• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Map of the Persian Empire
 The mother of Xerxes
 Egypt and Greece
 Debate on the proposed invasion...
 Preparations for the invasion of...
 The crossing of the Hellespont
 The review of the troops at...
 The preparations of the Greeks...
 The advance of Xerxes into...
 The battle of Thermopyle
 The burning of Athens
 The battle of Salamis
 The return of Xerxes to Persia
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine














Title: History of Xerxes the Great
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 Material Information
Title: History of Xerxes the Great
Series Title: History of Xerxes the Great
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Abbott, Jacob
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Half Title
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
    List of Illustrations
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Map of the Persian Empire
        Page 12
    The mother of Xerxes
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Egypt and Greece
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Debate on the proposed invasion of Greece
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Preparations for the invasion of Greece
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    The crossing of the Hellespont
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    The review of the troops at Doriscus
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    The preparations of the Greeks for defense
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    The advance of Xerxes into Greece
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    The battle of Thermopyle
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    The burning of Athens
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
    The battle of Salamis
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
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        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
    The return of Xerxes to Persia
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
    Advertising
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
    Back Cover
        Page 321
        Page 322
    Spine
        Page 323
Full Text

















































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XERIE8 TRE GREAT.





BY JACOB ABBOTT.




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PREFACE.


Oxa special object which the author of this
series has had in view, in the plan and method
which he has followed in the preparation of the
suooessive volumes, has been to adapt them to
the purposes of text-books in schools. The
study of a general compend of history, such as
is frequently used as a text-book, is highly use-
ful, if it oomes in at the right stage of educea
tion, when the mind is sufficiently matured, and
has acquired sufficient preliminary knowledge
to understand and appreciate so condensed a
generalization as a summary of the whole his-
tory of a nation contained in an ordinary volume
must necessarily be. Without this degree of
maturity of mind, and this preparation, the
study of such a work will be, as it too frequent-
ly is, a mere mechanical committing to mem-
ory of names, and dates, and phrases, which
awaken no interest, communicate no ideas, and
impart no useful knowledge to the mind.
A class of ordinary pupils, who have not yet






vi PREPACE.
become much acquainted with history, would,
accordingly, be more benefited by having their
attention concentrated, at first, on detached
and separate topics, such as those which form
the subjects, respectively, of these volumes.
By studying thus fully the history of individual
monarchs, or the narratives of single events,
they can go more fully into detail; they con-
ceive of the transactions described as realities;
their reflecting and reasoning powers are ooocu-
pied on what they read; they take notice of
the motives of conduct, of the gradual develop-
ment of character, the good or ill desert of so-
tions, and of the connection of causes and con-
sequences, both in respect to the influence of
wisdom and virtue on the one hand, and, on
the other, of folly and crime. In a word, their
minds and hearts are occupied instead of mere-
ly their memories. They reason, they sympa-
thize, they pity, they approve, and they con-
demn. They enjoy the real and true pleasure
which constitutes the charm of historical study
for minds that are mature; and they acquire
a taste for truth instead of fiction, which will
tend to direct their reading into proper channels
in all future years.
The use of these works, therefore, as text.
books in classes, has been kept continually in






PauPAco. vii
mind in the preparation of them. The running
index on the tope of the pages is intended to
serve instead of questions. These captions can
be used in their present form as toJps, in re
spot to which, when announced in the lass,
the pupils are to repeat substantially what is
said on the page; or, on the other hand, ques
tions in form, if that mode is preferred, can be
readily framed from them by the teacher. In
all the volumes, a very regular system of divi.
sion into chapters is observed, which will great-
ly facilitate the assignment of lessons



















CONTENTS.


CIampter Pa
I. THE MOTHER OF XIERXE................. 13
II. EGYPT AND GREECE..................... 33
III. DEBATE ON THE PROPOSED INVASION Or
REECE................................. 66
IV. PREPARATIONS FOR THE INVASION OF GREECE 78
V. THE CROSSING OF THE HELLESPONT ...... 100
VI. THE REVIEW OF THE ARMY AT DORISCUS.. 125
VII. PREPARATIONS OF THE GREEKS FOR DEFENSE 161
VIII. THE ADVANCE Or XERXES INTO GREECE.... 178
IX. THE BATTLE OF THERMOPTLa ............ 201
X. THE BURNING OF ATHEN S................ 224
XI. THE BATTLE OF SALAMISB ................ 245
XII. THE RETURN TO PERSIA ................284






















ENGRAVINGS.



ARTABANUS AND THE OHOST........... .Fro'ispUce.
MAP OF THE PERBIAN EMPIRE
PHERON DEFYING THE NILE ................. 48
MAP OF OREECE............................ 101
XEuXER CROSSING THE HELLESPONT ........... 121
PATE OF THE PERSIAN EMBASSADORS AT SPARTA 160
CITADEL AT ATHENS......................... 241
RETURN OF XERXES TO PERSIA................ 297
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XERIXES.


CHATER I.
THE MoTHR orF XERXS.
,H M-ggmeg Te .@ahOwr dc
TIHE name of Xerxes is associated in the
minds of men with the idea of the highest
attainable elevation of human magnificence and
grandeur. This monarch was the sovereign of
the ancient Persian empire when it was at the
height of its prosperity and power. It is prob.
able, however, that his greatness and fame lose
nothing by the manner in which his story comes
down to us through the Greek historians. The
Greeks conquered Xerxes, and, in relating his
history, they magnify the wealth, the power,
and the resources of his empire, by way of ex.
halting the greatness and renown of their own
exploits in subduing him.
The mother of Xerxes was Atoms, a daugb-
ter of Cyrus the Great, who was the fouder
of the Persian empire. Cyrus was killed in
Seytbis, a wild and barbarous region lying






14 XBaxzs. [B.C. S.
Oinhs AmbiMah d eMa .m taW
north of the Black and Caspian Seas. His son
Cambyses succeeded him.
A kingdom, or an empire, was regarded, in
ancient days, much in the light of an estate,
which the sovereign held as a species of prop-
erty, and which he was to manage mainly with
a view to the promotion of his own personal ag-
grandizement and pleasure. A king or an em-
peror could have more palaces, more money,
and more wives than other men; and if he was
of an overbearing or ambitious spirit, he oould
march into his neighbors' territories, and after
gratifying his love of adventure with various
romantic exploits, and gaining great renown by
his ferocious impetuosity in battle, he could end
his expedition, perhaps, by adding his neigh-
bors' palaces, and treasures, and wives to his
own.
Divine Providence, however, the mysterious
power that overrules all the passions and im-
pulses of men, and brings extended and general
good out of loal and particular evil, has made
the ambition and the elfishness of princes the
great means of preserving order and government
among men. These great ancient despots, for
example, would not have been able to collect
their revenues, or enlist their armies, or pro






L~5fi.] Ts. Moras, or Xaaszs. 16
Gmu.I 'Wk- "miud by -pWug iN asuuImu.
oure supplies for their eampaigs, unless their
dominions were under a regular and complete
system of social orgaisation, such as abould al
low all the industrial pursuits of sommeroe and
of agriculture, throughout the mas of the oom-
munity, to go regularly on. Thus absolute
monarchs, however ambitious, and selfish, and
domineering in their oharaters, have a strog
personal interest in the establishment of order
and ofjustioe between man and man throughout
all the regions which are under their mway. In
faot, the greater their ambition, their selfish
ness, and their pride, the stronger will this in
terest be; for, just in proportion as order, in.
dustry, and internal tranquillity prevail in a
country, just in that proportion can revenues
be collected from it, and armies raised ad
maintained.
It is a mistake, therefore, to suppose of the
great heroes, and sovereigns, and oonquemi
that have appeared from time to time among
mankind, that the usual and ordinary result of
their influence and aoto has been that of di-
turbeame and disorganition. It is true that
a vast amount of disturbance and disorgaaima
tion has often followed from the march of their
armies, their sieges, their invasions, and the






XsRIxS.


Iu&C. 0


LsbaWhNst sfrd a m r.
other loal and temporary acts of violesne whisk
they commit; but these are the exceptions, mt
the rule. It must be that such things an ex.
exceptions, since, in any extended and general
view of the subject, a much greater amount of
social organization, industry, and peace is neo-
essary to raise and maintain an army, than that
army can itself destroy. The deeds of destruc-
tion which great conquerors perform attract
more attention and make a greater impression
upon mankind than the quiet, patient, and long-
continued labors by which they perfect and ex-
tend the general organization of the social state.
But these labors, though less noticed by men,
have really employed the energies of great so.v
ereigns in a far greater degree than mankind
have generally imagined. Thus we should de-
scribe the work of Cesar's life in a single word
more truly by saying that he organized Eu.
rope, than that he oaaqu.i d it. His bridges,
his roads, his systems of juriprudeace, his coin.
age, his calendar, and other similar means and
instruments of social arrangement, and facili-
ties for promoting the pursuits of industry and
peace, mark, far more properly, the rema work
which that great conqueror performed among
mankind, than his battles and his victories.








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* lSD (M l

l Mar eir inal oed his presu
r's family a well a his throne. Cyrueed
srwma tildrcm by hois vrue we CuMby.
as and Smedi were the adly aom, but thlm
were daughbten, among whom Atoams was t
most distinguihed. The ladies of the mert
ww e aoouhomed to ride in different palace
or in different suites of partmento in th e Ma
palase, so that they lived in a great measn
isoated from eash other. When Camby..
eaows to the thran, and thus entered Wet poap
smion of his faha's paaI es, be saw sad Me
i loe with one of his bbatr's daughters, He
wimied to make her one of his wives. He as
senstomed to the nrestrited indulgaee do
eery appetite and peaso, bIt he m r tos
hwe had somae light aivings in negrd to
ek a atop s this. He imaMtd the Pei
-ipe. The'y oafrnml "* tiw objeM d
the- plied that they ahd s mIeIm am he
laws of the realm, al though they fmad ao
law allowing ra mto 1 rnr hibs ilaitr ,h
fed many whiokh sathiuid a Peie king
t 4o whatever hbe plmesd.
OCambyses teaser added the prmoe to
the number of his wive, and at klng' bwe.
ward he carried smother of his father's d- h











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mturmed ady to I*us after Combye*1 s d@Mk
. smudi%, the berh Cud OM"W%
oer, bow Cunbnrys suosemo if bb bed -
vim&-hhei; but he hbd boe pivaey soi.
abd by Caimby@WsI ordie., tboqh hi. d.
had be.n kept profoundly an st by thw nwh
bsd perpekated the deed. Thai.rw amethe
Smardis a Sun, the Peurua eal*, h o vas
a megion-that fNa wit of priest-4m whm
baun m st a IPok o bed lte ftI
smom while be On asbsnt chikble
Thu a miersdi. mwrigg y esme4l
pionef p g the throiw4 se ff
Smsedi theFPldM, rmting to a oestz.ase
6uomimaud swehems to eonsl No.
dwspeha. -Amoog bin ether phsue swe *wm to
houw imeWholly I -ew rud kM pdb
vbw, MM a hwbmIhe, MI* aePeddy, w
ha~a~im ten Ini0.0 *. -
6blham m h m eebdwed hum hine" clp






Il X,, Mn. [Mcf

I. h kme- 1mma .
rnd oam -mmw da wwI d hu- Em
dL, order to parent their soaking wM
-9 aoiBir, IIa AOIm jMIBlog to serb thbr
any opiob. whieh they might shame to em
tortam. StMk sMoluiaM, so far r dIas d to
tb madim of the royal family, wa not ummmul
ftr the death of a king, and SmediM did mot
deviate from the ordinary eamtom, eept to
make the isolatio and ioaaemat atue prm.
- mMao queens more i ridgo ttr
oomaaM. By meas of hi policy haw mw
abted to go on fr some mother withmrt detb
tiom, living all thee whl im the greatest luxzsy
ad sleqdorr, but at the uame time in absihi
meaohlo, and in using anxiety and esar.
On chief sowem of his liotuade was lb he
dmldbe deteed by msa ofl is ers!
yaw beis, iwen he was in a ouu-paatlwly
*ss* psesiih he la i snm wayor etwor
- -"i I& an IsN.. ad m POEM",by
frelet his aonniesi a- was r4isy
bhain his e a mt et It wva mus- y,
tibeMee, to keep the mreek a.f tl iMnM I
easloya sodeol bym- a hisr bald

ha idel s fe tea perfl dlly m.
At lt one of the mobl the amirtl.s
&ok et shd man,mW4M on.-&Va




w Y 1 Y. M

*Ml Tas keum ao XInaz. 1
,..u.a ..-es n. o mh.d..hdnamomen

but hi dmSghw, whobs m 'w. i-dym
wm -. d- n ia &Idsedshe adnismsan
was mr ~ n m a dikeet itomenUs wtlr
Bm..di. rt orMA with his N alughr; but he
e trivsi to am wad to his &aqlhr, ist.
in w'hth r h huw sh was th. trum amdid
rat. 8bh replied that sho did mt kour*i)b
ammh u ds had blmner amen y othlr Ia-.
is, i4 adhu4 ithA had bem another. MhW
I m. thefm attamptud to ommaeIto wVIh
Atmo, but be hfod it inap.ible to, do
Atm had, of oourne, knowm hbr bbat wd,
mad waM o that vey sacount very dooa e.
oladl by te magma. As a lu rort, Ath
mobe snt to his daughter a request et
se Mol wath fbOr a. qpuaaW to: fal $0
hl mbaftIs emI whild be we. l-- As
d htd tht .tis wuld e a dsmq .sw ah,
tm ap bu.his damqs, h. Mid, ughtoln t
MilMapM nw e it, is4s, if h preloomdft:
bw .n1" .mllT.a s ,, aM oht~ese

lma e dmwmpu s teme uiato mnd p Madl

Wrir~r"':Prfiwrr ritmT~ $J~^ki.NL






XIaaxmN.


M .M


Ibrasamd oeao d of D ha n..
dslqpig an his eodk she food that the e
vm pm*
The Mosmqums of this dima~ y ws, tht
a conpiray was famed to dethms and de.
atry the usrper. The plot wa mmoomiaL
8mamdi was killed; his inpriomed queas
were t fre, and Darius ws zed to the
throne in his stead.
Ao-m now, by that strange priacip of so.
oesio which has be already alluded to, be
me the wife of Danui, and she figes e.
qurtly and oounpiaously in history during hi
kam end mpdi reign.
Her name i brought into notice in one ae
ia remarkable manner, in coneotion with an
expedition which Darius snt on an amploring
tomn into Gres and Italy. She was her
th m Mas, in fCot, of M sdig the up*editi
SbM Iank; and after erimngm s ad
in ile en as boag n pssh a....4h bm.w
mYphiat being smo ta nake her nrilling
to speak lt it to othere-do atlemgti rtimr.
hmd to esoma Gaf ek phyaism wn he ba
b ght t o Pnmis, a e tie and h ad sequr.
md gmt ehlAity at Lm bm y his -edim &
1F a ise p.rdl seeditm of mrsi ell
anaguagainmens a seemerreesles vr as sa






IL m N Tus Memm' or Xuazms. J
metsw~edt m. ...- "--
smema d ski. The, pteimma mm. t he
woud muanrtake her C eadiH a4 l
wsmd prmna to get ina s eatimb quet
that be wd make. 8e wid d to barw
what it wMs beforhand, but tlwpbyioiml wm
mot tll her. He id, howeb h it wi
nothing that it wold be in ny way daugmy
to her homor to grant him.
On ths oonditims Atom omeluode to
agre t the physoian' proposal. He madk
hr take a solmn oath that, if he ured hwr d
hir malady, she would do whatever I required
of her, provided that it was oomnisa t wit hboa.
or and propriety. He then took her eas uder
his ohage, psreribed fo ber and atatedd ar,
sad in due tim e bwaw o red. Tbe phydiain
t tldd ber tat what be wad hel todo for
im wasto fad ame mos to pmmde Dui
to md-ihim bhm to bi native lad
Atom wu ethfialm in filing he m.i.
She took a private opportunity, whan was
aim with Desis, to pepoeo that absould
agar ime Plans offer igat e q h ema
mI.Imd bhin d I w vminew of Me metoIey
pmer wMk was ak Mdiopal, and h O e.
drm iw I wvh, by asi dit he might e
tWA I-d-atm le id, tear 0i. bbP






M X=Ixs-m @pI.lM

al md dmergy, and mi(svored to iehiirs l
im aid m om ambition desire to dimtinagi
himMif i o the eumtimat oft m ukind by bimg
ing his cpaoitie for the perfrmane of great
deeds into soion.
Dwius listened to theee muggeetioo of AtL
as with interest and with ovideat plemr He
aid that he had been forming some mueh pla
himuelL He was going to build a bridge mro
the Hellespont or the Boampeu, to unite EBr
uad Aia; and be was also going to make sa
meursion into the country of the Soythiana, the
people by whom Cyrus, his great prdeoemoor
had been defeated and lin. It would be a
great glory for him, he aid, to oaoeed in a oa.
quest in whioh Cyrus had so totally failed.
But these plas wold not answer the puWi
pas whi Atos had in iew. She urged her
humbead, theU fwe, to pose hir invaion of
the Beythimbu till some future tim, ead antd
oip- r the Girees, and annem ir teerity
to his dominias The &6ythieub he d aid,
wer muga mead their omtry met worth the
tof comquerig it, while Gumee weald eso
raitAt a oble pris. be urged the iamin.
dof GaMe, too, ather than Soythia, aS a pa
-eal femr to hsl. for ai had beam w -






aiO t] Tu Mewes u k or XIaus. W


tag; srh Md, som jaehis omu Ones->ftrs
)ea, thl*-4m1 s of td WM d 1a0 il
Ourith, mi ofd Ahdmm, d wose us' etd
aumaOpmlDaM t hob had h d W someb.
There was smirhibg gratifyinge i*A
tary vanity of Deirm in being thus vqietId
to mrae ao ioweron to eaneter centuea, rnl
artee the eanquest of the mighdei st masi
of the earth, for the purpoa ofpmoa unag uessa
plihed witing-numid to offer as a preast to
hi queen. He beeume restlesM uwat xitls
while lisening to Atomis' ppoa)M s ad th
rugamento with which Ashe fuCraed thea, and
it was obvious that he was very irogly indha
ad to soede to her view. He fhally ecoaoMd
ed to mod a oommiuia into Orwese to suplor
the oontry, uMd to bug baok & reat eFtAeir
stam; and as h bsdeed to make tdhe OneM
Ipyuiolal the guide of the apuiteh, Atom
gap.ahw med.
A fdll aeount of thib esp atiten aid of l
mWla s adveer we w k the part met wVia
on their voyage, i gBfm IB e hbist eofbl
*. It my be pper to my ews, aB owe
thoi f0h yda fMt "msao isaI mbi
tm an le es ki. Es;3 Ip*d s e ,l) .*
t-S Iw~L-- f tp;D bE --- --0 W






Xzlazsa


[&. .41


w -.L-
he ast temporary arrngemet in respect to
tk maduot of his affair while he should be
goe, in order to deooeive the kinin regard to
his intentions of not returning. The king, on
his part, resorted to some stnrtagemr to aser-
tain whether the physician was sinere in his
profesions, but he did not suooeed in detecting
the artifoe, and so the party went away. The
physician never returned.
Atoms had four sons. Xerxes wa the eld-
et of them. He was not, however, the eldest
of the sons of Darius, a there were other sons,
the children of another wife, whom Darius had
married before he amended the throne. The
oldest of thee children was named Artobam-
nae. Artobasane seem to have been a prince
ofan asmiabl and virtuous character, aad not
partialsary ambitions and aspiring in his die.
posioen, althuhs as he was the eldest sea of
his fiher, he aimed to be his heir. Atem.
did not admit the rlidity of this olaim, but
maintained that the old t of her d hildra wm
eatted to the inheritance.
It became nemary to decide thi question
before Daria's death; for Darir in the pn.
.sutim of a war in which he was eqaged,
aemed the design of aeomIpamying his ra


U






l.4IM Tau MIeome-or Xsax33. -

ma ezpMme ln.i osoes, sad, beuemdih
ti,, e wa .bead, asm g to th *w d
,ae. of the P mersia olm, to galte t,1

There immediately arosm earnest dpa
between the.friods sad partium of Artebml
Dn and Xersxe, eaoh side urging vy aguly
the claim of it own candidate. The motM
and the fiends of ArtobMmam mnta tht
he was the oldest son, and, oomeqmntly, the
heir. Atowe, on the other and, ontended
tht Xerl m was the grandra of Cyr, sad
that he derived from that oirooumtance the
highest poible hereditary rights to the Permia
tbronm
This war n a a re npeottr t far Cyr
had been the fuadwe d* the e~mI sd tshe l.
gitimate nomrrM, while.Dsmrn hadlB hm bl
asy e s. He was originally a mbe, of high
eak, dee, but not of the rol li; nd he
had bee deuigated as Cyroms ne is a

time, no prince of the royal family who samd
take the iaherita m Thoa, thb fre, who
werm dipped init on the elaim f a legit.
im hereditary aeoion, might very p*ew
iy elaim that Darir' govewnmathad boe






- Xmazamk lpt 40A

aMoqeMsy rather than a reign; hat ZlZ, ba.
g the oekst on of Atos, Cyims' daughter,
was true representative f the royal lia;
and that, although it might not be sepedient to
disturb the posesion of Darius during his life
t- yet that, at his death, Xer was un.
q ftionably entitled to the throne.
There was obviously a great deal of truth
and jusioe in thi reasoning, and yet it was a
view of the subject not likely to be very agn
able to Darius, ine it seemed to deny the ex.
itenoe of any real and valid title to the mov.
eignty in him. It signed the crown, at his
death, not to hi son as aoh, but to his prede.
oesor's grandson; for though Xerxes was both
the son ofDarius and the grandson of Cyru, it
was in the latter apaoity that he was regarded
asantited to the eown in the argument refer-
red to bove. T6edloetine was very gMtify.
ing to the pride Atoea, for it Made Zeo
the seooeemor to the crown as her son and heir,
and not as the son and hei of her husbad.
For this very ream it was likely te6I not very
gotifyig to Duius. He hsitLtd rey moou
in respect to adopting it Atome's ae-iodmy
over his mind, ad her inese generally in
th Peaian court, was alm& t overwheb isg,






Ae4q Tas Mwmms, r XnZaxa. t

ad yet Drim mery unwillif to M-@
giving t eo th eld tm gd CQyrs the pm.
aodemo ovem r hi wn eldest Mse,-to.(ls theM
he himself had no legitimate and prper title to
the throne
While thing wr in mthir s o, M l
named Denu us, arrived at n&'. He w
a detlms d paiem form Spart, md ad sad
from the political strs of his own ramty
seek refuge in Dariu's capital. Dmmratm
found a way to reoooile Dariu's pride a a
overeign with his pmersal preferne as a
husband and a fther. He told the king that,
according to the principles of hereditary muos
aio which were adopted in Grece, Xerz wBs
his heir as well a Cyrnu', for he wa the old-
at son who was boan afte Abs u om A
o, he said, msoording to he Grek idMs ea
the bjet, was etitled to inherit only mch
ak as hi father held whm the an was born;
and that, ouseqently, none of hi children who
had ben born before his aoesion could hav
any claims to the Prsian tone. Artobam-
ss, in a wod, was to be regarded, he aid,
oly as the oa of Darius the noble, while Xrx.
a was the son of Dariu the king.
In the ed Dari adopted this view, aad dw-






SXM3xas. [IUa.48P

tio d4d Xerz as his member inm ao I
bsmld not return from his distant expedition.
He did not retr. He did not evn live to t
oat upon it. Perhaps the question of the suo-
oeion had not been absolutely and finally et-
tied, for it arose again and wai disosed anew
whbe the death of Darius ooorred. The man-
ner in whioh it was finally disposed of will be
described in the next chapter.






M J&4M BerrYr as OGaao. U




CEAPTUR II.
EOYPT AND Garsso.
T HE arranmen which Dams had made
Sto x and determine the soessin, beoe
his death, did not entirely prevent the question
from arising again when his death ooorred.
Xeres was on the spot at the time, and at once
assumed the royal functions. His brother was
abent. Xerxes sent a messenger to Artobaza
nee informing him of their father's death, and
of his intention of usuming the crown. He
aid, however, that ifhe did so, he should give
his brother the second rank, making him, in aD
repeots, next to himself ain offe and honor.
He smt, moreover, a great many splendid press
eats to Artobasnes, to evine the friendly re-
gard which he felt for him, and to propitiate
hi favor.
Artobaanes sent back word to Xeres that
he thanked him for his presents, and that he
sooepted them with pleasure. He said that he
P* F .sh, who iv ... omut of dthm oomumomh, V&
riks d htgramphy of roh a. We, however, mb tSe
a-- mrge by Henoie.
C








UOdsofd ain ue smpe
considered himself, nevertheless, as justly en-
titled to the crown, though he should, in the
event of his accession, treat all his brothers, and
especially Xerxes, with the utmost considers
tion and respect.
Soon after these occurrences, Artobaanes
came to Media, where Xerxes was, and the
question which of then should be the king was
agitated anew among the nobles of the court.
In the end, a public hearing of the cause was
had before Artabanus, a brother of Darius, and,
of course, an unole of the contending princes.
The question seems to have been referred to
him, either because he held some public offie
which made it his duty to consider and decide
such a question, or else because he had been
specially commissioned to act as judge in this
particular case. Xerxes was at first quite un
willing to submit his claims to the decision of
such a tribunal. The crow was, as be main-
tained, rightfully his. He thought that the pub-
lic voice was generally in his favor. Then, be-
sides, he was already in possession of the throne,
and by consenting to plead his cause before his
unole, he seemed to be virtually abandoning all
this vantage ground, and trusting instead to
the mere chance of Artabanus's decision.


XZLKXB.


[BC.494.






C8.4W] ElroTT Aw GaOnon. o

Atossa, hower, recommended to him to so
oede to the plan of referring the question to Ar
tabanus. He would consider the smbjet, she
said, with fairness and impartility, and decide
it right. She had no doubt that he would de-
ide it in Xerxe's favor; "andifhe doe not,"
she added, "and you lose your case, you only
become the second man in the kingdom inastad
of the first, and the difference is not so very
great, after alL"
Atossa may have had some secret intimation
how Artabanus would decide.
However this may be, Xerxes at length oon-
oluded to submit the question. A solemn court
was held, and the ase was argued in the press.
enoe of all the nobles and great offers of state.
A throne was at hand to which the acessful
competitor was to be conducted as soon a the
deoiioa should be made. Artabaus heard the
arguments, and decided in favor of Xrxes.
Artobaanes, his brother, aoquiesoed in the de-
oision with the utmost readiness and good hu-
mor. He was the first to bow before the king
in token of homage, and conducted him, him.
slf, to the throne.
Isnr kept his promise faithfully of making
his brother the second in his kigdom. He ap






XsaxZs.


[|0. 40


Ia md mu erMD.. rcZ S rnd aen
pointed him to a very high command in the
army, and Artobaanes, on his part, served the
king with great zeal and fidelity, until be was
at last killed in battle, in the manner hereafter
to be described.
As soon as Xerxes found himself established
on his throne, he was called upon to decide im-
mediately a great question, namely, which of
two important wars in which his father had
been engaged he should first undertake to pros.
eoate, the war in Egypt or the war in Greece.
By referring to the map, the reader will see
that, a the Persian empire extended westward
to Asia Minor and to the coasts of the Medi-
teranean Sea, the great countries which border-
ed upon it in this direction were, on the north,
Greece, and on the south, Egypt; the one in
Europe, and the other in Africa. The Greeks
and the Egyptians were both wealthy and pow-
erful, and the countries which they respeotiely
inhabited were fertile and beautiful beyopd ex-
pression, and yet in all their essential features
and characteristic they were extremely dissim.
ilar. Egypt was a long and narrow inland
valley. Greece reposed, as it were, in the boh
am of the sea, nnnsisting, as it did, of an end-
les number of island, promontories, pensn -






t.4 OTP") BeT iTAl -3l3BOI. AP
d...,r wa. tm n. a.,,, ,,asemu'
la. and wisnM g oe t, laved on every sle ob
the b le watm of the Meditmerane. epi"
was a plain, divembed only by the varieti o
vegetatia, iad by the to and vlages, and
the enormous monumental structure which
hlb been erected by man. GrOeece wa a piotn
esque and ever-changing sone of mamntalam
and alleys; ofpeolipitus oli, wialig beash.
oe, rooky cape, and loty headlands The oM
other and gniu of the inhabitants of thee two
countries took their oast, in eaoh ase, from the
physical oooformationr of the soiL The Egyp
tians were a quiet, gentle, and harmes race o
tillen of the ground. They spent their lives in
pumping water from the river, in the patient,
persevering toil of sowing mooth and meow
fields, or in reaping the waving grain. The
Greeks drove fooks ad herds up and down the
deoliities of the mountains, or hunted wild
beast in forests and faiteesse. They eow
struoted galey for navigating the mea; they
walked the mines and marfactured metal.
They buitbridges, detadl, temple, and towMs
Mad slptared statary fem mrbe bbeek
whih they hseled from the sttraa do t
m antains. It is apriing what a diErsmo
is mad in thegs aad w ratsar d fas by







AMNOXaaxas MOmb(ass 4.
elevations, here and there, of a few thousand
feet in the country where his genius and char.
acter are formed.
The architectural wonders of Egypt and of
Greece were as diverse from each other as the
natural features of the soil, and in each ase the
structure were in keeping and in harmony
with the character of the landscape which they
respectively adorned. The harmony was, how-
ever, that of contrast, and not of correspond-
ence. In Greece, where the landscape itself
was grand and sublime, the architect aimed
only at beauty. To have aimed at magnitude
and grandeur in human structures among the
mountains, the oliffs, the cataracts, and the re-
sounding ocean shores of Greece, would have
been absurd. The Grecian artists were deter-
red by their unerring instincts from the at-
tempt. They accordingly built beautiful tem-
ples, whose white and symmetrial colonnades
adorned the declivities, or crowned the summits
of the hills. They sculptured statues, to be
pioed on pedestals in groves and gardena; they
eonsrootd fountains; they raised bridges and
aqueducts on long ranges of arches and pier;
and the summits of ragged rooks orystalled,
a it were, under their hands into towers, t


XIRXns.


[BC.4K






BA ),48] BErTT Ar I G3sBoS. 0

cement, and walls. In Egypt, on the ehr
hand, where the country itself was a level md
unvarying plain, the arohitooture took frmnr of
prodigious magnitude, of lofty elevatio, mad of
vart extent. There were rang of enormous
columns, ooloal statues, towering obelise, and
pyramids rising like mountains from the verd
ure of the plain. Thus, while nature gav to
the country its elements of beauty, man co
plated the landscape by adding to it the grand
and the sublime.
The shape and proportions of Egypt weold
be represented by a green ribbon an inch wde
and a yard long, lying upon the ground in a
serpentine form; and to complete the model, we
might imagine a silver filament pas-lhg along
the center ofthe green to denote the Ni. The
real valley of verdure, however, is not of uni
form breadth, like the ribbon so representing it,
but widens as it approaches the sea, a if thee
had been originally a gulf or estuary there, whish
the sediment from the river had filled.
In fot, the rich ad fertile plain which the
alluvial deposits of the Nile have formed, has
been protruded for some distance into the sea,
sAd the stream divds itself into three gen
aebsie abeut a headed miles bhm tos Me0a,






XIxaas.


t[.484.


0nfneream. sw terumm.
two outermost of which, with the sea-emet in
brot, inolose a vat triangle, whioh was called
the Delta, from the Greek letter deft, A, which
is of a triangular form. In ascending the riv-
er beyond the Delta, the fertile plain, at firt
twenty-five or thirty miles wide, grow gradu-
ally narrower, as the ranges of barren hills and
trots of sandy deserts on either hand draw
nearer and nearer to the river. Thus the coun-
try consists of two long lines of rich and fr-
tile intervals, one on each side of the streema
In the time of Xetes the whole extent was
densely populated, every little elevation of the
land being covered with a village or a town.
The inhabitants tilled the land, raising upon it
vast stores of corn, much of which was floated
down the river to its mouth, and taken thenoe
to variuo countries of Burope and Asia, in
merchant hips, oer the Mediterranean Sea.
Caravans, too, ometin came o em oss the Msigh-
boring desert to obtain supplies of Egyptla
oorn. This was do by the sons of Jacob whe
the rop failed them in the land of Canaan, as
related in the sacred oriptures.
There wre two great natural wodern in
Egypt in anoint times as now: fiAn it never
rmned te or, at leat, so auldsm that mi






DA40 RoEYPT-rD a mOanB. &

was regarded a a marvelous pbhom mmos, b.
twerpting the ordinary come of as tm,
an earthquake in England or Amseri e The
falling of drops ofwaterou of tddo in the
sky was an oaoorene so satrma sounasecmat-
able, that the whole population regarded it with
astonihment and awe. With the exception of
these rar and wonder-exciting int -am i,
was no rain, no now, nobil, no loads in ti
sky. The sn was always shining, and the
heavens were always sree. These meteone.
egioS ohaura rirtio of the omotry, esulting,
as they do, from permanent natural ome, O-
tionn, of onse, unohanged to th present day;
and the Arabs who live now along the baks
of the river, keep their orop, when harvesmd,
in helps in the open air, and equir na roof to
their haut except a light oe ng of sheaves t
peteot the inmates from the sm.
The other natural wonder of Egypt wm the
manual rising of the Nile. Aboet midam r,
the peaatry who lived along the banks would
nd the river gradually beginning to rie The
stream became more trbid, t s, the boao
f the waters swelld. No ease fo this my-.
teoms inease appeared, as the sky nasaem
as hbl ue1a m seh, s lbr d th a, th






4 X-az-a. [ .G 484.
Iqpmassags hmie m. e rei dgs whwe.
Mealy vertical, continued to shine with even
more than its wanted splendor. The inhabit.
ants, however, felt no surpre, and asked for
no explanation of the phenomenon. It was the
common course of nature at that season. They
had all witnessed it, year after year, from obild-
hood. They, of course, looked for it when the
proper month came round, and, though they
would have been amazed if the annual flood had
failed, they thought nothing extraordinary of
its booming.
When the swelling of the waters and the
gradual filling of the channels and low grounds
in the neighborhood of the river warned the peo-
ple that the flood was at hand, they all engaged
busily in the work of completing their prepar-
tiona The harvests were all gathered from the
fields, and the vast sores of fruit and corn
which they yielded were piled in roofles graa
aries, built on every elevated spot of ground,
where they would be. afe from the approab-
ing aiundatio The rise of the water was very
gradual and slow. Streams began to fow in
all direction over the sad. Ponds and laks,
grwiag every day more and more extended,
spread mysteriously over the surface d the
eadow; and all the time whie this dsi






J3.4~8. EerPT ADs GOanoL 4
I Appems de essift daft amadam,
of water was rising to submerge the lad, the
ar continued dry, the an was sultry, ad the
sky was without a cloud.
As the flood continued to rise, the proportion
of land and water, and the conformation of the
irregular and temporary shores which separated
them, wee changed continually, from day to
day. The inhabitants assembled in their vil-
lages, which were built on rising ground, sme
natural, others artificially formed. The waters
roe more and more, until only these crowd
islands appeared above its surface-when, at
length, the valley presented to the view the
speotaole of a vast expane of water, calm as a
summer's sea, brilliant with the refleoted rays
of a tropical san, and oanopied by a sky, which,
displaying its spotless blue by day and it.
coutle stars at night, was always lodless
and serene.
The inundation was at its height in October.
After that period the waters gradually subid-
ed, leaving a limy and very fertiliing deposit
all over the lands whih they had, coveed.
Though the inhabitants themselves, who had
been aoustomed to this overflow from infamy,
itt mo wader or ouriosity about its eas, the
philopher o(fte day, and travelers bfom h-







n*-M. e... e...q us [D.. *
a countries who visited Egypt, made many at.
tempts to seek an explanation of the pheome.
non. They had three theories on the subject,
which Herodotus mentions and discusses.
The first explanation was, that the rising of
the river was occasioned by the prevalence of
northerly winds on the Mediterranean at that
time of the year, which drove back the waters
at the month of the river, and so caused the ae-
oumulation of the water in the upper parts of
the valley. Herodotus thought that this was
not a satisfactory explanation; for sometimes,
as he said, these northerly winds did not blow,
and yet the rising of the river took place none
the less when the appointed season came. Be.
sides, there were other rivers similarly situated
in respect to the influence of prevailing winds
at sea in driving in the waters at their mouths,
which were, nevertheless, not subject to inun.
dation like the Nile.
The second theory was, that the Nile took
its rise, not, like other rivers, in inland lakes, or
among inland mountains, but in some remote
ad unknown ocean on the other side of the
continent, which ocean the advooates of this
theory supposed might be subject to some great
annual ebb and flow; and from this it might


XIaxs.L


[B.C.48s






BC.4i,] EeOTT AND GQaZ x. 45

result that at stated periods an urnMal tide of
waters might be poured into the channel of the
river. This, however, could not be true, for the
waters of the inundation were frh, not mlt,
which proved that they were not furnished by
say ocean.
A third hypothesis was, that the rising of
the water was ooosioned by the melting of the
snows in summer on the mountains from whioh
the sources of the river came. Against this
supposition Herodotus found more numerous
and more satisfactory reasons even than he had
advanced against the others. In the first place,
the river came from the south-a direction in
which the heat increased in intensity with ev.
ery league, as far as travelers had explored it;
and beyond those limits, they supposed that the
burning sun made the country uninhabitable
It was preposterous to suppose that there ould
be snow and ice there. Then, besides, the Nile
had been asmened to a great distance, and re
ports from the natives had been brought down
from regions still more remote, and no tidings
had ever been brought of ioe and snow. It was
nramsoble, therefore, to suppose that the Lm.
undations could arise from suoh a cause.
Thee soietifio theories, however, were di







im e to m peo hin uPrd t Be hbiidL
cased only among philosophers and learned
men. The common people had a much more
simple and satisfactory mode of disposing of the
subject. They, in their imaginations, invested
,t4he beneficent river with a sort of life and per-
sonality, and when they saw its waters rising
so gently but yet surely, to overflow their whole
land, leaving it, as they withdrew again, en.
dued with a new and exuberant fertility, they
imagined it a living, and acting intelligence, that
in the exercise of some mysterious and inscru-
table powers, the nature of which was to them
unknown, and impelled by a kind and friendly
regard for the country and its inhabitants, came
annually, of its own accord, to spread over the
land the blessings of fertility and abundance.
The mysterious stream being viewed in this
light, its wonderful powers awakened their ven.
eration and awe, and its boundless beneficence
their gratitude.
Among the ancient Egyptian legends, there
is one relating to a certain King Pheron which
strikingly illustrates this feeling. It seems that
during one of the inundations, while he was
sanding with his courtiers and watching the
flow of the water, the commotion in the stream
was much greater than usual on account of a


[B.C.48a


XInxas.














































-ilW R 1m










wiw" i i~ itilo t~~p

pi""m oi the Aw mu:apwua Oro%*
i'r1mb@ imh, whi ofa, li rhaI ikily,
CLshr, lik, most ci the %pO~aai ~i
tCuhw vek~n~i t.a mmc the WiM.rr~ i
um:ook is li -"*aof wr dw" -iti imal
The U4VuIrt dt swuy n mis.., th
Nis E as-, via *W.~qiLt?~;
he.inetLr3oBim witha, thn..~
NH& Phmw u bi W
At thsao"4hM *wi9Us Ki

thet otwii i



W.im" *it& m


hiqqlbt *" -I



D

---I- U
-7Tw a 7


Ii,








dau hame. r aggi
iln, me hi a I 'Iwtb
,t-air-lr R e -_s "..i Ik .Lresdl

mirnag. At lr, howw.be he .f lm s
wife da |a-l, whn.. thiag. r i deot. The mar oh' aight wu addIr n
steA The kiag omwded the pewemmt urnm.
m, whose y ofoa ch-re'w -wee imu.iUd
by thb iadiqiutsahe ta, vwil t th hishet hm-
om. The othem e ao .siil itoguh s mdth.b
d*It wibe up in mew dhi's w .wI-tey
w.re sle safely nfimmiein eatlowna
e R .ind ru ned them B ther.
Teton4aha ilrs Nilh Costhahomas wee

pai -I adir m tpeitha. vbm,, S whi
ed tmihed, frS the.pum4s It t seisi
t4seimay Ath aie ef the wat.. Utsb a
---qMMI dlpl-a NitaPiai Tk- HIM
4a m. id a Nlmim., Th.. -l
o.- aM whisk V JM at, "er
piMt ,4,im De, a* e mn feDM e up as


I i. "I# p. wme ahstb -n f-e
b *AgmlM M in owa4l .ho
aMabp kde'peW" tp.e as seiLs We
*I^B'^^^^W^^'" '"^ ^^^^< *U^












obmuv kba v--


auding I* dvd" to up 40 it wv
P&L I -.An -*so obpwr i A W K* *0
*MtMwdw dm-



mpL~ turry Udr w~~r'l~
uuidiug aad* um, 441 4 4ftv%,
R~-IftM"Wil*sy




tukawo- 'v bgbU-
-id dbvpw#itfbas 4

b Mok io ~ t.wM bu&0 0


7 P~IJ










(beeis g a Mm i yq This is
f"mW ml .hmbmam rummy of Amah, I*ww
' Yom ekl. Tkm m me im d


oeuldered gmrat .mtiquity. There i,. hw.:
we, Roma rimn ia Britai, uad in varimm
patb of Brope, more ancient tilL Tbhy hav
bean stading eighteen hundred year Peo.
pie look upa thee with a pe ea of weuder
awd swe ta they ha withstood the desire
tire ibaemos of time .a o. Be, a rso the
Pymmif. we go ba k Htmmmjw.e Amked
yeark Sad traelers biting and deribing
#Am whamninmts as e8inm:4 as wuera-
Ui i myt n aik : and akowsm their eys,
athMy ape r nwa is o m We judge tbhi
.tmain M very dismtA when, aAer trailing
mamma il towad it, awes till ad dtant
amer. Now,im teno iWg Jl to t dt pyr-
amid rt nblimk tIiM bk the ti V atm, *and
tismWWasiw r MW f the NiS we may go
pAla 4Mmw bw hundred yeMv tbmkt, ap.


.S wa Ulypt. Islatd m ii wM kEm
| tqjh. wmald, aod JanU feiinkt md.






c~,.S~t~i~ Uevvwar;wG*-mmou. U~ ,-~i:~


*, sadauuhffIf 'k V""r& b"
siod mmtulley oYv- iiwS pwfbt big
id .atwrar sfm4brwl /r ~ wrr Lrm M~

of sltm WMich prevalsb it %md tas wrimu
dhsy pb. wheic h Wn lk, b msqi.m
shibi& thrn% bIS Gum mhwid am"g ar
kind, bmw e ind faoqunqo bm #sm@A1* wa
.Mswed it a peimul gklori.w fihti f Ab M&
pl*lots. Cnth fe4hundsdthte P4eA Ir
wacy, em hmyiud *b9 mz1 mtbi~ of Io %u
dtS a* hnb design bab .% but laf
them Ar camehh idss Dutihesd MUhe
com" su -it ds"Vbor "I"his I
6=04 mu r as eld of bi i I*-% nordC1
nis *VA iouic P600 WbH9 be 4M.F p 4C
ftMeh 0"c ps"ie s, ienw we ur
A,~ hi. p~d es~qedl~ti~a egel-mI~ws, edll
wal puplhud- wM As th quulsd wMA ofthg

tim e, thf invaim of Ones he .lmm'et
MVPgs i.. Ih 68 Rd& otiAs I I III
-* dpedwiet bte fth
me th~b ppbutty of Idmlb Ylmet the
ai aps" Ofas Royal illldl~l ~1
mu.
Xrn dbsd, lwebaudt pss9iv*






Of masxue. [fll46

eai n ,. n ig to pilposo am 1
ques d Oveo til he had bhogqt dM wl a
dtbe Nile mea mos unier Pn an m M
demmed it diaeq us Ito leve provri s d b
kbth' sempire i a st te olsooMe l r b-A ,
while leading his arn off to new undertak
in. Mardonmiu, who ws the ommnu
ot of the arm, ad the great gene on
whom Xar mainly relied for the emsoraio
of hi scheme, was very relootant to oouent
to thi pbe He wa impatient far the oo
qaeet ofoat e. Threw little glory fr him
to aquire in merely suppreeing a revolt, aad
Neoaqu ring what had bme aoady ome sub.
dud. He was eager to enter pn a new fidd.
Xsxes, however, overruled hb i wishe, and the
as nee momaned their maroh for Egypt
They paed the land of Judes o their way,
where the captives who had retained fram Bab.
y and their mi eemr. were ebilHi the
etIbI aad reompying he country. xerle.
salMagud them in the privileges hih yrus
mi Daste bed pared thea, and ided tIhm
k tr wmrk. Ib then wet an tonwtd the
Nle. mRiheU i was easily put dow. Ia
lem tha a year from the time of leaving Saa,
he lad Yesaqured the whole land of Egypt,








S44Wur'1 Bea -- 4au;a

gllrd bIwdas 'd 6a nowho a46H"'
irotb4w a aviuwyo f tb OoIPDm,udryo~
fined iSn mhtytoBumj
Al tbb took pLeo *VppmI yaw of hi.


1,Z


. '^
(C
'^






4 XlamIs. [BO4S L





CNAPTIN IIL
DIUATR On T7B PaOPOSBD INVASION OF

T HE two great oonmslon on whoe judg-
Smeat Xrxes mainly relied, so far as be
looked to say other judgment than hi own in
the formation of his pla, were Artbanus, the
unole by whose deoion th home had been
awarded to him, and Mardonius, the ooman-
er.inohieofd hi armies. Xera himself was
quite a young man, of a proud and loty, yet
generous character, and full of Mal-oofidmaoe
and hope. Mardooius was moo older, but he
was a sodier by profession, andmr eager to
distinguaI himself in -me gM military caIn
p It a always been unfrtmatos i the
pmsse ad bappines of mq*kiu under all mo.
anbiosl and deapotio goveramets in every
ae of the world, that, through om depraved
and uasoum notable prerraion of pblio snti-
mmat, tbom who are not born to greatnu have
had mo amsa f attaining to it euoept as bse
in wr. Many m have, indeed, by their m





S' TusD -r ,Alf
meam^ Tha Dask. .0"

tel yue their mel m 4taM^, u
s- Wmed d tLu pisating h &Mi e Wt
i epeat tID aMllA Mld d MdiOdW dirhiM
tioa md bor, it wiM beh ma riwing
the bi~ry d the hmau me, tart than kve
gmenrly bee but two poetibh senme to
them: a the one head, high birth, ad oa the
other, thbo pefbteae gtmt ded df-- eut
and dtroetim. Thmr mt be, it semi
the omly valid olim to nmrw, eithr bHood
hMkitodor blod rhd. heglory ad t"h ir
is moode, iaded, t that of A th foer,, but i
is onIy eomL. H wvho has -mid a eit.
.std very high in the eiiMlad of bi .
lewi. He yierd pmedom mlytoiB hm w
grsadfLthdr kd omw.
This .te*eo fod i or wr, it is rue, npi,
ly auigain g hiege. Tlh age ofd al
f mWiiry mlrtdreobbery, Mid dthk
ry dof Ist ideedf eesum p i Ml d pis
iug sway, ad that of peaOs, d of 1iny,
of sohievemnsr fr pemogtibg the semi m*
hplew ot meakmid i eomigt The Im
vhi wme eowr dvaWi to the etie do the
-P -- -raw *uVqf W 1 -CM 0f -
wel k tho- e who, tWogh thir nmoame
oatIheift.ill-ee, feed ad lim their ila
hobusesormase,6, by pqiUSWer 3es






* Xmaas.


pams1


a m we AnUm Mbir **dIat*mla.
dris. swag, ad people d-1rt; wirs the
geiy rad kiig and dotawyig tos is rml ts.
aWrded, d moe sad mor rdiay bfgot
I the day, d Xinre, howr, t*Ae w o
rod to haoir Ibt by war, and Maldomni fmid
tt his only hope d ring to diaitioan was
by soodutig a va tont 6 military doee.
ttiot ovwr. mo paw d the globe; Md Mlt
fire, the ridbr, the app- re *sm whis
be wau ths to ladt. m ewrwhnlm, the
greater wml be tbh gly. He wa very mn
ApoMad, thefore, to urge an the imvaim of
GOse by evwymem in his p9w r.
Artbmlj s, a the other hbd, the unle df
Xewas, was a man advaued in ya s, sM d
a onm iad eratiom daisgnisot He vbet
tr awar thea ymag nas thd, iiri
al hmb I d war, Ma w asb bb
*ed to mobal theb up am the ysthki
mbitir dof aeMphe. Xi te wmlla ambe
tobues ata umehwddweipetMedas
ir MBny, by oang the itasei a th Hta
mry ed tol is pmwr itnbb. Thun
-a, howei, a so k ms na in the Wm of
GOnue Thee had bee two wanm tweei
rfnAs Mi the Athsaais ahmady, It tu






sq4W* Tu a,&unwL a






musiboa, War do *Y. 7b; d *A*ll
um* is bwio -i-sw d a t
I.r~lwr"' "u tha ~i~ ~L




ion 6h* lae dth onfvo. Ume
gwwnum of Divona at 4m .h"or-Dd
bhd WfY~t pholwr w a" ye" bdwe Oo
rituOl1ia. 41 t 80 Ad thPos rW MM6.kr

the*- affma -d m .1 Ows, tb m saw Id

m dot, 'hmmais g do @me @"*m yof

-;t tha k~k, ii tb.1I Pllwa~mmhaveigm
nsZsm Thsy e h-dfam Thaus i 4hoimlb
tHen of Dviku, ad lb. i6a0 s umis, lo1
,d xbka phow 8m Ift blow m "li. e. O
minus of"l*AsD, -tht I pet I Vmhwd

wws uSE rubin hi s ualift mob

bul burn bwdaY, r~ AabbumlW~n
N1b uim I.- bmwr ~lb.r'-' -- urusuwu
Jam -Llr we -m au# w rr

he'm g- prtaud~r ~^srbd'uof Lb. umk~ hSY
- Itbsi pinbtat Idll.ftb~)~tabIb 4y
YI. pb~Ysrb4h 9p MYiinwheri






0. XazXI'. (B.NiM.

Nre ame paeSding now"ded vs debte tht
ased ia the following manner.
X M himse fi n it addesed the assemby,
Snanounce ad explain his deigns.
"The entrprise my friend, aid he, an
hioh Ipropoe now to engage, nd in which I
am about to ask your oooperatioan, is no new
eheme of my own devilnag. What I degn to
do is, a the other head, oly the carrying fr-
wud of the grand course of measure muta
oat by my predmemors, nd pursned by tm
with sadisne and energy, oloBg a the pow.
er vamind in their hand. That power ha
nrdeammded to me, and with it ha devoured
t visepeaibility of fishing the work which
thy a saew ly began.
"It i th maifet destiny of Pesia to rle
Ake world. From the time that Cyrus int
m-nmu d *e work of oanquest by rsbduing
l iOiW, bo rtyWpssat day, im extkit afdr eim.
p be hMa hm emtnmay widening, until nmw
i esom dl dof Asiiand Afie, with thl rep.
m t*atiR ntha te ad barbaro triuber Jks ,
lb the wil beasts which abar thekr brf
with *Mm, em not woa te Atrm ble d im "d
ig. T~I vast onaqu.t ha bem ma ty
smvagge, tA emeMgy, and the mIdrfyl myew




TIT


PEIjI Tar JeS'u U

riQCJur w..~ l;~lbr Deejs, um
pUdNrhUrb They, m ,fY bsII~ -
dind..Ak and AM&; Buq InmIY mi Ift
advesuv a n Uwta hub Whet *he have hqa
Red mny Mhtw kiwAdl be wId, s himmreudlv
eoanp*"d the w. Be." I ald LeadyJup
groat prparstimg the.o.dwrnkig;m bhe
didInav*rg the took toa mnd itis poiis *
I ea not hbeltae t rnke It it mbmt -a
madinet deraiotlms .dut.k
"Yuel yqiaunembih the, uevbd mad ..-'-~
tea mgruawhisk the Agaimmiaesm .u
ted agPint ur in the tim. of the Ioim ns]
Rinj taking part apie us wdit rebels a"im
owl. They wmord Ow Apam eaa B mthet
oosasion, invaded our tuuikwl.a.at Iset
"Anerot wad -mmd th .4 dq 4 the~ So
FPSI ~o pird ur W .*win, ph 1dd
nw et ntilIh e had Uber w -bus

porst, omuab. therbas .me oalamqo
~~gitis viil he mmm thsP ebreM--J1
VW yenta mook roe fu yra ova
I'laswoAd ouwi va 40ommd mW oml.
-1 rrwI~ ntm~retleflyaadmL
"M~y phi), ~Lg-q.dsieoJ th rSM
bwag I aimmit New m' l d ML .i








aiils Wee 4s it bw% b slmy the g bP
by- a Seat galk ovwr ths flgsa Su, bo
.s b ild a bridge rwoes te l amp. i e,
muoh the amy to Grease by hnd. Th'
erem, whi.i I &am well omidMd is psoi.
bk, wil be o, uk t t- the obsr, aad t
budging ofd th BhL- will be o itself a
glorio ded, t& GOee wi lbe attaly un.
able o ~m t a M mwh we shadl
be ab to pmar opw thbr. We ee not but
casquwr; se deemek as t the GsheL
kniti--m t a -H. I an habmdo *a mlu
power at ble to odpe with as, we uamll m.
ly oxtoad oar samire omn smy dei to the a,
md thus tlh Puman mdonima will oovm the
whole haube al wod.
"I -w m Oat I mn rely M yor onial
awi Akwo suARM iu ise.. pu m .04
hi "$hi. w la will sg-ino, am hai

mIh, Imust r athf via s isai hw
pIawftes r'eu. fiBMF"lfes QmBet f fv.



d -I UAles ni t sMt il4AZ 3 -s*.i
a sasth "r iank.anagAs a~ma'AllTma


:Xsasa. _.


(A48






NA40 T a


7"r lm~r:. T'r .f- .; .. .-


blfa .


U


''7 .AIULh


ffcMarqe-mwruteh Isurimis, Wi


thrioM ib.d ho-e 'um i ik .i*l-w



pmmol dap.a ho r us, wtie l* t Ikuu to
a lim toaiem -o, -di- We LMho
do mutommi oihmwisi Ohl 6*ubo i uk-mh
ipMi myw sd ohil Iwhua "sis km h
ap. nry hbio duh *p t*iaWtt 5i
. pp .. ...a an yr pt, whii d youe to
Ioa pmla mp .atupIe mwtlmw of aw
mu Wio. eat.am uad adp,..
tiH aWm an d pawoi s&AMeIftIe

-p0 66 4wuh sil eAw sme
heftr yesi 4 h4 an.w am"
V"4ftMen V"ww e m*lit!Ame e

sMWsrOIIeuha WO hiNos 0i* --I


.4


'i


J I





IXazs e. (UA4B.

ad the people of dia, of Egypt, of Bthisp
and of Asyria, and tht, too, wibhot haia
prriodly rffeed ay ijur y frm them, hbt
olly from a noble love of dominion; and all
we tamely top in our oureo when we se a
tions opposed to us from whom we kav re-
oeived so many inmoa, endrd edred o m y
wrong ? Every ou niation of hoar sad
malinhe forbid it.
"We have nothing to f ia respeot to the
moose of the nterprio is whiah you invite
to engage. I knew the Greeks, and I knaw
that they can not stamd against our arms. I
have eneountered them many times ad in .va
riomu way. I met them in the prvias of
Aia Mioor, and you all know the remt. I
mt them during the nign of DPis yar
father, in Man r ad Thmese--or, rtbe,
wught to mert them; for, though I marne
- .tdo .M- y, th eamy alway as.t"
a me ThFml MU et lrfbe T hey har
a(rmt m ls tr; but, in iot, al th
- -1 =a= a-*ait ane Vdglwmbi h.ht
ality .ad fUy. They re no tw wm i n
am themmelm. As they amk 4M a
Shaguaage, my MUdimry p ....
geoi woUI lead them to aom-biesltgqt









*huab WOma eadA Atef W1,0,

Inwe point Ur uilfm a n Pit* dwomYi
|ItO!(LJladlll inevnam saIfdtulte
*4 '-" *af -t e I A *
cases. j Ira ndtlt e* emer a
.4'~Itponw ea Am en battle



RtSaat, Ie di WINin' hrig wit
rif we houlo e *oottilr my ihrolhle klWi

Jn na paint MAriauzn was n4rMjy tktbMW
his predtioan, sines frtpmed salm3bquedly,'
will hieafte be se^is that whiam thIIW1Ceta
amy rehed the pam of TheraqW, --i
was the pest sweae utdatnmssereie#6ilM
jibe tl *ikeritiaefh the G'th


hearbd*aa bli ith -M a0Jm aiB
filWeit nsY alttrl f oanbrfiogNa;
etate. . a godeW, .
Siwij#O1Ytiwne rmdmh qY
itto to ttf~ie o temuy'lM'lfl
-^_t^K. ^^^ji^~= ^^'ii^w*^eu^f
cy w j~ffm Nnw -Tyi;
je jha ^ Bl. *** f. -vtW "






is &*#O I., tm va

-qp wy fch -in k; but : th
membelvestga? Tbedd ue,.hew
mar, to mosma to oPP to e dwihe *~ku i(
sad, inaIithsamdiag the invtintim vhi%& bp
had gtua them to suek, tbau nmsimd sink
-' knowing, in fct, exaty what to my..
All this time AItabeam, the veaiamble uMule
of Xerxs, st silent .lb. -t sst, heultatiag
whether hi yeas, his rn md the reatio
Whisk he sustaie .11 th 0Young mamma
wuuld jusify his inhtepaml d mab. it A u.
dvst and safe ix him to at mpt taran bi
inebe of tdo omnequmI wbsh bIe woul
4-"0 by iuging his dangerous amWb"in
At~ogth be detemined to speL .
'k&hpe," smi-m h I aIdra the k*& 66that
is wAl 4u d~wismn pm in hJim oiks viaw
~ed a oddities t thus Whisk -C~ .1.b

mow be. ai4prd. it Is besit *14eR


vm- wit .6k.. It di" be lbstP
-isi *Pik bYen UW4 ym J"
Ithmd e'UI ml. ue-d L~
umdutL Whes Tubutyrp
Oaft biM mo d-4UALeS


.A'S"







-.In teas


A s

71


My Gub 61 I w'empmi~fihsya
btb, pmudSas_ .dhsIE_. .. -r
mm"owI 'Ij -. Ib in
th. *awu.4 1rlms T ad tusn mr n
.4 the Ds;t o;ebwlm a Ing an* wasy
ommtb wAth. hedo Mmv Pn wbldb he
uwd ia tdo tmnwldm hW be we&n hnsil
abudm4M w~ydwb~i% md isim -wi*Aa
bmM his mimy. The plea whimb ye.p
pemaa I nme I tsbliabw dobmar n C o.
vIe.med I br viy in&k the it viW IwA

the ap e rushL - .:i:, ...f
i" Ma4musbls &a. bmw Pon sw

QY iis~s5~h fb v m day tmn, mi


&MIN& il ty awmathew. a mb~lp wdin
Amj-domd *Steb~ *iNMI"Jo

the~- AL-hr I-e


I I ~*lca~~W~






.* X. .n LaIg* s

---am d t l(-rb I l o- wdo e s- e -m
*y7 irmad Theq nay **A.*i It
yawr flet Sappose t 'it tMy shuti do
and that tMe, prooeding to the .ortbweia in
triumph, thy should water the HAMOpyO 6"
dtroy your bridge? Your retre wold be
out o4, Wad, in osm of a reverse of frtae yoar
army would be exposed to total mi.
"Your father, in fot, very narrowly mepe
precisely this &te. The Sythise caun to des
stoy his bridge Mr the Dmale wite hi
fsw were still beyond the river, ,ad, a, it
anot been for the very setryardinary fdulity ead
seal of Histeus, who had been b ft to guad
the pet, they would have srioei in dpiag i
It i frigtftil to think that the whole Pa-n
may, with the sovereign ofthe inpbeat thir
head, wer pi m in a poiWm whs lr
kg .and Am ow.nrwhobming ml 4 k s di .e
in. dsueded iseyo enh bdidh lla mm
f at is e ai ShuleMe NpW Yy fom em.
md yew ova prm ia athe umdua eG
ya gat minhl e *M A p. thw M inMem

"Brm the vry VipcA of ar.mi ny
bb the un ofme I g mad sem sid b


4 -I








oA dwimeatm febulwp%


- p Itd 1U bd hity m" I -
-wqys queipa to iayit the thai.boh t f.
Bmuv
Maidoar obuag the GskB with weam
ofd ngeoty, effiiney, and vrwr, a speak
eaomuuasmoiIy d tkmi s. solioW, ik ery
i t. I do mot tbk thak tah o utmetiowm
e jut to the people agalaUt whoa they ae
distod, or ahmombie to bhin vhs nmk t*MO
To d;pmVqg th shiabst, SMally m ah@t
1m.y, is3* natt EfUs or wise; Mam I
vy mnMah fCh ht it wi be famd in th md
that tohe oom* dothesrioek wMill gms wvy
diRat kbiowy qulitiM formthem w"hi
Medaluh aign. thM They 0r.2p.
smesi by m fme fum ua m k be*$
eu ulmibaena anm it may pwe that the

u"p *me" tMh.ue u, ftt yOm diUain
Ith eMemblyh^m ke t4arthm.ti.m e -MUi
Sri" -ail t."latII m to &Ainald.i
1a t imtae nageti$m, yam vw
mh-aiY ,mnhreHas pue B thTr. If
7wmb.Aw nde aha am", OD WbOJ 1
amndatetwehe hes s*u Umes







Ruwaigw m
Ibe p"oamlIId m ast yogi i -ad J& go
tramse in eompouyvfwith Uros ndhi-miM
Ihyamiw take the cbal ad thurrftona.*
ity. If he does. I pretth*t he llm
the dad bodis of the soldier that yon iAI
to hin4 to be deavoredby dogs an pthe ~of
Atbm or Lemosdio.."
I~e uwuu ekseadmgly d~implmmi at heating
sucb a speb this han his ndo, md be
made a very angry rNiy.' He eomead Ark.
bIau of amammem of sphit, fmd cle nomudio.
awineeM to his mnk and sttic., u tins aS
voetl6g a tun subin~dam to the uragnt po
mamim ofthe Greeks. Wuaf it =4 he mlx
fore riepeot whch he htiftr wrt Ar mu, on
bin s b.,' brather, he would pmai& a m'.
il~y for his pI 1 tia in thin blrdmefi
hir is soveusives phm Ax it Wis3
Omd, he" "I will ety my phishis umtht,8
but you "haol mt home, Ib hiw afes-
aft-M-. You do*himl. -at am wmt *h
iOmm and Adihms of doe paIsse, sat ipad
ym tee -in tbe aemaInmts isahIg 1 -1 pho
"mmtedloamlutsa-aem. AImripy@@.
I mus med vil rinny .iy idrs imbuimom
IhL,., I Je" i*n in &*t bwa -one wId .a
OSh thaw m*edemi if I e te u Ia&*m*s






.I1PI TnpW


am iavme my dom.i.so, if I do as nd.
p m t~m I by is w in doi Y
So sayag,Ix Xs l d .iid ltA mmisly.
HIsia4d, bowrn,v o me et. Thoagh
lh had so indigsatlyrejeMid th enamel w
AtasaM i.d osred him, yet the impnie
orad in whioh it hqd bma uttWmd, d the M.
guments with whioh it had beass asitad,
weighaod ap hi spirit, and opp&r m ad de
jePt"d him. The longr he aouidead th smah.
jok, te more mrius his doubts ad m- be.
emave, until at I"gt*, M the aighbt appiaidMl,
e bem oe onvimo.d that Artbim wright,
ad. tbat he himlf wav w wrg. .s mimn
fimd re -namtil he umi to tb dsbmln.
tim to abaIom the pvjt afta aBL Hle
skiMLd I ~tnuf this obla i his. r lati
knaom to Artbdi ad his nobles ias the mo
W&, sd to omatrmad th oudOrs whik I
UA i, *r. the a--nInY,t ko the tm
aipgb tiy dia ntaoN d somraing i
-sy iw his agitated ai&, Le bida tialiL
dowm thimou k sod wvast bo p.
Srt* e ti wa viles. Itt med 't
him. e cuirtest stf begle-M 1rhe


2~~






YR X aEML (l nm[i

pead bere bhi, Sad after riis ag him a

as llows :
"And do you rally iantd to aobadn yor
deliberate deg ofladudingen amy iaton GaMe,
after haring formally anoumoed it to te ream
and ied your orders? Sah fBakto-. is ab.
srd, and will greatly dishoor yao. Bamon
your pa, sad go an boldly and permverOingly
to the eoutim of it."
B s ying, the visi disppnmd.
Wha XrzeM awoke l the mining, and th
ren mbwo of the evets of the preeding day
rotmed, mingling itnf with the new inpres
ioa which had been made by the dream, he
was again agitatd sad rpw med. As, how
vmr, the various.u emoe whi .pMsed upon
him ttd to.their fial equiliium, the feu
produced by Artaban's rnblautial urguamms
and warning. O the pending day puAed to
be of greater weigt tha the epty appeal to
hi pride which had bean made b the phaotoa
d ta night. He resolved to peust i th
abead. o st of hi scheme. He oalUd hi.
ouoil, aoordiagly, together -gi, and teM
the that, o more mrate M destio, he lad
bhom emaimed that his ra u riWs t A ad









*0f be hmN ad Mem ==*Iq. Ih.
*mshwr Was i oe puommt mmpmi.qk46
the aders iv the anolift of the h..inm
urmba4. Tb. -am at w rvu oivbb
the mmbm..f the grwnd With ts. 10*4

Th mOb. Xames lad masoh.e dr The
- m iqit appeared to hibm .am has am
amm, bwsu, bowing inw, InmA d *a
friendly look of the preaoding ngbht, a anm d
itsk .zpoimr of d*iAAMr. Paiubdbg Sg
aiuly* a the frihtmemud namrmrek with bit b.
por, bexuai m d, "1 You bv ejuijda my ad.
vioe; you hew shuradamed yonr plan; sd ne
I dam.ito you that,4 uman you imeDIatdy
.row. your umirpims ad mauy It bwaudi t
beim,4kbrtas has bee the tiho emoweym
Vue raised to your p"Nat elevirnol. so
sholift perabel slapse bebfre you dowmdm
Old duimueh.."
T*. I rn dbfpfluud merimly as
UteameINMavia Lzto awakes in as am
of isimm

buq4smd ulatud to bim.Lk hdesaumm "Iva
wBu.W aimV ha, "after burin MWha you KIY
sad mo*~ enain~lqtsoue'uk to. 0






V14 ;- XiANa. P04K
X ______SMsaf P MWb

WayI pie; but the dream, emaI ant uta
Jakre an irtnaio fonm nHeen tlhat el
to proceed "
Artabaus attempted to combat this ida by
nprl ting to Xesr that dream were not to
be regarded as indications of the will of Bea-
a, but puly as a vague and disodered epro-
duotie of the waking thoughts, while the rg.
ualr action of the reaso and the judgment by
which they were ordinarily controlled was SOa.
pleaded or d trbed by the in ewa of d am.
bee. lXr maintain d, on the other hbad,
that, though this iew of the oa might eaplaia
hi fint vision, the solemn repetition of the
warming proved that it was spersatural and
diine. He proposed that, to put the realityof
the apparition stin farthr to the teit, Artmha.
one shou tak. his place the royal. oeak
the Mat night, to se if the speo rwold at
appear to him. You shall obhe yMu ,"
aid he, "in my robs pat the Mow aqpn your
hmd, a take yearat upon the thro Aft.
r that, you hall retire to my apartmet lie
dmua pon the cDach, and go to deep If the
obia is sPeratoral, it wiM ddiy Ap.
p- to yro If it does not so appear,I wi
easitthat it wa nothing but a dua." -.




r- --~;?*?vyr.-~r-~E~~~s~"~'"f":


aMbft vowse0 W


aS 4id E eims? mftk-Ims
pa t, I dai aM t se, bhe id, daihWam.
*auht- Meeim beth bim to emi thl hi
26amdbIbm" ofW I e king. If %ihdy *i
ahe, it sfad oth d*ubdued bly medk a&t1
o thos.. rIa., how~r,, hIdi a bb
prpmlUion, md Aribahuuu yiled. Me d
imaed for r bh theI dies sai th Martiim
te king, sad theid bmoth tn the kfg% moit

der the royal pfrilk Asibs bd ta tainh
t reality of the viaon, h mind was quiet Mad
dipeds, sad b oo fa1l -ap.
At mrMht, XZlns, who w lying in in

a *->ll* e pimFI I*Sary I.B thes IoTam wwhuk
Artbr Wmas teeplag, and tin a laomeeat lk
wri AfIbmus hinm u. r .. I pr.etl*j
wil with twhrr. He bd sm the limn. It
bhd qpb-1. be m Bd with a 4ea00Xms
md peaes emp 'o eignt Iu'stdi'usl ,
ma ibrObadifg ihi with repwau bs r1
ik fiehl to tfk leaXsm baMk ham blb
p~pilid'U. lshiaS lobinws o It aMIt .1-u

wIaih t *m aesi A*&MAk. be bu*


rlc~i~r-I~P'C$IRUV~TJR~I~~ T~:U~Rll~e~


^;


I






mu XuIIn b a. (M.ld

muwedia in saing by loaing lme hnoisk
ead rhin preupitatly out do he r*tm.
SAtabans amid that he wam nw omavm ad
ud atieNGsd. It ws plainly the ditinm wvi
that Xwm Ahould undertake his poje tod iW
rwTi, and he would bimuelf, tbedm rth, ad
the eterprie by eery meas in his power.
The onaWil was, ooMedingly, osee mome oa.
vrmd. The story other three apparition was
lated to them, and the fal decision anunoue.
ad thaithe rmies were to be assemb forte
m h wditbout auy fmrthr delay.

It proper here to repeat, omoe fr al in tWhi
volhse, a remark whih has elsewhere oate
bhr made in the various works of this sries,
tat in studying ancient history at the prueat
day,it is lhea imprtat now to know, in r.
ed to trail aionso sm iaoto, what te -faoLt
Metal were whibc really oaonred the it is
to know the ,aory repee tig them, whih, far
the lt-two thomased yea, has been in dirom.
l~am moag nmrkiad. It is now, for exam.
pe of ery little eoaoequme whether there
er waer meer was mah a peIm a e a Her
eues; but it is emaetial thatevery eduAted
see mPrlr .







.. ',d in l ** %
.mt..... i. .n -
st a n


t&h s-, i sid, ik 4ih hm%, b d*pl

whoet ueppin e s the1 l d s how-s
to bh utho irrl f X frm Rx juto i 'uf

tee. In mliag k e' Coi ocemmku, th.'died,
whiah hao benM desribei in thi dapil,
"uply gin the allegedfat troer tsMAg pok
sisly a&. poo ge -um te,-o M*
vig seh ae&&m tI deaie for msmylf
fr heLwill bMli th-& n ktiv mm .prtp
third prtiodr aiy, wer wi dAM irpsw .
pie think that Mardomiu wa really tbhe gho
by .whos .ppmemrs Arbtaa=us 'I XMre
wmuso d4wudehlyhrimwd.






-w .nnoas pBs r.UM


** >" ( i r ,


CreATIr IV.
.PaBPArATIoNI FOR TwN IXNTAIOe O0
I Gasson.
AS mn tbe invaui dG hreee wa fml.
ly deuidi pea, the order w~ trau.
a~Mlto dle peimnm of the ampl4, .
qui- the*'rri'm etbei mw md powrw o
nk tL slnmwey prp" ti. Tb wn
uam o tb Ive W=id rmim bt m h amhe tar,
Aip i b bb*i, an itorm of u to be p
id. The nopmditW too, 4f a ut I4
minrrt Xrm wasu inteadig to oir*p ,
WMl" unqui a Ige Mply f d -nmey. FoP
al ths tgs Ira. mlimd as the M rns

-=1 vwy t mod vryl i.9a ow.o w ae.
m-e, -seMeMig, to a the gouress Mse
sap i dAma, ad updlWy to ths wheo r.
ad rw ti -em s whisk lay mr the wet.
m .e--ad do the mpib ad e mnqummily
er temdwieek l-hmie
, J mdm times it is tdno pm ies d powr.
Sem to a-umulas --e and ammimioM









r l .l -- o od q
A dthAa OWuua .qpu A r 0410
ad Mpuss... whithe df atbik a Mno
be pmemmd k a vory shot peia d d do& Ah
Ig Not *-ip*s to% modems as
gmt A:4up-gs ows t~u o t rinw a ys b
am ofsay sadIsm @--- .umg to am

queue~ of the IaS B"-d i los
theed o pivto immmoin av t mpal

god hMt of meA mWnim* w At
tlh&P~rl"rlw9* ..-I Am--.ar
twbs prggnidqmb. to, Par M, uhan
inebi~s MW io o f geM* S i-Ive R
tih. iby pemIow.t Wwe4 auFnAl i
mu Iimcld the InupeiY'embind. kL is-b


fitht Rthaoi o pyS tbo pk i smmdw a&
Tim awm win,*^uA AWt vt
tie Primd; mi momk Ihe imo meL e


L~-uc iwb .J mum hmM. lbsdir~u.ii

6r pisaipl; end thi mu-;






* kxi :' fnJ0e.4I
ep_ p.. m ir i.i. bn.
la ai the rate diN .t w, s. wy .w
m 1inig, by threateig otherwbe t*pay t4
dk tiaful.
SThbe invemmti, however, by which a g- .
eemt ia gemrati may ijm tbe phBt
we ad reap the gory of waging wr, Rad
trow the burden. of the expen on another,
wee not known ia aim time. In did
ue audentand the art of funding a national
debt, and tee wid, beide, have poeeably
bmr very little omrU-im in Pona tkoob If
say had bee immnI. HB had to ra is aHid'
famd& by aotal toian, and to have hiN am,
ad his ahips and barioto of war, mana egw .
ad.premr The food, too, to natin the ima.
aeme amy whioh b was to raiM, wmi to
l pedeed, and mwbIne were b tietit
*rO t o iainhr and asudy of it. All
tLd a* asgi mitalwly b e"xpeFtad, we rs.
quins im; en l m'e doth. aib s on
whiba smk immn prepsrikm vw m. -
imaintsd by the e tkat r bW-lo wern b
tenUuttesador aMpiteg the. ThIpulf
~laese &hwme.wrst oelimble tim bhie
iagreat debat e tha s ajt m delibid M te b
t ab apaor.a i
Tbas. T ief h ed w s euU o dining 0ewa






M~aw van y~s
zP ,-. -. - AFOO


5p" a I"a no
uwhm a pmun via$ Ikm I*-

()a 41819,1"- wm wm i 6


wabidp =Ait1 admaimsiadp
so a*i ha w tbww van a( -Iohm
-L~ -u -~~r~u~rrlp m-m ur"


~P aad mr.s of us~CIim, uuuudhg ~
ti m~. MA nwn offt kwfiwamwbg li
this PiPN. pm wtheyin wa soupoly k&
-* tos -m Sm -s htmy ashio
vurn, in.ho f, iw1 inwmb* sabua
IL -ofw a A % Ir dodam hg mk*.

oftrsp di 4nw 49. 41 am- 13 ohm
1bm. wm AsW -a wp Weak
"b m bob an speain, w d.Ipabd



by.6,464U ONTYI=9NId~
Tbw klb empim b *g wip huga as
wem *A& me. do* u

pmrl& w A ma ffhim
kif y Al dm~ M&lb. bp ww *MAW

F







I Edoe peusmele am d ams=S9 In gm -ea
a, Albbough it wa generally Oe the Aitieide
ft he Algean Sea that the MAs wads -4
pypation were going on, and the mr'ui4f
tw Hellpomut was to be the first gnet mo
mneMt of the Pesian army, the reader mst Mo
suppoe that, even at thi .time, the Baropea
ho-r were wholy in the hands of the OGeeks
The Poians had, long before, eoqueedi.Thn
md a prtof Maedon; and thus the arthir
bore of the Agen Se, ad many of the i.L
ds, were already in Xerzee' hands. The
Geek dominims lay further south, ad XIMr
di nmt antiipate any oppodsi~i fro the ee.
my, until his army, after oreing the stit,
should have advanced to the neighborhood d
Athens. In fact, all the northern country
thrnlgh w hi hiroute would lie was alrmdy
in hi. hr~, and in passing thMoua it he an
taipated a diffluliss -emept mbe should
aks om the elmnato tmheminlvi ani the

islf was, od esnOs, one prinaipeint of dd
gwr.. The diffcaultyher was to be sunnoatud
by the Aid of bets. Thou w, howe#r,
mioer point, whisk wb: in i ms th nr ps*,
sill pere formidable: it was the proi uiory tof
Moa Mmi s






MOR Tom ftotmiov

.*Iint-e-d-es phM a
nwu m mom dthe r impr
.-..iw immidwit dwairif orliG4 06"'fit
AS: a# dw mwt'diijomrj~i'ft
.- w~ -Y that thee a,. kws orthl~iat
#dwr pmavisf jifift ost tu t6 book
adi.'th .tb wuirh~ rn pav .1 the ZgI~Y
&a. The mood umwoediy md the higeat o
thee.win bmnrdb Ia inmuase ragMeet
-- rivingot of the water,, dim sombdo&Uy
Sinarrw isthmus wih tbs ma0in-had. I
higint summit of this rocky ple- was dad
Mount At" is ancient times, and is so asts
eiupornthsmap. Ismoaedaysitkisa.Ph
SkA26% or Holy Moumsima beung aced
with maaaiuis and mvaswftm and othu, o
ehmiajms aas"hst bvdt in the IN'-

MevMi AtA. is my~ aishuami is mando
" t at.did p l, ag thal" rposmbov yr
mymmyudlol and tormmmatd awspaty ki
.6 mmd. psnipies towed the sea whesI it
Wo o highb t1hat-its 'er", umse $i&A *"
bwal,- as smmet, 'aw the Water to ihe id.
Iad of Luemas, a dislos*f'tltaty beguu
k *w haI htM.tsoeJ e sib~ th aa.

thaim*yeg t Gues-Z% vbw *s
ahvg 6ift do mW& la'4* *0 JdWY4 f




.4


1Ns d3wm hr O. dfwapn

Auf iq defa4m to thm a. thy vm, ltth
tpstaing.oloud huangi pM ito -"mmi
aud tlN W rgam. sarf of th" Agt pmpa.
dlly thundering upop ito bam below. To
awko this tony proamotory t he om tomen
Ub, it was blievd to be tlh ha mt of isaaum
able nnouth Ond miMshpean Imue of Lt
s, that lived by devouring the plem muM
who wre throw upon the ooksu fim tir
wnoked vesels by the meroilew tamult of t

The pia whioh eXWss ha4 frmed far the
adansoe of his expedition Wsy trht te army
whioh wa to qem the Hellpqm by the beig
should advance theoae thranug Ma .JdI sd





@tbo onR the athWr head, te amM &s lmp
pis, .sa the beriper ry d iripti,
Qaipd lM turmporsod as oYil by im
deOmi w somqwhat pliBitous sp s*p ib
t> pfpty s fo hae*t eqlB whis w"M he
wrqsied fa tb u ae ttords inM dios & ti IlM
popw4e0tr e9f0NI Athes










hr Us amok f htowo


I' "th~ aug., oeid. 4b I sift
psIIm whie Doirm bud wbeusi to bb
uhaw he ~u .mdqreh ra. w,y heOu
ahbgthe omt, awhm ra & uep ubrn s
j" 'M ew ra Appeashhng tois uuib pa

He was an te nuitbm Me d ts
tiny whm Ibe iwm am* am, a d tim wild
-m 1mm the anut, it blsw dilmy upm t"d
uon. Fdw the estt to maktb hr am" km
the begmdng &w, it sued ussnyg
W61 A, to son soe a.meumtOth WOiB bk
agammte WWIi but **'GO mem i r

Wrm iwAL t lm sakobiai ftyw

by-*a so mu who fi d, 0 sb ift'd
-.r mm~b han,~l webb,. away y tb


so so=" u do" dw Inammaj! 'awmaa
via pylb* trnehe &i l ia. rn






W XsBX< Ip Ualt
DsImda O indeal~ e d M"I IALr.
bse end the semr exerting their thmost to
- them away from the bao. t
All their; br, howewr, t do this, was
vaS. The mereiles gale drove the vemb,
me after another, upon the rooks, sad dmhed
them to pieces, while the raging se wreobed
the wreohed mariners from the wreak to
whioh they attempted to ling, and towed them
out into the boiling whirlpools around, to the
monster that were ready there to devour them,
as if se were herself some ferlious nmoasr,
feeding her oapring with their proper prey.
A few, i is true, ef the haphas wroetboso mon
seed in extricatig them ase. from the mi,
by erawling up upon the romk through the
tangled s-weed, until they were above the
reach of the surges; but when they had dome
e, they found theanslvm hapelsealy i''pri.o
ad between the impemadi preoipioes wlhis
firowed above 4h .a te d h&eati wi
which were aging Man seing below. Thby
iaedofooarms, by their ppra t -ap,oay
a brief prolngation of sfpuid fhr they.a8
aa admirably pibhed hem la uatini
ype-nm,ade w* L qw -*t*

*W -i. N-w Me- --pa i f- N*






AMNi Ta T aMM MTIONi.
iAth81ese h-i .m ky ftu" xm,

noewid with th mal land by an th l n
ad low, i not very bread. Xars dsm.
iml oan attig omal through this.dith
Sa to lQth hisw t ogdalleys am th nsee
Mud thn amid th stormy navipgatido of t
outward amge. Such a oaun wow mal ie
ervioe not tmeely fr the pasug of he nt
flet but br the cortrant oommunuioaionm hish
it wodd be neoeuary or Xerx to *iaMinm
with his owndomuinio daring the whole period
d thim raio. t
It igt have been epeted that the Gaeews
waold have imterferd to prevt tbhe wmati
df lkbswork this; but it Asethat they
did not, sad yet there wa a o--ide olek k
plLmtM i that visiity The puomtuay
di Ath ailt wasurit. e* aiwMe, bein abpe
thirty miles lwag a-diew at fiv wib, ad, it
had wraml towan "~p it The m. l whi
Xez was to ot almoe th anok.lf this p--e
ims was to h wide.aoug fim tw st e
i pa amhith Tslsw,, T ur m pisnrimp.

d0 tMLikN meaik of aMs, aMl! p r b,
dsthkaglst @lu- audimMe y emapStiL. p ^
*ie 1-- iB s ii*U II nrjllUee
-bs sUea&4asse JAkee UtWaIsse









wb thmwdu% the "ad win) somp"0, le
bb uuiy l-wlk..k 1
The -upwast me-,mg j bi at 09
- awlMA =,king the Wmuxh by Iwb.
Imd Masj i gaikes to, *ae wbki id muse
we"ti wms aqimsnmoed. Invasi on unbas d
- mr nswoet Mt wrk, wanted rqglmdy hI
gsp, meuwrdig to the vensus utiun whs
bmished t&am. An t*e euandlin gvdumay
ped adn ed td tmoh beg.. la grow d;
tboy phimd kmM.. pinstt *9 av, amd is.
tdmed a series o( mant upon'iAm; *a the
aeivd fdug do Iu bIIkm -w hulsd up Amn
w to another, in a wt oa bked or b4datii
Ltremebmib tspq whee it waslakem bhy.tbo
mm sawd vowsy@d awy.
.2%* .wa was vuoy tmusk b~u
hwepiei, hein ay petiof tba b, bybamsiow
thaa a vmii s eftbob, bw*% ft


edL-- to the P~ouirish .4dmmlw Isy di
ad soon p bOw -Pbbamidmw uami
m* dme dausiplbd Wishb hwuseudmi
Mb IA-w bliekt lth .pOaktd of tho *uis
hebein ptt do uh tp goii w-- bim.






3WJU~Tax Pom~,,.so W

~rrur apbIp, -...myni

%%Lv id Yqp%- i Ii llt b"A
Tb.ml ow V at kqih .suyb4 -a to,

Nwlbif ds pmk~,y i stAbm'b
"aim wiRl fi tsmw do Em as zLb. app.
0914. -W* -mulb. act fr hum tlb bmauy

aema The &imy of Liz.., in itslosi b
tLh Hduquost, wemId, dof .mrm is -
"his im; omd Lra. bavmg, by eiutiaglbq
emam-u, lb. Wbmu of Mmiut Album is
nswmam bdb ia the way of bhis hst, m
mavai a' I. hsiliht. ~lb pupmulhh, may
by bidegtb. Sky...
. The krg. uabor imsr a, red st i of
pumarmmissM .tW.,oqmw*D be blbetwft
-w .1mb tls Mi whmis it '"m In

t Ibs~auk .f~rmmissba 8sr m vhu

mi'Lm -m'Ift do A as of do r8k br
timo m mgmdm do me vWWLk-" he to



gu ilp4in Pm% fm -Yoomit -






O ubsaxss. Pia- .

l theXm preliminary ran.gmims the
uopeon side of the line, and in what was o-
ed OGeek territory, still this part of the motry
had been long under Penian dnmriam. The
adepsdent states and oiti of Garem wme ael
further Mouth, and the people who inhabited
them did not eem diupoed to interrupt these
pepamtio. Perhaps they were not aware to
what object and and al these formidable move-
metas on their northern frontier were tending.
erses, during all t timt B d remained in
Peia. The period at length anried whema, b
preparatie on the frontirs being fr advanced
toward completion, he. oononded to move fop
ward at the head of his free to Sadi. Bar-
die wa the great capital ofthewester part of
his dominiow, nd was situated not fur from
the frontier. Ho aeo dingly mh his
fores, and, taking leave of him Opital of s8
with mush parade end many sMy l he
advanced toward Asia Miner. Mrium -e.d
ktaering Asia Miner, he -oied Le m 4 lps ,
wnho hbad bea, is famnr ti. the awua-
iary of thebb mp ugh ito laiAtoLhd
aw*r beaMaeM d very ls beyond, i iiig
issed As Bal the m mal rnrr I -ka
gYga lldgI rj ,. ..:* .-






M a1 Tan eSInIain,. L

.4,, uruenniet tale, ie aeM t dr rmirw
Luti m Xser m a oatita asMB ain md
Pythim, wl a mid is mne of dhe Phrygia
tow. Tlhe wiretmustmO wsmseAem Ar
-n the4&dy, which wver lows othn is
thB Eusiaw the army went an the we.
ward throghopemrly the whole. tatd Phryg.
is, until at sleth they oameto t he suame e
the stream which flowed wet ino the ABgna
B. One of the mot nnarkb of these riv-
er wnthe Mmeader. There wi a towa Wit
Iaoly at the lsouee of the Memiaw-.s as.
adly, im faot, that thi mountain fem Wi the
leam took ito rie wwa.ituated in the pcaio
oqare of th town, wale i d nand ama ed
like an urtifl LWtaia- in a madela oity.
The oa ef thi town wa" CWm eaM
SWhr" the anuy nned Cedme aed em.
uqaud ths, Pythis made a poeat eatortim.
metef the afr ies., which, ai the a uBr we
wVrylaems, was of anne ed W ith a mr
-amous e Not nStie" withM thi Py&
fiam -twa e the haing atf he we, iney

ag,-r J e wmid to-C e- gi po.-**








d hMin- e rau a MR f trmatiely
&pevat tatit. He iqd* l d we Uit
rt who Pythies w. Tshey TplidtthMtta
to XIuZsr mef, e wbe the richest rmat Il
the wrL They usid, mwver, that he w
as gurou as he was rish. He had ma Dea.
riu a present of a beautiful ai el of a fribt.
te ad of a vine, of dl gold. He wu by
birth, they ed, a Lydiu.
Lydia was wet of Phrygia, and w.as &am
it wealth. Tb Rhiver Patoh, whiob w
al etbrated wf itsogaboen m, Sowed thmso
th mastry, and a the priaem and aobes ea.
trhfed to monopoly *ea tw t ere wriMo wv
hfmd, both in the river itself ad in the msot.
ab-fiM whiob it Bowed, OMe Of tm boHMSta
immeMaey wealthy.
Idus 'was autouiied at the~ eomentbuoh
ib hmad of Pythi'isOta e. tat hob lrth,
aM aked -him what s M VIe m dO bi
tISSm'e, Tis ther a m*'Oii' qW
tife; afr, adir 4ih i4AneNp e gduomovea t t
te sf the Peuwre F tor Owa I alyl*eaIasd
gpu M.I wealth 1umtefl,^ iewtncalnet of
i p ti.y oR lh. of dadMwonitt%"W
yspe to eem-e sominat by a* ofti
*e*i ---r-y aieh- I#.'y t*o -'i
and oamsoation of them.






'Tax PoomYitess. 11




bI. -20 hi to NWpS iR ts
hf ainism Hem.( thes eum ualti t, be t a me
oidatetmaing bhw nmauho aommo&i ,ti ms
iuito in aid of tdo Pujam sm, mpaa lb
&=At he sid, tht he had two *L=W. "
mat of silver, ad foar- mniffise anrntug -
AJL- of maimar d ga&.
The swor was a P d sod. Ee fw
STb. rt, am a dam sam~d Bum jY
hmw, $ the ,ummt day, its mz mhe wbawe
sum not "*unam th program. omiAmmd
ad i7th -*s whbiob Pythhe monsd, the valu
of nompyboiag mabjesi to o"ash tledstim
fa Ia diruumt aga ttha rMo. Mmh"li
we Am:a likes an fidinast Ja i.dg ink
swg*iats =0 hb.oo asa0t te.sm"81
m 4bth.i o samm 0( gou MAu.- mai sos
ubiab Pyibbia Am ugiuted to lare was
eu ka boit tV mdisms of doom -.:
.PI adedi ahor the amumat of
t"g@14 amAsilver. vb" bw hId at em 4I.
go"Was l&A at the .somi a always
pr ;d "frli tnd wor. -b has d,

saudrhe.1dwhia .saq -i.s. ai f baIu k


--J~IT"~~*n~~'~~l`Tr;""" 'UT~i~`rr~L~~*--.` I"~~ia~`-FK"" :;': '~-rT?~T






U. XU s I (l A48&
se... dm.e me* a prembo"
SXsr, wa extremey gratii d t ths ger.
oy, sad at the proof whih it atred of tl
Iarest which Pythias felt in the afes the
king. "You an the only man," aid he, "who
hbu offered hospitality to me or to my army
mine I set out upon this march, an, d ddi.
tion to your hospitality, you tender me you
whole fortune. I will not, however, deprie
you of your treasure. I will, oa the oatray,
order my treasurer to pay to you tlb se
thouand tater necessary to make your :for
millims complete. I offer youa lao my:frisa.
hip, and will do any thing in my power, w
ead hreafter, to serve you. Continue to live
ia the enjoyment of your fortune. If yoa &I.
ways not under the influence of the noble ad
gener inapol"s which govern you now, you
will never ee to be properous ad hay."
If we oold end the aoaunt of Pytbhis and
Xersx here, what gerous and sniemindma
man we mightsuppmthem to bl But als!
ew large a portion of the appurat genesmeity
am noblem- waish sow itsaf amuon po ta
tate aOd king, tr iato seifhaasr ad ky.
po-isy when closely. armeinin Pyth was
a-* the mat meroiless tyrant that eeli
a id.hba al the peple ttli mdp hi






IW~ Tax Dmuw S,'ieus.


wneL aMte-s a millim df abjet 'dMly
edonlegam i toetda d ialm M ase
in dstimts u d wnetohbWsm is odwto mid
MM a -anme i his treurm. The peob
ame to hi wife witk their bitter ..oq.liat
She piti~ tbn, but could not rldei. them.
One day, it s Mid that, in der b Abow hI
bumshbd the aity sad flily of living saly t
ams lvhr and gold, &ad to ontimes him hre
Mtbe rel power such tresus have to satify
the wants of the huanu sul, sh made him a
great itertainmtt, n which thee w- a
hbondlG pro o of wealth in the way of v
Ms and finaism of silv ad gold, but uas.
ly any food. There was vry thing to stify
the ey with the sight of mugiiosmm but
nothing to Matiy hunger. The anobe guest
starvi in the midt of a sme of unmi mpl
riches u&d ppi der, became it was no pot .
ble to. ivr wa d goi.
And na for Xuem 's pofessinis of gratitude
sad frim ip for Pythiem, they wea put to
thi trt, a shot timo aftrhe t im t louo.m
whU whos abve MasriSa d, in a anumuh
ble m- r. Pythir Wl five am&s Thy
wrn all iax s anasy. By their dylesnt
sathe *****d *t bskdim a


" W




"'i


fl *,XMX,.. LnO i.

wMek XTs.M wsu t lead thIe, tini 1ahe
wOauM be It alonu Pytbhino us th.s 6.
So-U na resaledT to vem reso f OR th
eimrity ofhis sovereign's pofnrion of reged
s to reqestp prmiu toretainm of his sine
at home with hi father, on oomdtioa of freely
giving up the rwe
Xeres, on hearing this proposal, was grealy
agd. "How dare you,"aid he, "oom to
mo with snoh a demand You a ad l .tha
praia Ib you are my slaves, and arbord to
do my bdling without a mmrmr. Yoedo.
msve the severst panihmeat for smeb s isa .
at reqdest. oIn oon eratio however, f y
past ged behavior, I will not iaiot upon you
what you deserve. I will only kill one ofyewa
sa M e one that you oem to ing to a hft"d
ly. I will pare the re" So sayg,*,g t .
nraged king ordered the en whom Pythis had
endeavored to retain to be slai baefe his eyM
mnd thea directed tht the dead body boald be
spilt in two, sad the two hales thiwa, th
sem as the right As of the road andl th eth
a th left, that his a y, as he u uM, alght
a "h between temnm."
Wtisving* Pbrygi*, the army mred.oa to.
wailt wa& Their mediat- d-i-hrM& ,





B.C.481.j TaE PaZrPAATIONS. 97
Vm oWms do r biera Coberved by l army.
as has already been said, was Sardi, where
they were to remain until the ensuing spring.
The historian mentions a number of objects of
interest which attracted the attention of Xerx-
es and his officers on this march, which mark
the geographical peculiarities of the country, or
illustrate, in some degree, the ideas and man-
ners of the times.
There was one town, for example, situated,
not like Celhen, where a river had its origin,
but where one disappeared. The stream was a
branch of the Meander. It came down from
the mountains like any other mountain torrent,
and then, at the town in question, it plunged
suddenly down into a gulf or chasm and disap-
peared. It rose again at a considerable dis-
tance below, and thence flowed on, without any
further evasions, to the Meander.
On the confines between Phrygia and Lydia
the army came to a place where the road di-
vided. One branch turned toward the north,
and led to Lydia; the other inclined to the
south, and conducted to Carla. Here, too, on
the frontier, was a monument which had been
erected by Croesus, the. great king of Lydia,
who lived in Cyrus's day, to mark the eastern
boundaries of his kingdom. The Persians were
G







ts pm-*. Ar W hoy. b lMt Ga Mdd Iver W--
of course, much interested in looking upon this
ancient landmark, which designated not only
the eastern limit of Crcsus's empire, but also
what was, in ancient times, the western limit
of their own.
There was a certain species of tree which
grew in these countries called the plane-tree.
Xerxes found one of these trees so large and
beautiful that it attracted his special admira-
tion. He took possession of it in his own name,
and adorned it with golden chains, and set a
guard over it. This idolization of a tree was a
striking instance of the childish caprice and fol-
ly by which the actions of the ancient despots
were so often governed.
As the army advanced, they came to other
places of interest and objects of curiosity and
wonder. There was a district where the peo-
ple made a sort of artificial honey from grain,
and a lake from which the inhabitants procured
salt by evaporation, and mines, too, of silver and
of gold. These objects interested and amused
the minds of the Persians as they moved along,
without, however, at all retarding or interrupt-
ing their progress. In due time they reached
the great city of Sardis in safety, and here
Xeres established his head-quarters, and await-
ed the coming of spring.


[B.C. 481.


XUraxs.




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