Front Cover
 Title Page
 Natural History of Water Birds
 Natural History of Land Birds
 Back Cover

Group Title: The natural history of quadrupeds
Title: The Natural history of quadrupeds
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002024/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Natural history of quadrupeds
Alternate Title: Wood's natural history
History of quadrupeds
Physical Description: 128 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Siegel-Cooper Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Siegel-Cooper Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: c1852
Subject: Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animal behavior -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animal welfare -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Mammals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Publishers' cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
General Note: Bound with: The natural history of water birds. New York : Siegel-Cooper Co., c1852 -- The natural history of land birds. New York : Siegel-Cooper Co., c1852.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002024
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239954
oclc - 45891238
notis - ALJ0492
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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        Page 12
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        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Natural History of Water Birds
        Birds Page 1
        Birds Page 2
        Birds Page 3
        Birds Page 4
        Birds Page 5
        Birds Page 6
        Birds Page 7
        Birds Page 10
        Birds Page 11
        Birds Page 12
        Birds Page 13
        Birds Page 14
        Birds Page 15
        Birds Page 16
        Birds Page 17
        Birds Page 18
        Birds Page 19
        Birds Page 20
        Birds Page 21
        Birds Page 22
        Birds Page 23
        Birds Page 24
        Birds Page 25
        Birds Page 26
        Birds Page 27
        Birds Page 28
        Birds Page 29
        Birds Page 30
        Birds Page 31
        Birds Page 32
        Birds Page 33
        Birds Page 34
        Birds Page 35
        Birds Page 36
        Birds Page 37
        Birds Page 38
        Birds Page 39
        Birds Page 40
        Birds Page 41
        Birds Page 42
        Birds Page 43
        Birds Page 44
        Birds Page 45
        Birds Page 46
        Birds Page 47
        Birds Page 48
        Birds Page 49
        Birds Page 50
        Birds Page 51
        Birds Page 52
        Birds Page 53
        Birds Page 54
        Birds Page 55
        Birds Page 56
        Birds Page 57
        Birds Page 58
        Birds Page 59
        Birds Page 60
        Birds Page 61
        Birds Page 62
        Birds Page 63
        Birds Page 64
        Birds Page 65
        Birds Page 66
        Birds Page 67
        Birds Page 68
        Birds Page 69
        Birds Page 70
        Birds Page 71
        Birds Page 72
        Birds Page 73
        Birds Page 74
        Birds Page 75
        Birds Page 76
        Birds Page 77
        Birds Page 78
        Birds Page 79
        Birds Page 80
        Birds Page 81
        Birds Page 82
        Birds Page 83
        Birds Page 84
        Birds Page 85
        Birds Page 86
        Birds Page 87
        Birds Page 88
        Birds Page 89
        Birds Page 90
        Birds Page 91
        Birds Page 92
        Birds Page 93
        Birds Page 94
        Birds Page 95
        Birds Page 96
        Birds Page 97
        Birds Page 98
        Birds Page 99
        Birds Page 102
        Birds Page 103
        Birds Page 104
        Birds Page 105
        Birds Page 106
        Birds Page 107
        Birds Page 108
        Birds Page 109
        Birds Page 110
        Birds Page 111
        Birds Page 112
        Birds Page 113
        Birds Page 114
        Birds Page 115
        Birds Page 116
        Birds Page 117
        Birds Page 118
        Birds Page 119
        Birds Page 122
        Birds Page 123
        Birds Page 124
        Birds Page 125
        Birds Page 126
        Birds Page 127
        Birds Page 128
    Natural History of Land Birds
        Land Birds Page 3
        Land Birds Page 4
        Land Birds Page 5
        Land Birds Page 6
        Land Birds Page 7
        Land Birds Page 8
        Land Birds Page 9
        Land Birds Page 10
        Land Birds Page 11
        Land Birds Page 12
        Land Birds Page 13
        Land Birds Page 14
        Land Birds Page 15
        Land Birds Page 16
        Land Birds Page 17
        Land Birds Page 18
        Land Birds Page 19
        Land Birds Page 20
        Land Birds Page 21
        Land Birds Page 22
        Land Birds Page 23
        Land Birds Page 24
        Land Birds Page 25
        Land Birds Page 26
        Land Birds Page 27
        Land Birds Page 28
        Land Birds Page 29
        Land Birds Page 30
        Land Birds Page 31
        Land Birds Page 32
        Land Birds Page 33
        Land Birds Page 34
        Land Birds Page 35
        Land Birds Page 36
        Land Birds Page 37
        Land Birds Page 38
        Land Birds Page 39
        Land Birds Page 40
        Land Birds Page 41
        Land Birds Page 42
        Land Birds Page 43
        Land Birds Page 44
        Land Birds Page 45
        Land Birds Page 46
        Land Birds Page 47
        Land Birds Page 48
        Land Birds Page 49
        Land Birds Page 50
        Land Birds Page 51
        Land Birds Page 52
        Land Birds Page 53
        Land Birds Page 54
        Land Birds Page 55
        Land Birds Page 56
        Land Birds Page 57
        Land Birds Page 58
        Land Birds Page 59
        Land Birds Page 60
        Land Birds Page 61
        Land Birds Page 62
        Land Birds Page 63
        Land Birds Page 64
        Land Birds Page 65
        Land Birds Page 66
        Land Birds Page 67
        Land Birds Page 68
        Land Birds Page 69
        Land Birds Page 70
        Land Birds Page 71
        Land Birds Page 72
        Land Birds Page 73
        Land Birds Page 74
        Land Birds Page 75
        Land Birds Page 76
        Land Birds Page 77
        Land Birds Page 78
        Land Birds Page 79
        Land Birds Page 80
        Land Birds Page 81
        Land Birds Page 82
        Land Birds Page 83
        Land Birds Page 84
        Land Birds Page 85
        Land Birds Page 86
        Land Birds Page 87
        Land Birds Page 88
        Land Birds Page 89
        Land Birds Page 90
        Land Birds Page 91
        Land Birds Page 92
        Land Birds Page 93
        Land Birds Page 94
        Land Birds Page 95
        Land Birds Page 96
        Land Birds Page 97
        Land Birds Page 98
        Land Birds Page 99
        Land Birds Page 100
        Land Birds Page 101
        Land Birds Page 102
        Land Birds Page 103
        Land Birds Page 104
        Land Birds Page 105
        Land Birds Page 106
        Land Birds Page 107
        Land Birds Page 108
        Land Birds Page 109
        Land Birds Page 110
        Land Birds Page 111
        Land Birds Page 112
        Land Birds Page 113
        Land Birds Page 114
        Land Birds Page 115
        Land Birds Page 116
        Land Birds Page 117
        Land Birds Page 118
        Land Birds Page 119
        Land Birds Page 120
        Land Birds Page 121
        Land Birds Page 123
        Land Birds Page 124
        Land Birds Page 125
        Land Birds Page 127
        Land Birds Page 128
        Land Birds Page 129
    Back Cover
        Land Birds Page 130
        Land Birds Page 131
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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year x852,
By J. A. & U. P. JAMES,
in the. Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States,
for the District of Ohio.


COME, let us go to see the Menagerie.
There we may see wild beasts of all kinds,
from the great elephant to the prying
little weasel. The animals are kept in
cages which have strong iron bars in front,
so that we can look at the fiercest ones
and yet feel that we are safe. There is
the mighty Lion stretched on the floor of
his cage, like a dog. See, what a thick
mane he has, and how his eyes glare.
His roar seems to shake the building.


THE Elephant is the largest of quadru-
peds. They are found in the island of
Ceylon from ten to sixteen feet in height,
and weighing from six to eight thousand
pounds. The head is small, in proportion
to the enormous bulk of the animal, and
is rendered lighter by large hollows within
the skull. The eyes are small, but lively
and expressive. In the place of certain
teeth he has two tusks which project from
the mouth, and frequently attain a great
size. But the Elephant's most wonderful
feature is his trunk, or proboscis, which
answers every purpose of a hand; with it,



he lifts the heaviest burden, picks up the
smallest pin and carries food and drink
to his mouth. The neck is short and strong
and the legs are stout and massive. His
skin is hard, wrinkled, without hair, and
about an inch thick on the back. The
usual color of the elephant is a dark ash-
brown; but some are found perfectly
white. These white elephants are con-
sidered sacred by the people of Siam, and
are therefore very carefully guarded and
attended. The temper of this great beast
is mild, and his sagacity is surprising, he
delights in the sound of music and the
fragrance of flowers. The African Elephant
is now only hunted for the ivory of its


THE Rhinoceros is found in Africa, and
South Asia. In size and power, it is in-
ferior to the elephant alone. They are
heavy and clumsy in appearance, not un-
like a monstrous hog, except that the In-
dian has one horn, and the African species
two, in a line projecting from the nose, a
large and a smaller, the longest crooked
backward behind, adhering solely to the
skin, without any bony socket, and hard
as iron. The eyes are small; the ears
erect and pointed; the limbs short and
thick, and the skin capable of resisting
the stroke of a scimetar, or turning a



musket ball, and deeply folded across the
shoulders and thighs in the Indian, but
smooth in the African animal. The senses
of smelling and hearing in both are keen,
and the appetite gluttonous; herbs and
the roots of herbs are their food; swamps
and marshy plains their favorite haunts,
in which they wander solitary, seldom in
pairs. They are quiet if not disturbed,
but when roused, furious and formidable,
the elephant himself being hardly an
equal foe. A species is found in South
Africa, having its first horn nearly twelve
feet in length, and possessing great
strength and swiftness.



THE Lion deserves to be called the
king of beasts. His aspect is grand and
fierce, and his strength, considering his
size, is tremendous. The African Lion
measures from seven to nine feet in
length, with a tail about four, tufted at
the point; the height at the shoulder
from three to five; but when newly
whelped, his size does not exceed that of
a pup dog, and it requires four, or accord-,
ing to some writers, six years, till he at-
tains his full stature. He lives to a great
but uncertain age. There are three va-
rieties described: one of a deep yellowish-





Drown; the other of a lighter shade; and
the Cape Lion, of which the mane is nearly
black. The appearance of the Lion is
terrible when roused. He has a broad
face, surrounded with long shaggy hair,
and a flowing mane, increasing in length
as his years advance, adorns his neck.
If provoked, this bristles up erect, his
3yes gleam with fire, and his whole coun-
tenance becomes wildly expressive of
rage; his deep roar is broken into short
surly growls, his lips contracting discover
his teeth, and his claws are protruded
beyond their velvet covering. When
pressed by hunger, he attacks furiously
whatever animal crosses his path, and
even breaks into the settlements and
seizes the cattle.



THE Jaguar holds the same rank among
the animals of the American continent,
as the tiger among those of Asia. On the
upper part of its body it is of a bright
yellowish-fawn color, which passes, on the
throat, breast, and other under parts, into
a pure white. On this ground, the head,
limbs, and under surface are covered with
full black spots of various sizes, and the
rest of the body with rings, having black
spots in the centre. This animal is found
in the swampy forests of South America,
especially in the neighborhood of large
rivers, which he swims with great ease.




A Jaguar has been known to attack and
kill a horse, and then, taking hold of it
with his teeth, to swim across a large
river, and secure his prey. Possessed of
such strength and ferocity, this animal is
the dread of the people of the countries
where he is found. When the Jaguar has
made choice of the victim, he springs on
the back, and placing one of his paws on
the back of the head, while he seizes its
muzzle with the other, he twists its head
round with a sudden jerk, thus instantly
depriving it of life. The Jaguar will not
attack a man unless maddened by hunger.


THE Bison is sometimes called the Buf-
falo. He looks very much like a common
ox, but he has a great bushy mane and a
very large head. His horns are short and
strong. The skin is covered with a thick
fur, sometimes black and sometimes
brown. The Bison has a terrible aspect
when roused, and can do a vast amount
of harm to those who do not know how to
deal with him. The vast western plains
of the United States are the favorite haunts
of these animals, and the herds sometimes
contain many thousands. Every year,
however, the hunters are thinning the



numbers, and it may not be many years
before it will be rare to find a small herd.
The hides and tongues are considered
very valuable, and it is for these, the
Bisons are killed. Sometimes, a party of
hunters will surround a herd of Bisons and
in a short time slay them all. This kind
of hunting, however, is very dangerous.
It often happens that horses and men are
killed by the furious beasts.


THE Cow should be well-treated by man,
for without her, he would want for many
things. She is less likely to be diseased
and is easier kept than a horse, for she
improves the field where she grazes,
while the horse injures it. Her milk is
a nourishing and pleasant beverage, and
from it we make butter and cheese. Her
flesh is considered superior to that of
most other animals. Her skin furnishes
us with leather. Her horns and hoofs
are made into many articles of use and
ornament. The very blood is not lost. It
whitens our sugar, and is used in making

Allb -

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a beautiful blue. Is not the cow very
valuable, then ? Let her have good care.
Let her graze in the best pasture in the
spring and summer; and during the chill
winter, let her have a warm house and
plenty of hay. Above all, do not beat
the useful beast. Most cows are mild-
tempered, and if not worried and provoked
are perfectly harmless. Cows have some-
times very beautiful skins. We find them
of nearly all colors and shades; but the
red and white are generally preferred.
Never look at the Cow without thinking
of how much use she is to us.


THE Horse is one of the most useful
and beautiful of all quadrupeds. The
symmetry of his form, the freeness and
elegance of his motions, his fleetness,
strength, and spirit, render him one of
the most valuable of those which have
been reclaimed by man. But like all
other domesticated animals, he varies
greatly in his size, color and shape, from
the varied treatment he is exposed to,
and the cross breeds which have been
introduced into the family. Though
spread over almost every region of the
globe, his native country is doubtful, nor





does he seem to exist at present in a
wild state, except in those places where
domesticated horses have been set at li-
berty, as in the vast plains of Great Tar-
tary, or the extensive plains of South
America, where they associate in large
troops, each under the guidance of one
leader. Should any tame animal of their
own kind attempt to claim kindred with
the Tartar horse, it is said that they in-
stantly surround him, and compel him to
provide for his safety by a retreat. On
the contrary the South American steeds,
we are told, use all their efforts to induce
the domestic horse to join them.




THE Ass is a well-known drudge among
men. When wild, it is a noble and beau-
tiful animal; but when tamed it loses its
charms of appearance. Of great strength
for his size, he bears fatigue and hunger
with patience, a few thistles or dried
herbs being sufficient for his day's suste-
nance; but he is peculiarly nice in the
water he drinks, tasting nothing but what
is clear and pure. In northern climates
he degenerates, perhaps from the unfeeling,
senseless bad treatment he receives; for
when young he is sprightly; it is only as
he grows up that he shows the effects of



his education in his stubbornness and
stupidity. If well treated, he is strongly
attached to his master, and no female
shows more fond, steady affection for her
young. The Ass is four years in growing,
and lives twenty-five or thirty. The milk
of the Ass is medicinal. The flesh of young
wild asses is said to be delicate. The
skin is manufactured into thick vellum,
and into shagreen. The mule is a creature
springing from an union of the ass with
the mare, which produces large mules, or
of the horse with the she-ass, which pro-
duces small mules. The first is the best,
and most generally used: it has the legs
and shape of the horse, the ears, the tail,
and the cross of the Ass.



THE Zebra has a figure like the mule,
but he is a much more beautiful beast.
His body is striped black, or a fawn-co-
lored ground in the male, and white in
the female. The Zebra is strong and
fleet, but almost untameable. Its voice
is said to resemble that of a post-horn.
In the mountain districts of Southern Af-
rica, the Zebras are found in herds. The
hunters capture them with the lasso; but
as it is found impossible to subdue them
to any kind of toil, they are fit for nothing
but food. There is another animal called
the Quagga, which bears much resem-




balance to the horse as well as the Zebra.
The hair on the neck is brown, with
whitish transverse stripes, the croup of a
reddish-gray, tail and legs whitish. Its
voice resembles the barking of a dog.
The Quagga is a native of the same coun-
try as the Zebra; but is not so fierce. Its
flesh is much relished by man as well as
by the lion, whose combined depredations
are thinning the ranks of these animals.
The herds of Zebras and Quaggas are
commonly small- each one containing
about twenty animals. They are very
timid and cautious, stationing sentinels
while they are feeding.



TIE Gnu is a curious animal, having
about an equal resemblance to the horse,
b:iffalo, and stag. It is as large as a
middle sized horse. Its neck is rather
larger than that of the buffalo, and is
adorned with a maul. Beneath the
lower jaw, there is a thick shaggy beard.
The legs are long and finely formed, like
those of the stag. The horns are some-
what like those of the buffalo, but have
more curve. The Gnu is a lively capri-
cious animal. It is made furious by the
sight of scarlet, like the bull or buffalo.
When worried, the Gnu expresses its an-




ger, oy plunging, curvetting, and tearing
up the ground. When wounded it is
dangerous to the hunter, who then must
either keep out of the way, or quickly put
an end to the beast. These animals feed
in large herds on the plains of South Af-
rica. Their flesh is very juicy, and far
more nourishing and agreeable than beef.
When taken young, the Gnu is readily
tamed; but the people of South Africa
seldom attempt to domesticate them, as
they are said to have a tendency to catch
and communicate a dangerous disease.
The Dutch of Cape Colony call the Gnu,
the Wildebeest. The lion makes this ani-
mal a common prey, lying in wait for it
near the pools where it comes to drink.



THE Brown Bear is found in various
parts of Europe, Asia, and North Ame-
rica. He is covered with long, soft,
woolly hair, of a deep brown in youth,
which becomes yellowish-gray and griz-
zled in more advanced age; he is about
four feet in length, and nearly two and a
half in height: the length of the head is
about a foot, the fore feet eight inches,
the hinder rather more, and the claws two
inches. He is most lonely in his habits;
he only goes a short time with his female,
and retires to doze out the rest of his ex-
istence in the hollow of a tree, in some



.t~~-C4 CIL~IA


natural cavity of the earth, or the cleft
of a rock, which he contrives to line with
moss. Here he remains till the return
of spring, subsisting upon the absorption
of his fat, when he forsakes his lair. The
female remains longer, till she has brought
forth her young, when she sallies forth
with her little family (two or three,) hun-
gry and savage. Unless provoked, they
never attack man; but when they are,
the assault is dangerous: rising upon
their hind feet, they hug their opponent
between their fore limbs, and he seldom
survives their hug. They are good swim-
mers, and climb well. When tamed, they
seem mild and obedient to their keepers,
and are taught to dance and assume a
variety of attitudes to the sound of music.



THE Grizzly Bear is the most ferocious
of all the wild animals of North America.
He is about seven feet in length and four
and a half in height. They have been
found of the enormous weight of two
thousand pounds. The forehead of the
Grizzly Bear is high, and his muzzle nar-
row, flat, and long. His feet are very
large, the breadth of the fore foot exceed-
ing nine inches; and the hind ones are
much larger. The general color of this
animal is a blackish-brown, grizzled with
light grey. He climbs trees and rocks
with great ease. Amid the wooded plains


and tangled copses in the neighborhood
of the Rocky Mountains, the Grizzly Bear
reigns supreme. Such is his strength,
that he can overpower the bison and
drag the carcass to his den. He is very
tenacious of life; for, after receiving se-
veral severe wounds in the body, he will
still pursue with swiftness. A shot
through the brain or heat can alone set-
tle him. The Grizzly Bear possesses
great courage, and will fight against all
odds, till completely disabled, or till his
foes are slain or driven from the field.


THE Nyl-Ghau is sometimes called the
Blue Cow, and the White-footed Antelope.
It seems to be confined to the northwestern
provinces of Hindostan, and the countries
situated between them and Persia. The
male is superior in size to the stag; his
head is large, with black horns, seven or
eight inches long; his neck long and
maned; his shoulders are surmounted by
a slight hump. The general color of his
body is a slate-gray, with patches of white.
The Nyl-Ghau eats oats and is fond of
grass, hay, and wheat bread. It is vicious
and fierce in the rutting season, but at




other times tame and gentle. The female
differs much from the male, is shorter
and smaller, resembles the deer and has
no horns. The young Nyl-Ghau is like
a fawn. The flesh of the Nyl-Ghau is
sweet and nourishing, and on this account,
the animal is highly prized by the people
of the country where it is found. It is
hunted in the same manner as the deer
in other parts of the world, and can lead
the hunters a long chase, being very swift
on foot.


THE Musmon, or Moufflon of Corsica,
still exists wild in the mountains of Cor-
sica and Sardinia: a similar species is also
scattered over European Turkey and some
of the islands of the Archipelago. They
are about the size of sheep, and breed with
the domestic races. The head is long,
with the muzzle shallow, the nose some-
what raised, and the forehead swollen;
the horns of the male (the female is
without) are large, long, and triangular,
bending backward like a half circle,
around from the base to the tip, which is
jbtuse; the body is large and muscular,




the tail short, and bare on the inside; the
legs are pretty long, and the hoofs short.
The color of the body is a yellow-chestnut;
the head ash-grey, whitish on the muzzle
and about the eyes; the belly, inside of
the thighs, and tip of the tail, is white:
the fleece owes its tints to the long hair,
which exceeds the wool. They wander
in flocks of about a hundred, led by some
old courageous male. Their habits are
like those of our own sheep, docile and
gentle, though sometimes a churlish old
ram will butt down a child, a woman, or
a man, who may happen to stand in his
road, when the fit is upon him.


THE Ibex has large knotted horns, lean
ing backwards, a small head, large eyes,
a thick, short, strong body, strong legs,
very short hoofs, and a short tail. Its
body is a deep brown color, with a mixture
of gray hairs; the legs are partly black.
The hair is harsh, and the male is fur-
nished with a beard. These animals are
found in the most lofty mountains.in Eu-
rope and Asia, where they move in small
flocks. They are very swift and display
amazing skill in leaping. They are not
often hunted. The Ibex hunter must
have a head that can bear to look down


00 ,07 V 4
IY"'*^- ^^


the most tremendous precipices without
fear, besides much strength, vigilance,
and activity. Sometimes, when hard.
pressed, the Ibex will turn on the pur-
suer and tumble him down the precipice.
They always strive to gain the summit
of the mountain when alarmed. Their
voice is a sharp, and short whistle, like
that of the chamois. The Ibex is said to
throw itself down steep precipices, and
fall on its large horns, and thus escape
injury. The young are defended with
great courage by their parent.




THE Llama is as useful to the inhabi-
tants of South America as the camel is to
the Arabs; but it is a more graceful and
beautiful animal. Its legs are slender
and well-formed; the neck is held erect,
and the head looks lively and spirited.
The Llamas inhabit the Cordilleras of the
Andes mountains, but are most numerous
in Peru and Chili. They move about in
large herds, and feed on a kind of grass
called ycho. As long as they can pro-
cure green herbage, they are never known
to drink. The ancient inhabitants of
Peru killed vast numbers of Llamas for



their flesh and skins, and used them as
beasts of burden. From the form of their
feet they are well-fitted for travelling in
mountainous countries, and are therefore
preferred to mules. They are also kept
at a trifling expense. If let loose when
their day's work is done, they will seek
their own food, and return in the morning
to renew their toil in the service of man.
Their flesh is esteemed very wholesome
and savory. Their wool is made into gar-
ments, ropes, and bags, by the native In-
dians. When provoked, the Llama, spits
at its tormentor. These animals cannot
carry very heavy burdens for any great
distance; but they are patient and can
be made very useful.



THE Alpaca, Paco, or Vicugna, is a
species of llama found in South America,
and highly prized for its wool and flesh.
The wool of the Alpaca is much longer
than that of the common llama, and is
capable of being manufactured into a very
fine cloth. Alpaca is a common stuff for
clothing in America and Europe, and is
particularly used for dresses for females.
The animal possesses all the mildness and
patience of the llama, but is not so large
and strong. The inhabitants of the coun-
tries where the Alpaca is found think it
too valuable to reduce to a beast of bur-


den. They pursue it among the moun-
tains, with guns and dogs. The Alpacas
have habits similar to those of the un-
tamed llamas; going in herds and feed-
ing on the grass peculiar to the moun-
tains. Their flesh is esteemed superior
to that of the other species.


THE Oryx, or Gemsbok, is a species of
antelope. It is a heavy, stout animal,
about five feet in length, and three feet
two inches high at the shoulder; the
length of the horns is from two feet to
two feet and a half; that of the ears,
seven inches, and that of the tail thir-
teen inches. The horns are almost straight.
The general color of the body is a dark,
rusty iron-gray on the upper parts, and
white on the under, the two being sepa-
rated on the flanks by a broad band of
brown or black. The head is white.
marked with two bands of black. The



black and white colors are distinctly se-
parated, and the boldness of their con-
trast produces a very singular effect on the
appearance of the animal. The Oryx
inhabits the plains of South Africa; it
is never found in the woods, but keeps
on the open plains, and lives in pairs or
small families. It is very dangerous to
approach this animal when it is wounded,
as it can make a terrible use of its horns.
It is said that the lion himself is afraid
to attack this powerful and courageous
beast, and that sometimes when pressed
to do so by famine, he has been beaten
off with disgrace, or killed.



THE Goat which is to be seen domesti-
cated in many parts of the United States
and other countries was tamed from the
common wild species. It is very swift
and active, climbing the most rugged
mountains, and fearlessly browsing at the
edge of the steepest precipices. The kids
are generally produced early in the spring.
The buck has a rank, nauseous smell,
which proceeds from his skin. Though
fond of the summits of bleak and lofty
mountains, the Goat cannot bear severe
cold. The flesh is much esteemed by some
nations, though it is inferior to mutton.



The milk is excellent, and has been very
beneficial to consumptive persons. But
the skin is the most valuable part of the
animal. It is prepared for a number of
purposes, and takes the name of morocco.
The tallow of the Goat is also very impor-
tant, and it is preferred to that of the ox
or sheep. There are various species of
Goats. The Cashmere Goat is found in
the kingdom of Cashmere, and has long,
fine, silky hair. The Rocky Mountain
Goat is a very hardy species, about the
size of a common Goat.



THE ferocious Hyaena bears some re-
semblance to a large dog. The common
or Striped Hyana, is found in Western
Asia. It is of a brownish-gray color, and
marked with bands of dark brbwn. The
hair upon the back is thick and strong,
forming a sort of mane. These animals
are very bold and rapacious. They will
kill dogs and asses, even within the en-
closures of houses, and never fail to col-
lect where dead beasts of any kind are
placed; nor are they much alarmed at
the report of fire -anns. If one of their
number is wounded, they instantly tear


him in pieces and devour him. It is re-
markable that when the Hyaena is forced
to run, he will always appear lame for a
considerable distance; but after running
for some time, this halting disappears,
and he proceeds on his course very swiftly.
The African Hyaena is sometimes tamed.
This animal is spotted, and is larger than
the Hyaena found in Asia. It devours
every kind of carrion, and is, therefore,
useful in the warm climates, when, with-
out them the air might become infected.


IN grossness of manners, the Hog has
no equal among quadrupeds. The mud
is its favorite bed and the foulest gutter
its place of search for food. The Wild
Boar and the Common Hog are the same
animal, the difference between them
arising from the long tame life of the latter.
The Hog is found in nearly every quarter
of the world. In the forests of South
America, it is found in vast droves, derived
from the European kinds, which have
again fallen into a state of nature. Hogs
are delicate in the choice of herbs, but they
will devour, with voracity the most putrid


_l ip



carrion. At times, they even satisfy their
appetites with their own young; and they
have been known to attack and mangle
children. The form of the Hog is uncouth,
and his motions are clumsy and un-
graceful. His appearance is always
stupid, and if not disturbed, he would
sleep most of the time that is not devoted
to eating. Thus his whole life is a suc-
cession of torpor and gluttony. But the
Hog is a great benefit to mankind. His
flesh is pleasant and nutritious, and par-
ticularly relished by persons who perform
hard bodily labor.


THERE are several varieties of Deer;
known as the moose, reindeer, elk, com-
mon deer, black-tailed deer, long-tailed
deer and the Mexican deer. They are
beautiful quadrupeds. They are distin-
guished from the antelopes by their horns,
which fall off annually, and are always
renewed of a larger size. These horns
always exist on the heads of the male, and
sometimes on that of the female. Some-
times, the horns have many small
branches, and again they are simple and
straight. The reindeer, which is found in
the cold northern countries of the world,

l ,.


is the most useful of the deer kind. The
people of Lapland would want for most
of the comforts of life if they had not this
fine, patient and active animal. They
furnish food, clothing and the means of
travelling in regions where the ground is
nearly always covered with snow.
The Common Deer of the forest, of the
United States, is a swift and elegant
creature, and is much hunted for the
sweetness and delicacy of his flesh. In
winter, the markets of some of the chief
cities are well supplied with venison of a
fine quality.


THE Long-tailed Deer is found in the
neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains,
and in the countries west of them. In
the districts about the Columbia river,
these animals are numerous, and the In-
dians as well as the white settlers find
great sport in hunting them at certain
seasons. The gait of the Long-tailed
Deer consists of two ambling steps and a
bound twice the length of the step. In
running the tail is erect, wagging from
side to side, and from its length is the
most striking feature of the animal. These
Deer go in herds until the breeding sea-



son, which is about the month of May.
The young are spotted with white until
the middle of the first winter, when they
change to the same color as the most
aged. The horns of this Deer are often
large and full of branches, giving it the
appearance of being crowned. It is a
beautiful sight to behold a herd of them
feeding in their native woods, and play-
ing with each other among the bushes.
The young Deer are especially pleasing
to the view.


THIS is one of the most curious of quad-
rupeds. When full grown, it measures
two feet in length. Its general color is
a grizzled, dusky black. The upper part
of its head and neck is furnished with
long light-colored hairs, capable of being
raised or depressed at pleasure. Most
parts of the back and sides are armed
with spires, which are longest on the
centre of the back. When the animal is
excited, these spires, which are its wea-
pons of defence, are raised. The Porcu-
pine generally sleeps through the day,
and only leaves its burrow in the evening,


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