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Group Title: natural history of land birds
Title: The Natural history of land birds
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002025/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Natural history of land birds
Alternate Title: History of land birds
Wood's natural history
Physical Description: 128 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Siegel-Cooper Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Siegel-Cooper Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: c1852
 Subjects
Subject: Birds -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Behavior -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Publishers' cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
General Note: Bound with: The natural history of quadrupeds. New York : Siegel-Cooper., c1852 -- The natural history of water birds. New York : Siegel-Cooper Co., c1852.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002025
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2189
notis - ANE1995
oclc - 45891266
alephbibnum - 002674789

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Copyright
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
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    Back Cover
        Page 132
    Spine
        Page 133
Full Text
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THE

NATURAL HISTORY
OF


LAND


NEW YORK
SIEGEL-COOPER


PUBLISHERS


BIRD


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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852,
By J. A. & U. P. JAMES,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States,
for the District of Ohio.










HISTORY OF LND BIRDS.


THE GOLDEN EAGLE.
THE Golden Eagle is called the monarch
of birds, on account of its courage, strength
and swiftness. It is found in the north
of Europe, Siberia, and North America.
When full grown, the Golden Eagle mea-
sures three feet in length-the female
being generally the largest. Very rarely,
Eagles of this species occur almost white.
Their fire-flashing eyes, lowering brows,
flat foreheads, and powerful beaks and ta-
lons, give these birds a fierce appearance.
(5)











rHE CONDOR.

THE Condor is the largest bird that
flies. Its favorite residence is the great
chain of' the lofty Andes mountains of
South America, and they are sometimes
seen among the mountains of Mexico.
At the immense height of nearly six
miles, the Condor is seen through the air,
watchfully surveying the vast region be-
low, in quest of its accustomed prey. When
impelled by hunger, it descends to the
plains, and will often attack large beasts.
Sometimes, two Condors will make a joint
attack upon a deer, and follow and wound
it until it falls, when these birds will
(6)






















































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THE CONDOR. 9

gorge themselves. They will approach
dwellings, when lured by the scent of
food, and a dead animal will draw down
a crowd of these gluttons, where none
were 'previously visible. They make no
nests, but deposit their eggs upon the
naked rock. The female remains with
the young birds for about a year. The
length of the full-grown Condor is about
three feet, and the extent of its wings 's
often ten feet. The general color of the
plumage is blackish. The wins are
varied with white. There is a white ruff
around the neck, and the head has a fleshy
crest.










THE OSPREY

THiiE Osprey, or Fish Hawk, is common
in various parts of Europe and America;
the length is about two feet, and the
breadth upwards of five, the wings, when
at rest, reach beyond the tail; the bill is
black, the cere and legs blue, the irides
yellow. Beneath the eve is a band of
brown, reaching almost to the shoulder;
the tail is composed of twelve equal fea-
thers, the two middle ones dusky, the
others barred with brown and white. It
builds on trees, or on the ground, among
reeds, and the female lays three or four
eggs. Its usual haunts are the margins
(10)










































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THE OSPREY. 13

of large rivers and lakes, and it feeds
chiefly on fish, which it is very expert at
catching, by darting upon them in the
water. This bird has an unsparing enemy
in the bald-headed eagle, which watches
until the Fish Hawk takes its prey, and
then forces it to let the fish drop. This
pirate eagle thus obtains an easy sub-
sistence. Still, such is the industry and
perseverance of the Osprey, that it always
has an abundance of food for itself and
its young.










THE GREAT HORNED OWL.

TIE Owl seems to hold the same place
among birds that the cat holds among
quadrupeds. Like cats, many of tlheim
are only able to hunt their prey in the
evening, or morning twilight, or aided by
the dim light of the moon. The pupil of
the ee is so, large, and admits so liny
.rays that the owls are dazzled by the
:light of day. In consequence of this o-
culiarity, they seek, during the day, the
gloomiest part of the thickest forest, the
cranies of the desolate ruin or the humble
retreat of a hollow and decayed tree. At
times, routed from their refuge, they may
(14)
































































GREAT HORNED OWL








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THE GREAT HORNED OWL. 17

be seen dozing on the branch of a tree.
They prey upon small birds and mice,
stealing upon them in the night. They
have a boding cry. The Great Hored,
or Cat Owl, is found in every part of the
United States. The female is about two
feet in length-the male smaller. Their
plumage is mottled. The face has much
of the appearance of that of the cat. This
owl utters a very dismal cry, somewhat
resembling the sound of the words, hoo-
hoo, or boo-hoo It makes other very
disagreeable noises.



2










AMERICAN STARLING, OR MEADOW
LARK.
THE Starling, or Meadow Lark, ie a well-
known inhabitant of the fields and mea-
dows of the United States. These birds
are sociable and go about in flocks. Their
.food consists of the eggs of various in-
sects, worms, beetles, and grass seeds;
to aid their digestion, they swallow a con-
siderable amount of gravel. The nest of
of the Meadow Lark is commonly made
in a tuft of grass, in the open field. It
has a covered entrance, and is so well con-
cealed, that it is !ly to be found when
the bird is flushed. The length of this bird
(18)






































































































AMERICAN STARLING.


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THE AMERICAN STARLING. 21
is about ten inches. The under plumage
is of a bright yellow color. On the breast
there is a black crescent. The upper
plumage is variagated with black, bright
bay, and ochre. The flesh of the Mea'dow
Lark is white and is considered very fine
eating. Its flight is steady and laborious.
It often alights on trees, and selects
usually the main branches, or topmost
twigs on which to perch, though its food
is commonly collected from the ground.
At various times of the day, the lisping,
long, and melancholy note of the Meadow
Lark is heard in the fields. It is a beau-
tiful as well as an innocent bird, and is a
favorite with sportsmen.











THE COW BLACK BIRD.

No birds are better known in the United
States than the Cow Black1irds. They
pass the winter in the Southern States,
where they may Ibe seen following the
plough, a nd picking up worms and in-
sects from the furrows. Sometimies, they
visit the margins of ponds, in quest of
water insects and shell-fish, and they may
be seen turning over the leaves of the
water-plants to which they adhere. These
birds are not so injurious to the farmer
as some others of the Blackbird kind. They
are remarkable for the manner of rearing
their young. After the eggs are laid, they
(22)


















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COW BLACKBIRDS.


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THE COW BLACK BIRD. 25

are committed to the charge of the red-
eyed fly-catcher, the Maryland yellow
throat, the blue-bird, the sparrow, and the
thrush, and these birds act as foster-
parents and nurses. When fully fledged,
the Cow Black Birds quickly desert their
foster-parents, and join those of their own
species. They are the most faithless of
Iirds, having no lasting attachments for
each other. The song of the Cow Bird is
guttural and unmusical, and is accompa-
nied by a bristling of the feathers and a
swelling of the lody, in the manner of the
Turkey. The length of this bird is seven
inches. The plumage of the head and
neck is a blackish-brown; the rest black,
glossed with green. The legs and claws
are black.











THE COMMON CROW BLACKBIRD.

THE Crow Blackbird, of which vast
numbers visit our corjfields, is about ten
inches in length. The lprcvailing black
of the plumage is lrelieved by glossy re-
flections of steel-blue and violet. The
male is larger than the female. They
arrive in the states north of Virginia, in
April, and continue to increase in nui -
ber until they wholly overrun the warmer
maritime reCiions. Wilson relates that
he met with a prodigious army of Black-
birds on the banks of the Roanoke, in
Virginia, which, as he approached, rose
from the fields with a noise like thunder,
(26)























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COMMON CROW BLACKBIRD.


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THE COMMON CROW BLACKBIRD. 29
and descending on the stretch of road
before him, covered it and the fences com-
pletely with black; rising again, after a
few circlings, they descended on the skirt
of a leafless wood, so thick, as to give the
whole forest the appearance of being
shrouded in mourning. Their notes and
screams resembled the distant sounds of
a mighty cataract. Their depredations
on the maize crop commence almost as
soon as it is planted. The gun, notwith-
standing the havoc it makes, has no other
effect than to chase the flock from one
part of the field to another, and the maize
is often almost destroyed.












THE RAVEN.

THIS bird measures twenty-eight in-
ches in length, of which the tail is one


half; the wings


are large,


and


Y


tended, the breadth from tip
forty-eight inches; the weight
three pounds. The plumage
with a blue gloss; the irides c
two circles, the outer b brown, t
gray; the bill and legs are black.
its tnest in high trees or rocks,
of sticks, lined with wool, and


when ex-
to tip is
is nearly
is black,
onsist of
,he inner
It builds
composed
has five


pale-green eggs, with brown and gray
spots. This species feeds on carrion,
birds, young hulbs, and weakly sheep,
(30)

























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THE RAVEN. 33
which he first attacks by picking out
their eyes. In the northern regions, he
joins in the plundering excursions of the
white bear, the arctic fox, and the eagle.
His scent is remarkably acute. He is by
nature a glutton, and by habit a thief;
yet with his mischievous he possesses
many diverting qualities, and there is no
bird that exemplifies more the necessity
and advantage of a good education. He
is easily tamed, and may be taught to
fowl like a hawk, fetch and carry like a
spaniel, speak like a palTot, and sing
like a man. The raven can never be
cured of pilfering, especially bright toys,
or shining metal rings, or money.


3











THE CEDAR BIRD.

WHHO does not love to see the pretty
and sprightly little Cedar Birds, hopping
from branch to branch, in their favorite
tree? Go, watch them, when they visit
the cedars, in the spring, and see how
lovingly, and how industriously they work
for each other. They like the cherries
and mulberries, and eat an abundance
of them; but they repay the farmer, by
ridding his trees of caterpillars, beetles,
and other insects, which infest them.
After feeding plentifully, the Cedar Birds
may be seen to the number of five or six
on the same branch, dressing their fca-
(34)































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THE CEDAR BIRD. 37

others. As the season advances, they may
be observed pluming each other, and ca-
ressing with most gentle fondness. So
sociable are these birds, that the wanton
and reckless sportsman has an opportu-
nity of committing great havoc among
them. A young Cedar Bird that fre-
quented the front of Mr. Winship's house,
in Brighton, in quest of honey-suckle ber-
ries, on receiving food, threw itself wholly
on that gentleman's protection. At large,
day and night, the bird regularly attended
the desert of the dinner-table, for its por-
tion of the fruit, and remained steadfast
in its attachment to Mr. Winship, till
killed by an accident, being trodden under
foot.










THE BOHEMIAN CHATTERER.
THE Waxen-wing Chatterer of Bohemia,
is a beautiful bird, about the size of a
large lark. It is crested on the head,
and the plumage is of a reddish-ash color,
with a black band over the eyes; and the
throat, the bill, and toes are black; the
irides are vermilion red, and the tail
black, tipped with yellow. This bird is
remarkable for the hardened appendages
at the tips of seven of its flag feathers.
It migrates in flocks, and is often seen in
the neighborhood of Edinburgh, Scotland,
in the month of February. It feeds on
insects and those berries which remain
(38)
















































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BOHEMIAN CHATTERER.


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4







THE BOHEMIAN CHATTERER. 41

on trees during winter in more genial cli-
mates, although decidedly insectivorous.
Like the well-known cedar bird of Ame-
rica, it delights in early cherries in the
spring, and juniper berries in the autumn.
It is said to nestle in holes of the rocks.
The flesh of the Bohemian Chatterer is
considered very delicate, and the sports-
men of Europe hold the bird in high es-
teem. It is called the Chatterer from its
peculiar voice, and the Waxen-wing from
those remarkable waxen appendages at
the tips of the flag-feathers. Many of
the birds, however, are without these
ornaments during their whole lives.










THE SHRIKE, OR BUTCHER BIRD.

THE flesh-loving propensities of the
Shrike have procured for it the name of
the Butcher Bird. This bird is about the
size of a thrush, ten inches in length, and
fourteen across the wings. The bill is
curved and strong, of a black color, as
are the legs, which, together with the toes
are slender; the head, neck, and back
are of an ash color, having a black band
under the eyes reaching the ea-r-covers;
the breast is crossed with darkish lines,
and the belly is white; the tail is wedge-
shaped, and white at the edges. Its chief
prey consists of small birds, frogs, and
(42)





























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SHRIKE OR BUTCHER-BIRD.
























































































































































































































II






THE SHRIKE, OR BUTCHER BIRD. 45

insects, several of which it spits at a time
upon a thorn, that it may devour and eat
them at its leisure, or keep in reserve for
some future occasion; but such is its ap-
petite for flesh, that it will attack birds
of three times its own size, as the crow
and the magpie, and often comes off vic-
tor, though sometimes it perishes in the
conflict, and falls together with its victim.
In spring and summer, it imitates the
notes of the smaller feathered tribes, to
allure them to their destruction, but at
other times it is mute. It builds on trees
in mountainous districts, and makes its
nest with moss and dry grass, lined with
wool. They have a singular mode of fly-
ing, rising and falling vertically, seldom
moving straight forward.











THE KING BIRD.

THE King Bird, or Tyrant Fly Catcher,
is a wanderer over the American conti
nent, visiting the United States in the
spring, where it spends the summer, re-
turning to the south on the approach of
autumn. It is about eight inches in
length; dark bluish-gray on the upper
parts; chest grayish white, becoming pure
on the throat and under surface. The
names of King and Tyrant have been
bestowed on this bird for its extraordinary
conduct, and the authority it assumes
over all others during the time of breed-
ing. At "his time, his extreme affection
(46i)














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KING-BIRD.







































































































































































































































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THE KING BIRD. 49

for his mate and for his young, makes
him suspicious of every bird that happens
to pass near his nest, so that he attacks
without discrimination. In the months
of May, June, and part of July, his life
is one continued scene of broils and bat-
tles, in which he generally comes off con-
queror. Hawks and crows, the bald-eagle
and the black-eagle, all equally dread an
encounter with this little champion, who,
as he perceives the last approaching,
launches into the air to meet him. He
builds on trees, at no great distance from
the ground; the eggs are five or six,
reddish-white, spotted.



4










THE PEWIT FLY CATCHER.
THIS faithful herald of spring arrives in
the Middle States in the first week in
March and remains till October. The
favorite resort of these birds, is near
streams, ponds, or stagnant waters, about
bridges, caves, and barns, where they
choose to breed; and in short, wherever
there is a good prospect for obtaining their
insect food. Near such places, the little
hunter sits on the roof of some out-building
or on a projecting branch, calling out, at
short intervals, and in a rapid manner,
"pee-weet, pee-weet." This monotonous
ditty is only interrupted for a few seconds
(50)







































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PEWIT FLY OATCHE]t


























































































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THE PEWIT FLY CATCHER. 53

as the bird darts after its prey of flies.
These birds form attachments which seem
to last through life, like those of the blue-
birds. They have a remarkable affection
for particular places, and even after their
nests have been torn away, will build
again in the same place. The Pewit is
seven inches in length. The upper plu-
mage is dark olive-brown; darker on the
head; beneath, pale yellowish. The tail
extends an inch and a half beyond the
closed wings. The head is crested, like
that of all the Fly Catchers. The legs and
Dill are wholly black.











THE AMERICAN REDSTART.
THIS bird is about the size of a robin,
is of a bluish-gray color above, whitish
beneath, with a throat black in the male,
but white in the female; the breast,
rump, and side tail feathers, are red; the
eyes are hazel; the bill and legs black,
and the mouth yellow. It is distinguished
by a peculiar quick horizontal motion of
its tail on alighting. It nestles in the
hollow of trees, in old walls, and ruined
edifices; its little habitation is composed
of moss, lined with hair, and the female
produces five or six eggs, of a fine blue
color. It feeds on flies, spiders, the eggs
(54)


















































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THE AMERICAN REDSTART. 57
of ants, small berries, and soft fruits.
When taken young it is easily trained,
and will pour forth its song by night as
was well as day, with great swiftness and
freedom. It also imitates the notes of
other birds. The notes of the male are
highly musical, and at times agreeably
varied. The Redstart is a favorite cage-
bird, being doubly recommended by its
beauty and song. Both parents display
great concern for the safety of their nest,
whether containing eggs or young, and
on being approached, the male will fly
about within a few feet of the invader,
regardless of his personal safety.











THE MOCKING BIRD.
THE wonderful Mocking Bird of Ame-
rica, is a native of Virginia and other
Southern States. It is about the size
and shape of a thrush, or shrike. Its
color is gray, with a reddish bill. It is
celebrated for its imitative powers, assum-
ing the tone of almost every animal of the
forest, whom it seems to delight in quiz-
zing, alluring at oec time the smaller
birds by the call of their mates, terrifying
them when they come near with the
screams of some bird of prey; but its own
natural music is the most enchanting.
In his native groves, mounted upon the
(58)





































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MOCKING BIRD.



























































































































































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THE MOCKING BIRD. 61
top of a tall bush, or half-grown tree, in
the dawn of a dewy morning, while the
woods are vocal with a multitude of war-
blers, his song rises above every compe-
titor. The ear can listen to his music
alone, to which that of all the others
seem merely an accompaniment. Neither
is this strain altogether imitative; his
own native notes, which are easily dis-
tinguishable by such as are acquainted
with those of our various song birds, are
bold and full, and varied beyond all limits.
They consist of short expressions of two,
three, or, at the most, of five or six sylla-
bles, generally interspersed with imita-
tions, and all of them uttered with great
emphasis and rapidity, and continued for
an hour at a time.










THE CAT BIRD.
THE Cat Bird is well-known in nearly
every part of the United States. It is
about nine inches in length, of a dark
slate color, paler beneath; the crown and
tail are usually black. The Cat Bird often
tunes his quaint but cheerful song before
the break of day, hopping from bush to
bush with great quickness, after his in-
sect prey, while it is scarcely to be seen
by other birds. This bird is commonly
known by the cat-like notes it occasion-
ally gives out, but it can imitate many
other songsters, and sometimes sings
equal to the thrush. But in all its me-
(62)



































CAT BIRD.



















I






THE CAT BIRD. 65

lody, there is a seeming effort which de-
tracts from its charms. When angry, the
Cat Bird mews and screams incessantly,
and from this cause, it is common to treat
the bird with contempt. But those who
have watched it long and closely, say
that the contempt is not deserved-and
that this suspicious bird is not only grace-
ful in its movements, but when not dis-
turbed, delightful in its song. It is
very mischievous, annoying the other
birds by mocking their calls, stealing bits
of every thing it can carry to build and
strengthen its nest. The eggs are com-
monly four, of a deep emerald green, with-
out spots The Cat Birds sometimes
raise two and even three broods in a
season.
5











THE AMERICAN ROBIN.
THE familiar and welcome Robin is
found in summer, throughout North Ame-
rica. It is about ten inches in length.
Dark ash is the prevailing color of the
upper plumage; beneath, it is red or
orange. The head and tail are black.
The Robin's song is not so charming and
varied as that of other birds, but there
are few persons who are not pleased with
its simple melody. Early in the spring,
he visits the gardens and orchards in
search of food. The nest of this bird is
often built on the branch of an apple
tree, and is so large as to be scarcely ever
(66)
































AMERICAN ROBIN.





































































































































a1






THE AMERICAN ROBIN. 69

concealed. The eggs are of a bluish-green,
and are without spots. So domestic are
the habits of the Robins, that an instance
is known where they raised two broods
out of the same nest. They show much
anxiety and considerable courage in de-
fending their young. They will peck at
the hand or fly in the face of the intru-
ders; and they have often serious con-
flicts with the cuckoo, who slyly watches
the absence of the parents to devour the
eggs. In the autumn, the Robins are
often seen in flocks. Being then quite
fat, they are shot in great numbers, and
are much esteemed as food.










THE SUMMER YELLOW BIRD, OR
WARBLER.
THE Common Warbler of Suniner is a
brilliant and charming little bird, which
all must have seen or heard in the gardens
and orchards during the warm days of
June and July. Its bright golden color
renders it conspicuous, as in pursuit of
flitting insects, it pries and darts among
the shnrbs and flowers. The Warbler is
particularly attached to willow trees and
other kirids, in moist and shady situations,
which afford caterpillars and small larvae,
on which they delight to feed. While em-
ployed in searching for food, the War-
(70)



































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SUMMER YELLOW


M l n g m w -


OR WARBLER.


BIRDIg





















- h












Ai







THE SUMMER YELIDW BIRD. 73

bier sometimes mounts a twig, and with
a loud, shrill, and almost piercing voice,
it utters, at short intervals, "tsh, tsh, tsh,
tsh, tshaia." The female sometimes sings
nearly as well as the male. The Summer
Yellow Bird, to attract attention from its
nest, when sitting, or when the nest con-
tains young, will often feign lameness,
hang its head and flutter feebly along.
Towards the latter end of summer, the
young and old feed much on juicy fruits,
as mulberries, correlberries, and other
kinds.










THE TUFTED TITMOUSE.

THE Titmouse is a familiar, active, rest-
less bird, of a peevish and courageous
disposition, and a great enemy of insects.
It moves by short and sudden leaps, from
branch to branch. During the autumn
and winter, the Titmice approach gar
dens and orchards, in search of food. They
feed on grain, fruits, insects, and la.rve,
which they pick out from every crevice.
In pursuit of insects they sometimes in-
jure the trees. Sometimes they carry
their depredations so far as to attack
sickly birds, even of their own species,
commencing by piercing the skull and
(74)









































4.


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'lil, I 1l I11


TUFTED TITMOOUS


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THE TUFTED TITMOUSE. 77
devouring the brain. They are of a quar-
relsome disposition, and often attack
larger birds, when defending their young.
Their voice is harsh, and their flesh
scarcely any better than that of the crow.
The Tufted Titmouse is the most beauti-
ful of the tribe. It is six inches and a
half long; crested; dark bluish-ash color;
beneath, whitish; front, black. It is
sometimes called the Peto, on account of
its singular call, "peto, peto." The Tit-
mouse may be made very familiar in a
cage. It is fed on hemp-seed, cherry
stones, apple-pippins, and hickory nuts.











THE FIERY-CROWNED RINGLET.
THE little Ringlet is found in evory part
of the United States. It resembles the
fiery-crested wren in appearance, having
the same golden crown, and being nearly
of the same size. The plumage is brilliant
and varied, the prevailing color being
yellowish-olive. During their visits to the
Southern States, these birds are very
active in gleaning up insects and lurking
larvae, for which they search the gardens
and orchards. They may be seen hopping
from twig to twig, sometimes in company
with the lively chickadee, and occasionally
giving a feeble chirp. About the first of
(78)
































AI-
U A




FIERY-C OWNED KINGLET.


' J


31

~I



























































































UI







THE FIERY-CROWNED RINGLET. 81
May they make their appearance in the
Middle States. At this time, they dart
among the elm and maple blossoms, and
appear actively engaged in seizing flies
on the wing and hunting young caterpil-
lars. At the period of breeding, they sing
melodiously, but weaker than the common
wren. The nests are usually built towards
the extremities of the branches of trees.
It is round and has a small entry at the
side.





6










THE BULLFINCH.
THIS bird is about the size of a spar
row, has a head and neck larger in pro-
portion to its body than any other small
bird, and thence it has obtained its name.
It has a short black bill, thick and hooked.
In the male, the cheeks, beast, belly,
and flanks, are of a bright red ; the back
is gray or lead-colored, the rullp white,
and the crown of the head and the tail
are black. The female is bluish-gray
above, and brown below, and less brightly
marked on the other parts of the body
than the male. They pair in April, and
make their nests, in hedges, of dry twigs.
(82)

















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BULLFINCH.


IW



































































































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%





















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II*






TIE BULLFINCH. 85
lined with fibrous roots: the eggs are
tive, bluish-white, spotted with brown. In
a state of nature, it is not very remark-
able for its music; but it is a very docile
bird, easily trained to imitate the sound
of a pipe, or whistle of a man, in a fine
mellow tone, and will continue its exer-
tions even when candles have been
brought into the room. In summer,
t seeks the woods and more sequestered
retreats; but in winter it approaches
gardens and orchards, where in spring it
makes sad havoc among the buds.











THE FLICKER, OR GOLDEN-WINGED
WOODPECKER.
Tims bird, so named from its picking
holes in trees to procure the insects whice
form its food, has a long straight healt
adapted for piercing the bark; and a loni
slender tongue, bony and hard at tht
point. The legs are short and strong;
the toes are two before and two behind;
and their tail is composed of two hard
and elastic feathers, which acts as a prop
to aid them in climbing. They wander
over trees in every direction, striking the
bark on hollow or decayed places with
their beaks, and thrusting their tongues
(86)
















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tq


I' N'.


FLICKER.
















































































































































































'L






THE FLICKER. 89
into its crevices in search of the insects
or their larvae, on which they feed. The
Golden-Winged Woodpecker is not so
so large as some other species, but it has
a splendid plumage. The prevailing colors
are umber-brown, and yellowish-white,
spotted and barred with black. They are
often shot by sportsmen, but are not es-
teemed as highly as most other game-
birds. Instead of a nest, it forms a cir-
cular hole in decayed parts of trees; there
the eggs, five or six, pure white, are de-
posited, without any thing to keep them
warm except the heat of the body, and
the male and female sit alternately.











THE BLACK-THROATED GREEN
WARBLER.
THIS is a very rare, but beautiful species
of warbler. It is about four inches and a
half in length. The chin and throat to
the breast are black; sides under the wings
spotted with the same; breast and belly
white, tinged with pale yellow; the wings
dusky with two white bars, there are
white spots on the tail. The legs and feet
.are brownish-yellow; the bill black. In
the spring this bird may be seen searching
for its food amid the white blossoms of
the apple-tree. It is so familiar, that it
does not seem alarmed if a man stands
(90)































BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER.























































































































a






BLAOK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER. 93
within a few feet of it, at the foot of the
tree, on which it is gathering its food.
Early in October these birds are seen
roving restlessly through the woods, pre-
paratory to their departure for the south.
They have a simple, plaintive, and some-
what drawling song, resembling the syl-
lables "te de teritsca," pronounced pretty
loud and slow. They often build their
nests in the juniper tree, using strips of
juniper bark for that purpose. The eggs
are usually four in number, white, spotted
with purple and brown.









THE HOUSE WREN.
THE lively little Wren, is always wel
come to the gardens and ont-houses c'
the farmers. Young and old delight tr
see the busy little bird searching for fooc
and building its home, and the Wren
seems to find particular pleasure in keep-
ing near human beings. It builds its
nest beneath the eaves, in some remote
comer under a shed, out-house, barn, or
in a hollow orchard tree; also in the de-
serted cell of the woodpecker, and in
wooden boxes along with martins and
blackbirds. There are instances of Wrens
making their nests in old hats nailed on
(94)











































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HOUSE WEN



HOUE~i WH EN.































































































































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X1






THE HOUSE WREN. 97
a pole, and in the skulls of oxen, which
were thrown on old sheds. It is said that
a House Wren once built its nest in a
mower's coat, which was hung up near a
barn. The song of the bird is loud,
sprightly, and rapidly repeated, and the
strain is continued even during the sultry
noon of the summer's day, when most oi
the feathered songsters seek repose and
shelter from the heat. The Wren serves
the farmer by destroying many injurious
insects, and is therefore entitled to pro-
tection. The House Wren is four and a
half inches in length. The upper plumage
is a dark brown, banded with blackish"
beneath, there is a dull, pale green, slightly
barred. The tail is rather long and
rounded.
7











THE MAGPIE.
THE Magpie is much more common in
Europe than in America. But wherever
it is known it has the reputation of be-
ing a very cunning and mischievous bird.
The Magpie grows to the length of eigh teen
inches. The prevailing color of the
plumage is a deep, glossy black; beneath,
there is a patch of white. The tail iF
about ten inches long, and greenish-black
The Magpie is extremely active and rest
less while on the ground, over which he
leaps with antic gait His conimo:
prate is like that of the crows, but he can
imitate various anir als, as well as human
(98)







































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MAGPIES


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THE MAGPIE. 101
speech. Like the crow, the Magpie has
the halbit of stealing and hiding provi
sions and pieces of money in such a man.,
ier that they are not easily detected. In
the construction of the nest, this. bird
displays much sagacity. A high tree or
i close bush is usually chosen Bot
,Cexes unite in the labor, and, having for-
tified the nest externally with twigs,
turf, and clay, cover it with a canopy or
defence of thorny branches, having an
entrance in the least accessible side.
The Magpies defend their nest with great
courage against the crow, the falcon, and
even the eagle, and in the conflict their
activity gives them a great advantage.




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