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Title: Beauties of American history
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Table of Contents
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Full Text

The ladin howin Ldoniee the
U nldi ia nowing Lmndumaim the a






Entered, according to the Act of Congres, in the year 1843, by
in the clerk's office of the district court of the United States,
for the Southern district of New York.



inspire in the young mind the love of country,
and the admiration of what is great, heroic,
and noble, in the human character; and to
elevate the standard of public virtue in the
juvenile breast. It has been the purpose of
the author of this volume to select some of the
most striking of these historical beauties, and
to present them in an attractive form to the
young. He has deemed it unnecessary to pay
much attention to chronological order; because
the history of our country is judiciously made
a branch of study in the common schools; so
that almost every young person is qualified to
refer every event to its proper date. The
moral and patriotic features of each delineation
have been regarded as most attractive. The
love of country and the love of virtue have
been considered the most important objects in
view. The youth of America have noble ex-
amples before them. May they never forget
that they are the countrymen of Washington,
and of There is a long list of
worthies; but that name is enough.
1 (S


Deeovery of America by the Northmen ........ Page 9
Landing of Columbus ............................. 18
Discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Nunez de Balboa.... 91
Coligny and his Colony in Florida ................... 4
Voyage of Amidas and Barlow ..................... 29
Voyage of Gilbert and Gosnold .................... 84
Settlement of St Mary's ........................ 37
Landing of the Pilgrims ........................... 41
The Treaty with Massasoit........................ 45
Sir William Phips..................................... 47
First English Conquest of Canada................... 51
Settlement of Connecticut ......................... 53
Benevolent exertions of Elliot and Mayhew ........... 57
Escape of Mr. Dustan ............................65
The Bell of St Regi ............................. 67
John Winthrop ................................ 75
Goffe the Regicide ............................... 8
Judicial Integrity ............................... 79
Early Heroism of Washington ..................... 80
Colonel M'Lan................................... 81
Governor Johnstone's attempt on Mr. Reed ......... 85
American Courtey................................. 86
Capture of Stony point .......................... 87
Daniel Boone................................... 90
Brilliant Exploit of Colonel Barton ................. 92
Mrs. Warren, the Historian ...................... 93
Benjamin West, a Soldier ......................... 96
Samuel Adams ................................. 98
Firmness of Adams ............................. 100
Captain George Little.............................. 10
General Lee .................................... 104
Earl American Heroisp ........................ 106
Epit of Mr. Jasper.............. ............. 109
Death of Captain Biddle ......................... 115
Conquest of New York ........................... 119
Hickory Club................................... 199
Mr. Abigail Adam ............................. 193
Washington's Farew ........................... 1I7
Prservatin of the Conneticut Charter ............. 19

Expedition of de la Barre .......................... 1
Evacuation of New York by the British ............ 1
Founding of Harvard College ...................... 1
Battle ofBunker Hill........................ 1L
Paul Jones ......... ................... ...... 11
Chief Justice Marshall........................... 14
Flight of Hores .................................. 14
Death before Disfionour ........................... 1
Death of Baron de Kalb............................ 1
The Wife of Washington........................... 1
Penn's Treaty ............................... 1
Young American Tar............................... 1
Boston Massacre .................................. 11
The Brave not Mercenary ......................... 11
Don't give up the Vessel....................... 11
Heroic Exploit of Peter Francisco .................. 1I
Destruction of the Gaspee ......................... 11
Destruction of the Tea in Boston .................. 14
Spirited Conduct of Captain Wadsworth.............. 1
General Oglethorpe's Defence of Georgia ............. 1,
Frank Lilly ..................................... 11
Capture of Quebec ................................ 1V
Laayette ..................;:........................ I!
Wsngton appointed Commander.inChief .........
The TripolitanWar ................................ IS
Bombardment of Tripoli ...................... ... 9(
Destruction of the Intrepid ........................ S(
Romantic Expedition of General Eaton .............. 2(
General Harrison's Expedition against the Indians..... 2(
Perry's Victory and its Consequences.................
Naval Victories of 1812............ ............... I2
Capture of Louisbog........................... 21
James Otis's Resistance of the Writs of Assistance.... 21
Retirement of Washington from the Presidency ....... 21
Noble Defence of Charleston....................... 2S
Battle of Eutaw Springs............................
Battle of Trenton, 1776 ........................... 3
Battle of Princeton ......... .........................
Siege of Yorktown .............................. 1
Battle of New Orleans ........................... di
Battle of Plattsburg and Lake Champlain ............ 4
Allerie Wr of 1815 .................................



On of the most curious facts connected with
American history, is its alleged discovery by a
native of Iceland. The following are the facts,
as recorded by the ancient sagas, and the au-
thorities followed by Snorro 8turleson.-Her-
julf, a descendant of Ingulf, and his son Biarn,
subsisted by trading between Iceland and Nor.
way, in the latter of which countries they
generally passed the winter. One season, their
vessels being as usual divided, for the greater
convenience of traffic, Biarn did not find his
father in Norway, who, he was informed, had
proceeded to Greenland, then just discovered.
He had never visited that country; but he
steered westward for many days, until a strong
north wind bore him considerably to the south.
After a long interval he arrived in sight of a
low, woody country, which, compared with the
description he had received of the other, and
from the route he had taken, could not, he was
sare, be Greenland. Proceeding to the south-
west, he reached the latter country, and joined


his father, who was located at Herjulfsnoes,
romontory opposite to the western coast (
(A. D. 1001.) The information which Bial
gave of this discovery induced Leif, son (
ric the Red, the discoverer of Greenland, i
equip a vessel for the unknown country. Wil
thirty-five persons he sailed from Herjulfsno
towards the south, in the direction indicate
by Biarn. Arriving at a flat, stony coast, wii
mountains, however, covered with snow, visib
at a great distance, they called it Hellu-lan
Proceeding still southwards, they came to
woody, but rather flat coast, which they call
Mark-land. A brisk north wind blowing f
two days and two nights, brought them to
finer coast, woody and undulating, and aboun
ing with natural productions. Towards tl
north this region was sheltered by an island
but there was no port until they had proceed
farther to the west. There they landed; ai
as there was abundance of fish, in a riv,
which flowed into the bay, they ventured the
to pass the winter. They found the nights ai
days less unequal than in Iceland and Norwa'
on the very shortest (Dec. 21st,) the sun rising
at half-past seven, and setting at half-past fou
From some wild grapes which they found a fe
miles from the shore, they denominated tl
country Vinland, or Winland. The followii
spring they returned to Greenland.
This description, as the reader will read
recognize, can apply only to North Americ

he first of the coasts which Lei( and his nav'-
itors saw, must have been Newfoundland, or
labrador; the second was probably the coast
r New Brunswick; the third was Maine. The
uses which led to the voyage, the names, the
icidents, are so natural and so connected, as
) bear the impress of truth. And Snorro, the
irliest historian of the voyage, was not an in-
entor; he related events as he received them
tom authorities which no longer exist, or from
tradition. Neither he nor his countrymen en-
ertained the slightest doubt that a new and
itensive region had been discovered. The
squel will corroborate the belief that they
rere right.
(1004 to 1008.) The next chief that visited
'inland was Thorwald, another son of Eric
ie Red. With thirty companions he proceeded
o the coast, and wintered in the tent which
ad sheltered his brother Leif. The two fol-
>wing summers were passed by him in exa-
lining the regions both to the west and the
ast; and, from the description in the Icelandic
agas, we may infer that he coasted the shore
rom Massachusetts to Labrador. Until the
second season, no inhabitants appeared; but
wo, who had ventured along the shore in their
rail canoes, were taken, and most impolitically,
s well as most inhumanly, put to death. These
rere evidently Esquimaux, whose short stature
ad features resembled those of the western
ireenlanders. To revenge the murder of their
countrymen, a considerable number of the in-

habitants now appeared in their small boat
but their arrows being unable to make any is
pression on the wooden defences, they preciF
tately retired. In this short skirmish, however
Thorwald received a mortal wound; and wi
buried on the next promontory, with a cross
his head and another at his feet, a proof that I
had. embraced Christianity. Having pass
another winter, his companions returned
Greenland- The following year Thorstein, a
other son of Eric the Red, embarked for tl
same place with his wife Gudrida and twent'
five companions; but they were driven by tl
contending elements to the remote westel
coast of Greenland, where they passed the wil
ter in great hardships. His adventure wi
fatal to Thorstein, whose corpse was take
back to the colony by his widow.
(1009.) The first serious attempt at col4
nizing Vinland was made by a Norwegia
chief, Thorfin, who had removed to Greenlan
and married the widowed Gudrida. Wit
sixty companions, some domestic animals, in
plements of husbandry, and an abundance o
dried provisions, he proceeded to the coal
where Thorwald had died. There he erected
his tents, which he surrounded by a stron
palisade, to resist the assaults, whether open c
secret, whether daily or nocturnal, of the ni
tives. They came in considerable numbers t
offer peltries and other productions for sue
commodities as the strangers could span
Above all, we are assured, they wanted armi

nmooVBYr r IB wMoI m0 1i
which Thorwald would not permit to be sold,
yet, if an anecdote be true, their knowledge of
such weapons must have been limited indeed.
One of the savages took up an axe, ran with it
into the woods, and displayed it with much
triumph to the rest. To try its virtues, he
struck one that stood near him; and the latter,
to the horror of all present, fell dead at his
feet. A chief took it from him, regarded it for
some time with anger, and then cast it into the
sea. Thorfin remained three years inVinland,
where a son was born to him; and after va-
rious voyages to different parts of the north,
ended his days in Iceland. His widow made
the pilgrimage to Rome; and on her return to
the island retired to a convent which he had
erected. Many, however, of the colonists
whom he had led to Vinland remained, and
were ultimately joined by another body under
Helgi and Fianbogi, two brothers from Green-
land. But the latter had the misfortune to be
accompanied by a treacherous and evil woman,
Freydisa, a daughter of Eric the Red, and who
in a short time excited a quarrel, which proved
fatal to about thirty of the colonists. Detested
for her vices, she was constrained to return to
Greenland; but the odour of her evil name re-
mained with her; she lived despised, and died
(1026 to 1121.) Towards the close of the
reign of Olaf, the saint, an Icelander, named
Gudlief, embarked for Dublin. The vessel
bhini driuvn hv hninrtmns winds far from its

direct course, towards the south-west, a
proached an unknown shore. He and t
crew were soon seized by the natives, and ca
ried into the interior. Here, however, to the
great surprise, they were accosted by a vener
ble chief in their own language, who inquiry
after some individuals of Iceland. He refuse
to tell his name; but, as he sent a present
Thurida. the .iatpr of Snonrrn Gnvod and m

This circumstance has induced many to doubt
,f the facts which have been related. If, they
:ontend, North America were really discovered
knd repeatedly visited by the Icelanders, how
-ame a country, so fertile in comparison with
.hat island, or with Greenland, or even Nor-
way, to be so suddenly abandoned? This is
certainlyy a difficulty; but a greater one, in our
)pinion, is involved in the rejection of all the
evidence that has been adduced. It is not
Snorro only who mentions Vinland: many other
iagas do the same; and even before Snorro, Ad-
Im, of Bremen, obtained from the lips of'Sweyn
[I., King of Denmark, a confirmation of the
alleged discovery. For relations so numerous and
io uniform, for circumstances so naturally and so
graphically related, there must have been some
foundation. Even fiction does not invent, it'
only exaggerates. There is nothing improba-
ble in the alleged voyages. The Scandinavians
were the best navigators in the world. From
authentic and indubitable testimony we know
that their vessels visited every sea from the
Mediterranean to the Baltic, from the extremity
of the Finland Gulf to the entrance at least of
Davis' Straits. Men thus familiar with distant
seas must have made a greater progress in the
science of navigation than we generally allow.
The voyage from Reykiavik, in Iceland, to Cape
Farewell, is not longer than that from the south-
western extremity of Iceland-once well colo-
nized-to the eastern coast of Labrador. But

we could'expect to find if no Europeans had
ever visited it I So at least the Jesuit mission-
aries inform us. They found the cross, a know-
ledge of the stars, a superior kind of worship,
a more ingenious mind, among the inhabitants
of the coast which is thought to have been colo-
nized from Greenland. They even assure us
that many Norwegian words are to be found in
the dialect of the people. The causes which
led to the destruction of the settlement were
probably similar to those which produced the
same effect in Greenland. A handful of colo-
nists, cut off from all communication with the
mother country, and consequently deprived of
the means of repressing their savage neighbours,
could not be expected always to preserve their
original characteristics. They would either be
exterminated by hostilities, or driven to amal-
gamate with the natives; probably both causes
led to this unfortunate result. The only diffi-
culty in this subject is that which we have be-
fore mentioned, viz., the sudden and total cessa-
tionof all intercourse with Iceland or Green.
land; and even this must diminish when we
remember that in the fourteenth century the
Norwegian colony in Greenland disappeared in
the same manner, after a residence in the coun-
try of more than three hundred years. On
weighing the preceding circumstances, and the
simple natural language in which they are re-
corded, few men not born in Italy or Spain will
deny to the Scandinavians the claim of having

en the original discover s of the New World.
ren Robertson, imperfectly acquainted as he
is with the links in this chain of evidence,
red not wholly to reject it. Since his day,
e researches of the northern critics, and a
ore attentive consideration of the subject,
ve caused most writers to mention it with


18 amNIM orF AUMIICAN mEsIrOr.


THu voyage of Columbus, although posterior
to that of the Northmen some five hundred
years, has all the merit of an originardiscovery.
He had probably no knowledge of their colo-
nies; or if, in his visit to Iceland, he read the
account of their voyages, he certainly could
not have recognized in their descriptions of
Labrador and New England, the fertile Indies,
which it was his object to discover. The fol-
lowing account of his landing in the New
World deserves a place among the Beauties of
American History.
On the eleventh of October the indications of
land became more and more certain. A reed
quite green floated by the vessel; and a little
after some kind of fish were seen, which were
known to abound in the vicinity of rocks. The
Pinta picked up the trunk of a bamboo and a
plank rudely carved. The Nina saw a branch
of a tree with berries on it. They sounded at
sunset, and found bottom. The wind was now
unequal; and this last circumstance completely
satisfied the mind of Columbus that land was
not far off. The crew assembled as usual for
evening prayer. As soon as the service was
concluded, Columbus desired his people to re-
turn thanks to God for having preserved them

.UtWie O COLUIMwS. 19
so long and dangerous a voyage, and assured
em that the indications of land were now too
,rtain to be doubted. He recommended them
Look out carefully during the night, for that
iey should surely discover land before the
morning; and he promised a suit of velvet to
howeverr first described it, independent of the
pension of ten thousand maravedis which he
'as to receive from the king. About ten o'clock
t night, while Columbus was sitting at the
;ern of his vessel, he saw a light, and pointed
out to Pedro Gutieres: theyboth called San-
iez de Segovia, the armourer, but before he
ame it had disappeared: they saw it, never-
ieless, return twice afterwards. At two o'clock
after midnight, the Pinta, which was ahead,
iade the signal of land. It was in the night
f the eleventh of October, 1492, after a voyage
f thirty-five days, that the New World was
discovered. The men longed impatiently for
ay: they wished to feast their eyes with the
ight of that land for which they had sighed so
ng, and which the majority of them had des-
aired of ever seeing. At length day broke,
nd they enjoyed the prospect of hills and val-
ays clad in delicious verdure. The three ves-
els steered towards it at sunrise. The crew
fthe Pinta, which preceded, commenced chant-
ig the Te Deum; and all sincerely thanked
leaven for the success of their voyage. They
aw as they approached a number of men col-
ected on the shore. Columbus embarked in
is cutter, with Alonzo and Yanez Pinzon. car-

90 BAUrrts or AxmcaIr BmrORY.
trying the royal standard in his hand. The mo
ment he and all his crew set foot on land, the]
erected a crucifix, and prostrating themselves
before it, with tears in their eyes, thanked Gow
for the goodness he had manifested toward
them. When Columbus rose, he named the
island San Salvador, and took possession of i
in the name of the king of Spain, in the mids
of the astonished natives, who surrounded ani
surveyed him in silence. Immediately the Caa
tilians proclaimed him admiral and viceroy ol
the Indies, and swore obedience to him. Th
sense of the glory which they had acquired re
called them to their duty, and they begged par
don of the admiral for all the vexations the
had caused him.



AMoxo the Spanish discoverers and conquer.
s of America there was a spirit of chivalry
id adventure, which has scarcely a parallel
the history of the world. There were thou-
nds of adventurers ready at any time to peril
e in the pursuit of fortune. The voyage of
olumbus fired the whole Spanish nation with
desire to visit and acquire new and unknown
gions in the discovered world. Gentlemen
Id their estates to go to the American shores
Ad become princes; while humble peasants
ought wealth and renown at the point of their
vords. Among the adventurers who came
the New World, none was more chivalrous,
Ad none more unfortunate, than Balboa.
This enterprising officer, being placed in
Immand of Darien, made numerous incursions
i the territories of the neighboring caciques,
the course of which he received intelligence
om the Indians of a great sea a few days'
gurney to the south. This he justly concluded
be the ocean which Columbus had so long
ught in vain. Inflamed with the idea of ef-
ctmg a discovery which that great, man had
en unable to accomplish, and eager to reap
ie first harvest of victory in countries said to
bound with gold, he boldly determined to
arch across the isthmus, and witness with his

own eyes the truth of what he heard. But, ii
the execution of his design, he had to contend
with every difficulty which could be opposed ti
him by the hand of nature or the hostility o:
the natives: he had to lead his troops, worn ou
with fatigue and the diseases of a noxious cli
mate, through deep marshes, rendered nearly;
impassable by perpetual rains, over mountain
covered with trackless forests, and through de
files, from which the Indians, in secure ambush
cade, showered down poisoned arrows. Bu
no sufferings could damp the courage of th
Spaniards in that enterprising age; Balboa sur
mounted every impediment. As he approach,
the object of his research, he ran before hi
companions to the summit of a mountain, front
which he surveyed, with transports of delight
the boundless ocean which rolled beneath; their
hurrying to the shore, he plunged into the
waves, and claimed the sovereignty of the
Southern Ocean for the crown of Castile. Thi
event took place in September 1518. The in
habitants of the coast on which he had arrive<
gave him to understand that the land toward:
the south was without end; that it was pos
sessed by powerful nations, who had abundance
of gold, and who employed beasts of burden
These allusions to the civilization and richer
of Peru, Balboa supposed to apply to those In
dies which it was the grand object of Europear
ambition to approach; and the rude sketches
of the Peruvian lama, drawn by the Indians or
the sand, as they resembled the figure of the


imel, served to confirm him in his error. De-
ghted with the importance of his discovery,
- immediately despatched messengers to Spain,
i give an account of his proceedings, and to
licit an appointment corresponding to his ser-
ices. But the Spanish court was more liberal
i exciting enterprise than in rewarding merit,
ad preferred new adventurers to old servants.
'he government of Darien was bestowed on
edrarias Davila, who, regarding Balboa with
ie hatred which conscious weakness always
ears towards superior worth, meditated un-
easingly the destruction of his rival. He at
length found an occasion to satisfy his ven-
eance; and the heroic Balboa was publicly
executed in Darien, in 1517, affording another
distance of the unhappy fate which attended
hie first conquerors of America.

\,s~- -^

<_ / ^^I

24 BAUTrm or amAM a C HIrTOrr.

[So* Frontispiee.]
AMono the many characters distinguished in
European history, there is scarcely any one
more deserving the attention of the American
patriot than the celebrated Admiral Coligny.
If the Pilgrim Fathers of New England are
worthy of all praise, for founding an asylum for
religious liberty, Coligny is not less to be com-
mended for having planned and attempted a
colony for the same purpose, and that too upon
our own shores; and while they gain the ap-
plause which results from brilliant success, he
should not be refused the reverence and sym-
pathy which are due to greatness, virtue, and
above all, misfortune.
The Admiral de Coligny was born at Catil-
lon-sur-Loin, in they ear 1516, of noble parents,
and received the best education that the times
afforded. He was brought up in the Protestant
faith, from which he never swerved during his
whole life. In his youth he distinguished him-
self in several battles, under the reigns of Fran-
cis I. and Henry II., by his great bravery and
skill. After the death of the last mentioned
king, Catherine de Medici was declared regent,
and by her rigorous acts against the Protestants,
she caused them to rise in arms. The Prince
de CondA and Admiral Coligny were chosen as
commanders of all the Protestant forces. After

couLar AMD o oomN BI I 1eA. :
the death of Condd, which happened at the bat.
tie of Jarnac, the whole command devolved
upon Coligny; and well did he prove himself
worthy of the trust reposed in-him. He car-
ried on the war against the troops of Catherine
with various success, sometimes conquering,
sometimes suffering a defeat, but never permit-
ting himself to be disheartened, however grat
his loss might be. Catherine de Mediei fVid-
ing, at length, that she could not exteraimate
the Protestants by force of arms, resolved to-
do so by stiatagem. She therefore conchled,
a peace with them, and invited-the principatof
them to court, where they were received with'
the greatest apparent cordiality. But Coligny,
knowing the treachery of the queen, and sa-
pecting some plot to be concealed under thit'
veil of kindness, resolved to defeat her ends.
For this purpose he intended to form a colony'
in the New World, where the Protestants, should
circumstances hereafter compel them, might re-
tire and live in peace and security. With this
design, in the year 1562, he sent out an expe-
dition consisting of two ships, under the com-
mand of John Ribaut. These vessels arrived
on the coast of Florida in the month of May in
the same year, and Ribaut entered a river
which he called the May, but which was sub-
sequently named San Mateo, by the Spaniards;
it is now called St John's. Here he erected a
column (of stones,) on which was inscribed the


account ot dissensions among toe coaezs, was
soon abandoned. A short time afterwards,
Coligny sent out three other vessels, under the
command of Laudonrire. He reached Florida
on the 20th of June, 1564, and sailed up the
river May. Here he found the column which
had been left by Ribaut still in existence, and
decorated with garlands of flowers, which the
Indians had hung around it, and which the
chief Saturiova now showed him with great
apparent gratification. Laudonniere, struck
with the beauty of the place, determined to
form his settlement here, and commenced build-
ing a fortress, which he called Fort Carolina.
But a scarcity of provides arose, and the
colonists became discontented, and desired to
return to their native country. Laudonniere
withstood their demands as long as possible,
but finally yielding to their importunity, he
embarked on the 28th of August, and began his
voyage; but he had sailed only a short distance
when he met with a fleet of several vessels,
commanded by Ribaut, who was appointed to
succeed him in the command. They, therefore,
all returned, and the colony soon advanced to
a more flourishing condition. But things were
not long allowed to remain in this state. On
the 20th of September an expedition of the
Spaniards, under Melendez, arrived at the fort,
and, with the exception of women and chil-
dren, massacred every living souL This proved
a death-blow to all the hopes of Coligny; and

hus the colony which, had it been suffered to
iave flourished, would have saved Trance a
livil war, and prevented the great massacre
of St. Bartholomew's day, was entirely de-
Charles IX. and Catherine now began to dis.
play their hostility more openly than ever
against the Protestant religion. They imposed
aich rigorous exactions upon its professors, that
hey once more rose in arms, and once more
3oligny led them to battle. Here he met with
various success; but, on the whole, fortune
eemed to incline in his favour. Catherine, at
ast, despairingof ever conquering the Protest-
Lnts in the fieelki oacluded a treaty with
lim. Coligny wlmvited to Paris, where he
wvas received with the most distinguished marks
)f favour. He had one hundred thousand
rance given him by Charles IX, as an in-
demnity for his losses in the wars, and was
admitted to a seat in the council.
Things continued in this condition until the
light of St. Bartholomew's, the 24th of August,
1572, a night in which one of the most horrible
transactions that ever disgraced humanity oc-
:urred; a night in which thousands of innocent
being were sent to their final account without
previous warning; a night in which deeds were
perpetrated (the result not more of religious
than political animosity) which are now equally
reprobated by Catholic and Protestant. Par-
ticular orders had been given to prevent all
:hance of Coligny's escape. The Duke of

Guise, with a band of miscreants, hastened to
his house which they surrounded. A man by
the name of Besme then entered the room in
which Coligny was sitting. "Art thou Colig
ny ?" said he; "I am he indeed," said the ad-
miral; young man, you ought to respect my
grey hairs; but, do what you will, you can
shorten my life only by a few days." Besim
immediately plunged his sword into his body,
and his companions pierced him with many
wounds. The body was then thrown out of
the window into the street, where Guise was
impatiently waiting to see it. He wiped the
blood off his face, in order to recognize the
features, and then gave orders to cut off hii
head, which he sent to Catherine. This head
was then embalmed and sent to the pope, whilsl
his body remained in the street, exposed tc
every indignity from the ferocious rabble.
Thus perished Coligny, one of the greatest
and most remarkable men that France evei
produced. Well might his enemies exult ir
is fall; for he was the bulwark of the cause
which he had espoused. With him perished the
best hopes of Protestantism in France. The
succeeding leader renounced the faith; anc
then there followed persecution, exile and apos.
tacy, till the Revolution levelled all distinct.
tions, and seemed, for a time, to have extin.
guished all religion with a deluge of political



AmnoW the foremost and most efficient pro-
loters of American colonization was renowned
id accomplished Sir Walter Raleigh. He
as one of the courtiers of Queen Elizabeth;
id had considerable possessions, which he did
3t hesitate to expend with a lavish hand, in
>pes of founding a colony on our shores. The
;te of his relative, Sir Humphrey Gilbert,
'ho perished at sea on the returning voyage
om America, did not discourage Raleigh, who
ill persevered in sending out ships and colo-
ists to the New World. The famous voyage
SAmidas and Barlow to Carolina was upper.
rmed under the auspices and at the expense
Raleigh, although he did not accompany the
Captain Philip Amidas and Captain Arthur
arlow, set sail from the west of England on
ie 27th of April, 1584, and the 10th of May
rived at the Canaries, from whence they bent
ieir course to the Caribbee Islands, which they
iade on the 10th of June, keeping a more south-
ly course than they needed to have done, as
ley themselves observed afterwards, appre-
ending that the current set so strong to the
northward on the coast of Florida or Virginia,
iat there was no stemming it; and that mis-
ike made them go two or three thousand miles
ut of their way: however, they arrived at the
land of Wokokn, near the coast of Virginia,

30 Bn.UT1s18 OF aMMOaA UsIOBr
or rather of North Carolina (of which this coun.
try is now reckoned a part) and took possession
thereof in the name of Queen Elizabeth, whom
they proclaimed rightful queen and sovereign
of the same, to the use of Mr. Raleigh, accord.
ing to her Majesty's grant. But they soon dis.
covered it to be but an island of twenty miles
in length, and six in breadth, and lying in 34
degrees odd minutes north latitude; the land
producing cedars, cypress, pines, and vast quan-
tities of grapes; nor was there any want of
deer, hare, rabbits, and wild fowl.
After they had continued here three days, an
Indian came on board them, and was entertain.
ed in the ship; after which he caught some fish
and presented to the English; and the next day
Granganimo, the brother of Wiegina, King of
Wingandacoa (as the neighboring continent
was called) came down with forty or fifty of
his people to the sea-side. Whereupon several
English officers went over to him, and were in.
vited to sit down with him on the mats that
were spread for that purpose, the Prince strik,
ing his head and his breast, and making a great
many signs to signify they were heartily wel-
come, as they apprehended. Whereupon they
made him some small presents, as they did to
four of his people, who sat ou the lower end of
the same mat; but the Priaes took away the
things from his men, intimating that they were
his servants, and that all presents were to be
made to him. And having taken leave of he
English, he returned with more of his people

vOTAo or ArIm MA Mr* M. 81
to days after, bringing deerskins, buff, and
her peltry to trade with them. Whereupon
ey showed Grangnimo all their merchandie,
which nothing pleased him so much as a
ight pewteridash: he took it up, clapped it
ion his breast, and having made a hole in the
im, hung it about his neck, intimating it would
i a good shield against his enemies' arrows.
his pewter-dish they exchanged for twenty
ins, worth twenty nobles, and a copper-kettle
r fifty skins, worth as many crowns. They
Fered also a very advantageous exchange for
eir axes, hatchets, and knives, and would have
yen anything for their swords; but the Eng-
ih would not part with them.
Two or three days after, the king's brother
.me on board their ships, and eat and drank
ith them, and seemed to relish their wine and
ad very well, and some few days after he
*ought his wife and daughter, and several more
his children with him. His wife had good
atures, but was not tall; she appeared exceed-
g modest, and had a cloak or mantle of a skin,
ith the fur next her body, and another piece
a skin before her. About her head she had
coronet of white coral, and in her ears pen-
mnts of pearls, about the size of peas, hanging
own to her middle, and she had bracelets on
Dr arns. Her husband also wore a coronet or
and of white coral about his head sometimes,
at usually a coronet of copper, or some other
aiing metal, which at first our adveaturem
Imagined to be gold, but weae mistaken. Hi
*_ .-.. .L .. A L. .._ L._ 3.. --

832 Atvr or 0 muCA NUs amTr.
The rest of his habit was like his wife's. The
other women of the better sort, and the Prince'
children, had several pendants of shining cop
per in their ears. The complexion of the peo
pge in general being tawny, and their hai:
ack. The Prince's wife was usually attended
by forty or fifty women to the sea-side; bu
when she came on board (as she did often) shi
left them on shore, and brought only two o
three with her.
The King's brother, they observed, was ver
just to his engagements; for they frequently;
delivered him merchandise upon his word, ani
he ever came within the day and delivered
what he had promised for them. He sent them
also every day, as a present, a brace of buclu
with hares, rabbits, and fish, the best in th
world; together with several sorts of fruit
such as melons, walnuts, cucumbers, gourdi
peas, and several kinds of roots, as also maiz
or Indian corn.
Afterwards seven or eight of the Englis
officers went in their boat up the river Ocean
twenty miles to the northward, and came to a
island called Roanoke, where they were hospi
tably entertained by Granganimo's wife in hi
absence. She pressed them to stay on shor
all night, and when they refused she was muc
concerned they should be apprehensive of an
danger, and sent the provision on board thel
boat which she had provided for their supper
with mats for them to lie upon: and the cap
tain who wrote the relation, it seems. was a

opinion they might safely have continued on
shore; for a more kind and loving people he
thought there could not be in the world, as he
expressed himself. ,w,(s
These Indians having never seen any Euro-
peans before, -were mightily taken with the
whiteness of their skin, and took it as a great
favour if any Englishman would permit any
of them to touch his breast. They were
amazed also at the magnitude and structure
of their ships, and at the firing of a musket
they trembled, having never seen any fire-arms
The English continued to trade with the
Indians till they had disposed of all the goods
they had brought, and loaded their ships with
skins, sassafras and cedar. They procured
also some pearls from them, and a little tobac-
co, which they found the Indians very fond of.
After which they parted with this people in a
very friendly manner, and returned home to
England, taking with them Manteo and Wan-
chese, two Indians, who appeared desirous to
embark for England with them; and having
made a very profitable voyage, they gave Mr.
Raleigh and the rest of their employers such a
glorious account of the country, as made them
impatient till they had provided ships for an-
other voyage. The tobacco the captains Ami-
das and Barlow brought home with them in
this voyage was the first that had been seen in
Eufland, and was soon cried up as a most

UWAMIFuO nf AW22lMeA 3

In the year 1002, on the 26th of March, Cap
tain Gilbert also set sail from Plymouth, Eng
land, with thirty-two mariners and landsmen
the landsmen being commanded by Captai
Gosnold, and designed for a colony. They a
rived in New England, being in 42 degree
north latitude, on the 14th of May following
where there came on board them several of th
natives in an European boat, some of whoi
also being clothed like Europeans, the boat an
clothes having been given them by some fisher
men who frequented Newfoundland; but mo!
of them had mantles of deer-skins. They aftel
wards sailed to the southward, and came to
promontory called Cape Cod, from the shoa
of Cod-fish they met with there, and that nan
it retains to this day. Here Captain Gosnol
went on shore, and found peas, strawberries
and other fruits growing, and saw a great de
of good timber.
They sailed from this point to the southwar
and arrived at another promontory, which the
called Gilbert's Point, the name of the capta
of the ship, the shores appearing full of people
Some of them came on board, and though the
were peaceable enough, they were observed
be thievish. The English afterwards bendir
their course to the south-west, they came to i
...LJ. k;.A ;.:n.1 ;A AI laP.a M ilahL (uL6

V 's w ,s a =P w V.
gave the name of Martha's Vineyard; and to
another island, a little further to the southward,
they gave the name of Elizabeth Island; and
these lands are still called by those names.
Upon Elizabeth Island, lying about four miles
from the continent, Captain Gonold proposed
to settle with his little colony, and to that end
went on shore there on the 28th of May. He
found the island covered with timber and un-
derwood, among which were oak, ash, beech,
walnut, hazel, cedars, cypress, and sassafras.
And as to fruits, here were cherries, vines,
gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries, ground,
nuts, and peas; and also a variety of roots and
salad-herbs. Here, in the middle of a fresh-
water lake, which surrounded a little rocky
island, containing an acre of ground, they be-
gan to erect a house and fort capable of receiv-
ingtwenty men.
While this was doing, Captain Gosnold sail-
ed over to the continent, where he found a great
many people, and was treated very courteously
by them, every one making a present of what
he had about him, such as skins, furs, tobacco,
chains and necklaces of copper, shells, and the
like, for which the English gave them some toys,
and returned to their fort.
Two or three days afterwards, one of the In-
dian chiefs, with fifty stout men, armed with
bows and arrows, came over from the continent
to the island in their country boats, and there
being t bt eight Englishmen on shore, they
T bu 1 t. l -!g_ ___

mBAwi ON ANU&W u

them to udaretad tb eamR las. L uly
mamwr to visik the .WWiuepMl they wei
invite) to at and drk, and st down to di.-
ner Wr B Eglish o their hbsl, ereJM
a dai a1 of good immeer.
Ttl diu mde them another vit two or
three day after, when they behaved themselves
very peaceably also; but one of the natives
having stolen a shield, was made to return it,
and they seemed apprehensive the English
would revenge it; but finding them still easy
and sociable, they were merry together, and
parted again in a friendly manor. IBt as two
of the English were etmagliag by the sea-side
two days after, to get eubs, four Indians at-
tacked them, and wounded one of the English
with an arrow; wher6upoo the other English
man disarmed the aggressor, and the rest ran
awi seems to have been the only quarrel
there was between the Engish and the Indias
in th royage: however, the coloy which was
de gned to be left there, who wee twenty in
number, big apprehensive it would be diffi.
cult for them to subsist till -ap and rein.
forcements came from E land, if the natives
should prove their enemies, especially as their
provisions, upon examination, appeared much
shorter than was expected; it was resolved to
abandon their little fort in the island, and re-
turn (all of them) to England. Having, there.
fore, taken on board some cedar and usmsafira

wrrTLuIUTM or wr. MArly. 5
beaver-skins, deer-skins, black fox-skins, and
other peltry they had-received of the natives
for the goods they carried thither, they,lt i1
from the island of Elizabeth on the 18th eaJude,
arriving at Exmouth in Devon, on the 9"A of
July following, without having lost one man.

TnE Lord Baltimore having obtained a grant
of Maryland, sent over hid brother, the honour-
able Leonard Calvert, Esq., with several Ro-
man Catholic gentlemen and other adventurers,
to the number of two hundred, to take posses-
sion of the country; who setting sail from Eng-
land on the 22d of November, 1633, arrived at
Point Comfort, in the Bay of Chesapeake, on
the 24th of February following; where being
kindly treated, received, and supplied with pro-
visions by the English of Virginia, they con-
tinued the voyage northward to the river Poto-
mac, appointed to be the boundary between
Virginia and Maryland, on the west side of the
bahe adventurers sailed up this river, and
landing in several places on the northern shore,
acquainted the natives they were come to set-
tle among them and trade with them; but the
natives seemed rather to desire their absence

than their company. However, there were no
acts of hostility committed on either side, and
the English returning down the river Potomac
again, made choice of a place near the mouth
of a river (which falls into it, and by them
called St. George's River) to plant the first
They advanced afterwards to an Indian town,
called Yoamaco, then the capital of the coun-
try, and at a conference with the Weroance or
sovereign of the place, to whom they made con-
siderable presents, the Weroance consented that
the English should dwell in one part of the
town, reserving the other for his own people
til the harvest was over; and then agreed to
quit the whole entirely to the English, and re-
tue further into the country, which they did
accordingly; and the following March Mr. Cal-
vert and the planters were left in the quiet pos-
session of the town, to which they gave the
name of St. Mary's; and it was agreed on both
sides, that if any wrong was done by either
party, the nation offending should make full sat-
isfaction for the injury.
The reason the Yoamaco Indians were so
ready to enter into a treaty with the English,
and yield them part of their country, was in
hopes of obtaining their protection and assist-
ance against the Susquehanna Indians, their
northern neighbours, with whom they were
then at war, and indeed the Yoamaco Indians
were upon the point of abandoning their coun-

', rLT MUHT O0 oT. MARY'S. W
try to avoid the fury of the Susquehanna na-
tion before the English arrived; from whence
it appears, that the adventurers sent over by
the Lord Baltimore cannot be charged with any
injustice in settling themselves in this part of
America, being invited to it by the original in-
The English being thus settled at St. Mary's,
applied themselves with great diligence to cul-
tivating the ground, and raised large quantities
of Indian corn, while the natives .went every
day into the woods to hunt for game, bringing
home venison and turkeys to the English colony
in abundance, for which they received knives,
tools, and toys in return. And thus both na-
tions lived in the greatest friendship, doing good
to each other, till some of the English in Vir-
ginia, envious of the happiness of this thriving
colony, suggested to the Indians that these stran-
gers were not really English, as they pretended,
ut Spaniards; and would infallibly enslave
them, as they had done many of their country-
men: and the Indians were so credulous as to
believe it, and appeared jealous of Mr. Calvert,
making preparations as if they intended to fall
upon the strangers; which the English per-
ceiving, stood upon their guard, and erected a
fort for their security, on which they planted
several pieces of ordnance, at the firing where-
of the Yoamacos were so terrified that they
abandoned their country without any other
compulsion, and left the English in possession
of it; who, receiving supplies and reinforce-

40 sarrms or anKIAN HISTORY.
ments continually from England, and having
no other enemy to contend with than agues and
fevers (which swept off some of them before
they found out a proper regimen for the climate)
they soon became a flourishing people, many
Roman Catholic families of quality and fortune
transporting themselves hither to avoid the pe-
nal laws made against them in England; and
Maryland has been a place of refuge for those
6f that persuasion from that day to this.


uIANDIG 0o Tw maimu. I

THE Pilgrim Fathers of New England afford
one of the most brilliant examples on record
of self sacrifice to aprinelple of duty. Having
adopted certain views of the Christian religion,
which they deemed it of vital importance to
transmit to their posterity pure and unadulte-
rated by intercourse with other denomination,
they resolved to found a separate community
in some distant region of the earth, and to have
it peopled by Puritans. This purpose tey
accomplished at the expense of all that.worldly
men most value. If, in preserving te religious
character of their community, thq dniuitted
act *twiac would now be cesiderdiimlerant,
let it, be smnembered that1 toleration was un-
kneow to ny government of that age. The
right of the ruling power to etde what it
considered heresy from the state was exercised
every where, and had but recently been queo


to the belief which she had chosen for then
established a High Commission for ecclesiastic
affairs; with powers, not inferior, or less hostile
to the rights of conscience, than those of th
Inquisition in Spain. Some attempts wer
made in the house of commons to check these
arbitrary and odious proceedings; but Elizabet
interfered with her prerogative, and the guai
dians of the people were silent. They eve
. consented to an act, by which those who should
be absent from church for a month were sut
jected to a fine and imprisonment, and, if the
persisted in their obstinacy, to death, without
benefit of clergy. In consequence of this in
quitous statute, and the distresses in which th
Puritans were involved, a body of them calle
Brownists, from the name of their founder, lei
England, and settled at Leyden, in Hollan(
under the care of Mr. John Robinson, their
pastor. But this situation at length provin
disagreeable to them, and their children intei
marrying with the Dutch, they were appreher
sive lest their church, which they regarded a
a model of untarnished purity, should gradually
decay; and having obtained a promise fror
James I. that they should not be molested i
the exercise of their religion, and a patent fror
the South Virginia company, they charter
two small vessels, in one of which they sale
4.na TIC.L- T..l.. OJ iaon -J ":-

tkAIfo or .pa au4ms. M
the other at Southampton. They were obliged
afterwards to leave one of their vessels behind ,
3n account of its leaky condition, and finally
sailed from Plymouth in the May Flower, the'
captain of which having been bribed by the
Dutch, who had a settlement at New York, to
take them beyond their limits, they made the
land as far north as Cape Cod, on the 9th of
Finding that they were not within the juris-
diction of South Virginia, and that they had no
right to the soil or powers of government, they
entered into a voluntary compact, conceived in
the following words: We, &c. do, by these
presents, solemnly and mutually, in the pre-
sence of God and one another, covenant and
combine ourselves together, into a civil body
politic, for our better ordering and preservation,
and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and, by
virtue hereof, to enact, constitute and frame
such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, con-
stitutions and offices, from time to time, as shall
be thought most meet and convenient for the
general good of the colony, unto which we pro-
mise all due submission and obedience."
This, the earliest American constitution, is
dated November llth, 1620, and signed by
forty-one persons. The whole company, m-
cluding women and children, amounted to one
hundred and one. After thus settling a social
extract, they proceeded to explore the coast,
and on the 20th of December, having found a

landed on the rock of Plymouth, a spot which,
as the asylum of religious liberty, is still re-
verenced by the sons of the Pilgrims, who
annually celebrate the anniversary of their
The inclemency of the season, their previous
sufferings at sea, and the hardships and priva-
tions to which they were still exposed, thinned
their ranks, till, at the end of four months from
their landing, nearly one half their number had
perished. At times only six or seven were fit
for duty. Before leaving England the Pilgrime
had formed a sort of partnership with certain
London merchants, by which they were bound
to carry on all their commerce in common foi
seven years. This proved a serious bar to the
advancement of the colony. At the end of th4
term the colonists bought the shares of theii
partners, and divided their joint property
among themselves. The government was ad
ministered by a governor and seven assistants
chosen annually by the people.



ABOUT the middle of March, 1621, Samoset,
e of the Indian sagamores, or captains, came
to Plymouth in a friendly manner, and gave
3 people to understand they were welcome
:o the country, and that his people would be
id to traffic with them. And coming again
3 next day with several other Indians, they
formedd the English that their great Sachem,
king, whom they called Mawsoit, had his
iidence but two or three daye march to the.
rthward, and intended them a visit; and
cordingly Massasoit arrived on the 22d of
arch, with a retinue of about sixty people,
d being received by Captain Standish at the
ad of a file of musketeers, was conducted to
iind of throne they had prepared for his In-
in majesty in one of their houses.
They relate that this monarch was of a large
Lture, middle aged, of a grave countenance,
d sparing in his spfch; that his face was
inted red, and both ead and face smeared
er with oil; that he had a mantle of deer-
in, and his breeches and stockings, which were
of a piece, were of the same materials; that
* knife or tomahawk hung upo& his breast on
string, his tobacco-pouch behind him, and his
ns were clothed with wild-cat skins; and in
) same garb were his principal attendants.


They did not obqrve any marks of distinction
between this prihee and his subjects, unless
were a chain of fish-bones which Massasc
wore about his neck.
Soon after the prince was seated, Carver, t]
governor, came in with a guard of musketeei
a drum and trumpet marching before hir
whereupon Massasoit rose up and kissed hir
after which they both sat down, and an enter
tainment was provided for the Indians, of whi,
no part appeared more acceptable to them thi
the brandy, the sachem himself drinking ve:
plentifully of it. In Massasoit's retinue w
the Above-mentioned Squanto, who had be
carried to Europe by Hunt and brought to Ne
England again, as related above. This Indii
it seems had a very great affection for the En
lish, among whom he lived several years; ai
it was to his favourable representation of tl
colony that the sachem was induced to ma]
them this friendly visit: and at thii fint me(
ing to enter into an alliance offensive and d
fensive with the English, and even to acknoi
ledge King James for is sovereign, and pr
mise to hold his dominWis of him; and as i
evidence of his sincerity, Massasoit grant
and transferred part of his country to tbeplan
ers and their heirs for ever. This alliance b
ing founded upon the mutual interests of tl
contracting parties was maintained inviolab
many years. The sachem, who had been i
formedby Squanto how powerful a people tl

himself their assistance agaitt the Narragan-
iet Indians, his enemies; and the English stood
n no less need of his friendship and assistance
o establish themselves in that country.

Tins hero was born'of mean parents, in
650, at a small plantation on the banks of the
iver Kennebeck, the north-east frontier ofNew
England. His father was a gunsmith, and left
is mother a widow with a large family of small
children. This William being one of the young-
st, kept sheep in the wilderness till he was
ighteen years of age, and was then bound ap-
irentice to a ship-carpenter. When he had
erved his time he went to sea, and having been
successful in some small adventures, at length
discovered a rich Spanish wreck, near the port
f La Plata, in Hispagola, which gained him
great reputation in tl English court, and in-
roduced him into the acquaintance of some of
he greatest men in the nation.
The gaileon, in which this treasure was lost,
ad been east away upwards of fifty years, and
ow Captain Phips came to the knowledge of it
oes not appear to us; but upon his applying
SiLbg Charles II. in the year 1688, and ac-

qusmting his majesty with the probability the
was of recovering it, the king made him coi
mander of the Algier Rose, a frigate of 18 gur
and 95 men, and sent him to Hispaniola
search of the prize. Here he was informed I
an old Spaniard of the very place where it w
lost, and began to fish for it, but his ship's cre
looking upon it as a romantic undertaking, aft
some little trial despaired of success, and coi
pulled him to return to England without effe(
ing anything. And though the captain assur
the ministry that the impatience of the seam,
only prevented his success, the court refused
be concerned in the enterprise any further, ai
it was dropped for some time.
However, the captain continuing his applic
tion to some great men, the Duke of Albemar
and several other persons of distinction, fitt
him out again in the year 1686; and arrivil
at the port De la Plata with a ship and tend
the captain went up into the woods, and bu
a stout canoe out of a cotton tree, large enouj
to carry eight or ten oars. This canoe and te
der, with some choice nen and skilful dive;
the captain sent out W search of the wreck
whilst himself lay at anchor in the port. T
canoe kept busking up and down upon the shi
lows, and could discover nothing but a reef
rising shoals, called the boilers, within two
three feet of the surface of the water.
The sea was calm, every eye was employ
in looking down into it, and the divers we
down in several places without making any d

am WIU PM rms. 49
cover, till at last, as they were turning back,
weary and dejected, one of the sailors looking
over the side of the canoe into the sea, spied a
feather under water, growing, as he imagined,
out of the side of a rock; one of the divers
was immediately ordered down to fetch it up,
and look out if there was anything of value
about it.
He quickly brought up the feather, and told
them that he had discovered several great guns;
whereupon he was ordered down again, and
then brought up a pig of silver of two or three
hundred pounds value, the sight of which filled
them with transports, and convinced them suf-
ficiently, that they had found the treasure they
had been so long looking for. When they hrld
buoyed the place, they made haste to the port,
and told the captain the joyful news, who could
hardly believe them, till they showed him the
silver, and then with hands lifted up to heaven,


W uf JV lJ *flO V In t URlEI*4 W.b IX4
prodigious quantities. Besides these things they
found vast treasures of gold, pearls, jewels, and
everything that a Spanish galleon used to be
laden with.
There was one Adderley, of Providence, who
had been with Captain Phips in his former voy-
age to this place, and promised to assist him
again if ever he should make a second adven-
ture, who met him with a small vessel at port
De la Plata, and with the few hands he had on
board took up six tons of silver for themselves.
They both staid till their provision was spent,
and then the captain obliging Adderley and his
men not to discover the place of the wreck, nor
come to it himself till the next year, they weigh-
ed anchor and returned. The reason of this
obligation was, because the last day of their
fishing the divers brought up several sows of
silver, which made the captain imagine that
there was a great deal of treasure yet behind,
though it afterwards appeared that they had in
a manner quite cleared the ship of her bullion
before they left her.
The captain steered directly away for Eng-
land without calling at any port by the way,
and arrived the latter end of the year, with
about three hundred thousand pounds sterling,
sixteen thousand of which, after all charges
paid, and gratuities to the sailors, came to his
own share: besides which, the Duke of Albe-

marle made4is wife a present of a golden cup
of a ttoosalab pounds value.
Some of King James's courtiers would have
persuaded him to have seized the ship and its
cargo, under pretence that the captain had not
rightly informed him of the nature of his pro-
ect when he was graciously pleased to grant
im his patent; but the king replied, that Phips
was an honest man, and that it was his coun-
cil's fault that he had not employed him him-
self, and therefore he would give him no dis-
turbance in what he had got; but as a mark
of his royal favour conferred upon him the ho-
nour of knighthood.

TRE British dominion in America underwent,
in the beginning of the seventeenth century,
some vicissitudes which in after years affected
materially the prosperity both of New England
and of the other colonial establishments in the
same quarter of the world. The war which
the king so wantonly declared against France
in 1627, and which produced only disgrace and
disaster to the British arms in Europe, was
attended with events of a very different com-
plexion in America. Sir David Kirk having
obtained a commission to attack the American
dominion of France, invaded Canada in the

summer of 1628; and so successful was the
expedition, that in July, 1629, Quebec was
reduced to surrender to the arms of England.
Thus was the capital of New France subdued
by the English, about one hundred and thirty
years before they achieved its final conquest by
the sword of Wolfe. This signal event was
unknown in Europe when peace was re-estab-
lished between France and England; and
Charles, by the subsequent treaty of St. Ger-
main, not only restored this valuable acquisi-
tion to France, but expressed the cession he
made in terms of such extensive application, as
undeniably inferred a recognition of the French,
and a surrender of the British claims to the
province of Nova Scotia. This arrangement
manifestly threatened no small prejudice to the
settlements of the English; and it was soon
found that what it threatened, it did not fail
Sto produce.


PLYmourT old Colony, as we have een, was
settled in 1620; Massachusetts was colonized
in 1630. In 1631, the people of the Old Colony
built a trading house at Windsor, for the pur-
pose of trade with the Indians, which consisted
chiefly in supplying them with merchandise
suited to their savage habits, and receiving in
return the valuable furs which they acquired
by hunting. The Dutch settled at Hartford
in 1633. In 1635, a fort was erected at Say-
brook, by John Winthrop. Before his arrival,
emigrants had formed settlements at Hartford,
Wethersfield, and Windsor. They came from
The increasing numbers of the colonists
causing the inhabitants of s9e of the town*
to feel themselves sllaitened Apr room, sug-
gested the formation of additional establish-
ments. A project of founding a new settlement
on the banks of the river Connecticut was now
embraced by Mr. Hooker, one of the ministers
of Boston, and a hundred of the members of
his congregation. After enduring extreme
hardship, and encountering the usual difficulties
that attended the foundation of a society in this
quarter of America, with the usual display of
puritpn fortitude and resolution, they at length
succeeded in establishing a plantation, which


gradually enlarged into th f flodrihing state of
opnecticat. Some Dutch settdU from New
Fork, wio had previously occupied a pet in
Ie country, were compelled to su-Ider it to
hein; aDojbey soon after obtained 9m Lord
rrooke add Lord Say and Seal, an assignation
) a district which these nebletmen had soquired
i this region, with the intetion of flying from
he royal tyranny to America. They had at
rst carried with them a commission from the
government of Massachusetts Bay, for the ad-
iinistration of justice in their new settlement;
ut, afterwards reflecting that their territory
'as beyond the jurisdiction of the authorities
rom whom this commission was derived, they
combined themselves by a voluntary association
ito a body politic, constructed on the same
iodel with the state from which they had
separated. They continued in this condition
ill the Restoration, when they obtained a char-
er for themselves from King Charles II. That
his secession from the colony of Massachusetts
lay was occasioned by lack of room in a
province as yet so imperfectly peopled, has
appeared so improbable to some writers, that
hey Iay, thought it necessary to assign another
ause9. have found none so satisfactory as
he jeasy which they conclude Mr. Hooker
nust invitably have entertained towards Mr.
,otton, whose influence had become so great in
L . f n * *

S"TTrLEZMT or COfN rlPT. b
could dwell i. rthe humble and holy breast of
Hookerryor be eoemrated by such inlnece 4 "
the ohlractsr of Cotton was former -` exert,
The peame f f 'redundant population was the
more rea8l experienced ae fipt flir'the un-
willingness of the settlers to iwnove far into the
interior of the codtry ua deprive themselves
of an easy communintion with the coast.
Another reason, indeed, appears to have
enforced the formation of this new settlement;
out it was a reason that argued not dissension,
but community of feeling and design between
the settlers who remained in Massachusetts and
those who removed to Connecticut. By the
establishment of this advanced station, a bar-
rier, it was hoped, would be erected against the
troublesome incursions of the Pequod Indians.
Nor is it utterly improbable that some of the
seceders to this new settlement were actuated
by a restless spirit which had hoped too much
from external change, and which vainly urged
a farther pursuit of that spring of contentment
which must rise up in the mind of him who
would enjoy it.
In the Immediate neighbourhood of this new
settlement, another plantation was ftled
about two years after, by a numerous b. of
emigrants who arrived from England,, er
the guidance of Theophilus Eaton, a gentleman
of fortune, and John Davenport, an eminent
puritan minister. Massachusetts Bay appear-
ing to them overstocked, and beini informed of

of Connecticut river, they.purchased from the
natives all the land that lies between that
stream and Hudson's river, which divides the
southern parts of New England from New
York. Seating themselves in this bay, they
spread along the coast, where they built first
the town of New Haven, which has given its
name to the settlement, and then the towns of
Guilford, Milford, Stamford, and Brainford
After some time they crossed the bay, anc
planted several settlements in Long Island; ir
all places where they came, erecting church
on the model of the independents. When we
perceive the injustice and cruelty exercised bl
the government of Britain, thus contributing te
cover the earth with cities, and to plant religion
and liberty in the savage deserts of America
we recognize the overruling providence of tha
great Being who can render even the fiercenes
of men conducive to his praise. Having n
patent, nor any other title to their lands than th
vendition of the natives, and not being include
within the boundaries of any colonial jurisdic
tion, these settlers entered into a voluntary
association of the same nature and for the sam
ends with that which the settlerl'in Connecti
cut had formed for themselves: -an in this cor
edition they remained till the PUisMtion, whe
New Haven and Connectiat Vwe unite
together by a charter of King OCh~l II.



THE circumstances that had promoted Ie
emigrations to New England, had operated
with particular force on the ministers of the
puritans; and so many of them had accom-
panied the other settlers, that among a people
who derived less enjoyment from the exercises
of piety, the numbers of the clergy would have
been thought exceedingly burdensome, and very
much disproportioned to the wants of the laity.
This circumstance was highly favourable to the
promotion of religious habits among the colo-
nists, as well as to the extension of their settle-
ments, in the plantation of which 4he co-opera-
tion of a minister was considered indispensa-
ble. It contributed also to suggest and facili-
tate missionary labour among the heathens, to
whom the colonists had associated themselves
by superadding the ties of a common country
to those of a common nature. While the peo-
ple at large were daily extending their industry,
and overcoming by cultivation the rudeness of
desert nature, the clergy eagerly looked around
for some addition to their peculiar sphere of
usefulness, &a at a very early period enter-
tained d f of7 redeeming to the dominion of
piety an : y, the neglected wastes of hu-
man cht ri ter that lay stretched in savage*
ignorance and idolatry around theme John

Elliot, one of the ministers of Roxbury, a man
whose large soul glowed with the intensest
flame of zeal and charity, was strongly pene-
trated with a sense of this duty, and for some.
time had been diligently labouring to overcome
the preliminary difficulty by which its perform-
ance was obstructed. He had now at length
attained such acquaintance with the Indian
language as enabled him not only himself to
speak it with fluency, but to facilitate the
acquisition of it to others, by the construction
and publication of a system of Indian gram-
mar. Having completed his preparatory inqui-
ries, he began, in the close of this year, a scene
of labour which has been traced with great
interest and accuracy by the ecclesiastical his-
torians of England, and still more minutely, I
doubt not, in that eternal record where alone
the actions of men attain their just, their final,
and everlasting proportions. It isarema a-
ble feature in his long and arduoas earWiritbt
the energy by.hich he was aotutim arer
sustained the slightest abatement, btst 'the
contrary, evinced a steady and increase. He appears never to have doubted
its continuance; but, constantly referring it to
God, he felt assured of its derivation from a
source incapable of being wasted by the most
liberal communication. He delighted to main-
tain this communication by incessant prayer,
and before his missionary labours commenced,
he had been known in the colony by the name
of praying Elliot" a noble designation, if

3EzxvozLmc o0r mLUOT AnD mAymn. 50
the noblest employment of a rational creature
be the cultivation of access to the Author of
his being. Rarely, very rarely, I believe, has
human nature been so completely embued, re-
fined, and elevated by religion. Everything he
saw or knew occurred to him in a religious
aspect: every faculty, and every acquisition
that he derived from the employment of his fa-
culties, was received by him as a ray let into his
soul from that Eternity for which he continually
panted. As he was one of the holiest, so was
e also one of the happiest of men; and his life
for many years was a continual outpouring of
his whole being in devotion to God and charity
to mankind.
The kindness of Mr. Elliot's manner soon
gained him a favourable hearing from many of
the Indians; and both parties being sensible of
the epediency of altering the civil and domestic
h tycpunteracted the impressions which
het d to produce, he obtained from the
ge r an allotment of land in the neigh-
ouh the settlement of Concord, in Mas-
sachusetts, upon which a number of Indian
families proceeded, by his directions, to build
fixed habitations, and where they eagerly re-
ceived his instructions both spiritual and secu-
lar. It was not long before a violent opposition
to these innovations was excited by the powaws,
or Indian priests, who threatened death and
other inflictions of the vengeance of their idols
on all who should embrace Christianity. The
menaces and artifices of these persons caused

sevieal of the seeming converts to draw back,
but induced others to separate themselves more
entirely from the society and converse of their
countrymen, and seek the benefit and protec-
tion of a closer association with that superior
race of men who showed themselves so gene-
rously willing to diffuse and communicate all
the means and benefits of their superiority. A
considerable body of Indians resorted to the
land allotted them by the colonial government,
and exchanged their wild and barbarous habits
for the modes of civilized living and industry.
Mr. Elliot was continually among them, in-
structing, animating, and directing them. They
felt his superior wisdom, and saw him continu-
ally happy; and there was nothing in his cir-
cumstances or appearance that indicated sources
of enjoyment from which they were debarred;
on the contrary, it was obvious that of every
article of selfish comfort he was willing to divest
himself i4 order to communicate to them what
he esteeed the only true riches of an immortal
being. e6 who gave him this spirit, gave him
favour Ai the eyes of the people among whom
he niiaistered; and their affection for him
reminds us of those primitive ages when the
converts were willing, as it were, to pluck out
their eyes if they could have given them to
their pastor. The womqn in the new settlement
learned to spin, the men to dig and till the
ground, and the children were instructed in the
English language, and taught to read and write.
As the numbers of domesticated Indians

increased they built a town by the side of
Charles river, which they called Natick; and
they desired Mr. Elliot to frame a system of
internal government for them. He directed
their attention to the counsel that Jethro gave
to Moses; and, in conformity with it, they
elected for themselves rulers of hundreds, of
fifties, and of tens. The colonial government
ilso appointed a court which, without assuming
jurisdiction over them, offered the assistance
>f its judicial wisdom to all who should be wil.
ling to refer to it the determination of their
more difficult or important subjects of contro-
versy. In endeavouring to extend their mis.
iionary influence among the surrounding tribes,
Mr. Elliot and his associates encountered a
variety of success corresponding to the visible
varieties of human character and the invisible
predeterminations of the Divine will. Many
expressed the utmost abhorrence and contempt
of Christianity: some made a hollow profession
Af willingness to hear, and evei of conviction,
with the view, as it afterward appeared, of
obtainingg the tools and other artieisof value
that were furnished to those who proposed to
embrace the modes of civilized living. In spite
3f every discouragement the missionaries per.
listed; and the difficulties that at first mocked
their efforts seeming at length to vanish under
an invisible touch, their labours were blessed
with astonishing success. The character ani
habits of the lay colonists tended to promote
the efficacy of these pious labours, in a manner

62 wArms- or AxUUmICAN NmOT.
which will be forcibly appreciated by all who
have examined the history and progress of mis-
sions. Simple in their manners, devout, moral,
and industrious in their lives, they enforced the
lessons of the missionaries by demonstrating
their practicability and beneficial effects, and
presented a model which, in point of refinement,
was not too elevated for Indian imitation.
While Mr. Elliot and an increasing body of
associates were thus employed in the province
of Massachusetts, Thomas Mayhew, a man
who combined in a wonderful degree an affec-
tionate mildness that nothing could disturb,
with an ardour and activity that nothing could
overcome, together with a few coadjutors, not
less diligently and successfully prosecuted the
same design in Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket
and Elizabeth Isles, and within the territory
comprehended in the Plymouth patent. Abasing
themselves that they might elevate their species
and promote the Divine glory, they wrought
with their own hands amone those Indians

employing a
the communi
movement, the
r1 ht tha can


denvea a capuvaung interest irom tna earnest
concern, and high and holy value, which he
manifestly entertained for every member of the
family of mankind. Many years after his death
the Indians could not hear his name mentioned
without shedding tears and expressing trano.
ports of grateful emotion. Both Elfiot and
Mayhew found great advantage in the practice
of selecting the most docile and ingenious of
their Indian pupils, and by especial attention
to their instruction, qualifying them to set as
schoolmasters among their brethren. To a seal
that seemed to increase by exercise, they added
insurmountable patience and admirable pro-
dence; and, steadily fixing their view on the
glory of the Most High, and declaring that,
whether outwardly successful or not m pro-
moting it, they felt themselves blessed and
happy in pursuing it, they found its influence
sufficient to light them through every perplexity
and peril, and finally conduct them to a degree
of success and victory unparalleled, perhaps,
since that era when the miraculous endowments
of the apostolic ministry caused a nation to be
born in a day. They were slow to push the
Indians upon improved institutions; they de-.
sired rather to lead them insensibly forward,
more especially in the adoption of religious
ordinances. Those practices, indeed, which
they considered likely to commend themselves
by their beneficial effect to the natural under*
standing of men. thev were not restrained from

recommending to their early adoption; and
trial by jury very soon superseded the savage
modes of determining right or ascertaining
guilt, and contributing to improve and refine
the sense of equity. In the dress and mode of
cohabitation of the savages, they also intro.
duced, at an early period, alterations calculated
to form and develop a sense of modesty, in
which the Indians were found to be grossly and
universally defective. But all these p4tices
which are,or ought to be, exclusively (tetuits
of renewed nature and Divine light, 'tey
desired to teach entirely by example, and by
dilipemtly radicating and cultivating in the
miads of their flocks the pribipies out of which
alone such prastinec ~i gly and benefi-
cially grow. It w rum h year 1660 that
the first Indian cbr. Wasu founded by Mr.
Elliot and his fllltwb ourers in Massachu-
setts. There were at that time no fewer than
ten settlements within the province, occupied
by Indians comparatively civilized.


Sh UUA rU Aa J %s F u O A^AO.

TnB treaty of Massasoit was observed for
fifty years, during which period New England
grew and flourished almostwithout interruption.
The war of king Philip gave the first severe
bldw to its prosperity, and retarded its progress
for ft years. This war, so injurious to the
country, was followed by a series ofineuiops
from the Eastern and Canadian Indian*ua WSy
instigated by the French inhabitantMofCanaac
and often attended with cruelties aan4 .atri.
ties, in which the j're~ h, who accompanied
the Indians, weort ': ,rompters, but
participatory. Hu*4Ait, Mswchusetts, was
sacked by the Indians on more than one accae
In 1698, when Haverhill was attacked and
fired by the Indians, a troop of them approached
the house' of a Mr. Dustan, who at that time
was abroad in the fields. He flew to the house,
which contained his wife and eight children
He directed the children to escape as fast as
possible, while he attempted to ,- his wife
who-was sick in bed. Before tb w bould be
done, the savages were at hand. Ie flew to
the door, mounted his horse, seized his gun and
hastened away with his children. The Indians
pursued and fired upon them; but Dustan re-
turned the fire, and keeping himself in the rear

of his troop of little ones, held the savages at
bay till he had retreated to a place of safety.
Mrs. Dustan, with her infant, six days old,
and their nurse, fell into the hands of the
The child was soon dashed against a tree and
killed. The Indians divided into several par.
ties for subsistence, and Mrs. Dustan and her
nurse, and a boy taken from Worcester, fell to
the lot of a family of twelve, with whom they
travelled through the wilderness to an island,
at the mouth of Contoocook river, in the town
of Bowcawen, N. H. where they encamped for
the night. Just before daylight, finding the
whole company in a profound sleep, she arose
and armed herself and companions with the
Indian tomahawks, which they wielded with
such destructive effect, that ten of the twelve
were instantly despatched; one woman escaping
whom they thought they had killed, and a
favourite boy was designedly left. They took
the scalps of the conquered enemy, and taking
a canoe for their own use, and cutting holes in
one or more that were left, to prevent pursuit,
they descended the river, and arrived home in
safety. She received a reward of fifty pounds
from the treasury of the colony. The place
whence they were taken, is about one mile
north of the town; it is still owned by her
descendants, and part of the house is still


WHEN Canada was in possession of the
French, a Catholic priest, named Father Ni-
cholas, having assembled a considerable number
of the Indians whom he had converted, settled
them in the village which is npw called St.
Regis, on the banks of the St. Lawrence. The
situation is one of the most beautiful on that
noble river, and the village at this day the most
picturesque in the country. The houses, high
roofed and of a French appearance, are scattered
round the semicircle of a little bay, and on a
projecting headland stand& the church, with its
steeple glittering with a vivacity inconceivable
by those who have not seen the brilliancy of
the tin roofs of Canada contrasted in the sun-
shine with the dark woods.
This little church is celebrated for the legend
of its bell.
When it was erected, and the steeple com-
pleted, father Nicholas took occasion, in one of
his sermons, to inform his simple flock that a
bell was as necessary to a steeple as a priest is
to a church, and exhorted them, therefore, to.
collect as many furs as would enable him to
procure one from France. The Indians were
not sloths in the performance of this pious
duty. Two bales were speedily collected and
shipped for Havre de Grace, and in due time
the worthy ecclesiastic was informed that the

bell was purchased and put on board the Grand
Monarque, bound for Quebec.
It happened that this took place during one
of those wars which the French and English
are naturally in the habit of waging against
one another, and the Grand Monarque, in con-
sequence, never reached her destination. She
was taken by a New-England privateer and
carried into Salem, where the ship and cargo
were condemned as prize, and sold for the cap-
tors. The bell was bought for the town of
Deerfield, on the Connecticut river, where a
church had been recently built, to which that
great preacher, the Rev. John Williams, was
appointed. With much labour it was carried
to the village, and duly elevated in the belfry.
When father Nicholas heard of this misfor-
tune, he called his flock together and told them
of the purgatorial condition of the bell in the
hands of the heretice, and what a laudable
enterprise it would be to redeem it.
This preaching was, within its sphere, as
inspiring as that of the hermit Peter. The
Indianslamented to one another the deplorable
unbaptized state of the bell., Of the bell itself
they had no very clear, ideal but they knew
that father Nicholas said mM and preached in
the church, and they andentood the bell was
to perform some analogous service in the
steeple. Their woita activity in the chase
was at an end; they sat in groups on the mar-
gin of the river, communing on the calamity
which had befallen the bll: andueme of them

TrS UBLL or 9r. mnU g
roamed alone, ruminating on the means of res-
cuing it. The squaws, who had been informed
that its voice would be heard farther than the
roaring of the rapids, and that it was more
musical than the call of the whip-poor-will in
the evening, moved about in silence and dejec-
tion. All were melancholy, and finely touched
with a holy enthusiasm; many fasted, and some
voluntarily subjected themselves to severe pe-
nances, to procure relief for the captive, or
mitigation of its sufibrings.
At last the day of deliverance drew near.
The Marquis de Vaudrieul, the governor of
Canada, resolved to send an expedition against
the British colonies of Massachusetts and New
Hampshire: the command was given to Major
Hertel de.Rouville: and one of the priests
belonging to the Jesuit's College at Quebec
informed father Nicholas, by a pious voyageur,
of the proposed incursion. The Indians were
immediately assembled in the church; the
voyageur was elevated in the midst of the con-
gregation, and father Nicholas, in a solemn
speech, pointed him out to their veneration as
a messenger of lad tidings. He then told
them of the warlms preparations at Quebec,
and urged them to join the expedition. At the
conclusion, the whio audience rose, giving the
war-whoop; then simultaneously retiring to
their houses, they began lto paint themselves
with their most terrible pours for battle, and,
as if animated.b one willkt their council fire,
they resolved wina thie 4pedition.

It was in the depth of winter when they set
out to unite themselves with De Rouville's
party at the fort of Chambly. Father Nicholas,
with a tall staff, and a cross on the top of it,
headed them; and, as they marched off, their
wives and children, in imitation of the hymns
which animated the departures of the first
crusaders under the command of Godfrey de
Boulogne, chanted a sacred song which the
holy father had especially taught them for the
They arrived at Chambly, after a journey
of incredible fatigue, as the French soldiers
were mounting their sleighs to proceed to Lake
Champlain. The Indians followed in the track
of the sleighs, with the perseverance peculiar
to their character. Father Nicholas, to be the
more able to do his duty when it might be
required, rode on a sleigh with De Puville.
In this order and array, the Indians, far
behind, followed in silence, until the whole
party had rendezvoused on the borders of Lake
Champlain, which, being frozen, and the snow
but thinly upon it, was chosen for their route.
Warmed in their imaginations with the un-
happy captivity of the bell, the Indians plodded
solemnly their weary way; no symptom of
regret, of fatigue, or of apprehension, relaxed
their steady countenances; they saw with
equal indifference the black and white inter-
minable forest on the shore, on the one hand,
and the dread and dreary desert of the snowy
ice of the lake, on the other.

TI% SMral W ET. m IA
The French soldiers began to suffer extreme-
ly from the toil of wading through the snow,
and beheld with admiration and envy the fa-
cility with which the Indians, in their snow
shoes, moved over the surface. No contrast
could be greater than the patience of father
Nicholas's proselytes and the irritability of the
When they reached the spot on which the
lively and pretty town of Burlington now
stands, a general halt was ordered, that the
necessary arrangements might be made to pene-
trate the forest towards the settled parts of
Massachusetts. In starting from this point,
father Nicholas was left to bring up his divi-
sion, and De Rouville led his own with a com-
pass in his hand, taking the direction of Deer-
field. Nothing that had been yet suffered was
equal to Ike hardships endured in that march.
Day after May the Frenchmen went forward
with indefatigable bravery,-a heroic contrast
to the panics of their countrymen in the Rus-
sian snow-storms of latter times. But they
were loquacious; and the roughness of their
course and the entangling molestation which
they encountered from the underwood, pro-
voked their maledictions and excited their
gesticulations. The conduct of the Indians
was far different: animated with holy zeal,
their constitutional taciturnity had something
dignified-even sublime, in its sternness. No
murmur escaped them; their knowledge of tra-
velling the woods instructed them to avoid

79 nAUrrnm oI avIN AMwUAN UNY.
many of the annoyances which called forth the
pestes and sares of their not less brave, bu&
more vociferous companions.
Long before the party had reached their
destination, father Nicholas was sick of his
crusade| the labour ofthreading the forest had
Iliketd his feet, and the recoiling boughs
h4d, -ho time to time, by his own inadvertency
iirfiibowiag too closely behind his companions,
sorefy bWined, even to excoriation, his cheeks.
Still he felt that he was engaged in a sanctified
adventure; he recalled to mind the martyrdoms
of the saints and the persecutions of the fa-
thers, and the glory that would redound to
himself in all after ages, from the redemption
of the ball.
ph evening of the 29th of February,
1T4, the expedition arrived within two miles
of erfield, without having been discovered.
De Routille ordered his men to halt, rest, and
refresh themselves until midnight, at which
hour he gave orders that the village should be
The surface of the snow was frozen, and
crackled beneath the tread. With great sa-
gacity, to deceive the English garrison, De
Rouville directed, that in advancing to the
assault, his men should frequently pause, and
then rush for a short time rapidly forward.
By this ingenious precaution, the sentinels in
the town were led to imagine that the sound
came from the irregular rustle of the wind
through the laden branches of the snowy

mrT eOr ow nasL. ,
forest; but an alarm was at last given, and a
terrible conflict took place in the streets. The
French fought with their accustomed spirit,
and the Indians with their characteristic forti-
tude. The garrison was dispersed, the town
was taken, and the buildings set on t
At daybreak all the Indians, altt i pty
exhausted by the fatigue of the n'i tid
in a body, and requested the hotfly to
conduct them to the bell, that they W&i t per-
form their homages and testify their veneration
for it. Father Nicholas was not a little dis-
concerted at this solemn request, and de Rou-
ville, with many of the Frenchmen, who were
witnesses, laughed at it most unrighteously.
But the father was not entirely discoafited.
As the Indians had never heard a bell 16m,
he obtained one of the soldiers from DIflton-
ville, and despatched him to ring it. Tbh
sound, in the silence of the frosty dawn and
the still woods, rose loud and deep; it was, to
the simple ears of the Indians, as the voice of
an oracle; they trembled, and were filled with
wonder and awe.
The bell was then taken from the belfry, and
fastened to a beam with a cross-bar at the end,
to enable it to be carried by four men. In this
way the Indians proceeded with it homewards,
exulting in the deliverance of the miraculous
organ." But it was soon found too heavy for
the uneven track they had to retrace, and, in
consequence, when they reached their starting
point, on the shore of Lake Champlain, they

74 BBATmTx or A.xnmsIl MTlm r.
buried it, with many benediction from father
Nicholas, until they could come with proper
means to carry it away.
As soon as the ice was broken up, father
Nicholas assembled them again in the church,
and, having procured a yoke of oxen, they pro-
ceeded to bring in the bell. In the meantime
all the squaws and papooses had been informed
of its marvellous powers and capacities, and
the arrival of it was looked to as one of the
greatest events in the womb of time." Nor
did it prove far short of their aiticipations.
One evening, while they were talking and
communing together, a mighty sound was heard
approaching in the woods; it rose louder and
louder; they listened, they wondered, and
began to shout and cry, It is the bell."
It was so. Presently the oxen, surrounded
by the Indians, were seen advancing from the
woods; the beam was laid across their shoul-
der ,.and, as the bell swung between them, it
wsondd wide and far. On the top of the
beam a rude seat was erected, on which sat
father Nicholas, the most triumphant of mortal
meot adorned with a wreath round his temples;
the Oxen, too, were ornamented with garlands
of flowers. In this triumphant aray, in the
calm of a beautiful evening, when the leaves
were still and green, and while the roar of Le
longue Saulte rapid, softened by distance, rose
like the hum of a pagan multitude rejoicing in
the restoration of an idol, they approached the
viY p.

The bell, in due season, was elevated to its
place in the dteple, and, at the wonted hours
of matins and vespers, it still cheers with its
cleai and swelling voice the solemn woods and
the majestic St. Lawrence.

TUa first Jolb Wlnthop came into this coun-
try in the year IlOt0ely ten years after the
landing of the Pl~ts at Plymouth. He was
a man of talents, learning, and virtue, and was
early promoted in the infant colony. In the
year 1645, when he was deputy governor, he
was charged before the General Court with
having been guilty of an invasion upon the lib-
erties of the people. Upon a hearing, notwith-
standing a considerable degree of passion had
been excited, he was honourably acquitted ad
the persons who were at the bottom of the at-
tack upon him, were afterwards severally.-hed
and censured. Upon resuming his seat as gv-
ernor, he addressed the court in the following
speech, whidb we think would do no discredit
to any magistrate, of any country, at any pe-
riod:- '
"I shall not now speak anything about the
past proceedings of this court, or the persons
therein concerned. Only I bless God that I see
_n &aa,a ^d .L:- l ..... r ?.;- .,., l

Lord hath seen so much amiss in my adminis-
tration, as calls me to be humbled; and indeed
for me to have been thus charged by men, is a
matter of humiliation, whereof I desire to make
a right use before the Lord. If Miriam's fa-
ther spit in her face, she is to be ashamed.-But
give me leave before you go, to say something
that may rectify the opinions of many people.
The questions that have troubled the country
have been about the authority of the magistra-
cy, and the liberty of the people. It is you that
have called us into this office; but being thus
called, we have our authority from God; it is
te ordinance of God, and it hath the image of
God stamped on it; and the contempt of it has
been vindicated by God with terrible examples
of his vengeance. I entreat you to consider,
that when you choose magistrates, you take
them from among yourselves, men subject unto
like passions with yourselves. If you see our
infirmities, reflect on your own, and yeu will
not be so severe censurers of our's. We ount
him a good servant who breaks not I cove-
nants: the covenant between us and yous ii the
oath you have taken of us, which is to thu pur-
pose, that we shall govern you, and jud'e your
causes according to God's law and our own, ac-
cording to our best skill. M for our skill, you
must run the hazard of it and if there be an
error. not in the will. but onlv in the skill. it


becomes you to bear it. Nor would I have you.
o mistake in the point of your own liberty.
There is a liberty of corrupt nature, which is
fected both by men and beasts to do what they
ist; and this liberty is inconsistent with all au-
hority, impatient of all restraints; by this lib-
rty, sumus omnes deteriores: 'tis the grand ene-
ny of truth and peace, and all the ordinances
of God are bent against it. But there is A
chich is the proper end and object of author-
ty; it is a liberty for that only which is JUST
and GooD; for this liberty, you are to stand
vith the hazard of your very lives; and what-
ver crosses it, is not authority, but a distemper
hereof. This liberty is maintained in a way
)f subjection to authority; and the authority
let over you, will in all administrations for your
good, be quietly submitted unto, by all but such
is have a disposition to shake off the yoke, and
lose their true liberty, by their murmuring at
the honour and power of authority."
The JpeU," says Cotton Mather, that was
upon the eyes of the people, being thus remov-
ed, their distorted and enraged notions of things
all vaudised; and the people would not after-
wards entrust the helm of the weather-beaten
bark in any other hands but Mr. Winthrop's
until he died."

-- S




In the course of Philip's war, which involved
almost all the Indian tribes in New England,
and among others those in the neighbourhood
of Hadley, the inhabitants thought it proper to
observe the first of September, 1675, as a day
of fasting and prayer. While they were in the
church, and employed in their worship, they
were surprised by a band of savages. The peo-
ple instantly betook themselves to their arms-
which, according to the custom of the times,
they had carried with them to the church-and
rushing out of the house, attacked their invad-
ers. The panic, under which they began the
conflict, was, however, so great, and their num-
ber was so disproportioned to that of their ene-
mies, that they fought doubtfully at first, and
in a short time began evidently to give way.
At this moment an ancient man, with hoary
locks, of a most venerable and dignified aspect,
and in a dress widely differing from that of the
inhabitants, appeared suddenly at their head,
and with a firm voice and an example of un-
daunted resolution, reanimated their spirits, led
them again to the conflict, and totally routed
the savages. When the battle was ended, the
stranger disappeared; and no person knew
whence he had come, or whither he had gone.
The relief was so timely, so sudden, so unex-

. JUDIOU16Drf~grrV

pected, and so providential; the appearance and-
the retreat of him who furnished it were so un-
accountable; his person was so dignified and
commanding, his resolution so superior, and his
interference so decisive, that the inhabitants,
without any uncommon exercise of credulity,
readily believed him to be an angel, sent by
Heaven for their preservation. Nor was this
opinion seriously controverted, until it was dis-
covered, several years afterward, that Goffe
and Whalley had been lodged in the house of
Mr. Russell. Then it was known that their
deliverer was Goffe; Whalley having become
superannuated some time before the event took
place. ?

JUDGE SEWALL, of Massachusetts, who died
in 1760, went one day into a hatter's shop, in
order to purchase a pair of second-hand brushes
for cleaning his shoes. The master of the shop
presented him with a couple. 1" What is your
price?" said the judge. If they will answer
your purpose," replied the other, you may
have them and welcome." The judge, upon
hearing this, laid them down, and bowing, was
leaving the shop; upon which the hatter said
to him, Pray sir, your honour has forgotten

the principal object of your visit." By nc
means," answered the judge; if you please tc
set a price I am ready to purchase: but evei
since it has fallen to my lot to occupy a seat or
the bench, I have studiously avoided receiving
to the value of a single copper, lest at some
future period of my life, it might have some
kind of influence in determining my judgment,

GOVERNOR DINWIDDIE having informed tlh
assembly of Virginia, on the 1st of November
1753, that the French had erected a fort on the
Ohio, where Pittsburg now stands, it was re-
solved to send a message to M. St. Pierre, the
commander, to claim that country as belonging
to his Britannic Majesty, and to order him t(
withdraw. Mr. Washington, the future father
of his country, a young gentleman just arrive
at age, offered his services on this importat
and hazardous mission. The distance from Wil.
liamsburg, the capital of Virginia, was upward
of 400 miles; more than one half of which wai
through a trackless and howling desert, inhab
ited by cruel and merciless savages; sad th(
season was uncommonly severe. Notwitltb0d.
ig these discouraging circumstances, Mr.
Washington, attended by one companion only,

st out upon this arduous and dangerous enter-
rise; travelled from Winchester on foot, car-
ying his provisions on his back, executed his
commission, and after incredible hardships, and
iany providential escapes, returned safe to
Villiamsburg, and gave an account of his
negotiation to the assembly, the 14th day of
Februaryy following.

THIs venerable and distinguished soldier of
he revolution, after having reached the patri-
rchal age of eighty-three, closed his earthly
pilgrimage at Wilmingtqn, Delaware, in 1829.
Colonel M'Lane was distinguished for daring
personal courage, and for his unremitted activity
,s a partisan officer. He was long attached to
ee's famous legion of horse, which, throughout
he war, was the terror of the British. An
,aance of his personal prowess, related to us
himselff, we may be permitted to give.
While the British occupied Philadelphia,
,olonel M'Lane was constantly scouring the
adjacent country, particularly the upper part
f Phiadelphia, Bucks, and Montgomery coun-
ies.-sizing every opportunity to cut off the
outing parties of the enemy, to intercept their
applies of provisions, and to take advantage
f every opening which offered for striking a

89 nBAuTnn ior-LaICAN ronY.
sudden blow. In this capacity, he rendered
many important services to the army, "4
caused great alarm to the British; and though
they frequently attempted to surprise and take
him, yet such was his constant watchfulness,
that none of their attempts succeeded. Having
concerted with Captain Craig, the plan of an
attack upon a small detachment of the enemy,
they agreed to rendezvous at a house near
Shoemakertown, eight miles from Philadelphia,
on the Willow Grove turnpike. Col. M'Lane,
having ordered his little band of troopers to
follow at some distance, commanded two of
them to precede the main body, but also to keep
in his rear; and if they discovered an enemy to
ride up to his side and inform him of it without
speaking aloud. While leisurely approaching
the place of rendezvous, in this order, in the
early grey of the morning, the two men directly
in his rear, forgetting their orders, suddenly
called out, Colonel, the British I" faced about,
and putting spurs to their horses, were soon
out of sight. The colonel, looking around, dis-
covered that he was in the centre of a powerful
ambuscade, into which the enemy had silently
allowed him to pass, without his observing
them. They lined both sides of the road, and
had been stationed there to pick up any strag-
gling party the Americans that might chance
to pass. Immediately on finding they were dis-
covered, a file of soldiers rose from the side of
the highway, and fired at the colonel, but with-
out effect -and as he put spurs to his horse,

eoLmwL AM. 88
and mounted the roadside int6 the woods, the
other part of the detachment also fired. The
colonel miraculous escaped: but a .bot
striking his horse 'pon the flank, he dashed
through the woods, and in a few minutes,
reached a parallel road upon the opposite side
of the forest. Being familiar with the country,
he feared to turn to the left, as that course led
to the city, and he might be intercepted by
another ambuscade. Turning, therefore, to the
right, his frightened horse carried him swiftly
beyond the reach of those who fired upon him.
Al at once, however, on emerging from a piece
of woods, he observed several British troopers
stationed near the roadside, and directly in
sight ahead, a farm-house, around which he
observed a whole troop of the enemy's cavalry
drawn up. He dashed by the troopers near
him, without being molested, they believing
he was on his way to the main body to surrender
himself. The farm-house was situated at the
intersection of two roads, presenting but few
avenues by which he could escape. Nothing
daunted by the formidable array before him, he
galloped up to the cross-roads, on reaching
which he spurred his active horse, turned sud-
denly to the right, and was soon fairly out of.
the reach of their pistols, though as he turned,
he heard them call loudly, "Surrepder or die I"
A dozen were instantly in pursWt; but, in a
short time, they all gave up the chase, except
two. Colonel M'Lane's horse, scared by the
first wound he had ever received, and being a

84 aEUtEIm W AmKaIN xK TO

ral mil

the hlrses of thir
so much that apet
a walk Occauio
priwud on a little

so near that a conversation took place between
them: the troopers calling out, "Surrender,
you damned rebel, or we '11 cut you to pieces."
Suddenly, one of them rode up on the right side
of the oplomel, and without drawing his sword,
laid hold of his collar. The latter, to use his
own words, "had pistols which he knew he
could depend upon." .Drawiq one from the
holeter, he placed it to the dM of his antago-
nist, fired, and tumbled hin.dead on the ground.
Instantly the other came up on his left, with
sworn drawn, and also seized him by the collar
of his coat. A fierce and deadly struggle here
ensued; in the course of which Colonel M'Lane
was desperately wounded in the back of his left
hand, cutting asunder the veins and tendons of
that member. Seizing a favourable opportu-
nity, he drew his other pistol, and with a stea-

'.ATTr~IM Tft!W35 m-. y
Dess oW .urpoe in the

Agth succeeded "sM "f t proft l"f

' blood oooae ned by b and. i

On Sunday, June 21st, 1778, Mr. h
teed, of Philadelphia, received a i -
age from Mrs. Ferguson, expressway i
Ssee him on busineM, which could. tt bi
ummitted to W'it'i. i .n jis attending in .
evening, agre*b "her appointment, atO.
)ne previousamu seation, she enlarged upli.,
ie great talents and amiable qualities o:
governor Johnstone and added, that in several
conversations with her, he had expressed the
lost favourable sentiments of Mr. Reed; that
was particularly wished to engage his inteast
) promote the objects of the British commis-
loners, viz:--a reunion of the two countries,"'
r consistent with his principles and judgment: #'

W BsAmas OF Am-rAN aTUrr.
and that in such case it could not be deemed
unbecoming or improper in the British goverin-
Ilent to take a favourable notice of such con-
dust: and that in this instance Mr. Reed might
have ten thousand pounds sterling, and any
office in the colonies in his majesty's gift. Mr.
Reed, finding an answer expected, replied, "I
am not worth purchasing, but such as I am the
King of Great Britain is not rich enough to do
it." This anecdote is given by Dr. Cordon,
who was on the royalist side in the war.

"WHEN," says Dr. .obo6 the British
prisoners taken at ISri their march
to Boston, the American lined the road on
each side. "Th expected to have met with
many insults w J passing through the centre
of them, suplp to be between eleven and
twelve thou-" troops; but to their great sur-
prise, not *vTin the least gesture was made use
of by way of insult." Considering the exas-
perating character of the previous warfare,
this generous courtesy of the American victors
is remarkable. Other instances of tLir for-
bearance in the hour of triumph are namSPoW.


OCAriTU ao mOnT W aml. a

No sooner did Genesl uashington observe
)w Sir H. Clinton had,strengthened the pedts
' Stony Pint and.:Verplank, than he enter-
lined dthe d of attacking them. Toward
ie end of Jale, he ordered that a trusty, intel-
gent peron should be employed to go into the
orks of the first; and on the 8th of July, he
'as informed by a deserter, that there was a
Lndy beach" on the south side of it, running
ong tbh eK4.the works, and only obstructed
y a sligbtk which might afford an easy
id sat ~ I to a body of troops. He
rmed pits for attMo 4 Wh posts at the
ime instant; the xecut f which were
trusted with Geral and General
lowe. All the a t light infantry
arched frea Wder. Lieutenant
olonel Hull, in tl e 15th, and
lined'Wayne at Sandy Bqi miles from
tony Point. The general dl the ground
: twelve o'clock. The roads exceedingly
id and narrow, and the tr~iMng to pass
rer high mountains, throu &ult deilsl
id deep morasses, were olie to move in
ngle files the greatest port of the way. This,
id the great heat of thiday, occasioned much
lay, so that it was eight in the evening before
e w*t arrived within a mile and a half of the
temy, yiepr the men formed into columns,

and remained till several of the princip
officers, with General Wayne, returned fro
reconnoitering the works. At half-past elevi
o'clock, the whole moved forward; the van i
the right consisting of one hundred and fif
volunteers, under Lieutenant Colonel Fleur
the van of the left, consisting of one hundri
volunteers, under Major Stuart, each with u
loaded muskets and fixed bayonets, preceded I
a brave and determined officer, with twen
picked men, to remove the abbatis and oth
obstructions. The last, and the overflowing i
the morass in front, by the tide, prevented tl
assault's commencing till about twenty minute
after twelve (July 16th). Previous to it,Wayi
placed himself at the head of the right colum
and gave the troops the most pointed orders n
to fire on any account, but place their whc
deDendence on the bavonet. which order w

VANTuis W vuIrx FoIurT.

praise, and justly, for it would have done honour
to the most veteran troops. Wayne had but
fifteen killed and eighty-three wounded, not
above thirty of which were finally lost to the
service. The general himself received a slight
wound in the head with a musket-ball; but it
did not prevent his going on with the troops,
and he is not included in the wounded. The
enemy had only sixty-three killed. Lieutenant
Colonel Johnston, who commanded the fort,
with other officers and privates, amounting to
five hundred and forty-three, were made pri-


90 AUrAm or0 AmicAN HMTORY.


AxoNo the "Beauties of American History,"
the conduct of the pioneers of the West cer-
tainly appears in a conspicuous light. These
men took their lives in their hands, when they
penetrated the dark depths of the western
wilderness, to found establishments, which are
now the admiration of the world. They en-
countered perils and privations, the mere recital
of which causes the ears of the hearer to tingle,
and his blood to chill in his veins. Tie settle-
ment of each particular state in the West would
furnish materials for volumes of romance. That
of Kentucky is not the least remarkable among
The first settlement within the limits of
Kentucky was made by the celebrated Daniel
Boone, in 1775. He was a native of Maryland,
and as early as 1769, made a visit to this coun-
try. In 1770 he was living alone in the woods,
the only white man in Kentucky. The next
year, he, with his brother, explored the country
as far as Cumberland river, and in 1775, Boone
had collected a company of forty-five persons,
who attempted to form a settlement; but they
were attacked by the Indians and lost their
cattle. In 1775, he built a fort where Boons-
borough now stands, and this was the first


effectual settlement in the state. Boone was
afterwards taken prisoner by the savages, but
escaped and arrived at Boensborough, after a
journey of one hundred and sixty miles through
the woods, which he performed in four days,
eating but a single meal in that time. He was
afterwards actively engaged in warfare with
the Indians, who continually annoyed the early
settlers with hostilities. Being subsequently
vexed with law-suits respecting his title to the
land in his possession, he retired to the banks
of the Missouri, and led a solitary life among
the forests. We saw him," says Mr. Flint,
"on those banks, with thin, grey hair, a high
forehead, a keen eye, a cheerful expression, a
singularly bold conformation of countenance
and breast, and a sharp and commanding voice,
and with a creed for the future, embracing not
many articles beyond his red rival hunters.
He appeared to us the same Daniel Boone, if
we'may use the expression, jerked and dried to
high preservation, that he had figured, as the
wanderer in the woods, and the slayer of bears
and Indians. He could no longer well descry
the wild turkey on the trees; but his eye still
kindled at the hunter's tale, and he remarked
that the population on that part of the MisyVi
was becoming too dense, and the farms too near
each other for comfortable range, and that he
never wished to reside in a place where he
could not fell trelp .iough into his yard to keep
up his winter fire Dim as was his eye with age,
it would not have been difficult, we apprehend,

to have obtained him as a volunteer on d
hunting expedition over the Rocky Mountains.
No man ever exemplified more strongly the
ruling passion, strong in death." He died in
1822, aged eighty-five.

regiment belonging to Rhode Island, with
several other officers and volunteers, to the
number of forty, passed by night (July 10th,
1777,) from Warwick Neck to Rhode Island,
then in possession of the British army; and
though they had a passage of ten miles by
water, eluded the watchfulness of the ships of
war and guard-boats which surrounded the
island. They conducted their enterprise with
such silence and dexterity, that they surprised
General Prescot in his quarters, about one mile
from the water side, and five from Newport,
and brought him, with one of his aids-de-camp,
safe to the continent, which they had nearly
reached before there was any alarm among the
enemy. This adventure, which with impartial
judges must outweigh Colonel Harcourt's cap-
ture of General Lee, produced much exultation
on the one side, and much regret on the other
from the influence it would necessarily have on
T e w .* .* wa .. .*

before, Congress had received information that
Lee was treated by General Howe with kind-
ness, generosity, and tenderness, which had led
them to desire that Colonel Campbell and the
five Hessian officers should be treated in a simi
lar manner, consistently with the confinement
and safe custody of their persons. They re-
solved, within a few days after hearing of Pres-
cot's being taken, that an elegant sword should
be provided and presented to Colonel Barton.


MncCY WABREN, the wife of James Warren,
a distinguished statesman and patriot, who
flourished before, and during the revolutionary
conflict, was born at Barnstable, in the old
colony of Plymouth, in 1727. She was the
daughter of Colonel James Otis, of Barnstable,
and sister to James Otis, the great leader of the
revolution in Massachusetts. Mrs. Warren
had fine talents, highly cultivated. Her brother,
the great patriot, two years older than herself,
was an excellent scholar, and directed and
assisted his sister in her studies. Mrs. Warren
had an active, as well as a powerful mind, and
took a part in the politics of the day. She kept
a correspondence with some of the active
statesmen of the times, and of course was well
informed in all that was going on in this country

and in England. She wrote several satirical
pieces, poetical and dramatic, which, it is ad,
by those who lived at that time, had a d
effect in keeping down tory influence., bhe
bold and daring Brigadier Ruggles, severely
felt the force of her lash. It is said she intended
to designate him by one of the characters in the
"Group," an irregular dramatic piece, contain-
ing much satire even now, when some of the
peculiar incidents are lost. Mrs. Warren wrote
also two tragedies, of five acts each, and of
common length. The first is, the Sack of
Rome," and the other, The Ladies of Castile."
These dramas were written during the war,
and published before the close of it, as early as
1778. These productions are full of patriotic
feeling and heroic sentiments. The writer was
master of rhythm, and her lines can be scanned;
a century hence they will be sought for, and
read with enthusiasm. They are preserved in
a volume with other poems, which were printed
in her life-time. It is not easy, at the present
time, for us to believe all that has been said of
the effects of her writings; but the tradition is
too well eOthenticated to leave a doubt of it on
our minds. She also wrote the history of the
revolutionary war, which she published in three
volumes, in 1805, more than twenty-two years
after the close of the scenes she narrates. This
is an excellent work of its kind, rather com-
bined with a free spirit of democracy. In her
delineations of character, she was a little too
... .-_-* ... 4"-_-.. -r -: ,-- :- r--.l:_ T .. -.. :---

Xsn. WASM, TH saf bionx. 95
the portrait of John Adams, she exhibited him
as uclining to aristocratic principles, whioh
prlMeed a sharp correspondence between the
stlmian and historian, but which was ami-
cably settled, and notes of courtesy passed
between them. She held a free pen, and the
great defender of independence was not remark-
able for the virtue of the man of Uz. This his-
tory shows great research and sound judgment.
It is seldom that women have written of
battles with any success, even in fiction. Miss
Porter is perhaps an exception, and certainly
Mrs. Warren shows that she had some idea of
a eight. In the American female historian's
works, there is one remarkable feature, that is,
she is careful in detailing circumstances, and
indulges in no fears in defeat, and no rhapsodies
in victory. Mrs. Warren was in advance of
the age as a female writer. Neither Hannah
More, Miss Edgeworth, Baillie, or any of that
bright coterie of fair ones, who have come for-
ward of late years, were in her time known to
the reading public; and it was settled almost
as common law, that women were not to pre-
sume to teach thO eading world,' flcularly
in the graver matters of history and politics.
Mrs. Warren made herself unpopular in taking
a part against the adoption of the constitution.
She supplied the opposition in the convention
of Massachusetts, of 1777, with all their argu-
ments; but they could not deliver them with
her eloquence, and they failed. Mrs. Warren's
life was protracted to a great age. She died in


ib autumn of 1814, aged eighty-seven, having
hpluseed as good a share of aitellect, as much
information, and more influence, arising from
mental superiority, than falls to the lot of more
than one wbman in one age. Her descendants
are numerous and respectable; and some one
of them should give us a biography of their
ancestor, with a collection of her letters.


Wma a very young man, West deviated into
a course not at all professional-he be*amb a
soldier, and, joining the troops of Gen. Forbes,
proceeded In search of the relics of that gallant
army lost in the desert by the unfortunate Gen-
eral'Braddock. To West and his companions
were added a select body of Indians; these
again were accompanied by several officers of
the Oi Island Watch-the well-known forty
seoond-commanded by the most anxibug per.
son of the detachment, Major Sir PeterlSalke,
who had lost his father and brother in that k*
happy expedition. Though mugyunonths-h~i
elapsed since the battle, and though tilpF, i
fowis of the air, the beasts of the field, and th
iild men more savage than they, had done their
worst, Halket wamot without hopes of finding

waUkm wLr. 0n
the remains of his father and brother, as'en
dian warrior assured him that he had Mi *
elderly officer drop dead beneath 4R Jarge.;
remarkable tree, and a y6ung swltern, who
hastened to his aid, fall mortally wounded across
the body. After a long march through the
woods, they approached the fatal valley. They
were affected at seeing the bones of men, who,
escaping wounded from invisible enemies, had
sunk down and expired as they leaned against
the trees; and they were shocked to see in other
places the relics of their countrymen mingled
with the ashes of savage bivouacks. When they
reached the principal scene of destruction, the
Indian guide looked anxiously round, darted
into the wood, and in a few seconds raised a
shrill cry. Halket and West hastened to the
place-the Indian pointed out the tree-a cir-
cle of soldiers was drpa round it, *ilst others
removed the leaves otfie forest wlfh had fall-
en since the fight. They found two skeletons
-one laying across the other-Halket looked
at the skulls-said faintly, "it is my hther I"
and dropped senseless in the arms of h~ com-
panions. O0 recovering, he said, "I know who
it is,'by tat artificial tooth." They dug a
grave in t4 ert, covered the bo=au with a
ighland pMiaod interred them reverently.
Tri rpone, at once picturesque and pious, made
a lasting impression on the artist's mind. Ahw
he had painted the death of Wolfe, he propoeq
the fdidng of the bones ofl*a Halkets, as sh

98 NNA~nT or AMORICAN IsMrv.
historical subject; and describing to Lord Gros-
veor the gloomy wood, the wild Indians, the
passionate grief of the son, and the sympathy
of his companions, said, he conceived it would
form a picture full of dignity and sentiment.

On the evening of the 5th of March, 1770,
an affray took place between the military quar-
tered in Boston and some citizens, which result-
ed in a loss of lives on both sides. On the fol-
lowing morning, a public meeting was called,
and Samuel Adams addressed the assembly with
that impressive eloquence which was so pecu-
liar to himself. The people, on this occasion,
chose a committee to wait on the lieutenant-
governor, to require that the troops be immedi-
ately withdrawn &om the town. The mission,
however, proved unsuccessful, and another reso-
lution was immediately adopted, that a new
committee be chosen to wait a second time upon
Governor Hutchinson, for the purpose of con-
veying the sense of the meeting in a more pe-
remptory manner. Mr. Adams acted as chair-
man. They waited on the lieutenant-governor,
and communicated this last vote of the town;
,%, in a speech of some length, Mr. Adams
td the danger.of keeping the troops longer

in the capital, fully proving the illegality of(*
act itself; and enumerating the fatal eqoe-
quences that would ensue, if he refused an nm-
mediate compliance with the vote. Lieutenant-
Governor Hutchinson, with his usual prevar,
cation, replied, and roundly asserted, that there
was no illegality in the measure; and repeated,
that the troops were not subject to his author-
ity, but that he would direct the removal of the'
twenty-ninth regiment. Mr. Adams again rose
The magnitude of the subject, and the manner
in which it was treated by Lieutenant-Governor
Hutchinson, had now roused the impetuous feel-
ings of his patriotic soul. With indignation
strongly expressed in his countenance, and in a
firm, resolute, and commanding manner he re-
plied, that it was well known, that, acting as
governor of the province, he was, by its char-
ter, the commander-in-chief of his majesty's
military and naval forces, and as such, the troops
were subject to his orders; and if he had the
power to remove one regimenie had thepower
to remove both, and nothing short of this would
satisfy the people; and it was at his peril, if the
vote of the town was not immediately complied
with, and if it be longer delayed, he, alone, must
be answerable for the fatal consequences that
would ensue." This produced a momentary
silence. It was now dark, and the people were
waiting in anxious suspense for the report of
the committee. A conference in whispers fol-
lowed between Lieutenant-Governor Hut4l
I- 1 I IV1 1- fMl_ _f U- A _

100 BmUrrms or ANI ICAN HISTORY.
himself so closely pressed, and the fallacy and
absurdity of his arguments thus glaringly ex-
posed, yielded up his positions, and gave his
consent to the removal of both regiments; and
Colonel Dalrymple pledged his word and honour
that he would begin his preparations in the
morning, and that there should be no unneces-
sary delay until the whole of both regiments
were removed to the castle.


EvaRY method had been tried to induce Mr.
Adams to abandon the cause of his country,
which he had supported with so much zeal,
courage, and ability. Threats and caresses had
proved equally unavailing. Prior to this time
there is no certain proof that any direct attempt
was made upon his virtue and integrity, although
a report had been publicly and freely circulated,
that it had been unsuccessfully tried by Gover-
nor Bernard. Hutchinson knew him too well
to make the attempt. But Governor Gage was
empowered to make the experiment. He sent
to him a confidential and verbal message by
Colonel Fenton, who waited upon Mr. Adams,
and, after the customary salutations, he stated
the object of his visit. He said that an adjust-
ment of the disputes which existed between
England and the colonies, and a reconciliation,

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