Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The Quadrumana, or monkey...
 The cat tribe--lions
 Leopards, panthers, etc.
 The ass
 Llamas, etc.
 Back Cover

Title: Anecdotes of the habits and instinct of animals
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002007/00001
 Material Information
Title: Anecdotes of the habits and instinct of animals
Alternate Title: Lee's anecdotes of animals with illustrations
Physical Description: viii, 384, 20 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lee, R., 1791-1856
Weir, Harrison, 1824-1906 ( Illustrator )
Bone & Son ( Binder )
J. Wertheimer and Co ( Printer )
Grant and Griffith ( Publisher )
Publisher: Grant and Griffith
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: J. Wertheimer and Co.
Publication Date: 1852
Subject: Animal welfare -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animal behavior -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Bone & Son -- Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bone & Son -- Binders' tickets (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Binders' tickets (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by Mrs. R. Lee ; with illustrations by Harrison Weir.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002007
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002232886
oclc - 45805627
notis - ALH3283
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    The Quadrumana, or monkey tribe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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        Page 86
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        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
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        Page 93
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        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 102a
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
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        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
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        Page 120
        Page 121
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        Page 174
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        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    The cat tribe--lions
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
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        Page 199
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        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Leopards, panthers, etc.
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
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        Page 239
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        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
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        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 260a
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
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        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 330a
        Page 331
        Page 332
    The ass
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
    Llamas, etc.
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
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        Page 393
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        Page 398
        Page 399
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        Page 401
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        Page 404
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

The Baldwin Library
UniB rity

A: rl

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The Baldwin Library

000 A.




Pago 7.

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IN making a selection of anecdotes, those have
been assembled which were supplied by me to other
works, and in most instances have received consi-
derable amplification; others have been given which
never before were printed perhaps not even
written; while all which have been transferred
from other pages to mine have received the stamp
of authenticity. Besides those whose names are
already mentioned, I have to thank several friends
who have drawn from their private stores for my
advantage, and thus enabled me to offer much
that is perfectly new.

Dry details of science and classification have been
laid aside, but a certain order has been kept to
avoid confusion; and, although endeavours have
been made to throw as much interest as possible


over these recorded habits and actions of the
brute creation; I love the latter too well to raise a
doubt by one word of embellishment, even if I did
not abstain from principle.

The intentions with which this work was com-
menced have not been carried out, inasmuch as
materials have crowded upon me beyond all calcu-
lation; and, although a large portion has been
rejected, the anecdotes related go no farther than
the Mammalia, while almost all animals were to
have been included.

With regard to the remaining orders-if the
present work should meet with a favourable recep-
tion, I shall hope next year to present the public with
touching and amusing proofs of the sagacity and
dispositions of birds, and of hair-breadth scapes"
from reptiles, etc., some of which will, like those in
the present volume, be carefully selected from the
v works of travellers, from the resources of friends,
and from my own experience.

To the pleasing task of enlightening those,
who, shut up in close cities, have no opportunity of



observing for themselves, and to the still higher
enjoyment of directing young minds to an elevat-
ing pursuit, the naturalist adds a gratification even
better than all, by making known the hidden
wonders of nature; and leaving to those who de-
light in argument, the ever unsolved question of
where instinct ends and reason begins, he sets forth
the love of the great Creator towards all His
creatures, and the ways He takes to show His


FoxES .


* 1
* 33
* 41
* 47
. 51
. 66
* 73
* 78
. 83
S 162
S 174
S 180
S 186
S 213
S 224
S 250
S 254
S 266
S 271
S 294
S 297

- -


THE Ass .

. 339
. 354


FORMED like man, and practising similar gestures,
but with thumbs instead of great toes upon their feet,
and with so narrow a heel-bone, that even those
who constantly walk upright have not the firm and
dignified step of human beings; the Quadrumana
yet approximate so closely to us, that they demand
the first place in a book devoted principally to the
intellectual (whether it be reason or instinct) history
of animals. This approximation is a matter of
amusement to some; but to the larger portion of
mankind, I should say, it is a source of disgust.
" Rapoynda," I exclaimed, one day, to a trouble-
some, inquisitive, restless negro, pointing to a black
monkey, which much resembled him in characty,
" that is your brother." Never shall 1 forget the
malignant scowl which passed over the man's features

at my heedless comparison. No apology, no kind-
ness, not even the gift of a smart waistcoat, which
he greatly coveted, ever restored me to his good
graces; and I was not sorry when his Chief sum-
moned him from my vicinity, for I dreaded his
A few years after, I stood lost in admiration
before Sir Edwin Landseer's inimitable picture of
the monkey who had seen the world," in which
nature and truth lend their tone and force to the
highest efforts of art; when a voice exclaimed,
How can you waste your time looking at that
thing; such creatures ought never to have been
painted;" and although the speaker was a religious
man, he muttered to himself, I am not sure they
ought ever to have been made." The voice pro-
ceeded from one of the finest instances of manly
beauty; one famed also for talent and acquirement.
Rapoynda started into my recollection; and as I
slowly left the talented picture, I could not help
smiling at the common feeling between the savage
and the gentleman, thereby proving its universality.
Never did any one start for a tropical climate
with a greater antipathy towards these "wild men"
than I did; I lived years in their vicinity and yet
contrived to avoid all contact with them, and it
wse not till I was homeward-bound that my con-
version was effected. The ship in which Mr. Bow-
dich and myself took a round-about course to


England, was floating on a wide expanse of water,
disturbed only by the heavy swell, which forms the
sole motion in a calm; the watch on deck were
seated near the bows of the vessel, the passengers
and officers were almost all below, there was
only myself and the helmsman on the after-deck;
he stood listlessly by the binnacle, and I was wholly
occupied in reading. A noise between a squeak
and a chatter suddenly met my ears; and before I
could turn my head to see whence it proceeded, a
heavy, living creature jumped on to my shoulders
from behind, and its tail encircled my throat. I
felt it was Jack, the cook's monkey; the mis-
chievous, malicious, mocking, but inimitable Jack,
whose pranks had often made me laugh against my
will, as I watched him from a distance, but with
whom I had never made the least acquaintance.
Whether from fear or presence of mind I do not
pretend to say, but I remained perfectly still, and
in a minute or two Jack put his head forward and
stared me in the face, uttering a sort of croak; he
then descended on to my knees, examined my
hands as if he were counting my fingers, tried to
take offmy rings, and when I gave him some biscuit,
curled himself compactly into my lap. We were
friends from that moment. My aversion thus cured,
I have ever since felt indescribable interest and
entertainment in watching, studying, and protect-
ing monkeys. We had several on board the above-


mentioned vessel, but Jack was the prince of them
Exclusively belonging to the cook, although a
favourite with the whole crew, my friend (a Cerco-
pithecus from Senegal) had been at first kept by
means of a cord, attached to the caboose; but, as he
became more and more tame, his liberty was ex-
tended, till at last he was allowed the whole range
of the ship, with the exception of the captain's and
passengers' cabins. The occupations which he
marked out for himself began at early dawn, by
overturning the steward's parrot-cage whenever he
could get at it, in order to secure the lump of sugar
which then rolled out, or lick up the water which
ran from the upset cup; he evidently intended to
pull the parrot's feathers, but the latter, by turning
round as fast as Jack turned, always faced him, and
his beak was too formidable to be encountered. I
was frequently awakened by the quick trampling of
feet at this early hour, and knew it arose from a
pursuit of Jack, in consequence of some mischief
on his part. Like all other nautical monkeys, he
descended into the forecastle, where he twisted off
the night-caps of the sailors as they lay in their
hammocks, stole their knives, tools, etc., and if
they were not very active in the pursuit, these
purloinings were thrown overboard.
When the preparations for breakfast began, Jack
took his post in a corer near the grate, and when



the cook's back was turned, hooked out the pieces
of biscuit which were toasting between the bars for
the men, and snatched the bunches of dried herbs,
with which they tried to imitate tea, out of the tin
mugs. He sometimes scalded or burnt his fingers
by these tricks, which kept him quiet for a few
days; but no sooner was the pain gone than he
repeated the mischief.
Two days in each week, the pigs, which formed
part of our live stock, were allowed to run about
the deck for exercise, and then Jack was particularly
happy: hiding himself behind a cask, he would
suddenly spring on to the back of one of them, his
face to the tail, and away scampered his frightened
steed. Sometimes an obstacle would impede the
gallop, and then Jack, loosening the hold which
he had acquired by digging his nails into the skin
of the pig, industriously tried to uncurl its tail,
and if he were saluted by a laugh from some one
near by, he would look up with an assumed air of
wonder, as much as to say, What can you find to
laugh at ? When the pigs were shut up, he thought
it his turn to give others a ride, and there were
three little monkeys, with red skins and blue faces,
whom he particularly favored: I frequently met
him with all of them on his back at the same
time, squeaking and huddling together, and with
difficulty preserving their seat; when he suddenly
stopped, and seemed to ask me to praise the good-



natured action which he was performing. He was,
however, jealous of all those of his brethren who
came in contact with me, and freed himself from
two of his rivals by throwing them into the sea.
One of them was a small Lion monkey, of great
beauty and extreme gentleness, and immediately
after I had been feeding him, Jack called him with
a coaxing, patronizing air; but as soon as he was
within reach, the perfidious creature seized him by
the nape of his neck, and, as quick as thought,
popped him over the side of the ship. We were
going at a brisk rate, and although a rope was
thrown out to him, the poor little screaming thing
was soon left behind, very much to my distress, for
his almost human agony of countenance was painful
to behold. For this, Jack was punished by being
shut up all day in the empty hen-coop, in which he
usually passed the night, and which he so hated,
that when bed-time came, he generally avoided the
clutches of the steward; he, however, committed
so much mischief when unwatched, that it had
become necessary to confine him at night, and I
was often obliged to perform the office of nurse-
maid. Jack's principal punishment, however, was
to be taken in front of the cage in which a panther
belonging to me was placed, in the fore part of the
deck. His alarm was intense; the panther set up
his back and growled, but Jack instantly closed his
eyes, and made himself perfectly rigid. I generally


held him up by the tail, and if I moved, he cautiously
opened one eye; but if he caught sight of even a
corner of the cage, he shut it fast, and again pre-
tended to be dead. His drollest trick was practised
on a poor little black monkey; taking the oppor-
tunity when a calm, similar to that spoken of above,
left him nearly the sole possessor of the deck. I do
not know that he saw me, for I was sitting behind
the companion door. The men had been painting
the ship outside, and were putting a broad band of
white upon her, when they went to dinner below,
leaving their paint and brushes on the upper deck.
Jack enticed his victim to him, who meekly obeyed
the summons; and, seizing him with one hand, he,
with the other, took the brush, and covered him
with the white fluid from head to foot. The
laugh of the man at the helm called my attention
to the circumstance, and as soon as Jack perceived
he was discovered, he dropped his dripping brother,
and rapidly scampered up the rigging, till he gained
the main-top, where he stood with his nose between
the bars, looking at what was going on below. As
the other monkey began to lick himself, I called up
the steward, who washed him clean with turpentine,
and no harm ensued; but Jack was afraid to come
down, and only after three days passed in his
elevated place of refuge did hunger compel him to
descend. He chose the moment when I was sitting
on deck, and, swinging himself by a rope, he

dropped suddenly into my lap, looking so im-
ploringly at me for pardon, that I not only forgave
him myself, but procured his absolution from others.
Jack and I parted a little to the south of the
Scilly Islands, after five month's companionship,
and never met again; but I was told that he was
much distressed at my absence, hunted for me all
over the vessel in the most disconsolate manner,
even venturing into my cabin; nor was he recon-
ciled to the loss of me when the ship's company
parted in the London docks.
Another monkey, of the same species as Jack, was
trained by a man in Paris to perform a multitude
of clever tricks. I met him one day suddenly as he
was coming up the drawing-room stairs. He made
way for me by standing in an angle, and when I
said, Good morning," took off his cap, and made
me a low bow. Are you going away?" I asked;
where is your passport?'" Upon which he took
from the same cap a square piece of paper which
he opened, and shewed to me. His master told
him my gown was dusty, and he instantly took a
small brush from his master's pocket, raised the
hem of my dress, cleaned it, and then did the same
for my shoes. He was perfectly docile and obedient;
when we gave him something to eat, he did not
cram his pouches with it, but delicately and tidily
devoured it; and when we bestowed money on him,
he immediately put it into his master's hands.


Much more accomplished monkeys than those
of which I have spoken, have been known to act
plays, and to assume the characters they have un-
dertaken, with a spirit and aptitude which might
tempt us to suppose that they were perfectly cogni-
zant of every bearing of their different parts; and
their stratagems to procure food, and defend them-
selves, are only equalled by human beings.
Denizens of those mighty forests, which clothe
the earth between the tropics of both the Old and
New World, assembling by hundreds in those lands
where the Palm, the Banian, the Baobab, the Bom-
bax, and thousands of magnificent trees adorn the
soil; where the most delicious fruits are to be
procured, by merely stretching out the hand to
separate them from their parent stem; no wonder
that both apes and monkeys there congregate, and
strike the European, on his first arrival among
them, with astonishment. I had seen many at
Cape Coast; but not till I advanced into the forest
up the windings of the river Gaboon, could I form
any idea of their multitude, or of the various habits
which characterise their savage lives. The first
time the reality burst upon me, was in going up a
creek of that river to reach the town of Naiingo
when the most deafening screams were to be heard
over head, mixed with squeaks and sundry strange
noises. These proceeded from red and grey parrots,
which were pursued to the tops of the tallest trees


by the monkeys. The birds were not frightened;
on the contrary, they appeared to enjoy the fun,
and perching on slight twigs, which would not
bear the weight of their playfellows, they stretched
out their wings, and seemed vociferously to exclaim,
You can't catch me!" Sometimes, however, they
were surprised, and then there was such a scuffle
and noise. The four-handed beast, however, plucked
the red feathers from the tail of the bird; and
careless of its anger, seated himself on a branch,
sucking the quills till they were dry, when he
started for a fresh supply.
That monkeys enjoy movement, that they de-
light in pilfering, in outwitting each other and
their higher brethren-men; that they glory in
tearing and destroying the works of art by which
they are surrounded in a domestic state; that they
lay the most artful plans to effect their purposes, is
all perfectly true; but the terms mirthful and
merry, seem to me to be totally misapplied, in
reference to their feelings and actions; for they do
all in solemnity and seriousness. Do you stand
under a tree, whose thick foliage completely screens
you from the sun, and you hope to enjoy perfect
shade and repose; a slight rustling proves that com-
panions are near; presently a broken twig drops
upon you, then another, you raise your eyes, and
find that hundreds of other eyes are staring at you.
In another minute you see the grotesque faces to


which those eyes belong, making grimaces, as you
suppose, but it is no such thing, they are solemnly
contemplating the intruder; they are not pelting
him in play, it is their business to drive him from
their domain. Raise your arm, the boughs shake,
the chattering begins, and the sooner you decamp;
the more you will shew your discretion.
Watch the ape or monkey with which you come
into closer contact; does he pick up a blade of
grass, he will examine it with as much attention as
if he were determining the value of a precious
stone. Do you put food before him, he tucks it
into his mouth as fast as possible, and when his
cheek pouches are so full that they cannot hold any
more, he looks at you as if he seriously asked your
approval of his laying up stores for the future. If
he destroy the most valuable piece of glass or china
in your possession, he does not look as if he en-
joyed the mischief, but either puts on an impudent
air, as much as to say, I don't care," or calmly
tries to let you know he thought it his duty to
destroy your property. Savage, violent and noisy
are they when irritated or disappointed, and long
do they retain the recollection of an affront. I once
annoyed a monkey in the collection of the Jardin
des Plantes, in Paris, by preventing him from pur-
loining the food of one of his companions; in doing
which I gave him a knock upon his paws. It was
lucky that strong wires were between us, or he



would probably have hurt me severely in his rage;
he shook the cage, he rolled about and screamed,
and did not forget the offence. On future occa-
sions, the instant he heard my voice, he put him-
self into a passion: and several months after,
although I had been absent the whole time, he
seized on my gown while I incautiously stood too
near to him, dragged a portion of it within the
bars, and bit a great piece out of it, although it
was made of a very strong material.
A monkey, of I know not what species, was
domiciled in a family in Yorkshire to whom my
mother was paying a visit of some days. A large
dinner-party was given in honor of the guest, the
master of the house helped the soup; but as he
was talking at the time, he did not observe its
appearance. Presently all to whom it had been
served, laid down their spoons, or sent their plates
away. This of course attracted attention, and on
inspection, the liquid was discovered to be full of
short hairs. The servants in attendance were
questioned, but they declared they were ignorant
of the cause; and the wisest and politest proceeding
was, to send the tureen from the table, and, serving
the fish, make no further comment. The mistress
of the family, however, when the ladies left the
dining-room, slipped away from her friends, and
summoning the cook to her presence, received an
explanation of the mystery. The woman said, she


had left the kitchen only for one minute, and when
she returned, she saw the monkey standing on the
hob of the kitchen grate, with one fore-paw resting
on the lid of the boiler which contained the soup.
" Oh, Mr. Curiosity," she exclaimed, that is too
much for you, you can' t lift that up." To her
horror and amazement, however, he had lifted it up,
and was putting it on again after popping the
kitten in, whose remains were discovered at the
bottom when the soup was strained. The poor
cook was so bewildered, that she did not know what
to do: it was time for the dinner to be served, and
she, therefore, for the look's sake, thought it best to
send the soup in as it was, even if it were sent
out again immediately, "because you know ma'am,"
said she, that would prove you had ordered it.
I always thought the monkey would do the kitten
a mischief, he was so jealous of it, and hated it so
because it scratched him, so he seized it when
A much better disposed monkey belonged to my
eldest daughter; and we brought him to England
from the Gambia. He seemed to know that he
could master the child, and did not hesitate to bite
and scratch her whenever she pulled him a little
harder than he thought proper. I punished him
for each offence, yet fed and caressed him when
good; by which means I possessed an entire ascend-
ancy over him. He was very wretched in London



lodgings, where I was obliged to fasten him to the
bars of a stove, and where he had no fresh air; and
he was no sooner let loose than he tried to break
everything within his reach; so I persuaded his
young mistress to present him to the Jardin des
Plantes. I took him there; and during my stay
in that place paid him daily visits. When these
were discontinued, the keeper told me that he
incessantly watched for my return, and it was long
before he recovered his disappointment, and made
friends with his companions in the same cage. Two
years after, I again went to see him; and when I
stood before him and said, Mac, do you know me?"
he gave a scream of delight, put both his paws
beyond the bars, stretched them out to me, held
his head down to be caressed, uttering a low
murmur, and giving every sign of delighted recog-
The most melancholy of all monkeys is, appar-
ently, the Chimpanzee; and although he has
perhaps evinced more power of imitating man than
any other, he performs all he does with a sad look,
frequently accompanied by petulance, and occasional
bursts of fury. One of the smaller species, such as
those which at different times have been brought
to England and Paris, was offered to Mr. Bowdich
for purchase, while our ship lay in the river Gaboon.
His owner left him with us for four weeks, during
which time I had an opportunity of watching his



habits. He would not associate with any other of the
tribe, not even the irresistible Jack; but was be-
coming reconciled to me, when one unlucky day I
checked his dawning partiality. He followed me to
the Panther's cage, and I shall never forget the fear-
ful yell which he uttered. He fled as swiftly as
possible, overturning men and boys in his way,
with a strength little to be expected from his size,
nor did he stop till he had thrust himself into a
boat sail on the after-deck, with which he entirely
covered himself, and which was thenceforward his
favourite abode. It was several days before I could
reinstate myself in his good opinion, for he evidently
thought I had had something to do with the pan-
ther. The latter had been in such a fury, that the
sailors thought he would have broken his cage; and
he continued restless and watchful for hours after-
wards, proving that the chimpanzee is found in his
country of Ashanti, further to the north than we
had imagined. We did not buy the animal, on
account of the exorbitant sum asked for him, and
the risk of his living during a long voyage. He
was always very sad, but very gentle; and his
attachment to his master was very great, clinging
to him like a child, and going joyfully away in his
arms. Of those kept in the Zoological gardens of
England and Paris, many anecdotes have been
related, evincing great intelligence. One of the
latter used to sit in a chair, lock and unlock his



door, drink tea with a spoon, eat with a knife and
fork, set out his own dinner, cry when left alone,
and delight in being apparently considered one of
his keeper's family.
It is in equatorial Africa that the most power-
ful of all the Quadrumana live, far exceeding the
Oran Outang, and even the Pongo of Borneo.
Mr. Bowdich and myself were the first to revive
and confirm a long forgotten, and vague report of
the existence of such a creature, and many thought,
as we ourselves had not seen it, that we had
been deceived by the natives. They assured us
that these huge creatures walk constantly on their
hind feet, and never yet were taken alive; that
they watch the actions of men, and imitate them as
nearly as possible. Like the ivory hunters, they
pick up the fallen tusks of elephants, but not know-
ing where to deposit them, they carry their burthens
about till they themselves drop, and even die from
fatigue: that they build huts nearly in the shape
of those of men, but live on the outside; and that
when one of their children dies, the mother carries
it in her arms till it falls to pieces; that one blow
of their paw will kill a man, and that nothing can
exceed their ferocity.
A male and female, of an enormous species of
chimpanzee, were brought to Bristol by the master
of a vessel coming from the river Gaboon, he had
been commissioned to bring them alive, but as this



was impracticable, he put the male into a puncheon
of rum, and the female into a cask of strong brine,
after they had been shot. The person who had
ordered, refused to take them, and Professor Owen
secured them for the College of Surgeons. The
flesh of that in salt and water fell from the bones,
but it was possible to set the other up so as to
have his portrait taken, which likeness is now in e
the museum of the college. The rum had so de-
stroyed the hair, that he could not be stuffed, he
was between four and five feet high, his enormous
nails, amounting to claws, were well adapted for
digging roots, and his huge, strong teeth, must have
made him a formidable antagonist. There could
not be any thing much more hideous than his ap-
pearance, even when allowances were made for the
disfiguring effects of the spirit in which he had
been preserved. He was entirely covered with
hair, and not wrinkled and bare in front like the
smaller Chimpanzee; and it was for some time
supposed, that this was the Ingheena reported by
Mr. Bowdich. Since then, however, some skulls
have been sent to England from the same locality,
of much larger proportions, betokening an almost
marvellous size and strength; and these probably,
belonged to the real Ingheena. They go about in
pairs; and it is evident from their enormous teeth,
that, as they are not flesh-eating animals, these
weapons must have been given to them as means



of defence against the most powerful enemies; in
fact, against each other.
I now come from my own knowledge and per-
sonal experience to those of others, and I cannot
begin with a more interesting account than that
given by Mr. Bennett of the Ungka Ape, or Gibbon
of Sumatra, the Simia Syndactyla of naturalists. He
stood two feet high when on his hind legs, and was
covered with black hair, except on the face, the
skin of which was also black; the legs were short in
proportion to the body and arms, the latter being
exceedingly long. His only pouch was under the
throat, the use of which was not apparent, for he
did not make it a reservoir for food. He uttered a
squeaking or chirping note when pleased, a hollow
bark when irritated, and when frightened or angry
he loudly called out" Ra, ra, ra." He was as grave
as the rest of his tribe, but not equally mischievous;
he, however, frequently purloined the ink, sucking
the pens, and drinking the liquid whenever he
could get at it. He soon knew his name, and
readily went to those who called him. The chief
object of his attachment was a Papuan child; and he
would sit with one of his long arms round her
neck, share his biscuit with her, run from or after
her in play, roll on the deck, entwining his arms
around her, pretend to bite, swing himself away
by means of a rope, and then drop suddenly upon
her, with many other frolics of a childish character.



If, however, she tried to make him play when he
was not inclined to do so, he would gently warn
her by a bite, that he would not suffer her to take
any liberties. He made advances to several small
monkeys, but they always drew themselves up into
an'opposing force, and he, to punish their imperti-
nence, seized hold of their tails, and pulled them
till the squeaking owners contrived to escape, or
he dragged them along by these appendages up the
rigging, and then suddenly let them go, he all the
time preserving the utmost gravity.
When the hour came for the passengers' dinner
he took his station near the table, and, if laughed
at while eating, barked, inflated his pouch, and
looked at those who ridiculed him in the most
serious manner till they had finished, when he
quietly resumed his own meal. This is often done
by others of his race, and some seem to inquire
what you see to laugh at, while others fly into a
passion when such an affront is offered.
Ungka greatly disliked being left alone, and when
refused anything which he wished for, rolled upon
the deck, threw his arms and legs about, and
dashed every thing down which came within his
reach, incessantly uttering Ra, ra, ra." He had
a great fancy for a certain piece of soap, but was
always scolded when he tried to take it away. One
day, when he thought Mr. Bennett was too busy to
observe him, he walked off with it, casting glances



round to see if he were observed. When he had
gone half the length of the cabin, Mr. Bennett gently
called him; and he was so conscience-stricken that
he immediately returned the soap to its place,
evidently knowing he had done wrong. He was
very fond of sweetmeats; but although good friefids
with those who gave them to him, he would not
suffer them to take him in their arms, only allow-
ing two persons to use that familiarity, and par-
ticularly avoiding large whiskers. He felt the cold
extremely as he proceeded on his voyage, was
attacked with dysentery, and died as he came into
a northern latitude.
A female Gibbon was for some time exhibited
in London, whose rapid and enormous springs
verified the account given of her brethren by
M. Duvaueel, who said that he had seen one of
these animals clear a space of forty feet, receiving
an impetus by merely touching the branch of a
tree, and catching fruit as she sprang: the one in
England could stop herself in the most sudden
manner, and calculate her distances with surprising
accuracy. She uttered a cry of half tones, and
ended with a deafening shake, which was not un-
musical. She made a chirping cry in the morn-
ing, supposed to be the call for her companions,
beginning slowly, and ending by two barks, which
sounded like the tenor E and its octave, at which
time the poor thing became evidently agitated.



She was, generally speaking, very gentle, and much
preferred ladies to gentlemen; but if her confidence
had been once acquired, she seemed to place as
much reliance on a man as she bestowed unsolicited
on a woman.
Monkeys in India are more or less objects of
superstitious reverence, and are, consequently, sel-
dom, or ever destroyed. In some places they are
even fed, encouraged, and allowed to live on the
roofs of the houses. If a man wish to revenge
himself for any injury committed upon him, he has
only to sprinkle some rice or corn upon the top of
his enemy's house, or granary, just before the rains
set in, and the monkeys will assemble upon it, eat
all they can find outside, and then pull off the tiles
to get at that which falls through the crevices.
This, of course, gives access to the torrents which
fall in such countries, and house, furniture, and
stores are all ruined.
The large Banian trees of the Old World are the
favourite resorts of monkeys and snakes; and the
former when they find one of the latter asleep, seize
it by the neck, scramble from their branch, and
dash the reptile's head against a stone, all the time
grinning with rage.
The Budeng of Java (Semnopithecus Maurus)
abounds in the forests of that island, and flies from
the presence of man, uttering the most fearful
screams, and using the most violent gestures; but



this is not a frequent antipathy, and there is an
amusing account of the familiarity which monkeys
assume with men, written by a traveller, who,
probably, was not a naturalist, for he does not give
the technical appellation of any of the species with
which he meets in India. From what he says,
however, I should suppose some of his heroes to be
the same as the Macacus Rhesus. He expresses his
surprise, when he sees monkeys at home," for the
first time, as being so different to the individuals
on the tops of organs, or in the menageries of
Europe. Their air of self-possession, comprehension,
and right to the soil on which they live is most
amusing. From thirty to forty seated themselves
to look at his advancing palanquin and bearers,
just as villagers watch the strange arrival going to
the squire's," and mingled with the inhabitants,
jostling the naked children, and stretching them-
selves at full length close to the seated human
groups, with the most perfect freedom. This free-
dom often amounts to impudence; and they frequent
the tops of bazaars, in order to steal all they can lay
their hands upon below. The only way to keep
them off, is to cover the roof with a prickly shrub,
the thorns of which stick to the flesh like fish-
hooks. The above mentioned traveller watched
one, which he calls a bandar, and which took his
station opposite to a sweetmeat shop. He pretended
to be asleep, but every now and then softly raised



his head to look at the tempting piles and the
owner of them, who sat smoking his pipe without
symptoms even of a dose. In half an hour the
monkey got up, as if he were just awake, yawned,
stretched himself, and took another position a few
yards off, where he pretended to play with his tail,
occasionally looking over his shoulder at the coveted
delicacies. At length the shopman gave signs of
activity, and the bandar was on the alert; the man
went to his back room, the bandar cleared the
street at one bound, and in an instant stuffed his
pouches full of the delicious morsels. He had,
however, overlooked some hornets, which were
regaling themselves at the same time. They re-
sented his disturbance, and the tormented bandar,
in his hurry to escape, came upon a thorn-covered
roof, where he lay, stung, torn, and bleeding. He
spurted the stolen bon-bons from his pouches, and
barking hoarsely, looked the picture of misery.
The noise of the tiles which he had dislodged in
his retreat brought out the inhabitants, and among
them the vendor of sweets, with his turban unwound,
and streaming two yards behind him. All joined
in laughing at the wretched monkey; but their
religious reverence for him induced them to go to
his assistance; they picked out his thorns, and he
limped away to the woods quite crest fallen.
The traveller came in constant contact with
monkeys in his occupations of clearing land and



planting, and at first, as he lay still among the'
brushwood, they gambolled round him as they
would round the natives. This peaceable state of
things, however, did not last, when he established
a field of sugar-canes in the newly-cleared jungle.
He tells the story so well, that I must be allowed to
use his own expressions:-
Every beast of the field seemed league against
this devoted patch of sugar-cane. The wild ele-
phants came, and browzed in it; the jungle hogs
rooted it up, and munched it at their leisure; the
jackals gnawed the stalks into squash; and the
wild deer ate the tops of the young plants. Against
all these marauders there was an obvious remedy-
to build a stout fence round the cane field. This
was done accordingly, and a deep trench dug out-
side, that even the wild elephant did not deem it
prudent to cross.
The wild hogs came and inspected the trench
and the pallisades beyond. A bristly old tusker
was observed taking a survey of the defences; but,
after mature deliberation, he gave two short grunts,
the porcine (language), I imagined, for 'No go,'
and took himself off at a round trot, to pay a visit
to my neighbour Ram Chunder, and enquire how
his little plot of sweet yams was coming on. The
jackals sniffed at every crevice, and determined to
wait a bit; but the monkeys laughed the whole
intrenchment to scorn. Day after day was I



doomed to behold my canes devoured, as fast as
they ripened, by troops of jubilant monkeys. It
was of no use attempting to drive them away.
When disturbed, they merely retreated to the
nearest tree, dragging whole stalks of sugar-cane
along with them, and then spurted the chewed
fragments in my face, as I looked up at them. This
was adding insult to injury, and I positively began
to grow blood-thirsty at the idea of being outwitted
by monkeys. The case between us might have
been stated in this way.
"' I have, at much trouble and expense, cleared
and cultivated this jungle land,' said I.
"' More fool you,' said the monkeys.
"' I have planted and watched over these sugar-
"' Watched! ah, ha! so have we for the matter
of that.'
"'But, surely I have a right to reap what I
Don't see it,' said the monkeys; the jungle,
by rights prescriptive and indefensible, is ours, and
has been so ever since the days of Ram Honuman
of the long tail. If you cultivate the jungle without
our consent you must look to the consequences. If
you don't like our customs, you may get about your
business. We don't want you.'
"I kept brooding over this mortifying view of the
matter, until one morning I hatched revenge in a


practicable shape. A tree, with about a score of
monkeys on it, was cut down, and half-a-dozen of
the youngest were caught as they attempted to
escape. A large pot of ghow (treacle) was then
mixed with as much tartar emetic as could be
spared from the medicine chest, and the young
hopefuls, after being carefully painted over with
the compound, were allowed to return to their
distressed relatives, who, as soon as they arrived,
gathered round them, and commenced licking them
with the greatest assiduity. The results I had
anticipated were not long in making their ap-
pearance. A more melancholy sight it was impos-
sible to behold; but so efficacious was this treatment,
that for more than two years I hardly ever saw a
monkey in the neighbourhood."
When we read of the numbers, the intelligence,
and the audacity of monkeys in this part of the
world, it becomes a matter of curious speculation as
to how they will behave when the railroad is made
across India.
It has been frequently observed, that there is
nothing more distressing than to see a wounded or
suffering monkey. He lays his hand upon the part
affected, and looks up in your face, as if appealing
to your kindly feelings; and if blood flow, he
views it with so frightened an expression, that he
seems to know his life is going from him. An
inquisitive monkey, among the numerous company


which sailed in a ship, always seemed desirous of
ascertaining the nature of everything around him,
and touched, tasted, and closely scrutinized every
object to which he had not been accustomed. A
pot of scalding pitch was in use for caulking the
seams of the upper deck, and when those who were
employed in laying it upon the planks turned their
heads from him, he dipped one paw into it, and
carrying it to his chin, rubbed himself with the
destructive substance. His yell of pain called the
attention of the sailors to him, and they did all
in their power to afford alleviation; the pitch
was taken off as well as it could be, his pouches
being entirely burnt away, his poor cheeks were
wrapped up with rags steeped in turpentine; and
his scalded hand was bandaged in the same manner.
He was a piteous sight, and seemed to look on all
who came near, as if asking for their commiseration.
He was very gentle and very sad, submitted to be
fed with sugar and water through a tube, but after a
few days he laid his head down and expired.
Mr. Forbes tells a story of a female monkey,
(the Semnopithecus Entellus), who was shot by a
friend of his, and carried to his tent. Forty or
fifty of her tribe advanced with menacing gestures,
but stood still when the gentleman presented his gun
at them. One, however, who appeared to be the
chief of the tribe, came forward, chattering and
threatening in a furious manner. Nothing short of


firing at him seemed likely to drive him away; but
at length he approached the tent door with every
sign of grief and supplication, as if he were begging
for the body. It was given to him, he took it in
his arms, carried it away, with actions expressive
of affection, to his companions, and with them dis-
appeared. It was not to be wondered at that the
sportsman vowed never to shoot another monkey.
Monkeys are eaten in some parts of the Old World,
and universally in South America. M. Bonpland
speaks of the flesh as lean, hard and dry; but that
which I tasted in Africa, was white, juicy, and like
chicken. Mr. Bowdich had monkeys served whole
before him at the table of the king of Ashanti,
having been roasted in a sitting posture, and he
said, nothing could be more horrid or repugnant
than their appearance, with the skin of the lips
dried, and the white teeth, giving an aspect of
grinning from pain.
The howling monkeys of South America, who
make the forests resound at night, or before a com-
ing storm, with their hideous choruses, and whose
hollow and enlarged tongue bone, and expanded
lower jaw enable them to utter those melancholy
and startling cries, are larger and fatter than many
others in the same country, and are constantly
sought for as food. They eat the thick, triangular
Brazil nuts (Bertholletia Excelsa), and break the
hard pod which contains them with a stone, laying


it on the bough of a tree, or some other stone.
They sometimes get their tail between the two,
of course the blow falls upon the tail, and the
monkey bounds away, howling in the most frightful
The prettiest of all monkeys is the Marmozet;
the Ouistiti of Buffon; the Simia Jacchus of Lin-
naeus. It is extremely sensitive to cold; neverthe-
less, if plentifully supplied with wool, cotton, and
other warm materials, will live for years in this
climate. Dr. Neill of Edinburgh, that most excel-
lent protector and lover of animals, brought one
from Bahia, which he found great difficulty in
training. It even resisted those who fed it, not al.
lowing them to touch it, putting on an angry, suspi-
cious look, and being roused by even the slightest
whisper. During the voyage it ate corn and fruit,
and when these became scarce, took to cockroaches;
of which it cleared the vessel. It would dispatch
twenty large, besides smaller ones, three or four
times in each day, nipping off the head of the
former, and rejecting the viscera, legs, and hard
wing cases. Besides these, it fed on milk, sugar,
raisins, and bread-crumbs. It afterwards made
friends with a cat, and slept and eat with this
animal, but it never entirely lost its distrustful
Lieutenant Edwards, in his voyage up the Ama-
zon, mentions a domestic white monkey, which had



contrived to get to the top of a house, and no per-
suasions or threats could get him down again. He
ran over the roof, displaced the tiles, peeped into
the chambers below (for there are no ceilings in
that country), and when called, put his thumb up
to his nose. He was shot at with corn, but having
found a rag, he held it up before him, and so tried
to evade the shot; every now and then peeping
over the top. At last he was left to himself; and
when no endeavours were made to get him down,
he came of his own accord. Captain Brown men-
tions a monkey, who, when he was troublesome in
the cabin of a ship, was fired at with gunpowder
and currant jelly; and in order to defend himself,
used to pick up the favorite monkey, and hold
him between the pistol and himself when it was
A race of animals exists in Madagascar, and
some of the Eastern islands, to which the name of
Maki has been given, and which, although differing
in the formation of the skull and teeth, must, from
having four hands, be placed among the Quadru-
mana. They are nocturnal in their habits, very
gentle and confiding, with apparently one exception,
which is called the Vari. M. Frederick Cuvier has
told us, that two of these being shut up in a cage
together, one killed and eat his companion, leaving
nothing but the skin. Two of them are remark-
able for their slow, deliberate movements; and one


of them, named the' Lemur Tardigradus, was pro-
cured at Prince of Wales's Island by Mr. Baird.
He tells us that his eyes shone brightly in the dark,
and that he moved his eyelids diagonally, instead
of up and down. He had two tongues, one rough
like that of a cat, the other narrow and sharp, and
both projected at the same time, unless he chose to
retain the latter. He generally slept rolled up like
a ball, with his arms over his head, taking hold of
his cage. He and a dog lived together in the same
cage, and a great attachment subsisted between
them; but nothing could reconcile him to a cat,
which constantly jumped over his back, thereby
causing him great annoyance.
I cannot better close this notice of Monkeys than
by giving a curious legend which is told in North-
western Africa, and which is more uncommon than
the belief, which is to be found in most countries,
that "monkeys can talk if they like, but they
won't, for fear white men should make them work."
It was related by the negroes to each other with
infinite humour; the different voices of the charac-
ters were assumed, and the gestures and countenance
were in accordance with the tale.
There was once a big and a strong man, who
was a cook, and he married a woman who thought
herself very much above him, so she only accepted
him on condition that she should never be asked to
go into the cook-house (kitchen), but live in a


separate dwelling. They were married, and all the
house he had for her was the kitchen; but she did
not at first complain, because she was afraid to make
her husband unhappy. At last she became so tired
of her'life, that she began to find fault; but at first
was very gentle. At last she scolded incessantly,
and the man, to keep her quiet, told her he would
go to the bush (forest), and fetch wood to build her
a new house. He went away, and in a few hours
brought some wood. The next day his wife told
him to go and fetch some more. Again he went
away, staid all day, and only brought home a few
sticks, which made her so angry, that she took the
biggest and beat him with it. The man went away
a third time, and staid all night, not bringing home
any wood at all, saying that the trees which he had
cut down were so heavy that he could not bring
them all the way. Then he went and stayed two
days and nights, which made his wife very un-
happy. She cried very much, intreated him not to
leave her, promised not to scold or beat him any
more, and to live contentedly in the kitchen; but
he answered No! you made me go to the bush,
now I like the bush very much, and I shall go and
stop there for ever.' So saying, he rushed out of
the cook-house into the bush, where he turned into
a monkey, and from him came all other monkeys."



A RACE of beings, to which the epithet mysterious
may be with some truth applied, affords more
interest from its peculiar habits, than from any
proof which can be given of its mental powers;
and its place in this work is due to the marvellous
histories which have been related concerning it,
and which have made it an object of superstitious
Bats, or Cheiroptera, are particularly distinguished
from all other creatures which suckle their young,
by possessing the power of flight. A Lemur
Galeopithecus, which exists in the Eastern part of
the globe, takes long sweeps from tree to tree, and
owes this faculty to the extension of its skin be-
tween its fore and hind limbs, including the tail;
but it cannot be really said to fly. The Bats, then,
alone enjoy this privilege; and the prolongation of
what, in common parlance, we should call the arms
and fingers, constitutes the framework which sup-
ports the skin, or membrane forming the wings.
The thumbs, however, are left free, and serve as
hooks for various purposes. The legs, and tail
(when they have any), generally help to extend the
membrane of the wing; and the breast-bone is so
formed as to support the powerful muscles which
aid their locomotive peculiarities. They climb and


crawl with great dexterity, and some will run when
on the ground; but it is difficult for most of them
to move on a smooth, horizontal surface, and they
drag themselves along by their thumbs. A portion
of the Cheiroptera feeds on insects, and another
on fruits; one genus subsists chiefly on blood.
The first help to clear the atmosphere of those
insects which fly at twilight; the second are very
destructive to our gardens and orchards; the last
are especially the object of that superstitious fear
to which I have already alluded. They are all
nocturnal or crepuscular, and during the day remain
suspended by the sharp claws of their feet to the
under-branches of trees, the roofs of caves, sub-
terranean quarries, or old ruins, hanging with their
heads downwards; multitudes live in the tombs of
The appearance of Bats is always more or less
grotesque; but this term more aptly applies to those
which live on animal food, in consequence of the
additions made to the nose and ears, probably for
the sake of increasing their always acute senses of
smell and hearing. The ears are frequently of an
enormous size, and are joined together at the back
of the head; besides which they have leaf, or lance-
shaped appendages in front. A membrane of various
forms is also often attached to the nose, in one
species the shape of a horse-shoe. The bodies are
always covered with hair, but the wings consist of


a leathery membrane. Another singularity in one
genus is the extremity of the spine being converted
into two jointed, horny pieces, covered with skin,
so as to form a box of two valves, each having an
independent motion. The large bats of the East
Indies measure five feet from the tip of one wing
to that of the other, and they emit a musky odour.
The skin of the Nycteris Geoffroyi is very loose
upon the body; and the animal draws air through
openings in the cheek pouches, head, and back, and
swells itself into a little balloon; the openings being
closed at pleasure by means of valves. The bite of
all is extremely sharp; and we seldom hear of an
instance of one being tamed. They try to shelter
themselves from chilly winds, and frequent sheltered
spots, abounding in masonry, rocks, trees, and small
About the Vampire, or the blood-sucker, there are
different opinions: that of the East is said to be
quite harmless; but it is asserted that the South
American species love to attach themselves to all
cattle, especially to horses with long manes, because
they can cling to the hair while they suck the
veins, and keep their victim quiet by flapping their
wings over its head; they also fasten themselves
upon the tail for the first reason, and a great loss
of blood frequently ensues. Fowls are frequently
killed by them as they roost upon their perches,
for so noiseless and gentle are they in their flight




and operations, that animals are not awakened out
of their sleep by their attacks. The teeth are so
disposed that they make a deep and triple puncture,
and one was taken by Mr. Darwin in the act of
sucking blood from the neck of a horse. This able
naturalist and accurate observer is of opinion, that
horses do not suffer from the quantity of blood
taken from them by the Vampire, but from the
inflammation of the wound which they make, and
which is increased if the saddle presses on it.
Horses, however, turned out to grass at night, are
frequently found the next morning with their necks
and haunches covered with blood; and it is known
that the bat fills and disgorges itself several times.
Dr. Carpenter is of the same opinion as Mr. Darwin,
and also disbelieves that these creatures soothe their
victims by fanning them with their wings.
Captain Stedman, who travelled in Guiana, from
1772 to 1777, published an account of his adven-
tures, and for several years afterwards, it was the
fashion to doubt the truth of his statements. In
fact, it was a general feeling, up to a much later
period than the above, that travellers were not to
be believed. As our knowledge, however, has
increased, and the works of God have been made
more manifest, the reputation of many a calumniated
traveller has been restored, and, among others, that
of Captain Stedman. I shall, therefore, unhesi-
tatingly quote his account of the bite of the vampire,


On waking, about four o'clock this morning, in
my hammock, I was extremely alarmed at finding
myself weltering in congealed blood, and without
feeling any pain whatever. Having started up and
run to the surgeon, with a firebrand in one hand,
and all over besmeared with gore, the mystery was
found to be, that I had been bitten by the vampire
or spectre of Guiana, which is also called the flying
dog of New Spain. This is no other than a bat of
monstrous size, that sucks the blood from men and
cattle, sometimes even till they die; knowing, by
instinct, that the person they intend to attack is in
a sound slumber, they generally alight near the
feet, where, while the creature continues fanning
with his enormous wings, which keeps one cool, he
bites a piece out of the tip of the great toe, so very
small indeed, that the head of a pin could scarcely
be received into the wound, which is consequently
not painful; yet, through this orifice, he contrives
to suck the blood, until he is obliged to disgorge.
He then begins again, and thus continues sucking
and disgorging till he is scarcely able to fly, and
the sufferer has often been known to sleep from
time into eternity. Cattle they generally bite in
the ear, but always in those places where the blood
flows spontaneously. Having applied tobacco-
ashes as the best remedy, and washed the gore from
myself and my hammock, I observed several small
heaps of congealed blood all around the place where




I had lain, upon the ground; upon examining
which, the surgeon judged that I had lost at
least twelve or fourteen ounces during the night.
Having measured this creature (one of the bats), I
found it to be, between the tips of the wings, thirty-
two inches and a half; the colour was a dark
brown, nearly black, but lighter underneath."
Mr. Waterton, whom all the world recognizes as
a gentleman, and consequently a man of truth,
laboured at one time under the same stigma of
exaggeration as Captain Stedman, and many other
illustrious travellers; and he confirms the blood-
sucking in the following terms:-" Some years
ago, I went to the river Paumarau, with a Scotch
gentleman. We hung our hammocks in the thatched
loft of a planter's house. Next morning I heard
this gentleman muttering in his hammock, and
now and then letting fall an imprecation or two,
' What is the matter, Sir,' said I softly, is anything
amiss?' What is the matter!' answered he
surlily, 'why the vampires have been sucking me
to death.' As soon as there was light enough, I
went to his hammock, and saw it much stained
with blood. There,' said he, thrusting his foot
out of the hammock, 'see how these imps have
been drawing my life's blood.' On examining his
foot, I found the vampire had tapped his great toe.
There was a wound somewhat less than that made
by a leech. The blood was still oozing from it, and

I conjectured he might have lost from ten to twelve
ounces of blood."
Mr. Waterton further tells us, that a boy of ten
or eleven years of age was bitten by a vampire, and
a poor ass, belonging to the young gentleman's
father, was dying by inches from the bites of the
larger kinds, while most of his fowls were killed by
the smaller bats.
The torpidity in which bats remain during the
winter, in climates similar to that of England, is well
known; and, like other animals which undergo the
same suspension of powers, they have their histories
of long imprisonment in places which seem inimical
to life. There are two accounts of their being
found in trees, which are extremely curious, and
the more so, because the one corroborates the other.
In the beginning of November, 1821, a woodman,
engaged in splitting timber for rail-posts, in the
woods close by the lake at Haining, a seat of Mr.
Pringle's, in Selkirkshire, discovered, in the centre
of a large wild-cherry tree, a living bat, of a bright
scarlet colour, which, as soon as it was relieved
from its entombment, took to its wings and escaped.
In the tree there was a recess sufficiently large to
contain the animal; but all around, the wood was
perfectly sound, solid, and free from any fissure
through which the atmospheric air could reach the
A man engaged in splitting timber, near Kelsall,




in the beginning of December, 1826, discovered, in
the centre of a large pear-tree, a living bat, of a
bright scarlet colour, which he foolishly suffered to
escape, from fear, being fully persuaded (with the
characteristic superstition of the inhabitants of that
part of Cheshire), that it was a being not of this
world." The tree presented a small cavity in the
centre, where the bat was enclosed, but was per-
fectly sound and solid on each side. The scarlet
colour of each of these prisoners seems at present
to be inexplicable, and makes these statements
still more marvellous.
Professor Bell, in his admirable work on British
Quadrupeds speaks of a long-eared bat which fed
from the hand; and if an insect were held between
the lips, it would settle on its master's cheek, and
take the fly from his mouth with great quietness.
So accustomed was it to this, that it would seek
his lips when he made a buzzing noise. It folded
its beautiful ears under its arm when it went to
sleep, and also during hibernation. Its cry was
acute and shrill, becoming more clear and piercing
when disturbed. It is most frequently seen in
towns and villages. This instance of taming to a
certain extent might, perhaps, be more frequently
repeated, if bats were objects of more general




THERE is a tribe of animals constantly around our
country habitations, of underground and nocturnal
habits, some of which become torpid in winter.
All are timid and unobtrusive, and yet have great
influence upon our welfare; for they check the
rapid increase of those worms and insects which
live and breed beneath the soil, and would destroy
the crops which are necessary to our existence.
There are certain and constant characters in their
formation, which bring them all under one group,
called Insectivora, or Insect-eating Mammalia, by
naturalists; but among them are smaller groups of
individuals, with peculiar characters, adapted to
their different habits.
The mole is an instance of one of these minor
groups; which, with one exception, has a portion of
sight in spite of its reputation for being blind. Its
smell and hearing, however, are so acute, that they
make up for the deficiency in the other sense, a highly
developed organ for which, would be very much
in the way of an animal which makes its habitation
within the earth, and which rarely comes to the
surface in the day time. Its fore-feet are largest,
and powerful muscles enable it to dig up the soil and
roots which oppose the formation of its galleries,
and which are thrown up as they become loosened.


The nose, or snout, is furnished with a bone at the
end, with which it pierces the earth, and in one
genus this bone has twenty-two small, cartilaginous
points attached to it, which can be extended into
a star. A vein lies behind the ear of all, the
smallest puncture of which causes instant death.
The food of moles chiefly consists of worms, and
the larvae, or grubs of insects, of which they eat
enormous quantities. They are extremely voracious,
and the slightest privation of food drives them to
frenzy, or kills them. They will all eat flesh, and
when shut up in a cage without nourishment, have
been known to devour each other. There is a
remarkable instance of a mole, when in confine-
ment, having a viper and a toad given to it, both of
which it killed and devoured. All squeeze out the
earthy matter which is inside worms, before eating
them, which they do with the most eager rapidity.
In June and July, they prowl upon the surface of
the ground, generally at night, but they have been
seen by day, and this is the time in which they
indulge in fleshy food, for then they catch small
birds, mice, frogs, lizards, and snails; but although
when in confinement one was known to eat a toad,
they generally refuse these reptiles, probably from
the acrid humour which exudes 'from their skin.
They, on these occasions of open marauding, are
often caught and devoured in their turn by owls at
night, and dogs by day. They have a remarkable


power of eating the roots of the colchicum, or
meadow saffron, which takes such powerful effect
on other animals, and which they probably swallow
for the sake of the larvae or worms upon them.
Such is their antipathy to garlic, that a few cloves
put into their runs, will cause their destruction.
A French naturalist, of the name of Henri Le-
court, devoted a great part of his life to the study
of the habits and structure of moles, and he tells
us, that they will run as fast as a horse will gallop.
By his observations he rendered essential service to
a large district in France, for he discovered that
numbers of moles had undermined the banks of
a canal, and that, unless means were taken to pre-
vent the catastrophe, these banks would give way,
and inundation would ensue. By his ingenious
contrivances and accurate knowledge of their habits,
he contrived to extirpate them before the occur-
rence of further mischief. Moles, however, are said
to be excellent drainers of land, and Mr. Hogg,
the Ettrick Shepherd, used to declare, that if a
hundred men and horses were employed to dress a
pasture farm of 1,500 or 2,000 acres, they would
not do it as effectually as moles would do if left to
The late Earl of Derby possessed a small deserted
island, in the Loch of Clunie, 180 yards from the
main land, and as proof that moles swim well,
a number of them crossed the water, and took



possession of this place. They are said to be dragged,
as beavers are, by their companions, who lay hold
of their tail, and pull them along while they lie
on their backs, embracing a quantity of soil dug
out in forming their runs. The fur of the mole is
very short, fine, and close, and is as smooth and soft
as Genoa velvet.
Moles display a high degree of instinct in the
skilful construction of their subterranean fortresses.
Their site is not indicated by those little mounds
of loose earth, which we see raised up at night, and
which mark their hunting excursions, but under a
hillock reared by themselves, and protected by a
wall, bank, or roots of a tree. The earth is well
worked, so as to make it compact and hard, and
galleries are formed which communicate with each
other. A circular gallery is placed at the upper
part of the mound, and five descending passages
lead from this to a gallery below, which is of larger
circumference. Within this lower gallery is a
chamber, which communicates with the upper
gallery by three descending tunnels. This chamber
is, as it were, the citadel of the mole, in which it
A principal gallery goes from the lower gallery,
in a direct line to the utmost extent of the ground
through which the mole hunts, and from the bot-
tom of this dormitory is another, which descends
farther into the earth, and joins this great or prin-

cipal road. Eight or nine other tunnels run round
the hillock at irregular distances, leading from the
lower gallery, through which the mole hunts its
prey, and which it constantly enlarges. During
this process it throws up the hillocks which betray
its vicinity to us. The great road is of various
depths, according to the quality of the soil in which
it is excavated; it is generally five or six inches
below the surface, but if carried under a stream, or
pathway, it will be occasionally sunk a foot and a
half. If the hillock be very extensive there will be
several high-roads, and they will serve for several
moles, but they never trespass on each other's hunt-
ing grounds. If they happen to meet in a road,
one is obliged to retreat, or they have a battle, in
which the weakest always comes off the worst. In
a barren soil, the searching galleries are the most
numerous, and those made in winter are the deepest,
because the worms penetrate beyond the line of
frost, and the mole is as active in winter as in warm
The females have a separate chamber made for
them, in which they bring forth their young. This
is situated at some distance from the citadel, and
placed where three or four galleries intersect each
other. There they have a bed made of dry grass,
or fibres of roots, and four or five young are born
at the same time, which begin to get their own food
when they are half grown.




Like all voracious animals, moles require a large
quantity of water, consequently their run, or fort-
ress, generally communicates with a ditch or pond.
Should these dry up, or the situation be without
such resources, the little architect sinks perpendi-
cular wells, which retain the water as it drains from
the soil.
Moles shift their quarters according to circum-
stances, and as they swim well, they migrate across
rivers; and in sudden inundations are able, not to
save themselves alone, but their young, to which
they are much attached. The stratagem and caution
which they practise in order to secure a bird are
highly curious: they approach without seeming to
do so, but as soon as they are within reach of their
prey, they rush upon it, tear open its body, thrust
their snout into the intestines, and revel in their
sanguinary feast. They then sleep for three or four
hours, and awake with renewed appetite.
All mole-catchers will bear testimony to the rapid
movements and consequent difficulty of catching
these animals. I have watched a gardener stand
for half an hour by one of the little hillocks of loose
earth, which, from its movement, showed that the
mole was there at work, and remain motionless,
spade in hand, and when he saw the earth shake,
dash his weapon into the heap. The mere uplifting
of his arm was sufficient, and before the spade could
reach the ground the mole was gone. He could



scarcely reckon on securing his victim once out of
twenty efforts.
No moles are found in the north of Scotland, or
in Ireland, which some attribute to soil and climate;
but they exist in other parts of Europe under similar


HEDGEHOGS form one of the small groups of in-
sect-eating mammalia, and are remarkable for being
also able to eat those substances which are destruc-
tive to others; for instance, they will devour the
wings of Spanish flies (Cantharides) with impunity,
which cause fearful torments to other animals, and
not the least to man, by raising blisters on his skin.
It would seem that the hedgehog is also externally
insensible to poison, for it fights with adders, and
is bitten about the lips and nose without receiving
any injury. An experiment has been made by
administering prussic acid to it, which took no
It is well known that hedgehogs are covered with
bristles, amounting to sharp prickles, and that they
roll themselves up into a ball. This is effected by
a peculiar set of muscles attached to the skin, by
which they pull themselves into this shape, and at
the same time set up every bristle, and drag their



head and limbs within. Such is the resistance and
elasticity of these bristles, that the owners of them
may be thrown to great distances and remain un-
hurt, and they will even throw themselves down
steep places when they wish to move from a parti-
cular spot.
Hedgehogs are nocturnal animals, and frequent
woods, gardens, orchards, and thick hedge-rows.
It is in the latter that I have heard of one being
mistaken by a hen for a bush, in which she might
lay her egg in safety. The fact was announced by
the triumphant cackling which these birds voci-
ferate on such occasions: the egg was consequently
searched for, and found upon the hedgehog's back.
Hedgehogs feed on insects, slugs, frogs, eggs,
young birds in the nest, mice, fallen fruits, and the
roots of vegetables, especially the plantain, boring
into the ground to get at these substances. They
will clear a house of black beetles in a few weeks,
as I can attest from my own experience. My
kitchen was much infested, not only by them, but
by a sort of degenerated cockroach, descended from
the better conditioned Blatte, brought in my pack-
ages from a tropical country, and which had resisted
all efforts for their extermination, such as boiling
water, pepper, arsenic-wafers, mortar, etc. At last,
a friend, whose house had been cleared of beetles
by a hedgehog, made the animal over to me, very
much to the discomfort of my cook, to whom it


was an object of terror. The first night of its
arrival a bed was made for it in a hamper, half full
of hay, and a saucer of milk was set within. The
next morning the hedgehog had disappeared, and
for several days the search made for it was fruitless.
That it was alive was proved by the milk being
drunk out of the saucer in which it was placed.
One night I purposely went into the kitchen after
the family had been for some time in bed, and, as
I opened the door, I saw the little creature slink
into a hole under the oven attached to the grate.
Fearing this would sometimes prove too hot for it,
I had some bricks put in to fill up the aperture.
The next night the bricks were pulled away, and
overturned, evincing a degree of strength which
astonished us; but, after that, we left the animal to
its own care. The beetles and cockroaches visibly
disappeared, but as they disappeared other things
also vanished; kitchen cloths left to dry at night
were missing; then, a silk handkerchief. At last a
night-cap left on the dresser was gone; and these
abstractions were most mysterious. The next day
there was a general search in possible and im-
possible places, and the end of a muslin string was
seen in the oven-hole; it was seized on, and not
only was the night-cap dragged out, but all the
missing and not missing articles which the hedge-
hog had purloined; most of them were much torn,
and it was supposed that the poor beast had taken


possession of them to make a soft bed. I have not
seen such a propensity noticed elsewhere, and it
may be a useful hint to those who keep hedgehogs.
All endeavours to make this animal friendly were
unavailing; but I am told, that hedgehogs are fre-
quently quite domesticated, and even shew a degree
of affection.
Dr. Buckland ascertained the manner in which
hedgehogs kill snakes; they make a sudden attack
on the reptile, give it a fierce bite, and then, with
the utmost dexterity, roll themselves up so as to
present nothing but spines when the snake retaliates.
They repeat this manoeuvre several times, till the
back of the snake is broken in various places;
'they then pass it through their jaws, cracking its
bones at short intervals; after which they eat it
all up, beginning at the tail. The old legend, that
hedgehogs suck the udders of cows as they lie on
the ground chewing the cud is, of course, wholly
without foundation. They retreat to holes in trees,
or in the earth where they make a bed of leaves,
moss, etc., in which they roll themselves, and these
substances sticking to the spines make them look
like a bundle of vegetable matter. In this condi-
tion they pass the winter, in a state of torpidity;
but it should be mentioned, that one which was
tame, retained its activity the whole year. There
are instances of hedgehogs performing the office of
turnspits in a kitchen; and, from the facility with


which they accommodate themselves to all sorts of
food, they are easily kept. They, however, when
once ascustomed to animal diet, will attack young
game; and one was detected in the south of Scot-
land in the act of killing a leveret.


AMONG the Carnivora, or flesh-eating animals,
Bears take the first place; for their characters and
habits link them in some degree with the preced-
ing order, the Insectivora. Both principally live
on fruit, grains, and insects, and only eat flesh
from necessity, or some peculiarity of life, such as
confinement, or education.
The Carnivora are divided by naturalists into
three tribes, the characters for which are taken from
their feet and manner of walking. Bears rank
among the Plantigrada, or those which put the
whole of their feet firmly upon the ground when
they walk. They are occasionally cunning and
ferocious, but often evince good humour, and a
great love of fun. In their wild state they are
solitary the greater part of their lives; they climb
trees with great facility, live in caverns, holes, and
hollow trees; and in cold countries, retire to some
secluded spot during the winter, where they remain
concealed, and bring forth their young. Some say




they are torpid; but this cannot be, for the female
bears come from their retreats with cubs which have
lived upon them, and it is not likely, that they can
have reared them and remained without food; they
are, however, often very lean and wasted, and the
absorption of their generally large portion of fat,
contributes to their nourishment. The story that
they live by sucking their paws is, as may be sup-
posed, a fable; when well-fed they always lick
their paws, very often accompanying the action
with a peculiar sort of mumbling noise. There
are a few which will never eat flesh, and all are able
to do without it. They are, generally speaking,
large, clumsy and awkward, possessing large claws
for digging; and often walk on their hind-feet, a
facility afforded them by the peculiar formation of
their thigh-bone. They do not often attack in the
first instance, unless impelled by hunger or danger;
they are, however, formidable opponents when ex-
cited. In former times there were few parts of the
globe in which they were not to be found; but like
other wild animals, they have disappeared before
the advance of man. Still they are found in cer-
tain spots from the northern regions of the world,
to the bunring climes of Africa, Asia, and America.
The latest date of their appearance in Great Britain,
was in Scotland, during the year 1057.
Bears are always covered with thick fur; which,
notwithstanding its coarseness, is much prized for


various purposes. They afford much sport to those
inclined for such exercises; but the cruel practice
of bear-baiting is discontinued. In an old edition
of Hudibras, there is a curious note of a mode of
running at the devoted bears with wheelbarrows,
on which they vented their fury, and the baiters
thus had them at their mercy. At present the
hunts are regularly organised fights, or battues,
besides which there are many ways of catching
them in traps, pitfalls, etc.
The large polar bear (Ursus Maritimus), with its
white fur, its long, flattened head, and black claws,
may be seen in great perfection at the Zoological
Gardens. In its own country, during the winter,
it lives chiefly on seal's flesh, but in the summer
eats berries, sea-weed, and marsh plants. It is one
of the most formidable of the race, and may be
seen climbing mountains of ice, and swimming
from floe to floe with the greatest rapidity. Captain
Lyon tells us,.that when a seal lies just ashore, the
bear gets quietly into the water and swims away
from him to leeward; he then takes short dives,
and manages so that the last dive shall bring him
back close to the seal, which tries to escape by
rolling into the water, when he falls into the bear's
paws; and if he should lie still, the bear springs
upon and devours him; its favourite food, however,
is the floating carcases of whales. The gait of all
bears is a sort of shuffle; but this one goes at such




a rate, that its pace is equal to a horse's gallop. It
is remarkably sagacious, and often defeats the
stratagems practised for its capture. A female with
two cubs was pursued across a field of ice by a
party of sailors; at first she urged the young ones
to increase their speed, by running in front of them,
turning round, and evincing, by gesture and voice,
great anxiety for their progress; but finding that
their pursuers gained upon them, she alternately
carried, pushed, or pitched them forwards, until she
effected their escape. The cubs seemed to arrange
themselves for the throw, and when thus sent for-
wards some yards in advance, ran on till she again
came up to them, when they alternately placed
themselves before her.
A she-bear and two large cubs, being attracted
by the scent of some blubber, proceeding from a sea-
horse, which had been set on fire, and was burning
on the ice, ran eagerly towards it, dragged some pieces
out of the flames, and eat them with great voracity.
The sailors threw them some lumps still left in
their possession, which the old bear took away and
laid before her cubs, reserving only a small piece
for herself. As they were eating the last piece, the
men shot the cubs, and wounded the mother. Her
distress was most painful to behold, and, though
wounded, she crawled to the spot where they lay,
tore the piece of flesh into pieces, and put some
before each. Finding they did not eat, she tried to


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Page 54.

raise them, making piteous moans all the time.
She then went to some distance, looked back and
moaned, and this failing to entice them, she re-
turned and licked their wounds. She did this a
second time, and still finding that the cubs did not
follow, she went round and pawed them with great
tenderness. Being at last convinced that they
were lifeless, she raised her head towards the ship,
and, by a growl, seemed to reproach their destroyers.
They returned this with a volley of musket balls;*
she fell between her cubs, and died licking their
The black bear of Canada is a formidable creature,
and Dr. Richardson contradicts the assertion that it
is not swift of foot; he says that it soon outstrips
the swiftest runner, and adds, that it climbs as well,
if not better than a cat. It feeds on berries, eggs,
and roots; but although it does not seek flesh, it
does not refuse it when offered. A young bear of
this kind roughly handled a Canadian settler, who,
being a very large powerful man, returned hug for
hug, till the surprised bear let go its hold. It had
ventured into some young plantations, where it was
committing much mischief, and the settler had
endeavoured to frighten it away. A friend of mine
was in the house when the gentleman returned
home, his clothes torn in the struggle, and very
much exhausted by the encounter; he dropped into
Captain Phipps' Voyage to the North Pole.




a chair, and nearly fainted, but a little brandy
revived him, though he was ill some days from the
A young English officer, who was stationed at
a lone fortress in the same country, amused himself
by taming a bear of the above species. He taught
him to fetch and carry, to follow him like a dog,
and to wait patiently at meal time for his share. He
took the bear with him when he returned to England,
and he became a great favourite with the passengers
and the ship's company. Bruin, however, especially
attached himself to a little girl, about four years
old, the daughter of one of the ladies on board, who
romped with him as she would with a dog. In one
of these games of play, he seized her with one fore
paw, and with the other clambered and clung to
the rigging, till he lodged her and himself in the
main top, where, regardless of her cries and the
agony of her mother, he tried to continue his romp.
It would not do to pursue the pair, for fear the bear
should drop the child; and his master, knowing
how fond he was of sugar, had some mattresses
placed round the mast, in case the child should fall,
and then strewed a quantity of the sugar on the
deck; he called Bruin, and pointed to it, who,
after a moment's hesitation, came down as he went
up, bringing the child in safety. He was, of course,
deprived of his liberty during the rest of his

This same black bear of Canada, after it has hugged
its antagonists to death, tears them open with its hind
feet. It will ward off blows like an accomplished
boxer; for, as it would be of no use to strike him
on his thickly-covered body, the attacks are usually
made about the head. A man who wantonly
threw an axe at a male bear as he passed, wounded
him, whereupon the beast rushed at him, the man
fell backwards over a fallen tree, and, in so doing,
tore off a sharp-pointed knob of wood, which he
thrust down the bear's throat, and so killed him;
not, however, before he had received his own
death wound from the hind foot. He walked
home holding in his intestines, and died a day or
two after.*
An old hunter, named Ruhe, having set his traps
to catch beavers, returned to the stream to ascertain
his success; he missed one of them, and, on looking
for it, saw signs of a bear having passed that way.
As he went on, he heard the noise of a heavy body
breaking through the bushes in the thicket. He
hid himself behind a rock, and saw a huge bear,
limping on three legs to a flat piece of rock, upon
which it seated itself, and on raising one of its fore
paws Ruhe discovered that it was encircled by the
lost trap. The bear lifted the iron glove towards
his face, examined it, .turned his paw round and
round, bent his head from side to side, looked at




the trap askance with the most puzzled air, felt
the encumbrance, tapped it on the rock, and
evidently knew not what to do. Then he began to
feel pain and licked it; but Ruhe soon put an end
to all his conjectures, by shooting him dead.*
Of all bears, the grizzly is said to be the most
formidable, both for size and ferocity, and Mr.
Ruxton tells the following anecdote, in which one
of them makes a conspicuous figure:-" A trapper,
named Glass, and a companion, were setting their
beaver traps in a stream to the north of the river
Platte, when they saw a large, grizzly bear turning
up the turf near by, and searching for roots and
pig-nuts. The two men crept to the thicket, and
fired at him; they wounded, but did not kill him;
the beast groaned, jumped all four legs from the
ground, and, snorting with pain and fury, charged
towards the place from whence came the smoke of
the rifles. The men rushed through the thicket,
where the underwood almost impeded their progress;
but the beast's weight and strength carried him
along so fast, that he soon came up with them. A
steep bluff was situated a hundred yards off, with a
level plain of grass between it and the thicket; the
hunters flew across the latter with the utmost
speed, the bear after them. When he reached
about halfway, Glass stumbled over a stone and
fell. He rose, and the bear stood before him on his


hind legs. Glass called to his companion to fire,
and he himself sent the contents of his pistol into
the bear's body. The furious animal, with the
blood streaming from his nose and mouth, knocked
the pistol away with one paw, while he stuck the claws
of the other into the flesh of his antagonist, and rolled
with him on the ground. Glass managed to reach
his knife, and plunged it several times into the bear,
while the latter, with tooth and claw, tore his flesh.
At last, blinded with blood and exhaustion, the
knife fell from the trapper's hand, and he became
insensible. His companion, who thought his turn
would come next, did not even think of reloading
his rifle, and fled to the camp, where others of his
party were resting, to tell the miserable fate of their
companion. Assistance was sent, and Glass still
breathed, but the bear lay across him quite dead,
from three bullets and twenty knife wounds; the
man's flesh was torn away in slips, and lumps of
it lay upon the ground; his scalp hung bleeding
over his face, which was also torn. The men
took away the trapper's hunting-shirt, mocassins,
and arms, dragged the bear off his body, and left
him, declaring, when they rejoined their party, that
they had completed his burial.
Although the bear no longer figures in the
story, I must be allowed to relate the sequel, as a
proof of what human nature can endure without
destruction. Months elapsed, and some of the




party of the above mentioned camp were on their
way to a trading port with their skins, when they
saw a horseman approach them, with a face so
scarred and disfigured that they could not distinguish
his features.
The stranger accosted that one of the party who
had been Glass's companion, exclaiming, in a hollow
voice, Hurrah, Bill, my boy, you thought I was
gone under (killed) that time, did you ? but hand
me over my horse and gun, lad. I'm not dead yet."
Astonishment and horror seized on the party, many
of whom believed he had been buried as well as
dead. However, there could be no mistake now,
and when they had sufficiently recovered from
their surprise to listen to Glass's story, he told
them that he knew not how long he lay before he
recovered his senses; but when he did, and was
able to take nourishment, he was obliged to subsist
on the flesh of the bear. When he had strength to
crawl, he tore off as much of this as he could carry
in his weak state, and crept down to the river; he
had suffered tortures from cold, wounds, and
hunger, but he had reached the fort, which was
between eighty and ninety miles distant, living the
greater part of the way on roots and berries, but
there he had been taken care of and recovered.
The brown bear much resembles the black in
size, habits and shape, and like it, lives in hollow
places; he, however, sometimes digs pits for himself,


and even constructs huts, which he lines with moss.
Both attain an enormous sizeand weight. All bears
are extremely fond of honey and sugar, and are
often taken when venturing too close to man to
procure these enticing substances. The settlers in
Canada, when they make maple sugar, catch them by
leaving a boiler full, into which they dip their paws,
or their head, and they fall an easy prey when encum-
bered with the thick, saccharine matter, and some-
times with the boiler also. Bruin's attention is easily
diverted, and many have escaped by throwing a
bundle or knapsack down when he is in pursuit of
them, for while he stoops to examine it, they gain
time and distance. It is natural to him to play all
sorts of antics; and we are told by an Indian travel-
ler, that in one of his journeys, some bears kept in
front of his palanquin, tumbling and playing as if
they designed to afford him amusement. Climbing
is a great delight to them, and one was seen to as-
cend a scaffolding, for his own pleasure; he at first
proceeded cautiously, examining the strength of all
the joists, and at last reached the summit, which was
one hundred and twenty feet high. He looked
much pleased when he had completed this operation,
and the workmen treated him with great civility.
They were going to lower him in a bucket, but to
this he would not consent, and descended as he had
mounted, being so pleased with his prowess, that he
repeated his visit.




A Norwegian had tamed a bear so completely,
that he used to stand at the back of his master's
sledge, where he kept so good a balance, that it
was impossible to upset him: if the sledge went on
one side, the bear threw his weight in the opposite
direction, and so kept up the equilibrium. One
day, however, his master, in sport, drove over the
worst ground he could find, hoping to throw the
bear off. This, however, only served to irritate him;
and he vented his ill humour by giving his master
a tremendous blow across the shoulders.
A countryman, in Russia, when seeking honey,
climbed a very high tree; the trunk of which was
hollow, and finding there was a large quantity of
comb in it, he descended, and stuck fast in the
tenacious substance there deposited. He was so far
distant from home, that his voice could not be
heard, and he remained two days in this situation,
relieving his hunger with the honey. He began
to despair of ever being extricated, when a bear
who, like himself, came for the sake of the honey,
slid down the hollow, hind part foremost. The man, in
spite of his alarm, seized hold of him, and the bear,
also in a great fright, clambered out as fast as he
could, dragging the man up with him, and when
clear of his tail-bearer, made off as fast as possible.
The drollest and most accomplished of all bears,
was the celebrated Martin, of Paris, whose dancing,
climbing, curtseying, tumbling, begging, and many


other antics, were the delight of every child in the
metropolis, and of many grown-up children also.
It is true, that the nursemaids endangEred the lives
of their charges, by holding them over the side of
the pit in which he was kept; but as none did fall,
they continued to amuse themselves and their
nurslings at the same risk. One morning early, he
very cleverly withdrew the bolts of his pit door,
and sallied forth on his hind-legs to take a walk.
The keepers of the garden had not risen; but the
dogs were on the alert, and surrounded Martin,
jumping and barking, half in play, and half in
earnest. This roused the men, who, rushing out
to see what was the matter, beheld the bear in the
midst of the canine troop, his tongue lolling out
of his mouth, and an expression of fun and enjoy-
ment in his countenance, which was indescribable.
Never was the malignant scowl, so often noticed in
bears, from pulling the nictitating membrane, or third
eyelid half over the eye, seen in poor Martin's face;
yet he became unpopular from the cupidity of one
of the sentinels. This man fancied he saw a five-
franc piece lying in the bear's pit, and determined
to go during the night, when he would be on duty,
and secure it. He accordingly provided himself
with a ladder, and when the guard was changed,
was found lying lifeless at the bottom, the coveted
piece in his hand, which proved to be nothing but
a large button. No marks of violence were to be




seen upon his body, but the contusions on his head
seemed to tell that he had fallen from the ladder
when near the top, and so met his death. Whether
he had been frightened, or seized with giddiness,
or whether Martin had shaken the ladder, no one
could say; the animal was sitting quietly by his
side when his fate was first made known. The
story fled like wildfire from one end of Paris to the
other, and in a short time, the populace were fully
convinced that Martin had killed him; and this,
combined with other exaggerations, induced them
to flock in multitudes to see the murderous bear.
Afterwards, two balls of arsenic, wrapped up in
some sweet substance, were found in the pit, for-
tunately before Martin had touched them; and the
authorities of the establishment thought it prudent
to remove him to a den in the menagerie. The front
of these dens was closed at night with a sliding shut-
ter, pulled down by inserting a hook at the end of
a long pole into a ring, which ring, when the
shutter was down, served to admit a bolt. This
did not at all please Martin, and the keeper never
could accomplish the fastening, till some one else
went to the other side to take off the bear's atten-
tion; for the moment the shutter was down, Martin
inserted his claws and pushed it up again, and
this practice was continued as long as he existed.
The Malayan Sun bear (Ursus Malayensis) has a
long tongue, short smooth fur, very extensible,


flexible lips, and large claws. Sir Stamford Raffles
had one which was brought up in the nursery
with his children, and when he joined the party at
table, would only eat the choicest fruit, and drink
champagne, and even be out of humour when there
was none of the latter. He was very affectionate,
and never required to be chained or chastised.
This bear, a cat, a dog, and a lory from New Holland,
used to eat amicably out of the same dish. His
favorite playfellow, however, was the dog, although
he was teazed and worried by it incessantly. He
grew to be very powerful, and pulled plants and
trees up by the roots, the latter of which were
too large for him to embrace.
The Bornean bear (Ursus Euryspilus) is one
of the most amusing and playful of all bears; begs
in the most earnest manner, and when it has more
to eat than it can hold in its paws and mouth,
places the surplus on its hinder feet, as if to keep
itfrom being soiled; and when vexed or irritated,
will never be reconciled as long as the offender is
in its sight. It does much injury to cocoa-nut
trees, by biting off the top shoots, or tearing down
the fruit.






BADGERS belong to the same division of Carnivora
as Bears, but differ from them, not only in size,
but in dentition. This, while they claim a sort of
miniature relationship, forms them into a separate
genus. They afford many a day of what is called
sport, to those who choose to hunt them, during
which they evince much sagacity in their efforts
to escape; but I am happy to say the custom of
tying them into an empty cask, and baiting them
with dogs, no longer exists. They are by nature
slothful and heavy, but are easily tamed, and when
roused are fierce. They have a gland under the
tail, which secretes a liquid of most disagreeable
odour, and causes them to pass into a sort of pro-
verb. They feed chiefly on roots, nuts, and other
fruits; attack the nests of wasps, or wild bees, and
devour their larvae, themselves, or their honey,
with a perfect indifference to their stings, which
cannot pierce through their tough hide. They prey
at night and live in the thickest parts of woods or
coppices, where they rapidly dig deep holes, by
means of their sharp and powerful claws. These
holes are divided into several chambers, the inner-
most of which is round, and lined with hay or
grass. All are kept very clean, and every waste
remnant of food and species of filth is deposited

in holes dug on purpose for its reception. The
passages to the dwellings frequently turn at sharp
angles, at which places the badgers make a stand
when attacked. Mr. St. John caused a badger's
hole to be dug out, and he there found balls of
grass, rolled up to the size of a man's fist, evidently
intended for food. That gentleman also says, that
he has frequently found the bulb of the common
blue hyacinth lying near the hole. They devour,
besides all sorts of vegetables, small animals
whether alive or dead, snails and worms; but their
peculiar dainty consists of eggs. A partridge's
nest affords them a delicious feast, particularly if
they include the sitting hen.
Badgers have a peculiarly formed chest and jaw,
which give them great strength; their forehead is
so thick, in consequence of a ridge which runs
down the middle of it, that they are unhurt by a
blow in front which would kill an ox; while almost
a touch at the back of the head will cause their
destruction. Their thick skin, which lies loosely
upon them, is much used for making pistol cases,
and their fur is excellent for painter's brushes.
They are difficult to kill, and few dogs have
courage enough to attack them in their holes,
where they live in pairs. When thus pursued, they
constantly impede the progress of their enemies
by throwing the soil behind them, so as to fill up
the passages, while they escape to the surface.




They are rare animals, but are to be found in
various parts of the world. The Chinese eat them
in spite of their bad odour. When tamed they shew
great affection, an interesting proof of which is
given by Captain Brown in his popular Natural
History, which I transcribe. "Two persons (in
France) went on a journey, and passing through a
hollow way, a dog which was with them, started
a badger, which he attacked, and pursued till he
took shelter in a burrow under a tree. With some
pains he was hunted out and killed. Being a few
miles from a village, called Chapelletiere, they
agreed to drag him thither, as the commune gave
a reward for every one which was destroyed;
besides which they proposed selling the skin. Not
having a rope, they twisted some twigs, and by
turns drew him along the road. They had not
proceeded far when they heard the cry of an animal
in seeming distress, and stopped to listen, when
another badger approached them slowly. They
at first threw stones at it; notwithstanding which,
it drew near, came up to the dead animal, began to
lick it, and continued its mournful cry. The men,
surprised at this, desisted from offering any further
injury to it, and again drew the dead one along as
before; when the living badger, determined not
to quit its companion, lay down on it, taking it
gently by one ear, and in that manner was drawn
into the midst of the village; nor could dogs,



boys, or men induce it to quit its situation, and
to their shame be it said, they had the inhumanity
to kill the poor animal, and afterwards to burn it,
declaring it could not be no other than a witch/'
Professor Bell had a badger which followed him
like a dog, and which had been tamed when quite
young by some cottager's children, with whom
he played like a puppy. As he grew in years,
he became too rough for them, but at Mr. Bell's
was a universal favourite. He yelped with a
peculiar, sharp cry when excluded from his master's
presence. He was fed at dinner-time, and took the
morsels in the most orderly manner. He was very
affectionate, good-tempered, and cleanly. He died
of a disease which affects many carnivorous animals
in confinement-a contraction of the lower opening of
the stomach, which prevents the food from passing.
In that most interesting book, written by Mr. St.
John, and called Wild Sports of the Highlands,"
the author treats at some length of the badger. I
select the following passages from his pages:-
"I was just then startled from my reverie by a
kind of grunt close to me, and the apparition of a
small, waddling, grey animal, who was busily em-
ployed in hunting about the grass and stones at the
edge of the loch; presently another and another
appeared in a little grassy glade which ran down to
the water's edge, till at last I saw seven of them
busily at work within a few yards of me, all



coming from one direction. It at first struck me
that they were some farmer's pigs taking a distant
ramble; but I shortly saw they were badgers, come
from their fastnesses rather earlier than usual,
tempted by the quiet evening, and by a heavy
summer shower that was just over, and which had
brought out an infinity of large black snails and
worms, on which the badgers were feeding with
good appetite. As I was dressed in grey, and
sitting on a grey rock, they did not see me, but
waddled about, sometimes close to me, only now
and then, as they crossed my track, they showed
a slight uneasiness, smelling the ground, and grunt-
ing gently. Presently a very large one, which I
took to be the mother of the rest, stood motionless
for a moment, listening with great attention, and
then giving a loud grunt, which seemed perfectly
understood by the others; she scuttled away, fol-
lowed by the whole lot. I was soop joined by my
attendant,. whose approach they had heard long
before my less acute ears gave me warning of his
coming. When caught in traps, they [badgers]
never leave part of their foot behind them and so
escape, as foxes and other vermin frequently do;
but they display very great strength and dexterity
in drawing up the peg of the trap, and this done,
they will carry off the heaviest trap to an amazing
distance, over rock or heather. They never attempt
to enter their hole with a trap dangling to their


foot, but generally lay up in some furze bush or
When first caught, their efforts to escape show
a degree of strength and ingenuity which is quite
wonderful, digging and tearing at their prison with
the strength of a rhinoceros. I one day found a
badger, not much hurt, in a trap. Tying a rope to
his hind leg, I drove him home before me, as a man
drives a pig, but with much less trouble, for he
made no attempts to escape, but trotted quietly
ahead, only occasionally showing a natural inclina-
tion to bolt off the main path, whenever he passed
any diverging road, all of which were probably
familiar haunts of the unlucky beast. When at
home, I put him into a paved court, where I thought
he could not possibly escape. The next morning,
however, he was gone, having displaced a stone
that I thought him quite incapable of moving, and
then digging under a wall. Sometimes I have
known a badger leave the solitude of thf woods and
take to some drain in the cultivated country, where
he becomes very bold and destructive to the crops,
cutting down wheat, and ravaging the gardens in a
most surprising manner. One which I know to be
now living in this manner, derives great part of his
food during the spring from a rookery, under
which he nightly hunts, feeding on the young
rooks that fall from their nests, or o9 the old ones
that are shot. This badger eludes every attempt to




trap him. Having more than once run narrow risks
of this nature, he has become so cunning, that no
one can catch him. If a dozen baited traps are set,
he manages to carry off the baits, and spring every
trap, always with total impunity to himself. At
one time he was watched out to some distance from
his drain, and traps were then put in all directions
round it, but, by jumping over some and rolling
over others, he escaped all. In fact, though a
despised and maltreated animal, when he has once
acquired a certain experience in worldly matters,
few beasts show more address and cunning in keeping
out of scrapes. Though eaten in France, Germany,
and other countries, and pronounced to make ex-
cellent hams, we in Britain despise him as food,
though I see no reason why he should not be quite
as good as any pork.
The badger becomes immensely fat. Though
not a great eater, his quiet habits and his being a
great sleeper prevent his being lean." That sleep
is taken in the day, for his habits are generally
All badgers may be recognized by the broad
black band across their cheeks. Those of India have
longer legs than those of Europe; their snout is
also prolonged, like that of a hog; and their tail
resembles that of the latter animal. They are very
slow in their movement, and when affronted make a
peculiar grunting noise, and bristle up the hair of


their back. If still more roused, they stand on
their hind legs as bears do, have much power in
their fore legs, and are extremely savage when


THE second tribe of Carnivora walks upon its toes,
and is, consequently, called Digitigrada; it is chiefly
composed of a number of smaller animals, which
are very interesting from many of their habits, very
precious from the valuable fur which they afford,
and in many instances are so destructive, that they go
under the common name of Vermin. A numerous
genus bears the appellation of Vermiform, because
their bodies are long, and their legs are short, which
formation enables them to slide through small
apertures in worm-fashion, twisting themselves
through the winding passages, with their bodies
touching the ground. They destroy much game,
and, except when trained to kill rats and rabbits, are
objects of persecution and dislike. Among them
are weasels, polecats, ferrets, martens, skunks, and
others. The ermine and sable are included with
the martens; and the three first send forth a dis-
agreeable odour. They, however, are not to be
compared in this respect to the skunk, which of all
creatures is one of the most disagreeable, in con-
sequence of its fetid gland, which secretes the



offensive liquor sent forth when the animal is
frightened or irritated. Nothing will obliterate
this odour, no other scent overcomes it; no burying
in the earth, no washing will avail; even time does
not cure, and an article of dress put by for years,
is still unwearable.
It is to weasels and otters that I shall confine
myself in this work, for about their intellectual
powers do we know most. The first is a very
courageous beast, not fearing to attack animals
much larger than himself-even man. A labouring
peasant at Glencairn, in Dumfrieshire, was attacked
by six of them, who rushed upon him when he
was at work in a field. Being frightened at such
a furious onset, he fled, but they pursued him,
although he dealt some back-handed strokes with a
large horsewhip. He was on the point of being
seized by the throat, when he fortunately perceived
the fallen branch of a tree. He snatched it up,
and making a stand against his enemies, he killed
three, and put the others to flight. Another in-
stance is reported by Captain Brown, in his Popular
Natural history, where the affray commenced by a
person striking a weasel, which squeaked aloud.
This roused a whole colony, consisting of fifteen,
who flew at him and bit him severely. A gentle-
man came to his aid, and with his assistance, several
of the assailants were killed, the others ran into the
fissures of a neighboring rock.



. There are instances of weasels having been tamed;
but it is very difficult to make any impression on
their affections, although they are very sagacious,
and sagacious animals are more easily influenced
than others. The weasel and the stoat are so often
mistaken for each other, that it will be well to
point out the constant difference in each. The
stoat is brown above, dirty white underneath; his
tail is longer and more bushy than that of the
weasel, and always black at the tip. The weasel is
red above, and pure white underneath, and the
tail is red and uniform, being deprived of the
bushy tip. Mr. Bell, from whose pages I have
taken these characters, defends weasels from the
accusation of devouring poultry, game, hares, rab-
bits, and various small birds. He says, that when
driven by hunger, they may occasionally eat such
things; but that their general food consists of mice
and rats of every description, the field and water
vole, and moles; and that they ought rather to be
encouraged than exterminated, because they destroy
so much vermin. They generally approach with
the utmost caution and shyness, and when once
they have seized their prey, they never let go their
hold; they aim at the neck, below the ear, or drive
their teeth through the back of the head: they bound
and spring, and climb trees with the greatest facility,
and seem never to tire of hunting, whether they are
hungry or not. Mr. St. John saw one in a stubble


field, in which several corn buntings were flying
about, or alighting on a thistle. The animal dis-
appeared at the foot of this thistle, and the above
gentleman thought he had slunk into a hole, but
feeling sure by his manner he intended some mis-
chief, he staid to watch his movements. As soon
as one of the birds settled on the thistle, something
sprang up as quick as lightning, and then disap-
peared with the bird; it was the weasel, who had
thus successfully concealed himself. The same
gentleman chased a weasel into a hollow tree, who
carried something in her mouth. He applied smoke
to the hole, and out she came again, carrying the
same burden. She ran towards a stone-wall, but
was met by a terrier, who killed her, catching her
with the greater facility in consequence 'of her
obstinacy in carrying away what Mr. St. John still
thought was her prey. On picking it up, however,
he found that it was a young weasel, unable to run,
which its mother was endeavouring to carry to a
place of safety, her former hole in an adjoining field
having been ploughed over. Another proof of the
weasel's affection for her young, was witnessed by
a labourer, who, while standing on a foot-path close
to the hedge side, perceived a weasel with one of
her young ones in her mouth. He kicked her, and
she, dropping it, retreated into a hedge. He then
stood over the young one with a stick in his hand,
not intending to kill it, but merely to see how its



mother would proceed. She soon peeped from her
covert, and made several feints to get at her charge,
but was obliged to run into the hedge again, in-
timidated by the stick which the man flourished
about. At last she summoned up all her resolution,
and in spite of everything, after a great deal of
dodging to avoid the stick, succeeded in obtaining
the object of her solicitude, and bore it off between
the legs of her tormentor.
Weasels sometimes fall a prey to hawks; and
I transcribe the following account from the pages
of Mr. Bell. As a gentleman of the name of
Pinder, was riding over his grounds, he saw, at
a short distance from him, a kite pounce on
some object on the ground, and rise with it in
his talons. In a few moments, however, the kite
began to show signs of great uneasiness, rising
rapidly in the air, or as quickly falling, and wheel-
ing irregularly round, whilst he was evidently
endeavouring to free some obnoxious thing from
him with his feet. After a short but sharp contest,
the kite fell suddenly to the earth, not far from
Mr. Pinder. He instantly rode up to the spot,
when a weasel ran away from the kite, apparently
unhurt, leaving the bird dead, with a hole eaten
through the skin under the wing, and the large
blood vessels of the part torn through."
The nest composed by weasels, in which they
will bring forth four or five young ones, two or



three times a year, is of dry leaves and herbage, is
placed in a hole, in a bank, a dry ditch, or a hollow
tree, and if a dog come near it, the mother flies at
him, and fastens on his lips with great tenacity.


THE much persecuted otter presents himself to our
notice among the worm-bodied, digitigrade animals.
Their broad webbed feet shew that they frequent the
water, and in fact, they are not only found in rivers
and lakes of most European countries, but at sea.
Their elongated body is flattened horizontally, their
tail is broad and flat, and forms an excellent rudder
for their guidance when in the water. Their short
legs are so loosely jointed that they can be turned in
any direction when swimming, and their fur is soft,
fine, and close underneath, while a longer, coarser
set of hard shining hairs, are on the outside. Their
teeth are very pointed, and well adapted to hold
their slippery prey; their ears are very small, and
close to their head, and they have a nictitating
membrane, or third eyelid, for the protection of
their bright eyes. Their movements in the water
are particularly elegant, they swim horizontally,
and rapidly dive after their victims, which they
eat ashore. It is said, that they will collect a


number of trouts into a shoal, and drive them on
till, in their dread and alarm, many of the fishes
will throw themselves on to the land. They have
the power of remaining very long under water, at a
considerable depth, and the fierce manner in which
they keep dogs at bay, often wounding them severely
with their sharp bites; and the anxious watching
for their rise in the water when they have retreated,
all form a most exciting sport, so that we hear of
otter-hunting as a source of keen enjoyment; and
there is a hunt on record in which nine otters were
killed in one day.
Otters will certainly consume an immense quantity
of fish; and the owners of salmon or trout streams
have great spite against them. It is, however, very
possible to tame them so as to make them bring
the fish which they catch. This practice is much
more followed in other countries than in England;
they are purposely kept for it in Sweden, and at a
signal from the cook will go and fetch the fish for
dinner. Bishop Heber mentions, that he saw several
large and very beautiful otters fastened to bamboo
stakes by the side of the Matta Colly river, some of
which appeared to be at play, and uttered a shrill,
whistling noise. They wore straw collars and were
very tame and docile. They should be caught
quite young, and fed on small fish, then they are
allowed bread and milk at alternate meals; till at
last they entirely live upon this food. They are




taught to fetch and carry with artificial fishes made
of leather, and stuffed with wool. Then they are
made to bring dead fishes, and if they attempt to
tear them, they are severely punished. Thus trained,
in process of time, the otter becomes useful and.
In their natural condition, otters will wander to
considerable distances for their prey; Mr. St. John
says, I was rather amused at an old woman living
at Sluie on the Findhorn, who, complaining of the
hardness of the present times, when a puir body
could n'a get a drop smuggled whisky, or shoot a
roe without his lordship's sportsman finding it out,'
added to her list of grievances, that even the otters
were nearly all gone puir beasties.' Well, but
what good could the otters do you?' I asked her.
'Good, your honor? why scarcely a morn came but
they left a bonny grilse (young salmon) on the scarp
down yonder, and the vennison was none the worse
of the bit the puir beasts ate themselves.' The
people here (Morayshire) call every eatable animal,
fish, flesh, or fowl, venison, or as they pronounce
it, vennison. For instance, they tell you that the
snipes are good vennison, or that the trout are not
good vennison in the winter.
It seems that a few years ago, before the otters
had been so much destroyed, the people in particular
parts of the river were never at a loss for salmon,
as the otters always took them ashore, generally


to the same bank or rock, and in seasons of plenty,
they only eat a small piece out of the shoulder,
leaving the rest untouched, and the cottagers,
aware of this, searched every morning for their
Otters," continues Mr. St. John, "are very
affectionate animals; the young anxiously seek
their mother, if she should be killed; and if the
young are injured, the parent hovers near them till
she is herself destroyed. If one of a pair be killed,
the one that is left will hunt for its mate with
untiring perseverance; and if one be caught in a
trap, its companion will run round and round,
endeavouring to set it free, on which occasions,
though so quiet at other times, they make a snorting
and blowing like a horse."
A dog belonging to the above gentleman was
running and splashing through the shallow water,
and suddenly stood still, sometimes whining, as if
caught in a trap, and then biting furiously at some-
thing in the water. He was called by his master,
but as he did not obey, his master waded to him,
and found a large otter, holding on by his powerful
jaws to the dog's shoulder; and had he not had a
good covering of curly hair, he stood a chance of
having his leg broken, the bite was so severe.
The people in Scotland believe that the otters
have a king, or leader, which is larger than others,
and spotted with white. They also believe that




when these animals are killed, a man or another of
the brute kind dies suddenly at the same moment;
that their skin possesses an antidote to infection,
preserves soldiers from wounds, and saves sailors
from disasters at sea. The darkness in which otters
delight, their watery habitations, their oily, noise-
less movements, and their dark fur, invest them with
mystery in the eyes of the peasantry in many parts
of England.
The emigration of otters is established by the
following fact:-" A labourer going to his work,
soon after five o'clock in the morning, saw a number
of animals coming towards him, and stood quietly
by the hedge till they came alongside of him. He
then perceived four old otters, probably dams, and
about twenty young ones. He took a stick out of
the hedge and killed one. Directly it began to
squeak, all the four old ones turned back, and stood
till the other young ones had escaped through the
hedge, and then went quietly themselves. Several
families were thus journeying together, and probably
they had left their former abode from not finding a
sufficiency of food."
The beautiful otter in the Museum of the Zoolo-
gical Gardens is from Ireland, and is by some
considered as a distinct species. It is chiefly found
on the coast of Antrim, living in the caverns
formed by the basaltic columns of that shore, and,
as it hunts the salmon, rewards are offered for its


The flesh of all otters is extremely rank and
fishy; and because it cannot be called meat, it is
often allowed to be eaten on the meagre days
appointed by the Romish Church.
Captain Brown, in his Popular Natural History,
tells us of a person who kept a tame otter with
his dogs, which followed him in company with
them. He hunted fish with them, and they never
would hunt any other otter as long as he was with
There was a tame otter in Northumberland, which
also followed his master wherever he went. He
caught his own food, and returned home when
satisfied. Once he refused to come to the usual
call when he was out, and was lost for some days.
At length, going back to the same place, he, with
with great joy, came creeping to his master's feet,
who was still seeking his favourite.


BARON CUVIER says that the most useful conquest
achieved by man, is the domestication of the dog-
a conquest so long completed, that it is now im-
possible, with any certainty, to trace these animals
to their original type. The cleverest of naturalists
have supposed them to descend from wolves, from
jackals, or from a mixture of the two; while others,




equally clever, assert that they proceeded from
different species of dogs. The latter maintain that
the Dingos of Australia, the Buansas of Nepal, or
Dholes of India, the Aguaras of South America,
and several other races, are original; and although
they may not have produced the dogs which attend
man, they prove that we may attribute the latter to
predecessors of the same kind, without having
recourse to other animals which they more or less
resemble. On the other hand again, some of our
first men are of opinion that there are now no
original dogs, but that all the packs called wild are
those which have made their escape from a state of
domesticity. This is not the place to examine the
merits of the different proofs brought in favor of
each argument; and I hasten to a brief notice
of some of those which subsist independently of
human assistance.
All dogs, wild or tame, walk upon their toes
with a firm, elastic gait, and their toes are not
retractile. Their other external characters are so
varied, that it is impossible to give a general sum-
mary of their colour or form; the largest on record
(a Suliot, belonging to the king of Naples), measured
four feet at the shoulders; the least would probably
give a height of as many inches. All the untamed
species are lank and gaunt, their muzzles are long
and slender, their eyes oblique, and their strength
and tenacity of life are almost marvellous.


The Dingo, or Australian dog, roams in packs
through that vast country; has a broad head, fierce,
oblique eyes, acute muzzle; short, pointed, erect
ears; tail bushy, and never raised to more than a
horizontal position. He does not bark, but howls
fearfully; is extremely sagacious, and has a re-
markable power of bearing pain. When beaten so
severely as to be left for dead, he has been seen to
get up and run away. A man proceeded to skin
one, not doubting that life was extinct, and after
proceeding a little way with the operation, he left
the hut to sharpen his knife. When he returned,
the poor animal was sitting up, with the loose skin
hanging over one side of his face.
The Dingos worry the cattle of the settlers, and
will even eat pieces out of them as they lie upon the
the ground; the leg of a sheep has been frequently
gnawed off by them. Domesticated dogs will hunt
and kill them; but show signs of great disgust
afterwards, always, if they can, plunging themselves
into water, as if to get rid of the contamination
caused by such contact. One taken from his mother
at six weeks old was partially tamed; but at first he
crouched down in all the darkest corners he could
find, looking at every one with aversion, and when
alone howling incessantly, especially if the moon
were shining. He became gradually reconciled
to those who fed him, but to no one else. He
never gave warning of the approach of strangers,



and never made an open attack. It is remarkable
that these dogs are not found in the closely neigh-
bouring island of Van Diemen's Land.
The wild dogs of India go under the name of
Buansa, Dhole, and Kolsun, are found in Nepal,
the Nilgiris, Coromandel, the Dekkan, etc., and
bear various names, according to their locality.
They prey night and day, have an acute smell, a
peculiar bark, not unlike that of a hound, and are
of a sandy or red colour. Their head is long; they
have an ill-natured look, oblique eyes; long, erect
ears; powerful limbs, bushy tail, fur varying ac-
cording to climate, and all animals are afraid of
them. They kill tigers and cheetahs, and the re-
mains of hogs and deer are to be found in their
path. An endeavour to tame one succeeded, and
he was as affectionate and intelligent as many other
In Java there is a large, wild dog, and in
Beloochistan whole packs are to be found, which
pull down buffaloes with ease; their footmarks are
like those of a hound; and still further to the west
a much larger species is said to exist.
The Sheeb or Schib, of Syria, is wild, and is
probably the wolf-dog of Natolia. The Deeb of
Nubia would seem to be also a primitive species,
but not resembling the packs of wild dogs which
inhabit Congo and South Africa, etc., and live in
covers and burrows.

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