matched by those of our own
country. I say nothing about race horses, be--
cause, though some of them are recorded to have
run at an amazing speed, the effort is generally
continued for Vat a short time. Here is an in-
stance of speed in a horse which saved its un-
worthy master from the punishment due to his
"One morning about four o'clock a gentleman
was stopped, and robbed by a highwayman named
Nicks, at Gadshill, on the west side of Chatham.
He was mounted on a bay mare of great speed
and endurance, and as soon as he had accomplished
his purpose, he instantly started for Grawsmd,
where he was detained newly aa hoar by the
Tttld oat>sMI OaaMif. fr
difficulty of getting a boat. He employed the
interval to advantage however it baiting his horse.
From thence he got to Essex and Chelmsfoid,
*here he again stopped tout half an hour to
refresh his horse. He then went to Braintrte,
Bocking, Weathersfeld, and over the Downs to
Cambridge, and still pursuing the cross roads, he
went by Fenney and Stratford to Huntingdon,
where he gain rested about half an hour. Pro-
ceeding now on the north road, and at a fall ga~8p
most of the way, he arrived at York the same
afternoon, put off his boots and riding clothes, ad -' .
went dressed to the bowling-green, where, among
other promenaders, happened to be the Lord Mayor
of the city. He there studied to do something n i
particular, that his lordship might remember him, '1
and asking what o'clock it was, the mayor informed
him that it was a quarter past eight. Notwithstan-
ding these precautions, however, he was disco-
veredInd tried for the robbery; he rested his de-
fence on the fact of his being at York at suh t
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
time. The gentleman swore positively to the ame
and place at which the robbery was committed,
but on the other hand, the proof was equally clear
that the prisoner was at York at the time specified.
The jury acquitted him on the supposed impossibil-
ity of his having got so great a distance from Kent
by the time he was seen in the bowling-green.
Yet he was the highwayman."
S"So that he owed his safety to the speed of his
horse, Uncle Thomas."
"He did so, Harry. The horse can on occasion
swim about as well as most animals, yet it never
takes to the water unless urged to do so There
is a story about a horse saving the lives of many
persons who had suffered shipwreck by being driven
upon the rocks at the Cape of Good Hope, which, I
am sure, will interest you as much for the perseve.
rance and docility of the animal, as for the benevo
lence and intrepidity of its owner.
A violent gale of wind setting in froAorth
and north-west, a vessel in the roads dragged her
TaE BICNVOWB~t tPLArr .L
anchors, was forced on the rocks, and bilged;
and while the greater part of the crew fell an imnme-
diate sacrifice to the waves, the remainder were seen
from the shore struggling for their lives, by cling-
ing to the different pieces of the wreck. The sea ran
dreadfully high, and broke over the sailors with sueh
amazing fury, that no boat whatever could venture
off to their assistance. Meanwhile a planter, con-
siderably advanced in life, had come from his farm
to be a spectator of the shipwreck; his heart was
melted at the sight of the unhappy seamen, and
knowing the bold and enterprizing spirit of his
horse, and his particular excellence as a swimmer,
he instantly determined to make a desperate effort
for their deliverance. He alighted, and blew a little
brandy into his horse's nostrils, and again seating
himself in the saddle, he instantly pushed into the
midst of the breakers. At first both disappeared,
but it was not long before they floated on the
surface, and swam up to the wreck; when taking
with him two men, each of whom held y one of
*MOIRas ANBOt PleTINr T.
his boots, he brought them safe to shore. This
'peilous expedition he repeated no seldomer than
seven times, and saved fourteen lives; but on his
return the eighth time, his horse being much fa.
tigued, and meeting a most formidable wave, he lost
his balance, and was overwhelmed in a moment
The horse swam safely to land, but his gallant
tider sank to rise no more."
"That was very unfortunate, Uncle Thomas.
I suppose the planter had been so fatigued with
his previous exertions, that he had not strength
to struggle with the strong waves."
"Very likely, indeed, Harry. I dare say the
poor animal felt the loss of his kind owner very
much, for the horse soon becomes attached to his
master, and exhibits traits of intelligence and
fidelity, certainly not surpassed by those of any
other animal: for instance,--A gentleman, who
was one dark night riding home through a
wood, had the misfortune to strike his head
against the branch of a tree, and fell from his
THrE ASIICTOSMAR mmm S
horse stunned by the blow. The noble aMknt
immediately returned to the house they had ldb
which stood about a mile distant H found
the door closed,-the family had retired to bWed
He pawed at it, however, till one of theao hoear
ing the noise, arose and opened it, and, to his
surprise, saw the horse of his friend. No seoer
was the door opened than the horse tmned
round as if it wished to be fMilowed;-and the
man, suspecting there was something wrong, fel
lowed the animal, which led him directly to the
spot where its wounded master lay on the
There is another story of a somewhat similar
description in which a horse saved his master from
perishing among the snow. It happened in the
North of Scotland.
"A gentleman connected with the Excise was
returning home from one of his professional jour-
nies His way lay across a range of hills, the
road over which was so blocked up with smnw
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
as to leave all trace of it indiscernible. Un-
certain how to proceed, he resolved to trust to
his horse, and throwing loose the reins, allowed
him to choose his course. The animal proceeded
cautiously, and safely for some time, till coming
to a ravine, horse and rider sunk in a snow-
wreath several fathoms deep.
"Stunned by the suddenness and depth of the
descent, the gentleman lay for some time insensi-
ble. On recovering, he found himself nearly
three yards from the dangerous spot, with his
faithful horse standing over him and licking the
snow from his face. He accounts for his extri-
cation, by supposing that the bridle must have
been attached to his person, but so completely
had he lost all sense of consciousness, that
beyond the bare fact as stated, he had no know-
ledge of the means by which he made so re-
markable an escape."
"It was at any rate very kind in the horse to
clear away the snow, Uncle Thomas,"
"NSo doubt of it, John, and perhaps he 9wed
his life quite as much to this act of kindness as
to being pulled out of the ravine. He might
have been as certainly choked by the snow out
of it as in it. Sometimes the horse becomes
much attached to the animals with which it asso-
ciates, and its feelings of friendship are as power-
erful as those of the dog. A gentleman of Bris-
tol h)ad a greyhound which slept in the same
stable, and contracted a very great intimacy with
a fine hunter. When the dog w taken out, the
horse neighed wistfully after hun, and seemed
to long for its return; he welcomed him home
with a neigh; the greyhound ran up to the
horse and licked him; the- horse, in return,
scratched the greyhound's back with his teeth.
On one occasion, when the groom had the pair
out for exercise, a large dog attacked the grey-
hound, bore him to the ground, and seemed
likely to worry him, when the horse threw
back his ears, rushed forward, seized the strange
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
dog by the back, and flung him to a distance,
which so terrified the aggressor, that he at once
desisted and made off."
That was very kind, Uncle Thomas. I like
to hear of such instances of friendship between
Such a docile animal as the horse can
readily be trained to particular habits, and does
not readily forget them, however disreputable.
There is an odd story to illustrate this.
"About the middle of last century, a Scottish
lawyer had occasion to visit the metropolis. At
that period such journies were usually performed
on horseback, and the traveller might either ride
post, or, if willing to travel economically, he
bought a horse, and sold him at the end of his
journey. The lawyer had chosen the latter
mode of travelling, and sold the animal on which
he rode from Scotland as soon as he arrived in
London. With a view to his return, he went to
daithield to purchase a horse. About du k a
handsome one was offered, at so cheap a rate
that he suspected the soundness of the animal,
but being able to discover no blemish, he became
"Next morning, he set out on his journey,
the horse had excellent paces, and our traveller,
while. riding over the few first miles, where the
road was well frequented, did not fail to con-
gratulate himself on his good fortune, which had
led him to make so advantageous a bargain.
"They arrived at last at Finchley Common,
and at a place where the road ran down a light
eminence, and up another, the lawyer met a cle-.
gyman driving a one-horse chaise. There was
nobody within sight, and the horse by his con-
duct instantly discovered the profession of his
former owner. Instead of pursuing his journey,
he ran close up to the chaise an stopt it,
having no doubt but his rider would embrace so
fair an opportunity of exercising his calling
The clergyman seemed of the same opinion, ppe
K STOhIUU ABOUT I"f WCT .
duced his purse unasked, and assured the aston.
ished lawyer that it was quite unnecessary to
draw his pistol, as he did not intend to offer
any resistance. The traveller rallied his horse,
and with many apologies to the gentleman he
had so innocently and unwillingly affrighted ,
pursued his journey.
They had not proceeded far when the horse
again made the same suspicious approach to a
coach, from the window of which a blunderbuss
was levelled, with denunciations of death and
destruction to the hapless and perplexed rider.
In short, after his life had been once or twice
endangered by the suspicions to which the con-
duct of hi. horse gave rise, and his liberty as
often threatened by the peace-officers, who were
Disposed to apprehend him as a notorious high-
wayman, the former owner of the horse, he was
obliged to part with the inauspicious animal for
a trifle, and to purchase one less beautiful,
but not accustomed to such dangerous habits "
TER PAiTUrVX HOBse.
SCapital, Uncle Thomas I I should have liked
to have seen the perplexed look of the poor
lawyer, when he saw the blunderbuss make its
appearance at the carriage window !"
There is one other story about the horn,
showing his love for his master, and the gentle-
ness of his character. A horse which wa re-
markable for its antipathy to strangers, one eve-
ning, while bearing his master home froa a jovial
meeting, became disburthened of his rider, w o,
having indulged rather freely, soon went to leep
on the ground. The home, however, did tot
scamper off, but kept faithful watch by his pros-
trate master till the nwmniag, when the two
were perceived about sunrise by some labommr.
They approached the gentleman, with the inten-
tion of replacing him on his saddle, but ever
attempt on their part was resolutely opposed by
the grinning teeth And ready heels of the horse,
which would neither allow them to touch his
master, nor suffer himself to blseized till the
BTORYLPSU ADO" I10TINCTO
gentleman himself awoke from his sleep. The
same horse, among other bad propensities, con-
stantly resented the attemtnpts of the grobm.. t
trim its fetlockl This cmintm:stce hfppied
to be mentioned by its owner in conversation, in
the presence of his youngest child, a very few
yWM ea ld, when: he defied any man to perform
the operation singly. The father next day, in
paying through the stable-yard; beheld with the
utmost distress, the infant employed with a pair
qf -cissors in clipping the fetlbcks ef the hind-
legs of this vicious hunter--.n operation : wi
had been always hitherto performed with great
danger even by a nutrber of men. Instead, how-
ever, of exhibiting his usual vicious disposition,
the horse, in the present case, was looking with
the greatest complacency on the little groom
who soon after, to the very great relief of his
father, walked off unhurt,"
Uncle Thomas tells about the Beaver, and the Singular Mammn
in which it Constructs a Dam to confine the Waters of the
River; and about the Hat which it builds for its Hhlbatim.
He tells also about the Curious Nests of the Soeiable Gzoieako S
and gives a Long and Entertaining Account of the White Ant
of Afica; its Etraordinary Nest; and the Importat Pit *
which it sets in the Economy of Nature.
"Goon evening, Boys I am going to tell yota
about a very singular animal to-night-singlar
both in its conformation and its habits. I, allude
to the Beaver."
"Oh, we shall be so glad to hear about the
Beaver, Uncle Thomas. I have sometimes won-
dei6d what sort of an animal it is. It is of its
skin that hats are made-is it net?"
"It is so, Harry--at least it is of the fur with
which its skin is covered. I must tell you about
the mnmufkctte of hats at some other time. Our
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
business at present is with the Beaver itself. I
think we shall get on better by confining our
attention to tie animal now, and examine into
its habits and instincts."
"Very well, Uncle Thomas, we are all atten-
"The Beaver, which is now only to be found
in the more inaccessible parts of America, and
the zbre northern countries of Europe, affords a
curious instance of what may be called a com-
pound structure. It has the fore-feet of a land
animal, and the hind ones of an aquatic one-
the latter only being webbed. Its tail is covered
with scales like a fish, and serves to direct its
course in the water, in which it spends much of
"On the rivers where they abound, they form
societies sometimes consisting of upwards of two
hundred. They begin to assemble about the
months of June and July, and generally choose
for the place of their future habitation the side
of some lake or river. If a lake, in which the
water is always pretty nearly of a uniform level,
they dispense with building a dam, but if the
place they fix upon be the banks of a river,
they immediately set about constructing a pier
or dam, to confine the water, so that they may
always have a good supply."
That is an instance of very singular sagacity
Uncle Thomas. I suppose it is their instinct
which teaches them to act in this manner."
"You are right, Frank. Well, the mode in
which they set about constructing the dam is
this: having fixed upon the spot, they go into the
neighboring forest, and cut quantities of the
smaller branches of trees, which they forthwith
convey to the place selected, and having fixed them
in the earth, interweave them strongly and closely,
filing up all the crevices with mud and stones, e
as soon to make a most compact construction."
"That must be a work of very great labor,
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
"The Labour is very considerable, Boys; but
the power which, for want of a better name, we
call Instinct, comes wonderfully to their aid. For
instance, it has been observed that they seek all
the branches which they want on the banks ol
the river, higher up than their construction, so
that having once got them conveyed to the water,
they are easily floated to it."
V Yery good, Uncle Thomas.
"When the beavers have finished the dam,
they then proceed to construct a house for them-
sehres. First they dig a foundation of greater or
less capacity, in proportion to the number of
their society. They then form the walls of earth
and stones, mixed with billets of wood crossing
each other, and thus tying the fabric together
just in the same way as you sometimes see ma-
sons. do in building human dwellings. Their
huts are generally of a circular form, something
hke the figure of a haycock, and tlwy have
usually several entrance- or more opening
iwa Mn MTA
into thd river or like, below the surface of the
water, and one communicating with any bushes
and brushwood which may be at hand, so as to
afford the means'of escape in case of attack either
on the land or water side."
S"They must be pretty safe then, Uncle Tho.
mas, since they can so readily escape." .
"They are pretty secure so long as they have
only unreasoning animals to contend with, Frank;
but when man, armed with the power, bfore
which mere Instinct must at all times ,w, at-
tacks them, they are very easily overcome. Shall
I tell you how the hunters capture them ?n
If you please, Uncle Thomas.?
"Very well. I must first tell you that the skin
of tde Beater is most valuable during winter, as -
ts fri.is- then thicker and finer than during the
siauen. They are therefore very little if at all
mlaeted during smnmer by the hunters. When
wintr setsin; however, and the lakes and fivers
are feron o a party of hunters set out to se&a
STORIES ABOUT NWITINCT.
for the beaver colonies, and, having found then
they make a number of holes in the ice. Having
done this and concerted measures, they break
down the huts, and the animals instantly get
into the water as a place of safety. As they
cannot remain long under water, however, they
have soon occasion to come to the surface to
breathe, and of course make for the holes which
the hunters have formed in the ice, when the
latter, who are waiting in readiness, knock them
on the head."
"But, Uncle Thomas, don't you think it is
very cruel to kill the beaver so? I believe it
feeds entirely on vegetables, and does no harm to
You might say the same, John, of the sheep
-n the downs; the one is not more cruel than
the other: both are useful to man, and furnish
him with food as well as raiment, and both were,
of course, included in the dominion' which God
originally gave to man 'over the beasts of the eld' "
SIs the beaver used for faod then, Uncl
It is, and except during a small part of the
year, when it feeds on the root of the water4liy,
which communicates a peculiar flavour to the
flesh of the animal, it is said to be very atlatble.
It is, however, principally for its fur that it is
hunted; the skin, even, is of little value, being
coarser and looser in, texture, and of come less
applicable to general uses, than that of many
other- animals. I dare say you have often seen
it made into gloves.
"I will now read to you an account of a tame
beaver, which its owner, Mr. Broderip, commu-
nicated to 'the Gardens and Menagerie of the
-The animal arrived in this country in the
winter of 1825, very young, being small and
woolly, and without the covering of long hair,
which marks the adult beaver. It was the sole
survivor of five or six which were shipped at the
STORIES* .... I.W T'INCT.
same time, and was in -very pitiable :.cnditin.
Good treatment soon made it familiar. Whef
called by its name, iBinny,' it generally answered
with a little cry, and came to its owuae. T.he
hearth rug was its favourite haunt, ad, theremf
it would lie, stretched out, sometime on its belk
and sometimes fiat on its belly, but always near
its master. The building instinct showed itself
immediately after it was let out of its cage, .ad
materials were placed in its way,--and thit, before
it had been a week in its new quarters. Its
strength, even before it was half grown~ was
great. It would drag along a large sweeping-
brush, or a warming-pan, grasping the handle
with its teeth, so that the load. ame over it
shoulder, and advancing in an oblique direotiot
till it arrived at the point where it wished to place
it. The long and large materials irere always
taken first, and two of the longest were generally
laid crosswise, with one of the ends of 'ach toueet
ing the wall, and the other ends projecting ot
ino the mmn;. The. am foa by the .immm
bushes aad the wall he would fill up with hrad-
brushes, rush tareto, boolg, boots, ticks a.othd,
dried turf or Oy thing portable. As the w~
grew highbhe upp4redJhimaelf on his bil, .UbiA i
propped him .up admirably: aa: h* would oem,
after laying o rone .of his building matter asit
qp over against it, apparently to. consider his
work, or, as the country people my, 'judge it'
This paune was anetimes followed by changing
the position of the material 'judged,'. rand oe-
times it was lef in its place. After he had piled
up his materials in one -part of the room (for he
generally cbhoe .the. seamw place), he proceeded to
wall up the space.between the feet of a chest ,of
drawers, which stood at a little distance from it,
high enough on its legs.to gake the bottom a
roof for him; using for this purpose dred turt
and sticks, which he laid very even, and filling
up the interstice with bits of .oal, hay, cloth, o0
ay thing he culd pick up. This lt place h
STORIBs ANBT SXMTINCT.
seemed to appropriate for his dwelling; the o'.
mer work seemed to be intended for a dam. When
he had walled up the space between the feet of
the chest of drawer, he proceeded to carry ia
sticks, cloths, hay, cotton, and to make a nest;
and, when he had done, he would sit up under
the drawers, and comb himself with the nails of
his hind feet. In this operation, that which ap-
peared at first to be a malformation, was shown
to be a beautiful adaptation to the necessities of
the animal. The huge webbed hind feet often
turn in, so as to give the appearance of deformi-
ties; but if the toes were straight, instead of being
incurved, the animal could not use them for the
purpose of keeping its fur in order, and cleansing
it from dirt and moisture.
"Binny generally carried small and light arti-
cles between his right fore leg and his chin,
walking on the other three legs; and large makes,
which he could not grasp readily with his teeth,
he pushed forwards, leaning against them with
right fore paw and his chin. He never carried
anything on his tail, which he liked to dip in
water, but he was not fond of plunging in his
whole body. If his tail was kept moist, he never
cared to drink, but, if it was kept dry, it because
hot, and the animal appeared distressed, and would
drink a great deal. It is not impossible that the
tail may have the power of absorbing water, like
the skin of frogs, though it must be owned that
the scaly integument which invests that member
has not much of the character which general
belongs to absorbing surfaces
"(Bread, and bread and milk, and sugar, fomed
the principal part of Binny's food; but he was
very fond of succulent fruits and roots. He was
a most entertaining creature ; and some highly
comic scenes occurred between the worthy, but
slow beaver, and a light and airy macauo, that
was kept in the same apartment."
"I think I have read, Uncle, that beaver use
their tails as towel to plaster -their ho
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
and as sledges to carry the materials to build
"I dare say, you have, Frank; but I believe
such stories are mere fables, told by the ignorant
to excite wonder in the minds of the creduleos.
No such operations have been observed by the
most accurate observers of the animals habits.
The wonderful instinct which they display in
building their houses is quite sufficient to excite
our admiration, without having recourse to false
and exaggerated statements."
"The building instinct of the beaver is very
curious, Uncle Thomas. Is it displayed by any
other animal T
SAll animals exhibit it more or less, Harry, and
birds in particular, in the construction of their
nests, some of which are very curious indeed;
perhaps one of the most striking instances is that
of the Sociable Grosbeak, a bird which is found
in the interior of the Cape of Good Hope. They
omtruct their nests under me roof, whleh they
THE SOCMABL GROUR3AX.
form of the branches of some tall and wide4refd.
ing tree, thatching it all over, as it were with a
species of grass.
"When they have got their habitation fairly
covered in they lay out the inside, according to
some travellers, into regular streets, with nests on
both sides, about a couple of inches distant fro
each other. In one respect, however, they diffet
from the beaver, they do not appear to lay up t
common store of food, the nature of the climate
not rendering such a precaution necessary.
"Here is the account of one of these erections
furnished by a gentleman who minutely exarmaEd
"I observed on the way a tree with an enorauou
nest of those birds, to which I have given the
appellation of republicans; and, as soon as I ar-
rived at my camp, I despatched a few men, with
a waggon, to bring it to me, that I might opei
the hive, an examine the structure in its mi,
nutest parts. Vhen it arrived, I cut it in Ileet,
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
with a hatchet, and found that the chief portion
of the structure consisted of a mass of Boshman's
grass, without any mixture, but so compact and
firmly basketed together as to be impenetrable to
the rain. This is the commencement of the struc-
ture; and each bird builds its particular nest
under this canopy. But the nests are formed only
beneath the eaves of the canopy, the upper surface
remaining void, without, however, being useless;
for, as it has a projecting rim, and is a little in-
clined, it serves to let the rain-water run off, and
preserves each little dwelling from the rain.
Figure to yourself a huge irregular sloping roofs
and all the eaves of which are completely covered
with nests, crowded one against another, and you
will have a tolerably accurate idea of these singu-
"Each individual nest is three or four inches
in diameter, which is sufficient for the bird. But
as they are all in contact with one another, around
Or ea., they appear to the eye to form but one
THE SOCIABLE GROB~B AK.
building, and are distinguishable from each other
only by a little external aperture, which serves al
an entrance to the nest; and even this is some-
times common to three different nests, one df
which is situated at the bottom, and the other two
at the sides. According to Paterson, the number
of cells increasing in proportion to the increase of
inhabitants, the old ones become 'streets of com-
munication, formed by line and level.' No doubt,
as the republic increases, the cells must be multt-
plied also; but it is easy to imagine that, as the
augmentation can take place only at the eurfm ,
the new buildings will necessarily cover the old
ones, which must therefore be abandoned.
Should these even, contrary to all probability,
be able to subsist, it may be presumed that the
depth of their situation, by preventing any
circulation and renewal of the air, would render
them so extremely hot as to be uninhabita-
ble. But while they thus become useless, they
would remain what they were before, real ae
TORIOIS ABOUT, INSTINCT.
nd change neither into streets nor sleeping-
"The large nest which I examined was one of
the most considerable which I had seen any where
oa my journey, and contained three hundred and
twenty inhabited, cells."
Well, Uncle Thomas, that is very curious; I
don't know which most to admire. I rather incline
ito e beaver however, because of the winter store
fiod which he lays up.
"There is another animal which displays the
building instinct so remarkably, that I must tell
pyp something about it before we part."
Which'is it, Uncle Thomas Y'
"It is the white ant of Africa; it is a little
animal, scarcely, if at all, exceeding in size those
of our own country, yet they construct large nests
of, conical or sugar loaf shape, sometimes from
ten to twelve feet in height; and one species builds
them so strong and compact, that even when they
e raised to little more than half their height, the
THUE WBS1U. ANT/-.,
wild-bulls of the country use them as sentinel peb
to watch over the safety of the herd which grazes
"d Mr. Smeathman, a naturalist fully capable to
do justice to the nature of these erections, state
that on one occasion he and four men stood on the
top of one of them. So you may guess how strong
they are." -
Of what are they pade,'IJ Uhe Tho'o hs ?
They must be very curious strtul e. Howvery
different from the ant hills of England P
"Very different, indeed, John. They are made
of clay and sand, and as in such a luxuriant
climate they soon become coated over with grass,
they quickly assume the appearance of hay-cocks.
They are indeed very remarkable structures,
whether we consider them extemlly or internally,
and are said to excel those of the beaver and the
bee. in the same proportion as the inhabitants of the
most polished European nation excel the huts of
the rude inhabitants of the country where the
M BTORIaE ABOUT INSTINCT.
Termites or white ants abound; while in regard
to mere size, Mr. Smeathman calculates that, sup-
posing a man's ordinary height to be six feet, the
nests of these creatures may be considered, relative
to their size and that of man's, as being raised to
four times the height of the largest Egyptian pyra-
"That is enormous, Uncle Thomas 7"
"It is indeed, Frank; but strange though it is,
the interior of the nest is even more remarkable,
many parts of its construction falling little short of
human ingenuity. I need not attempt to describe
all its arrangements, which, without a plan, would
be nearly unintelligible ; but there is one device so
admirable that I must point it out to you. The
nest is formed of two floors, as it were, and all
round the walls are galleries perforated in various
winding directions, and leading to the store-houses
of the colony, or to the nurseries where the eggs
are deposited. As it is sometimes convenient to
reach the galleries which open from the upper roof
TER WHITE ANT.
without threading all the intricacies of thee windr
ing passages, they construct bridges of a single
arch, and thus at once reach the upper roof from
which these diverge. They are thus also saved
much labour, in transporting provisions, and in
bearing the eggs to the places where they remain
till they are hatched."
That is indeed admirable, Uncle Thomas; they
must be very curious animals."
They are divided into various classes, in the
same way as bees; choosing a queen, and some
of them acting as workers, &c. But the white
ants have a class to which there is nothing similar
among any other race of insects. These are
what Smeathman calls soldiers, from the duties
which they perform. They are much less nume-
rous than the workers, being somewhat in the
proportion of one in one hundred. The duty of
the soldier-insects is to protect the nest when it
is attacked. They are furnished with long and
seader jaws, and when enraged bite very firely,
sTORIag ABOUT INSTINCT.
and sometimes even drive off the negroes who may
have attacked them, and even white people suffer
severely,--the bite bleeding profusely even through
the stocking. Some one who observed the colony
alarmed, by having part of the nest broken down,
gives the following account of the subsequent ope.
rations. One of the soldiers first makes his ap-
pearance, as if to see if the enemy be gone, and to
learn whence the attack proceeds. By and by two
or three others make their appearance, and soon
afterwards a numerous body rushes out, which
increases in number so long as the attack is con-
tinued. They are at this time in a state of the
most violent agitation; some employed in beating
upon the building with their mandibles, so as to
make a noise which may be distinctly heard at the
distance of three or four feet. Whenever the
attack is discontinued, the soldiers retire Arst, and
are quickly followed by the labourers, which
hasten in various directions towards the breach,
oseh with a burden of mortar ready tempered an
THS WHw1 A9ri'
thu they soon repair the chasm. Besides the
duty of protecting the colony, the soldiers seem to
act as overseers of the work, one being generally in
attendance on every six or eight hundred; ana
another, who may be looked upon as commander
in chief, takes up his station close to the Wrall
which they are repairing, and frequently repeats
the beating which I just mentioned, which is
instantly answered by a loud his from all the
labourers within the dome,-those at work labour-
ing with redoubled energy."
"But, Uncle Thomas, what can be the use of
such animals as white ants? I really cannot see
what use they are for."
Well, John, I confess I do not much wonder
at your question, though, in putting it, you have
forgotten that God makes nothing in vain. Mr.
Smeathman, who tells us so much about these
curious animals, has answered you by anticipation;
and his answer is n such a spirit that I cannot do
bttr than red it to you.
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
"It may appear surprising how a Being perfectly
good should have created animals which seem to
serve no other end but to spread destruction and
desolation wherever they go. But let us be
cautious in suspecting any imperfection in the
FATHER OF THE UNIVERSE. What at first sight
may seem only productive of mischief, will, upon
mature deliberation, be found worthy of that
wisdom which planned the most beautiful parts of
the world. Many poisons are valuable medicines,
Storms are beneficial; and diseases often promote
life. These Termites are indeed frequently per-
nicious to mankind, but they are also very useful
and even necessary. One valuable purpose which
they serve is, to destroy decayed trees and other
substances which, if left on the surface of the
ground in hot climates, would in a short time
pollute the air. In this respect they resemble very
much the common flies, which are regarded by
mankind in general as noxious and, albeit, a ue.
lem beings in creation. But this is certainly for
TUB WtlRT AN.T
want of consideration. There are not probably in
all nature animals of more importance, and it
would not be difficult to prove that we should feel
the want of one or two large quadrupeds much
less than of one or two species of these despicable-
looking insects. Mankind in general are sensible
that nothing is more disagreeable or more pes-
tiferous than putrid substances; and it is apparent
to all who have made observation, that those little
insects contribute more to the quick dissolution and
dispersion of putrescent matter than any ether.
They are so necessary in all hot climates, that ever
in the open fields a dead animal or small putid
substance cannot be laid upon the ground two
minutes before it will be covered with flies and
their maggots, which, instantly entering, quickly
devour one part, and perforating the rest in various
directions, expose the whole to be much sooner de-
composed by the elements. Thus it is with the
Termites. The rapid vegetation in hot climate,
of which no ideacan be formed by any thing to b
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
seen i this, is equalled by as great a degree of
destruction from natural as well as accidental
causes. It seems apparent that when anything
whatever has arrived at its last degree of perfection
the Creator has decreed that it shall be wholly
destroyed as soon as possible, that the face of
nature may be speedily adorned with fesh pro-
ductions in the bloom of spring, or the pride of
summer; so when trees and even woods are in
part destroyed by tornadoes or fire, it is wonderful
to observe how many agents are employed in
hastening the total dissolution of the rest. But in
hot climates there are none so expert, or who do
their business so expeditiously and effectually, a
these insects, which in a few weeks destroy and
carry away the bodies of large trees, without
leaving a particle behind; thus clearing the place
for other vegetables which soon fill up every va&
cancy: and in places where two or three yearn
before there has been a populous town, if the in-
habitant as is frequently the case, have obahoe t
THE WHITE ANT. 58
abandon it, there shall be a very thick wood, and
not a vestige of a post to be seen, unless the wood
has been of a species which from its hardness is
called iron wood."
"Thank you, Uncle Thomas. I see, I was
quite wrong in supposing that the ants are of no
use. I really did not imagine that they could have
been so serviceable."
Uncle Thomas describes the Manner in which Wild Elephants
are caught, and relates some Curious Steries of the Cuning,
Affection, and Intelligence of the Elephant.
WELL, Boys, you are once more welcome !-I
am going to tell you some stories about the Ele-
phant to-night, which I hope will interest you quite
as much as those which I told you about the dog.
Next 'to the dog the elephant is one of the most
intelligent animals; some of his actions, indeed,
seem to be rather the result of reason than mere
instinct. But I must first tell you about the animal
in its native forests.
"In the luxuriant forests with which a large
portion of Asia is covered, this huge animal reigns
supreme. Its size and strength easily enable it to
overcome the most formidable opponents. The
intelligence with which it has been endowed by it
Creator would make it a most formidable enemy to
man, but that the same All-wise Being has gra-
ciously endowed it with peaceful and gentle feel-
ings. In its native forests it roams about without
seeking to molest any one, and even when caught
and tamed it very soon becomes gentle and obe-
"In the East Indies the elephant is in very
general use as a beast of burden. For this purpose
it is hunted and caught in great numbers by the
Natives, who employ some very ingeniou devices
to deceive them, and to drive them into the am-
buscades which they form for them. The manner
in which whole herds are captured is as follows:-
"When the herd is discovered by parties who
are sent out for the purpose of reconnoitering, they
take notice of the direction in which it is ranging,
and as, if their food is plentiful, they generally
continue to advance in one direction for miles
together, the huwatas =natict, at a consideatb
STORIBE ABOUT INSTINCT.
distance in front, a series of enclosures, into which
it is their object to drive them.
"When every thing is prepared, the hunters,
sometimes to the number of several hundreds,
divide themselves into small parties, and form a
large circle, so as to surround the herd. Each
party generally consists of three men, whose duty
it is to light a fire and to clear a footpath between
their station and that of their neighbours, so that
in this way a communication is kept up by the
whole circle, and assistance can at once be afforded
at any given point.
"New circles are constantly formed at short
distances in advance, so as gradually to drive the
animals in the required direction. The hunters
are all the while concealed by the luxuriant jungle,
and do not show themselves to the elephants at
all, but urge them forward by the use of drums,
rates, &c. &c., from the noise of which the animal
seek to escape, and thus wander on, feeding as they
process toward the toils which are prepared for thnm.
A.URArP T BUNTINO.
SThe kedda, or trap, as it may be called, con-
sists of three enclosures, each formed of strong
s~olkades on the outside of deep ditches; the inner-
most one being the strongest, because by the time
they arrive in it, the elephants are generally in a
state of great excitement, and would soon break
down a fragile enclosure, and make their escape.
"As soon as the herd has entered the fist en-
closure, strong barricades are erected across the
entrance; and as there is no ditch at this point
the hunters take advantage of the remarkabe deed
which the animal has of fire, to scare them Mfam
this most vulnerable part of the fortification. Fies
are gradually lit all round the first enclosure, .
that the only way of escape which is left is by the
entrance to the second.
"At first, as if profiting by their former expe.
ience, they generally shun the entrance to thu
second of the series, but at last. seeing no other
chance of escape, the leader of the herd ventuma
forward, end the rest follow. The gate isistmI y
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
shut, and they are in the same manner driven into
the third enclosure. Finding no outlet from this
they become desperate, scream with tremendous
power, and seek to escape by violently attacking
the sides of the stockade. At all points, however,
they are repulsed by lighted fires, and the tu-
multuous and exulting shouts of the triumphant
"In this place of confinement they remain for
several days. When their excitement has some-
what subsided, they are enticed one by one to enter
a narrow passage leading to the second enclosure.
As soon as one enters in, the entrance is closed,
and as the passage is so narrow that it cannot turn
round, it soon fatigues itself by unavailing exertions
to beat down the barrier. Strong ropes with run-
ning nooses are now laid down, and no sooner
does the animal put his foot within one of them,
than the 1e is drawn tight by some of the hialm
who are ttioned on a small scaffold which hi
been raised over the gateway. In the same man-
nor his other feet are secured. When this has been
effected, some of the hunters venture to approach,
and tie his hind legs together. Having thus se.
cured him, they ca with comparative safety com-
plete their capture. When he is completely secured
he is placed between two tame ephants, and led
away to the forest and fastened to a tree; and the
same operation is repeated, till the whole heri has
been secured. At first the rage of the captive is
extreme; so long as the animals between which
he is led away prisoner remain with him he is .
comparatively quiet, but when he sees them depart,
he is agitated with all the horrors of despair, and
makes the most extravagant attempts to regain hi.
liberty. For some time he refuses to eat, but
gradually becomes resigned, and feeds freely.
"A keeper is appointed to each animal, as they
are secured. His first object is to gain its confi-
dance; supplying it regularly with food, pouring
water over its body to keep it cool, and gidua Ry
accustoming it to carese .s In 4 course of five or
STORIES h.BOU' NNSTWNCT.
sir weeks he general obtains a complete ae-
denicy over it; its fetters are removed by de~ss,
it knows his voice and obeys him, and is tilm
gradually initiated into the objects of its ktuse
"Thank you, Uncle Thoma I a now ander-
stand all about elephant-hunting. I could not
Think how the hunters managed to secue s.ch a
huge animal. It seems to be no such diiffiult task
It seems easy enough from description, Frank;
but it sometimes happens that they break looe,
and, irritated by their eforts to escape, they wage
about in the most furious manner, and as they se
very cunning animals, it requires aH the ciruoi-
spection of the hunter to counteract their smhms.
I recollect a story which displays this quality in a
very strong light.
"During the seige of Bhurtpore, in the year
1805, when the British army, with its eoumtins
host of followers and attendants, and thte s rf
cuBtrr o4r ~r EM l ASTrr.
attle, had been for a long time before the eity, the
appreah of the warm season and of the dry het
winds canned the quantity of water in the aeigh
bourhood of the camps to begin to fail; the ponds
or tanks had dried up, and no more water was left
than the immense wells of the country could fur-
nish. The multitude of men and cattle that were
ncesingly at the wells, occasioned no little
struggle for priority in procuring the supply, and
the consequent confusion on the spot was fie-
qumetl y veryoiderable On one eoeasio, two
elephat-drivers, each with his elephant, the one
remarkably large and strong, and the other corn-
paratively small and wek, were at the well
together; the small elephant had been provided by
his master with a bucket for the occasion, which he
caried at the end of his proboscis; but the larger
animal being destitute of this necessary vessel,
ithr spontaneousy, or by desire of his keeper,
sired the bucket, and easily wrested it away firn
hs le. power hflw ervamat, The latter wW
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
too sensible of his inferiority openly to resist the
insult, though it is obvious that he felt it; and great
squabbling and abuse ensued between the keepers.
"At length, the weaker animal, watching the
opportunity when the other was standing with his
side to the well, retired backwards a few paces, in
a very quiet unsuspicious manner, and then rush-
ing forward with all his might, drove his head
against the side of the other, and fairly pushed him
into the well. It may easily be imagined that great
inconvenience was immediately. experienced, and
serious apprehensions quickly followed, that the
water in the well, on which the existence of so
many seemed in a great measure to depend, would
be spoiled by the unwieldy brute which was
precipitated into it; and as the surface of the water
was nearly twenty feet below the common level,
there did not appear to be any means that could be
adopted to get the animal out by main force, with-
out the risk of injuring him. There were many
feet of water below the elephant, who floated with
DOCILITY OF TRX ELXPKANT.
ease on its surface, and, experiencing considerable
pleasure from his cool retreat, he evinced but little
inclination even to exert what means of escape he
might himself possess.
"A vast number of fascines (bundles of wood)
had been employed by the army in conducting the
siege; and at length it occurred to the elephant-
keeper, that a sufficient number of these might be
lowered into the well, on which the animal might
be raised to the top, if it could be instructed as to
the necessary means of laying them in regular suc-
cession under its feet. Permission having acoid-
ingly been obtained from the engineers to use '"l
fascines, the keeper had to teach the elephant the
lesson, which, by means of that extraordinary
ascendency these men attain over their charge,
joined with the intellectual resources of the animal
itse lhe was soon enabled to do; and the elephant
began quickly to place each fascine, as it was
lowered, successively under him, until, in a little
time, he was enabled to stand-upon them. By thi
tOELEK ABOUT INSTANT.
time, however, the cunning brute, enjoying the
pleasure of his situation, after the heat and partial
privation of water to which he had been lately
exposed, was unwilling to work any longer; and
all the threats of his keeper could not induce him
to place another fascine. The man then opposed
cunning to cunning, and began to caress and praise
the elephant; and what he could not effect by
threats he was enabled to do by the repeated pro-
mise of plenty of arrack, a spirituous beverage
composed of rum, of which the elephant is very
fond. Incited by this, the animal again set to
work, raised himself considerably higher, until,
by a partial removal of the masonry round the top
of the well, he was enabled to step out, after having
been in the water about fourteen hours."
That was *ery cunning, Uncle Thomas. The
keepers seem to attain great ascendency over the
SThe attachment of the elephant to its keeper,
and the comad which soe of thee mn aeqoi
DOCILITY OF THR ELPHRANT.
over the objects of their care by appealing to their
affections is very extraordinary. The mere found
of the keeper's voice has been known to reclaim
an animal which escaped from domestication and
resumed its original freedom:-
A female elephant, belonging to a gentleman in
Calcutta, who was ordered from the upper country
to Chittagong, in the route thither, broke loose from
her keeper, and, making her way to the woods, was
lost. The keeper made every excuse to vindicate
himself, which the master of the animal would not
listen to, but branded the man with dishonesty; for
it was instantly supposed that he had sold the
elephant. He was tried for it, and condemned to
work on the roads for life, and his wife and children
sold for slaves.
SAbout twelve years afterwards, this man, who
was known to be well acquainted with breaking
elephants, was sent into the country with a party to
assist in catching wild ones. They came upon a
herd, amongst which the man fancied he saw the
STORIE8 ABOUT INSTINCT.
loega st elephant for which he had been con-
dlmned. He resolved to approach it, nor cpld
the strongest remonstrances of the party dissuade
him from the attempt. As he approached the
animal, he called her by name, when she imme-
diately recognized his voice; she wavedher trunk
in the air as a token of salutation, and kneeling
Sowa, allowed him to mount her neck. She after-
ards assisted in taking other elephants, and de-
asied three young ones to which she had given
aish isee her escape. The keeper returned
to his ter, and the singular circumstances at-
eading the recovery of the elephant being told,
ihe imgsind his character; and, as a recompense
for his unmerited suffrings, had a pension settled
on him for life."
dlhat was an instance of rare good fortune,
UnJr Thomas. How very curious that he should
fall in with the herd in which his own elephant
"j ras very fortunate indeed, Frank. It wn
D OILITY oP TE LWmIeT. W
aot a little curious too that the elephant i
recognize him after so long a period. But ht
attachment which they show to their isepz is
sometimes very great. One which in a moment of
rage killed its keeper a few years ago, adop~l~e i
son as its carac or driver, and would alInSr
else to assue his place. The,wife of tim ub ortm -
nate man was witness to the dreadful scene, jd, i
the frenzy of her mental agny, took her two
children, and threw them at the feet of the eepht,
saying, As you have slain my husband, take ,mq
life also, as well as that of my childreanP Ti
elephant became calm, seemed to relent, and am it
stung with remorse, took up the eldest boy 'with
trunk, placed him on its neck, adopted him for H
carnac, and never afterwards allowed another
occupy that seat.:
That was t least making all the repatin
its power, Uncle Thomas."
There is one or two other storiqp about the
elephant, showing that he knows howJt.o m .
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
venge an insult, which I must tell you before
A merchant at Bencoolen kept a tame elephant,
which was so exceedingly gentle in his habits, that
he was permitted to go at large. This huge animal
used to walk about the streets in the most quiet
and orderly manner, and paid many visits through
the city to people who were kind to him. Two
cobblers took an ill will to this inoffensive creature,
and several times pricked him on the proboscis
with their awls. The noble animal did not chas-
tis them in the manner he might have done, and
seemed to think they were too contemptible to be
angry with them. But he took other means to
punish them for their cruelty. He filled his trunk
with water of a dirty qlity, and advancing
,tow ~aem in his ordinary ner, spouted the
w of the puddle over them, The punishment
was highly applauded by those who witnessed it,
end the poor cobblers were laughed at for their
THE ELEPHANT AND THE COBBLERS-Pagc 68.
THE ELEPHANT REVENGE.
i" Ha ha ha! He must have been a very know-
ing animal, Uncle Thomas. I dare say, the
cobblers behaved better in future."
I dare say they would, Boys. Here is another
story of the same description, but the trickster did
not escape so easily."
"A person in the island of Ceylon, who lived
near a place where elephants were daily led to
water, and often sat at the door of his house, used
occasionally to give one of these animals some fig
leaves, a food to which elephants are very partial.
Once he took it into his head to play one of the
elephants a trick. He wrapped a stone round with
fig leaves, and said to the carnac, This time I will
give him a stone to -eat, and see how it will agree
with him.' The carnac answered, 'that the ele
phant would not be such a fool as to swa r a
stone.' The man, however, reached the sto e to
the elephant, who, taking it with his trunk, irlme
diately let it fall to the ground. 'You see,' said
the keeper, 'that I was right;' and without further
70 STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
words, drove away his elephants. After they were
watered, he was conducting them again to their
stable. The man who had played the elephant the
trick was still sitting at his door, when, before he
was aware, the animal ran at him, threw his trunk
around his body, and, dashing him to the ground,
trampled him immediately to death."
Uncle Thomas introdees to the Notice of the Youmg Pest te
Ettrick Sepherd's Stries about beep;. and tell them Mnew
Interesting Stories about the Goat, and its Peculiarities.
SI DARE say, Boys, you have not forgotten the Ettrick
Shepherd's wonderful stories about his dogs.. Sme
of those which he relates about sheep are equally
remarkable, and as he tells them in the same
pleasing style, I think I cannot do better than read
to yoq the chapter in 'The Shepherd's Calendar'
which he devotes to this animaL"
"Thank you, Uncle Thomas. We remember
Very well his stories about Sirrah aMd Heetor and
Chieftain, and the old Shephed's grief at paetng
with his dog."
That's right, Boys; I am pleased to think tht
you do not forget what I tell you. ato listed ,
the Ettrick Shephrd."
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
The sheep has scarcely any marked character
save that of natural affection, of which it possesses
a very great share. It is otherwise a stupid in-
different animal, having few wants, and fewer
expedients. The old black-faced, or forest breed,
have far more powerful capabilities than any of the
finer breeds that have been introduced into Scot-
land, and, therefore, the few anecdotes that I have
to relate shall be confined to them.
So strong is the attachment of the sheep to the
place where they have been bred, that I have heard
of their returning from Yorkshire to the Highlands.
I was always somewhat inclined to suspect that
they might have been lost by the way, but it is
certain, however, that when once one or a few
sheep get away from the rest of their acquaintances,
they. return homeward with great eagerness and
perseverance. I have lived beside a drove-road the
better part of my life, and many stragglers have
I seen bending their steps northward in the spring
of the year. A shepherd rarely sees these journey-
LOVE OF HOME.
ers twice; if he sees them, and stops them in the
morning, they are gone long before night; and if
he sees them at night, they will be. gone many
miles before morning. This strong attachment to
the place of their nativity is much more predomi-
nant in our old aboriginal breed than in any of the
other kinds with which I am acquainted.
The most singular instance that I know of, to be
quite well authenticated, is that of a black eve, that
returned with her lamb from a farm in the head of
Glen-Lyon, to the farm of Harehope, in Tweeddate,
and accomplished the journey in nine days. She
was soon missed by her owner, and a shepherd wa
despatched in pursuit of her, who followed her all
the way to Crieff, where he turned, and gave her
up. He got intelligence of her all the way, ana
every one told him that she absolutely persste& in
travelling on,--she would not be turned, regarding
neither sheep nor shepherd by the way. Her lamb
was often far behind, and she had constantly C6
lrge it on by impatient bleating. She unlnckil*
74 UTOaRIZ ABOUT INSTINCT.
came to Stirling on the morning of a great annual
fair, about the end of May, and judging it impru-
dent to venture through the crowd with her lamb,
she halted on the north side of the town the whole
day, where she was seen by hundreds, lying close
by the road-side. But next morning, when all
became quiet, a little after the break of day, she
was observed stealing quietly through the town, in
apparent terror of the dogs that were prowling
about the street. The last time she was seen on
the road was at a toll-bar near St. Ninian's; the
man stopped her, thinking she was a strayed ani-
mal, and that some one would claim her. She
tried several times 4o break through by force when
s he opened the gate, but he always prevented her,
and at length she turned patiently back. She had
found some means of eluding him, however, for
home she came on a Sabbath morning, early in
June; and she left the farm of Lochs, in Glen-
%yon, either on the Thursday afternoon, or Friday
morning, a week and two days before. The fiter
of Harehope paid the Highland farmer the price of
her, and she remained on her native farm till she
died of old age, in her seventeenth year.
*"With regard to the natural affection of this
animal, the instances that might be mentioned are
without number. When one loses its sight in a
flock of sheep, it is rarely abandoned to itself in
that hapless and helple state. Some one always
attaches itself to it, and by bleating calls it back
from the precipice, the lake, the pool, and il
dangers whatever. There is a disease among
sheep, called by shepherds :, BreakMshug a
deadly sort of dysentery, whi tii~Sioti as
fire, in a flock. Whenever "a ies itself
seized by this, it instantly wi from all the
rest, shunning their society wi greatest caer;
it even hides itself, and is o H ry hard to be A .
found. Though this propensi can hardly be Y-:
attributed to natural instinct, it is, at all events, a
provison of nature of the great st n-
benafinence, ^ 4
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
"Another manifest provision of nature with
regard to these animals is, that the more inhospi-
table the land is on which they feed, the greater
their kindness and attention to their young. 'I
once herded two years on a wild and bare farm
called Willenslee, on the border of Mid-Lothian,
and of all the sheep I ever saw, these were the
kindest and most affectionate to their lambs. I was
often deeply affected at scenes which I witnessed.
We had one very hard winter, so that our sheep
grew lean in the spring, and the thwarter-ill (a sort
of paralytic affection) came among them, and
carried off a number. Often have I seen these poor
victims, when fallen down to rise no more, even
when unable to lift their heads from the ground,
holding up the leg, to invite the starving lamb to
the miserable pittance that the udder still could
Supply. I had never seen aught more painfully
"It is well known that it is a custom with shep-
herds, when a lamb dies, if the mother have a
THE SHEEP. 7f
sufficiency of milk, to bring her from the hill,
and put another lamb to her. This is done by
putting the skin of the dead lamb upon the living
one; the ewe immediately acknowledges the re-
lationship, and after the skin has warmed on it, so
as to give it something of the smell of her own
progeny, and it has sucked her two or three times,
she accepts and nourishes it as her own ever after.
Whether it is from joy at this apparent reanimation
of her young one, or because a little doubt remains
on her mind which she would fain dispel, I cannot
decide; but, for a number of days, she shows far
more fondness, by bleating and. caressing over this
one, than she did formerly over the one that was
really her own. But this is not what I wanted to
explain; it was, that such sheep as thus lose their :
lambs must be driven to a hqV with dogs, so that
the lamb may be put to them; for they will only
take it in a dark confined place. But at Willenslee,
I never needed to drive home a sheep by force,
with dogs, or in any other way than the following:
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
I found every ewe, of course, standing hanging her
head over her dead lamb; and having a piece of
twine with me for the purpose, I tied that to the
lamb's neck or foot, and trailing it along, the ewe
followed me into any house or fold that I choose to
lead her. Any of them would have followed me in
that way for.miles, with her nose close on the lamb,
which she never quitted for a moment, except to
chase my dog, which she would not suffer to walk
near me. I often, out of curiosity, led them in to
the side of the kitchen fire by this means into the
midst of servants and dogs; but the more that
dangers multiplied around the ewe, she clung the
closer to her dead offspring, and thought of nothing
whatever but protecting it. One of the two years,
while I remained on this farm, a severe blast of
snow came on by night, about the latter end of
April, which destroyed several scores of our lambs;
and as we had not enow of twins and odd lambs for
the mothers that had lost theirs, of course we se-
lected the best ewes, and put lambs to them. As
THE FAITHFUL MOTHER.
we were making the distribution, I requested of my
master to spare me a lamb for a hawked ewe which
he knew, and which was standing over a dead lamb
in the head of the Hope, about four miles from the
house. He would not do it, but bid me let her
stand over her lamb for a day or two, and perhaps a
twin would be forthcoming. I did so, and faith-
fully she did stand to her charge; so faithfully,
that I think the like never was equalled by any of
the woolly race. I visited her every morning and
evening, and for the first eight days never found
her above two or three yards from the lamb; and
always, as I went my rounds, she eyed me long ere
I came near her, and kept tramping with her feet,
and whistling through her nose, to frighten away
the dog; he got a regular chase twice a day as I
passed by: but, however excited and fierce a ewe
may be, she never offers any resistance to mankind,
being perfectly and meekly passive to them. The
weather grew fixe and warm and the dead Id
soon decayed, which the body of a dead lamb
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
particularly soon: but still this affectionate and
desolate creature kept hanging over the poor re-
mains with an attachment that seemed to be nour-
ished by hopelessness. It often drew the tears
from my eyes to see her hanging with such fond-
ness over a few bones, mixed with a small portion
of wool. For the first fortnight she never quitted
the spot, and for another week she visited it every
morning and evening, uttering a few kindly and
heart-piercing bleats each time; till at length every
remnant of her offspring vanished, mixing with the
soil, or wafted away by the winds."
Poor creature Uncle Thomas, that was very
"So much for the Ettrick Shepherd. I will now
tell you a story about a remarkable instance
of sagacity in a sheep, of which I myself was an-
One evening, as I was enjoying a walk through
some verdant pastures, which were plentifully
dotted with sheep, my attention was attracted by
TRE aESCUED LAMB. 81
the motions of one which repeatedly came close up
to me, bleating in a piteous manner, and after look-
ing expressively in my face, ran off towards a brook
which meandered through the midst of the pastures.
At first I took little notice of the creature, but as
her entreaties became importunate, I followed her,
Delighted at having at length attracted my notice,
she ran with all her speed, frequently looking back.
When I reached the spot, I discovered the cause of
all her anxiety; her lamb had unfortunately fallen
into the brook, whose steep banks prevented it from
making its escape. Fortunately the water, though
up to the little creature's back, was not sufficient to
drown it. I rescued it with much pleasure, and to
the great gratification of its affectionate mother,
who licked it with her tongue to dry it, now and
then skipping about, and giving vent to her joy and
gratitude in most expressive gambols.
"Though differing in many respects from the
sheep, th.. goat beas so strong a resemblance to
tht animal, that, now that I am speaking of it I
STORIES ABOVT IMTINCT.
may as well tell you a story or two about the goat
It will save my returning to it afterwards."
< Very well, Uncle Thomas."
"The goat is in every respect more fitted for a
life of savage liberty than the sheep. It is of a
more lively disposition, and is possessed of a greater
degree of instinct. It readily attaches itself to man,
and seems sensible of his caresses. It delights in
climbing precipices, and going to the very edge of
danger, and it is often seen suspended upon an
eminence overhanging the sea, upon a very little
base, and sometimes even sleeps there in security.
Nature has in some measure fitted it for traversing
these declivities with ease; the hoof is hollow
underneath, with sharp edges, so that it walks as
severely on the ridge of a house as on the level
When once reduced to a state of domestication,
the goat seldom resumes its original wildness. A
gbod many years ago, an English vessel happening
to touch at the island of Bonatista, two negroes
THE ARAB AND HIS OOAT.
came and offered the sailors as many goats as they
those to take away. Upon the captain expressing
his surprise at this offer, the negroes assured him
that there were but twelve persons on the island,
and that the goats had multiplied in such a manner
as even to become a nuisance: they added, that far
from giving any trouble to capture them, they fol-
lowed the few inhabitants that were left with a sort
of obstinacy, and became even troublesome by their
tameness. The celebrated traveller Dr. Claree
gives a very curious account of a goat, which was
trained to exhibit various amusing feats of dex-
We met, (says he,) an Arab with a goat which
he led about the country to exhibit, in order to gain
a livelihood for itself and its owner. He had taught
this animal, while he accompanied its movements
with a song, to mount upon little cylindrical blocks
of wood, placed successively one above another,
and in shape resembling the dice-box belonging to
a backgammon table. In this manner the goat
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
stood, first, on the top of two; afterwards, of three,
four, five, and six, until it remained balanced upon
the summit of them all, elevated several feet above
the ground, and with its four feet collected upon a
single point, without throwing down the disjointed
fabric on which it stood. The diameter of the
upper cylinder, on which its four feet alternately
remained until the Arab had ended his ditty, was
only two inches, and the length of each six inches.
The most curious part of the performance occurred
afterwards; for the Arab, to convince us of the
animals attention to the turn of the air, interrupted
the Da Capo; and, as often as he did this, the
goat tottered, appeared uneasy, and, upon tis
becoming suddenly sent, in the middle of his song,
it fell to the ground.
"Like the sheep, the goat possesses great na-
tural affection for its young. In its defence it
boldly repels the attacks of the most formidable
opponents. I remember a little story which finely
illustrates this instinctive courage.
THE ARAB AND HIS GOAT-Page 84.
SA person having missed one of his goats when
his flock was taken home at night, being afraid the
wanderer would get among the young trees in his
nursery, two boys, wrapped in their plaids, were
ordered to watch all night. The morning had but
faintly dawned, when they set out in search of her.
They at length discovered her on a pointed rock at
a considerable distance, and hastening to the spot
perceived her standing watching her kid with the
greatest anxiety, and defending it from fox. Thb
enemy turned round and .round to lay hold of his
prey, but the goat presented her horns in every
direction. The youngest boy was despatched for
assistance to attack the fox, and the eldest, hallooing
and throwing up stones, sought to intimidate it as he
climbed to rescue his charge. The fox seemed well
aware that the child could not.execute his threats;
he looked at him one instant, and then renewed the
assault, till, quite impatient, he made a sudden
effort to seize the kid. The whole three suddenly
disappeared, and were found at the bottom of the
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
precipice. The goat's horns were darted into the
back of the fox; the kid tly stretched beside. her.
It is supposed that the fox had fixed his teeth in the
kid, for its neck was lacerated ; but that when the
faithful mother inflicted a death wound upon her
mortal enemy he probably staggered, and brought
his victims with him over the rock.
"There is another story of the goat, which
places its gratitude and affection in such an interest-
ing light, that I am sure it will delight you:-
After the final suppression of the Scottish
Rebellion of 1715, by the decisive Battle of Preston,
a gentleman who had taken a very active share in
it escaped to the West Highlands to the residence
of a-female relative, who afforded him an asylum.
As in consequence of the strict search which was
made after the ringleaders, it was soon judged
unsafe for him to remain in the house of his friend,
he was conducted to a cavern in a sequestered
situation, and furnished with a supply of food.
The approach to this lonely abode consisted of a
TRE GRATEO L GOAT,
small aperture, through which he crept, dragging
his provisions along w4 him. A little way from
the mouth of the cave t1iroof became elevated, but
on advancing, an obstacle obstructed his progress.
He soon perceived that, whateverr it might be, the
object was a living one, bat unwilling to strike at a
venture with his dirk, th stooped down, and dis-
covered a goat and her kid lying on the ground.
The animal was evidently in great pain, and feel-
ing her body and limbs, he ascertained that one of
her legs had been fractured. He bound it up with
his garter, and offered her some of his bread; but
she refused to eat, and stretched out her tongue, as
if intimating that her mouth was par #ith
thirst. He gave her water, which she ank
greedily, and then she ate the bread. At midnight
he ventured from the cave, pulled a quantity of
grass and the tender branches of trees, and carried
them to the poor sufferer, which received them with
demonstrations of gratitude.
"The only thing which this fugitive had to
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
arrest his attention in his dreary abode, was admin-
istering comfort to the goat; and he was indeed
thankful to have any living creature beside him.
S It quickly recovered, and became tenderly attached
to him. It happened that the servant who was
intrusted with the secret of his retreat fell sick,
when it became necessary to send another with
provisions. The goat, on this occasion, happening
to be lying near the mouth of the cavern, opposed
his entrance with all her might, butting him
furiously; the fugitive, hearing a disturbance, went
forward, and receiving the watchword from his new
attendant, interposed, and the faithful goat permitted
him to pass. So resolute was the animal on this
occasion, that the gentleman was convinced she
would have died in his defence."
Uncle Thomas relates some Very Remarkable 8tords about the
Cat; points out to the Boys the Connexfon Rsubtin
between the Domestic Cat and the Lionige, &c., and
tells them some Stories about the Gentlenels, as well as the
Ferocity of these Animals.
" THaoGH far from being so general a favourite as
the dog, the domestic cat has many qualities to
recommend it to attention and regard, and some
of the stories which I am going to tell you exhibit
instances of instinctive attachment and gentleness
which cannot be surpassed.
"Here is one of attachment, which will match
with the best of those of the dog.
A cat which had been brought up in a family
became extremely attached to the eldest child, a
little boy, who was very fond of playing with
her. She bore with the most exemplary patience
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
any maltreatment which she received from him
--which even good-natured children seldom fail,
occasionally, to give to animals in their sports
with them-without ever making any attempt at
resistant&. As the cat grew up, however, she
daily quit her playfellow for a time, from whom
she had fot yly been inseparable, in order to
follow her natural propensity to catch mice;
but even when engaged in this employment,
she did not forget her friend ; for, as soon as
she had caught a mouse, she brought it alive
to him. If he showed an inclination to take
her prey from her, she anticipated him, by letting
it run, and waited to see whether he was able to
catch it. If he did not, the cat darted at, seized
it, and laid it again before him; and in this manner
the sport continued as long as the child showed
any inclination for the amusement.
At length the boy was attacked by small-
pox, and, during the early stages of his disorder,
t00 cat never quitted, jis bed-sidei bd as his
danger increased, it was found necessary to remove
the cat and lock it up. The child died. On
the following day, the Cat having escaped from
her confinement, immediately ran to the apart-
ment where she hoped to find her" playmate.
Disappointed in her expectation she' sought for
him with symptoms of great *easiness and
loud lamentation, all over the house, till she
came to the door of the room in which the
corpse lay. Here she lay down in silent
melancholy, till she was again locked up. As
soon as the child was interred, and the cat it
at liberty, she disappeared ; and it was not tif
a fortnight after that event, that she returned
to the well-known apartment, quite emaciated.
She would not, however, take any nourishment,
and soon ran away again with dismal ries. At
length, compelled by hunger, she ma4g~e ap-
pearance every day at dinner-time, bt a
left the house as. soon as she had eaten ,
food that was given her. No one knew '
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
she spent the rest of her time, till she was
found one day under the wall of the burying-
ground, close to the grave of her favourite; and
so indelible was the attachment of the cat to
her deceased friend, that till his parents removed
to another place five years afterwards, she never,
except in the latest severity of winter, passed
the night any where else than at the above-
mentioned spot, close to the grave. Ever after-
wards she was treated with the utmost kindness
by every person in the family. She suffered her-
self to be played with by the younger children,
although without exhibiting a particular partiality
S for any of them.
There is another story of the cat's attach-
S ment, of a somewhat less melancholy cast, which
I lately sayw recorded in a provincial newspaper.
A 4ttry gentleman of our acquaintance,
I Lh is nther a friend to thieves nor poachers,
'i hjmt this moment in his household a favourite at,
Honesty, he is sorry-to say, there is but too
THE AFFECTIONATE CAT-Page 92.
THE PHILANTHROPIC CAT. .9
much reason to call in question. The animal,
however, is far from being selfish in her principles ;
for her acceptable gleanings she regularly shares
among the children of the family in which her lot
is cast. It is the habit of grimalkin to leave the
kitchen or parlour, as often as hunger and an
opportunity may occur, and wend her way to a
certain pastrycook's shop, wherw, the better to
conceal her purpose, she endeavours slily to in-
gratiate herself into favour with the mistress of the
house. As soon -as the s1pkeeper's attention
becomes engrossed in business, or otherwise, puss
contrives to pilfer a small pie or tart from the
shelves on which they are placed, speedily after-
wards making the best of her way home with her
booty. She then carefully delivers her prize to
some of the little ones in the nursery. A division
of the stolen property quick~ takes place; and
here it Is singularly amusing to observe the cun-
ning animal, not the least conspicuous among the
numerous group, thankfully mumping ler share
STORIES ABOUT, INSTINCT.
of the illegal traffic. We may add that the pastry-
cook is by no means disposed to institute a legal
p ress against the delinquent, as the children of
thp gentleman to whom we allude are honest
enough to acknowledge their four-footed playmate's
faiWings to papa, who willingly compensates any
damage the pastrycook may sustain from the
petty deprda of the would-be philanthropic
I remember a,,highly pleased you were with
the story which I ilWd you about the dog dis
covering the murderers of his master. There
is one of a very similar description of a French
cat, which I aiuaOre will equally interest you.
".I e, beginning of the present century a
woman was murdered in Paris. The magistrate
who went to investigate the affair was accompanied
by a physician; they found the body lying upon
the floor, and a greyhownd watching over it. and
howling moumilly. When the gentleman entered
the apartmel, it man to- them without barking, and
THE FAITfUL OAT. U
then returned with a melancholy di to the body
of his murdered mistress. Uponi a chest in a
comer of the room sat a cat, motionless, with eyw
expressive of furious indignation, stedfastiy fixed
upon the body. Many persors now entered the
apartment, but eitherth te appearance of such a
crowd of strangers, nor the confui that pre-
vailed m the place, could make- eher
position. In the mean time, e'eAl*rons were
apprehended on suspicion of being the marderers
and it was resolved to lead tIi into the apart-
ment. Before the cat got sight of them, when she
only heard their footsteps approaching, her eyes
flashed with increased fury, her h* stood erect,
and so soon as she saw them enter the apartment,
she sprang towards them with ws.oellg f thy
most violent rage, but did notmttre# attack
them, iag probably alarmed the numbethat
followed. Having turned sev~ tiies''Ji
them with a peculiar ferocity of aspect ae crest
into a corner, with an air indicative of e deepest
STORIES ABOUT INSTINCT.
melancholy. This behaviour of the cat astonished
every one present. The effect which it produced
upon the murderers was such as almost to amount
to an acknowledgment of guilt. Nor did this
remain long doubtful, for a train of accessory cir-
cumstances was soon discovered which proved it to
"'I have .often warned you against stories
of ghosts and hobgoblins, and shown you on
how frail a foundation they generally rest. There
is a story in Which a cat was one of the
principal actors, which contains the elements of
as marvellous a tale of this description as could
be desired. It happened in the west of Scot-
'Some years ago, a poor man whose habits of
life had always been of the most retired description,
giv way to tae natural despondencyof his
disgpipn, put an'end to his existence. The only
eter inmate of his cottage was a favourite cat,
When th eed was discovered, the cat was found
t91M NuICwEI OR't*AsVL
siduously watching over her late masters body,
and it was with some difficulty she could be driven
"The appalling deed naturally excited a great
deal of attention in the surrounding neighbourhood
and on the day after the body was deposited in
the grave, which was made at the outside of the
church-yard, a number of school]bys ventured
thither, to view the resting-place of one who had at
times been the subject of village wonder, and
whose recent act of self-destruction was lyestedf
with additional interest. At first, no one was brave
enough to venture near; but at last, the appear-
ance of a hole in the side of the grave irresistibly
attracted their attention. Having been minutely
examined, it was at length determined' that t mrtmh
have been the work of some body-snatcher, and the
story having spread, the grae was miuia t -
amined, but as the body had not been remov~n lW
community considered themselves ftmunae ft
having made so nartrw escape. Yhe MF
." ^ ^ < -