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Group Title: Over the sea, or, Scenes and incidents in other lands : sketched for young people.
Title: Over the sea, or, Scenes and incidents in other lands
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001959/00001
 Material Information
Title: Over the sea, or, Scenes and incidents in other lands sketched for young people
Alternate Title: Scenes and incidents in other lands
Physical Description: 192 p., <1> leaf of plates : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Charles, George ( Stereotyper )
American Baptist Publication Society ( Publisher )
King & Baird ( Printer )
Publisher: American Baptist Publication Society
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Manufacturer: King & Baird
Publication Date: c1852
Subject: National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Europe   ( lcsh )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
General Note: Stereotyped by George Charles.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001959
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002235252
oclc - 45768220
notis - ALH5695
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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Full Text


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See page 74.

~- II;--_
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"~f~L~P~ _

Entered sacording to Act of Congres, in the yar 1862, by the


In the Clerk's Ofce of the District Court of the United States, in
and for the Eatern District of Pennsylvania.



Embarkation at Boston- Halifax-- Inoidents of
Voyage Phosphorescent Lights Icebergs and
Floating Ice-Ocean Soenery-Poetry: Sunset at
Sea-Arrival at Liverpool 7

Liverpool Nelson's Monument Dr. Raffles St.
James' Cemetery Chester- Eton Hall Trip
to Ireland-Dublin- Objects of interest-Daniel
O Connell-Visit to Lucaw-Atmospheric Railway
-Poverty and Condition of the Irish People-
Famine-Poetry: "Give me three grains of corn,
Mother" .. 1

Manchester-Sheffield-Poet Montgomery--Manu-
facture of Steel-Exhibition Rooms of Messrs.
Rogers and Sons- Wentworth House- York-
York Minster London Thames' Tunnel St.
Paul's Cathedral-Tower of London 48


Bank of England-Buckingham Palace-The Queen
and Prince of Wales-Hyde Park-New Royal
Exchange-Houses of Parliament-Duke of Wel-
lington-Sabbath Schools in London-Happy Re-
sults of Sabbath School Instruction-Christ Hos-
pital-British Museum-Guildhall-Greenwich---
Woolwich-Grave of John Bunyan-Isaac Watts-
Westminster Abbey 66

Trip to Scotland-Poetry: Grace Darling-Dundee
-Montrose Aberdeen Perth Journey from
Perth to Edinburgh 98

Edinburgh House of John Knox The Castle-
Calton Hill Salisbury Crags Holyrood Palace
-Abbotsford- Melrose Abbey- Dr. Chalmers-
Heriot's Hospital-Glasgow-Ayr-Robert Burns 110

Boulogne-Sabbath Day in France-Paris-Foun-
tains--Hotel des Invalides-Museums of the
Louvre-Cathedral of Notre Dame-St. Dennis-
Versailles-St. Cloud-Walk by Moonlight-Pere
La Chaise-Revolutions in Paris 186

asburg Cathedral -Wonderful Clock- Heidle-
burg Mayence Passage down the Rhine-


Worms-Martin Luther-Scenery on the Banks of
the Rhine-St. Goar-Echo of Lurlei-Legends
-Coblent 154

Cologne Dom Kirche Aix-la-Chapelle Charle-
magne-Relics-Painting of the Last Judgment
-Antwerp-" Descent from the Cross"-Proces-
sion of the Sacred Host- Brussels-- Ghent--
Ostend-Poetry: The Light Ship 172

Passage up the Thames--London again-Letters
from Home-Departure for Liverpool-Embarka-
tion in the Caledonia- Farewell to England--
Heavy Gale at Sea-Arrival at Halifax-Birds at
Sea-Nearing Port-Boston Harbor Arrival-
Parting with Ship Companions Meeting of
Friends-Pleasures of a Return Home-Conclu-
sion-Poetry: Prayer at Sea during a violent
Storm 186



Embarkation at Boston-Halifax-Incidents of Voyage-
Phosphorescent Lights-Icebergs and Floating Ice-
Ocean Scenery-Sunset at Sea-Arrival at Liverpool

NOT long ago, I went with a companion
on a visit to Europe.
Among the many dear friends from whom
we parted for a season were several young
people, who wished us, upon our return home,
to give them some account of the scenes and
objects of interest we had met with in our
Upon reflection, it occurred to me there
might be other young people, who, perhaps,
would feel equally interested in such a narra- .
tive; and I concluded to make a small volume,
and compile it in easy, attractive style, that


they might have a book of their own to read,
concerning scenes and things abroad, as well
as older people, for whose entertainment so
many have been written.
Permit me in the commencement to express
the hope, that while it may amuse the young
to read these pages, they will be instructed
also, and gather up some new ideas about
the Old World from whence our ancestors
It was a beautiful morning in June when
we went on board the steamship Britannia,
which was lying close alongside her wharf, at
East Boston. She was not to sail for two
or three hours, so that we had ample time
to arrange every thing comfortably for our
voyage, and hold a little conversation with
the friends who had come on board to witness
our departure.
Having seen our baggage properly disposed
of, we went below to visit our state-room,
which was to be our sleeping apartment on
board ship. It looked very small indeed, but
appeared to contain all articles necessary for
comfort, so we tried to banish the idea of its
littleness from our minds. Indeed, we suo-
ceeded so well in this, that before we had


been many days at sea, we became accustomed
to its size, and considered it quite large.
Then we went up and seated ourselves on
the promenade deck, under the shade of a
fine awning. The ship and wharf soon pre-
sented an appearance of great bustle and
activity, getting all things in readiness for
departure. At twelve o'clock, the bell gave
the signal for sailing. Our friends then bade
us farewell, and went to stand upon the wharf
to see us depart. The planks were drawn in,
the hawser ropes cast off, and the ponderous
and powerful machinery of the vessel was set
in motion. The great iron paddle wheels,
revolving faster and faster, soon carried us
out into the middle of the stream. But we
were not off yet. Here we stopped, and
waited to take on board our last passenger,
and quite an important one, no less than Her
Majesty Queen Victoria's Mail Agent, who
had charge of the mail bags carried between
Boston and Liverpool. As this was an En-
glish steamship, he was called Her Majesty's
Mail Agent. He looked quite important as
he sat in a little boat with his arms folded,
waiting for the rowers to bring him and his
to the ship's side. After he came on


board, the machinery was once more put in
motion, and we went rapidly on our watery
way. Our destination was from Boston to
Liverpool, and we were to touch at Halifax
on the route. After a delightful sail down
the harbor, we came more immediately upon
the bosom of the great deep, and at the expi-
ration of a few hours, nothing was visible to
the eye but the broad ocean around us, and
the blue arch of heaven above. A feeling of
regret, mingled with a slight sensation of awe
and dread stole over us, as we caught the last
glimpse of the rapidly receding shore, and
when it was totally lost in the distance, and,
with all its loved associations, divided for a
season, perhaps for ever from us, we could not
but feel how entirely dependent we were upon
the kind care of our Heavenly Father to pro-
tect us from danger, and grant us a safe and
speedy passage to our destined port.
At first the motion of the ship upon the
restless wales, made us feel quite unplea-
santly; but our sea-sickness, as it is called,
soon wore away: and by the time we reached
Halifax, we were alive to all the novelties
and enjoyments of the voyage as we could


At the expiration of two days, we entered
the harbor at Halifax. Here we were to
remain for a few hours, while our ship took in
a supply of coal, and also the English mail
bags, and a few passengers. So we went on
shore awhile to see the town. It is built
mostly on a hill side overlooking the harbor,
and is a dull uninteresting place, at least so it
appeared to us. Halifax belongs to Great
Britain, and the English government have
built large fortifications in it, on the brow
of the hill, and stationed there a regiment
of soldiers. We saw a great many of these
red-coated gentlemen, but they had a listless
inactive look, as if they were weary of being
cooped up in so uninteresting a place with
nothing to do. Soldiers have little or no
employment in seasons of peace, except in
going through the manoeuvres of the drill, and
in marching from place to place.
From the summit of the hill where the
fortifications were, we had a delightful view
of the harbor below. It was as smooth as
glass, and filled with almost every description
of vessels, among which our noble ship, with
its tall red chimney, or pipe, pouring forth
a cloud of black smoke, formed a prominent


figure. Before descending the hill we met
some friends, who introduced us to the Lord
Bishop of Nova Scotia, who has its bishopric
under his pastoral charge, and was sent here
by the English government.
But now the time for our departure had
arrived, and we went once more on board our
ship. Shortly after, we were sailing down
the harbor, leaving Halifax far behind us, and
coming soon again out upon the open sea.
The next day we had the curiosity to ascer-.
tain something about the number and variety
of our fellow passengers. We had Spanish,
SGerman, French, Dutch, Irish, Scotch, Eng-
lish, and Americans on board. Besides the
human being, we had also several live ani-
mals-two dogs, a cow, and a small bear
chained to the fore-deck, also four birds in
cages. The poor cow seemed quite sea-sick
for the first few days, and lay stretched upon
the straw in the bottom of her stall, looking
quite disconsolate. She did not seem to relish
the unsteady state of affairs in which she
found herself.
The machinery that forms the propelling
power of a steam-ship is well worth a visit
below decks.


Eight large fires were kept constantly burn-
ing under the boilers of the Britannia, to
cause the boiling of a sufficient quantity of
water for steam purposes. The firemen were
almost continually shovelling coals into the
furnace, and the engineer, with watchful care,
kept the heat at a given point of temperature.
The machinery was frequently oiled to make
the different parts move easily in their places.
Steam is a powerful propelling agent. Won-
derful as it may seem, the thin blueish vapor
that rises from boiling water, when skillfully
managed, will accomplish, in one day, more
than the strength of many men and beasts.
Its application to useful and mechanical pur-
poses is one of the greatest triumphs of art.
In a sea voyage, where the saving of time is
an object, the superiority of navigation by
steam is plainly seen. With the same advan-
tages of wind and tide a steam-ship would
cross the ocean in about half the time required
by a sailing packet. Great skill and care are
necessary on the part of an engineer in a
steam-ship to keep all the machinery under
his control, so as to prevent accidents, which
sometimes occur, and 'cause the destruction
of a ship. Some fears of this crossed our



minds, but we felt to put our trust in God,
and believed that he would protect us. It is
pleasant to trust in Him at all times.
A steam-ship carries masts and sails like a
packet vessel, but she gets along almost as
well without their aid. She does not depend
upon them. If she falls short in her supply
of coals, and so cannot make steam, or if by
accident her machinery gets out of order, then
she can use her sails, and with great advan-
tage, though her progress will be compara-
tively slow.
We passed several ships at sea; one day
we saw a vessel with her main and mizzen
masts completely gone. They had been broken
off in a violent gale. Our captain hailed her,
through his speaking-trumpet, and found she
was from Ireland, and crowded with passen-
gers emigrating to this country. She was
getting on very slowly in her passage to
America, and the poor creatures who crowded
on deck to get a sight at us, looked as if they
were suffering for the comforts of a home on
One day, when on deck, we saw some
whales: they were black, and kept tumbling
and rolling about in the water, as if in high


enjoyment of their native element. We also
saw a shark and many porpoises.
It was a very pretty sight on a dark
evening to go on deck and watch the phos-
phorescent lights which appear on the surface
of the water. In the wide, white track, which
the stern, or hinder part, of the vessel leaves in
the sea, may be seen on a dark night, myriads
of little blue lights, which chase one another
swiftly over the waves like tiny stars. Up and
down they glide, now on the breast of the
white foam, now in the deep dark water below,
shooting in every direction. It is said the
ocean is full of very small living creatures, so
minute that some can be perceived only by aid
of the microscope. These are called animal-
cule, and are the little creatures that produce
those beautiful lights which make the foaming
waves of the dark ocean so sparkling at night.
Other reasons have been given for this lumin-
ous appearance, but this is generally supposed
to be correct.
One afternoon it grew very cold, and at
nightfall we came in sight of some immense
icebergs, or masses of ice, floating in the
water. This occurred when we were off the
coast of Newfoundland. Some of the ice


bergs were so large, they resembled at a
distance huge rocks in the ocean. These
enormous masses never show but one-third
of their bulk above water. This makes it
very dangerous and difficult for ships that are
obliged to navigate among them, for they are
liable to strike upon the hidden portion of the
ice when the part that is visible is a long way
off. Such a concussion would damage, if not
destroy a ship immediately. Some suppose
this to have been the fate of the unfortunate
steam-ship President, from whom no tidings
were ever heard after she left port. At a
distance of ten miles from the icebergs, the
water was twenty-five degrees colder than the
air, which felt very chilly. The water in the
northern regions freezes during the winter
along the coast, and when spring opens the
ice breaks up and floats off in large pieces,
which often adhere to each other, and thus
become enormous in bulk. It was in the
month of June when we saw them, and they
had scarcely begun to melt. It takes a great
many summer days to dissolve them.
Sometimes when the ice along the shore is
breaking up in the spring, people who are walk-
ing or hunting seals upon it drift out to sea on


the large pieces, before they are aware, and
so lose their lives. I recollect once reading
an account of some men who unfortunately
floated off in this way on a large cake of ice,
and upon one end of it they found a white
bear keeping them company on their perilous
voyage. The men were finally taken off in a
boat, but the bear was left to his fate. The
largest iceberg we saw had a very grand and
beautiful appearance. The setting sun shone
full upon it, and made it sparkle as though it
were covered with diamonds.
Our captain felt very anxious while we
were sailing amongst the ice, but protected
by a kind Providence our ship passed through
in safety.
It was very pleasant at sea to watch the
changing aspect of its surface. I loved to
stand on the bows, or sit in the stern, and
watch the giant waves rolling onward, ever
onward, and scattering their wealth of snowy
foam far and wide. Now the ship seemed far
down among the billows, now raised so high
it made one almost shudder to look into the
fearful chasm below. It directed our thoughts
to the wonderful creative power of God who
made the sea as well as the dry land, and who
2 0 .



sets bounds to the vast ocean, saying, Thus
far shalt thou come and no farther, and here
shall thy proud waves be stayed."
Sunrise and sunset at sea are both sublime
spectacles. We were particularly delighted
with the latter, as we watched it one fine clear
evening from our station on deck. It was
indeed grand. Slowly and serenely the king
of day seemed to descend to the watery deep
below, increasing in size as he neared the
horizon, and as he sank beneath its surface
he cast over our noble bark, and the white
foam she flung from her whirling wheels a
brilliant ruddy flood of light almost dazzling
to the eye. The scene suggested the follow-
ing lines, which, perhaps better than prose,
will convey an idea of

How glorious, when like a crown
Upon the western wave,
The golden sun goes calmly down
Into his ocean grave I

But ere he hides his flaming head
Beneath the foaming crest,
.A broad, deep glare of burning red
He flings o'er ocean's breast.


Then o'er his place of burial ride
In majesty sublime,
The giant-waves that have defied
For ages, change and time.

0 sunset on the land is fair,
When deepest shadows fall,
And far away we see him bear
The light that gladdens all!

When evening zephyrs softly sweep
With fragrance from the flowers,
And weary nature falls asleep
Amid the tranquil hours.

But 'tis a nobler, grander scene,
The ocean world displays,
When in a grave of liquid green
He hides his burning rays.

Where never slumbering billows roll
In ceaseless tumult by,
Whose wrath He only can control
Who formed the sea and sky.

Go, ride where feet have never trod,
O'er wildest paths, and free,
And worship Nature's glorious God
At Sunset on the Sea I

After being twelve days at sea we came in
sight of land once more. It was Cape Clear,
on the Irish coast. The next day we were in



full view of Wales, in England, and very plea-
sant I can assure you was the appearance it
presented. We passed an immense rocky cliff,
called Holyhead, having a beautiful little light-
house at its base, against which the waves
were wildly breaking. From the summit of
this rock the arrival of our ship was tele-
graphed to Liverpool, which was sixty-five
miles distant, in about ten minutes' time. In
the evening, we were sailing up the river
Mersey toward Liverpool, and with our fellow
passengers, were highly pleased with the
prospect of soon going on shore. It was
eleven o'clock when we arrived. The sailors
anchored the ship fast in the channel of
the river, and a steamer came alongside to
take on shore the letters and papers, and
such of the passengers as wished to go. We
concluded to wait until morning, so we stood
on deck awhile, watching the long row of bright
lights burning on shore, on each side of us, and
looking very cheerful and pretty. The next
morning we were up early, and gazed with
delight on the pleasant prospect around us.
Liverpool is built on both sides of the river
Mersey. We saw its shipping docks filled
with vessels, its high brick buildings, mad



atmosphere of smoke, which gave it a business-
like air. Beyond the city, on that side of the
river called Birkenhead, appeared a beautiful
tract of country. Green fields, and hills, and
lofty trees, with here and there a gentleman's
country seat, the spire of a church, or a large
wind-mill, painted white, with its sails slowly
revolving in the wind.
After the monotony of a long sea view, the
sight of land scenery was refreshing to our
But now we were called to get ready to
go on shore, a summons we were glad to
obey, and soon landed for the first time on
British soil.
Our baggage passed into the hands of the
Custom House officers for examination, while
we went to a hotel to rest and refresh our-
selves after our ocean journey, long, not in
time, but in distance: in twelve and a half
days we had passed over upwards of three
thousand miles.
It was with gratitude we remembered whose
hand had guided us safely to port when so
many perils had hovered around our path-, |



Liverpool-Nelson's Monument-Dr. Raffles-St. James'
Cemetery- Chester-Eton Hall--Trip to Ireland-
Dublin-Objects of interest-Daniel O'Connell-Visit
to Lucaw-Atmospheric Railway-Poverty and Condi-
tion of the Irish People-Famine-" Give me three
grains of corn, Mother."

LIVERPOOL is a great commercial city. It
is connected by trade with almost every part
of the world. Here ships come, discharge
their cargoes, and remain sometimes for many
days in the noble docks which are built around
the city on the banks of the river. They are
thus sheltered from the severest storms. The
tide of the Mersey, as it ebbs and flows, fills
the docks, and passes out through the great
iron-bound gates by which vessels pass in and
out at the pleasure of their owners. The -
masts of the shipping are so many in number
they resemble forest trees in winter. We saw
among them many a vessel from whose main-
top the stars and stripes of America were


waving, which reminded us of our own dear
There are many fine buildings in Liverpool;
but the stone material, owing to the dense
smoky atmosphere, soon loses its freshness
and polish, and has a dingy, dull look.
Some of the newly erected churches are
very beautiful. Down by the docks and ship-
ping, we saw large warehouses from seven to
eleven stories high, capable o|f|toring im-
mense quantities of goods.
In Exchange Square, we saw a fine monu-
ment, erected to the memory of Lord Nelson,
the famous naval hero who won, by his skill
and bravery, many laurels for Old England.
This monument is twenty feet high, and is
made of copper. On the summit is Nelson in
a reclining posture, with the goddess Fame
bending over him, and crowning his sword
with four diadems, in honor of his four great
victories, at St. Vincent's, the Nile, Copen-
hagen, and Trafalgar. A female figure, re-
presenting England, and called Britannia, is
weeping over him, for the bony form of death
is crouching beneath his cloak, with one hand
upon the dying hero's heart. Hardy, Lord
Nelson's favorite aid, is standing beside him,



and under his feet lies a fallen enemy. There
are four large statues of exceedingly dejected
appearance, chained at the base of the monu-
ment, representing the conquered. The whole
forms a striking work of art. It was Nelson
who said to his men, on the eve of batg'e, the
memorable words so often quoted, Remem-
ber, England expects every man to do his
On Sabbath day, we attended public wor-
ship in the church of Dr. Raffles, and had the
pleasure of hearing this celebrated divine.
His discourse was from the words "His going
forth shall be as the morning." Hosea vi. 3.
It was both excellent and eloquent, and the
interest excited by it among the people was
kept alive to the end. When the hymns were
sung, all the congregation arose and united
their voices with an earnestness and harmony
that made them sound sweetly. Even the
children joined in the strain. After the ser-
vices were concluded, the people waited to
hear the end of the benediction before they
moved, and then passed slowly and devoutly
out. We were much pleased with the services,
and shall long remember our first Sabbath in



We visited St. James' Cemetery in Liver-
pool. It is excavated from solid rock, which
makes it rather a remarkable one. It has
been filled up in many places with earth, and
is a very beautiful resting place for the dead.
Hthg looked about us a little in Liverpool,
we concluded next to visit the quaint old city
of Chester. We crossed the river Mersey in
a steam ferry, and after riding in the cats
about fifteen miles, arrived there. This is a
very curious old city, and was once of great
renown. It has a high wall built around it
for defence in time of war, and though the
wall was laid very many years ago, it is still in
quite good repair. It is a mile in length,
six to eight feet thick, and sixteen feet high.
There is an old bridge, called a draw-bridge,
built from one of the gates of the wall over a
deep ditch or moat. This bridge is so con-
structed, that in war it could be drawn up,
and the gates closed, so that no enemy could
get across the moat into the city, for the
moat extends all around the city at the base
of the wall. One can walk upon the wall its
entire circuit. There are several small round
towers upon it with windows. From one of
these His Majesty Charles I. looked out and



saw his army defeated at Marston Moor. It
seems there was a civil war, a strife between
King and Parliament, which resulted in the
defeat of the monarch's party. This occur-
rence was in 1644-more than two hudred
years ago. The date is inscribed un the
wall. We walked nearly around the city on
the wall, and had a fine view of the surround-
ing country and the city itself. Some wild
flowers were growing in the mossy crevices
of the stones, and I gathered a few to keep
as memorials of the place. The streets of
Chester are very narrow, and the houses are
antique and curious in their appearance. In
many instances the second stories of the
buildings project over the first so far as
almost to touch each other across the street,
making a kind of roof over the heads of the
people below. Then the panes of glass in the
windows are so very small, they give the
houses a quaint odd look. Did not the mo-
dern appearance of the inhabitants dispel the
illusion the old city excites, one would be apt
to imagine the present the days of centuries
About four miles out of Chester, is the
residence of the Marquis of Westminster,



called Eton Hall. It is situated in Cheshire
county, and commands a fine view of the
Welch mountains. To reach it we crossed a
branch of the river Dee, on a bridge whose
span is the greatest in the three kingdoms,
being two hundred feet. We had a delightful
ride through a very pretty portion of the
country. There is a beautiful piece of land
belonging to Eton Hall, called a park. When
we reached the porter's lodge, a porter came
and opened the gate, so that we could drive
through. It is customary to give this man a
piece of money for doing this, so we threw
down a few pence, and drove on. The park
is three miles in extent; a part of it is a fine
wood, and the remainder is shrubbery or
smoothly shaven turf. It seemed alive with
spotted deer, hares, and birds innumerable.
The little creatures fled not at our approach,
but watched us as we rode past. The deer
looked very pretty with their large soft eyes,
and graceful forms. Soon we arrived at the
Hall itself, which is a large mass of stone
buildings, and, including the court yards,
covers nearly three acres of ground. The
exterior is elegantly carved, and has thirty
or forty spires. None of the family were



residing at the Hall at the time of our visit,
the housekeeper and servants alone occupying
it, while the family were passing a part of the
season in London. This gave us a fine op-
portunity for seeing the interior. It was
truly magnificent. No palace could scarcely
be more so. There were large rooms with
costly hangings and decorations, furniture
that seemed too elegant for any use, but to be
admired, immense mirrors from the floor to
the ceiling, galleries of paintings, and statu-
ary, and costly ornaments of every descrip-
tion. The ceilings were magnificently carved
and gilded, and the floors beautifully inlaid.
In the entrance hall and on the grand stair-
case, were statues of knights, large as life,
clad in their coats of mail, with their vizors
down, and armed with battle-axe and spear;
they seemed to look grimly down on the
awed and wondering visitor. Through the
high gothic windows of stained glass, on
which were painted kings and queens, knights
and lords, ancestors of the present Marquis,
came a rich flood of light of every hue,
coloring the polished floor below. When the
sun shone on them, wherever his beams fell,
they appeared as if covered with rainbows.



After we had passed through the interior
of this princely dwelling, we walked awhile
in the extensive gardens around it. They
were filled with the choicest fruits and flow-
ers, and in the conservatories were all kinds
of rare and beautiful plants.
The Marquis of Westminster, the owner
of all this splendor and luxury, was said to
be immensely rich; his income, in our cur-
rency, amounting to several thousand dollars
a day. This is truly a large sum, when
considered as the revenue of every twenty-
four hours. How much good he accomplishes
with his vast riches, I cannot say. While
we were viewing his beautiful mansion, a re-
flection occurred to us respecting the true
value of such wealth, and a question arose
as to what might be his spiritual condition.
Was he a Christian ? Had he an inheritance
in heaven, so that when his dust should be
laid low with the dust of his illustrious an-
cestors, and his gorgeous mansion crumble
and fade, his spirit would arise to take pos-
session of wealth and honors incorruptible
and beyond the conception of man? Truly,
thought we, if he is not an heir with Jesus
Christ, the poorest and most despised human


being who drinks the bitterest dregs of the
cup of adversity in this world, yet hath
treasure laid up in heaven, is richer than he.
But, perhaps some of you will say who read
the description of such wealth and splendor,
'I should like to be as rich as the Marquis
of Westminster, and dwell in so magnificent
a home.' Let me assure you that you would
be no happier than you are now, and perhaps
not so happy. Riches can never make people
happy, that is, riches alone. It lies with our-
selves whether we will be so or not. We can
best make our own true happiness in creating
it in others. If we possess a contented, un-
selfish disposition, and desire to please and
glorify God, we shall find enjoyment in any
situation where our lot may be cast, whether
it be high or low, or even poverty itself.
Besides, there are riches greater than this
world can bestow, which all, both old and
young, can possess if they choose. Do you
ask what and where they are? I mean those
unfading riches, those enduring heavenly trea-
sures God will give hereafter to all who love
and serve him here. Death and misfortune
can deprive men of earthly riches, but no
power can ever take from the saints the


glorious inheritance God has reserved for
them, and which will be increasing for ever
and ever. Choose these riches for your por-
tion, my dear young friends. Lay not up fpr
yourselves treasures upon earth; these will
soon vanish, but secure everlasting treasures
in heaven.
We returned from Chester to Liverpool
much gratified with our visit, and a few days
later, we crossed the Irish channel in a steam-
boat, on a short trip to Ireland. We landed
at a small seaport town called Kingstown, and
afterward proceeded by railway to Dublin, the
capital. The cars were called carriages. The
Bcenery of the country through which we
passed, was, in many instances exceedingly
wild and romantic. We admired the high
hills crowned with bold and rugged rocks,
and here and there vivid with patches of the
brightest emerald verdure.
Dublin is a large and beautiful city, with
such a combination of wealth and wretched-
ness among its inhabitants as we had never
seen before. It is built on both sides of the
river Liffey, which is crossed by nine bridges.
Our lodgings were at the Imperial Hotel, and
from this place we went forth on our expedi-



tions to see the city. The vehicle in which
we rode was called a jaunting car, and such
are very common in Ireland. This is a light
open carriage on two small low wheels. The
seats are each side, like two sofas placed back
to back, so that passengers ride sideways.
The driver, always an Irishman, has an ele-
vated seat. The motion of these cars is rapid,
and tolerably easy; the most annoying part
of such a mode of conveyance is the un-
merciful manner in which Pat uses his steed,
sparing neither whip nor rein. When I first
mounted a car, I laughed so heartily at such
a droll method of riding that I came near
being precipitated from my seat.
We visited, among other buildings in
Dublin, the Bank of Ireland, once the Irish
Parliament House. We were shown the
room in which the Lords assembled, in the
days when Parliament was held. It con-
tained the same original suit of furniture,
though it looked very ancient and time-worn.
A fine statue of George III., who seems to
have been a favorite with the Irish people,
stood where the throne was formerly placed.
Next, we visited Trinity College, near by.
The buildings, including the College grounds,



cover some fifteen acres; they are of very fine
architecture, and of great renown as regards
the literati within their walls. The public
buildings are very beautiful in Dublin, and
they should be so, for it is the second city
in magnitude belonging to the three king-
Just out of the city are the Zoological
Gardens and Phoenix Park. The latter is a
beautiful piece of land three miles long, and
is the property of Government. It contains
the Gardens, which are very fine. Besides
all kinds of birds, kept in immense wire
cages, we saw a great variety of animals, who
were also confined under large net-works of
wire in the open air, some of them in places
not unlike those they inhabit in their wild
state. In walking about among them, we
came across a deep pit in the ground, from
the centre of which rose a tall, stout pile.
We looked down and saw two large black
bears, walking around, growling and snapping
at each other as if they had a strong inclina-
tion to bite. This was their civilized home,
and they did not evidently relish it so well as
their wild one in the woods. The pole was



for them to climb which, notwithstanding their
clumsiness, they will do very expertly, but
when we saw them they were in too cross a
mood to display their agility.
We gathered some of the shamrock in
Phoenix Park. This is an Irish emblem. It
resembles English clover very much, only the
leaves are much smaller.
At the time of our visit to Ireland, a great
amount of military force was concentrated
there; no less than 35,000 troops were bar-.
racked in Dublin and its vicinity. This was
to awe the people, and quell the agitation
caused by Daniel O'Connell, the great Re-
pealer, who was then confined in prison by
order of the English Government. Having a
desire to see him, we made a visit to the Rich-
mond Penitentiary. This was a large stone
building just out of Dublin, having the words,
Cease to do evil, learn to do well," engraven
upon its front in large letters. We were
soon in the presence of O'Connell: he was
walking in the private gardens, and appeared
to be in fine health and spirits. We had a
card of introduction to him as Americans; he
shook hands with us cordially, and expired


much pleasure at seeing us. We remarked,
we had heard much about him in America.
" Ah, yes !" he replied, they talk about me
all over the world, and here I am in prison."
While we were walking over the grounds en-
gaged in conversation, some ladies came up,
one of whom ran to O'Connell and embraced
him with much affection. He then introduced
her to us as his daughter, and addressing her
as his darling Kate, his life, his heart,
inquired after the welfare of his various con-
nections in terms equally tender, and with
the genuine Irish pathos. He invited us to
lunch with his family, which invitation we
accepted, and at table were introduced to his
two sons, Daniel and John, the latter a fellow
prisoner with his father.
O'Connell, the elder, the great Repeal
advocate, whose voice has been known to
call together a million of people, was of
large stature, strong muscular build, and of
fine commanding air.* His eloquence called
forth large contributions from even the poorer
classes, to aid the Repeal cause. So many
pennies were given by those who could bestow
no more, that pounds were rapidly realized.
Since dead.


He was an idol of the people, and great was
their sorrow at his imprisonment. "The
people feels very bad about it, yer honor,"
said Pat, our carman, in answer to an inquiry
we made as to the popular feeling with regard
to his confinement.
One fine afternoon we rode to a place a few
miles out of Dublin, called Lucaw, where there
were some beautiful strawberry gardens.--
When we were nearly there, we passed a poor
mud cottage by the road side, out of which
came three beggars, a man with two children,
one of which he carried in his arms.
He cried out to us Only one penny, plaze
yer honors, just to kape the childer from
starving." His feet were badly deformed, so
that it was with difficulty he could move. Both
his own appearance and that of the children
was miserable in the extreme. We gave him
some money,for which he blessed and thanked
us till we were quite out of hearing. When
we arrived at the gardens, we sat down in a
little cottage with roses and woodbines creep-
ing up over the sides and the thatched roof.-
The strawberries were gathered fresh from the
vines, and, served up with sugar and cream,
tasted delicious. Some of them were as large



as three or four of our strawberries, but we
did not think them quite as sweet.
We visited several other places of interest
in Ireland, beside these I have mentioned.-
We also rode a few miles on what is called an
Atmospheric Railway. We took our seats
in the cars; there was no engine to set us in
motion, but we started off, and went very ra-
pidly without any apparent propelling power.
It was by the force of Atmospheric pressure.
A quantity of air rushes in at one end of a
long iron pipe to fill up the vacuum made by
an exhaustion of air at the opposite end
of the tube. The air in rushing in, presses
upon a circular piece of iron made so as to
move easily through the tube or pipe. This
iron is attached to the cars by machinery, and
when it moves, the cars are moved also. At-
mospheric pressure is much more powerful
than one would suppose. This railway was
only a trial one, made to test the power and
advantages of such a method of conveyance.
The scenery in many parts of Ireland is
very beautiful. Truly does it deserve to be
called the Emerald Isle, for it wears a robe of
the brightest freshest verdure. It is indeed a
lovely part of God's creation, and were the



people only raised as they might be, from their
degraded condition, I know of no country that
could become more happy and great. But her
rich men forsake her to reside in other coun-
tries; her people born with warm, generous,
and faithful hearts, become poor and vicious
from being unemployed, and ruin and desola-
tion set their seal upon her fair face.
Never before had we witnessed such extreme
poverty and misery as in this lovely isle. The
lower class of people cannot get employment
to enable them with the fruit of their toil to
purchase the most common necessaries of life.
It is no wonder they emigrate, and to such a
highly favored land as America; where the
industrious, temperate man, though ever so
poor, is sure of his bread and a home. Many
of our countrymen complain much of the great
influx of the Irish nation into our midst. But
in our opinion there exists no just ground for
such complaint. Let them come; there is
abundance of room in America, and plenty of
ways and means for getting an honest living.
Why then should we shut out the suffering and
destitute. Only let us furnish them with plen-
ty of Bibles, and good common school in,
struction, and they will in time become,



faithful and true citizens of our great Re-
But a word more about the condition of the
Irish poor at home. A want of employment
compels many to resort to begging for a liveli-
hood. They are often so numerous, that the
eye becomes accustomed to the sight of their
wretchedness, the ear deaf to their cry, and
the heart callous to their destitution and woe.
True, many of them are impostors, but the
number of the really needy is very great.-
And great also is the contrast between the
very rich and the very poor; for the middling
class is comparatively smaller than either of
the others. Often, in the streets of Dublin, a
carriage rich and gay with liveried outriders,
rolls along, while close by the wheels in the
mire runs a poor woman, with a child in her
arms, half starved, and clad in rags, crying
out for God's sake to give her a penny to keep
herself and little ones from starving. But no
one heeds or hears her; objects like herself
are too common to excite charity, and weary
and discouraged she sits down by the road side,
perhaps in a cold driving rain, to watch for
another opportunity to present her peti-
tion, or else despair hurries her on to the



commission of some crime to relieve her
Such was the appearance Ireland presented
at the period of our visit. Beautiful to look
upon, but sadly marred with the poverty and
wretchedness every where visible. Thronged
with beggars, from the child that could scarce-
ly lisp its wants to the man of grey hairs, who
with tottering step and sightless eyes peti-
tioned for alms.
Since that time it has been the scene of
much greater and more extended suffering, so
that aid was rendered by other nations to save
hundreds from starvation and death. Many
painful instances of want were recorded during
this terrible famine, one of which suggested to
me the following lines. They are founded
upon the last words of a poor Irish lad as he
was dying of hunger. He begged of his
mother to give him three grains of corn to
eat, which were in a corner of his ragged
jacket. She gave them to him; it was all
she had; the whole family were perishing with
famine. Perhaps the children who read theb
lines will feel more sensibly than eve ~
mercy of God, who gives them life in this lWe
of free# and plenty.




Give me three grains of corn, mother!
Only three grains of corn I
It will keep the little life I have
Till the coming of the morn.
I am dying of hunger and cold, mother
Dying of hunger and cold,
And 01 the agony of such death,
The half was never told.

It has gnawed like a wolf at my heart, mother!
A wolf that is fierce for blood,
All the live-long day and the night beside,
Gnawing for lack of food.
I dreamed of bread in my sleep, mother,
And the sight was heaven to see,
I woke with an eager famishing lip,
But you had no bread for me.

How could I look to you, mother,
How could I look to you,
For bread to give to your starving boy,
When you were starving too ?
For I read the famine in your cheek,
And in your eye so wild,
And I felt it in your bony hand,
As you laid it on your child.

he Queen has lands and gold, mother,
The Queen has lands and gold,
While you are forced to your omptylee
A famishing babe to



A babe that is dying of want, mother,
As I am dying now,
With a look of woe in its sunken eye,
And misery on its brow.

What has poor Ireland done, mother,
What has poor Ireland done,
That the world looks on and sees us starve,
Perishing one by one ?
Do the men of England care not, mother,
The great men and the high,
For the suffering sons of Erin's isle,
Whether they live or die

There is many a brave heart here, mother,
Dying of hunger and cold,
While only across the Channel, mother,
Are many who roll in gold.
There are rich and proud men there, mother,
With wondrous wealth to view,
And the crumbs that drop in their halls to-night,
Would give me life and you I

Come nearer to my side, mother,
Come nearer to my side,
And hold me fondly as you held
My father when he died.
Quick! for I cannot see you, other,
My breath is almost gone.
Mother! dear mother! ere I die
Give me three grains of corn I

; *



Manchester-Sheffield-Poet Montgomery-Manufacture
of Steel -Exhibition Rooms of Messrs. Rogers and
Sons Wentworth House York York Minster -
London Thames' Tunnel-- St. Paul's Cathedral -
Tower of London.

WE returned from Ireland to Liverpool,
and shortly after went by railway to visit
some of the manufacturing towns of England
on our journey to London. Our course was
first directed to Manchester. Before leaving
Liverpool on the Manchester railway, we
passed through a tunnel a mile in length,
emerging from which we found ourselves quite
clear of the city. After a pleasant ride of a
few hours, we reached Manchester, and were
comfortably lodged at the Queen's Hotel.
The next day was the Sabbath, and we
attended church at a Baptist Chapel, in
Oxford Street, where we heard an excellent
sermon. The day and its exercises reminded
s of similar ones at home, and of the dear
4-4. (43)


friends who were probably engaged in the
same delightful worship. It was pleasant
also to think that though we were so widely
separated, our prayers and theirs, for each
other and ourselves, were ascending to the
same God, the Heavenly Father of us all.
We spent a few days in Manchester, and
visited various objects of interest. It. is a
famous manufacturing place, containing among
others, many silk and cotton factories. A
large number of children, some quite little
ones, are employed in these, and get their
living by working in them. But the confine-
ment is very close and unhealthy, and the
children are often overworked far beyond
their years and strength, and sometimes are
made cripples for life. Frequently they lose
a finger, a hand, and even an arm in the
machinery, and are cruelly treated in order to
inake them work as quickly and steadily as
possible. This is not the case, I am happy to
say, in all the factories where children are
operatives, but it is so in many instances in
different parts of England. Sunday schools
are connected with some, where the poor chil-
dren are instructed by benevolent persons,
and are taught to read ancwrite. Such in-


stitutions, in connection with factories, are
rare, but they speak loudly for the kind and
Christian spirit of their owners, while the
condition of those who labor is vastly im-
proved. The happy little boys and girls in
most of the highly favored States in our
native land, who can run at large in green
fields and meadows, or spend their time plea-
santly and profitably in schools, do not know
or conceive of the suffering and privation of
the poor little factory children in the old
country, who are obliged to toil in close
heated rooms for six days out of the seven,
in order to get bread to eat. In one of the
Manchester factories we saw several hundred
children at work. By the request of the over-
seer they all joined in singing a hymn while
tending their looms. They looked for the
most part pale and unhealthy, but seemed
tolerably cheerful and contented.
Manchester is a very smoky, dingy looking
town. The smoke comes from the chimneys
of the factories, and in damp weather it
hangs like a black cloud over the whole place,
and little pieces of soot fly about in the air so
thickly, that it is almost impossible to walk
out without getting specks on your face or



dress. It is an old saying, that the sun never
shines in Manchester except on Sundays.
By this is meant, that on week days it is so
smoky the sun cannot be seen, and this is true
the greater part of the time.
We visited an old church in this place,
which had been built four hundred years!
It was made of stone, and was a very curious
and venerable old building; all along under
the eaves were carved the oddest and most
grotesque images I ever saw. It must have
been a strange uncouth taste that designed
them. The floor to this church was of stone,
and in the aisles and before the pulpit, it was
paved with flat grave-stones. People were
buried under these, and the living frequently
sit and listen to sermons with their feet resting
upon the tombs of the dead. It was the ancient
practice to bury the dead in churches, but it
has now fallen into disuse. The yard around
this church was crowded with tombstones.
Many of the flat ones were so close to each
other, that grass could not spring up in the
crevices between them. Some of these stones
dated back as far as two hundred years ago.
Others were so ancient that their inscription
was illegible.



From Manchester we proceeded by coach,
to Sheffield. On our way we found manufac-
turing establishments scattered all over the
country; even where they were hidden from
the eye, we were made aware of their existence
by the thick clouds of smoke hanging over
them. Our ride was delightful, we had fine
horses, a careful driver, and our road wound
along among the wild, beautiful hills or rather
mountains of Yorkshire. Now we were high
up on the summit of one of these, barren, ex-
cept a covering of dark green moss, and now
we were borne along at the base of acclivities,
on each side, that seemed to reach the clouds.
Presently a heavy shower of rain descended.
We were on the outside of the coach, and had
no protection but an umbrella, under which
we took shelter, making ourselves quite merry
at this new aspect of things. Down it came
in great drops all over the landscape as far as
we could see, on the green hill tops, and into
the dark ravines below. A flock of sheep
were feeding by the wayside, and as soon as
they felt the rain, pelting down on their woolly
backs, they shook their tails, and scampered
swiftly away to some place of shelter. But
the rain soon ceased, and the sun, emerging



from behind the black watery clouds, gave to
the scene an aspect of great freshness and
beauty. The hills were now less steep, and
the land here and there was finely cultivated.
Occasionally we passed a pretty cottage, be-
tween the neat comfortable inns at which we
changed horses. Our driver was a man of
caution, for when we came to a descent among
the hills, which we, in America, would have
considered trifling, and trotted our horses
down, rejoicing in the declivity, he would get
off his box and put on a drag to the wheels,
that the least danger might be avoided. We
noticed this care in a great many instances as
characteristic of the people, who have a very
proper dislike to broken necks. The drag is a
strong iron chain, with a piece of iron, at-
tached to it about six inches long, into which
the wheel fits like a groove, and cannot turn
round. This checks the speed very much, and
the wheel drags along without revolving like the
others. The road we travelled was a very fine
one, as indeed nearly all the English roads
are, and the scenery was wild and beautiful.
It reminded us a little of the scenery among
the White Mountains at home, that is, among
the wildest parts through which we passed; of


course it was on a much smaller scale, but yet
it was grand.
Our entry into Sheffield was made during
one of the most terrific thunder storms we ever
witnessed. We were glad to descend from
our coach elevation, and take shelter in more
comfortable quarters.
Sheffield is also a manufacturing town, but
different in kind from Manchester. In the
former steel and cutlery are manufactured, in
the latter silk and cotton. Sheffield is not so
smoky as Manchester, and therefore much
It has several interesting places to visit.-
It contains fine Botanical Gardens, in which
are many beautiful and valuable plants. In
a large glass conservatory are some floral spe-
cimens, peculiar only to the American soil.
There is in this town the remnant of an old
Tower, in which Mary, Queen of Scots, was
once imprisoned by order of Elizabeth. It is
fast crumbling to decay.
We were much interested in our visit to
some of the large establishments here, for the
manufacture of steel and cutlery, and saw, in
part, the process by which iron is converted
into steel. The metal in the shape of bars is



subjected for several days to the intense heat
of powerful fires; the coal and iron being
mingled. This is called the baking process.
The iron becomes impregnated with the carbon
of the coal, and is transformed into what is
termed blister steel. About a week is allowed
for the metal to cool; it is then assorted ac-
cording to its quality, broken in pieces, and
put into crucibles, to be melted to a white
heat. It is then poured out into moulds, and
when cold becomes cast steel of various quali-
ties. From steel all kind of cutlery are man-
ufactured. The articles when finished are
packed neatly in stout brown paper, and sent
to almost every part of the world. The paper,
before it is considered fit for such use, is sub-
jected to a drying process for two or three
We visited also the great Exhibition Room
of Messrs. Rodgers & Sons, the famous Cut-
lers to her Majesty." It contained every va-
riety of edged tools of superior workmanship.
Many of the specimens were curious and won-
derful. There were half a dozen pairs of tiny
scissors lying on a bit of paper, perfect in
finish, which altogether did not weigh a grain.
There was a pocket knife with 1841 blades,



each perfect and fit for use. It was under a
glass case, and part of the blades were open.-
They were made like all kinds of edged tools,
and could be opened or shut at pleasure. This
was by no means a clumsy knife, neither was
it very large, so neatly was it contrived. It
was truly an ingenious and skillfully executed
piece of mechanism.
Just out of Sheffield resides the great poet,
James Montgomery: his place of residence
is called The Mount." We did not have
the pleasure of seeing him during our visit
here, but shortly after our return home we
received a very interesting letter from him
indicative of his cordial friendship and esteem.
Not far from Sheffield also, is the Wentworth
House, the beautiful residence of the Earl of
Strafford, whose ancestor was beheaded by one
of the Charles'. It is a noble building in the
Queen Elizabeth style of architecture, with
very extensive parks and gardens. In the
splendid apartments of this house we saw
many fine paintings, some by the old mas-
ters. There was an excellent painting of the
earl who was beheaded. This was done by
Vandyke, and the story of the picture is as
follows:-The earl was in prison for some



parliamentary crime, and he sent word to
Charles, the king, that if the sacrifice of his
life would be of any gratification to him, he
was ready and willing to yield it. Charles
wrote back that he would accept the offering,
and immediately caused him to be beheaded.
The painting represents him as having just
read Charles' reply, and the letter is still in
his hand. His faithful servant is by his side,
gazing up anxiously into his master's face,
which has a very powerful expression of deep
thought, combined with a strong determina-
tion to yield to the wishes of the tyrannical
Wentworth House possesses also many fine
specimens of statuary, both modern and an-
tique: some of these were brought from Her-
culaneum and Rome.
After our visit to Sheffield, we proceeded
to York, an old and beautiful city. Like
Chester, this city has an old wall built around
it, and the prospect from the top of this wall
is very fine. On one side we could look down
upon the busy city within, and on the other
lay a highly cultivated landscape, and a bright
river sparkling in the sun. We saw many
curious old buildings in York; but the one


which interested us most was York Minster, a
magnificent old cathedral, which has been called
the finest building in Europe, the pride of
Great Britain, and the glory of Yorkshire.
It is built of stone finely carved, and in many
instances worn smooth and white with age and
time. It is said to be two hundred and four
feet in height. The interior of this church is
not like any of ours. The roof is supported
by stone pillars twenty-seven feet in circum-
ference at the base, and ninety-nine feet in
height. A flight of two hundred and seventy-
three winding stone steps leads to the summit
of the lantern, or great tower, from whence
there is a beautiful view of the city and coun-
try around.
Ir the body of the church are several mar-
ble tombs, and some of stone, very ancient,
where monks, and friars, and bishops were
buried several centuries ago. There is a
splendid organ, the cost of which was more
than ten thousand pounds. There is a screen,
magnificently carved in stone, before this
organ, containing, beside other figures, the
statues of fourteen kings. Near the altar
stands an old Saxon chair, which is said to be
a thousand years old. Several kings have



been crowned in this chair. This beautiful
cathedral is six hundred years old, and was
once called the house of houses." It has
twice been set on fire, once by an insane
person, but the damaged parts have been all
rebuilt. We were so much delighted with
this venerable and magnificent building, that
it was with regret when we came to leave
York, that we caught a last glimpse of its
lofty towers and ancient roof rising far above
the many noble edifices in this fine old city.
On our way from York to London, we
visited several interesting places, among
which was Birmingham, another great manu-
facturing town. The latter part of our jour-
ney to London was performed by night.. We
reached the great city at half-past five in the
morning. Scarcely a soul was stirring save
the police and market men. The city seemed
buried in a profound sleep, for the Londoners
are not very early risers.
We procured a cab to convey us to the
residence of our friends who were expecting
our arrival. Their home was in Peckham
Rye, so called, one of the many suburbs of
London. They gave us a truly cordial wel-
come to the hospitalities and repose which



we so much needed after the fatigues of
travel. We found Peckham Rye a beautiful
place to reside in; although a part of the
great metropolis, it is skirted with a fine
woodland, and is full of terraces and gar-
dens,-within a stone's throw almost of the
heart of London, yet free, in a great mea-
sure, from its dust, din, and annoyances.
From this place we daily went forth sight
seeing, to the enjoyment of the many objects
of interest, of which London possesses a
greater number perhaps than any other city
in the world.
I will not attempt to describe all these,
but only recall the more vivid and pro-
minent as they rise in memory, first glanc-
ing a few moments at the great city taken
as a whole.
London is immense in size, and built on both
sides of the river Thames. It is about twenty-
seven miles in circumference, including its
suburbs, which cover a very extensive portion
of ground. The number of its inhabitants is
stated at two millions. There are eight ways
of crossing the river from one side of London,
to the other, beside by means of boats. Seven
of these are beautiful bridges, but the eighth


is under the water on the bed of the river.-
This is the famous Thames Tunnel, which was
eight years in building, and cost four hundred
and forty-six thousand pounds, or two millions
of dollars. The great engineer Brunnell was
the architect. We made a visit to this tunnel,
being one day in its vicinity, and having occa-
sion to cross the river. We paid a penny toll for
admittance. Then, descending by a long
winding flight of about fifty stone steps, we
found ourselves at the entrance of the Tunnel.
It was paved with stone, and so strong and
solid in its construction, that it appears as if
excavated out of solid rock. We were now
under the river. Its deep waters were hurry-
ing by over our heads, and boats, vessels and
steamboats, were passing and repassing ; while
we were safely protected from all danger by
the thick substantial fabric that enclosed us.
The Tunnel is arched, and is twenty feet high,
eighteen wide, and about one thousand two-
hundred feet long. It is divided into two car-
riage roads, and two foot paths, one for going,
and one for returning. It is lighted by gas,
and seemed to have rather a damp atmosphere.
The Tunnel was a great and difficult under-
taking, but when successfully completed, of


vast importance. It was very desirable that
ships should be able to sail up as far into the
city as possible. It was also desirable that
carriages and people should be provided with
some way of crossing the river at this place.
Now a bridge, while it accommodated the latter,
would prove a barrier to the progress of the
former up the river; so the Tunnel was con-
trived and executed, over which the largest
ships can pass as far up as to London bridge,
while all who wish to cross the Thames, can
do so through this curious thoroughfare.
One of the first objects of interest we visited
in London, was St. Paul's, an ancient and beau-
tiful Cathedral, its massive walls hoary with age
and with the touch of time. This is the pride,
and we might almost say the wonder of Lon-
don. So gigantic is its size, and so lofty its
towering dome, it strikes the beholder with
mingled feelings of awe and admiration. It
is of Grecian architecture, and constructed
with two grand entrances. On entering at
either of these, the eye wanders over an im-
mense space, attracted on every side by beau-
tiful marble monuments, crowned with figures
the size of life, and sacred to the memories of
England's distinguished men. There was one



erected in honor of Bishop Heber, missionary
to India, which was exquisitely sculptured.
He was also a fine poet, and the author of the
beautiful lines, commencing with Thou art
gone to the grave, but we will not deplore
thee," and "From Greenland's icy moun-
tains," which are so often sung. The ceiling
of St. Paul's is frescoed, and the scenes are all
drawn from Scripture. After viewing suffi-
ciently the nave of the building, we ascended a
flight of steps which brought us to the Li-
brary, a fine large room, filled on each side
with books, mostly theological and ecclesiasti-
cal. From the library we went to see what is
called the Model and Trophy room, where was
a fine model of the Cathedral, which was de-
signed by that great architect, Sir Christopher
Wren. We saw also here several flags, tro-
phies of Nelson's victories, and the immense
lantern which was covered with lights and borne
before the hero, after one of his great naval
achievements. Next we saw the Geometrical
Staircase, which was a nicely adjusted flight
of fifty stone steps, each supported by the
other, commencing at the base, and having a
slender hand rail only on one side. This stair-
case, although apparently so frail in construe-


tion is perfectly safe, indeed it cannot give
way. Ascending another long winding flight
of steps we reached the famous Whispering
Gallery, as it is called. It is of an exact cir-
cular form, and floored with matting. Visitors
seat themselves at one end, or rather door of
entrance, and whatever is whispered close to
the wall at the opposite side of the gallery, is
immediately heard by them, provided the ear
be applied to the wall. No other person
can hear, of course, but they who listen, and
the distance is so great it would seem impos-
sible that so faint a sound as a whisper could
be transmitted, for the. gallery is one hundred
and eighty feet in circumference. Our next
visit was to the clock and bell of this great
building. Afterward we ascended to a balcony,
under the gilt ball that surmounts the dome,
that we might obtain a view of the London
world. We were now nearly four hundred
feet from the ground, and such a height gave
us, of course, a grand view of the living Pano-
rama spread out below us. But the atmos-
phere, as is often the case, was so smoky that
the impressive and beautiful prospect we
had expected to see was considerably marred,
and but an immensely extensive, indistinct



assemblage of red tiles, chimneys and tall
church spires peering through the murky air
met our gaze; now and then we were able to
get a glimpse of the silver winding Thames,
which from such a height looked but a small
rivulet. We were told that if we desired to
view London in its grandeur and glory, we
must ascend to the summit of St. Paul's by
break of day, before the dense black smoke
that rises from the city like a vast cloud when
the busy day begins, obscures the spectacle.
The great Panorama of London was painted
from this place. The artist made his sketches
before day-break, and then transferred to his
canvass, the scenes below. As we passed through
the massive outer portals of St. Paul's, after de-
scending from the dome to the nave, we paused
a few moments to survey the exterior. It was
more than admirable, it was truly sublime. A
glorious edifice erected for sacred purposes in
the heart of a great city to remind men, in their
eager pursuit of earthly things, of objects
more enduring and heavenly. It is built in
the form of a cross, and has what are called
four yards, north, south, east and west. In
the south yard is a statue of "good Queen
Anne," with a sceptre extended in her hand.



These yards are all paved with grave stones,
with here and there a tuft of grass peering
between them. There is also a large vault
or crypt under the church, filled with relics
of the dead. Here they rest, until the resur-
rection, in the sheltering bosom of this ven-
erable pile, and the noisy din of London's
feverish world, its strife and turmoil, fall un-
heeded on their ear.
One of the next objects we visited after
the Cathedral, was the Tower" of London,
which is always an interesting place to all
who love historical associations. In going
thither, I confess, I felt as much curiosity to
see where Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded,
and also Lady Jane Grey, and where the two
infant princes were so cruelly smothered, for
whom my childish sympathy was early and
painfully excited, as I ever had felt to see
the Queen.
My limited imagination had depicted one
great Tower as the scene of these tragedies,
but upon arriving, we found an extensive
stone building of a quadrangular form, having
four towers, one at each corner, in the place
of one alone. The interior was built of coarse
wood. In some places the walls are covered



with a preparation of lime and sand, thickly
studded with bits of sharp flint. Passing
through an arched gateway and over a draw-
bridge, ancient and gloomy, a stout middle-
aged man appeared as a guide, who was clad
in a strange and fantastic costume, common
to the reign of King Henry VIII. He wore
a three-cornered hat, or chapeau, and a red
coat, trimmed with gilt lace and buttons.
He conducted us first to the Armory in the
White Tower. Here was an immense quan-
tity of ancient arms, and a long row of effi-
gies of kings and knights, armed and mounted
for battle. There were also numbers of pages
and esquires in attendance upon them. Each
was clad in the costume of his day, and so
life-like did the whole cavalcade appear, that
it seemed every moment as if the noble horses
would spring forward, and the whole assem-
bly ride out for the field. Ascending a flight
of steps to another long hall, we came into
Queen Elizabeth's Armory, somewhat similar,
though not containing so many figures. Here
were the different kinds of arms, and instru-
ments of torture used for various purposes
during her reign. At one end of the hall
was an effigy, the size of life, of the maiden



Queen herself, mounted on a white palfrey,
led by a page. She sat prim and upright,
bedecked with satin and jewels, and having
her neck endircled by an extremely wide ruff,
very unbecoming, but the fashion of her day.
A small dark room, opening out of the Ar-
mory, was shown us as the prison-house of Sir
Walter Raleigh, and a gloomy one it must
have been. It was but a few feet square,
and lighted only by a small grated window in
the door. To be immured in such a place
could have been but little short of a living
death. Near by we saw also the fatal block
on which Anne Boleyn was beheaded, and the
axe that made the fearful stroke. There
were also a pair of thumb-screws, and other
torturous instruments constructed for the
purpose of compelling prisoners to confes-
sion, which made one shudder to look upon
Then we came to the Bloody Tower, where
the two infant Princes were so cruelly smoth-
ered to death by pillows, to favor the wicked,
ambitious projects of their unnatural uncle,
the Duke of Gloucester.
Many other places were pointed out to us,



interesting from the historical associations,
having once been the scenes of many tragical
The Crown Jewels, called the regalia, are
kept in the Tower, protected by a glass case,
under cover of an iron net work like a cage.
Here was Victoria's crown of crimson velvet,
faced with ermine, and adorned with valuable
jewels. It looked like a weighty ornament
for the royal head, but she only wears it
for a brief space of time on state occasions.
There was also a King's crown, one or two
sceptres, swords, and some very precious
stones. We saw a greenish looking stone,
about the size of an egg, which is valued at
a million of dollars.
There is a chapel in the Tower, where Anne
Boleyn, Lady Jane Grey, and others, who
were executed here, are said to be buried.
Near by was Tower Hill, which was formerly
the terrible scene of so many executions.
We shuddered while gazing upon it, as we
thought of the innocent as well as the guilty
beings who were there sacrificed at the ca-
pricious will of Kings and Queens. Brought
forth from their dreary prison-houses, where



they had languished often for many months,
more than one as deserving of life as the pure
and pious Lady Jane Grey and her youthful
husband, met death at the hands of violence
and a blood-thirsty ambition.



Bank of England-Buckingham Palace-The Queen and
Prince of Wales-Hyde Park-New Royal Exchange
-Houses of Parliament-Duke of Wellington-Sab-
bath Schools in London-Happy result of Sabbath
School Instruction-Blue Coat Hospital-British Mu-
seum Guildhall-- Greenwich --Woolwich-Grave of
John Bunyan-Isaac Watts--Westminster Abbey.

THE Bank of England is an immense
stone building, looking almost like a fortress,
though it is quite elegant in its architecture.
It has no windows or apertures in the high
strong wall that surrounds it, and covers an
irregular area of eight acres. It has several
open courts in the interior for the admission
of light and air. We were permitted to enter
the different departments. In one of these we
saw gold and silver in large bars; this is
called bullion. In another, were men count-
ing out heaps of glittering sovereigns, and
other coins. This bank is immensely rich.
The coining of the precious metals is done at


the Royal Mint, which is on Tower Hill. It
is not open to visitors, however, except they
bring especial introduction.
Every stranger who visits London, is of
course a little curious to see the Queen, and
the palace in which she resides. One fine
morning we endeavored to get a glimpse of
Her Majesty, as she would probably ride out,
as usual, to take the air. We went to Buck-
ingham Palace, as Victoria's town residence
is called. It was a noble building, having an
entrance of beautiful white marble, erected in
the form of a triumphal arch. My fancy,
when a child, had depicted a palace as some-
thing magnificent and dazzling to behold,
and as I grew older, time did not correct my
views, so that when I first saw Buckingham,
I felt a little disappointed. I did think the
Queen's house would have made a little more
show. So much for childish impressions and
early associations. More than one palace a
youthful imagination builds, reality in maturer
years overthrows.
There were several soldiers, or guards,
standing around the palace gates, from whom
we learned, after waiting a long time, that
Prince Albert had already gone out on horse-



back, and Her Majesty and the Royal child-
ren would not be visible in public that day.
So we went away to wait for some more
favorable opportunity.
The Queen has another beautiful residence
at Windsor Castle, a fine old place, a few miles
from London. She has several little children,
one of whom if he lives will succeed his mother
to the throne. His title now is the Prince of
Wales. Doubtless the Royal children have
every source of enjoyment and amusement
money can purchase, costly toys, rich dresses,
servants to wait upon them, and great atten-
tion shown them, but with all these, I do not
think they can be any happier than many of the
boys and girls of America, who live and grow
up in a plain, humble, manner. If they are
not good children, they certainly are not so
happy as those who are good but poor. It is
the state of the heart, after all, that brings the
true enjoyment of this life.
London has many beautiful parks and pub-
lic gardens, where the inhabitants can resort
to breathe the fresh pure air, and to enjoy
themselves. Of these the most extensive are
the Kensington Gardens, St. James' Park, near
Buckingham Palace, Regent's Park and Hyde


Park. The latter is used more for drives than
the others. Taking a carriage we had a fine
ride in this place. It chanced to be the fash-
ionable hour, and many people of rank were
out taking an airing. The carriages drive
around the park in two rings, one set going,
and one returning, so that none need turn out
for others. We looked like a long procession.
Some of the carriages were splendid, and in
some instances were surmounted with ducal cor-
onets and other insignia of royalty. Others had
crests and emblazoned coats of arms on their
sides and pannelling, denoting their family and
rank. Some had four outriders, two behind
and two before in liveries, red and gold, blue,
drab, green, &c., and wearing white gloves.
We saw one lady, probably a duchess, riding
along in her carriage, a splendid equipage, and
attended by four richly dressed servants.
These servants sometimes give themselves
as many important airs as their aristocratic
employers, and consider it quite an honor to
be styled my lord's footman, or my lady's
London has many elegant and noble build-
ings. Among these are the New Royal Ex-
change, and the New Houses of Parliament.



The latter, however, were not completed at the
time of our visit. The Exchange is a magnifi-
cent structure of free stone, having pillars in
front, above which is an elegant bas relief.-
Before the building stands an equestrian statue
of the Duke of Wellington, 'the iron Duke,' as
he is sometimes called. This statue is made
of cannon taken at the battle of Waterloo. It
was commenced by the famous sculptor Chan-
trey, but in consequence of his death, the
work was completed by another artist. The
Duke is represented as sitting on horseback,
both horse and rider the size of life, with a
scroll in his hand, and the Roman Toga thrown
gracefully over his shoulders. It is a finely
executed statue, and the Duke's face is said to
be an excellent likeness. The iron Duke, the
hero of so many battles, is now upwards of
eighty years of age, yet still active and vigor-
ous, and more erect in form than many who
have never seen half that number of years.-
His habits are said to be very regular and
frugal, and he takes frequent exercise, which
is an excellent presservative of health, both in
old and young. He is spare in form, and
quite grey-headed. The Hon. Edward Eve-
rett, at the time of our visit in London, was



the American Minister to the court of St.
James. Governor Briggs of Massachusetts
had kindly given us a letter of introduction to
him. Upon calling at his residence in Gros-
venor place, he received us cordially and po-
litely, and we were much gratified by an in-
terview with our distinguished countryman.-
Having expressed our desire of gaining admit-
tance into the Houses of Parliament, then in
session, he very kindly gave us his card and
seal upon it, which he said would doubtless
obtain for Mr. E. an access into the House
of Lords, but he hardly thought a lady would
be admitted. We both, however, were fortunate
enough to get permission to enter, and had
the satisfaction of hearing several distin-
guished speakers.
We saw also, among others of the nobility,
the Duke of Wellington, and Lord Brougham,
both of whom spoke with eloquence.
At the adjournment of the House of Lords
we went to our carriage, and waited to see the
different noblemen leave and ride away, as
their servants with their horses and carriages
stood in readiness. As the names of their
noble masters were called out, they brought
the equipages forward. When the Duke of



Wellington appeared the doorkeeper rushed
out in hot haste, calling at the top of his voice,
" Quick quick, my lord's horse, the Duke of
Wellington's horse," as though it would never
answer for his Grace to be kept waiting for a
moment like other people. Great respect and
attention are shown the Duke; but without
appearing to notice the obsequious homage ot
the crowd, the veteran campaigner sprang nim-
bly on his steed, and rode away, his servant fol-
lowing him at a respectful distance.
We also were present in the House of Lords
at a time when the case of O'Connell was
pending. The Court sitting were arrayed in
heavy powdered wigs falling down upon their
shoulders, and black flowing robes. They were
quite imposing to the eye accustomed only
to republican simplicity. Lord Lyndhurst,
as Chief Judge, occupied the chair, and the
Attorney General of Ireland was addressing
the house.
We passed several pleasant Sabbaths, in
London, and from time to time listened to very
excellent and eloquent preachers. Among
others, we were much gratified at hearing the
Rev. Dr. Melville, who is far famed as a dis-
tinguished Divine.



There are many Sabbath Schools established
here not only in connection with different
churches, but for the benefit of poor, ragged
children, who would otherwise be playing or
wandering about in the streets on Sabbath
days, learning from each other all kinds of
vice and folly. Hundreds of children in Lon-
don, as in other large cities, receive no kind of
moral and religious training at their homes,
but are early encouraged to sin and idleness.
Many of these are taught to steal, to get their
living by pilfering from others, and so adroit
do they sometimes become in their wicked pro-
fession as to escape detection for years. But
such children have souls, precious souls to
save, for which Christ died; and they must be
lost forever unless taught the way of escape
and salvation through his dear name. It was
this view of their forlorn and perishing condi-
tion that first stirred the benevolent heart of
Robert Raikes to devise the excellent plan of
Sunday Schools, for the purpose of teaching
the erring and ignorant. He was the founder
of this glorious institution, which though first
intended only for poor children, has come to
be of incalculable benefit to rich and poor alike,
and has increased and multiplied, till every



city and town where the sound of the church-
going bell is heard, has one or many of these
places of holy and loved resort.* The mighty
influence of Sabbath Schools for the spiritual
and moral good of the young is world-wide in
its extent, and eternity alone will reveal the
wonders it has accomplished in the salvation
of young immortal souls. Many a poor out-
cast child has heard of the way of life in the
Sabbath School, and a ray of heavenly light
has fallen upon a dark and sorrowful existence,
showing the celestial path to the land where
the weary find rest and the homeless and needy
find a mansion in their Heavenly Father's
house, and robes of unfading beauty.
Such an instance, and one among many
which might be related was told me in London,
by a gentleman who was acquainted with the
parties to whom it relates.
A poor child who was daily sent forth by
her intemperate parents to beg half pence or
bread, was induced by a benevolent lady to
attend a Sabbath School. Her disconsolate
heart was touched by the kindness and sym-
pathy of the teacher, and she soon became
The first Sabbath School was established in Glouces-
ter, England, in 1781.



interested in the great and precious truths
which were unfolded to her hitherto dark and
neglected mind. Shortly after, her mother
died, and she was left to the care of her harsh
and intemperate father, who opposed her
going to the Sabbath School, and took from her
the Bible she had learned to love and prize.
She was taken sick and soon became unable to
rise. In this condition, and almost abandoned
by her cruel father, she was found providen-
tially, by a benevolent clergyman, who was
visiting among the homes of the poor and
wretched. She was lying on a rude hard bed
in a dreary looking room alone, and pale with
suffering. Yet she was happy, and so she told
the good clergyman, who, seeing how very sick
she appeared, expressed his sorrow at her for-
lorn and lonely condition. "Sir," she said, in
answer to his inquiries, "I am not alone, God
is with me, and is my friend. I shall soon die,
but I am not afraid, for he will support me. I
am happy."
"What makes you happy to die?"
"Because I am going to heaven; Jesus
Christ has forgiven my sins, and he will save
Where did you learn of Jesus?" asked the



minister. "In the Sabbath School," she
replied. "I learned there, that He died for
sinners, and will save all who believe on
And she was happy in view of death, there
in her loneliness and pain, for the Saviour was
with her, and his peace was upon her soul.-
Jesus died for sinners precious truth, more
precious to this child of want and sorrow than
the richest earthly treasure could be. She
had learned in the Sabbath School, what can
make a death-bed joyful, and secure an inher-
itance beyond the grave.
After a little more conversation and prayer,
the good clergyman departed, promising to
send some kind ladies to visit her. Before
he could see her again himself, she died; her
happy spirit went to the Saviour in whom it
believed, and her last words were
"0 to grace how great a debtor
Daily I'm constrained to be."

This is but one among the many blessed fruits
of Sabbath School instruction. 0 how many
souls at the last great day will testify to the
inestimable value of this holy institution as
the place where, by the grace of God, they



were led to seek salvation through a crucified
London has many excellent institutions,
both charitable and religious: it is a vast
field of labor for the home missionary and the
benevolent heart. For those who most need
the sanctifying influences of religion, are the
farthest in society from contact with its in-
fluence; and it requires no little share of
courage to penetrate into those abodes of
darkness and iniquity where light is host
needed, and where, if it come, it is often light
Among the many institutions for learning,
is Christ's Hospital, a charity school for boys,
who from the peculiar style of dress they
adopt on entering the school, are called Blue
Coat Boys. This dress consists of a sort of
blue gown, confined by a belt at the waist,
yellow hose, and shoes in place of boots. The
blue coat boys seldom wear any covering on
their heads, except in cold weather, and then
only a cloth cap. The school is a very ex-
cellent one, and many distinguished persons
have received in it their early education.
The British Museum is one of the most in-
structive and interesting places a stranger


can visit. This noble institution was started
by Sir Hans Sloane, who bequeathed to it his
valuable collection worth fifty thousand pounds
sterling. It is open to all, free of charge.
To attempt describing all the curiosities of
nature and art it contains would be an im-
possibility, so I will only glance at them
generally. We passed through a number of
apartments, each filled with rare and valuable
objects of interest. One room was full of
beautiful birds, stuffed so as to give the very
semblance of life. All kinds were there, from
the common barn-yard fowl up to the rarest
species of foreign birds. There was the eider
duck with her downy breast, the parrot in
green, and crimson, and gold, the lordly
eagle, and the tiny humming-bird. There
also was the night-loving owl, with his wide
staring eyes, and the cormorant with her
great bill. Could the whole assemblage have
burst forth in song together, we should have
been entertained with music unheard of before.
With the birds, their various eggs also were
shown; all varieties, from those scarcely bigger
than a pea, up to the eggs of the ostrich and
eagle. Many of these were very prettily
spotted. In another room, were stuffed ani-



mals--lions, wild horses, bears, hyenas, tigers,
wolves, foxes, dogs, camels, and so on through
a long catalogue of creatures. Then came
all kinds of stuffed reptiles, huge serpents,
lizards, turtles, toads, and such like creatures.
After these, we saw a room full of beautiful
insects, carefully preserved; great butterflies
with brilliant wings, beetles, bugs, moths, and
others of the insect tribe. Next came all
kinds of minerals; there was gold and silver,
iron and lead, both in the refined state, ail in
that state in which they are taken out of the
earth. With these also were crystals, dia-
monds, emeralds, rubies, and many other
precious stones; also a large and beautiful
collection of shells. Other departments of
the Museum were filled with works of art from
various parts of the world; old relics, curiosi-
ties, &c. Some of the statues and sculptured
works were very beautiful and valuable. We
saw the stone sarcophagus, or coffin, in which
the body of Alexander the Great was once
deposited; also, the famous Elgin marbles and
the Portland vase. The Museum has a large
collection of Egyptian mummies. These are
the bodies of dead persons, embalmed and
wrapped in thick cloths, which are painted


over with various figures and devices. They
are then enclosed in plaster or stone coffins,
and thus continue preserved for many years.
The mummies were many hundred years old,
and were brought from Egypt. Many artists
were in the Museum sketching from various
While we were in London, we visited one
day a large stone building called the Guild-
hall. The courts of London were once held
here, and much business is transacted in the
place at the present day. We saw in one
part of Guildhall the figures of two monstrous
giants, called Gog and Magog. They stood,
or rather sat, one on each side of a large
window, looking very grimly down on the
spectators below. One of them was intended
to represent an ancient Briton, the other a
Returning from Guildhall, we took a sail
down the river Thames, to pay a visit to
Greenwich and Woolwich, two beautiful towns
just below the heart of London. 'We were
on board a small steamer that glided over the
water almost as swiftly as the wind. There
was a fiddler on board, who played some
merry tunes, also a man with a harp. The



music sounded very prettily on the water.
On our way down the river, we passed a great
number of boats, vessels, and steam-boats.
We had also an opportunity of seeing some-
thing of the immense docks of London, with
their forests of shipping.
We saw a steamboat made wholly of iron,
also the hull of a great man-of-war ship; the
latter serves as a prison house for criminals.
It had no masts, and was firmly anchored in
the river. Soon we reached Greenwich. Our
first visit here was to the fine Hospital, estab-
lished for old and infirm seamen, who receive
a pension from government. This is a noble
building, constructed of stone, and finely carved.
The old seamen looked very happy and con-
tented. Some of them were feeble in health;
others had lost one of their limbs; but all ap-
peared cheerful, well fed, and clothed. The
rooms belonging to some of them were fitted
up like the state rooms of a ship, and their
beds were as like to berths as possible. Many
of these old sailors take all the care of their
little chambers-make the beds, sweep, and
set them in order. This they do from choice,
not from necessity. They adorn the walls with
pictures and little ornaments, and seem to take



much pride and pleasure in keeping every
thing neat and clean. There are four thou-
sand persons in this hospital, of whom two
thousand seven hundred and ten are old pen-
sioners, one hundred and five are nurses, and
there are also about eight hundred boys, who
are here to be educated. Near the building,
where the boys are taught navigation, a small
vessel is placed, not in water but on land. It
is all rigged with masts and sails, and these
boys use this ship to learn the names of the
different parts, and become accustomed to them.
It looked strangely to see a ship on land, but
we thought it an excellent plan, as the boys,
who are expected to earn their living as sea-
men, obtain information from examining a real
ship, which fits them for future use. Just as
we were about to cross the street, after looking
at this ship, a poor lame man, who was sweep-
ing the dust away, took off his hat and asked
us to give him a penny for his labor. It is the
custom in London, and other places in Eng-
land, to employ poor, and often lame men, to
sweep the crossings, and they get their pay
from the people who pass by. When they see
a person coming, they pull off their hats and
say, a penny for sweeping, please your ho-


nor." We gave one to this man, and passed
on to view Greenwich Park, near which is the
famous Greenwich Observatory; from this
place many mathematical calculations are made.
The park contained some magnificent old oak
trees, said to have been planted by King Charles
the First. A little spotted deer came run-
ning up to us, as if expecting to receive some-
thing from our hands. It appeared quite tame,
as if accustomed to be fed by strangers. There
were a large number of these graceful little
animals skipping about, and feeding in dif-
ferent parts of the park.
From Greenwich we went to Woolwich, a
little farther down the river. This place is
also situated close to the water's edge. There
is a great arsenal here, and the English go-
vernment keep troops of soldiers, and an im-
mense quantity of powder, balls, cannon, and
guns, in readiness for war. We saw hundreds
of cannon, and thousands of large iron balls
piled up in heaps.
The troops looked very gay in their red and
blue uniforms, plumes, and bright swords, but
we could not help thinking how the scene
would change should war be declared. The
cannons that were then so quiet would be



loaded with those great balls, and, sending them
forth mid fire and smoke, would scatter thou-
sands of human beings to atoms. Those bright
swords would be red with blood, and hundreds
of strong and gaily dressed men would be
lying wounded and dying on the gory battle
field. What a terrible contrast! Let us ever
pray that the lands dear to us may be pre-
served from the fearful scourge of war.
We saw in Woolwich several very old can-
nons, which had been captured by the English
from other nations in time of war. Some were
American cannon, taken in the revolution;
others were brought from the bloody fields of
Waterloo. The English keep them as trophies
of bravery, but I should call them the relics
of barbarous contest. If mankind only obeyed
the precepts of the Saviour, there never would
be any occasion for strife between nations.
In a building not far from the arsenal, we
saw many beautiful models of ships and forts,
some of which were constructed after originals
in other countries. They were finely executed.
We returned to London, much pleased with
* our visit to Greenwich and Woolwich. But
our sight-seeing in the great metropolis was
not yet over. It would take too long a period


to describe all the objects worthy the attention
of strangers. I will only mention two more
of these, one of which gave me unspeakable
pleasure. This was a visit to Bunhill Fields,
a burying ground in London, where repose the
mortal remains of two great and good men,
John Bunyan and Isaac Watts. John Bunyan
wrote many excellent works, the most attrac-
tive, perhaps, of which is, "The Pilgrim's
Progress," a beautiful allegory,'in which is de-
scribed the journeying of the Christian from
this world to that which is to come. Isaac
Watts wrote those sweet hymns, so familiar to
our ears in sacred music; also, the little vo-
lume adapted to infant minds, which is so much
a favorite with the young. We came first to
the tomb of John Bunyan. It would be quite
natural to suppose that so eminent a man
would have some very handsome monument or
stone above his grave. But there was none.
His tomb was very plain, so plain that we
searched some little time to find it. On it was
carved a brief inscription:


The tall grass w s thickly growing around



it, and the green moss was covering it with little
patches of velvet. But this good man does not
need a monument that people may remember
him. He has one already in the hearts of
men. No one who has ever read his works will
forget him. There is a plan in contemplation
to erect a costly monument over his dust, but
should this never be done, his books will con-
tinue to be a nobler, and far more enduring one,
to his imperishable memory.
The tomb of Isaac Watts is almost as plain
as that of Bunyan. The inscription upon it
was written by himself; but while his body
sleeps the sleep of death below, his glorified
spirit chants the songs of heaven with the
angelic throng, in the presence of that God and
Saviour whose praises on earth he delighted
to sing more than all else beside. He, too,
has a monument in the hearts of men, and
wherever his hymns are sung, by young or
old, the name of Watts will be remembered
with gratitude and love. Many a timid heart
has been strengthened, many a mourner com-
forted, many a desponding spirit elevated and
gladdened, and many a child touched with
heavenly influences by the sweet devotional
strains which flowed from his almost inspired



pen. We saw in this cemetery the tombs
of many other good and eminent men, but
none to us were so attractive as those of
Watts and Bunyan. Their names had been
familiar to us from childhood, and there was
a charm about their graves which prompted
us to linger.
After viewing these interesting spots, we
went to visit Westminster Abbey, a beautiful
and venerable edifice which we had long de-
sired to see. The form of the Abbey is that
of a cross, its style is Gothic, and the mate-
rial is freestone richly carved. Its length,
from East to West, is three hundred and
seventy-five feet, its breadth, two hundred
feet, and its height, from the pavement to
the roof below the towers, one hundred and
one feet. We entered the Abbey by that
extremity known as "The Poet's Corner,'
and the first objects we saw were a long array
of monuments to the 'memories of England's
most distinguished poets, some of whom are
buried here. My eye rested first upon a very
elegant monument erected to the memory
of the immortal bard, William Shakspeare.
Upon it stood a sculptured figure, with a



scroll in its hand, on which were engraved
the following lines, written by the poet himself:

"The cloud-capped towers. the gorgeous palaces,
The solemn temples, the great globe itself,
Yea, all which it inherits, shall dissolve,
And like the baseless fabric of a vision
Leave not a trace behind."

Upon a monument near by, erected to John
Gay, we read, the following, written also by
Life is a jest, and all things show it,
I thought so once, but now I know it."

Next came monuments to Oliver Goldsmith,
Handel, the musician, Thomson, author of
the Seasons, Geoffrey Chaucer, who has been
styled the Morning Star of English Poetry,
Gray, Cowley, Pope, Prior, Dryden, John
Milton, Ben Jonson, and many other dis-
tinguished men, philosophers, divines, and
celebrated writers.
From the Poet's Corner, we proceeded to
the chapels of the Abbey, of which the nave
may be said to be full. There are nine of
them dedicated to nine different saints, with
one or two exceptions. They all opened into
the nave, and were very grand and beautiful.



The finest of them all was the one dedicated
to Henry VII. Among the many monuments
it contains was a magnificent one erected to
Mary, Queen of Scots, the beautiful but un-
fortunate victim of an untimely death. The
royal vault is also in this chapel, where many
of the Kings and Queens of England are
buried. The roof of the chapel is finely sculp-
tured in stone, and the sides are hung with
banners, helmets, and spears, relics of by-
gone days. The tomb of Henry VII. and
Elizabeth his Queen, is very grand and im-
posing. Figures of both, sculptured from
white marble, now gray with the dust of age,
lay extended side by side, on a slab of black
marble. In one of the side aisles near by, is
the tomb of Elizabeth, once Queen of Eng-
land. She is represented by a white marble
figure, habited in a long robe, with a wide ruff
in the neck, after the fashion of her time,
and with clasped hands, lies extended on a
marble sarcophagus. A kind of temple, sup-
ported by Grecian pillars, is over the tomb,
and the whole presented an impressive and
splendid appearance; but when we reflected
that a little dust below was all that remained
of England's once proud and powerful Queen,



the vanity of the lofty cenotaph became but
too visible, and its grandeur fell as a mist
from our eyes. Bloody Mary," as she has
been called in history, lies buried in this
chapel, also Edward VI., said to have been a
good youth, and who died at the early age of
sixteen. From this chapel, we passed into
the others in succession, all of which pos-
sessed many attractions both in extent and
beauty, and in being the resting places of il-
lustrious dead. In the chapel of Edward,
the Confessor, were two coronation chairs,
one of which was made in the year 1297:
a stone beneath it is said to have been Jacob's
pillow. The other chair was made for Queen
Mary II. Victoria was crowned in this. On
coronation days these chairs are covered with
gold tissue. The tombs of the Knight Tem-
plars, with their ancient suits of armor upon
them, are scattered over different parts of the
Abbey, and have a very striking appearance.
In the north transept also are many magni-
ficent tombs and monuments adorned with
figures and statues of exquisite workmanship.
A statue of William Wilberforce, a great and
good man, who died in 1833, was beautifully
executed. He was represented as sitting in



an easy position, with a countenance wearing
the finest expression I ever saw in marble.
Church service is held in the Abbey on
Sabbath days, and the choir sing there during
the week.
In visiting this place, the solemn grandeur
of its appearance, its associations with so many
illustrious dead, its profound stillness, and
often grave-like gloom, aided by the cold, grey
light of the high Gothic windows, when con-
trasted with the radiance of the stained ones,
produce a powerful effect upon the mind. In
the sublime beauty of the edifice, we had al-
most forgotten who were its occupants, the
tenants of the place, who slumber days, weeks
and years away, cradled in their costly marble
sepulchres. Alas! they are the dead! a peo-
ple who shall wake not out of their sleep till
the judgment trump breaks the seal of each
mouldering ear. Once they walked among the
living, possessed of like desires, appetites and
passions. But now, how are they changed?
The crown has fallen from the brow of the
monarch, the spear and the shield lie idle upon
the grave of the knight, the harp of the poet
is broken, and the eloquence of the statesman
is hushed forever! Beauty, royalty, genius,



and valor lie side by side; the gildings of rank
have faded, and there is no distinction among
the dust that awaits a summons to immortality.
What a lesson does such a scene, when accom-
panied with such reflections, read to us, con-
cerning the vanity of earthly fame, and the
fleeting nature of earthly enjoyments!
As we turned to leave the Abbey, the organ
commenced playing. It was a sacred chant,
and the effect of such music in such a place,
was almost indescribable. As the rich melody
was poured forth, now soft, now loud, the lofty
sculptured roof, and long, dim aisles seemed
to give it back with a thousand deep and thrill-
ing echoes. Louder and louder it swelled, un-
til every part of the Abbey was stirred with
the glorious sounds, save the closely shut graves
of the inanimate dead. We could have listened
for hours, and we did listen until the last notes
died softly away, then crossing the venerable
threshold, we mingled again with London's
busy world, whose din fell harshly upon our



Trip to Scotland-Grace Darling-Dundee-Montrose-
Aberdeen-Perth-Journey from Perth to Edinburgh.

HAVING spent some time with our friends in
London, and, in viewing the many wonders of
the great metropolis, we now turned our thoughts
toward Scotland, where also were other friends
and relatives, who were anticipating a visit
from us. Accordingly we embarked one fine
morning on board a steamer lying in the
Thames, and bound for Dundee from London.
After a delightful sail down the Thames, we
emerged into the North Sea or German Ocean,
and shaped our course toward Scotland. On
our way, we passed in view of the Farne Islands,
on one of which stands the lighthouse, where
resided Grace Darling, by whose wonder-
ful courage and skill, a large number of per-
sons were rescued from a watery grave a few
years ago. The Steamer Forfarshire, on her


way from London to Dundee, Scotland, caught
fire during the progress of a violent storm, so
that her crew and passengers were soon com-
pelled to abandon her. Part were lost, but a
number of persons succeeded in taking refuge
on a low range of rocks, in the vicinity of the
Farne Islands, which at low tide were just vis-
ible above the water. So terrible was the
tempest, and so difficult and dangerous was
navigation at such a time in the vicinity, that
it was deemed impossible by the stoutest hearts
on shore to rescue the sufferers from their per-
ilous situation. Just at this period when none
beside would venture, Grace Darling, the light-
house keeper's daughter, persuaded her father
to go out with her in a small boat, and attempt
their rescue. It was a great risk, a deed of
noble daring, and one which called for the ex-
ercise of the coolest courage and presence of
mind. But the mission of the heroic girl over
those stormy waves, was successful, and with her
father she had the exquisite pleasure of saving
the lives of no less than nine fellow beings.
This incident suggested to me the following
lines, descriptive of the scene:



Hark! hark! a wail, a fearful cry,
To land the strong winds bear,
In every tone is agony,
In every note despair.
Death hovers round yon scene of doom,
He lingers for his prey,
While open wide a watery tomb,
The rolling waves display.

They rear their foam-crests high, that crowd
Of living men they crave;
And shall they in their icy shroud
Enfold the good, the brave ?
O who shall rescue from the brink
Where ruin opens wide ?
The boldest landsmen shuddering, shrink,
To stem that awful tide.

Far, far away, upon the shore,
A simple maiden stands-
Snatched from a boat a slender oar
She grasps with eager hands.
The wild wind, as it hurries by,
Flings back her clustering hair,
While flashes from her earnest eye
A hope .that scorns despair.

"' My father! shall those men," she cries,
Be lost in yonder sea ?
In vain for aid their prayers arise,
It must not-cannot be !



)nmoor the boat, away, away!
I will not linger here;
This is no season for delay-
No time for doubt and fear.

"Heed, heed that wail of deep distress
To us the tempest bears ;
O let us prize our lives the less
Perchance to rescue theirs.
Fear not for me, my arm is strong,
My heart is stronger still;
And God, to whom these waves belong,
Can calm them at his will."

She ceased-her sire, inspired, unlashed
The boat and seized the oar,
And fearless o'er the billows dashed,
That laved the rock-bound shore.
There stood an angel bright, beside
The maiden at the helm,
He stayed the flood, he quelled the tide,
Nor dared a wave o'erwhelm.

She gazed upon the skies above,
The lightning' blazing path,
With holy faith, and hope, and love,
That awed the storm-god's wrath.
They reached the rock amid the waves,
Where fiercely raged the storm,
And rescued from those deep sea graves
Each pale despairing form.

Days passed; a glorious meed of fame
Time to that maiden bore,


And thousands breathed her hallo name,
Unheard, unknown before. "
She cared not for the great worlds praise,
Still nature's artless child,
And shrank from admiration's gaze,
A spirit undefiled.

But vain are wreaths to bind her brow,
Or song's sweet tributes given,
The world's applause she heeds not now,
Grace Darling is in heaven I
Religion's pure and holy light
Upon her pathway shone,
And crowned a life with virtue bright,
With rapture here unknown.

And while its rest her spirit takes
In yonder blissful sphere,
Her deed of noble daring makes
Her name immortal here.
The muse of England's poets, fired,
Shall waft it o'er the main,
And transatlantic bards, inspired,
Roll back the deathless strain.

In about thirty-six hours we found ourselves
sailing up the river Tay, with quite a pictur-
esque landscape on either side, and Dundee di-
rectly before us. Soon we landed, for the first
time, on old Scotia's soil. After resting from
the fatigue of our voyage, we went out to look
a little about us. Many of the people con-


versed 4th each other in a language as unin-
telligible o our ears, as the French is to a
person who does not understand it. This was
the broad Scotch dialect, and is spoken mostly
by the lower classes. Here we saw a regiment
of Highland soldiers, clad in their peculiar
costume: a short plaid skirt descending from
the waist, bare knees, and very high topped
boots. On their heads they wore plaid caps,
with buckles, and one or two drooping plumes.
This regiment was quartered here, and very
idle lives the soldiers seemed to lead. As I
have before remarked, a soldier's life in time
of peace, must be a tiresome one. Every day
brings to him the same monotonous round of
employment. He cannot absent himself from
the ranks without permission, which is only oc-
casionally given. Should he do so, he is ar-
rested and punished as a deserter. The rules
of military discipline are very strict on this
point. I recollect reading once an account of
a man who applied'to his commander for leave
of absence a short time, in order to visit his
aged mother, who lay sick and dying. His re-
quest was denied, but he managed to escape
privately,, hoping to return before he should
be missed. He was pursued, brought back,


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