Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Back Cover

Group Title: Abbott's histories
Title: History of Romulus
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001953/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of Romulus
Series Title: Abbott's histories
Physical Description: 310, <4>, <4> p., <2> leaves of plates : ill., maps ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abbott, Jacob, 1803-1879
Sinclair, Thomas S., ca. 1805-1881 ( Engraver )
Mapleson, T. W. Gwilt ( Thomas W. Gwilt ), 1814 or 15-1852 ( Engraver )
Doepler, Carl Emil, 1824-1905 ( Illustrator )
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Bobbett & Edmonds ( Engraver )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1852
Subject: History -- Rome -- To 510 B.C   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Biographies   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Jacob Abbott.
General Note: Added title page printed in color by T. Sinclair.
General Note: "Illuminated title-page from a design by Gwilt Mapleson"- p. <11>
General Note: "With engravings."
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
General Note: Illustrations drawn by C.E. Doepler and engraved by Bobbett & Edmonds.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001953
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002220818
oclc - 00803885
notis - ALG1027
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page 1
        Front page 2
        Front page 3
        Front page 4
        Front page 5
        Front page 6
    Half Title
        Front page 7
        Front page 8
        Front page 9
    Title Page
        Front page 10
        Front page 11
        Front page 12
        Front page 13
    Table of Contents
        Front page 14
        Front page 15
    List of Illustrations
        Front page 16
        Front page 17
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Full Text

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339 & 331 PEARL STREET,

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by

In the Clerk's Office fbr the Southern District of New York.


IN writing the series of historical narratives to
which the present work pertains, it has been the
object of the author to furnish to the reading com-
munity of this country an accurate and faithful
account of the lives and actions of the several per-
sonages that are made successively the subjects of
the volumes, following precisely the story which has
come down to us from ancient times. The writer
has spared no pains to gain access in all cases to the
original sources of information, and has confined
himself strictly to them. The reader may, therefore,
feel assured in perusing any one of these works, that
the interest of it is in no degree indebted to the inven-
tion of the author. No incident, however trivial, is
ever added to the original account, nor are any words
even, in any case, attributed to a speaker without
express authority. Whatever of interest, therefore,
these stories may possess, is due solely to the facts
themselves which are recorded in them, and to their
being brought together in a plain, simple, and con-
nected narrative.




I. CADMUS ....... .... ......... .. ... .... 18
U. CADMUS'S LETTE S. ...... ................. .... 86
IIL THE STORY OF ANEAS.......................... 59
IV. THE DESTRUCTION OF TROY ......................... 9
V. THE FLIGHT OF SNEAS.. ...................... 103
YI. THE LANDING IN LATIUM....................... 181
VI. RHEA SILVIA................................ 165
VIIL THE TWINS .................................. 119
IX. THE FOUNDING OF ROME......................... 202
X. ORGANIZATION.................................. 225
XL WIVES ...................................... 248
XII. THE SABINE WAR ......... ........... ......... 270
XIII. THE CONCLUSION.... ..... .. ............... 295



THE HARPIES ............................ Frontispiece.
JUPITER AND EUROPA .............................. 28
MAP-JOURNEYINGS OF CADMUS ........ ................ 0
SYMBOLICAL WRITING................... ............. 87
HIEROGLYPHICS.... ............................... 66
MAP- ORIGIN OF VENUS ............................ 61
THE TORTOISE ......... ......... ... ............ ... 98
HELEN ........... .................. .............. 106
MAP-WANDERINGS OF ANEAS....................... 119
MAP-LATIUM....................................... 134
SILVIA'S STAG. .................................... .145
RHEA SILVIA. ................ ..................... 180
FAUSTULUS AND THE TWINS. ............................ 184
SITUATION OF ROME .............................. .209
PROMISING THE BRACELETS.......................... 284
THE DEATH OF ROMULUS ............................. 805

TaN ILLUMINATED TITLK-PAGE, from a design by Gwilt Mapleson
presents, in the border, an imitation of the Roman tesselated pave
ment, and in the vignette a view of ruins at Rome.



Different kinds of greatness.
SOME men are renowned in history on ac-
count of the extraordinary powers and
capacities which they exhibited in the course
of their career, or the intrinsic greatness of
the deeds which they performed. Others,
without having really achieved any thing in
itself very great or wonderful, have become
widely known to mankind by reason of the
vast consequences which, in the subsequent
course of events, resulted from their doings.
Men of this latter class are conspicuous rather
than great. From among thousands of other
men equally exalted in character with them-
selves, they are brought out prominently to
the notice of mankind only in consequence of
the strong light reflected, by great events sub-

14 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Founders of cities. Rome. Interest in respect to its origin.
sequently occurring, back upon the position
where they happened to stand.
The celebrity of Romulus seems to be of
this latter kind. He founded a city. A
thousand other men have founded cities ; and
in doing their work have evinced perhaps as
much courage, sagacity, and mental power as
Romulus displayed. The city of Romulus,
however, became in the end the queen and
mistress of the world. It rose to so exalted a
position of influence and power, and retained
its ascendency so long, that now for twenty
centuries every civilized nation in the western
world have felt a strong interest in every thing
pertaining to its history, and have been accus-
tomed to look back with special curiosity to
the circumstances of its origin. In conse-
quence of this it has happened that though
Romulus, in his actual day, performed no
very great exploits, and enjoyed no pre-emi-
nence above the thousand other half-savage
chieftains of his class, whose names have been
long forgotten, and very probably while he
lived never dreamed of any extended fame,
yet so brilliant is the illumination which the
subsequent events of history have shed upon
his position and his doings, that his name and

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS. 16
The story of Rea. The Meditrranea se.
the incidents of his life have been brought out
very conspicuously to view, and attract very
strongly the attention of mankind.

The history of Rome is usually made to be-
gin with the story of Eneas. In order that
the reader may understand in what light that
romantic tale is to be regarded, it is necessary
to premise some statements in respect to the
general condition of society in ancient days,
and to the nature of the strange narrations,
circulated in those early periods among man-
kind, out of which in later ages, when the art
of writing came to be introduced, learned
men compiled and recorded what they termed
The countries which formed the shores of
the Mediterranean sea were as verdant and
beautiful, in those ancient days, and perhaps
as fruitful and as densely populated as in
modern times. The same Italy and Greece
were there then as now. There were the same
blue and beautiful seas, the same mountains,
the same picturesque and enchanting shores,
the same smiling valleys, and the same serene
and genial sky. The level lands were tilled
industriously by a rural population corre-

Italy and Greece in ancient times, and now.

spending in all essential points of character
with the peasantry of modern times; and
shepherds and herdsmen, then as now, hunted
the wild beasts, and watched their flocks and
herds, on the declivities of the mountains. In
a word, the appearance of the face of nature,
and the performance of the great function of
the social state, namely, the procuring of food
and clothing for man by the artificial cultiva-
tion of animal and vegetable life, were sub-
stantially the same on the shores of the Medi-
terranean two thousand years ago as now.
Even the plants and the animals themselves
which the ancient inhabitants reared, have
undergone no essential change. Their sheep
and oxen and horses were the same as ours.
So were their grapes, their apples, and their
If, however, we leave the humbler classes
and occupations of society, and turn our at-
tention to those which represent the refine-
ment, the cultivation, and the power, of the
two respective periods, we shall find that al-
most all analogy fails. There was an aris-
tocracy then as now, ruling over the widely-
extended communities of peaceful agricultu-
ralists and herdsmen, but the members of it

[ROCS 1506.



B.C. 1500.] CADMUS. 11
Ancient chieftains. Their modes of life.

were entirely different in their character,
their tastes, their ideas, and their occupations
from the classes which exercise the preroga-
tives of government in Europe in modern
times. The nobles then were military chief-
tains, living in camps or in walled cities, which
they built for the accommodation of them-
selves and their followers. These chieftains
were not barbarians. They were in a certain
sense cultivated and refined. They gathered
around them in their camps and in their courts
orators, poets, statesmen, and officers of every
grade, who seem to have possessed the same
energy, genius, taste, and in some respects the
same scientific skill, which have in all ages
and in every clime characterized the upper
classes of the Caucasian race. They carried
all the arts which were necessary for their
purposes and plans to high perfection, and in
the invention of tales, ballads and poems, to
be recited at their entertainments and feasts,
they evinced the most admirable taste and
skill ;-a taste and skill which, as they resulted
not from the operation and influence of arti-
ficial rules, but from the unerring instinct of
genius, have never been surpassed. In fact,
the poetical inventions of those early days, far

18 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Religious ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

from having been produced in conformity
with rules, were entirely precedent to rules, in
the order of time. Rules were formed from
them; for they at length became established
themselves in the estimation of mankind, as
models, and on their authority as models,
the whole theory of rhetorical and poetical
beauty now mainly reposes.
The people of those days formed no idea of
a spiritual world, or of a spiritual divinity.
They however imagined, that heroes of former
days still continued to live and to reign in
certain semi-heavenly regions among the sum-
mits of their blue and beautiful mountains,
and that they were invested there with attri-
butes in some respects divine. In addition to
these divinities, the fertile fancy of those
ancient times filled the earth, the air, the sea,
and the sky with imaginary beings, all most
graceful and beautiful in their forms, and
,poetical in their functions,-and made them
the subjects, too, of innumerable legends and
tales, as graceful, poetical, and beautiful as
themselves. Every grove, and fountain, and
river,-every lofty summit among the moun-
tains, and every rock and promontory along
the shores of the sea,-every cave, every val.

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS. 19
Anient studies of nature. Purpose of them.
ley, every water-fall, had its imaginary occu-
pant,-the genius of the spot; so that every
natural object which attracted public notice at
all, was the subject of some picturesque and
romantic story. In a word, nature was not,
explored then as now, for the purpose of as-
certaining and recording cold and scientific
realities,-but to be admired, and embellish-
ed, and animated ;-and to be peopled, every-
where, with exquisitely beautiful, though ima-
ginary and supernatural, life and action.
What the genius of imagination and ro-
mance did thus in ancient times with the
scenery of nature, it did also on the field of
history. Men explored that field not at all to
learn sober and actual realities, but to find
something that they might embellish and
adorn, and animate with supernatural and
marvelous life. What the sober realities
might have actually been, was of no interest
or moment to them whatever. There were no
scholars then as now, living in the midst of
libraries, and finding constant employment,
and a never-ending pleasure, in researches
for the simple investigation of the truth.
There was in fact no retirement, no seclusion,
no study. Every thing except what related to

20 ROMUL s. [B.C. 1500.
History. Ancient poems and tales.

the mere daily toil of tilling the ground bore
direct relation to military expeditions, spec-
tacles and parades; and the only field for the
exercise of that kind of intellectual ability
which is employed in modern times in inves-
tigating and recording historic truth, was the
invention and recitation of poems, dramas and
tales, to amuse great military audiences in
camps or public gatherings, convened to wit-
ness shows or games, or to celebrate great re-
ligious festivals. Of course under such cir-
cumstances there would be no interest felt in
truth as truth. Romance and fable would be
far more serviceable for such ends than re-
Still it is obvious that such tales as were in-
vented to amuse for the purposes we have de-
scribed, would have a deeper interest for
those who listened to them, if founded in
some measure upon fact, and connected in
respect to the scene of their occurrence, with
real localities. A prince and his court sitting
at their tables in the palace or the tent, at the
close of a feast, would listen with greater in-
terest to a story that purported to be an ac-
count of the deeds and the marvelous adven-
tures of their own ancestors, than to one that

How far founded in fact Cadmus.

was wholly and avowedly imaginary. The
inventors of these tales would of course gen-
erally choose such subjects, and their narra-
tions would generally consist therefore rather
of embellishments of actual transactions, than
of inventions wholly original. Their heroes
were consequently real men; the principal
actions ascribed to them were real actions,
and the places referred to were real localities.
Thus there was a semblance of truth and real-
ity in all these tales which added greatly to
the interest of them; while there were no
means of ascertaining the real truth, and thus
spoiling the story by making the falsehood or
improbability of it evident and glaring.
We cannot well have a better illustration
of these principles than is afforded by the
story of Cadmus, an adventurer who was said
to have brought the knowledge of alphabetic
writing into Greece from some countries
farther eastward. In modern times there is a
very strong interest felt in ascertaining the
exact truth on this subject. The art of writ-
ing with alphabetic characters was so great
an invention, and it has exerted so vast an in-
fluence on the condition and progress of man-
kind since it was introduced, that a very


B.C. 1500o.]


22 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Interest felt in respect to the origin of writing.
strong interest is now felt in every thing that
can be ascertained as actually fact, in respect
to its origin. If it were possible now to de-
termine under what circumstances the method
of representing the elements of sound by
written characters was first devised, to dis-
cover who it was that first conceived the idea,
and what led him to make the attempt, what
difficulties he encountered, to what purposes
he first applied his invention, and to what re-
sults it led, the whole world would take a
very strong interest in the revelation. The
essential point, however, to be observed, is
that it is the real truth in respect to the sub-
ject that the world are now interested in
knowing. Were a romance writer to invent
a tale in respect to the origin of writing, how-
ever ingenious and entertaining it might be
in its details, it would excite in the learned
world at the present day no interest whatever.
There is in fact no account at present ex-
isting in respect to the actual origin of alpha-
betic characters, though there is an account
of the circumstances under which the art
was brought into Europe from Asia, where it
seems to have been originally invented. We
will give the facts, first in their simple form,

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS. 23
True story of Cadmus. His father Agenor. Europa.

and then the narrative in the form in which
it was related in ancient times, as embellished
by the ancient story-tellers.
The facts then, as now generally under-
stood and believed, are, that there was a cer-
tain king in some country in Africa, named
Agenor, who lived about 1500 years before
Christ. He had a daughter named Europa,
and several sons. Among his sons was one
named Cadmus. Europa was a beautiful girl,
and after a time a wandering adventurer from
some part of the northern shores of the Med-
iterranean sea, came into Africa, and was so
much pleased with her that he resolved if
possible, to obtain her for his wife. He did
not dare to make proposals openly, and he
accordingly disguised himself and mingled
with the servants upon Agenor's farm. In this
disguise he succeeded in making acquaint-
ance with Europa, and finally persuaded her
to elope with him. The pair accordingly fled,
and crossing the Mediterranean, they went to
Crete, an island near the northern shores of
the sea, and there they lived together.
The father, when he found that his daugh-
ter had deceived him and gone away, was
very indignant, and sent Cadmus and his

24 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Telephassa. The pursuit of Europa. Fruitless result.

brothers in pursuit of her. The mother of
Europa, whose name was Telephassa, though
less indignant perhaps than the father, was
overwhelmed with grief at the loss of her
child, and determined to accompany her sons
in the search. She accordingly took leave
of her husband and of her native land, and
set out with Cadmus and her other sons on
the long journey in search of her lost child.
Agenor charged his sons never to come home
again unless they brought Europa with them.
Cadmus, with his mother and brothers,
traveled slowly toward the northward, along
the eastern shores of the Mediterranean sea,
inquiring everywhere for the fugitive. They
passed through Syria and Phenicia, into Asia
Minor, and from Asia Minor into Greece.
At length Telephassa, worn down, perhaps,
by fatigue, disappointment, and grief, died.
Cadmus and his brothers soon after became
discouraged; and at last, weary with their
wanderings, and prevented by their father's
injunction from returning without Europa,
they determined to settle in Greece. In at-
tempting to establish themselves there, how-
ever, they became involved in various con-
flicts, first with wild beasts, and afterward

Cadmus settles in Greece. Thebes. Arts introduced by him.

with men, the natives of the land, who seemed
to spring up, as it were, from the ground, to
oppose them. They contrived, however, at
length, by fomenting quarrels among their
enemies, and taking sides with one party
against the rest, to get a permanent footing
in Greece, and Cadmus finally founded a city
there, which he called Thebes.
In establishing the institutions and govern-
ment of Thebes, and in arranging the organi-
zation of the people into a social state, Cadmus
introduced among them several arts, which,
in that part of the country, had been before
unknown. One of these arts was the use of
copper, which metal he taught his new sub-
jects to procure from the ore obtained in
mines. There were several others; but the
most important of all was that he taught them
sixteen letters representing elementary voca'
sounds, by means of which inscriptions of
words could be carved upon monuments, or
upon tablets of metal or of stone.
It is not supposed that the idea of rep-
resenting the elements of vocal sounds by
characters originated with Cadmus, or that
he invented the characters himself. He
brought them with him undoubtedly, but


B.C. 1500.3


26 ROMULUs. [B.C. 1500.
The ancient legend of Cadmus. Jupiter.

whether from Egypt or Phenicia, can not now
be known.
Such are the facts of the case, as now gen-
erally understood and believed. Let us now
compare this simple narration with the ro-
mantic tale which the early story-tellers made
from it. The legend, as they relate it, is as
Jupiter was a prince born and bred among
the summits of Mount Ida, in Crete. His
father's name was Saturn. Saturn had made
an agreement that he would cause all his sons
to be slain, as soon as they were born. This
was to appease his brother, who was his rival,
and who consented that Saturn should con-
tinue to reign only on that condition.
Jupiter's mother, however, was very un-
willing that her boys should be thus cruelly
put to death, and she contrived to conceal
three of them, and save them. The three
thus preserved were brought up among the
solitudes of the mountains, watched and at-
tended by nymphs, and nursed by a goat.
After they grew up, they engaged from time
to time in various wars, and met with various
wonderful adventures, until at length Jupiter,
the oldest of them, succeeded, by means of

Adventures of Jupiter. His love for Europa.
thunderbolts which he caused to be forged
for his use, in vast subterranean caverns be-
neath Mount Etna and Mount Vesuvius, con-
quered all his enemies, and became universal
king. He, however, divided his empire be-
tween himself and his brothers, giving to
them respectively the command of the sea
and of the subterranean regions, while he
reserved the earth and the heavenly regions
for himself.
He established his usual abode among the
mountains of Northern Greece, but he often
made excursions to and fro upon the earth,
appearing in various disguises, and meeting
with a great number of strange and marvel-
ous adventures. In the course of these wan-
derings he found his way at one time into
Egypt, and to the dominions of Agenor,-and
there he saw Agenor's beautiful daughter,
Europa. He immediately determined to make
her his bride; and to secure this object he
assumed the form of a very finely shaped and
beautiful bull, and in this guise joined him-
self to Agenor's herds of cattle. Europa
soon saw him there. She was much pleased
with the beauty of his form, and finding him
gentle and kind in disposition, she approached

B.C. 1500.]





His elopement.

is. [B.C. 1500.
Jupiter and Europa in Crete.

him, patted his glossy neck and sides, and in
other similar ways gratified the prince by
marks of her admiration and pleasure. She


was at length induced by some secret and
magical influence which the prince exerted
over her, to mount upon his back, and allow
herself to be borne away. The bull ran with
his burden to the shore, and plunged into
the waves. He swain across the sea to Crete,"
See mnp. p. 30.

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS. 29
The expedition of Cadmus. His various wandering.

and there, resuming his proper form, he
made the princess his bride.
Agenor and Telephassa, when they found
that their daughter was gone, were in great
distress, and Agenor immediately determined
to send his sons on an expedition in pursuit
of her. The names of his sons were Cadmus,
Phoenix, Cylix, Thasus, and Phineus. Cad-
mus, as the oldest son, was to be the director
of the expedition. Telephassa, the mother,
resolved to accompany them, so overwhelmed
was she with affliction at the loss of her
daughter. Agenor himself was almost equally
oppressed with the calamity which had over-
whelmed them, and he charged his sons never
to come home again until they could bring
Europa with them.
Telephassa and her sons wandered for a
time in the countries east of the Mediterra-
nean sea, without being able to obtain any
tidings of the fugitive. At length they passed
into Asia Minor, and from Asia Minor into
Thrace, a country lying north of the Egean
Sea. Finding no traces of their sister in any
of these countries, the sons of Agenor became
discouraged, and resolved to make no farther
search; and Telephassa, exhausted with anxi-



Death of Telephassa.

s. [B.C. 1500.
Visit to the oracle at Delphi.

ety and fatigue, and now overwhelmed with
the thought that all hope must be finally
abandoned, sank down and died.


Cadmus and his brothers were much af-
fected at their mother's death. They made
arrangements for her burial, in a manner be-
fitting her high rank and station, and when
the funeral solemnities had been performed,
Cadmus repaired to the oracle at Delphi,
which was situated in the northern part of

The directions of the oracle. Oadmus finds his guide.

Greece, not very far from Thrace, in order
that he might inquire there whether there
was any thing more that he could do to re-
cover his lost sister, and if so to learn what
course he was to pursue. The oracle replied to
him that he must search for his sister no more,
but instead of it turn his attention wholly to
the work of establishing a home and a king-
dom for himself, in Greece. To this end he
was to travel on in a direction indicated, until
he met with a cow of a certain kind, described
by the oracle, and then to follow the cow
wherever she might lead the way, until at
length, becoming fatigued, she should stop
and lie down. Upon the spot where the cow
should lie down he was to build a city and
make it his capital.
Cadmus obeyed these directions of the ora-
cle. He left Delphi and went on, attended,
as he had been in all his wanderings, by a
troop of companions and followers, until at
length in the herds of one of the people of
the country, named Pelagon, he found a cow
answering to the description of the oracle.
Taking this cow for his guide, he followed
wherever she led the way. She conducted
him toward the southward and eastward for

B.C. 1500.J



32 RoMu LU [B.C. 1500.
The place for his city determined. The fountain of Diroe.

thirty or forty miles, and at length wearied
apparently, by her long journey, she lay
down. Cadmus knew immediately that this
was the spot where his city was to stand.
He began immediately to make arrange-
ments for the building of the city, but' he de-
termined first to offer the cow that had been
his divinely appointed guide to the spot, as a
sacrifice to Minerva, whom he always consid-
ered as his guardian goddess.
Near the spot where the cow lay down there
was a small stream which issued from a foun-
tain not far distant, called the fountain of
Dirce. Cadmus sent some of his men to the
place to obtain some water which it was ne-
cessary to use in the ceremonies of the sacri-
fice. It happened, however, that this fountain
was a sacred one, having been consecrated to
Mars,-and there was a great dragon, a son
of Mars, stationed there to guard it. The
men whom Cadmus sent did not return, and
accordingly Cadmus himself, after waiting a
suitable time, proceeded to the spot to as-
certain the cause of the delay. He found
that the dragon had killed his men, and at
the time when he arrived at the spot, the mon-
ster was greedily devouring the bodies. Cad-

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS. 33
The dragon's teeth. Thebes built. Cadmia.

mus immediately attacked the dragon and
slew him, and then tore his teeth out of his
head, as trophies of his victory. Minerva had
assisted Cadmus in this combat, and when it
was ended she directed him to plant the teeth
of the dragon in the ground. Cadmus did so,
and immediately a host of armed men sprung
up from the place where he had planted them.
Cadmus threw a stone among these armed
men, when they immediately began to con-
tend together in a desperate conflict, until at
length all but five of them were slain. These
five then joined themselves to Cadmus, and
helped him to build his city.
He went on very successfully after this.
The city which he built was Thebes, which
afterward became greatly celebrated. The
citadel which he erected within, he called,
from his own name, Cadmia.
Such were the legends which were related
in ancient poems and tales; and it is obvious
that such narratives must have been composed
to entertain groups of listeners whose main
desire was to be excited and amused, and not
to be instructed. The stories were believed,
no doubt, and the faith which the hearer felt
in their truth added of course very greatly to

34 RoMULUs. [B.C. 1500.
Ancient ideas of probability. Belief in supernatural tales.

the interest which they awakened in his mind.
The stories are amusing to us; but it is im-
possible for us to share in the deep and sol-
emn emotion with which the ancient audiences
listened to them, for we have not the power,
as they had, of believing them. Such tales
related in respect to the great actors on the
stage in modern times, would awaken no in-
terest, for there is too general a diffusion both
of historical and philosophical knowledge to
render it possible for any one to suppose them
to be true. But those for whom the story of
Europa was invented, had no means of know-
ing how wide the Mediterranean sea might
be, and whether a bull might not swim across
it. They did not know but that Mars might
have a dragon for a son, and that the teeth of
such a dragon might not, when sown in the
ground, spring up in the form of a troop of
armed men. They listened therefore to the
tale with an interest all the more earnest and
solemn on account of the marvelousness of
the recital. They repeated it word for word
to one another, around their camp-fires, at their
feasts, in their journeyings,-and when watch-
ing their flocks at midnight, among the soli-
tudes of the mountains. Thus the tales were

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS. 35
Final recording of the ancient tales.

handed down from generation to generation,
until at length the use of the letters of Cad-
mus became so far facilitated, that continuous
narrations could be expressed by mpans of
them; and then they were put permanently
upon record in many forms, and were thus
transmitted without any farther change to the
present age.

36 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Two modes of writing. Symbols. Example.



THERE are two modes essentially distinct
from each other, by which ideas may be
communicated through the medium of inscrip-
tions addressed to the eye. These two modes
are, first, by symbolical, and secondly, by
phonetic characters. Each of these two sys-
tems assumes, in fact, within itself, quite a
variety of distinct forms, though it is only the
general characteristics which distinguish the
two great classes from each other, that we
shall have occasion particularly to notice
Symbolical writing consists of characters
intended severally to denote ideas or things,
and not words. A good example of true
symbolical writing is to be found in a cer-
tain figure often employed among the archi-
tectural decorations of churches, as an em-
blem of the Deity. It consists of a triangle

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS'S LETTERS. 37
Example. Symbol of the Deity. Ancient symbols

representing the Trinity,
with the figure of an eye
in the middle of it. The
eye is intended to denote
the divine omniscience.
Such a character as this, is
obviously the symbol of an
idea, not the representative of a word. It
may be read Jehovah, or God, or the Deity,
or by any other word or phrase by which men)
are accustomed to denote the Supreme Being.
It represents, in fine, the idea, and not any
particular word by which the idea is ex-
The first attempts of men to preserve rec-
ords of facts by means of inscriptions, have,
in all ages, and among all nations, been of
this character. At first, the inscriptions so
made were strictly pictures, in which the
whole scene intended to be commemorated
was represented, in rude carvings. In process
of time substitutions and abridgments were
adopted in lieu of full representations, and
these grew at length into a system of hiero-
glyphical characters, some natural, and others
more or less arbitrary, but all denoting ideas
or things, and not the sounds of words. These

38 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
The Egyptian hieroglyphics phonetic. Natural symbols.

characters are of the kind usually understood
by the word hieroglyphics ; though that word
can not now with strict accuracy be applied as
a distinctive appellation, since it has been as-
certained in modern times that a large portion
of the Egyptian hieroglyphics are of such a
nature as brings them within the second of
the two classes which we are here describing;
that is, the several delineations represent the
sounds and syllables of words, instead of
being symbols of ideas or things.
It happened that in some cases in this spe-
cies of writing, as used in ancient times, the
characters which were employed presented in
their form some natural resemblance to the
thing signified, and in other cases they were
wholly arbitrary. Thus, the figure of a scep-
ter denoted a king, that of a lion, strength;
and two warriors, one with a shield, and the
other advancing toward the first with a bow
and arrow, represented a battle. We use in
fact a symbol similar to the last-mentioned
one at the present day, upon maps, where we
often see a character formed by two swords
crossed, employed to represent a battle.
The ancient Mexicans had a mode of writ-
ing which seems to have been symbolical in


Mexican record. Arbitrary symbols.

its character, and their characters had, many
of them at least, a natural signification. The
different cities and towns were represented by
drawings of such simple objects as were char-
acteristic of them respectively; as a plant, a
tree, an article of manufacture, or any other
object by which the place in question was
most easily and naturally to be distinguished
from other places. In one of their inscrip-
tions, for example, there was a character rep-
resenting a king, and before it four heads.
Each of the heads was accompanied by the
symbol of the capital of a province, as above
described. The meaning of the whole inscrip-
tion was that in a certain tumult or insurrec-
tion the king caused the governors of the four
cities to be beheaded.
But though, in this symbolical mode of
writing, a great many ideas and events could
be represented thus, by means of signs or
symbols having a greater or less resemblance
to the thing signified, yet in many cases the
characters used were wholly arbitrary. They
were in this respect like the character which
we use to denote dollars, as a prefix to a num-
ber expressing money; for this character is a
sort of symbol, that is, it represents a thing


40 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Advantages of the symbolical mode of writing.

rather than a word. Our numerals, too, 1, 2,
3, &c., are in some respects of the character
of symbols. That is, they stand directly for
the numbers themselves, and not for the
sounds of the words by which the numbers
are expressed. Hence, although the people
of different European nations understand them
all alike, they read them, in words, very dif-
ferently. The Englishman reads them by one
set of words, the Spaniard by another, and
the German and the Italian by others still.
The symbolical mode of writing possesses
some advantages which must not be over-
looked. It speaks directly to the eye, and
is more full of meaning than the Phonetic
method, though the meaning is necessarily
more vague and indistinct, in some respects,
while it is less so in others. For example,
in an advertising newspaper, the simple fig-
ure of a house, or of a ship, or of a loco-
motive engine, at the head of anJ advertise-
ment, is a sort of hieroglyphic, which says
much more plainly and distinctly, and in
much shorter time, than any combination of
letters could do, that what follows it is an
advertisement relating to a house, or a vessel,
or a railroad. In the same manner, the an-

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS's LETTERS. 41
The meaning of them more easily understood.

cient representations on monuments and col.
umns would communicate, perhaps more rap-
idly and readily to the passer-by, an idea of
the battles, the sieges, the marches, and the
other great exploits of the monarchs whose
history they were intended to record, than an
inscription in words would have done.
Another advantage of the symbolical rep-
resentations as used in ancient times, was
that their meaning could be more readily
explained, and would be more easily remem-
bered, and so explained again, than written
words. To learn to read literal writing in
any language, is a work of very great labor.
It is, in fact, generally found that it must be
commenced early in life, or it can not be ac-
complished at all. An inscription, therefore,
in words, on a Mexican monument, that a
certain king suppressed an insurrection, and
beheaded the governors of four of his prov-
inces, would be wholly blind and unintelli-
gible to the mass of the population of such a
country; and if the learned sculptor who
inscribed it, were to attempt to explain it to
them, letter by letter, they would forget the
beginning of the lesson before reaching the
end of it,-and could never be expected to

Comparison of the two systems.

attempt extending the knowledge by making
known the interpretation which they had re-
ceived to others in their turn. But the royal
scepter, with the four heads before it, each of
the heads accompanied by the appropriate
symbol of the city to which the possessor of
it belonged, formed a symbolical congeries
which expressed its meaning at once, and
very plainly, to the eye. The most ignorant
and uncultivated could readily understand it.
Once understanding it, too, they could never
easily forget it; and they could, without any
difficulty, explain it fully to others as ignorant
and uncultivated as themselves.
It might seem, at first view, that a symbol-
ical mode of writing must be more simple in
its character than the system now in use, in-
asmuch as by that plan each idea or object
would be expressed by one character alone,
whereas, by our mode of writing, several
characters, sometimes as many as eight or
ten, are required to express a word, which
word, after all, represents only one single
object or idea. But notwithstanding this ap-
parent simplicity, the system of symbolical
writing proved to be, when extensively em-
ployed, extremely complicated and intricate.

[B.C. 15;000




Further comparison of the two system.

It is true that each idea required but one
character, but the number of ideas and ob-
jects, and of words expressive of their rela-
tions to one another, is so vast, that the sys-
tem of representing them by independent
symbols, soon lost itself in an endless intricacy
of detail. Then, besides,-notwithstanding
what has been said of the facility with which
symbolical inscriptions could be interpreted,
-they were, after all, extremely difficult to
be understood without interpretation. An
inscription once explained, the explanation
was easily understood and remembered; but
it was very difficult to understand one in-
tended to express any new communication.
The system was, therefore, well adapted to
commemorate what was already known, but
was of little service as a mode of communi-
cating knowledge anew.
We come now to consider the second grand
class of written characters, namely, the pho-
netic, the class which Cadmus introduced into
Greece, and the one almost universally adopt-
ed among all the European nations at the
present day. It is called Phonetic, from a
Greek word denoting sound, because the
characters which are used do not denote


44 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Two modes of representing the idea of a battle.

directly the thing itself which is signified, but
the sounds made in speaking the word which
signifies it. Take, for in-
stance, the two modes of
representing a conflict be-
tween two contending ar-
mies, one by the symbolic
delineation of two swords
crossed, and the other by
the phonetic delineation of
T the letters of the word bat-
tle. They are both inscrip-
tions. The beginning of
the first represents the handle of the sword,
a part, as it were, of the thing signified. The
beginning of the second, the letter b, repre-
sents the pressing of the lips together, by
which we commence pronouncing the word.
Thus the one mode is symbolical, and the
other phonetic.
On considering the two methods, as exem-
plified in this simple instance, we shall ob-
serve that what has already been pointed out
as characteristic of the two modes is here seen
to be true. The idea is conveyed in the sym-
bolical mode by one character, while by the
phonetic it requires no less than six. This

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS'S LETTERS. 45
Great advantages of the phonetic mode of writing.

seems at first view to indicate a great advan-
tage possessed by the symbolical system.
But on reflection this advantage is found en-
tirely to disappear. For the symbolical char-
acter, though it is only one, will answer for
only the single idea which it denotes. Neither
itself nor any of its elements will aid us in
forming a symbol for any other idea; and as
the ideas, objects, and relations which it is
necessary to be able to express, in order to
make free and full communications in any
language, are from fifty to a hundred thou-
sand,-the step which we have taken, though
very simple in itself, is the beginning of a
course which must lead to the most endless
intricacy and complication. Whereas in the
six phonetic characters of the word battle, we
have elements which can be used again and
again, in the expression of thousands of other
ideas. In fact, as the phonetic characters
which are found necessary in most languages
are only about twenty-four, we have in that
single word accomplished one quarter of the
whole task, so far as the delineation of char-
acters is concerned, that is necessary for ex-
Dressing by writing any possible combination
of ideas which human language can convey.

Uncertainty of the origin of phonetic writing.

At what time and in what manner the tran-
sition was made among the ancient nations
from the symbolic to the phonetic mode of
writing, is not now known. When in the
flourishing periods of the Grecian and Roman
states, learned men explored the literary
records of the various nations of the East,
writings were found in all, which were ex-
pressed in phonetic characters, and the alpha-
bets of these characters were found to be so
analogous to each other, in the names and
order, and in some respects in the forms, of
the letters, as to indicate strongly something
like community of origin. All the attempts,
however, which have been made to ascertain
the origin of the system, have wholly failed,
and no account of them goes farther back
than to the time when Cadmus brought them
from Phenicia or Egypt into Greece.
The letters which Cadmus brought were in
number sixteen. The following table presents
a view of his alphabet, presenting in the sev-
eral columns, the letters themselves as subse-
quently written in Greece, the Greek names
given to them, and their power a, represented
by the letters now in use. The forms, it will
be seen, have been but little changed.



[B.C. 15oo,

B.C. 1500.] CAI
Cadmus's alphabet.
Greek letters.


Difficulties attending the introduction of it.

Greek names.

English representatives.

The phonetic alphabet of Cadmus, though
so vastly superior to any system of symbolical
hieroglyphics, for all purposes where any
thing like verbal accuracy was desired, was
still very slow in coming into general use. It
was of course, at first, very difficult to write it,
and very difficult to read it when written.
There was a very great practical obstacle, too,
in the way of its general introduction, in the
want of any suitable materials for writing.
To cut letters with a chisel and a mallet upon

Different modes of writing.

a surface of marble is a very slow and toil-
some process. To diminish this labor the an-
cients contrived tables of brass, copper, lead,
and sometimes of wood, and cut the inscrip-
tions upon them by the use of various tools
and implements. Still it is obvious, that by
such methods as these the art of writing could
only be used to an extremely limited extent,
such as for brief inscriptions in registers and
upon monuments, where a very few words
would express all that it was necessary to re-
In process of time, however, the plan of
painting the letters by means of a black dye
upon a smooth surface, was introduced. The
surface employed to receive these inscriptions
was, at first, the skin of some animal prepared
for this purpose, and the dye used for ink,
was a colored liquid obtained from a certain
fish. This method of writing, though in some
respects more convenient than the others, was
still slow, and the materials were expensive;
and it was a long time before the new art was
employed for any thing like continuous com-
position. Cadmus is supposed to have come
into Greece about the year 1550 before Christ;
and it was not until about 650 before Christ,



[B.C. 1500.

The art of writing at first very little used.

-that is, nearly nine hundred years later, that
the art of writing was resorted to in Greece to
record laws.
The evidences that writing was very little
used in any way during this long period of
nine hundred years, are furnished in various
allusions contained in poems and narratives
that were composed during those times, and
committed to writing afterward. In the
poems of Homer, for instance, there is no al-
lusion, from the beginning to the end, to any
monument or tomb containing any inscription
whatever; although many occasions occur in
which such inscriptions would have been
made, if the events described were real, and
the art of writing had been generally known,
or would have been imagined to be made, if
the narratives were invented. In one case a
ship-master takes a cargo on board, and he is
represented as having to remember all the
articles, instead of making a record of them.
Another case still more striking is adduced.
In the course of the contest around the walls
of Troy, the Grecian leaders are described at
one time as drawing lots to determine which
of them should fight a certain Trojan cham-
pion. The lots were prepared, being made

60 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Proofs of this Story of the lots.

of some substance that could be marked, and
when ready, were distributed to the several
leaders. Each one of the leaders then marked
his lot in some way, taking care to remember
what character he had made upon it. The
lots were then all put into a helmet, and the
helmet was given to a herald, who was to
shake it about in such a manner, if possible,
as to throw out one of the lots and leave the
others in. The leader whose lot it was that
should be thus shaken out, was to be consid-
ered as the one designated by the decision, to
fight the Trojan champion.
Now, in executing this plan, the herald,
when he had shaken out a lot, and had taken
it up from the ground, is represented, in the
narrative, as not knowing whose it was, and
as carrying it around, accordingly, to all the
different leaders, to find the one who could
recognize it as his own. A certain chief
named Ajax recognized it, and in this way he
was designated for the combat. Now it is
supposed, that if these men had been able to
write, that they would have inscribed their
own names upon the lots, instead of marking
them with unmeaning characters. And even
if they were not practiced writers themselves,

B.C. 1500.] CADMUS'S LETTERS. 51
Other instances. The invention of papyrus.

some secretary or scribe would have been
called upon to act for them on such an occa-
sion as this, if the art of writing had been at
that time so generally known as to be custom-
arily employed on public occasions. From
these and similar indications which are found,
on a careful examination, in the Homeric
poems, learned men have concluded that they
were composed and repeated orally, at a pe-
riod of the world when the art of writing was
very little known, and that they were handed
down from generation to generation, through
the memory of those who repeated them, un-
til at last the art of writing became estab-
lished among mankind, when they were at
length put permanently upon record.
It seems that writing was not much em-
ployed for any of the ordinary and private
purposes of life by the people of Greece until
the article called papyrus was introduced
among them. This took place about the year
600 before Christ, when laws began first to
be written. Papyrus, like the art of writing
upon it, came originally from Egypt. It was
obtained from a tree which it seems grew only
in that country. The tree flourished in the
low lands along the margin of the Nile. It

52 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1500.
Mode of manufacturing papyrus. Volumes.

grew to the height of about ten feet. The
paper obtained from it was formed from a
sort of inner bark, which consisted of thin
sheets or pellicles growing around the wood.
The paper was manufactured in the following
manner. A sheet of the thin bark as taken
from the tree, was laid flat upon a board, and
then a cross layer was laid over it, the mate-
rials having been previously moistened with
water made slightly glutinous. The sheet
thus formed was pressed and dried in the sun.
The placing of two layers of the bark in this
manner across each other was intended to
strengthen the texture of the sheet, for the
fibers, it was found, were very easily separated
and torn so long as they lay wholly in one
direction. The sheet when dry was finished
by smoothing the surface, and prepared to re-
ceive inscriptions made by means of a pen
fashioned from a reed or a quill.
In forming the papyrus into books it was
customary to use a long sheet or web of it, and
roll it upon a stick, as is the custom in respect
to maps at the present day. The writing was
in columns, each of which formed a sort of
page, the reader holding the ends of the roll in
his two hands, and reading at the part which

B.C. 1500.] CADMUs's LETTERS. 53
Mode of using ancient books. Ink.

was- open between them. Of course, as he
advanced, he continually unrolled on one side,
and rolled up upon the other. Rolls of parch-
ment were often made in the same manner.
The term volume used in respect to modern
books, had its origin in this ancient practice
of writing upon long rolls. The modern prac-
tice is certainly much to be preferred, though
the ancient one was far less inconvenient
than might at first be supposed. The long
sheet was rolled upon a wooden billet, which
gave to the volume a certain firmness and
solidity, and afforded it great protection.
The ends of this roller projected beyond the
edges of the sheet, and were terminated in
knobs or bosses, which guarded in some meas-
ure the edges of the papyrus or of the parch-
ment. The whole volume was also inclosed
in a parchment case, on the outside of which
the title of the work was conspicuously re-
corded. Many of these ancient rolls have
been found at Herculaneum.
For ink, various colored liquids were used,
generally black, but sometimes red and some-
times green. The black ink was sometimes
manufactured from a species of lampblack or
ivory black, such as is often used in modern

Ink found at Herculaneum.

times for painting. Some specimens of the
inkstands which were used in ancient times
have been found at Herculaneum, and one of
them contained ink, which though too thick
to flow readily from the pen, it was still pos-
sible to write with. It was of about the con-
sistence of oil.
These rolls of papyrus and parchment, how-
ever, were only used for important writings
which it was intended permanently to pre-
serve. For ordinary occasions tablets of wax
and other similar materials were used, upon
which the writer traced the characters with
the point of a steel instrument called a style.
The head of the style was smooth and rounded,
so that any words which the writer wished to
erase might be obliterated by smoothing over
again, with it, the wax on which they had
been written.
Such is a brief history of the rise and pro-
gress of the art of writing in the States of
Greece. Whether the phonetic principle
which Cadmus introduced was brought origi-
nally from Egypt, or from the countries on
the eastern shore of the Mediterranean sea,
can not now be ascertained. It has generally
been supposed among mankind, at least until


[B.C. 1500.


B.C. 1500.] CADMUS'S LETTERS. 55
Recent discoveries in respect to the Egyptian hieroglyphic.
within a recent period, that the art of phonetic
writing did not originate in Egypt, for the
inscriptions on all the ancient monuments in
that country are of such a character that it
has always been supposed that they were
symbolical characters altogether, and that no
traces of any phonetic writing existed in that
land. Within the present century, however,
the discovery has been made that a large
portion of these hieroglyphics are phonetic in
their character; and that the learned world in
attempting for so many centuries, in vain, to
affix symbolical meanings to them, had been
altogether upon the wrong track. The delin-
eations, though they consist almost wholly of
the forms of plants and animals, and of other
natural and artificial objects, are not symbol-
ical representations of ideas, but letters, rep-
resenting sounds and words. They are thus
precisely similar, in principle, to the letters
of Cadmus, though wholly different from them
in form.
To enable the reader to obtain a clearer
idea of the nature of this discovery, we give
on the adjoining page some specimens of
Egyptian inscriptions found in various parts
of the country, and which are interpreted to

Specimen of Egyptian hieroglyphics.



o r


[B.C. 15000


Explanation of the figures.

express the name Cleopatra, a very common
name for princesses of the royal line in Egypt
during the dynasty of the Ptolemy's. We
mark the various figures forming the inscrip-
tion, with the letters which modern interpre-
ters have assigned to them. It will be seen
that they all spell, rudely indeed, but yet tol-
erably distinctly, the name C LEOPATRA.
By a careful examination of these speci
means, it willbe seen that the order of placing
the letters, if such hieroglyphical characters
can be so called, is not regular, and the let-
ter a, which is denoted by a bird in some
of the specimens, is represented differently in
others. There are also two characters at the
close of each inscription which are not repre-
sented by any letter, the one being of the
form of an egg, and the other a semicircle.
These last are supposed to denote the sex of
the sovereign whose name they are connected
with, as they are found in many cases in in-
scriptions commemorative of princesses and
queens. They are accordingly specimens of
symbolic characters, while all the others in the
name are phonetic.
It seems therefore not improbable that the
principle of forming a written language by


58 RoMULUs. [B.C. 1500.
Moses in Egypt. Importance of the art of writing.
means of characters representing the sounds
of which the words of the spoken language
are composed, was of Egyptian origin; and
that it was carried in very early times to the
countries on the eastern shore of the Mediter-
ranean sea, and there improved upon by the
adoption of a class of characters more simple
than the hieroglyphics of Egypt, and of a
form more convenient for a regular linear ar-
rangement in writing. Moses, lho spent his
early life in Egypt, and who was said to be
learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians,
may have acquired the art of writing there.
However this may be, and whatever may
be the uncertainty which hangs over the early
history of this art, one thing is certain, and
that is, that the discovery of the art of writ-
ing, including that of printing, which is only
the consummation and perfection of it,-the
art by which man can record language, and
give life and power to the record to speak to
the eye permanently and forever-to go to
every nation-to address itself simultaneously
to millions of minds, and to endure through
all time, is by far the greatest discovery, in
respect to the enlargement which it makes of
human powers, that has ever been made.

B.C. 1200.] STORY OF .ENEAS.

Story of JEneas remained long unwritten.

BESIDES the intrinsic interest and impor-
tance of the facts stated in the last chap-
ter, to the student of history, there was a
special reason for calling the attention of the
reader to them here, that he might know in
what light the story of the destruction of Troy,
and of the wanderings of Eneas, the great
ancestor of Romulus, which we now proceed
to relate, is properly to be regarded. The
events connected with the destruction of Troy,
took place, if they ever occurred at all, about
the year twelve hundred before Christ. Ho-
mer is supposed to have lived and composed
his poems about the year nine hundred; and
the art of writing is thought to have been first
employed for the purpose of recording contin-
uous compositions, about the year six hundred.
The story of ,Eneas then, so far as it has any
claims to historical truth, is a tale which was
handed down by oral tradition, among story-
tellers for three hundred years, and then was


60 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Mother of AEneas. Her origin.

clothed in verse, and handed down in that
form orally by the memory of the reciters of
it, in generations successive for three hundred
years more, before it was recorded; and dur-
ing the whole period of this transmission, the
interest felt in it was not the desire for ascer-
taining and communicating historic truth, but
simply for entertaining companies of listeners
with the details of a romantic story. The
story, therefore, can not be relied upon as his-
torically true; but it is no less important on
that account, that all well-informed persons
should know what it is.
The mother of fEneas (as the story goes),
was a celebrated goddess. Her name was
Aphrodite ; though among the Romans she
afterward received the name of Venus. Aph-
rodite was not born of a mother, like ordinary
mortals, but sprang mysteriously and super-
naturally from a foam which gathered on a
certain occasion upon the surface of the sea.
At the commencement of her existence she
crept out upon the shores of an island that
was near,-the island of Cythera,-which lies
south of the Peloponnesus.

* Pronounced in four syllables, Aph-ro-di-te.

B.C. 1200.] STORY OF LENEAS. 61
Early history of Venus. Her magical powers.

o 0 N1NOR

LongEaat 4 o
She was the goddess of love, of beauty, and
of fruitfulness; and so extraordinary were the
magical powers which were inherent from
the beginning, in her very nature, that as she
walked along upon the sands of the shore,
when she first emerged from the sea, plants
and flowers of the richest verdure and beauty
sprang up at her feet wherever she stepped.
She was, besides, in her own person, inexpres-
sibly beautiful; and in addition to the natu-
ral influence of her charms, she was endued
with the supernatural power of inspiring the
sentiment of love in all who beheld her.
From Cythera the goddess made her way
over by sea to Cyprus, where she remained for
some time, amid the gorgeous and magnificent
scenery of that enchanting island. Here she

62 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Her children Eros abd Anteros. She goes to Olympus.

hadtwo children, beautiful boys. Their names
were Eros and Anteros. Each of these chil-
dren remained perpetually a child, and Eros,
in later times called Cupid, became the god
of "love bestowed," while Anteros was the
God of "love returned." After this the
mother and the boys roamed about the world,
-now in the heavenly regions above, and
now among mortals on the plains and in the
valleys below: they sometimes appeared
openly, in their true forms, sometimes they
assumed disguises, and sometimes they were
wholly invisible; but whether seen or unseen,
they were always busy in performing their
functions-the mother inspiring everywhere,
in the minds both of gods and men, the ten-
derest sentiments of beauty and desire,,-
while Eros, awakened love in the heart of one
person for another, and Anteros made it his
duty to tease and punish those who thus be-
came objects of affection, if they did not re-
turn the love.
After some time, Aphrodite and her boys
found their way to the heavenly regions of
Mount Olympus, where the great divinities
resided,': and there they soon produced great
See Map, page 61.

B.C. 1200.] STORY OF &ENEAS.

* Aphrodite's love for Anchises. The golden apple.

trouble, by enkindling the flames of love in
the hearts of the divinities themselves, caus-
ing them, by her magic power, to fall in love not
only with one another, but also with mortal
men and women on the earth below. In re-
taliation upon Aphrodite for this mischief,
Jupiter, by his supreme power, inspired Aph-
rodite herself with a sentiment of love. The
object of her affection was Anchises, a hand-
some youth, of the royal family of Troy, who
lived among the mountains of Ida, not far
from the city.
The way in which it happened that the af-
fection of Aphrodite turned toward an inhab-
itant of Mount Ida was this. There had been
at one time a marriage among the divinities,
and a certain goddess who had not been in-
vited to the wedding, conceived the design
of avenging herself for the neglect, by pro-
voking a quarrel among those who were there.
She, accordingly, caused a beautiful golden
apple to be made, with an inscription marked
apple she threw in among the guests assem-
bled at the wedding. The goddesses all
claimed the prize, and a very earnest dispute
arose among them in respect to it. Jupiter


64 ROM U LS. [B.C. 1200
The award of Paris. Venus's residence at Mt. Ida.

sent the several claimants, under the charge
of a special messenger, to Mount Ida, to a
handsome and accomplished young shepherd
there, named Paris-who was, in fact, a prince
in disguise-that they might exhibit them-
selves to him, and submit the question of the
right to the apple to his award. The contend-
ing goddesses appeared accordingly before
Paris, and each attempted to bribe him to de-
cide in her favor, by offering him some pe-
culiar and tempting reward. Paris gave the
apple to Aphrodite, and she was so pleased
with the result, that she took Paris under her
special protection, and made the solitudes of
Mount Ida one of her favorite retreats.
Here she saw and became acquainted with
Anchises, who was, as has already been said,
a noble, or prince, by descent, though he had
for some time been dwelling away from the
city, and among the mountains, rearing flocks
and herds. Here Aphrodite saw him, and
when Jupiter inspired her with a sudden sus-
ceptibility to the power of love, the shepherd
Anchises was the object toward which her
affections turned. She accordingly went to
Mount Ida, and giving herself up to him, she
lived with him for some time among the

B.C. 1200.] STORY OF ENEAS. 65
Aphrodite's a uoed character. She Tles Amhim.

mountains as his bride. Eneas was their
Aphrodite did not, however, appear to An-
chises in her true character, but assumed,
instead, the form and the disguise of a Phry-
gian princess. Phrygia was a kingdom of
Asia Minor, not very far from Troy. She con-
tinued this disguise as long as she remained
with Anchises at Mount Ida; at length, how-
ever, she concluded to leave him, and to
return to Olympus, and at her parting she
made herself known. She, however, charged
Anchises never to reveal to any person who
she was, declaring that neas, whom she
was going to leave with his father when she
went away, would be destroyed by a stroke
of lightning from heaven, if the real truth in
respect to his mother were ever revealed.
When Aphrodite had gone, Anchises, hav-
ing now no longer any one at home to attend
to the rearing of the child, send him to Dar-
danus, a city to the northward of Troy, where
he was brought up in the house of his sister,
the daughter of Anchises, who was married
and settled there. His having a sister old
enough to be married, would seem to show
that youth was not one of the attractions of

66 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Childhood of Aneas. The Trojan war. Achillea

Anchises in Aphrodite's eyes. Eneas re-
mained with his sister until he was old enough
to be of service in the care of flocks and herds,
and then returned again to his former resi-
dence among the pasturages of the mountains.
His mother, though she had left him, did not
forget her child; but watched over him con-
tinually, and interposed directly to aid or to
protect him, whenever her aid was required
by the occurrence of any emergency of diffi-
culty or danger.
At length the Trojan war broke out. For
a time, however, Eneas took no part in it.
He was jealous of the attentions which Priam,
the king of Troy, paid to other young men,
and fancied that he himself was overlooked,
and that the services that he might render
"were undervalued. He remained, therefore,
at his home among the mountains, occupying
himself with his flocks and herds; and he
might, perhaps, have continued in these peace-
ful avocations to the end of the war, had it
not been that Achilles, one of the most formi-
dable of the Grecian leaders, in one of his
forays in the country around Troy, in search
of provisions, came upon Eneas's territory,
and attacked him while tending his flocks


1 411



'sif 40

B.C.1200.] STORY OF .oENEAS. 69
Bneas engages in the war. Story of Pandaru,
upon the mountain side. Achilles seized the
flocks and herds, and drove iEneas and his
fellow-herdsmen away. They would, in fact,
all have been killed, had not Aphrodite in-
terposed to protect her son and save his life.
The loss of his flocks and herds, and the
injury which he himself had received, aroused
lEneas's indignation and anger against the
Greeks. He immediately raised an armed
force of Dardanians, and thenceforth took an
active part in the war. He became one of
the most distinguished among the combatants,
for his prowess and his bravery; and being
always assisted by his mother in his conflicts,
and rescued by her when in danger, he per-
formed prodigies of strength and valor.
At one time he pressed forward into the
thickest of the battle to rescue a Trojan le er
named Pandarus, who was beset by his foes
and brought into very imminent danger.
.Eneas did not succeed in saving his friend.
Pandarus was killed. Eneas, however, flew
to the spot, and by means of the most extra-
ordinary feats of strength and valor he drove
the Greeks away from the body. They at-
tacked it on every side, but neas, wheeling
around it, and fighting now on this side and

70 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
aEneas rescued by his mother. Her magic vail.
now on that, drove them all away. They re-
tired to a little distance and then began to
throw in a shower of spears and darts and ar-
rows upon him. AEneas defended himself
and the body of his friend from these missiles
for a time, with his shield. At length, how-
ever, he was struck in the thigh with a pon-
derous stone which one of the Greek warriors
-hurled at him,-a stone so heavy that two
men of ordinary strength would have been
required to lift it. AEneas was felled to the
ground by the blow. He sank down, resting
upon his arm, faint and dizzy, and being thus
made helpless would have immediately been
overpowered and killed by his assailants had
not his mother interposed. She came imme-
diately to rescue him. She spread her vail
over him, which had the magic power of ren-
dering harmless all blows which were aimed
at what was covered by it, and then taking
him up in her arms she bore him off through
the midst of his enemies unharmed. The
swords, spears, and javelins which were aimed
at him were rendered powerless by the magic
Aphrodite, however, flying thus with her
wounded son, mother-like, left herself exposed

B.C.1200.] STORY OF ZE NEAS. 71
Venus is wounded. Iris conveys her away.
in her anxiety to protect him. Diomedes, the
chief of the pursuers, following headlong on,
aimed a lance at Venus herself. The lance
struck Venus in the hand, and inflicted a very
severe and painful wound. It did not, how-
ever, stop her flight. She pressed swiftly on,
while Diomedes, satisfied with his revenge,
gave up the pursuit, but called out to Aphro-
dite as she disappeared from view, bidding
her learn from the lesson which he had given
her that it would be best for her thenceforth
to remain in her own appropriate sphere, and
not come down to the earth and interfere in
the contests of mortal men.
Aphrodite, after conveying AEneas to a place
of safety, fled, herself, faint and bleeding, to
the mountains, where, after ascending to the
region of mists and clouds, Iris, the beautiful
goddess of the rainbow, came to her aid. Iris
found her faint and pale from the loss of blood;
she did all in her power to soothe and comfort
the wounded goddess, and then led her far-
ther still among the mountains to a place
where they found Mars, the god of war, stand-
ing with his chariot. Mars was Aphrodite's
brother. He took compassion upon his sister
in her distress, and lent Iris his chariot and

72 RoMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Single combat between AEneas and Achilles.

horses, to convey Aphrodite home. Aphro-
dite ascended into the chariot, and Iris took
the reins; and thus they rode through the air
to the mountains of Olympus. Here the gods
and goddesses of heaven gathered around
their unhappy sister, bound up her wound,
and expressed great sympathy for her in her
sufferings, uttering at the same time many
piteous complaints against the merciless vio-
lence and inhumanity of men. Such is the
ancient tale of Eneas and his mother.
At a later period in the history of the war,
Eneas had a grand combat with Achilles,
who was the most terrible of all the Grecian
warriors, and was regarded as the grand
champion of their cause. The two armies
were drawn up in battle array. A vast open
space was left between them on the open
plain. Into this space the two combatants
advanced, Eneas on the one side and Achilles
on the other, in full view of all the troops,
and of the throngs of spectators assembled to
witness the proceedings.
A very strong and an universal interest was
felt in the approaching combat. Eneas, be-
sides the prodigious strength and bravery for
which he was renowned, was to be divinely

B.O. 1200.] STORY OF iENEAs. 73
The charmed life of Achilles. His shild.
aided, it was known, by the protection of his
mother, who was always at hand to guide and
support him in the conflict, and to succor him
in danger. Achilles, on the other hand, pos-
sessed a charmed life. He had been dipped
by his mother Thetis, when an infant, in the
river Styx, to render him invulnerable and
immortal; and the immersion produced the
effect intended in respect to all those parts of
the body which the water laved. As, how-
ever, Thetis held the clild by the ankles when
she plunged him in, the ankles remained un-
affected by the magic influence of the water.
All the other parts of the body were rendered
incapable of receiving a wound.
Achilles had a very beautiful and costly
shield which his mother had caused to be
made for him. It was formed of five plates
of metal. The outermost plates on each side
were of brass; in the centre was a plate of
gold; and between the central plate of gold
and the outer ones of brass were two other
plates, one on each side, made of some third
metal. The workmanship of this shield was
of the most elaborate and beautiful character.
The mother of Achilles had given this weapon
to her son when he left home to join the

The meeting of aneas and Achillee on the field.

Greeks in the Trojan war, not trusting entirely
it seems to his magical invulnerability.
The armies looked on with great interest as
these two champions advanced to meet each
other, while all the gods and goddesses sur-
veyed the scene with almost equal interest,
from their abodes above. Some joined Yenus
in the sympathy which she felt for her son,
while others espoused the cause of Achilles.
When the two combatants had approached
each other, they paused before commencing
the conflict, as is usual in such cases, and sur-
veyed each other with looks of anger and de-
fiance. At length Achilles spoke. He began
to upbraid dEneas for his infatuation and folly
in engaging in the war, and especially for
coming forward to put his life at hazard by
encountering such a champion as was now
before him. What can you gain," said he,
"even if you conquer in this warfare I You
can never be king, even if you succeed in
saving the city. I know you claim to be
descended from the royal line; but Priam has
sons who are the direct and immediate heirs,
and your claims can never be allowed. Then,
besides, what folly to attempt to contend with
me! Me, the strongest, bravest, and most


(B.C. 1200.

'B.C. 1200.] STORY OF ENEAS. .75
The harangues of the combatant.
terrible of the Greeks, and the special favorite
of many deities." With this introduction
Achilles went on to set forth the greatness of
his pedigree, and the loftiness of his preten-
sions to superiority over all others in personal
prowess and valor, in a manner very eloquent
indeed, and in a style which it seems was very
much admired in those days as evincing only
a proper spirit and energy,-though in our
times such a harangue would be very apt to
be regarded as only a vainglorious and
empty boasting..
Eneas replied,-retorting with vauntings
on his side no less spirited and energetic than
those which Achilles had expressed. He
gave a long account of his pedigree, and of
his various claims to lofty consideration. He,
however, said, in conclusion, that it was idle
and useless for them to waste their time in
such a war of words, and so he hurled his
spear at Achilles with all his force, as a token
of the commencement of the battle.
The spear struck the shield of Achilles, and
impinged upon it with such force that it pen-
etrated through two of the plates of metal
which composed the shield, and reached the
central plate of gold, where the force with

76 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Th battle begun. Narrow escape.
which it had been thrown being spent, it was
arrested and fell to the ground. Achilles
then exerting his utmost strength threw his
spear in return. Eneas crouched down to
avoid the shock of the weapon, holding his
shield at the same time above his head, and
bracing himself with all his force against the
approaching concussion. The spear struck
the shield near the upper edge of it, as it was
held in Eneas's hands. It passed directly
through the plates of which the shield was
composed, and then continuing its course, it
glided down just over Eneas's back, and
planted itself deep in the ground behind him,
and stood there quivering. iEneas crept out
from beneath it with a look of horror.
Immediately after throwing his spear, and
perceiving that it had failed of its intended
effect, Achilles drew his sword and rushed
forward to engage iEneas, hand to hand.
tEneas himself recovering in an instant from
the consternation which his narrow escape
from impalement had awakened, seized an
enormous stone, heavier, as Homer represents
it, than any two ordinary men could lift, and
was about to hurl it at his advancing foe,
when suddenly the whole combat was termi-


Sudden termination of the combat
nated by a very unexpected interposition. It
seems that the various gods and goddesses,
from their celestial abodes among the sum-
mits of Olympus, had assembled in invisible
forms to witness this combat-some sympa-
thizing with and upholding one of the comba-
tants, and some the other. Neptune was on
Eneas's side; and accordingly when he saw
how imminent the danger was which threat-
ened Eneas, when Achilles came rushing
upon him with his uplifted sword, he at once
resolved to interfere. He immediately rushed,
himself, between the combatants. He brought
a sudden and supernatural mist over the
scene, such as the God of the Sea has always
at his command; and this mist at once con-
cealed neas from Achilles's view. Nep-
tune drew the spear out of the ground, and
released it too from the shield which remained
still pinned down by it; and then threw the
spear down at Achilles's feet. He next seized
Aneas, and lifting him high above the ground
he bore him away in an invisible form over
the heads of soldiers and horsemen that had
been drawn up in long lines around the field
of combat. When the mist passed away
Achilles saw his spear lying at his feet, and


The tales of the AEneid.
on looking around him found that his enemy
was gone.
Such are the marvelous tales which were
told by the ancient narrators, of the prowess
and exploits of Eneas under the walls of
Troy, and of the interpositions which were
put forth to save him in moments of desperate
danger, by beings supernatural and divine.
These tales were in those days believed as
sober history. That which was marvelous
and philosophically incredible in them, was
sacredly sheltered from question by mingling
itself with the prevailing principles of reli-
gious faith. The tales were thus believed,
and handed down traditionally from genera-
tion to generation, and admired and loved by
all who heard and repeated them, partly on
account of their romantic and poetical beauty,
and partly on account of the sublime and sa-
cred revelations which they contained, in
respect to the divinities of the spiritual world.


[B.C. 12000


Termination of the siege of Troy.

AFTER the final conquest and destruction
of Troy, Eneas, in the course of his
wanderings, stopped, it was said, at Car-
thage, on his way to Italy, and there, accord-
ing to ancient story, he gave the following
account of the circumstances attending the
capture and the sacking of the city, and his
own escape from the scene.
One day, after the war had been continued
with various success for a long period of time,
the sentinels on the walls and towers of the
city began to observe extraordinary move-
ments in the camp of the besiegers, which
seemed to indicate preparations for breaking
up the camp and going away. Tents were
struck. Men were busy passing to and fro,
arranging arms and military stores, as if for
transportation. A fleet of ships was drawn
up along the shore, which was not far distant,
and a great scene of activity manifested itself
upon the bank, indicating an approaching


Appearances observed by the besieged.

embarkation. In a word, the tidings soon
spread throughout the city, that the Greeks
had at length become weary of the protracted
contest, and were making preparations to
withdraw from the field. These proceedings
were watched, of course, with great interest
from the walls of the city, and at length the
inhabitants, to their inexpressible joy, found
their anticipations and hopes, as they thought,
fully realized. The camp of the Greeks was
gradually broken up, and at last entirely
abandoned. The various bodies of troops
were drawn off one by one to the shore, where
they were embarked on board the ships, and
then sailed away. As soon as this result was
made sure, the Trojans threw open the gates
of the city, and came out in throngs,---soldiers
and citizens, men, women and children togeth-
er,-to explore the abandoned encampment,
and to rejoice over the departure of their ter-
rible enemies.
The first thing which attracted their atten-
tion was an immense wooden horse, which
stood upon the ground that the Greek en-
campment had occupied. The Trojans im-
mediately gathered, one and all, around the
monster, full of wonder and curiosity. _Eneas,



[B.C. 1200.

The wooden horse. Its probable size.
in narrating the story, says that the image
was as large as a mountain; but, as he after-
ward relates that the people drew it on
wheels within the walls of the city, and espe-
cially as he represents them as attaching the
ropes for this purpose to the neck of the im-
age, instead of to its fore-legs, which would
have furnished the only proper points of at-
tachment if the effigy had been of any very
extraordinary size, he must have had a very
small mountain in mind in making the com-
parison. Or, which is perhaps more proba-
ble, he used the term only in a vague meta-
phorical sense, as we do now when we speak
of the waves of the ocean as running moun-
tain high, when it is well ascertained that the
crests of the billows, even in the most violent
and most protracted storms, never rise more
than twenty feet above the general level.
At all events, the image was large enough
to excite the wonder of all the beholders.
The Trojan people gathered around it, wholly
unable to understand for what purpose the
Greeks could have constructed such a mon-
ster, to leave behind them on their departure
from Troy. After the first emotions of aston-
ishment and wonder which the spectacle awa-

82 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Various opinions in respect to the disposal of it.
kened, had somewhat subsided, there followed
a consultation in respect to the disposal which
was to be made of the prodigy. The opinions
on this point were very various. One com-
mander was disposed to consider the image
a sacred prize, and recommended that they
should convey it into the city, and deposit it
in the citadel, as a trophy of victory. An-
other, dissenting decidedly from this counsel,
said that he strongly suspected some latent
treachery, and he proposed to build a fire
under the body of the monster, and burn the
image itself and all contrivances for mischief
which might be contained in it, together. A
third recommended that they should hew it
open, and see for themselves what there might
be within. One of the Trojan leaders named
Laocoon, who, just at this juncture, came to
the spot, remonstrated loudly and earnestly
against having any thing to do with so mys-
terious and suspicious a prize, and, by way
of expressing the strong animosity which he
felt toward it, he hurled his spear with all
his force against the monster's side. The
spear stood trembling in the wood, producing
a deep hollow sound by the concussion.
What the decision would have been in re-

Sudden appearance of a captive. His wretched condition.
aspect to the disposal of the horse, if this con-
sultation and debate had gone on, it is impos-
sible to say, as the farther consideration of
the subject was all at once interrupted, by
new occurrences which here suddenly inter-
vened, and which, after engrossing for a time
the whole attention of the company assembled,
finally controlled the decision of the question.
A crowd of peasants and shepherds were seen
coming from the mountains, with much ex-
citement, and loud shouts and outcries, bring-
ing with them a captive Greek whom they
had secured and bound. As the peasants
came up with their prisoner, the Trojans gath-
ered eagerly round them, full of excitement
and threats of violence, all thirsting, appa-
rently, for their victim's blood. He, on his
part, filled the air with the most piteous lam-
entations and cries for mercy.
His distress and wretchedness, and the
earnest entreaties which he uttered, seemed
at length to soften the hearts of his enemies,
and finally, the violence of the crowd around
the captive became somewhat appeased, and
was succeeded by a disposition to question
him, and hear what he had to say. The
Greek told them, in answer to their interro-

84 ROMULs [B.C. 1200.
Sinon's account of the departure of the Greeks.
gations, that his name was Sinon, and that he
was a fugitive from his own countrymen the
Greeks, who had been intending to kill him.
He said that the Greek leaders had long been
desirous of abandoning the siege of Troy,
and that they had made many attempts to
embark their troops and sail away, but that
the winds and seas had risen against them on
every such attempt, and defeated their de-
sign. -.hey then sent to consult the oracle of
ApAtf' to'learn what was the cause of the
displeasure and hostility thus manifested
against them by the god of the sea. The ora-
cle replied, that they could not depart from
Troy, till they had first made an atoning and
propitiatory offering by the sacrifice of a man,
such an one as Apollo himself might desig-
nate. When this answer was returned, the
whole army, as Sinon said, was thrown into a
state of consternation. No one knew but that
the fatal designation might fall on him. The
leaders were, however, earnestly determined
on carrying the measure into effect. Ulysses
called upon Calchas, the priest of Apollo, to
point out the man who was to die. Calchas
waited day after day, for ten days, before the
divine intimation was made to him in respect

His story of the proposed mcrlfiee. His cape.
to the individual who .was to suffer. At
length he said that Sinon was the destined
victim. His comrades, Sinon said, rejoicing
in their own escape from so terrble a doom, I
eagerly assented to the priest's decision, and
immediately made preparations for the cere-
mony. The altar was reared. The victim
was adorned for the sacrifice, and the gar-
lands, according to the accustomed wage,
were bound upon his temples. H ed
however, he said, at the last moment, tWt`dke
his escape. He broke the bands with which
he had been bound, and fled into a morass
near the shore, where he remained concealed
in inaccessible thickets until the Greeks had
sailed away. He then came forth and was at
length seized and bound by the shepherds
of the mountains, who found him wandering
about, in extreme destitution and misery. Si-
non concluded his tale by the most piteous
lamentations, on his wretched lot. The Tro-
jans, he supposed, would kill him, and the
Greeks, on their return to his native land, in
their anger against him for having made his
escape from them, would destroy his wife and
The air and manner with which Sinon told

86 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Priam's address to him. Sinon's account of the horse.
this story seemed so sincere, and so natural
and unaffected were the expressions of wretch-
edness and despair with which he ended his
narrative, that the Trojan leaders had no sus-
picion that it was not true. Their compassion
was moved for the wretched fugitive, and they
determined to spare his life. Priam, the aged
king, who was present at the scene, in the
midst of the Trojan generals, ordered the
cords vith which the peasants had bound the
captive to be sundered, that he might stand
before them free. The king spoke to him,
too, in a kind and encouraging manner. For-
get your countrymen," said he. "They are
gone. Henceforth you shall be one of us.
We will take care of you." And now," he
continued, tell us what this monstrous image
means. Why did the Greeks make it, and
why have they left it here ?"
Sinon, as if grateful for the generosity with
which his life had been spared, professed him-
self ready to give his benefactors the fullest
information. He told them that the wooden
horse had been built by the Greeks to replace
a certain image of Pallas which they had
previously taken and borne away from Troy.
It was to replace this image, Sinon said, that

Efect produced by Sinon's story.

the Greeks had built the wooden horse; and
their purpose in making the image of this
monstrous size was to prevent the possibility
of the Trojans taking it into the city, and
thus appropriating to themselves the benefit
of its protecting efficacy and virtue.
The Trojans listened with breathless inter-
est to all that Sinon said, and readily believ-
ed his story; so admirably well did he coun-
terfeit, by his words and his demeanorall the
marks and tokens of honest sincerity in what
he said of others, as well of grief and despair
in respect to his own unhappy lot. The cur-
rent of opinion which had begun before to set
strongly in favor of destroying the horse, was
wholly turned, and all began at once to look
upon the colossal image as an object of sacred
veneration, and to begin to form plans for
transporting it within the limits of the city.
Whatever remaining doubts any of them
might have felt on the subject were dispelled
by the occurrence of a most extraordinary
phenomenon just at this stage of the affair,
which was understood by all to be a divine
judgment upon Laocoon for his sacreligious
temerity in striking his spear into the horse's
side. It had been determined to offer a sacri-

The serpents and Laocoon.
fice to Neptune. Lots were drawn to deter-
mine who should perform the rite. The lot
fell upon Laocoon. He began to make prep-
arations to perform the duty, assisted by his
two young sons, when suddenly two immense
serpents appeared, coming up from the sea.
They came swimming over the surface of the
water, with their heads elevated above the
waves, until they reached the shore, and then
gliding swiftly along, they advanced across
the plain, their bodies brilliantly spotted and
glittering in the sun, their eyes flashing, and
their forked and venomous tongues darting
threats and defiance as they came. The people
fled in dismay. The serpents, disregarding
all others, made their way directly toward
the affrighted children of Laocoon, and twin-
ing around them they soon held the writhing
and struggling limbs of their shrieking victims
hopelessly entangled in their deadly convo-
Laocoon, who was himself at a little distance
from the spot, when the serpents came, as soon
as he saw the danger and heard the agonizing
cries of his boys, seized a weapon and ran to
rescue them. Instead, however, of being able
to save his children, he only involved himself



[B.C. 12000.

Anient statue of Laocoon. Ithstory.
in their dreadful fate. The serpents seized
him as soon as he came within their reach,
and taking two turns around his neck and
two around his body, and binding in a re-
morseless gripe the forms of the fainting and
dying boys with other convolutions, they
raised their heads high above the group of
victims which they thus enfolded, and hissed
and darted out their forked tongues in token of
defiance and victory. When at length their
work was done, they glided away and took
refuge in a temple that was near, and coiled
themselves up for repose beneath the feet of
the statue of a goddess that stood in the shrine.
The story of Laocoon has become celebrated
among all mankind in modern times by means
of a statue representing the catastrophe, which
was found two or three centuries ago among
the ruins of an ancient edifice at Rome. This
statue was mentioned by an old Roman writer,
Pliny, who gave an account of it while it yet
stood in its place in the ancient city. He
said that it was the work of three artists, a
father and two sons, who combined their in-
dustry and skill to carve in one group, and
with immense labor and care, the representa-
tion of Laocoon himself, the two boys, and

90 ROMULUs. [B.C. 1200.
The stated now deposited in the Vatican. Description of it.

the two serpents, making five living beings
intertwined intricately together, and all carved
from one single block of marble. On the de-
cline and fall of Rome this statue was lost
among the ruins of the city, and for many
centuries it was known to mankind only
through the description of Pliny. At length
it was brought to light again, having been
discovered about three centuries ago, under
the ruins of the very edifice in which Pliny
had described it as standing. It immediately
became the object of great interest and atten-
tion to the whole world. It was deposited in
the Vatican; a great reward was paid to the
owner of the ground on which it was discov-
ered ; drawings and casts of it, without num-
ber, have been made; and the original stands
in the Vatican now, an object of universal in-
terest, as one of the most celebrated sculp-
tures of ancient or modern times.
Laocoon himself forms the center of the
group, with the serpents twined around him,
while he struggles, with a fearful expression
of terror and anguish in his countenance, in
the vain attempt to release himself from their
hold. One of the serpents has bitten one of
the boys in the side, and the wounded child

Effect produced upon the Trojans by IAooon'Bs hA

sinks under the effects of the poison. The
other boy, in an agony of terror, is struggling,
hopelessly, to release his foot from the convo-
lutions with which one of the serpents has en-
circled it. The expression of the whole group
is exciting and painful, and yet notwith-
standing this, there is combined with it a cer-
tain mysterious grace and beauty which
charms every eye, and makes the composition
the wonder of mankind.
But to return to the story. The people un-
derstood this awful visitation to be the judg-
ment of heaven against Laocoon for his sacri-
legious presumption in daring to thrust his
spear ito the side of the image before them,
and which they were now very sure they were
to consider as something supernatural and
divine. They determined with one accord to
take it izto the city.
They immediately began to make prepara-
tions for the transportation of it. They raised
it from the ground, and fitted to the feet some
sort of machinery of wheels or rollers, suitable
to the nature of the ground, and strong enough
to bear the weight of the colossal pass. The,
attached long ropes to the neck of the image,
and extended them forward upon the ground;

The Trojans draw the horse into the city.
and then brought up large companies of citi-
zens and soldiers to man them. They arranged
a procession, consisting of the generals of the
army, and of the great civil dignitaries of the
state; and in addition to these were groups
of singing boys and girls, adorned with wreaths
and garlands, who were appointed to chant
sacred hymns to solemnize the occasion.
They widened the access to the city, too, by
tearing down a portion of the wall so as to
open a sufficient space to enable the monster
to get in. When all was ready the ropes were
manned, the signal was given, the ponderous
mass began to move, and though it encoun-
tered in its progress many difficulties, obstruc-
tions, and delays, in due time it was safely
deposited in the court of a great public edifice
within the city. The wall was then repaired,
the day passed away, the night came on, the
gates were shut, and the curiosity and wonder
of the people within being gradually satisfied,
they at length dispersed to their several homes
and retired to rest. At midnight the uncon-
scious effigy stood silent and alone where its
worshipers had left it, while the whole pop-
ulation of the city were sunk in slumber, ex-
cept the sentinels who had been stationed as



[B.C. 1200

The Greeks admitted to the city.
usual to keep guard at the gates, or to watch
upon the towers and battlements above them.
In the mean time the Greek fleet, which had
sailed away under pretense of finally aban-
doning the country, had proceeded only to the
island of Tenedos, which was about a league
from the shore, and there they had concealed
themselves during the day. As soon as night
came on they returned to the main land, and
disembarking with the utmost silence and se-
crecy, they made their way back again under
cover of the darkness, as near as they dared
to come to the gates of the city. In the mean
time Sinon had arisen stealthily from the
sleep which he had feigned to deceive those
to whose charge he had been committed, and
creeping cautiously through the streets he
repaired to the place where the wooden horse
had been deposited, and there opened a secret
door in the side of the image, and liberated a
band of armed and desperate men who had
been concealed within. These men, as soon
as they had descended to the ground and had
adjusted their armor, rushed to the city walls,
surprised and killed the sentinels and watch-
men, threw open the gates, and gave the whole
body of their comrades that were lurking

94 ROMULUS. [B.C. 1200.
Aneas awakened by the din. His meeting with Pantheu.'

outside the walls, in the silence and darkness
of the night, an unobstructed admission.
AEneas was asleep in his house while these
things were transpiring. The house where he
lived was in a retired and quiet situation, but
he was awakened from his sleep by distant
outcries and din, and springing from his
couch, and hastily resuming his dress, he as-
cended to the roof of the house to ascertain
the cause of the alarm. He saw flames as.
cending from various edifices in the quarter
of the city where the Greeks had come in.
He listened. He could distinctly hear the
shouts of men, and the notes of trumpets
sounding the alarm. He immediately seized
his armor and rushed forth into the streets,
arousing the inhabitants around him from
their slumbers by his shouts, and calling upon
them to arm themselves and follow him.
In the midst of this excitement, there sud-
denly appeared before him, coming from the
scene of the conflict, a Trojan friend, named
Pantheus, who was hastening away from the
danger, perfectly bewildered with excitement
and agitation. He was leading with him his
little son, who was likewise pale with terror.
AEneas asked Pantheus what had happened.

His surprise and terror.
Pantheus in reply explained to him in hurried
and broken words, that armed men, treacher-
ously concealed within the wooden horse, had
issued forth from their concealment, and had
opened the gates of the city, and let the
whole horde of their ferocious and desperate
enemies in; that the sentinels and guards
who had been stationed at the gates had been
killed; and that the Greek troops had full
possession of the city, and were barricading
the streets and setting fire to the buildings on
every side. "All is lost," said he, "our cause
is ruined, and Troy is no more."
The announcing of these tidings filled
Eneas and those who had joined him with a
species of phrensy. They resolved to press
forward into the combat, and there, if they
must perish themselves, to carry down as
many as possible of their enemies with them
to destruction. They pressed on, therefore,
through the gloomy streets, guiding their way
toward the scene of action by the glare of the
fires upon the sky, and by the sounds of the
distant tumult and din.
They soon found themselves in the midst
of scenes of dreadful terror and confusion,-
the scenes, in fact, which are usually exhib-

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