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SIT AGAIN E.3IKRGKD FROM THE CLOUDS, AND WAS I'PONOUNCED
...' "TO BE A S-4QARE-RIGGED VESSKL.
TALES OF TRAVELLERS.
FROM THE SIXTH LONDON EDITION.
GEO. S. APPLETON, 164 CHESTNUT STREET.
D. APPLETON & CO. 200 BROADWAY.
Stereotyped by Wx. S. L8 Lo T N. 19 t. James Street,
Hh4MMCI ~MM~MMC---- -- hHLCN MI~r~HCIMIP.OCN
A JOURNEY ACROSS THE DESERT OF ARABIA,
ALI BEY IN THE DESERT OF MOROCCO,
ALI BEY ON THE RED SEA,
LOSS OF THE ALCESTE,
ADVENTURES IN AN EGYPTIAN CATACOMB,
ULLOA CROSSING THE ANDES,
ULLOA'S VISIT TO PICHINCA,
ADVENTURES IN ICELAND,
ADVENTURES IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN,
A VISIT TO THE ESQUIMAUX,
A WINTER IN CHARLTON ISLAND,
ADVENTURES IN SWEDEN,
THE ESCAPE OF CAPTAIN BLIGHT,
THE LOSS OF THE WAGER,
THE ADVENTURES OF BTRON,
THE praise bestowed by Dr. Johnson on Mrs. Bar.
bauld's little books for children, is a proof that he did
not entirely believe his own assertion, that babies do
not want to hear about babies." How far the super.
natural tales that delighted his infant ear, had a ten.
dency to check the progress of his vigorous mind, by
shading it with the gloom of superstition, this is not the
place to inquire. Stories of giants and castles do not
accord with the taste of the present day; but surely
there is much truth and good sense in the remark of
the learned Doctor, that children like to be told "of
somewhat which can stretch and stimulate their little
minds;"-something which may open a wider and
more elevated range of thought, than can possibly be
afforded by the best written stories of children. Some
of these are admirable in their kind; but perhaps it
may be doubted whether habituating children to seek
amusement, almost exclusively, in fictitious narrative,
has not a direct tendency to weaken the mental powers.
These tales are the novels of childhood; and it is much
to be feared that an unlimited perusal of them will
exhaust the sensibility, ana produce the same listless
indifference to the realities of life, observable in older
persons who devote their time to this kind of reading.
The dose is weaker; but let it be remembered, that it
is proportioned to the age of the patient.
There is another class of books for children, and
some of them executed with great ability, but to which,
from their plan, one objection must be attached. I
mean all those travels where real descriptions are
interwoven with a succession of imaginary adventures.
The simplicity of childhood at first associates the
idea of truth with the names of countries and persons
which are known to be real, and the whole is received
as equally authentic. In a little while, some unlucky
question or observation elicits the unwelcome truth, that
the favourite hero is only an ideal personage. A re.
action immediately takes place in the mind of the
youthful reader, who indignantly discards the whole,
as an imposition on his credulity. I do not speak from
imagination, but from knowledge that such has been
When the "quivering light" of reason dawns on the
youthful mind, is not the chequer'd field of man" the
natural and most attractive object of its speculation?
Every child hopes to be a man. The business of
childhood is to prepare for the full exertion of the
mental powers, when they shall arrive at maturity.
Then, will not those unfolding powers be "stretched
and stimulated" in the safest and wisest manner, by
following the natural impulse of hope and curiosity
Let the actions, and enjoyments, and sufferings of men,
frm'nthe subjects of the contemplation of children,
Care, indeed, will be necessary in selecting, not only
such scenes and events as they can entirely understand,
but such as ought to be presented to them. Examples
of courage, of patience, of fortitude, of generosity and
benevolence, and, above all, of reliance on the Supreme
Disposer of events, on occasions of danger and distress,
will have a natural tendency to strengthen and to
elevate the character. But to obtain this desirable end,
the actors as well as the events must be real. Children
must not suppose that a scene is got up for them, to
answer some particular purpose: they must feel that
they are treated like reasonable beings, and admitted
to the knowledge of the truth, as they are able to
Children whose education is conducted in this
manner, are, I believe, less than any others, affected
with morbid curiosity. Where no mysteries are made,
none are suspected; and, feeling the pleasure and
advantage of understanding what they read, they are
grateful to the friends who take the trouble of selecting
for them, and are perfectly willing to leave, to a more
advanced period of education, that which they are told
is not suited to the present stage of their progress.
The following Tales are extracted from respectable
authorities only; therefore, every story that succeeds
in fixing a child's attention, will be an accession to his
little stock of real knowledge. Some remarks on
natural character, &c., not to be found in the works
referred to, are occasionally introduced; and most of
these passages are taken from the Geographical
Delineations of Dr. Aikin. The form of dialogue has
been adopted, as affording an opportunity of explaining
difficulties, without interfering with the narrative; and
also as being generally agreeable to children: for on
pleasing them, and engaging their attention, the useful-
ness of such a work must entirely depend. If they are
not interested by it, it is good for nothing. To them it
is therefore committed, in hopes that it may excite a
desire for the knowledge of facts, and cherish a pre-
ference of truth to fiction.
"MY dear Mamma," said Lucy, as she was sitting
at work one afternoon, "can you tell me why
almost all the pretty books we read are about
things that never happened?"
I suppose people who write books for children,
think that they will be better pleased with fiction
than with truth."
"They are mistaken then, mamma; for after I
heard you say that Rosamond was such a natural
character, you thought it must be intended to de-
scribe a real little girl, I liked the book far better
than I did before."
I am glad of it, my dear Lucy: I wish you may
always be distinguished for the love of Truth; and
if I am not very much mistaken, there are a great
many little boys and girls who love truth, and who
would like stories of real things, and real people,
better than anything that could be invented to
amuse them, if somebody would take the trouble of
finding stories that they could entirely understand."
That is quite true, mother," said Harry, who
had been holding the last of his little wooden bricks
suspended between his finger and thumb, listening
to his mother and sister, instead of putting the
finishing piece to a tower, which he had raised with
infinite care and dexterity, till it became so much
higher than himself, that he was obliged to stand
upon a chair to finish it: "That is quite true, mo-
ther; I like my 'Stories for Children' the best of
all my little books, for that very reason. They are
stories of the real kings of England, and I can
quite understand them. I wish we had more such
books. Cannot you buy some for us, mamma?"
"I am afraid not, just at present. But the
books that you have to read are much more enter-
taining, and more reasonable, than children could
meet with forty or fifty years ago. Though Rosa-
mond and simple Susan may not be real people,
they are so much like little girls we know, that
while we read about them, we can almost fancy we
are acquainted with them."
Very true, mamma," said Lucy, "they are
pretty stories; but when we have read them a few
times, we do not think much about them, because
we know they are only tales."
Besides," replied Harry, "though I am only a
little boy now, I shall be a man some day, if I live:
and I do not want always to hear stories of other
children. There is not much that a little boy or
girl can do; but men and women, especially men,
do much more entertaining things. Mother, do you
remember how Caeur de Lion was put into a dun-
geon, and how his page found him out? I wonder
if I should have thought of that plan, if I had
been the page."
"Well, my dear children, since I cannot just now
do better for you, I will tell you a story that I read
in a book of travels; something that happened to
real people. But I cannot promise that it will be
so entertaining as Rosamond."
Try, mother, try!" said Harry, and down fe
jumped from the chair in which he had all this time
been standing, with such violence that the whole
floor was shaken, and the lofty tower he had taken
such pains to build, rocked this way and that way,
and at length fell clattering on the floor. Never
mind the castle!" cried he, as he caught up his
stool, and placed it in what he called his comfort-
able corner, between his mother's chair and the
It is no longer a castle," said Mrs. B. "I call
it a litter now; and I shall not begin my story till
you have collected your bricks, and put them into
the box. When you are a man, it will be neces-
sary for you to finish one thing before you begin
another; therefore you ought to acquire this habit
while you are a boy."
Harry made no reply, but began picking up his
bricks as fast as he could. Lucy, who was an
obliging little girl, and very fond of her brother,
laid down her work, and began arranging the bricks
in rows, in the box, till it was full. Harry then
slipped the lid along the groove, put the box into
the closet, and returned to his place beside his
mother. She smiled.
-" So I suppose you think I ought to fulfil my
promise now ?"
"My story is a long one; we had better not
begin till after tea, and then we can go on, with-
out interruption, till your bed-time."
"Oh, that will be delightful! But do you
know only one story, mamma ?"
"Perhaps I may recollect more than one; but
I shall tell you only one to-night. Now ring the
bell for tea."
Tea was despatched in haste. The hearth was
swept: the candles were snuffed: everything ap-
peared neat and cheerful.
The expecting eyes of Harry and Lucy turned
towards their mother, but they did not speak.
They could always depend on her performance of
a promise, and they waited till she was 1eady.
The first story I shall tell you, my dears," said
she, "describes the adventures of some travellers
who had occasion to cross the desert of Arabia.
Lucy, fetch Smith's Atlas, and lay it upon the
table. You and your brother must find the places
I speak of in my narrative."
Mrs. B. then began to relate some circum-
A JOURNEY ACROSS THE DESERT OF ARABIA.
"About thirty years ago, a gentleman named
Griffiths left England, in order to visit foreign
countries. He sailed up the Mediterranean and
Archipelago to Smyrna; and after travelling for
some time in Asiatic Turkey, he went to Aleppo.
In that town he became acquainted with Mr. H.,
who informed him that he intended to go to India,
and earnestly requested Mr. Griffiths to accompany
him on this long and dangerous journey."
"Why do you say Mr. H., mamma ?" inquired
Lucy: "I should like to know the rest of his
"I cannot tell it you, my dear, because I do
not know it myself. You know I am telling you
true stories. I am not at liberty to invent any
"All the better," exclaimed Harry. "We only
wish to know what really happened. You know,
Lucy, 'Mr. H.' does quite as well for understand-
ing the story. But why was the journey danger-
Sous, mamma ?" "
Because they were obliged to cross part of the
desert of Arabia, where they would not only suffer
hunger, thirst, heat, and fatigue, but be likely to
wander far from the place to which they intended
to go; for in the desert no objects mark out the
direction in which people ought to travel. As far
as the eye can reach, nothing can be seen but a
vast expanse of parched and trackless sand. Some-
times a whirlwind raises this loose sand in clouds
that overwhelm the affrighted travellers; and in
the spot where, a few minutes before, were a crowd
of men and camels, nothing appears but a hill of
sand, under which the unhappy travellers are suf-
focated. Nor is this all. Should they escape
these dangers, they have to dread the fury of a
scorching wind, called the samiel or the simoom.
Perhaps you may wonder that any one has cour-
age to travel in such a country, but many travel-
lers cross these deserts every year, and arrive
safely at the end of their journey, though, no
doubt, they suffer a great deal on the way; and I
believe it is natural for men to hope that they
themselves may escape from danger, though they
know that many perish who undertake such expe-
"I understand that," said little Harry, "for I
know ships are sometimes wrecked, but if I were
going a voyage, I should hope to get afe for all
that. Now will youjell us about Mr. Griffiths
and his friend ?"
"In order to understand the story, it will be *
necessary to look at the map of Asia. You know
they were going to set out from Aleppo. Caravans
frequently arrive at Aleppo from Bagdad and Bas-
sora, bringing the productions of Persia and India,
which are sold to European and other merchants.
At the time of my story, a small caravan was
forming at Aleppo, in order to go to Bassora, a
town situate between the union of the Tigris with
the Euphrates, and the place where these rivers
discharge their waters into the Persian Gulf. You
know your father is sometimes obliged to go from
home, on a journey, when it is very disagreeable
to him, and this was the case with Mr. H. The
season of the year was particularly unfavourable,
being the middle of summer, when, even in our
temperate climate, we often suffer from heat.
What then must be an Arabian desert, in the
months of June and July ?"
I do not like to interrupt you, mamma," said
Harry; but before you proceed, will you tell
us what a caravan is ? I thought it was a wooden
house on wheels, made to carry wild beasts about
We do call a carriage of that kind a caravan
in England; but in Eastern countries, by a cara-
van is meant a company of merchants, pilgrims,
or other travellers, who, for their mutual safety,
agree to cross these desert regions together.
W Sometimes they take horses with them; but their
great dependence is on the camel. This animal
has been called 'the ship of the desert,' because it
-is so nuch used to transport merchandise across
these sandy plains, which would be impassable,
unless Providence had created an animal so pa-
tient, so gentle, so capable of enduring fatigue
and hunger, and wonderfully provided with a re-
source against thirst, by which it is enabled to
drink at one time a sufficient quantity of water to
serve it for many days.
"Mr. H. had a wife and two little girls, the
eldest about seven years old, and the youngest but
little more than two. He loved them very much,
and was very sorry to be separated from them;
and he persuaded his wife to consent to his
taking Marianne, the eldest, with him, on this
But was not that selfish of him, mamma ?" *
"Yes, my dear, I think it was selfish. He
was willing to endanger the life of his child, and
expose her to the certainty of a great deal of
suffering, because he had not courage enough to_
This remark was made by a cfild of six years old.
bear parting with those he loved, when it was
right to do so."
Then he loved his own pleasure, more than
he desired the good of his child. I think he did
not love her much."
I dare say," replied his mother, "that if you
had asked him, he would have said he loved her
so dearly he could not bear to go without her.
But this was only a weak fondness: it was not
that noble love which is willing to make many
sacrifices for the sake of those who are dear to us.
"Marianne deserved to be loved, for she was
a very sweet, engaging little girl: she had an ex-
cellent memory, and although only seven years
old, she spoke with ease the Arabic, Greek,
French, Italian, and English languages. It is
true that she did not learn them exactly in the
same manner that you learn French. Aleppo is
inhabited by people of many different nations,
who each speak their own language; and at her
father's house, Marianne had probably been ac-
customed to hear these languages spoken from her
infancy; but to speak them all well herself, shows
that she had a good memory, and was besides an
attentive little girl.-Well, at last all their pre-
parations were finished: the merchandise, the
amPra, and the guards, were all collected at a
Sd~'.distance from the town; and Mr. Griffiths,
U irH HIlittle Marianne, and an Armenian servant,
18 ORDER OF THE CARAVAN.
whose name was Joannes, joined the caravan
about ten o'clock at night.
"The Scheik, or chief of the caravan, was an
Arab, who promised to conduct Mr. Griffiths and
his friends safely to Bassora, where they intended
to go on board some vessel which would take
them down the Persian Gulf, and over the Ara-
bian Sea to India.
The first division of the caravan was formed
of about eighty camels, and between thirty and
forty guards. When they set off, the whole num-
ber of camels was nearly two hundred. Among
the guards were some men called Raffeeks. These
are Arabs of various tribes, who make it their
business to act as guides or guards to caravans
crossing the desert: with these men the Scheik
entered into an agreement, that they should ac-
company him on the journey, and protect the
caravan which he commanded, from being at-
tacked or plundered by any wandering parties
belonging to their tribes.
"The Raffeeks carried with them the distin-
guishing flags of their respective tribes, that they
might, at first sight, be known and acknowledged
by their friends; and the Scheik determined to
avoid such wells as were likely to be frequented
by any Arabs from whose tribe he had not a
"I think," said Harry, "the Scheik was very
cowardly. I expected he was a fine, brave fellow,
that would set off, full gallop, and throw his long
lance at any body that dared to attack him."
"And suppose he did," replied his mother,
and somebody threw a long lance in return, and
killed the Scheik, what do you think would be-
come of the caravan he had promised to conduct
in safety ?"
I do not know. Could they not find the way
without him ?"
They would probably be robbed and ill-treated
by the Arabs who met with them; and if they
were deprived of their camels, they must perish in
the desert. The Scheik was prudent, not cow-
ardly. To expose ourselves to unnecessary
danger is not courage but rashness.
"Mr. H. took his favourite horse with him;
and he had a machine, called a mokaffah, fitted
up for common use. This machine was composed
of two boxes, partly filled with mattresses, on
which the traveller might sit; these boxes were
slung on each side of a camel. Little posts were
fixed in the outside corners,with a canvass cover-
ing thrown over them, which shaded the travellers
from the extreme heat of the sun. I hardly know
what Marianne would have done, without some
contrivance of this kind; but it was not a very
easy seat for her, on account of the rough, un-
pleasant motion of the camel, which shook her
about exceedingly: indeed the jolting was so dis-
agreeable, that Mr. Griffiths generally preferred
walking, even in the middle of the day. Besides
the mohafah, Mr. H. provided an excellent tent,
which would afford them shelter when they stop-
ped to rest.
They began their journey at a quarter past
eleven o'clock, on the night of the eighth of June,
1786; Marianne and Mr. Griffiths on the mohaf-
fah, Mr. H. on horseback, and Joannes on a
camel. They travelled till eight o'clock the next
morning, and then stopped near a few Arab huts,
where they remained for two days, and employed
themselves in sorting and arranging their baggage
and provisions. Here several camels and travel-
lers joined them, and also many Aribs armed with
lances. From one of them they bought a young
hare, and they saw several jerboas, but could not
catch any. Mr. H. and Marianne slept on two
travelling beds, and Mr. Griffiths on a mattress
laid on the ground.
Cc Before them, as far as the eye could reach, the
country appeared a vast expanse of sand, bounded
only by the horizon. It was a dreary prospect.
Towards the north-east Mr. Griffiths fancied he
could see water; but when they came nearer, he
found that the ground was covered with a whitish
salt, which gave it that appearance. Near this
place they found the ruins of a village; and, as
plenty of good water was to be had, they stopped
the next morning to secure a sufficient quantity to
last them for three days. Their usual mode of
proceeding was to set out about two o'clock in
the morning, and continue travelling till nine, ten,
or eleven, when they stopped and formed an
encampment for the rest of tde day; but some-
times they were obliged to go on till five or six
o'clock in the afternoon, and the fatigue they
suffered on those days cannot easily be described.
When they stopped to rest, they formed their
encampment in the following manner:-
"The tent, arms, baggage, and all the travel-
lers were placed in the centre: round these the
bales of merchandise: the camels encircled the
outside, having one of their fore-legs tied to pre-
vent their straying. If there happened to be any
grass for them to eat, they were allowed to graze
till sunset, when their keepers collected them
together, and secured them in the manner I have
"When a caravan stops for refreshment and
repose, the first thing they busy themselves about
is to prepare some coffee. For this purpose it is
necessary, in the first place, to light a fire; and
how do you think they manage to do that ?"
Harry said he thought they might pick up some
dry sticks, and withered leaves, and then strike a
light and set fire to them; but Lucy reminded him
that it would be vain to look for sticks and leaves
in the desert. Both the children looked at their
mother, who told them that every Arab is pro-
vided with a fungous plant, so very dry, that it
takes fire immediately a spark from flint and steel
falls upon it. Almost all over the desert may be
found dried camels dung, which serves the.Arabs
for fuel: they collect some of this, and soon light
it by means of their burning fungus.
Having given this explanation, Mrs. B. con-
tinued her description of the proceedings of the
After refreshing themselves with coffee, which
travellers carry ready ground, or beaten into a
very fine powder, and pressed closely down into a
wooden box, they all, except a Jew who keep
guard, indulge themselves in a few hour's repose
during the heat of the day. But if the Scheik
Sapprehends that any enemies are in the neighbour-
hood, he appoints some of his people to act as
scouts; sending them to examine the grounds near
the wells where he intends to halt next; if they
find them already occupied by any hostile tribes,
they return and make report to the Scheik, who
immediately changes the direction of his journey,
and hastily sets forward to avoid the danger of
meeting with his enemies. Such circumstances
often cause great distress during the summer
months, when many of the wells are dry, and the
PROGRESS ACRO88 THE DESERT. 23
caravans are obliged to go a great way before
they can get flesh water.
"From this account you may form a pretty
good idea of the mode of travelling adopted by
caravans. Harry, tell me, in a few words, if
you can, what was their daily manner of pro-
They set out in what we should call the night,
that is, about two o'clock in. the morning, and
travelled on for eight or nine hours. Then they
stopped and formed their encampment before noon;
made their coffee; appointed others to keep guard
and act as scouts; went to sleep till the evening;
and then, I suppose, they packed up, and prepared
for travelling forward during the remainder of the
night, and the early part of the following day."
I am glad you remember what I have said,
so clearly. Well, our travellers went on in this
manner for eight days. Now and then they saw
a few horsemen at a distance, many antelopes,
rats, and hares. The antelopes and rats were too
nimble for them: but the Arabs killed several
hares, by knocking them down with sticks and
clubs. On the morning of the eighth day they
stopped near a well of beautiful clear water;
but, unfortunately, it had a very unpleasant taste.
However, the Scheik desired them to fill their
skins with this water, as it was very likely they
might not meet with any more for some time."
24 PROGRESS ACROSS THE DESERT.
Fill their skins with water, mamma What
does that mean ?"
"It is common on these occasions to carry
water either in skins prepared for the purpose, or
in leather bottles, which are slung upon the
camels. The ground near the well at which they
had just halted was tolerably fertile, and the
camels were allowed to graze till late at night.
An aromatic herb, of which camels are very fond,
grew there abundantly; and when they proceeded
on their journey the next day, they found more
of the same herb, notwithstanding the dryness of
the soil. The heat of the weather was now much
increased, and Mr. Griffiths suffered greatly from
an inflammation in his eyes, which deprived him
of sight for several days. Happily he had some
alum, which he dissolved in water, washed his
eyes with it, and they were soon well again.
They had reason to be glad that they followed
the Scheik's advice about filling their skins, for at
the next stage the wells were dry; and at the
second they found only thick, muddy water, unfit
for drinking: this was also the case at the third
station; but the Scheik comforted them by saying,
that in three days more they would meet with
some that was much better. With his usual pru-
dence he sent forward some scouts, to observe
whether the wells were free from Arabs; and,
not contented with their report, he made all the
caravan halt for some hours, while he examined
the place himself. Satisfied that all was safe, he
allowed them to remain till the following day.
They filled all the skins belonging to the cara-
van, and then set off to the south-east.
"During the nine following days the Scheik
cautiously avoided the usual track, for he sus-
pected, from the marks at the last wells, that
hostile Arabs were near. He therefore generally
travelled in the night, and seldom encamped near
any wells. The supplies of water were procured
as quickly as possible when they passed by a well;
and then they set off, and did not stop again for
"The inconveniences they suffered gradually
increased as they advanced further into the desert.
The rays of the sun became daily more powerful;
and they were frequently visited by that terrible
wind, the simoom, which I have already men-
tioned to you. The faces of Mr. Griffiths and his
friend became sore and blistered; but the little
Marianne, who had not been permitted to leave
the mohajfah, continued tolerably well. Their
stock of provisions was much reduced, and they
generally were obliged to content themselves with
rice. Now and then they caught a hare, or a
jerboa; and once the Scheik treated them all by
killing a young camel.
"Early on the morning of the twenty-ninth day
of their journey, they discovered an extensive
grove of date-trees; under the shade of which
they were surprised with a sight they little ex-
pected in the midst of the desert-a populous
village, composed of mud houses: the inhabitants
principally subsist on the fruit of the date-tree,
preserved in different ways. They supplied our
travellers with some fowls and a sheep, and also
with pretty good water. Several of the principal
people visited them, and smoked a pipe in their
tent. From this village they travelled five days
without seeing any wells, or having their atten-
tion diverted from the sandy plain around them,
except by the rising and setting of the sun. Their
stock of water was nearly spent, when they came
within sight of a town called Mesched Ali: its
dome, covered with bronzed plates, and its glit-
tering minarets, were seen at many miles' dis-
tance, reflecting, in a brilliant manner, the rays
of the sun. Here they stopped to rest, about
half a mile from the town, and procured a fresh
supply of water and provisions. In the night
they continued their journey towards the south-
east. They carefully covered little Marianne with
thick cotton handkerchiefs, and preserved her
from the parching air as much as it was possible.
To their great surprise, she bore the heat and
jolting of the mohaffah better than either of the
others; and when the servant or the Arabs com-
plained, she used to rally them quite cheerfully.
I told you she was a sweet little girl, for she was
lively and good-humoured, though her mouth was
sadly blistered with the heat, and her kind friends
often bathed it with camePs milk and water.
"About noon they were alarmed by an account
that enemies were approaching. The guards and
the Raffeeks drew up in a line, and consulted
together; after which they determined to proceed,
shouting and dancing in front of the caravan.
Wishing to observe what passed, Mr. Grifliths
took a musket from Joannes, and went forward
with the guards. A large party of men on foot,
and others on camels, appeared advancing towards
them. A number of shots were fired on both
sides, and soon afterwards flags were displayed.
At length the Scheik advanced alone on horse-
back, armed with his lance and pistols, to meet
the Scheik of the opposite tribe, who was on a
camel. They both dismounted, and saluted each
other with much ceremony, when our travellers
were convinced that no danger was to be appre-
hended from this meeting."
"Well," said Harry, "I like our Scheik better
now. It was brave of him to ride forward by
himself, to meet the strangers."
Yet, you see, he did not forget his usual pru-
dence: he did not ride forward till after the flags
had been displayed. You should recollect that is
WANT OF WATER.
the Arabian manner of distinguishing friends from
The caravan halted during the remainder of
the day, and part of the night. The hot wind
distressed them exceedingly; and to add to their
misfortunes, their water was almost exhausted,
and the little that was left was so bad they could
scarcely drink it. Mr. H. was also extremely ill.
It appeared, when they again set forward, that
they had wandered from the path leading to those
wells where the Scheik intended they should halt;
and it was absolutely necessary to continue travel-
ling until they should reach them. Hour after
hour passed, in fruitless expectation of coming to
the long-wished-for ground. Their thirst was
violent, and the dregs of water that remained
could not quench it.
"At length the caravan halted. But, alas!
there were no wells in the neighbourhood. They
had no remedy but patience; for they must bear
their thirst till the next day, when they were as-
sured that they would meet with fresh water.
Mr. H. and his daughter had for many days
travelled together in the mohafah. Mr. Griffiths
generally went on foot till the heat was too power-
ful, and then he rode the horse. The poor animal
appeared to suffer dreadfully, and was so lame, for
several hours together, that Mr. Griffiths wished
to examine his foot, to find out, if he could, the
SUFFERINGS OF THE TRAVELLERS. 29
cause of this remarkable lameness. The shoe was
burning hot; and the pain which Mr. Griffiths
felt from only touching it, sufficiently explained
the cause of the poor horse's sufferings. He would
gladly have taken off its shoes, but had not the
necessary instruments; and though the horse
recovered during the night, when the ground was
cooled by the evening breeze, yet on each suc-
ceeding day of the journey, when the sand was
heated by the rays of the sun, the poor animal
suffered a return of the same distress. You may
imagine how anxiously they wished to set forward
again to the wells. 'Marianne still suffered less
than her companions; for she was so completely
tired, that she slept soundly. Her poor father
was very ill, and it appeared unlikely that he
would be able much longer to support his suffer-
ings. About two o'clock, the simoom blew stronger
than usual, and an afflicting change took place in
the countenance of this unfortunate man. At this
time the leading camels began to quicken their
pace; and all directing their course to one point,
convinced the travellers that the relief they so
eagerly desired was at hand.
"Mr. Griffiths endeavoured to cheer his dying
companion with the prospect, and urged his horse
towards the place where the camels were collect-
ing together. He soon found himself among a
circle of animals greedily contending for a draught
DEATH OF MR. H.
of muddy water, confined in a shallow well about
five feet wide. Pressing to the edge, he was glad
to lie flat on the ground and supply himself with
water, which he scooped up in his hand. You,
who have never experienced the suffering oc-
casioned by excessive thirst, can have no idea of
their joy at being able to quench it once more;
but you must recollect that they had been almost
entirely without water for forty-eight hours, in an
Arabian desert, in the month of July.
"Mr. Griffiths had scarcely quenched his thirst
when the mohaffah arrived. He ran with a bowl
full of water to his friend, who drank but little, in
great haste. That little was his last draught!
With difficulty they supported him to where the
tent had been thrown down from the back of a
camel. Some of the Arabs kindly held up a part
of the tent to shelter the dying man from the
scorching rays of the sun; while his friend hastily
unpacked the liquor-chest, and supporting the
sufferer in his arms, endeavoured to make him
swallow a cordial. It was too late! Gust after
gust of suffocating air had dried up the springs of
life, and he breathed his last on the bosom of his
"Poor little Marianne!" said Lucy, "how
afflicted she must have been: what will become
of her now?"
"The Arabs dug a grave near the remains of a
PILLARS OF SAND.
village, at a short distance from the well. Thither
Mr. Griffiths directed the body tb be carried, fol-
lowing it himself with Marianne, who kneeled by
his side while he paid this last sad tribute of re-
spect and affection.
"But a short time could be allowed to these
mournful duties. Mr. Griffiths placed his little
ward in one side of the mohaffah, mounted his
horse, and proceeded with the caravan.
They travelled in the usual manner, till near
sunset, when they halted, and Joannes prepared
a dish of rice for supper; but, having made his
fire too near the mohaffah, the wind blew some of
the light fuel into it, and half of that retreat from
the oppressive heat of the sun was quite con-
sumed; fortunately the other half was preserved,
so that the poor child could still be tolerably
"From the last wells they proceeded towards
the Euphrates, through a more uneven and fa-
tiguing country than any they had yet passed, and
their daily journeys were shorter than usual.
Gusts of wind frequently covered them with sand;
and here they saw many of those columns of
sand, which, rising to a great height in the air,
presented a grand though terrible spectacle."
I should have thought," said Lucy, that the
loose, dry sand of the desert would often rise in
PILLARS OF SAND.
thick clouds of dust, but it is very strange that it
should take the form of lofty pillars !"
During the storms that rage in the desert, the
sand is often raised in clouds, as you suppose,
Lucy, and in such quantities as to fill the air and
obscure the sun-but when whirlwinds prevail, as
they sometimes do in those dreary wastes, the
sand is carried up by the eddy, and assumes the
form of pillars. This remarkable appearance has
been described more particularly by another tra-
veller of our own country than it is in the account
of Mr. Griffiths."
"Who was that, mamma? I wish you would
tell us his description of these wonderful pil-
"His name was Bruce; he was crossing the
desert of Nubia, which you will find in the map
between Egypt and Abyssinia. One day, Bruce
and his companions alighted to refresh themselves
under the shade of some acacia-trees, and on look-
ing over the wide expanse of desert to the north
and west of their resting-place, they were sur-
prised and alarmed by the appearance of a number
of enormous pillars of sand; many of them were
so lofty that they seemed to reach the clouds.
Sometimes they moved with great swiftness-
sometimes stalked along majestically slow. Now
they came so near that the travellers were afraid
of being overwhelmed by them in a few minutes
THE SCHEIK'S FIRMNESS.
-then again they retreated to a distance, gliding
almost out of sight.
"About noon the pillars advanced swiftly, the
wind blowing from the north. It was vain to
think of escaping by flight, they came on so
rapidly that the swiftest horse could not gallop
fast enough to carry his rider out of danger.
Bruce was so convinced of the impossibility of
escaping that he had no desire to move-he stood
quite still, looking with fear and astonishment on
this magnificent spectacle. You may suppose how
relieved he must have felt when the wind pre-
sently changing to the south-east, these giants of
the desert retired before it till they were seen no
"How grand !" exclaimed Harry. "It was
worth while to suffer a little from fear for the
pleasure of a sight like that. Now, if you please,
mamma, tell us what became of Marianne."
Two days after they saw the pillars of sand,
they arrived on the banks of the Euphrates, where
Mr. Griffiths refreshed himself by bathing. Being
now free from apprehension of wanting water
during the rest of the journey, but very much
fatigued by travelling, he asked the Scheik to
procure a boat, to take himself, Marianne, and
Joannes, to Bassora. The Scheik replied, that he
had faithfully promised to conduct them safely,
and that he knew too well the dangers to which
they would be exposed, to allow of their leaving
his protection; adding that Franks (so the Arabs
call Christians) were always murdered if they
were discovered navigating the river.
They were greatly disappointed by this refu-.
sal; but Mr. Griffiths found, when he arrived at
Bassora, that the Scheik was perfectly right, and
that the Euphrates cannot be frequented without
great danger. During the remainder of the jour-
ney, few occurrences varied the usual mode of
travelling; and in about five days they reached
Bassora, where they arrived about noon, on the
forty-eighth day from their leaving Aleppo. And
now that the Scheik has fulfilled his engagement;-
I may conclude my story."
"0, not just yet, if you please, mamma! Pray
tell us what became of Marianne. Did Mr. Grif-
fiths take her to be his little girl, and take care
of her always?"
No: he left her at Bassora, with a gentleman
of his acquaintance. She remained there a few
months, and, then returned across the desert with
another gentleman, who delivered her safely to
her mother at Aleppo."
"-And what became of Mr. Griffiths ?"
"He embarked at Bassora, in a vessel going to
Bombay in India, where he arrived after a pros-
And the Scheik, mamma, your own favourite,
what became of him ?"
My favourite, do you call him? Well, I have
no objection. I think he was a prudent, clever
man, and faithful to his promise. Perhaps, if I
give you a description of him, such as I read in the
account of this journey, you might like him too."
A description of the Scheik; that is, what sort
of person he was. Pray tell us, mamma."
"The Scheik who directed this caravan, was
greatly esteemed upon the desert, for the respec-
tability of his connections, and the bravery of his
conduct on many occasions. He was particularly
handsome; of dignified manners; and when on
horseback, armed with his lance, yatagaun, and
pistols, his appearance was very striking. He
frequently braved the danger of meeting his ene-
mies, by advancing before the caravan when occa-
sion made it necessary. He was polite, easy, and
graceful, with a serious manner, that inspired both
respect and confidence. He was very hospitable;
and whenever our travellers approached him, while
drinking his coffee, or eating his simple meal, he
always cheerfully offered them a portion of it. He
often inquired after their health and their wants;
and appears to have omitted nothing in his power
to promote their comfort. In short the Scheik
Mahommed may be regarded as a favourable speci-
men of a Bedouin Arab."
DESERT OF MOROCCO.
"MAMMA," said Harry, "you told us one thing
last night that I do not like. You were certainly
If I was, I am quite willing to acknowledge
it-but what was my mistake ?"
When you were speaking about thirst, mam-
ma, you told us that we had never experienced
the suffering occasioned by excessive thirst. Now
"Indeed! I was not aware of it. When did
this extraordinary event take place ?"
Last summer, mamma, in that very hot wea-
ther, you know, when my brothers were at home,
and we all went to the hay-field and worked so
hard. I was as thirsty as an Arab could be; and
Emily would not let me drink, because I was so
hot; and I had a great while to wait. Oh, I for-
got that last night, or I should have told you."
And you really think, that what you suffered
then, might be compared to what is sometimes
endured by travellers in the desert ?"
"Certainly, mamma: why not ?"
"It is common for people who pass their lives
in ease and happiness, to think a great deal of
trifling inconveniences. You, my dear boy, are
of this number. You are so accustomed to be
sheltered from extremes of heat and cold, and to
have your meals set before you at the regular
hours, that you hardly know the feeling of hunger
or thirst, in a greater degree than is necessary to
feel pleasure in eating and drinking."
"But I did then, mamma ?"
"I perceive that it made a strong impression on
your mind. So you really, six months after the
sad event, pity yourself, because you had to wait
half an hour for a tumbler of water! I have been
reading of some people who suffered from thirst in
a remarkable manner. I will tell you the story
if you like."
That is very kind, mamma; but pray stop one
minute while I call Lucy: then we shall both have
Lucy quickly obeyed the summons. "Are
you really going to tell us another story this
evening, dear mamma ? It is very kind of you."
Yes, my dear; but not an Arabian story. You
must fetch the Atlas. What I am going to tell
you happened in Morocco."
Morocco: that is in the northern part of Africa.
There, Harry, the map of Africa will do."
We have found it, mamma," said Harry, "but
pray tell us who the people were?"
"The principal person assumed the name of
Ali Bey, and the rank of a Mahometan prince,
and appears to have been received as such in the
countries which he visited. But his real name is
said to be Badia,* and he is believed to be a
Spaniard. Whatever were his motives for con-
cealing his name, he was distinguished by his
knowledge and his courage, and has written an
entertaining narrative of his travels. In this book
I have been reading an account of himself and his
caravan nearly perishing from the want of water.
It is necessary for you to know, that Ali Bey had
been travelling in Morocco, and was on the point
of leaving that country. He wished to go from
Ouschda to Tangier, where he intended to embark
for the East."
"We cannot find Ouschda, mamma."
"Very likely not; but I can tell you its situation.
"Ouschda is a town of Morocco, about the second
degree of west longitude. It is rather nearer to
the Mediterranean than to Mount Atlas. You
See Legh's Journey in Egypt, p. 67, note.
may make a little dot with your pencil in that
Thank you, mamma. I like to know where we
set out from. And now I see there is some use in
these lines of longitude, as you call them: by
their help we can find the situation of Ouschda,
though it is not put down in the map."
"Well, mamma, Ali Bey is setting out from
Ouschda. What does he say about it?"
He left Ouschda, with his people and equipage,
on the third of August, 1806, at nine in the even-
ing. He was escorted by two officers, and thirty
of the sultan's guards. Ali Bey's reason for set-
ting out so late was, because he had been informed
that four hundred Arabs, in arms, were watching
for him on the high road. He thought it probable
that it was their intention to rob him, and this in-
formation induced him to leave Ouschda privately.
He quitted the high road, crossed the fields to the
south, and pushed forward towards the desert. The
night was very dark, and the sky quite covered
with clouds. They advanced very fast during the
night, and at nine in the morning they stopped
near a stream, where the sultan's guards took
leave of Ali Bey, and left him to the protection of
some armed Arabs who had joined him on the
road, and who were to be commanded by the two
officers who accompanied Ali Bey from Ouschda.
A dispute arose among the guards at parting, which
for a little time alarmed Ali Bey and his company,
and so occupied their attention, that they forgot to
supply themselves with water, at the stream whose
banks they were now leaving. They continued
marching on in great haste, for fear of being over-
taken by the four hundred Arabs whom they
wished to avoid. For this reason, they never
kept the common road, but passed through the
middle of the desert, marching through stony
places, over easy hills.
This country is entirely without water: not a
tree is to be seen in it-not a rock which can offer
a shelter or a shade. A particular clearness in the
air, an intense sun darting its beams on the head
of the traveller, a ground almost white, slight
breezes scorching like a flame: such is a faithful
picture of this desert, through which our friend
Ali Bey was passing."
I think," said Lucy, "he would not have been
worse off in Arabia. What a pity it was that they
forgot the water!"
It must be confessed," observed Harry, "that
Ali Bey was not quite so prudent as our Scheik
Mahommed. I'll answer for it, he never forgot to
provide himself with water at the proper time. I
shall not pity Ali Bey so much, because he will
suffer from his own carelessness."
"Perhaps," said his mother, "those who suffer
from their own fault are the more to be pitied, be-
cause they have not the consolation of thinking
they have done all they could to prevent misfor-
tune. But, Harry, you are too hasty in accusing
Ali Bey of carelessness. You forget that he was
a stranger in the country, and did not know that
the stream he had passed was the last place where
he would be able to supply himself with water.
It was the officers who conducted him that were
"About noon they saw an armed man on horse-
back, who kept at a distance from them'. Perhaps
Ali Bey's Arabs took him for an enemy; for they
darted forward in pursuit of him, uttering loud
cries, and playing with their guns over their heads.
The stranger fled towards the mountains, where it
would have been vain to attempt pursuing him.
Our travellers had now neither eaten nor drunk
since the preceding day. Their horses and other
beasts were in the same situation, though ever
since nine in the evening they had been advancing
rapidly. Soon after twelve o'clock, the men, as
well as the poor animals, were worn out with fa-
tigue. The mules stumbling every moment with
their burdens, required help to lift them up again,
and to support their burden till they rose. This
terrible exertion exhausted the little strength which
the travellers had left.
"At two in the afternoon, a man dropped down
stiff, as if he were dead, from his great fatigue
42 SUFFERINGS FROM THIRST.
and thirst. Ali Bey stopped, with three or four
of his people, to assist him. The little wet which
was left in one of the leather budgets was squeezed
out of it, and some drops of water poured into the
poor man's mouth, but without any effect. Ali
Bey began to feel his own strength failing; and
becoming very weak, he determined to mount on
horseback, leaving the poor fellow behind."
"Oh, how cruel!" exclaimed Lucy. "Leave
him to perish all alone!"
Put yourself into the situation of Ali Bey.
The poor man was dying for want of water: he
appeared insensible. Of what use or comfort could
it be to him, for his companions to lie down and
die by his side? Neither was he the only one so
circumstanced. From that time, others of the cara-
van began to drop, one after another; and there
was no possibility of giving them any assistance.
They were left to their unhappy fate, as each per-
son could only think of saving himself. Several
mules, with their burdens, were left behind; and
Ali Bey saw some of his trunks on the ground,
without knowing what was become of the mules
which had been carrying them, the drivers having
forsaken both mules and baggage. This loss
affected Ali Bey but little: he pushed on, and left
his trunks without caring about them. His horse
now began to tremble under him, and yet he was
the strongest in the whole caravan. When he
. . . .R
ALI BEY IN THE DESERT.
SUFFERINGS FROM THIRST. 43
endeavoured to encourage his men to go faster,
they answered by looking steadily in his face, and
pointing to their mouths, to show how much they
suffered from thirst. He reproached the conduct-
ing officers for the inattention which had caused
so much distress. They excused themselves, from
the alarm occasioned by the quarrel of the guards;
and added, 'Do we not suffer like the rest ?' Each
of the party was now sensible of the impossibility
of supporting such fatigue to the place where they
were to meet with water again. At last, about
four o'clock in the afternoon, AliBey hid his turn,
and fell down with thirst and-fatigue. Stretched
senseless on the ground, in the middle of the de-
sert; left with only four or five men, one of whom
dropped at the same time with himself; those who
retained their senses without any means of assist-
ing him: can you imagine a situation more de-
"To die of thirst! that is shocking indeed."
I suppose," resumed his mother, he suffered
as much as if he had died; but it pleased Provi-
dence to preserve his life."
How was that possible? It must have been
by a miracle."
No; it was not by a miracle: that means
something contrary to the common course of
events ;-something which cannot happen without
the sensible exertioh of Almighty power. Ali Bey
44 CHARITABLE TRAVELLERS.
was relieved from his distress by an unexpected,
but very natural occurrence. He had lain sense-
less on the ground for half an hour, when, at
some distance, a caravan of more than two thou-
sand persons was seen approaching. The chief
of the caravan, observing the distressed situation
of our travellers, ordered some skins of water to
be thrown over them. Ali Bey presently opened
his eyes, recovered his senses, and looked round
him. At first he could not see clearly, but soon
distinguished seven or eight persons, who were
assisting him with much kindness. He tried to
speak to them, but a painful sensation in his throat
prevented him: he could only make himself un-
derstood by signs, and by pointing to his mouth
with his finger. These charitable people con-
tinued pouring water over his face, arms, and
hands; and at last he was able to swallow small
mouthfuls of water. This enabled him to ask,
'Who are you?'
"When they heard him speak, they expressed
their joy, and answered, 'Fear nothing far from
being robbers, we are your friends;' and every
one mentioned his name. Ali Bey began, by de-
grees, to recollect their faces, but could not remem-
ber their names. They poured more water over
him, gave him some to drink, filled some of his
leather bags, and then left him in haste. They
could not, after sparing so much of their own stock
PROVIDENTIAL DIRECTION. 46
of water, stay long in this desert place, without
danger to themselves."
Well, if it was not a miracle, it was a very
lucky chance for him, poor fellow! But what
became of his men?"
You shall hear presently. But I must first
tell you, Lucy, that a lucky chance is a very im-
proper expression. Ali Bey understood this mat-
ter better than you do."
"Ali Bey was a wise man, and I am only a
little girl: so I do not much wonder at that."
"But though you are little girl, I think you
can understand, that if a sparrow cannot fall to
the ground without the permission of the great
Power that made it, nothing can happen to a Inan
but what is directed by a wise and merciful Provi-
Then do you think that Ali Bey had read the
passage about sparrows, in the Testament ?"
"Ali Bey did not profess to be a Christian,
and perhaps he had not read the Testament at all;
but pious Mahometans believe that the world is
governed by the power of God. On this occasion
Ali Bey remarks: 'When I consider that so con-
siderable a caravan had, upon the false report that
two or three thousand were going to attack it,
quitted the road, and that this mistake was the
cause of our preservation, I cannot suffciently
46 SYMPTOMS OF THIRST.
admire the gracious direction of Providence to
"Was it not true, then," inquired Harry, "that
two or three thousand men were going to attack
the caravan ?"
"No: there were in reality only the four hun-
dred Arabs who were watching for Ali Bey."
"We left him in a very sad situation," said
Lucy: I should like to know how he felt when
he came to himself again."
"He has given a particular account of the man-
ner in which he was affected by thirst: perhaps
you may like to hear it."
As you please, mamma; but we know how
people feel when they are thirsty."
"The attack of thirst which so nearly proved
fatal to Ali Bey and his people, was perceived all
on a sudden by an extreme dryness of the skin;
the eyes appeared to be bloody; the tongue and
mouth, both inside and outside, were covered with
a crust of the thickness of a crown piece; this
crust was of a dark yellow colour, of an insipid
taste, and of a consistence like the soft wax from
a bee-hive. A faintness or languor took away the
power to move: a painful feeling in the throat and
chest interrupted their breathing. Some wander-
ing tears escaped from their eyes, and at last they
dropped down on the earth, and in a few moments
became insensible. These were the symptoms felt
by Ali Bey, who observed his fellow-travellers
were affected in the same manner. Did your feel-
ings resemble them, my dear Harry ?"
"Oh, mamma! do not laugh at me. I will not
make a fuss about trifles again, if I can help it.
But what became of Ali Bey, after those charitable
people left him?"
"He mounted his horse again with difficulty,
and proceeded on his journey. At seven in the
evening, he halted near a brook; and during the
night all his people and baggage arrived, one after
another, and he found he had sustained no loss.
The caravan had met them, and saved the men as
well as the beasts."
The poor fellow that they left by himself and
alT! This is a better end to the adventure than I
expected. But I hope you are quite sure that Ali
Bey is a real person. I do not understand why a
man should change his name, or call himself any
thing but what he is."
Neither do I, my dear Harry. But with re-
gard to the object of your inquiry, I believe you
may be quite satisfied. Ali Bey was in London
some years since, and is well known to many re-
spectable persons. His name is not of much con-
sequence to us ; but I agree.with you, in thinking,
that he had better have kept to the truth in this
point, as well as in every thing else."
48 ALI BEY ON THE RED SEA.
ALI BEY ON THE RED SEA.
THE children were very desirous of hearing an-
other story about Ali Bey, especially after their
mother told them that he was once in almost as
dangerous a situation on the Red Sea as he had
been in the desert of Morocco.
"But how came he to be on the Red Sea,
mamma," said Lucy; "it is a long way from
True, my dear," replied her mother. "Egypt
lies between Morocco and the Red Sea. Since
we parted from Ali Bey, he has visited that
famous country. He sailed up the Nile from
Rosetta to Cairo, where he was received very
hospitably by the Scheiks. After staying there
about a month he wished to join a caravan which
was going to Mecca, his kind friends accompanied
him a little way out of the town, when they took
leave of him, and returned to Cairo.
"On Thursday, the 18th of December, 1806,
the signal for the departure of the caravan was
given; and immediately appeared long files of
camels, coming from all sides of the horizon,
leaving their respective encampments to unite
themselves with the main body. The caravan
being assembled, began to cross the desert, direct-
ing its course towards the east. Ali Bey took
with him fourteen camels, two horses, and a few
servants. He intended to return into Egypt, and
left most of his property there. The whole cara-
van consisted of five thousand camels, and be-
tween two and three hundred horses. There
were also persons of every Mahometan nation,
who were going to perform their pilgrimage to
Mecca. The camels walked in files, with an
equal and regular step, like clock-work. They
encamped, during part of the night, in the middle
of the desert.
"The next day Ali Bey amused himself in a
way that would have pleased you, Harry. As
the caravan marched very slowly, he passed to
the head of it, accompanied by two of his servants,
who spread a carpet and a cushion for him on the
sand; and there he seated himself for three quar-
ters of an hour, entertained by watching the long
procession as it passed before him. When all the
camels and people had gone by, he mounted his
horse, arrived quickly at the head of the line again,
and seated himself as before. Indeed, he was so
well pleased with this amusement, that the jour-
ney did not appear fatiguing to him. The ground
was composed of hills of loose sand, without the
least appearance of plants or animals. Not ail
insect or a bird was to be seen in the air. They
passed one more night in this desolate place; and
early next morning they perceived, at a great
ARRIVAL AT SUEZ.
distance, the little town of Suez, situated on a
small height. All those who were on horseback,
as well as the armed Arabs, who were mounted
on camels or dromedaries, went to the head of the
caravan, forming a line of battle.
"Soon after, they saw a group of persons on
horseback, who were coming from Suez, and pre-
pared their arms; but perceiving they were Arnaut
soldiers and inhabitants of Suez, who were coming
to meet them, every one was rejoiced. After the
two bodies met, they continued to march in a long
line. Several of the Arabs, every now and then,
left their ranks, and going to the right and left of
the line, afforded, by their racing and firing off
their guns, much amusement to every body.
It was a fine sight to see these Arabs going at
full speed, mounted on horses or dromedaries,
with their lances in the air, or pointed forwards.
They continued racing and firing; and sometimes
the balls came so near to the line, that they could
hear them hiss as they passed by; but I believe
the Arabs were careful not to hurt anybody.
"At length, about noon, the caravan entered
Suez, amidst shouts of joy and the firing of guns.
Ali Bey took up his residence in a small house
that had been prepared for him, some of his friends
at Cairo having written to their correspondents at
Suez, at Djedda, and at Mecca, desiring that they
would bespeak houses for Ali Bey to live in while
he staid in those towns: they were also to afford
him protection, and any assistance he might want."
"I think, said Harry, "that people were very
attentive to Ali Bey, everywhere. I wonder what
was the reason."
"I told you that he travelled as a prince; of
course, he was either acquainted with the princi-
pal people in the countries which he visited, or
he carried letters which recommended him to their
friendship and kindness.
"Ali Bey had not much temptation to remain
long at Suez; for it is a poor little town, falling
into ruins. The Red Sea in that part is only
about two miles broad, even at high water; when
the tide is out, it is much narrower. On the
shore is a quay almost entirely composed of shells,
which is a very convenient place to embark from.
Ali Bey staid only two days at Suez, when, on
Tuesday, the 23d of December, 1806, he em-
barked in a vessel built on purpose for navigating
that sea. Here is a sketch of an Arabian dao,
which you see is very different from an English
ship. That enormous sail is made of very coarse
cotton, and the ropes used in the rigging are made
of the bark of palm-trees.
"The cargo, or merchandise, with which this
vessel was laden, consisted of silver coin, which
the captain received sealed up in bags. The
merchants of Suez and Cairo wished to send
money to the merchants of Djedda, and they de-
livered it into the care of this captain.
"Ali Bey engaged the cabin for himself: his
servants, and about fifty pilgrims, occupied the
hold of the vessel. The captain came from Mocha,
a port in the southern part of Arabia."
Ah, mamma! do you think we have forgotten
Mocha? It is the very place where Rolando and
his friends had such delightful coffee. I will
show it you in a minute: here it is! So the cap-
tain came from Mocha. Do you think he had
been carrying coffee in his dao, to Suez ?"
"I think it is very probable, because he would
be likely to get sale for it, when so many travel-
lers were assembled at Suez. However, this is
only a guess of our own, my dear Harry. My
story does not say what the dao was laden with
when it arrived at Suez; it only tells us, that the
crew consisted of fifteen men, who were as thin
and as black as apes.
"The ship remained at anchor for three days
after Ali Bey had embarked. They were four
days more in sailing to the point of Arabia where
the Red Sea divides into two branches. This
point is called Cape Ras Aboumohammed. The
following day, December 31st, they employed in
crossing that arm of the Red Sea which runs up
"I believe you know that the mountainous
tract of country in which Moses and the Israelites
wandered, after their miraculous escape from the.
pursuit of Pharaoh, is situated between the arms
of the Red Sea. You will observe, in looking at
the map, traces of this wonderful history in the
names of places. Thus, on the western side of
this peninsula, you see the Baths of Pharaoh:
some springs in the hills a little to the south-east
of Suez, are called the Springs of Moses. Mount
Sinai is on the eastern side of the peninsula; and
nearer to the centre is Mount Horeb: to the
north-east you observe the Grotto, or Cave of
Moses, Thus, after an interval of 3300 years,
the traveller may still behold these rocks and
mountains, distinguished by the same names as
when the awful majesty of the Supreme Being
there revealed itself to man.
"On the 2nd of January, 1807, after having
sailed the whole day, they cast anchor at night on
the Arabian coast. The next day they continued
along the coast of Arabia, sailing towards the
south. But you must not suppose that this voy-
age was either safe or pleasant, for the navigation
of the Red Sea is dreadful. They sailed almost
continually between banks and rocks, some above,
and some underneath the water; so that they
were obliged to have a guard of four or five men
upon the prow, who examined the course atten-
tively, and who cried out to the steersman, Steer
54" DANGEROUS NAVIGATION.
to the right,' or 'Steer to the left,' as the rocks
or shoals they were passing happened to be situ-
ated. Notwithstanding this precaution, terrible
was the danger they ran every moment; for,
should those on the look-out make a mistake, or
not see the shoal till the ship was too near it; or
should the steersman not understand the direction,
which must often be shouted hastily, or turn the
ship so much out of its course as to strike upon
another rock which had not been observed; or
should the wind or the current prevent his guiding
the ship properly, it would be in the utmost dan-
ger of being dashed to pieces."
"But custom, you know, mamma, makes even
difficult things easy: I mean those things which
are difficult at first. And our MIocha captain had
most likely often performed this voyage."
"Your remark, my dear Lucy, is very reason-
able: but there are some things which, from their
nature, are difficult at last as well as at first,
though, perhaps, not so difficult. The navigation
of the Red Sea, I believe, is one of them. It is
on account of these terrible rocks and shoals, that
there are so many shipwrecks every year in this
sea; but the desire of gaining riches overcomes
the sense of danger; and the Arabian vessels
which convey the valuable productions of India,
of Persia, and of Arabia, are continually employed
in this hazardous navigation.
"Necessity, you know, has been called the
mother of invention; and the great risk incurred
by the Arabs on this sea, has suggested a contri-
vance, which in some degree lessens the dan-
"What is that contrivance ?" said Harry.
"Their ships are made with a false keel under
the real one; so that, when they strike, the shock
to the vessel is not so great; and if the weather
is not rough, it generally saves the ship. It would
be well, however, if the Arabs exercised their in-
genuity in contriving a better kind of sail. The
immense cotton sail which I told you of, is nearly
an inch thick, and so cumbersome, that sometimes
fifteen men could not manage it, and the passen-
gers were forced to help them. The clumsy ropes
of bark also bend with difficulty; and these causes
render the working of the ship so slow, heavy,
and fatiguing, that it is no wonder they are
wrecked so frequently. On the 3d of January,
they passed through the midst of a numerous
group of islands, called Hamra, and cast anchor
near one of them. The names are not put down
in this map, but the islands are represented by
these little dots, near the Arabian coast, just above
the 25th degree of latitude."
"Thank you, mamma," said Harry. "It
pleases me very much to find some real use for
those lines of latitude and longitude, that have
USE OF MAPS.
pzzsled, me so long; but give me leave to ask you
"As many as you please, my dear : I like to be
asked reasonable questions."
"Then I hope you will think this reasonable.
How could you, mamma, know that these dots
were intended for the islands of Hamra, when
there is no name put to them?"
I will tell you. When I read a book of tra-
vels, I am careful to refer to the best maps I have
access to, in order to find the places I am reading
about. By this means I can understand the book
much better, and can please myself by fancying
that I accompany the traveller in his journey.
Now, when I read the story I am telling you, in
the travels of Ali Bey, I referred to the map which
he constructed to show the course of this voyage;
and I. observed that the islands of Hamra were
situated in the Red Sea, just to the north of the
25th degree of latitude. Of course, when I see
little dots exactly in that situation, in any other
map, I know what islands they are intended to
"Thank you, mamma; I understand that very
well, and I think I shall try the same plan. Now
pray go on with your story."
The 5th of January was a terrible day for our
voyager. About midnight came on a furious storm.
The wind continued increasing, and about two in
COWARDICE AND COURAGE.
the morning the cables of four anchors were
broken. They did not venture to sail in the night,
on account of the rocks and shoals that abounded
everywhere; and now the vessel, being parted
from its anchors, was driven by the winds and
waves, and struck upon a rock with a dreadful
violence. The passengers thought they were lost,
and uttered cries of despair. In the midst of the
clamour, Ali Bey distinguished the voice of a man,
who was sobbing and crying like a child. He
asked who it was; and great must have been his
surprise and alarm, to find that it was no other
than the captain himself! The pilot, too, was no-
where to be found!"
"Pretty fellows indeed !" exclaimed Harry.
" Should not much like to sail under their care.
What did Ali Bey do?"
"Perceiving that the ship was abandoned to its
wretched fate, he resolved to save himself if he
could. He called out to his servants, 'The boat,
the boat.' They seized upon it immediately; but
every one wished to throw himself into it. The
servants held out their hands to their master, who,
by their help, leaped into the boat, over the heads
of the rest of the passengers. Ali Bey then or-
dered his people to clear away from the ship; but
a man, whose father remained on board, held fast
by one of the ropes, and prevented the boat from
leaving the ship, crying out, 'Oh, my father! Oh,
my father!' Ali Bey waited for a moment: he
admired the affection of this good son. But see-
ing a number of men ready to throw themselves
into the boat, he called out to him to let go the
rope. Deaf to his cries, the man continued hold-
ing the rope, and calling for his father. Fearing
the boat would sink, in consequence of too many
jumping into it, Ali Bey struck the poor man's
hand, and made him let go the rope; and in the
same instant the boat was carried by the waves a
good way from the ship.
"But where were they to go? Instead of the
soft light of the moon, by which they might have
seen how to steer, the sky was covered with thick,
black clouds; and it was so dark that they could
discern nothing: They were almost naked. The
waves filled the boat with water, and at intervals
it rained violently. Some wished to go to the
right, others to the left; as if it had been possible
to distinguish objects through that thick darkness.
The dispute was becoming serious, when Ali Bey
silenced it by seizing the helm himself, and saying
to them, in an imperious tone, 'I know that which
you are ignorant of: I charge myself with the
management of the boat; and woe to him who
dares to dispute it with me!'"
"And did the other people submit to his
S"Why should they mind him particularly?
Was it because he was a prince?"
Certainly not. If Ali Bey had sat down,
sobbing and crying, like the Mocha captain, his
opinion would not have been regarded, though he
were a prince. In circumstances of danger and
difficulty, strong minds always govern weak ones.
Perhaps Ali Bey was the most courageous, and
we know that he was the best informed person on
board; and 'knowledge is power.'"
"Do you mean that knowledge makes people
Yes, I do. This is the reason why civilized
nations so easily conquer savages, though perhaps
the bodily strength of the savage may be greater
than that of his conqueror. And even among
civilized nations, what induces a monarch, when
he is ill, to submit to the directions of his physi-
cian, but because he is convinced that the physi-
cian knows better than himself, what is good for
him? The physician governs the sick king, be-
cause 'knowledge is power.' "
Then, if I gain a great deal of knowledge shall
I be powerful ?"
"You will gain the best of all power--the
power of doing good and being useful. But now
we will return to Ali Bey, who had just exerted
the power of courage and knowledge, over cow-
ardice and ignorance.
Before the storm began, he had his eyes about
him, observing, among other things, the situation
of the land. This he noticed before the evening
closed in; but still he was at a loss how to steer
the boat, because there was -not the least glimpse
of light to enable him to turn the boat towards
the east, where he knew the shore was situated.
To add to this misfortune, he became extremely
sick; but he would not quit the helm, for he knew
no one on board but himself was capable of manag-
ing it. He ordered them to row, but they did not
know how. Perhaps you may think that a prince
has no occasion to learn how to steer a vessel and
to make use of oars; but no man, however rich or
great he may be, can tell in what circumstances
he may unexpectedly be placed. It is then the
best way to observe everything that we see, that
we may be able to assist ourselves and others when
occasion requires it.
"Happily for Ali Bey, he not only had eyes,
but used them. He had observed the manner in
which the sailors on the Red Sea manage their
oars, singing while they row, and moving their
oars regularly, to agree with the tune. Though
he was so very sick, he distributed the oars among
the men, showed them the manner of using them,
and began to sing, in order to make them move
Only think of the dismal situation of Ali Bey;
buffeted by the waves, the rain, and the hail;
guiding the helm, but not knowing where to go,
so thick was the darkness; suffering terrible sick-
ness, and yet obliged to sing in order to regulate
the movements of the rowers. Sometimes the
boat touched a rock, and made their blood run
cold with fear. At length, after a whole hour
spent in this distressing manner, the clouds cleared
a little, a ray of light from the moon served to
point out the east, and brought joy to the heart of
Ali Bey. He cried out, 'We are saved!' Then
he turned the head of the boat towards the Arabian,
coast, though the weather was not so clear as to
enable him to distinguish it. After three hours of
the greatest fatigue, the day began to dawn, and
they found themselves almost close to an unknown
shore, where they all landed, fifteen in number.
The first thing they did was to embrace, and con-
gratulate each other on their escape. The igno-
rant companions of Ali Bey could not help express-
ing their surprise at his knowing that land was so
near, notwithstanding the darkness of the night;
and in the transports of their gratitude, they
stripped themselves of the few clothes they had,
and presented them to him: so that he was soon
dressed in such a variety of garments, that he
looked a droll figure. But I suppose he was very
glad of them, to shelter him from the cold wind
"As Ali Bey did not know on what coast he
was, he sent out four men to explore it, who found
that their present refuge was merely a desert
island, consisting of a sandy plain, without water,
rocks, or vegetables. The main land could be dis-
cerned at some leagues distance, but they were
afraid to venture on the sea, which was still greatly
agitated: and began to fear that if the storm con-
tinued some days longer, they should all be
I dare say they were afraid of starving," said
Lucy. Do you think they had reason to expect
anything else, mamma?"
"Most likely some of them were ready enough
to give way to despair; but I think the best and
wisest among them were very likely to feel such
sentiments as are expressed in the beautiful hymn
you learned yesterday. Do you know to which
lines I allude?"
I think I do, mamma. Ali Bey had just been
preserved from one great danger, and was still
exposed to more. Perhaps his thoughts were like
'In midst of danger, pain, and death,
Thy goodness I'll adore;
And praise Thee for thy mercies past,
And humbly hope for more.' "
"Yes, those are the lines I was thinking of;
they seem so suitable to his situation. However,
the sky and his hopes began to brighten together;
for, on the weather clearing up, he perceived the
ship which they had thought to be lost, at a dis-
tance,with another vessel at its side. What was
their joy on observing it, and how busy they were
in guessing what the other ship could be!
"At noon the weather became calmer, and the
boat of the strange vessel which was sent out to
look for Ali Bey and his companions, approached
near enough to the desolate island they were upon,
to perceive the signals which these distressed peo-
ple were making, by means of a shirt tied to the
end of an oar, which they kept waving about in
the air. The sailors came nearer when they saw
the signals, and told them that their ship was
saved, and not much injured, because it was very
sound, and not heavily laden. However, as it
had lost all its anchors, it was a happy thing that
another ship arrived in the moment of distress, and
lent our friend, the Mocha captain, an anchor and
"Do not call him our friend, pray, mamma!
A crying cowardly fellow, I have no patience with
him! But did Ali Bey return to the ship ?"
Yes, very gladly, and all his companions with
him. Great were the rejoicings on both sides
when they met again, each party having thought
that the other had perished. Ali Bey was much
affected with this meeting, and wept with his
"Why should they weep? I should have
thought they had more reason to be glad than
"So they had. But they had been very much
fatigued and agitated; and I suppose their spirits
were exhausted by the trials they had gone
through. I assure you, I do not respect Ali Bey
the less for weeping on this occasion."
But you seemed to despise the tears of the
Mocha captain," said Harry.
"Yes, certainly," replied his mother. "I
thought he behaved like a baby, to sit down and
cry in the moment of danger, when he ought to
have thought of taking care of the vessel, and
giving proper orders to the sailors. Tears are
sometimes the natural expression of strong feel-
ings, and sometimes the effect of bodily weakness.
There are many occasions on which it is no dis-
grace to shed them; but tears of passion, fretful-
ness, or cowardice, are always contemptible. I
think we shall all agree-in admiring the conduct
of Ali Bey on this occasion. Neither danger nor
sickness deprived him of activity and presence of
mind. Without his knowledge and exertions, the
boat, and those in it, would most likely have
perished; so that he not only saved his own life,
but the lives of fourteen of his fellow-creatures."
How did he get on afterwards, mamma ?"
"They continued sailing towards the south,
along the coast of Arabia; and a week after the
storm, they cast anchor in the harbour of Djedda."
I have been thinking," said Lucy, of some-
thing that puzzles me. Ali Bey was such a wise
man, that he would not have undertaken that
dreadful voyage without some very strong reason
for doing so. I recollect you said something
about a pilgrimage. What is a pilgrimage ?"
"Pilgrimage means a long journey. The word
is generally used, when people are induced to take
a long journey from some religious motive. There
is at Mecca a mosque, or temple, for which Ma-
hometans have great respect; and it is one of the
customs of their religion, to go from distant coun-
tries, to worship the Almighty in that temple.
You know that the Jews used to go to the temple
of Jerusalem for the same purpose."
Why do not Christians do the same ?"
"Because Jesus told them that there was no
longer any occasion for it. Bring me the Testa-
ment, and you shall read what he said on that
subject: it is in the 4th chapter of John."
"MAMMA," said little Harry, one evening, "do
you know that I begin to think it is a very good
thing to be a traveller! I should like to go my-
self, and visit all the countries in the world. Be-
sides the pleasure of seeing countries, I should
like to be acquainted with so many hospitable
people. You see, the natives of all countries are
pleased to have strangers among them, and do all
they can to make their stay agreeable."
This is not the case everywhere. I have just
been reading of a country, where the natives
make no difficulty of shutting innocent strangers
up in prison."
"Then I am sure they are very good-for-
nothing people. I will not go to see them, at
"You perceive, I suppose, that before you set
out on your travels, it will be necessary to learn
something of the manners and customs of the
different nations of the earth, or you may un-
fortunately land in a country, where, instead of
the agreeable reception you expected, you may
chance to be clapped into prison, without having
even intended to do anything wrong."
"Where is this country of unjust people,
"The country I speak of, consists of several
islands, near the eastern coast of Asia. You may
find them between the 30th and 50th degree of
north of latitude."
"Oh, then it must be Japan!" said Lucy.
"There are no other islands in that situation.
But, mamma, I thought the Japanese were a
mild, harmless people, that painted pretty cabi-
nets, and did many other ingenious things. I did
not think they had been cruel and unjust."
"When not affronted or irritated," replied her
mother, the Japanese are a mild and courteous
people; and the injustice you complain of does
not appear to me to deserve so harsh a name."
"Oh, mother!" exclaimed Harry, "is it not
the most unjust thing in the world, to put an in-
nocent man into prison?"
"Let me ask you a question, Harry. You
know that every country is governed by its own
laws. Are those laws to be obeyed, or are they
Certainly, mamma; or else it would soon be
a land of confusion."
And when the laws are broken, is It just for
the government to punish the offender, or is it
The Japanese so little resemble you, Harry,
that they have resolved not to be acquainted with
other nations; and their laws strictly prohibit
strangers from landing among them."
But I suppose," said Lucy, they trade with
other nations, or how could Japan cabinets come
They carry on a little trade with the Chinese,
and with the Dutch; but the latter being Chris-
tians; to whom the Japanese have a particular
dislike, they are obliged to submit to very severe
restrictions. Only one port is. open to foreign
eommeice, that of Nagasaki, in the most southern
of the Japanese islands. This town or city is
built at the mouth of a wide, shallow river; but
the Dutch are not allowed to land there: they
have erected warehouses in a small island opposite
to the city, where they live in a state of imprison-
ment, not being permitted to enter the country,
except once a year, when the Dutch governor
goes under a strong guard, to pay his respects to
the court of Japan."
Harry looked indignant, and said, "I should
not much like to be that Dutch governor, to be
guarded, and watched, and suspected, as if I had
been guilty of some great crime. Why do people
submit to such treatment, mother ? "
"Because they think it more desirable to ob-
tain riches, than any other earthly good. They
submit to these humiliations, that they may profit
by the trade which the Japanese will not permit
them to carry on, except on these disgraceful
Then I am not of their opinion: for I would
rather be free, and live with people that trusted
me, than have all the riches of Japan, and be
treated as if I were a thief."
"I suppose you cannot tell us anything about
Japan, mamma," said Lucy, "since the people of
that country are so shy. They must be clever
people too, to make such pretty things. I should
like to know more of them. You said they par-
ticularly disliked Christians: do you know any
reason for that ? "
When our Saviour sent his apostles to teach
Christianity, he desired them to be 'wise as ser-
pents and harmless as doves.' But the Christians
who first settled in Japan were very different
people from the apostles, for they were neither
wise nor harmless. Instead of teaching the Ja-
panese to fear and love the Almighty, to speak the
truth, and to be just and kind to everybody, they
meddled with the government, and induced the
people to fight and quarrel with each other; till
70 RUSSIAN EXPEDITION
at last the Japanese thought that no good could
come from such bad teachers, and they rose up
against them, killed some, and drove away the
others, and resolved to have no more mischief-
making foreigners in their country."
"But it was very ill-natured and unreason-
able," said Lucy, "to dislike all Christians,
because a few bad men behaved ill in their coun-
Surely it was very natural of them to judge
of the general character of Christians from the
conduct of those who came among them. The
Japanese are by no means unamiable, or inclined
to behave ill to those who are in their power. If
you like, I will tell you a story of some Russians
who spent several years in captivity among the
I should be very glad to hear it, and so would
Harry, I am sure. Who were the people, mamma,
and how came they to be in Japan ?"
Not many years ago, a Russian ship, called
the Diana, happened to be at Kamtschatka: while
at anchor there the captain received orders to ex-
plore the Kurile islands, and the coast of Tartary,
from the island of Saghalen to Ochotsk. This
was a formidable undertaking, the seas surround-
ing those islands being often agitated by violent
storms. Nor was this the only difficulty. Such
thick fogs prevail there, that sometimes the islands
TO THE KURILE ISLANDS.
cannot be seen at all; and several ships that had
attempted to examine their coasts, had been
obliged to return without effecting that purpose.
Captain Golownin, who commanded the Diana,
carefully read the accounts of these different
voyages; for he knew he was going to undertake
a difficult enterprise, and he wished to obtain all
the advantage he could, from the experience of
those who had gone before him. He also made
inquiries of some of the natives of Kamtschatka,
who had been to the Kurile islands; but these
people were so ignorant that he could not make
any use of their information."
Did they not speak the truth then, mamma?
Surely they might have told what they had seen,
though they were ignorant !"
"I do not wonder at your thinking so, Harry.
But although these people might not intend to
depart from the truth, the accounts of men who
are so ignorant as these poor Kamtschatkans are
represented to have been, can seldom be depended
upon, because they observe and remember so little.
Very likely they might have told him how many
skins of foxes they had obtained in their last
journey; but when he asked them what sort of
weather they had, they only knew that there were
.some bright days in the summer: they could not
remember anything else. How long the fine
72 RECEPTION AT KUNASHIER.
weather lasted, and where they were when they
enjoyed it, they had quite forgotten."
"If I had been Captain Golownin, I should
have thought of 'Eyes and no Eyes.' How did
he proceed, mamma?"
When he had gained all the information he
could, and settled his plans, he determined to set
sail. Towards the end of April he opened for his
vessel a passage through the ice, and on the 4th
of May weighed anchor and put to sea. He, like
those who had gone before him, met with thick
fogs and violent currents; but notwithstanding
these impediments, he succeeded in observing the
coasts of several of the Kurile islands. Owing to
contrary winds and fogs, they did not reach the
straits of Matsmai till the beginning of July.
They wished to obtain a supply of provisions, and
for this purpose they sailed into the harbour of
Kunashier; but the Japanese did not give them a
very civil reception, for the guns of the castle im-
mediately began to fire upon the Russian vessel.
As it did not seem likely they would allow a boat
to approach the shore, Captain Golownin thought
he would find some way of letting the Japanese
know what he wanted to obtain from them; and
also of making them sensible of their ill conduct,
in firing at people who did not offer them any.
injury. How do you think he managed to do
"I suppose," said Harry, he took a speaking-
trumpet, and shouted very loud indeed."
"If he had, the Japanese did not und1kd
the Russian language. Can you guess, L t?"
"No, indeed, mamma. I was going to guess
that he shot an arrow on to the shore, with a
letter tied to it. But that would have been of no
service, you know."
Well, I suppose I must tell you. He sawed
a cask in two, and in one half he placed a glass
of fresh water, a piece of wood, and a handful of
rice, to show that he was in want of these articles:
the other half contained a little money, a piece of
yellow cloth, and some beads and pearls; meaning
to show the Japanese that he was willing to pay
for what he wished to obtain from them."
That was plain enough," said Lucy. They
would have been stupid not to guess what he meant
by it: but I do not see how the Japanese could be
reproved for their bad behaviour, by that means."
"I had not quite finished, Lucy. In the half-
cask, containing the money, &c. Golownin placed
a drawing, representing the harbour, the castle,
and the ship. The ship's guns were very distinctly
drawn, so as to show that no use was made of
them; but the guns of the castle appeared to be
firing, and the balls were seen as flying over the
"Ah, that was a clever thought!" exclaimed
Harry. "I believe this captain was a very inge-
nious man: he could speak to people's eyes, though
their ears could not understand him. Go on, if
you please, dear mamma."
"When all was prepared, he set both the parts
of the cask afloat in the sea before the town. The
Japanese had a great deal of curiosity to know
what it could be that the captain had put into the
water: so they sent off a boat, seized their prize,
and rowed back again to the castle. However,
this contrivance did not induce the Japanese to
make any advances towards acquaintance. The
captain then sent a boat to the villages on one
side of the harbour; but the houses were all de-
serted. The Russians took some things that they
wanted, but left European articles of greater value
instead of them, hoping to persuade the Japanese
that they came in a friendly way, and did not wish
to plunder or offer them any injury. It seems as
if this generous behaviour, and some other efforts
on the part of Captain Golownin, made a favour-
able impression on the Japanese. They sent out a
boat with some officers and a Kurile interpreter on
board, who made an apology for having fired at
the Russians when they attempted to land, and
excused that proceeding by telling them of the
outrages that had been committed, some years
before, by the crews of two Russian vessels, who
landed under pretence of obtaining necessary re-
They concluded by assuring Captain Golownin
they were now convinced he had no intention to
injure them; and they invited him to go on shore,
and pay a visit to the governor of Kunashier.
"He went accordingly, and had reason to be
pleased with the civility of his reception. The
Japanese invited him a second time, and requested
him to take some of his officers with him. To this
proposal he also agreed, and landed, accompanied
by one of the officers, Mr. Chlebnikoff, the pilot,
and four sailors."
Chlebnikoff!" said Harry, "Oh, what a name!
I am afraid I shall never remember it."
"It is not of much consequence to ouf story.
Call him the pilot, if you please. But, in general,
I think it is a good plan to endeavour to remember
the names both of persons and places. People
who are awkward in this respect, often make
strange confusion when they attempt to tell a story;
and it is, so desirable to be able to give a clear
account of things, that it is well worth while to
take a little pains to do so."
"I will try to remember names then. Chleb-
nikoff: that is right, I believe. Well, dear mamma,
how did the Japanese receive the Russians this
"When Captain Golownin entered the castle-
gate, he was surprised at the great number of sol-
diers and other men collected there. A multi-
tude of Kuriles surrounded a tent of striped cotton
cloth, into which the Russians were introduced.
The governor was in the tent, waiting to receive
them. He wore a rich silk dress, with a complete
suit of armour, and had two sabres under his girdle.
His armour-bearers were placed behind him, one
holding a spear, another a musket, and the third
his helmet, which was adorned with the figure of
the sun. The officer next in command sat on his
left hand: he too had his armour-bearers behind
him. Four officers were sitting cross-legged on
the floor, on each side of the tent: they wore black
armour, and had each two sabres. On the entrance
of the Russians, the two governors rose up, and
returned the salutation of the strangers. They
then invited them to sit on an opposite bench: but
they chose to use the seats they had taken with
them. The sailors seated themselves on a bench
behind the Russian officers.
"After the introductory civilities were concluded,
the visitors were entertained with tea without sugar,
in cups only half filled, as is the custom in Japan;
the cups had no saucers, but were handed on small
trays made of varnished wood. They afterwards
brought pipes and tobacco, and entered into con-
versation by means of a Kurile interpreter. The
Russians staid to. dinner with the governor; but
when they wished to put an end to the conference
and return to their ship, the Japanese threw off
the appearance of friendship and hospitality, and
refused to let them go. The Russians instantly
made all the haste they could to escape. The
Japanese did not venture to take hold of them, but
set up a loud cry, and threw oars and large pieces
of wood at them, to knock them down. In spite
of all this opposition, they reached the castle gate,
when the treacherous Japanese fired several times.
Happily none of the party were wounded, though
one of the balls whistled past the head of Mr.
Chlebnikoff. The Japanese succeeded in detaining
one of the officers, a sailor, and the Kurile inter-
preter, in the castle. Captain Golownin, with the
rest of his party, made all speed to the landing-
place: but, on arriving there, he perceived with
horror, that the tide had ebbed considerably, and
left the beach quite dry. As the Japanese, who
pursued them, saw that it was impossible for the
captain to get the boat afloat, they became bolder,
advanced against the Russians with drawn sabres,
with muskets and spears, and surrounded them
beside the boat. Poor Golownin cast a look of
regret upon his boat, and said to himself, 'It must
be so: our last refuge is lost: our fate is unavoid-
able!' He surrendered. The Japanese seized
him by the arms, and conducted him into the
castle, to which his unfortunate companions were
Oh, poor fellows! But, mamma, will you be
so kind as to tell us what you mean by he sur-
It means that he yielded, or gave himself up,
without resistance, to his enemies."
Well then, I think it is cowardly to surrender.
I would defend myself as long as I could stand."
"Captain Golownin had no means of defence.
Besides, the lives of others were depending upon
his prudence. If he had resisted, and irritated the
Japanese, most likely his officers and men would
have been sacrificed."
Lucy was not so much inclined as her brother
to discuss the question of selfdefence; but she
was very anxious to learn the fate of the Russians,
and asked her mother what became of them after
they were taken into the castle.
"I am sorry to tell you, my dear, that they
were bound very tightly with cords, which occa-
sioned a great deal of suffering. The Japanese
have a very curious method of binding their pri-
soners, and as these poor Russians were all tied
exactly in the same manner, (with the same num-
ber of knots and nooses, which were tied at equal
distances on the cords with which each of them
were bound,) it seems probable that the manner
in which prisoners are secured is regulated by
some law. There were loops round their breasts
and necks, their elbows almost touched each other,
and their hands were tied close together: from
these fastenings proceeded a long cord, the end of
which was held by a Japanese. If the prisoner
made the slightest attempt to escape, his guard
had only to pull the cord which he held in his
hand, and the elbows of the unfortunate Russian
were drawn close together, occasioning excessive
pain, and tightening the noose about his neck so
much as nearly to strangle him."
Oh, mother! I thought you said the Japanese
were not a cruel people. This appears very cruel
treatment, I think."
"I acknowledge that it does; yet it seems to
have arisen from the timidity of the Japanese, and
not from any pleasure they felt in causing suffering
to their prisoners. You must understand that, by
the laws of Japan, if a prisoner is suffered to es-
cape, the carelessness of those appointed to guard
him is punished with death. The Japanese were
aware of the superior knowledge of the Russians,
and were continually apprehensive that they would
find some way of escaping to the shore, and re-
turning to their ship. They bound them so tightly,
in hopes of making it quite impossible for them to
do this; but they were by no means regardless of
the sufferings of their prisoners. When the Rus-
sians were tired of walking, they offered to carry
them. When the gnats and flies settled on them,
and teased them, their compassionate guards were
ever ready, with boughs of shrubs, to drive away
the troublesome insects. When the tightness of
the cords caused any chafing or soreness of the
skin, they carefully rolled rags round the injured
part; and they supplied them regularly and plen-
tifully with food. Do you think these were the
actions of a cruel people ?"
Lucy could not say that she did; but she main-
tained that binding them so tight was very cruel,
and said she did not understand how people that
were so kind in other respects, could be guilty
Her mother observed, that when one part of a
person's conduct does not agree with another part
of his conduct, we say that he is of an inconsistent
character; and that this kind of disagreement in
the actions of men is called inconsistency.
Lucy, obliged to give up the charge of cruelty,
shifted her ground, and accused the Japanese of
being the most inconsistent people in the world.
"I am afraid, my dear Lucy, that if we con-
sider the subject, we shall feel that, even in this
affair of cruelty, we ourselves are inconsistent, as
well as the Japanese."
No, indeed, mother !" exclaimed both the chil-
dren. "You, for instance: I am sure you would
not hurt anybody; no, not even a worm."
"I believe I should not hurt a worm, or a fly,
and I hope I should be sorry to grieve or injure
any one; but while I was in bed this morning, I
was obliged to reflect on my own inconsistency,
and I assure you my meditations were painful."
How was that, mamma ? I should have thought
while you were quiet in bed, you could do no harm,
at any rate."
"I heard some sounds, which convinced me
that, to save a little trouble, I was exposing one
of my fellow-creatures to danger, pain, and fa-
tigue; and also to the probability of an early and
Dear mamma, how shocking! And in this
house: how could it be ? I did not know anything
uncommon had happened."
Nothing uncommon did happen; but custom
hardens our hearts, and makes us take but little
notice of things that are in themselves both wrong
and cruel. The kitchen chimney was swept this
morning. Do you know by what means?"
Oh yes, to be sure!" said Harry. That funny
little black fellow came, I suppose, and scrambled
up the chimney, and cried, 'Sweep! sweep!' and
flourished his brush, and then down he popped
again. I wish I had seen him! But you cannot
mean that there is anything wrong or cruel in that,
"Indeed I do. And if you, my dear Harry,
82 CHIMNEY SWEEPER.
knew what cruelty is often exercised to compel
these poor children to ascend dark, sooty chim-
neys; how injurious the employment is to their
health; and to how many fatal accidents it exposes
them; the sight of a chimney-sweeper would al-
ways inspire you with feelings of grief and com-
But how can we avoid employing them, mam-
ma ? If the chimneys are left a great while with-
out sweeping, they will, most likely, take fire;
and that would be very dangerous, you know:
perhaps the whole house would be burned."
"I grant it is very necessary that chimneys
should be cleaned; but there is no necessity that
little boys should be brought up to such a painful,
How can it be managed then?"
Some ingenious people have contrived a curi-
ous kind of brush, with a long handle, which can
easily be put up the chimney, and cleanse it quite
as well as the poor boy could do." *
"Why do not people use it then? I should
have thought they would have been glad to re-
lieve the poor little boys."
So they would, I dare say, if they thought
This explanation is not so much required as when the
story was written; but we may still regret that the use of
the chimney-machine is not universal; though experience
has long proved its efficacy.
FEELINGS OF THE CAPTIVES. 83
about it; and if it did not give them any trouble
to change a plan to which they have been ac-
Idleness and inattention make the English act
cruelly in this respect; though, in general, I hope
they are a humane nation. But you see they are
inconsistent; and they ought not to blame the
Japanese for being so, without reflecting upon
their own faults."
"Then you think, mamma, that before we
blame anybody, we ought to consider whether
we do that bad thing ourselves."
Certainly: it is our duty to do so. But have
you forgotten poor Golownin in his misfortunes ?"
"Forgotten him! 0 no, poor fellow! Where
did the Japanese take him, when he was bound in
that strange manner ?"
After having secured the captain and his peo-
ple in the manner I have described, the Japanese
led them away into the country. On ascending a
hill, they saw their beloved ship, the Diana, sail-
ing away from the shore. Mr. Chlebnikoff ex-
claimed, 'Take a last look at our Diana!' This
sight made them very sorrowful. Of all the party,
I believe Captain Golownin was the most un-
happy; for he thought their misfortunes were the
consequence of his own imprudent confidence in
the Japanese, and bitterly did he repent that he
had not acted with more caution. His generous
84 DETERMINATION TO ESCAPE.
companions in misfortune, so far from reproaching
him, tried to give him comfort; and one of them,
particularly, referred to the fate of Captain Cook,
who perished in consequence of trusting too much
to the faith of savages."
Oh, tell us that story, dear mamma."
"Some time or other, perhaps; but I would
rather finish one story before I begin another.
Our captive Russians continued travelling through
the country, till they arrived at the town where
the Japanese intended they should remain. After
some months they became so weary of confine-
ment, that they resolved, if possible, to effect
their escape. Their plan was to slip, unperceived,
down to the shore, seize upon a boat, and put out
to sea; hoping either to be taken up by some
European vessel, or to make their way to the
coast of Tartary."
"Did they succeed, mamma?"
"We will talk of that another evening. It is
late now, and you may go to bed."
HARRY and Lucy were very desirous of hearing
how prisoners, so cautiously bound and guarded,
could possibly effect their escape-and they
begged their mother the next evening to continue
RESOLUTIONS AND PROJECTS. 85
the story, to which she willingly consented, re-
suming the narrative as follows:
"After changing their place of confinement
several times, and continually flattering the Rus-
sians with the hope of being restored to liberty,
the governor changed his tone, and desired these
unfortunate men to look upon the Japanese as
their countrymen. They understood this to mean,
that they must make up their minds to remain in
Japan, and banish every thought of Russia. But
the captives firmly resolved that this should not
be their lot: they determined, with the exception
of one officer, who would not join in their plan, to
brave every danger, and to perish, rather than
remain, for the rest of their lives, prisoners in
I am glad of that; for a man should not be
cooped up like a chicken. But how did they
manage to cut the ropes ?"
The Japanese gradually indulged them with
more liberty: they removed the cords that caused
so much pain, and even indulged them in walking
a little way out of the city, though always
attended by a guard. In one of these walks they
found a piece of steel, which one of the sailors
contrived to pick up, unperceived by the guard,
by stooping down, under pretence of drawing up
his boot. The fragments of an old shirt, which
they one day threw upon the fire, as if by acci-
dent, served them for tinder. Thus they were
provided with the means of lighting a fire. They
continued to make preparation for their departure,
by concealing every day some part of their food,
which they laid up in store.
"They found among the grass in the yard of
their prison, a large sharp chisel, which they im-
mediately hid, thinking it might some day be use-
ful to them. But there was something wanting,
without which, if they could even be so fortunate
as to succeed in obtaining a boat, they would not
know which way to steer their course. Can you
guess what it was?"
Harry and Lucy both thought that it must be a
chart or map.
No," replied their mother. "Every sailor
ought to have such a knowledge of the situation
of different countries, as to be at no loss on that
head. His map must be in his mind; at least he
ought to know what countries are situated to the
east, west, north, or south, of any place where he
may happen to be. But how is he to tell whether
he steers right or not ? For instance, if he wishes
to go to the north, how is he to find where the
north is ?"
I remember now! He must do as Harry
Sandford did, when he was lost on the common.
He must look for the Great Bear, and then, slant
MAKING A COMPASS.
up his eyes to the little Pole-star. Have you
forgot that, mamma?"
"No, indeed. I admire Harry's courage and
presence of mind too much to forget it. But if it
had happened to be a dark, rainy night, Harry
would not have been able to find the Pole-star.
The seas in the neighbourhood of Japan, you re-
collect, are particularly liable to thick fogs. You
must think of something better than that."
"Oh! I know, mamma," said Lucy. "You
mean a compass. But how could they get one in
"Mr. Chlebnikoff, the pilot, contrived to make
"How? Dear mamma, tell us that! I should
like to make a compass!"
"The Russians asked their guards to let them
have two large needles, to mend their clothes with.
The Japanese sometimes fasten the beams of their
houses together with copper: this happened to be
the case in the house where the Russians were
confined. Mr. Chlebnikoff privately took a piece
of this copper, in the middle of which he bored a
hole, so that a needle might be placed upon it.
By frequently rubbing the needle on a stone which
he selected for the purpose, he succeeded in giving
it a tolerable degree of polarity.
"I am afraid you do not understand that
HOPES OF ESCAPE.
Harry looked at his sister, but she shook her
head. She had never heard the word, and could
not guess its meaning.
Polarity," said their mother, "is the tendency
of pointing towards the Pole. You see in the
compass under the globe, that, move the globe
wherever you please, the needle points towards
the North Pole.
The case of the compass was made of some
sheets of paper, pasted together with rice. Sim-
ple as it was, this compass cost Mr. Chlebnikoff
much labour; and he was obliged to be very cau-
tious in going on with his work. His companions,
while he was busily employed in one corner of the
yard, walked up and down, and gave him a signal,
when any one approached who would be likely
to suspect that some secret design was going
"At length the 20th of April arrived. The
time was near at hand when they thought the
Diana would be coming back again; for they had
too much confidence in their fellow sailors, not to
think that they would return to Japan, in hopes
of obtaining their freedom. The coasts of Mats-
mai are thickly covered with villages, and boats
are lying on every part of the shore. They deter-
mined to escape into the mountains, and wait a
favourable opportunity of running down to the
shore, seizing a boat, and rowing off with it.
"On April 23d, they were again conducted to
walk a little way out of the city. The Japanese
frequently took them into their temples, where
they showed them everything that excited their
curiosity. After having done so, they generally
desired them to sit down at the door of the temple,
where they regaled them with tea, tobacco, and a
kind of wine called sagi, which is prepared from
rice. The inside of the Japanese temples very
much resemble those Christian churches which
belong to the Catholics; and they are furnished,
like those churches, with a number of images and
candlesticks. On this occasion, under pretence
of curiosity, the Russians requested their conduc-
tors to lead them to a pagoda, from which they
carefully surveyed the different foot-paths that
crossed the neighboring country, and endea-
voured to remember the direction of them, that
they might know which to pursue in their flight.
As they passed through the fields, they gathered
great quantities of wild leeks and garlic. They
did this, in hopes that the Russian officer, who
had refused to join in their plan, might not suspect
that they were on the point of making their
On returning to the house they felt very tired,
and threw themselves on their beds. During the
twilight some of the sailors entered the kitchen,
and carried off two knives, without being per-
ceived. Two of them stole into the yard about
an hour before midnight, and concealed them-
selves there. When twelve o'clock struck, and
the soldiers had gone their rounds, the Russians
cautiously" made a hole in the fence, through
which they crept, one after another.
"Captain Golownin slipped in going out, and
hurt his knee very much. With hasty steps they
passed between the trees, and in about half an hour
found themselves at the foot of the first hill which
they had to ascend."
Then," said Lucy, "they left one of their
companions behind. That was a pity. I think
they should have persuaded him to join them."
I think I told you that he had proved himself
unworthy of their confidence and friendship. Had
he known of their departure, he would have be-
trayed them to the Japanese. Despairing of ever
returning to Russia, and being an ambitious as
well as a clever man, he hoped that the emperor
of Japan would take him into his service, and that
he might attain some high station in that country.
He suffered his thoughts to dwell on this subject,
till he seemed to lose every honourable feeling,
and became the enemy of his unfortunate com-
panions. His fault was very great, and his pun-
ishment dreadful. After some time his conscience
became sensible of the folly and wickedness of his
conduct: the horror and remorse he then felt were
PROGRESS OF THE FUGITIVES. 91
more than he could bear; and at last his wretched
life was ended by his own hand."
"How the other Russians must have hated
"No, my dear Harry, they did not hate him:
they had better feelings. At first, no doubt, they
were angry; but when they saw him a prey to
grief and remorse, they pitied and forgave him.
They would have comforted him if they could, but
it was impossible. We will say no more on that
You know we left Golownin, Chlebnikoff, and
the three sailors, just beginning to climb the hills.
They endeavoured, wherever it was possible, to
direct their course towards the north; but they
had no occasion for their compass that night; the
stars happened to shine, which answered the pur-
Harry said he would have used the compass, if
the stars were ever so bright. After taking so
much pains to make it, it must be such a pleasure
to see the needle shake, shake, and settle at last
just in the right place.
"But do you not consider that the poor Rus-
sians must have stood still while the needle shook,
shook, and settled in the right place? And how
that would have hindered them-it would soon
be morning, and the Japanese would miss them-
and set out to pursue their prisoners."
92 PROGRESS OF THE FUGITIVES.
"So they would. I forgot that. Go on, dear
"While they were climbing the hill, Captain
Golownin's knee became very painful, and swelled
exceedingly. He soon became so much fatigued,
that he was obliged frequently to stop, to rest him-
self and relieve his knee. After toiling for three
hours, they gained the summit, and proceeded
northward along the top of the hill. Here the
snow lay so thick, that they feared the impression
of their feet would show the Japanese the course
they had taken. About an hour before day-break,
however, they came to a good road, free from
snow, and where there were so many traces, both
of horses and men, that they no longer feared
their footsteps would be observed.
This road was made by the Japanese, in order
to convey wood from a neighboring forest to the
city. They make use of pack-horses for this pur-
pose.' They are called pack-horses because the
loads they carry are packed on their backs, instead
of being put into a cart.
Our fugitives hoped soon to reach the forest,
which lay before them, where they intended to
conceal themselves during the day; but one of
the sailors, who happened to look behind him, ex-
claimed, 'They are pursuing us on horseback
with lanterns!' As he said these words, he quickly
descended into a hollow on one side of the road.
His companions, also, seeing the light, followed
his example; but they found neither bush nor tree,
in which they could hide themselves. When they
reached the bottom of the hollow, they found that
it was surrounded by naked precipices. However,
they were so fortunate as to find a small cavity in
the rock, which they got into with great difficulty.
Here they had neither room to lie down, nor to
stretch out their feet; but in other respects it was
a good hiding-place, and they were very glad of
it. In this situation they remained all day, and
they suffered very much from the cold. They
continually heard the sound of the wood-cutters'
hatchets in the forest; and at sunset they ven-
tured to peep out of their hole, and saw a number
of people on the hills. Once they heard a rust-
ling noise, as if somebody was slipping down the
hill to them. They fancied the soldiers were com-
ing to take them, and prepared for their defence,
when they suddenly perceived a wild deer, which
immediately darted off at full speed.
"When the stars began to shine, they left their
hole and proceeded on their journey. Poor Cap-
tain Golownin suffered dreadfully from the hurt in
his knee. He endured the greatest agony in climb-
ing the first hill, and they had many more to as-
cend. Finding that he could only walk very
slowly, and consequently hindered his companions,
and might perhaps occasion them to be overtaken
94 GENEROUS SAILORS.
by their pursuers, he entreated that they would
abandon him to his fate, and proceed without him.
But these generous, faithful men, would not be
persuaded to desert their captain. They all de-
clared, that while he lived they would never for-
sake him, and that they would stop every quarter
of a mile to let him rest; and that, when they
reached a safe hiding-place, they would stay there
for two or three days, and in that time they thought
his leg might recover. One of the sailors, named
Makaroff, offered to assist the captain in climbing
the hills, if he would go behind him, and take hold
of the skirts of his jacket, or of his girdle. In
this manner poor Golownin followed his compa-
nions: unable to walk, he was dragged along by
"What good, kind-hearted fellows the sailors
I suppose Golownin had treated them kindly;
and they were glad to convince him of their gra-
I think," said Harry, it was the captain's
turn to be grateful now."
The conduct of Golownin afterwards showed
that he was of your opinion," replied his mother.
"Having ascended another hill, they reached
a level spot, covered with bamboo-reeds and grass.
There they rested a little while, and then pro-
ceeded towards the north, still guided by the stars.
REST AND REFRESHMENT.
The night was calm and clear, and the snow-
topped hills before them shone in the distance.
About midnight they found themselves in a road
bordered with thickets and high grass, amongst
which they lay down and slept for two or three
hours, and then continued their journey.
"At day-break they found a convenient resting-
place, and crept among some thick bushes, lying
close to each other, for the sake of a little warmth;
but it was so very cold that it was impossible to
"When it was quite light, they rose to take a
view of the objects around them. They found
themselves on a lofty eminence, which was on
every side surrounded by mountains. Hills, forests,
and snow, were the only objects which met their
eyes. The tops of the hills were shrouded in mist:
they therefore concluded that if they kindled a fire
among the bushes the smoke of it would not be
observed, because it would be lost in the mist. At
any rate they resolved to try; for they longed to
warm their shivering limbs at a good fire, and
they also wished to boil their kettle."
Their kettle, mamma! how came they to have
The Japanese had by accident, on the night
of the Russians' escape, left a copper kettle on the
hearth, in the room where the sailors slept, who
joyfully seized the prize, and carried it off with