Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Table of Contents
 Letter 55
 Back Cover

Group Title: Young Americans abroad, or, Vacation in Europe : travels in England, France, Holland, Belgium, Prussia and Switzerland
Title: Young Americans abroad, or, Vacation in Europe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001943/00001
 Material Information
Title: Young Americans abroad, or, Vacation in Europe travels in England, France, Holland, Belgium, Prussia and Switzerland. : With illustrations
Alternate Title: Vacation in Europe
Physical Description: 371, <12> p., <1> leaf of plates : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Choules, John Overton, 1801-1856
Gould and Lincoln ( Publisher )
Boston Stereotype Foundry ( Stereotyper )
Publisher: Gould and Lincoln
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1852 c1851
Copyright Date: 1851
Subject: Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Europe   ( lcsh )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1852   ( local )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Travelogue storybooks   ( local )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
General Note: Letters from three American boys, aged twelve, fourteen and sixteen. Cf. Preface, p. <5-6>, signed: J.O. Choules. Newport, R.I., Nov. 25, 1851.
General Note: "Stereotyped at the Boston Stereotype Foundry."--verso of title page.
General Note: Page 6 misnumbered 4. Pagination includes one additional plate.
General Note: In red cloth.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001943
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224176
oclc - 26838442
notis - ALG4437
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page 1
        Front page 2
    Front Matter
        Front page 3
        Front page 4
    Title Page
        Front page 5
        Front page 6
        Page 1
    List of Illustrations
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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    Letter 55
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Full Text

I~lf~~l~t ABB F~~l;tj~sj N4 ,tw a~e


The Baldwin Library
2mrob of

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Wiitf~ IElustrations.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts
















APRIL 6, 1851, '. 94












ONE evening last winter a few private pupils
were sitting in the study of their instructor,
when he stated his intention to pass the spring
vacation in Europe, and his wish to have two
or three of his young friends as his travelling
companions. An earnest and joyous desire was
expressed by each lad to enjoy the gratification,
and in the course of a short period the arrange-
ments were made which afforded him the pleas-
ure to assure three boys that they should ac-
company him. The ages of the young travellers
were twelve, fourteen, and sixteen. Their atten-
tion was immediately directed to a course of


reading adapted to prepare them for the benefi-
cial use of the proposed tour; and during its
progress each boy kept, a journal, which was
useful as a reference in the correspondence kept
up with friends and families at home. A com-
panion in study, left behind, and prevented by
duty from joining the party, wished to have con-
stant advices of the movements of his friends;
and the letters of the young travellers to a lad of
sixteen are, at the advice of many friends, now
submitted to the perusal of those at that age.
No similar work is known to the authors of
these letters; and at the forthcoming gift season
it is hoped that the young of our country may
be amused and gratified by these reminiscences
of other lands.
NEWPORT, R. I.,Nov. 25, 1851.


IrNIODUCTIONI. ... .... o......................... 3

Arrival at New York............................................ 17

Going on board Steamer. Arctic. Weather. Passengers. Los
of Life and Burial at Sea. -Icebergs. Sabbath at Sea. Land.-
Excellence of Collins Line. -Adelphi Hotel. ..................... 18

Liverpool; its Public Buildings, Docks, &c......................... 3

Birmingham.- Arrival in London.- Strand. -Temple Bar.-Pleet
Street.-London Exchange.-London Coffee House.--Omnibue. 3

United States Minister in London.- His kind Attentions.- Crta
Palace.- London of other Days.- Monument.- The Bridges..... 41



Villages. -CamberwelL-Accidents aid Murders in England as com-
mon as in America.- Greenwich Fair.-- Gypsies................ 46


Great Western Railroad. Swindon. BristoL Scenes of early
Life.- Ancient City. Clifton and Hot Wells. Redcliffe Church. -
Chatterton................... ........ ................... 51


Bristol Cathedral. Monuments and Inscriptions. Butler. Ma-
son. Southey. Cloisters. Mayor's Chapel. Dundry. Fine
Prospect.- School attended in Boyhood........................... 57


Clifton.- Avon. Hot Wells. Vincent's Rocks. Robert Hall.-
Sublime Scenery. Leigh Court Picture Gallery.................. 65


Bath. Royal Crescent.- Queen Square.- Cathedral. Hot Baths. -
Bradford. Trowbridge. Devizes. Cricket. ..................... 71


Tower of London; its History.- Horse Armory. Antiquities and
Curosities.- Executions. Regalia, &c.......................... 74


Thames Tunnel--New Houses of Parliament.- House of Lords
described.--Fresco Paintings. St. Stephen's Hall.-House of
Omman s. Westminster Hall; its Associations, festive and
criminal. .................. ............ ....... ......... .... 81



British Museum; its fine Galleries, Pictures, Library, Autographs,
and MSS.--The Place to study.-Lord Campbell.-Servant who
resorted to it.................................................. 87


Woolwich. Naval Arsenal and Dock Yard. Ships of War. -
Yard.- Twenty Thousand Cannon. Greenwich. Blackheath. -
Lee Grove. Golden Cross and its Host. Mr. Lawrence's Soirde.-
Duke of Wellington ........................................... 92


Exhibition. Season Tickets.- Wet Weather. One May fine.-
City Streets.- Throng around Palace.- Arrival of the Queen.--
Opening Scenes. Procession, &c ............................. 97


Fine Equipages.- Appearance of the Palace. -Walk through the
Exhibition. American Contributions. Greek Slave, &c. Med-
iaval Court.-Kohinoor Glass Window. -Austrian Furniture.-
Amazon of Kiss. Crusaders. Galleries. Transept. Glass
Fountain. Sculpture. Veiled Vesta. Machinery. Models. -
Model of Liverpool. Plate Glass. Taunton Cabinet. Steam
Power, &c........................... .......................... 104


Royal Polytechnic Institution. Lectures. Egyptian Hall. Pano-
rama of Overland Route to California.- Exeter Hall Sermons.-
Wyld's great Globe. Zoilogical Gardens. Christ's Church Hos-
pital; its Boys................................................. 1




Windsor Castle; its History. Interior of the Palace. -Pictures.-
Waterloo Chamber.--St. George's Chapel.- Royal Tombs.-Ed-
ward IV. Henry VIII. Charles 1., Discovery of his Body in
1813, Account of the Appearance, &c.- Terraces of the Castle. -
Eton College. Datchett. Great Park. Long Walk. Celebrated
Trees. Virginia Water. Cumberland Lodge. Frogmore........ 127


Sir John Soane's Museum, House, Antiquities, Prctures. Hogarth's
"Rake's Progress," and the "Election."-Wonderful Economy of
Room, &c. Greenwich; Hospital, Chapel, Paintings, and Statu-
ary.- Queen's Stables; Horses, Harness Room, State Carriage. -
Soyer's Symposium; Description of its Rooms. -Dinner there...... 139


The Temple Church and its historical Associations. -Steamboat on
Thames.- View of St. Paul's from River.- St. Paul's Cathedral;
its Dome.-Statues: Johnson, Howard, Reynolds, Heber, West,
Nelson.--Ascent of the Dome and Cross.- View of London...... 145


Westminster Abbey. Early History. Associations. Poet's Cor-
ner. -Chapels. Monuments and Effigies. -Coronation Chairs. -
Stone of Scone Statuary. Sermon in Abbey by Lord John Thynne. 154


Hyde Park. -St. James's and Green Park. Regent's Park. Squares
of London. Northumberland House.- Sion House. St. Margaret's
Church.- St. Martin's-in-the-Fields ............................... 100



Mansion Hose. -Lord Mayor's Day.- Royal Exchansg- Bank of
England London Docks.- Covent Garden Market............. 164

Rev. Dr. Murray. Dover Castle. Passage across the Channel. -
Calais. St. Omer. Douai. Arras. Amiens. Clermont. -
Paris.- Hotel Windsor. A Mistake, and Loss of a Dinner....... 167

Gardens and Promenades. Gayety. Flowers. Wrong Drawing-
room.- Notre Dame. Interior.- Sacristy. Robes and Relics.-
Hotel de Ville. Louvre shut. Paris by Moonlight........... .173

Palais Royal.- Garden.- Gay Scene.-Passage d'Orleans.- House
opposite to which Henry IV. was assassinated by Ravaillac.-
Molisre.--Marat and Charlotte Corday.- Palace of the Luxem-
bourg. Paintings. Gardens. Statuary. Chapel .1.......... 179

Hotel de Cluny; History, Associations, Interior, wonderful Con-
tents. Julian's Palace of the Baths. Mr. George Sumner. -
Church of St. Sulpice. Statuary. Ecclesiastical Fountain. -
Bibliotheque St. Genevibve.- Church of St. Etienne du Mont.-
History. Monuments of Racine and Pascal. Christening an In-
fant. Church of St. Germain des Pres, (oldest in Paris;) its Resto-
ration going on.- Tombs of Descartes, Mabillon, Montfaucon, &c... 184

JadNi dw Plantes; Situation, History. Cedar of Lebann and Palm-
trees. Menagerie. Cuvier. Museum of 'Comparative Anat-



omy, &c. Paris owes much to Henry IV., Louis XIV., Napoleon,
and Louis Philippe.- Pont Neuf. -St. Bartholomew's Massacre.-
Bastile.- Column................................................ 19l


An amusing Fellow-countryman. Pure la Chaise. Monuments. -
Abattoir.- Consul's Office; his numerous Calls................... 197


Cirque. Amusements. Champs Elys6es. Hippodrome. Arabs. -
Sabbath kept in Parlor................... ...... .. 201


Pleasant Company. Railroad to Brussels. Jemappes. Mons. -
Brussels; History. Hotel de Ville. Cathedral Church of St.
Gudule; its Monuments. First Communion. Park. Palace. -
Hon. Mr. Bayard. ............................................... 905


Lacework. Money Matters. An uncivil Banker. Museum. -
Paintings. Burgundian Library. Manekin. Botanical Garden. 212


Excursion to Waterloo. Hougomont. Relics. Belgian Mound and
Lion.--Ivy from Waterloo for Mr. J. P. HalL Church. King
Leopold........................................................ 217


Laeken. Vilvorde. Mechlin, or Malines. Antwerp; History. -
Place Verte.--Statue of Rubens. Cathedral of Notre Dame.-
Interior Pulpit.- Pictures by Rubens.- Tower of the Church.-
Quentin Matsys's fine old Houses................................. "9



St. James's Church. Tomb of Rubens. Paintings by Rubens and
Jordaens. -Vandyke. Mount Calvary. Monk of La Trappe. -
Museum. Chair of Rubens; his Pictures. Other great Works of
Art.- St. Andrew's Church.- Bourse.- Mr. Vesey, U. S. Consul. 229


Dock Yards at Antwerp. Steamboat Passage on the Scheldt Dort. -
Lost Villages. Bergen op Zoom. Van Speyk. Rotterdam. -
Erasmus. Delft. Hague. Hon. George Folsom; his Kindness,-
Scheveningen. Museum. Japanese Curiosities.- Historical Curi-
osities. Gallery of Pictures. Rembrandt, Paul Potter, Gerard
Dow, &c. King's Palace. Brimenhoff. De Witt. Bosch. -
John Adams's House.......................................... 33


Dunes. Leyden; History. Harlem. Church of St. Bavon; Or-
gan. Coster. Flower Gardens. Palace of late King. Picture
Gallery. Exhibition of Pictures by living Artists. -Amsterdam.. 241


Mr. J. G. Schwartze. Stadhuis. Churches. Jews. -- Picture Gal-
lery. -Dutch School. Columbus before the Council. Artists' Club. 947


Utrecht. -Lobith.-Ruhrort. Meet with Americans on Return from
the East. Cologne; History. Cathedral. Three Kings. Rel-
i.- St. Peter's Church. Crucifixion of Peter, by Rubens, -
Champagne for America ..................................... 9 51



The Rhine. Bonn. Drachenfels. Godesberg. Rolandeck. -
Oberwinter. Okenfels. Castle Reineck. Neuwed. A Raft. -
Castle of Sain.- Ehrenbreitstein.- Coblentz..................... 959


Coblentz.-The Moselle.-Excursion to Stolzenfels. Curiosities. -
Fine View. Boat up to Mayence. The Brothers. Rheinfels. -
Lurley Rock. Seven Sisters. Pfalz. The Rheingau. Falk-
enberg. Rheinstein. Assmanshausen. Ehrenfel& Mause-
therm. Bingen. Geisenheim. Johannisberg. Erbach. Bib-
erich. Mayence. John Guttemberg's Statue Austrian Troops. -
An English Nobleman............................................ 966


Frankfort.- The R'dmer; its Portraits of the Emperors.- Mr. Beth-
man's Gallery of Statuary. Ariadne. Jews' Quarters. Darm-
stadt. -The Bergstrasse. Heidelberg. Castle. Baden. Kehl. -
Strasburg.................................................... 79


Cathedral; its History; Interior Clock.-St. Thomas's Church.-
Kleber's Tomb............................ ................. 5


Vosges Mountains. Vineyards. Colmar. Mithlhausen. Basle. -
Black Forest. United States Consul, Mr. Burchardt. Cathedral -
Tomb of Erasmus.- Chapter House. Holbein Gallery.-Univer-
sity.- Library. MSS.- St. Jacob. Tea Party.................. 08



Moutiers Valley. Sublime Scenery. Dornach. Arch. Roman
Antiquities Berne. Mechanical Clock. Cathedral; Organ,
Choir, Bears.- Lausanne........................................ S93


Mountain Scenery- Hotel Gibbon. Episcopal Church.- SignaL -
Hotel de Ville, and its kind Inhabitants.- Cathedral; its History. -
Steamboat to Vevay. Castle of Chillon.- St. Martin's Church
and the Regicides.- Geneva. Cathedral. Museum. Calvin's
MSS. D'Aubign6. Gaussen. Malan. -Evangelical Association;
its Anniversary. Count George. Soir6e. Mr. Delorme. The
Saleve. Savoy. Rousseau's Island .......................... 997

Diligence for Dijon.- Fine Scenery. Dijon; History. Railroad to
Paris. Sets. Cathedral. Fontainebleau ..................... 307

Methodist Chapel. Madeline. Pantheon. Louvre, open. Stat-
uary and Paintings. Versailles. Statuary. Series of National
Paintings. Portraits of distinguished Men. Apartments. Gar-
dens and Fountains. Grand and Petit Trianon. Passy. St. Cloud. 310

Glass Depot. -American Friends.- Good Intentions. Hospital des
Invalides. Garden of the Tuileries ; its Scenery. Triumphal
Arch. Chapel of St. Ferdinand. National Library. A Trades-
man's Memory. ............................................... 300

Calais; its Recollections. Rough Passage of the Channel. Dover. -
Mr. Peabody's Entertainment on the Fourth of July described.-
Company.- A patriotic Act........................ ............. 330



Entertainment at the Belgian Minister's. Young Nobility.- A noble
Boy.- Craven Chapel. Slavery. Exhibition. Pauper Labor. -
Need of a Tariff................................................. 336


Kind Friends at Bristol. -Weston Super Mare.- Museum of Bap-
tist College. Highbury Chapel. Old Houses of Bristol.- Fine
Churches............ .......................... .................. 340


River Avon. Wyo. Chepstow. St. Aryan's. Wynd Cliff. Glo-
rious Scenery.- Tintern Abbey; its History.- Ragland Castle; Ap-
pearance. Marquis of Worcester. Chopstow Castle. Henry
Marten.-Defence of the Parliamentary Party.- Severn River.-
Old Passage. Henbury. Blaize Castle. Birthday Lines........ 344


Leave Bristol. Berkeley. Cheltenham. Birmingham; Manufacto-
ries. Rev. John Angell James. Mr. Vanwart. Liverpool. -
Chester; its Antiquity. Cathedral. Rows and Pillars. English-
men and Americans have much in Common.- Royal Agricultural
Exhibition at Windsor.......................................... 359


Passage Home in the Steamer Atlantic.- Claims of the Collins
Line. Lessons taught by Travel in other Lands. Our Comforts.--
Excellent Character of many of the English Nobility. Queen Vic-
toria and Prince Albert. Prospect of Affairs in Europe. Popery as
seen in her proper Territories. ................................... 365

nannng Imtrirann I1brh.

fetttr 1.
ASTOR HOUSE, NEW YORK, April 1, 1851.
I have just arrived at this place, and have found
my companions on hand, all ready for the com-
mencement of the long-anticipated voyage. We
regret the circumstances which render it your duty
to remain, and we all feel very sorry for the dis-
appointment of your wishes and our hopes. You
will, however, feel happy in the thought that you
are clearly in the path of duty; and you have al-
ready learnt that that path is a safe one, and that
it always leads to happiness. You have begged us
all to write to you as frequently as we can, and we
have concluded to send you our joint contributions,
drawing largely upon our journals as we move from
place to place; and, as we have for so many years
had pleasant intercourse in the family circle, we
wish to maintain it by correspondence abroad. Our


letters will, of course, be very different in their char-
acter and interest, because you will bear in mind
that our ages are different; and we shall write you
from a variety of points, some having a deeper
interest than others. I trust that this series of let-
ters will give you a general view of our movements,
and contribute to your gratification, if not to your
instruction. The weather is delightful, and we are
anticipating a fine day for leaving port. It is to all
of us a source of pain that we are deprived of your
sunny smile; and while we are wandering far away
in other lands, we shall often, in fancy, listen to
your merry laugh; and I assure you, my dear fel-
low, that, wherever we rove, it will be amongst our
pleasantest thoughts of home when we anticipate
the renewal of personal intercourse with one who
has secured so warm a place in our affections.
Yours truly, J. o. c.,

ttttr 2.

It is but twelve days since we parted, and yet
we are actually in the old world, and the things
which we have so often talked over on the rock-
bound shore are really before me. Yes, we


are on the soil of Old Englaid, and are soon to
see its glories and greatness, and, I fear, its mis-
eries, for a bird's eye view has. already satisfied me
that there is enough of poverty. You know we left
New York in a soaking rain, and the wind blowing
fresh from the north-east. We all felt disappointed,
as we had hoped to pass down the bay, so cele-
brated for its beauty, with the bright sunshine to
cheer our way; but we had to take comfort from
the old proverb, that "a bad beginning makes a
good ending." James, George, and I had made up
our minds to a regular time of sea-sickness, and
so we hastened to put our state room into order
and have all our conveniences fixed for the voyage.
As soon as we had made matters comfortable, we
returned to the deck, and found a most formidable
crowd. Every passenger seemed to have, on the
occasion, a troop of friends, and all parts of the im-
mense steamer were thronged. The warning voice
of ", all on shore" soon caused a secession, and at
twelve o'clock we had the great agent at work by
which we hoped to make headway against wind and
wave. The cheering of the crowd upon the wharf
was hearty as we dropped into the river, and its
return from our passengers was not lacking in spirit.
The Arctic, you know, is one of the Collins line of
steamers, and I was not a little surprised at her vast
size and splendid accommodations, because I had



only seen the Cunafd boats in Boston, which are
very inferior, in size and comfort, to this palace and
tower of the ocean.
We all anticipated a hard time of it, from the
severe storm which raged all the morning, and I,
in common with all the passengers, was delighted
to find it any thing but rough water outside the
Hook. We kept steaming away till we lost sight of
land with the loss of daylight, and yet the sea was in
less commotion than it frequently exhibits in New-
port Harbor. The next morning, at breakfast, we
had quite a fair representation at table, and I think
more than two thirds presented themselves for duty.
We boys were all on hand, and passed for "( able-
bodied men." The routine of life on board was
as follows: We breakfasted at eight, lunched at
twelve, dined at four, took tea at half past six, and
from nine till eleven gentlemen had any article for
supper they saw fit to order. This is quite enough
of time for' taking care of the outer man, and any
one careful of his health will be sure to intermit
one or two of these seasons. All the meals were
excellent, and the supplies liberal. The tables pre-
sent a similar appearance to those of a first-class
hotel. In regard to our passengers, I think I can
say, with confidence, that a more agreeable set of
persons could not well have been gathered together.
It really was a nicely-assorted cargo. We numbered


one hundred and thirty, and the various parts of our
country were all represented. Philadelphia sent
the largest delegation; from that city we had more
than twenty. I liked the looks of the passengers
at the first glance, and every day's intercourse
heightened my estimate of their worth and pleas-
antness. Amongst the company we had Professor
Haddock, of Dartmouth College, going out to Por-
tugal as charge d'afaires. He was accompanied by
his lady and son. Then, too, we had the world-
renowned Peter Parley, with his accomplished fam-
ily circle. Mr. Goodrich, after a long life of labor
for the youth of his country, for whose reading and,
instruction he has done so much, has been honored
by the government of the United States with an
appointment as consul at Paris. Mr. Goodrich
resided there for two or three years, and was in
Paris during the revolution of 1848. He seems
fond of the company of young people, and we spent
a great deal of time on board with him, listening
to his stories, some made up for the occasion, and
narrations of the events in February at Paris, and
some capital anecdotes about the last war with Eng-
land, during which he served his country in the
army. The Hon. George Wright, of California,
and her first representative in Congress, was also
one of our party; and his glowing descriptions of
the auriferous regions kept groups of audience for



many an hour. The Rev. Arthur Cleveland Cox,
of Hartford, favorably known as the author of some
pleasant rhymes and sonnets, Mr. Cunningham, a
southern editor, and several retired sea captains, all
contributed to enhance the agreeableness of the
voyage. I am sorry to tell you that, three days
out, we had a sad occurrence in our little world.
Just as we were sitting down to lunch at eight bells,
the machinery stopped for a moment, and we were
informed that William Irwin, one of the assistant
engineers, was crushed to death. He accidentally
slipped from his position, and was killed instanta-
neously. In less than half an hour he was sewed
up in canvas, and all hands called to attend his
funeral services! The poor fellow was laid upon
a plank covered with the American flag, and placed
at the wheel-house. The service was performed by
Mr. Cox, in full canonicals; and I can assure you
that the white-robed priest, as he issued from the
cabin and ascended the wheel-house, really looked
impressively. At the close, he was committed to the
deep. What food for thought was here! A man
in health and at life's daily task, alive, dead,
- and buried, all these conditions of his state
crowded into thirty minutes The poor man had a
mother who was dependent upon him. Dr. Choules
drew up a subscription paper for her benefit, and
nearly five hundred dollars were at once raised for









a *





her relief. This unhappy event, of course, gave a
sad damper to the joyous feelings which existed on
board, and which were excited by our fine weather
and rapid headway. On Sunday we had two ser-
mons in the cabin to large congregations, all the
passengers attending, with the officers and many
of the crew. The morning service was by Dr.
Choules, and the evening one by Mr. Cox.
In the afternoon, April 6, we had the gratification
to see a magnificent iceberg. We were in lat. 430
4', Ion. 53* 11' at twelve o'clock, and at three the
ice appeared at about ten miles' distance. The esti-
mated height was about three hundred feet. One
)f the passengers took a sketch. I also made one,
and have laid it aside for your inspection.
The berg had much the appearance of the gable
end of a large house, and at some little distance
there was another, of tower-like aspect, and much
resembling a light-house. The effect of the sun
upon it, as we saw it in various positions, was
exceedingly fine. On Monday, the 7th, we saw a
much larger one, with several small ones as neigh-
bors. This was probably one mile in length, and
about two hundred feet high.
We saw several whales frolicking at the distance
of a mile, and distinctly saw them spout at short
After having had all reason to hope for a ten-day



passage, we were annoyed for four or five days with
headcwinds, materially retarding our headway.. The
evenings of the voyage were generally spent on
deck, where we had charming concerts. Seldom
have I heard better singing than we were favored
with by eight or ten ladies and gentlemen. One
universal favorite was the beautiful piece, Far, far
at sea." On Sunday, the 13th, just after morning
service, conducted by Mr. Cox, we made Mizzen
Head, and obtained a magnificent view of the north
coast of Ireland, which was far more beautiful
than we had expected. The coast is very bold,
and the cliffs precipitous, in many places strongly
reminding us of the high lands of the Hudson. A
more exquisite treat than that which we enjoyed all
the afternoon in looking on the Irish coast I can
hardly imagine. At night we had a closing service,
and Dr. Choules preached. Every one seemed to
feel that we had cause for thankfulness that we
had been brought in safety across the ocean, and
under so many circumstances of enjoyment. We
have made acquaintances that are truly valuable,
and some of them I hope to cultivate in future life.
One of the great advantages of travel, Charles,
seems to be, that it enables us to compare men of
other places than those we live in with our former
acquaintances. It brings us into intercourse with
those who have had a different training and educa-


tion than our own; and I think a man or boy must
be pretty thoroughly conceited who does not often
find out his own inferiority to many with whom he
chances to meet. On board our ship are several
young men of fie attainments, who, engaged in me-
chanical business, are going out to obtain improve-
ment and instruction by a careful study of the great
exhibition. A number of gentlemen with us are
young merchants, who represent houses in our great
cities, and go to England and France twice and
three times every year. Some of these are thor-
oughly accomplished men, and, wherever they go,
will reflect credit upon their country. In no coun-
try, perhaps, do young men assume important trusts
in commercial life at so early a period as in Amer-
ica. I have heard one or two Englishmen on board
express their surprise at finding large business oper-
ations intrusted to young men of twenty and twenty-
one; and yet there are some such with us who are
making their second and third trips to Manchester,
Leeds, Paisley, and Paris, for the selection of goods.
I ought to tell you that, on the last day of the
voyage, we had a great meeting in the cabin, Mr.
Goodrich in the chair, for the purpose of expressing
the satisfaction of the passengers with the Arctic,
her captain, officers, and engineer. Several good
speeches were made, and some resolutions passed.
This has become so ordinary an affair at the termi-

. W


nation of a passage, as to have lost much of its
original value; but as this ship had an unusual
number of passengers, many of them well known
to their fellow-countrymen, and as great opposition
had been displayed, on both sides of the ocean, to
this line of steamers, it was thought suitable to
express our views in relation to this particular ship
and the great undertaking with which she is identi-
fied. Every man on board was satisfied that, in
safety, these ships are equal to the Cunard line;
while in comfort, accommodation, size, and splerd
dor they far surpass their rivals. It really seems
strange to us that Americans should think of making
the ocean trip in an English steamship, when their
own country has a noble experiment in trial, the
success of which alone depends upon the patriotism
and spirit of her citizens. The English on board
are forced to confess that -our ship and the line are
all that can be asked, and I think that pretty strong
prejudices have been conquered by this voyage.
Every one left the ship with sentiments of respect
to Captain Luce, who, I assure you, we found to be
a very kind friend, and we shall all of us be glad
to meet him again on ship or shore.
On Monday, the 14th, at three o'clock, we took
our pilot, and at eight o'clock we anchored off Liv-
erpool, and a dark-looking steamtug came off to
us for the mails, foreign ministers, and bearers of


despatches. As we came under the wing of one of
the last-named class of favored individuals, we took
our luggage, and proceeded straight to the Adelphi
Hotel. I ought to say that James was the first to
quit the ship and plant his foot on Old England. It
was quite strange to see it so light at half past eight
o'clock, although it was a rainy evening. I shall
not soon forget the cheerful appearance of the
Adelphi, which, in all its provisions for comfort,
both in the coffee-room and our chambers, struck
me more favorably than any hotel I had ever seen.
Although our state-room on board the Arctic was
one of the extra size and every thing that was nice,
yet I long for the conveniences of a bed-chamber
and a warm bath. I am quite disposed to join
with the poor Irish woman who had made a steerage
passage from New York to Liverpool in a packet
ship; and when landed at St. George's pier, and
seated on her trunk, a lady who had also landed,
when getting into her carriage, said, Well, my
good woman, I suppose you are very glad to get
out of the ship ?" Her reply was, "t And indeed, my
lady, every bone in my body cries out feathers I "
Yours truly,


Better 3.
LlyXaI C .L.
Well, we have fairly commenced our travel, and
yet I can scarcely realize the fact that I am hb.re in
Old England, and that, for some months at least, I
shall be away from home and the occupations of the
school-room. The next day after landing we went
to the custom-house to see our fellow-passeng-' r pass
their effects, and really felt glad to think of our
good fortune in landing every thing at night and
direct from the ship. It was an exciting scene,
and I was not a little amused to observe the
anxiety of the gentlemen to save their cigars from
the duty imposed, and which amounts to nine shil-
lings sterling per pound. All sorts of contrivances
were in vogue, and the experiences of min were
various, the man with one hundred, perhaps, being
brought up, while his neighbor with five hundred
passed off successfully, and, as he cleared the build-
ing, seemed disposed to place his finger on the
prominent feature of his face.
I quite like the appearance of Liverpool. After
walking through the principal streets and making a
general survey of the shops,--no one speaks of
store,-I think I can testify to the extraordinary
cleanness of the city, and the massiveness and gran-
deur of the public buildings.



Our attention was first directed to the cemetery
which had been described, you remember, to us one
evening in the study. It is on the confines of the
city, and is made out of an old quarry. I liked it
better than any cemetery I ever saw: it is unlike all
I had seen, and, though comparatively small, is very
picturesque, I may almost say romantic. The walls
are lofty, and are devoted to spacious tombs, and the
groundwork abounds in garden shrubbery and laby-
rinth. Some of the monuments are striking. The
access to this resting-place is by a steep cut through
the rock, and you pass under an archway of the
most imposing character. At the entrance of the
cemetery is a neat chapel, and the officiating minister
has a dwelling-house near the gate.
I wish you could see a building now in progress,
and which has taken twelve or fourteen years to
erect, and from its appearance will not, I suppose,
be finished in four or five more. It is called St.
George's Hall. The intent is to- furnish suitable ac-
commodations for the various law courts, and also to
contain the finest ball-room in Europe. It is in a
commanding position. I know little of architecture,
but this building strikes me as one of exquisite
beauty. We obtained an order from the mayor to
be shown over it and examine the works, and we
enjoyed it very much. The great hall will be with-
out a rival in England. The town hall is a noble


edifice, and the people are quite proud of it. The
interior is finely laid out, and has some spacious
rooms for the civic revelries of the fathers of the
town. The good woman who showed us round feels
complacently enough as she explains the uses of the
rooms. The ball-room is ninety feet by forty-six, and
forty feet high. The dining and drawing-rooms are
spacious apartments. On the grand staircase is a
noble statue of George Canning, by Chantrey,
whose beautiful one of Washington we have so often
admired in the Boston State House. In the build-
ing are some good paintings of the late kings; one
or two by Sir Thomas Lawrence. The Exchange
is directly behind the hall, and contains in the centre
a glorious bronze monument to Lord Nelson, the
joint production of Wyat and Westmacott. Death
is laying his hand upon the hero's heart, and Victory
is placing a fourth crown on his sword. Ever since
I read Southey's Life of Nelson, I have felt an inter-
est in every thing relating to this great, yet imper-
fect man. You know that illustrated work on
Nelson that we have so often looked at -it contains
a large engraving of this monument. As Yankee
boys, we found our way to the top of the Exchange,
to look at the cotton sales-room. This same room
has more to do with our good friends at the south
than any other in the world. The atmosphere
would have been chilly to a Georgian planter, as
cotton was down down.



The Necropolis is a very spacious burying-place,
open to all classes, and where persons can be interred
with the use of any form desired. The gateway is
of stone, and not unlike the granite one at Mount
Auburn; and on one side is a chapel, and on the
other a house for the register. Not far from this
we came to the Zoological Gardens, kept in excel-
lent order, and where is a good collection of ani-
mals, birds, &c. The Collegiate Institution is an
imposing structure, in the Tudor style.
St. George's Church, which stands at the head of
Lord Street, occupies the position of the old castle,
destroyed, I believe, more than one hundred and
fifty years ago, and is a very graceful termination to
one of the best business avenues of the city. Sev-
eral of the churches and chapels are in good style.
But one of the best buildings is- as it should be, in
a city like this the Sailor's Home, not far from the
Custom House. This is a highly-ornamented house,
and would adorn any city of the world.
The Custom House is thought to be one of the
finest buildings in the kingdom. It occupied ten
years in its erection. It is composed of three fa-
fades, from a rusticated pavement, each having a
splendid portico of eight Ionic columns. The
whole is surmounted by a dome, one hundred and
thirty feet high, and the effect of the building
is excellent. The glory of Liverpool is her


docks, and a stranger is sure to be pointed to the
great landing stage, an immense floating pier, which
was moored into its present position on the 1st of
June, 1847. This stage is five hundred and seven
feet long, and over eighty feet wide. This mass of
timber floats upon pontoons, which have to support
more than two thousand tons. At each end is a
light barge.
In the Clarence dock are to be found the Irish
and coasting steamers, and to the north are the
Trafalgar, Victoria, and Waterloo docks, the Prince's
dock, and the Great Prince's dock basin. On the
outside of all these is a fine parade, of about one half
a mile, and which affords one of. the most beautiful
marine promenades in the world, and gives an inter-
esting view of the Cheshire shore, opposite the city.
The Prince's dock is five hundred yards long,jnd
one hundred broad. Vessels, on arriving, discharge
on the east side, and take in cargo on the west.
Besides all these there is the Brunswick dock, Queen's
dock, Duke's dock, Salthouse dock, &c.
The Royal Liverpool Institution is a great benefit
to the inhabitants. It has a good library, fine col-
lections of paintings, and a good museum of natural
history. Many of these paintings belong to the
early masters, and date even before the fifteenth
century. We were interested to find here a com-
plete set of casts of the Elgin riarbles. The origi-


nals were the decorations of the Parthenon at
Athens, and are now in the British Mubeum. As
we shall spend some time in that collection, I say no
more at present about these wonderful monuments
of genius. The Athenaeum and the Lyceum are
both fine buildings, and each has a good library,
lecture, and news rooms.
We were disappointed at finding the Rev. Dr.
Raffles, the most eloquent preacher of the city, out
of town. He was the successor of Spencer, who
was drowned bathing in the Mersey, and his Life by
Raffles is one of deep interest. The great his-
torical name of Liverpool is William Roscoe, the
author of the Lives of Leo X. and the Medici. I
must not omit to tell you that, during our stay, the
town was all alive with a regiment of lancers, just
arrived from Ireland, on their way to London. They
are indeed fine-looking fellows, and are mounted on
capital horses. I have watched their evolutions in
front of the Adelphi with much pleasure, and have
been amused to notice a collection of the most
wretched-looking boys I ever saw, brought together
by the troops. There seems to me more pauperism
this week, in Liverpool, than I ever saw in New
York in my life.
Truly yours,


Cettter 4.
Does it not seem strange that I am here in Lon-
don? I can hardly tell what to write about first.
I stand at the door of our hotel and look at the
crowds in the streets, and then at old King Charles,
at Charing Cross, directly across the road, and when I
think that this is the old city where Wat Tyler figured,
and Whittington was lord mayor, and Lady Jane Grey
was beheaded, and where the Tower is still to be
seen, I am half beside myself, and want to do
nothing but roam about for a good month to come.
I have read so much concerning London, that I am
pretty sure I know more about it than many of the
boys who have heard Bow Church bells all their
lives. We left Liverpool for Birmingham, where we
passed an afternoon and evening in the family of a
manufacturer very pleasantly, and at ten o'clock took
the express mail train for London. We are staying
at a hotel called the Golden Cross, Charing Cross.
We have our breakfast in the coffee-room, and then
dine as it suits our convenience as to place and
hour. We spent one day in riding about the city,
and I think we got quite an idea of the great streets.
The Strand is a very fine business street, perhaps
a mile long. It widens in one part, and has two


churches in the middle of it, and a narrow street
seems built inside it at one place, as nasty, dirty a lane
as I ever saw, called Hollowell Street. I was very
much delighted at the end of the Strand to see old
Temple Bar, which is the entrance to the city
proper, and which divides Fleet Street from the
Strand. It is a noble archway, with small side
arches for foot passengers. The head of many a
poor fellow, and the quarters of men called traitors,
have been fastened over this gateway in former times.
Dr. Johnson was once walking in Westminster
Abbey with Goldsmith, and as they were looking at
the Poet's Corner, Johnson said to his friend, -
Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis."
When they had walked on to Temple Bar, Gold-
smith stopped Johnson, and pointed to the heads of
Fletcher and Townley, hanging above, and slyly
remarked, -
t Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis."
I suppose you remember that the great dictionary
man was a Jacobite in his heart.
The present bar was put up in 1670, and was
designed by Sir Christopher Wren. The statues
on the sides, which are towards the city, are those of
Queen Elizabeth and James i.; and towards the
Strand, those of Charles I. and Charles II. They
stand in niches.


Whenever the monarch passes into the city, there
is much ceremony takes place at the bar. The gates
are closed, a herald sounds a trumpet and knocks
for entrance, the gates are opened, and the lord
mayor. of London presents the sword of the city to
the sovereign, who returns it to his lordship. The
upper part of the bar is used by Messrs. Childs, the
bankers, as a store room for their past account
Fleet Street is thronged with passengers and car-
riages of all sorts. Just a few doors from the bar,
on the right-hand side, is a gayly-painted front, which
claims to have been a palace of Henry VIII. and the
residence of Cardinal Wolsey. It is now used as a
hair-cutting shop, up stairs. We went up and ex-
amined the panelled ceiling, said to be just as it
used to be. It is certainly very fine, and looks as
if it were as old as the times of bluff Harry. Of
course we had our hair cut in the old palace.
We followed through Fleet Street, noticing the
offices of Punch and the London Illustrated News,
till we came to Ludgate Hill, -rather an ascent, -
which is the direct way to the Cathedral Church of
St. Paul's. It stands directly in front of Ludgate
Hill, and the churchyard occupies a large space,
and the streets open on each side, making a sort of
square called Paul's Churchyard, and then at tlje
rear you go into Cheapside. We looked with


interest, I can tell you, at Bow Church, and, as the
old bells were ringing, I tried to listen if I could
hear what Whittington heard once from their tin-
gling t" Turn again, Whittington, lord mayor of
London." At the end of this street, on the right
hand, is the lord mayor's house, called the Mansion
House, and directly in front of the street, closing it
up, ana making it break off, is the Royal Exchange;
whilst at the left is the Bank of England. All these
are very iloble-looking buildings, and you will hear
about them from us as we examine them in our
future walks. We went to the counting-house of
Messrs. Baring & Co., the great merchants and bank-
ers for so many Americans, and there we found our
letters and got some money. Mr. Sturgis, one of
the partners, told us to take the check to the bank,
No. 68 Lombard Street, and informed us that was the
very house where the great merchant of Queen Eliz-
abeth's time Sir Thomas Gresham used to live.
He built the first London Exchange, and his sign,
a large grasshopper, is still preserved at the bank.
On Good Friday we had bunns for breakfast, with a
cross upon them, and they were sold through the
streets by children, crying ," One a penny, two a penny,
hot cross bumls." We took a carriage and rode to
Camden town to visit a friend; thence we took the
cars to Hackney, and called on the Rev. Dr. Cox,
who some fifteen years ago made the tour of the



United States, and wrote a volume on our country.
We then returned to London, and took our dinner
at the London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill. This
has been a very celebrated house for one hundred
years, and figures largely in the books of travellers
fifty years ago. It has a high reputation still, and
every thing was excellent, and the waiting good.
You cannot walk about London without observing
how few boys of our age are to be seen in the
streets, and when we asked the reason, we were told
that nearly all the lads of respectable families were
sent to boarding schools, and the vacations only
occur at June and December; then the boys return
home, and the city swarms with them at all the
places of amusement. We seemed to be objects
of attention, because we wore caps; (here boys all
wear hats ;) and then our gilt buttons on blue jackets
led many to suppose that we were midshipmen. The
omnibuses are very numerous, and each one has a
conductor, who stands on a high step on the left side
of the door, watching the sidewalks and crying out
the destination of the "t bus," as the vehicle is called.
There is a continual cry, Bank, bank," Cross,
cross," ", City, city," &c. I must not forget to tell
you one thing; and that is, London is the place to
make a sight-seeing boy very tired, and I am quite
sure that, in ten minutes, I shall be unable to do
what I can now very heartily, viz., assure you that
I am yours, affectionately, GEORGE.


letttr 5.
After passing a day or two in a general view of the
city, and making some preliminary arrangements for
our future movements, we all called upon Mr. Law-
rence, the minister of our country at the court of
St. James, which expression refers to the appellation
of the old palace of George III. Mr. Lawrence
resides in Piccadilly, opposite the St. James's Park,
in a very splendid mansion, which lie rents from an
English nobleman, all furnished. We were very
kindly received by his excellency, who expressed
much pleasure at seeing his young countrymen com-
ing abroad, and said he was fond of boys, and liked
them as travelling companions. I handed him a
letter of introduction from his brother. Mr. Law-
rence offered us all the facilities in his power to see
the sights, and these are great, for he is furnished
by the government of England with orders which
will admit parties to almost every thing in and about
London. Amongst other tickets he gave us the fol-
lowing admissions: to the Queen's stables, Windsor
Castle, Dulwich Gallery, Woolwich Arsenal, Navy
Yard, Sion House, Northumberland House, Houses of
Parliament, and, what we highly valued, an admis-
sion to enter the exhibition, which is yet unfinished,
and not open to inspection.



After leaving the minister, we paid our respects to
Mr. Davis, the secretary of legation, and were
kindly received. We walked on from Piccadilly
to the Crystal Palace, passing Apsley House, the
residence of the Duke of Wellington, and soon
reached Hyde Park, with its famous gateway and
the far-famed statue of the duke." As we shall
go into some detailed account of the palace after
the exhibition opens, I would only say, that we were
exceedingly surprised and delighted with the build-
ing itself, and were so taken up with that as hardly
to look at its contents, which were now rapidly get-
ting into order. The effect of the noble elms which
are covered up in the palace is very striking and
pleasing, and very naturally suggests the idea that
the house would, by and by, make a glorious green-
house for the city, where winter's discontents might
be almost made into a "( glorious summer." A poor
fellow was killed here, just before we entered, by fall-
ing through the skylight roof. He was at work on a
plank laid across the iron frame, and that tipping up,
threw him on to the glass, and his death was instan-
taneous. We are more and more pleased at having
so central a domicile as the Golden Cross, for time is
every thing when you have to see sights; and here
we can get to any point we desire by a bus, and
obtain a fly at any moment. Very much that we
desire to see, too, is east of Temple Bar, and our


Mentor seems determined that we shall become ac-
quainted with the London of other times, and we
rarely walk out without learning who lived in "6 that
house," and what event had happened in ,"that
street." I fancy that we are going to gather up
much curious matter for future use and recollection
by our street wanderings. A book called ,"The
Streets of London is our frequent study, and is
daily consulted with advantage. To-day we dined at
the famous Williams's, in Old Bailey, where boiled
beef is said to be better than at any other place
in London. It was certainly as fine as could be
desired. The customers were numerous, and looked
like business men. The proprietor was a busy man,
and his eyes seemed every where. A vision of
cockroaches, however, dispelled the appetite for a
dessert, and we perambulated our way to the Mon-
ument. This has a noble appearance, and stands
on Fish Street Hill. The pillar is two hundred and
two feet high, and is surmounted by a gilt flame.
The object of the Monument is to commemorate the
great fire of London in Charles II.'s reign.
It had an inscription which ascribed the origin
of the fire to the Catholics; but recently this has
been obliterated. It was to this inscription and
allegation that Pope referred in his lines, -
t Where London's column, pointing to the skies,
Like a tall bully, lifts its head, and lies."


There are few things in London that have im-
pressed us more than the fine, massive bridges which
span the Thames, and are so crowded with foot
passengers and carriages. Every boy who has read
much has had his head full of notions about London
Bridge; that is, old London Bridge, which was
taken down about thirty years ago. The old bridge
was originally a wooden structure, and on the sides
of the bridge were houses, and the pathway in front
had all sorts of goods exposed for sale, and the
Southwark gate of the bridge was disfigured with
the heads and quarters of the poor creatures who
were executed for treason.
The new bridge was commenced in 1825, and it
was opened in 1831 by William IV. and Queen
Adelaide. The bridge has five arches: the central
one is one hundred and fifty feet in the clear, the
two next one hundred and forty feet, and the ex-
treme arches one hundred and thirty feet. The
length, including the abutments, is about one thou-
sand feet, its width eighty-three feet, and the road
for carriages fifty-five feet.
The great roads leading to London Bridge have
been most costly affairs; and I was told that a
parish and its church had been destroyed to make
these approaches. The men of different generations,
who, for almost one thousand years, looked at the
old bridge, would stare at the present one and its


present vicinity, if they were to come back again.
Southwark Bridge was commenced in 1814, and
finished in 1819. It has three arches, and the cen-
tral arch is two hundred and forty feet, which is the
greatest span in the world. In this bridge are five
thousand three hundred and eight tons of iron.
Blackfriars Bridge was commenced in 1760, and
opened in 1770. It has nine elliptical arches, of
which the middle one is one hundred feet in width.
Recently this bridge has been thoroughly repaired.
I think this is my favorite stand-point for the river
and city. Nowhere else have I obtained such a
view up and down the river. Here I have a full
prospect of the Tower, St. Paul's Cathedral, Somer-
set House, the Houses of Parliament, Westminster
Abbey, and perhaps twenty-five other churches!
But the great bridge of all is the Waterloo one,
commenced in 1811, and opened in 1817, on the 18th
of June, the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo.
Of course, the Duke of Wellington figured upon the
occasion. At this point the river is one thousand
three hundred and twenty-six feet wide; and the
bridge is of nine elliptical arches, each of one hun-
dred and twenty feet space, and thirty-five feet high
above high water, and its entire length two thousand
four hundred and fifty-six feet. It is painful to hear
the sad stories which have a connection with this
magnificent structure. It seems the chosen resort



of London suicides, and very frequent are the events
which almost justify its appellation--" the Bridge
of Sighs." I love to walk this and the other
bridges, and look at the mighty city, and think of
its wonderful history and its existing place in the
affairs of the world-; and I cannot help thinking of
the reflection of the wise man -"- One generation
passeth away, but the earth remaineth." I have
never felt my own insignificance so much, Charley,
as when walking in one of these crowded streets.
I know no one; I am unknown; I am in solitude,
and feel it more, perhaps, than I should if alone
upon a mountain top or in a wilderness. I am
sure I have told you enough for once, and perhaps
you are as tired of my letter as I was in going over
the places I have written to you about; so I will
relieve your patience.
I am yours always, WELD.

better 6.
All round London there are the most exquisite
villages or towns, full of charming retreats, boxes of
wealthy tradesmen, and some very fine rows of brick
and stone residences, with gardens in front. I am
amused to see almost every house having a name.


Thus you find one house called, on the gateway,
Hamilton Villa, the next Hawthorne Lodge, whilst
opposite their fellows rejoice in the names, Pelham
House, Cranborne Cottage; and so it is with hun-
dreds of neat little domiciles. I think the road up
to St. John's Wood is one of the prettiest I have
seen; and there are in it perhaps two hundred hab-
itations, each having its sobriquet. Since writing
to you last we have been to Camberwell, a very
pretty place, two or three miles from the city. We
called on a gentleman who had a party that night,
and we were politely invited, and spent an agreeable
evening. The supper was elegant, and the ladies
were quite inquisitive as to our social manners.
One gentleman present had a son in Wisconsin, and
he seemed to fancy that, as that state was in the
United States, it was pretty much like the rest of
the country. We told him that Wisconsin was
about as much like New York and Massachusetts
as Brighton, in 1851, was like what it was one hun-
dred years ago. When we talk with well-educated
persons here, we are much amused at their entire
unacquaintedness with American geography and
history. I think an importation of Morse's School
Geography would be of great service. We very
often lose our patience when we hear about the
great danger of life in America. I find very intel-
ligent and respectable persons who fancy that life is



held by a slight tenure in the Union, and that law
and order are almost unknown. Now, the firat
week we were in London the papers teemed with
accounts of murders in various parts of England.
One newspaper detailed no less than eleven cases
of murder, or executions on account of murders.
Poison, however, seems just at present the prevail-
ing method by which men and women are removed.
As to accidents in travel, we, no doubt, have our
full share; but since our arrival in England the
railroad trains have had some pretty rough shakings,
and the results in loss of life and limb would have
passed for quite ugly enough, even had they hap-
pened in the west. I very much wish you could
have been with us on Easter Monday, when we
passed the day at Greenwich, and were at the re-
nowned Greenwich Fair, which lasts for three daye.
The scene of revelry takes place in the Park, a
royal one, and really a noble one. Here all the riff-
raff and bobtail of London repair in their finery,
and have a time. You can form no notion of the
affair; it cannot be described. The upper part of
the Park, towards the Royal Observatory, is very
steep, and down this boys and girls, men and women,
have a roll. Such scenes as are here to be wit-
nessed we cannot match. Nothing can exceed the
doings that occur. All the public houses swarm,
and in no spot have I ever seen so many places for



drinking as are here. The working-men of Lon-
don, and apprentices, with wives and sweethearts,
all turn out Easter Monday. It seems as though all
the horses, carts, chaises, and hackney coaches of
the city were on the road. We saw several enor-
mous coal wagons crammed tightly with boys and
girls. On the fine heath, or down, that skirts the
Park, are hundreds of donkeys, and you are invited
to take a halfpenny, penny, or twopenny ride. All
sorts of gambling are to be seen. One favorite
game with the youngsters was to have a tobacco
box, full of coppers, stuck on a stick standing in a
hole, and then, for a halfpenny paid to the proprie-
tor, you are entitled to take a shy at the mark. If
it falls into the hole, you lose; if you knock it off,
and away from the hole, you take it. It requires, I
fancy, much adroitness and experience to make any
thing at shying" at the bacca box." At night,
Greenwich is all alive-life is out of London and
in the fair. But let the traveller who has to return
to town beware. The road is full of horses and
vehicles, driven by drunken men and boys; and, for
four or five miles, you can imagine that a city is be-
sieged, and that the inhabitants are flying from the
sword. 0, such weary-looking children as we saw
that day! One favorite amusement was to draw a
little wooden instrument quick over the coat of
another person, when it produces a noise precisely



like that of a torn garment. Hundreds of these
machines were in the hands of the urchins who
crowded the Park. Here, for the first time, I saw
the veritable gypsy of whose race we have read so
much in Borrow's Zincali. The women are very
fine looking, and some of the girls were exquisitely
beautiful. They are a swarthy-looking set, and
seem to be a cross of Indian and Jew. Those we
saw were proper wiry-looking fellows. One or two
of the men were nattily dressed, with fancy silk
handkerchiefs. They live in tents, and migrate
through the midland counties, but I believe are not
as numerous as they were thirty years ago. You
will not soon forget how we were pleased with the
memoirs of Bamfield Moore Carew, who was once
known as their king in Great Britain. I wonder
that book has never been reprinted in America. I
am pretty sure that Greenwich Park would please
your taste. I think the view from the Royal Ob-
servatory, and from whence longitude is reckoned, is
one of the grandest I have ever seen. You get a
fine view of the noble palace once the royal residence,
but now the Sailor's Home. You see the Thames,
with its immense burden, and, through the mist, the
great city. As to the Hospital, we shall leave that
for another excursion: we came to Greenwich at
present merely to witness Easter Fair, and it will
not soon be forgotten by any of us.
Yours, &c., JAMES.


letttr 7.
As we had a few days to spare before the ex-
hibition opened, we proposed to run down to Bristol
and Bath, and pass a week. We took the Great
Western train first-class cars, and made the journey
of one hundred and twenty miles in two hours and
forty minutes. This is the perfection of travelling.
The cars are very commodious, holding eight per-
sons, each having a nicely-cushioned chair. The
rail is the broad gage; and we hardly felt the mo-
tion, so excellent is the road. The country through
which we passed was very beautiful, and perhaps it
never appears to more advantage than in the gay
garniture of spring. We left Windsor Castle to
our left, and Eton College, and passed by Reading,
a fine, flourishing town; and at Swindon we made a
stay of ten minutes. The station at this place is
very spacious and elegant. Here the passengers
have the only opportunity to obtain refreshments on
the route; and never did people seem more intent
upon laying in provender. The table was finely
laid out, and a great variety tempted the appetite.
The railroad company, when they leased this sta-
tion, stipulated that every train should pass ten min-
utes at it. But the express train claimed exemption,



and refused to afford the time. The landlord pros-
ecuted the company, obtained satisfactory damages,
and now even the express train affords its passen-
gers time to recruit at Swindon. This place has
grown up under the auspices of the railroad, and
one can hardly fancy a prettier place than environs
the station. The cottages are of stone, of the Eliz-
abethan and Tudor style, and are very numerous;
while the church, which is just finished, is one of the
neatest affairs I have yet seen in England. The
town of Swindon is about two miles from the station,
and I expect to visit it in the course of my journey.
You know, my dear Charley, how long and fondly
I have anticipated my visit to my native city, and
can imagine my feelings on this route homewards.
We passed through Bath, a most beautiful city, (and
I think as beautiful as any I ever saw,) and then in
half an hour we entered Bristol. The splendid
station-house of the railroad was new to me, but
the old streets and houses were all familiar as if
they had been left but yesterday. The next morn-
ing I called on my friends, and you may think how
sad my disappointment was to find that a dangerous
accident had just placed my nearest relative in the
chamber of painful confinement for probably three
months. It was a pleasant thing to come home to
scenes of childhood and youth, and I was prepared
to enjoy every hour; but I soon realized that here


all our roses have thorns. Of course, in Bristol I
need no guide; and the boys are, I assure you,
pretty thoroughly fagged out, when night comes,
with our perambulations through the old city and
Bristol has claims upon the attention of the
stranger, not only as one of the oldest cities in Eng-
land, but on account of its romantic scenery. The
banks of the Avon are not to be surpassed by the
scenes afforded by any other river df its size in the
world. This city was founded by Brennus, the
chieftain of the Gauls and the conqueror of Rome,
388 B. C., and tradition states that his brother Beli-
nus aided him in the work. The statues of these
worthies are quaintly carved on the gateway of
John's Church, in Broad Street, and are of very
great antiquity. In the earliest writings that bear
upon the west of England the Welsh Chronicles
this city is called Caer oder, which means the city
of the Chasm. This the Saxons called Clfton. The
Avon runs through a tremendous fissure in the rocks
called Vincent's Rocks; and hence the name given
to the suburbs of the city, on its banks Clifton.
Of this place we shall hhve much to tell you.
Another Welsh name for the city was Caer Brito, or
the painted city, or the famous city. Bristol, like
Rome, stands on seven hills, and on every side is
surrounded by the most attractive scenery. It has



made quite a figure in history, and its castle was an
object of great importance during the civil wars
between Charles I. and his Parliament. This city
stands in two counties, and has the privileges of one
itself. It is partly in Gloucestershire and partly in
Somersetshire. The population of Bristol, with
Clifton and the Hot Wells, is about two hundred
thousand. My first excursion with the boys was to
Redcliffe Church, which is thought to be the finest
parish church in England. This is the church
where poor Chatterton said that he found the Row-
ley MSS. No one of taste visits the city without
repairing to this venerable pile. Its antiquity, beauty
of architecture, and the many interesting events con-
nected with its history, claim particular notice. This
church was probably commenced about the beginning
of the thirteenth century; but it was completed by
William Cannynge, Sen., mayor of the city, in 1396.
In 1456, the lofty spire was struck by lightning, and
one hundred feet fell upon the south aisle. The
approach from Redcliffe Street is very impressive.
The highly-ornamented tower, the west front of the
church, its unrivalled north porch, and the transept,
with flying buttresses, pinnacles, and parapet, cannot
fail to gratify every beholder. The building stands
on a hill, and is approached by a magnificent flight
of steps, guarded by a heavy balustrade. In length,
the church and the Lady Chapel is two hundred


and thirty-nine feet; from north to south of the
cross aisles is one hundred and seventeen feet; the
height of the middle aisle is fifty-four, and of the
north and south aisles, twenty-five feet.
The impression produced on the spectator by the
interior is that of awe and reverence, as he gazes on
the clustered pillars, the mullioned windows, the
panelled walls, the groined ceilings, decorated with
ribs, tracery, and bosses, all evincing the skill of its
architects and the wonderful capabilities of the
Gothic style.
The east window and screen have long been hid-
den by some large paintings of Hogarth. The sub-
jects of these are the Ascension, the Three Marys at
the Sepulchre, and the High Priest sealing Christ's
On a column in the south transept is a flat slab,
with a long inscription, in memory of Sir William
Penn, father of William Penn, the great founder of
Pennsylvania. The column is adorned with his
banner and armor.
The boys, who had so often read of Guy, Earl
of Warwick, and of his valorous exploits, were
greatly pleased to find in this church, placed against
a pillar, a rib of the Dun cow which he is said to
have slain.
You may be very sure that we inquired for
the room in which Chatterton said he found old
Monk Rowley's poems. It is an hexagonal room,




over the north porch, in which the archives were
kept. Chatterton's uncle was sexton of the church;
and the boy had access to the building, and carried
off parchments at his pleasure. The idea of making

iiir V' -
Thomas Chattarton.
a literary forgery filled his mind; and if you read
Southey and Cottle's edition of the works of Chat-
tertop, or, what is far better, an admirable Life of the
young poet by John Dix, a gifted son of Bristol,
now living in America, you will have an interesting
view of the character of this remarkable youth.
At the east end of the church is the Chapel of


the Virgin Mary. A noble room it is. A large
statue of Queen Elizabeth, in wood, stands against
one of the windows, just where it did thirty-seven
years ago, when I was a youngster, and went to her
majesty's grammar school, which is taught in the
chapel. I showed the boys the names of my old
school-fellows cut upon the desks. How various
their fates One fine fellow, whose name yet lives
on the wood, found his grave in the West Indies, on
a voyage he had anticipated with great joy.
I am glad to. say that a spirited effort is now
making to restore this gorgeous edifice. It was
greatly needed, and was commenced in 1846. I do
wish you could see this church and gaze upon its
interior. I have obtained some fine drawings of
parts of the edifice, and they will enable you to
form some faint idea of the splendor of the whole
We have to dine with a friend, and I must close
Yours affectionately, J. o. c.

etttr 8.
You have so often expressed a desire to see
the fine cathedral churches and abbeys of the old
world, that I shall not apologize for giving you
an account of them; and as they are more in my
way, I shall take them into my hands, and let the



lads write you about other things. The next visit
we took, after I wrote you last, was to the cathedral.
This is of great antiquity. In 1148, a monastery
was dedicated to St. Augustine. This good man
sent one Jordan as a missionary in 603, and here
he labored faithfully and died. It seems, I think,
well sustained that the venerable Austin himself
preached here, and that his celebrated conference
with the British clergy took place on College Green;
and it is thought that the cathedral was built on its
site to commemorate the event. The vicinity of
the church is pleasing. The Fitzhardings, the
founders of the Berkeley family, began the founda-
tion of the abbey in 1140, and it was endowed and
dedicated in 1148. The tomb of Sir Robert, the
founder, lies at the east of the door, and is enclosed
with rails. Some of the buildings connected with
the church are of great antiquity, and are probably
quite as old as the body of the cathedral. A gate-
way leading to the cloisters and chapter-house is
plainly Saxon, and is regarded as the finest Saxbn
archway in England. The western part of the
cathedral was demolished by Henry' VIII. The
eastern part, which remains, has a fine Gothic choir.
This was created a bishop's see by Henry VIII. It
is interesting to think that Seeker, Butler, and New-
ton have all been bishops of this diocese, and War-
burton, who wrote the Divine Legation of Moses,
was once Dean of Bristol. The immortal Butler,


who wrote the Analogy of Natural and Revealed
Religion, lies buried here, and his tombstone is on
the south aisle, at the entrance of the choir. A
splendid monument has been erected to his memory,
with the following inscription from the pen of Rob-
ert Southey, himself a Bristolian: -

to the Memory of
twelve years Bishop of this Diocese,
afterwards of Durham, whose mortal re-
mains are here deposited. Others had estab-
lished the historical and prophetical grounds of the
Christian Religion, and that true testimony of Truth
which is found in its perfect adaptation to the heart
of man. It was reserved for him to develop its
analogy to the constitution and course of Na-
ture; and laying his strong foundations
in the depth of that great argument,
there to construct another and
irrefragable proof; thus ren-
during Philosophy subser-
vient to Faith, and find-
ing in outward and
visible things
the type and evidence of those within the veil.
Born, A.D. 1692. Died, 1752.



We noticed a very fine monument by Bacon to the
memory of Mrs. Draper, said to have been the Eliza
of Sterne. We hastened to find the world-renowned
tomb of Mrs. Mason, and to read the lines on mar-
ble of that inimitable epitaph which has acquired a
wider circulation than any other in the world. The
lines were written by her husband, the Rev. William

Take, holy earth, all that my soul holds dear;
Take that best gift which Heaven so lately gave.
To Bristol's fount I bore with trembling care
Her faded form; she bowed to taste the wave,
And died. Does youth, does beauty read the line ?
Does sympathetic fear their breasts alarm ?
Speak, dead Maria breathe a strain divine;
E'en from the grave thou shalt have power to charm.
Bid them be chaste, be innocent, like thee;
Bid them in duty's sphere as meekly move;
And if so fair, from vanity as free,
As firm in friendship, and as fond in love, -
Tell them, though 'tis an awful thing to die,
('Twas e'en to thee,) yet, the dread path once trod,
Heaven lifts its everlasting portals high,
And bids the pure in heart behold their God."

In the cloisters we saw the tomb of Bird the
artist, a royal academician, and a native of Bristol.
We were much interested with a noble bust of Rob-
ert Southey, the poet, which has just been erected
in the north aisle. It stands on an octangular ped-
estal of gray marble, with Gothic panels. The bust


is of the most exquisitely beautiful marble. The
inscription is in German text.
Mobert Sontttje,
morn tin Mritol,
Octobtt 4, 1774;
]ifet at jEStaWfit,
WiatcDC 21, 1843.
The cloisters contain some fine old rooms, which
recall the days of the Tudors. Here we saw the

~ZR S~f~


apartments formerly occupied by the learned and
accomplished Dr. Hodges, now organist of Trinity
Church, New York. This gentleman is a native of
Bristol, and is held, we find, in respectful and
affectionate remembrance by the best people of
this city.
Opposite to the cathedral, and on the other side
of the college green, is the Mayor's Chapel, where
his honor attends divine service. In Catholic days,
this was the Church and Hospital of the Virgin
Mary. This edifice was built by one Maurice
de Gaunt in the thirteenth century. Under the
tower at the east front is a small door, by which
you enter the church, and on the north another, by
which you enter a small room, formerly a confes-
sional, with two arches in the walls for the priest
and the penitent. In this room are eight niches, in
which images once stood. The roof is vaulted with
freestone, in the centre of which are two curious
shields and many coats of arms. In 1830, this
chapel was restored and beautified. A fine painted
window was added, and the altar screen restored to
its former beauty; at the expense of the corporation.
The front of the organ gallery is very rich in Gothic
moulding, tracery, rockets, &c. It is flanked at
the angles with octagonal turrets, of singular beauty,
embattled, and surmounted with canopies, rockets,
&c. The spandrils, quatrefoils, buttresses, sculp-


tures, and cornices are exceedingly admired. The
pulpit is of stone, and the mayor's throne, of
carved oak, is of elaborate finish. Here are two
knights in armor, with their right hands on their
sword hilts, on the left their shields, with their legs
crossed, which indicates that they Were crusaders.
In every excursion around Bristol, the boys were
struck with the fact that an old tower was visible on
a high hill. The hill is called Dundry, and it is
said that it can be seen every where for a circle of
five miles round the city. Dundry is five miles
from Bristol, and fourteen from Bath, and it com-
mands the most beautiful and extensive prospect in
the west of England. We rode out to it with an
early friend of mine, who is now the leading medi-
cal man of Bristol; and when I tell you that we
went in an Irish jaunting car, you may guess that
we were amused. The seats are at the sides, and
George was in ecstasies at the novelty of the vehicle.
When on the summit, we saw at the north and east
the cities of Bath and Bristol, and our view included
the hills of Wiltshire, and the Malvern Hills of
Worcestershire. The Severn, from north to west,
is seen, embracing the Welsh coast, and beyond are
the far-famed mountains of Wales. The church
has a fine tower, with turreted pinnacles fifteen feet
above the battlements. We rode over to Chew
Magna, a village two miles beyond Dundry. Here


I went to a boarding school thirty-eight years ago,
and I returned to the village for the first time. It
had altered but little. The streets seemed nar-
rower; but there was the old tower where I had
played fives, and there was the cottage where I
bought fruit; and when I entered it, Charley, I
found "young Mr. Batt "- a man of eighty-six.
His father used to be ( old Mr. Batt," and he
always called his son his t boy," and we boys
termed him "( young Mr. Batt." I came back and
found him eighty-six. So do years fly away. I
called on one old school-fellow, some years my
junior. He did not recognize me, but I at once
remembered him. We partook of a lunch at his
house. I was sadly disappointed to find the old
boarding school gone, but was not a little relieved
when I heard that it had given place to a Baptist
church. I confess I should have liked to occupy
its pulpit for one Sabbath day. To-morrow we are
to. spend at Clifton, the beautiful environ of Bristol,
and shall most likely write you again.
Yours affectionately,

J. 0. C.


getttr 9.

Clifton and the Hot Wells are the suburbs of
this city, extending along for a mile or two on the
banks of the Avon. One mile below the city the
Avon passes between the rocks which are known as
St. Vincent's on the one side, and Leigh Woods upon
the opposite one. These rocks are amongst the
sublimities of nature, and the Avon for about three
miles presents the wildest and sweetest bit 'of scenery
imaginable. These cliffs have been for ages the ad-
miration of all beholders, and though thousands of
tons are taken from the quarries every year, yet the
inhabitants say that no great change takes place in
their appearance. The Avon has a prodigious rise
of tide at Bristol, and at low water the bed of the
river is a mere brook, with immense banks of mud.
The country all around is exquisitely attractive, and
affords us an idea of cultivation and adornment
beyond what we are accustomed to at home. In
these rocks are found fine crystals, which are known
every where as Bristol diamonds. We obtained
some specimens, which reminded us of the crystals
so frequently seen at Little Falls, on the Mohawk.
The great celebrity of the Hot Wells is chiefly owing



to a hot spring, which issues from the rock, and
possesses valuable medical qualities.
This spring had a reputation as early as 1480. It
discharges about forty gallons per minute, and was
first brought into notice by sailors, who found it use-
ful for scorbutic disorders. In 1680 it became
famous, and a wealthy merchant rendered it so by a
dream. He was afflicted with diabetes,and dreamed
that he was cured by drinking the water of this
spring. He resorted to the imagined remedy, and
soon recovered. Its fame now spread, and, in
1690, the corporation of Bristol took charge of the
spring. We found the water, fresh from the spring,
at the temperature of Fahrenheit 760. It contains
free carbonic acid gas. Its use is seen chiefly in
cases of pulmonary consumption. I suppose it has
wrought wonders in threatening cases. It is the
place for an invalid who begins to fear, but it is not
possible to "1 create a soul under the ribs of death."
Unhappily, people in sickness too seldom repair to
such aid as may here be found till the last chances
of recovery are exhausted. I have never seen a
spot where I thought the fragile and delicate in con-
stitution might pass a winter, sheltered from every
storm, more securely than in this place. Tke houses
for accommodation are without end, both at the
Hot Wells and at Clifton. This last place is on the
high ground, ascending up to the summit of the


rocks, where you enter on a noble campus known as
Durdham Down. This extends for some three or
four miles, and is skirted by charming villages,
which render the environs of Bristol so far-famed
for beauty.
I never wished to have your company more than
when we all ascended the height of St. Vincent's
Rocks. The elevation at which we stood was about
three hundred and fifty feet above the winding river
which, it is thought, by some sudden convulsion of
nature, turned from the moors of Somersetshire, its
old passage to the sea, and forced an abrupt one
between the rocks and the woods; and the corre-
sponding dip of the strata, the cavities on one side,
and projections on the other, make the supposition
very plausible. A suspension bridge over this awful
chasm is in progress.
The celebrated pulpit orator, Robert Hall, always
spoke of the scenery of this region as having done
very much in his early days to form his notions of
the beautiful. In one of his most admirable ser-
mons, preached at Bristol, when discoursing upon
"< the new heavens and the new earth," he indulged
in an astonishing outbreak of eloquence, while he
conducted his audience to the surpassing beauties of
their own vicinage, sin-ruined as it was, and then
supposed that this earth might become the dwelling-
place of the redeemed, when, having been purified



from all evil, it should again become "( very good."
Here, on these scenes of unrivalled beauty, Southey,
and Lovell, and Coleridge, and Cottle have loved to

Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

meditate; and the wondrous boy Chatterton fed his
muse amid these rare exhibitions of the power and
wisdom of the Godhead. A Roman encampment is
still visible on the summit of the rocks. We were
all sorry to see such havoc going on among the
quarries, where, to use Southey's language on this
subject, they are selling off the sublime and beau-
tiful by the boat load."


Our favorite walk is on the downs. George
seems really penetrated with the uncommon beauty
of the region, and wants to stop as long as possible,
and does not believe any thing can be more beauti-
ful. We Ipok over the awful cliffs gaze on the
thread of water winding its devious course at an im-
mense distance below -watch the steamers from
Wales and Ireland shoot up to the city, and the
noble West Indiamen, as they are towed along.
The woods opposite are charming, and contain
nearly every forest-tree belonging to the country.
Dr. Holland, in his travels through Greece, refers to
this very spot in the following language : ", The fea-
tures of nature are often best described by compar-
ison; and to those who have visited Vincent's Rocks,
below Bristol, I cannot convey a more sufficient
idea of the far-famed Vale of Tempe than by say-
ing that its scenery resembles, though on a much
larger scale, that of the former place. The Peneus,
indeed, as it flows through the valley, is not greatly
wider than the Avon, and the channel between the
cliffs irregularly contracted in its dimensions; but
these cliffs themselves are much loftier and more
precipitous, and project their vast masses of rpck
with still more extraordinary abruptness over the
hollow beneath." We devoted a morning to visit
Leigh Court, the residence of Mr. Miles, a wealthy
merchant and member in Parliament for Bristol.



This is regarded as one of the finest residences in
the west of England. The mansion has an Ionic
portico, supported by massive columns. The great
hall is very extensive. A double flight of steps
leads you to a peristyle of the Ionic oider, around
which are twenty marble columns, supporting a lofty
dome, lighted by painted glass. The floor is of
colored marble. This residence has been enriched
with the choicest treasures from Wanstead House,
and Fonthill Abbey. To us the grand attraction
was the Picture Gallery, which has few superiors in
the kingdom. A catalogue, with etchings, was pub-
lished a few years ago. You may judge of the
merits of the collection, and the nature of our grat-
ification, when I tell you that here are the Conver-
sion of Paul, by Rubens; the Graces, by Titian;
William Tell, by Holbein; Pope Julius II., by Ra-
phael; Ecce Homo, by Carl Dolci; Head of the
Virgin, by Correggio; St. Peter, by Guido; St. John,
by Domenichino; Creator Mundi, by Leonardo da
Vinci; Crucifixion, by Michael Angelo; Plague of
Athens, by N. Poussin; three Seaports, by Claude;
and a large number by Rembrandt, Salvator Rosa,
Paul Potter, Parmegiano, Velasques, Gerard Dow,
&c. This has been a most gratifying excursion, and
our visit here will be a matter of pleasant recol-
lection. I forgot to say that at Clifton, and at
various places near the rocks, we were beset by men,


women, and children, having very beautiful polished
specimens of the various stones found in the quar-
ries, together with minerals and petrifactions. Of
these we all obtained an assortment.
Yours affectionately, j. o. c.

better 10.

We have while at Bristol made two journeys to
Bath, and I am sure we are all of opinion that it is
the most elegant city we ever saw. A great deal of
its beauty is owing to the fine freestone of which it
is chiefly built.
We were much pleased with the Royal Crescent,
which consists of a large number of elegant man-
sions, all built in the same style. Ionic columns rise
from a rustic basement, and support the superior
cornice. These houses are most elegantly finished.
All the city is seen from the crescent, and no other
spot affords so grand a prospect. Camden Place
is an elliptical range of edifices, commanding an
extensive view of the valley, with the winding stream
of the Avon, and the villages upon its banks. One
of the principal features of Bath is its hills and
downs, which shelter it on every side. The sides on
these downs are very fine, extending for miles, and



you see thousands of sheep enjoying the finest pos-
sible pasturage. Talking of sheep, I am reminded
how very fine the sheep are here; it seems to me
they are almost as big again as our mutton-makers.
Queen Square, in Bath, pleases us all, as we are
told it does every one. It stands up high, and is
seen from most parts of the city. From north to
south, between the buildings, it is three hundred and
sixteen feet, and from east to west three hundred
and six feet. In the centre is an enclosure, and in
that is a fine obelisk. The north side of the square
is composed of stately dwellings, and they have all
the appearance of a palace. The square is built of
freestone, and is beautifully tinted by age. The
first thing almost we want to see in these fine towns
is the cathedral, if there be one. I never thought
that I should be so pleased with old buildings as I
find I am. Old houses, castles, and churches have
somehow strangely taken my fancy. The Cathe-
dral, or, as they here call it, the Abbey Church, is a
noble one. It was begun in 1495, and only finished
in 1606, and stands on the foundation of-an old con-
vent, erected by Osric in 676. It is famous for its
clustered columns, and wide, elegantly arched win-
dows. The roof is remarkable for having fifty-two
windows, and I believe has been called the Lantern
of England. You know that the city takes its
name from its baths. The great resort of fashion


is at the Pump-room and the Colonnade. This build-
ing is eighty-five feet in length, forty-six wide, and
thirty-four high. This elegant room is open to the
sick of every part of the world. An excellent band
plays every day from one till half past three.
The King's Bath is a basin sixty-six feet by forty-
one, and will contain three hundred and forty-six
tuns. I have been much pleased with Dr. Gran-
ville's works on the Spas of England, and there you
will find much interesting matter respecting Bath.
We made some pleasant excursions in the vicinity
of this beautiful city. We have visited Bradford,
Trowbridge, and Devizes. Trowbridge is a fine
old town, and we looked with interest at the church
where the poet Crabbe so long officiated. His
reputation here stands high as a good man and kind
neighbor, but he was called a poor preacher. Here,
and in all the neighboring places, the manufacture
of broadcloths and cassimeres is carried on exten-
sively. Devizes is a charming old town. We were
greatly interested with its market-place, and a fine
cross, erected to hand down the history of a sad
event. A woman who had appealed to God in sup-
port of a lie was here struck dead upon the spot,
and the money which she said she had paid for some
wheat was found clinched in her hand. This
monument was built by Lord Sidmouth, and is a
fine freestone edifice, with a suitable inscription.



Roundaway Down, which hangs over this ancient
town, was famous in the civil wars of Charles I.
Here, too, are the relics of an old castle. Devizes
has two great cattle fairs, in spring and autumn; and
the market day, on Thursday, gave us a good idea
of the rural population. We have rarely seen finer
looking men than were here to be seen around their
wheat, barley, and oats. We have been pleased to
see the great English game of cricket, which is so
universally played by all young men in this country.
It seems to us that the boys here have more athletic
games than with us. Prisoners' bass seems a favor-
ite boys' amusement, and ninepins, or, as we call it,
bowls, are played by all classes freely, and it is not
regarded as at all unministerial. We are going to
London this week, and shall commence sight-seeing
in earnest. Above all, we are to be at the exhibition.
When I have seen the lions, I will write you again.
Yours affectionately, JAMES.

letter 11.
The story goes that Mr. Webster, when he first
arrived in London, ordered the man to drive to the
Tower. Certainly we boys all wanted to go there
as soon as possible. I do not think that I ever felt


quite so much excitement as I did when we were
riding to the Tower, I had so many things crowding
into my mind; and all the history of England with
which I have been so pleased came at once freshly
into my memory. I wanted to be alone, and have
all day to wander up and down the old prison and
palace and museum, for it has been all these things
by turns. Well, we rode over Tower Hill, and got
directly in front of the old fortress, and had a com-
plete view of it.
In the centre stands a lofty square building, with
four white towers, having vanes upon them. This is
said to be the work of William the Conqueror, but
has had many alterations under William Rufus,
Henry I., and Henry II. In 1215, the Tower was
besieged by the barons who made war on John.
Henry III. made his residence in this place, and did
much to strengthen and adorn it. About this time
the Tower began to be used as a state prison.
Edward I. enlarged the ditch or moat which sur-
rounded the Tower. In the days of Richard II.,
when the king had his troubles with Wat Tyler,
the Archbishop of Canterbury was beheaded on
Tower Hill, or, rather, massacred, for it said that he
was mangled by eight strokes of the axe. When
Henry V. gained his great victory at Agincourt, he
placed his French prisoners here. Henry VIII. was
here for some time after he came to the throne, and



he made his yeomen the wardens of the Tower, and
they still wear the same dress as at that day. The
dress is very rich, scarlet and gold, and made
very large; the coat short, and sleeves full. The
head-dress is a cap.
We went in at what is called the Lion's Gate,
because some time back the menagerie was kept in
apartments close by. The kings of other days used
to have fights between the beasts, and James I. was
very fond of combats between lions and dogs in
presence of his court. All these animals were moved
several years ago to the Zoological Gardens. We
passed through strong gates, defended by a port-
cullis, and on our left we saw what the warden
called the Bell Tower, and which was the prison of
Bishop Fisher, who was beheaded for not acknowl-
edging Henry VIII. to be the head of the church.
I wanted to see the Traitor's Gate, and found it
was on the right hand, having a communication with
the Thames under a bridge on the wharf. Through
this passage it was formerly the custom to convey
the state prisoners, and many a man in passing this
gate bade farewell to hope.
There is, just opposite to this gate, the bloody
tower where Edward V. and his brother were put
to death by the monster Richard, who usurped the
throne. I would have given a great deal to have
explored the Tower, but the things and places I


wanted to look into were just what you are not let
see. The old Tower of English history you look
at, but must not go through. Still I have been
delighted, but not satisfied. We found the spot
where the grand storehouse and armory were burnt
in 1841, and, if I recollect rightly, the warden said
it was three hundred and fifty feet long, and sixty
wide. Here, I suppose, was the finest collection of
cannon and small fire-arms in the world. We saw
some few fine specimens that were saved. Of
course, we were curious to see the Horse Armory.
This is a room one hundred and fifty feet in length,
and about thirty-five wide. Some one has said that
here is the History of England, done in iron."
All down the middle of the room is a line of eques-
trian figures, and over each character is his banner.
All the sides of the apartment are decorated with
trophies and figures in armor. I was much gratified
with the beautiful taste displayed in the arrangement
of the arms upon the walls and ceiling. Some of
the suits of armor were very rich, and answered
exactly to my notions of such matters. Here I saw,
for the first time, the coat of mail; and I think the
men of that day must have been stronger than
those of our time, or they never could have endured
such trappings. I was much pleased with the real
armor of Henry VII. This suit was very rich, and
damasked. And here, too, was the very armor of



Dudley, Earl of Leicester, who figured at the court
of Elizabeth. It weighs eighty-seven pounds; and
close by it is the martial suit of the unfortunate
Essex. He was executed, you know, at this place,
1601. Among the most beautiful armors we saw
were the suits of Charles I. and a small one which
belonged to his younger brother when a lad. I
think one suit made for Charles when a boy of
twelve would have fitted me exactly; and wouldn't
I have liked to become its owner! King Charles's
armor was a present from the city of London, and
was one of the latest manufactured in England.
I do not think I ever was in a place that so
delighted me. I cannot tell you a hundredth part
of the curiosities that are to be seen: all sorts of
rude ancient weapons; several instruments of torture
prepared by the Roman Catholics, at the time of the
Spanish Armada, for the conversion of the English
heretics. One of these was the Iron Collar, which
weighs about fifteen pounds, and has a rim of in-
ward spikes; and besides, we saw a barbarous instru-
ment, called the Scavenger's Daughter, which packed
up the body and limbs into an inconceivably small
space. We looked with deep interest, you may
imagine, Charley, on the block on which the Scotch
lords, Balmerino, Kilmarnock, and Lovat, were be-
headed in 1746. The fatal marks upon the wood
are deeply cut; and we had in our hands the axe


which was used at the execution of the Earl of
Essex. I shall read the history of this country, I
am sure, with more pleasure than ever, after walk-
ing over the yard and Tower Hill, where so many
great and good, as well as so many infamous, per-
sons have suffered death. Only think what a list
of names to be connected with the block Fisher,
More, Queen Anne Boleyn, Queen Catheiine How-
ard, Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, Cromwell and
Devereux, both Earls of Essex, the Duke of Som-
erset, Lady Jane Grey and her husband, the Duke
of Northumberland, Sir Walter Raleigh, Strafford,
Laud, all perished on the Tower Green or on the
Tower Hill. The spot is easily recognized where
the. scaffold was erected.
The regalia, or crown jewels, are kept in an
apartment built on purpose to contain these precious
treasures. Here are the crowns that once belonged to
different sovereigns and heirs of the throne. At the
death of Charles I., the crown ii use, and said to be
as old as the times of Edward the Confessor, was
broken up, and a new one made at the restoration of
Charles II. The arches of this crown are covered
with large stones of different colors, and the cap of the
crown is of purple velvet. The old crown for the
queen is of gold, set with diamonds of great cost, and
has some large pearls. There is a crown called "( the
Diadem," which was made for James II.'s queen,


adorned with diamonds, and which cost just about
half a million of dollars. The crown of the Prince
of Wales is plain gold.
As for orbs, staffs, and sceptres, I can't tell you
half the number. One I noticed called (t St. Ed-
ward's Staff," of gold, four feet seven inches long.
At the top is an orb and cross, and a fragment of
the Savior's cross is said to be in the orb. Here,
too, are all kinds of swords called swords of
justice and mercy and vessels to hold the oil for
anointing the monarch at coronation, and a saltcellar
of gold which is used at the same time, and is a
model of the Tower. I thought all this very fine;
but I was most pleased with seeing such splendid
specimens of precious stones. Such diamonds,
pearls, amethysts, emeralds, &c., &c., we Yankee
boys had never seen, and probably may never see
again. I was very much delighted with a large
silver wine fountain, presented by Plymouth to
Charles II., and which is used at coronation ban-
quets; and also with the font, of silver gilt, used at
the baptism of the Queen. It stands about four
feet high. Over all this show that I have told you
of is the state crown made for Victoria. This is
very brilliant, and in the centre of the diamond
cross is a sparkling sapphire, while in front of the
crown is a large ruby which was worn br the Black
Prince. Well, Charley, my boy, I would rather go


to Washington and look at our old copy of the
Declaration of Independence than gaze for a whole
day at this vast collection of treasure. There is
more to be proud of in that old camp equipage of
Washington's up in the patent office than in all the
crown jewels of England at least, so I think, and
so do you. Yours affectionately,

ettttr 12.
George has said his say about the Tower, he tells
me; and I assure you it was a time that we shall
often think of when we get back. On our return,
the doctor proposed that we should visit the Thames
Tunnel, which was not far off; and so we went
through a number of poor streets, reminding us of
the oldest parts of Boston round Faneuil Hall.
The tunnel connects Rotherhithe and Wapping.
This last place, you know, we have read about
enough in Dibdin's Sea Songs, our old favorite.
Several notions about this great idea have been
entertained in past years; but in 1814, Brunel, the
great engineer, noticed the work of a worm on a
vessel's keel, where it had sawn its way longitudi-
nally, and he caught an idea. In 1823, he formed a



"* Thames Tunnel Company," and in 1825 he com-
mented operations, but it was not opened till 1843
for passengers. There are no carriage approaches
to it, and it is only available to foot travellers. The
ascent and descent is by shafts of, perhaps, one
hundred steps. I think I heard that the great
work cost the company, and government, who
helped them, about half a million sterling. The
passages are all lighted up with gas, and in the way
you find raree shows of a dioramic character, and
plenty of music, and not a few venders of views
and models of the tunnel. After leaving this river
curiosity, we went to see the new Houses of Par-
liament, which run along the banks of the river, in
close neighborhood to Westminster Abbey. I felt
disappointed at the first view, it is altogether so
much like a very large pasteboard model such a
thing as you often see in ladies' fairs for charity.
To my notion, the affair wants character; it is all
beautiful detail. The length is about one thousand
feet. The clock tower is to be three hundred and
twenty feet high. It is vain to describe the building,
which is far too immense and complicated for my
pen. I never was so bewildered in a place before.
As I think you would like to have a correct idea of
the House of Lords, I will quote from the descrip-
tion which was handed us on entering, but even then
you will fail to understand its gorgeous character.


"* Its length is ninety feet; height, forty-five feet.
and width the same; so that it is a double cube. It
is lighted by twelve windows, six on each side, each
of which is divided by mullions into four, these be-
ing intersected by a transom, making eight lights
in each window, which are made of stained glass,
representing the kings and queens, consort and
regnant, since the Conquest. The ceiling is flat,
and divided into eighteen large compartments, which
are subdivided by smaller ribs into four, having at
the intersection lozenge-shaped compartments. The
centre of the south end is occupied by the throne,
each side of which are doors opening into the Vic-
toria Lobby. The throne is elevated on steps.
The canopy is divided into three compartments, the
centre one rising higher than the others, and having
under it the royal chair, which is a brilliant piece of
workmanship, studded round the back with crystals.
The shape of the chair is similar in outline to that
in which the monarchs have been crowned, and
which is in Westminster Abbey, but, of course,
widely different in detail and decoration. On each
side of this chair are others for Prince Albert and
the Prince of Wales. At the north end is the bar
of the house, where appeals are heard, and the
Commons assemble when summoned on the occasion
of the opening of Parliament. Above the bar is
the reporters' gallery, behind which is the strangers',


and round the sides of the House is another gallery,
intended for the use of peeresses, &c., on state oc-
", At the north and south ends of the house, above
the gallery, are three compartments, corresponding
in size and shape to the windows, and containing
fresco paintings. Those at the north end are the
Spirit of Religion,' by J. C. Horsley; the Spirit
of Chivalry' and the Spirit of Justice,' by D.
Maclise, R. A. Those at the south end, over the
throne, are the Baptism of Ethelbert,' by Dyce;
'Edward III. conferring the Order of the Garter on
the Black Prince,' and the Committal of Prince
Henry by Judge Gascoigne,' by C. W. Cope, R. A.
Between the windows are richly-decorated niches
and canopies, which are to have bronze statues in
them. In casting the eye round the whole room, it
is almost impossible to detect scarcely a square inch
which is not either carved or gilded. The ceiling,
with its massive gilded and decorated panels, pre-
sents a most imposing and gorgeous effect, and one
of truly royal splendor. The St. Stephen's Hall is
ninety-five feet long, thirty feet wide, and sixty feet
high ; the roof is stone-groined, springing from clus-
tered columns running up the side of the hall. The
bosses, at the intersections of the main ribs, are
carved in high relief, with incidents descriptive of
the life of Stephen.



"t This hall leads through a lofty archway into the
central hall, which is octagon in plan, having col-
umns at the angles, from which spring ribs forming
a grand stone groin finishing in the centre, with an
octagon lantern, the bosses at the intersections of
all the ribs elaborately carved. The size of this
hall is sixty-eight feet in diameter, and it is sixty feet
to the crown of the groin."
The House of Commons, which is now in the
course of completion, is quite a contrast to the
splendor of the House of Lords. Its length is
eighty-four fget; width, forty-five feet; and height,
forty-three feet. An oak gallery runs all round the
house, supported by posts at intervals, having carved
heads, and spandrills supporting the main ribs. The
strangers' gallery is at the south end, in front of
which is the speaker's order gallery. At the north
end is the reporters' gallery, over which is the ladies'
gallery being behind a stone screen. The libra-
ries are fine rooms, looking out on the river. I
have no time to tell you of the beautiful refreshment
rooms, excepting to say that the one for the peers is
one hundred feet long. I must not forget to say
that in the tower is to be a wondrous clock, the dial
of which is to be thirty feet in diameter We went
to see these buildings by an order from the lord
chamberlain. The total cost is estimated at be-
tween eight and ten millions of dollars. It certainly


is very rich, and looks finely from the river; but it
is unfortunately too near to the abbey, and wants
force. After leaving the Houses of Parliament, we
went to Westminster Hall, which has some of the
finest historical recollections connected with any
public building in England. Really, I felt more
awe in entering -this hall than I ever remember to
have experienced. I cannot tel you the size of it,
but it is the largest room in Europe without a
support, and the span of the roof is the widest
known. The roof, of chestnut, is exceedingly fine.
Only think, my dear fellow, what events have trans-
pired on this spot. The following trials took place
here: Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, for high trea-
son, 1521; Sir Thomas More, 1535; Duke of Som-
erset, for treason, 1552; Thomas Howard, Duke of
Norfolk, for his attachment to Mary, Queen of
Scots; Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, 1601, and
Earl of Southampton; Guy Fawkes and the Gun-
powder Plot conspirators; Robert Carr, Earl of
Southampton, and his countess, for murder of Sir
Thomas Overbury, 1616; Wentworth, Earl of Straf-
ford, 1641; Archbishop Laud; Charles I., for his
attacks upon the liberties of his country, 1649; the
seven bishops, in the reign of James II.; Dr. Sach-
everel, 1710; in 1716, the Earls Derwentwater,
Nithisdale, and Carnwath, and the Lords Widding-
ton, Kenmure, and Nairn, for the rebellion of 1715;


Harley, Earl of Oxford, 1717; the Earls Cromartie
and Kilmarnock, and Lord Balmerino, 1746, for the
rebellion of 1745; Lord Lovat, 1747; William
Lord Byron, for the death of William Chaworth in
a bloody duel, 1765; Lord Ferrers, for the murder
of his steward; the infamous Duchess of Kingston,
for bigamy, 1776; and Warren Hastings, for cruelty
in his office as Governor of India, 1788.
And besides all this, here have been the corona-
tion feasts of all England's monarchs, from William
Rufus, who built it in 1099, down to George IV.,
1820. Sad times and merry ones have been here.
We stepped from the hall into the courts of law,
which have entrances from this apartment, and we
saw the lord chancellor on the bench in one, and
the judges sitting in another. The courts were
small, and not very imposing in their appearance.
Yours truly, JAMES.

fetttr 13.
O, we have had a noble treat; and how I longed
for your company, as we spent hour after hour in the
British Museum. The building is very fine, but the
inside that is every thing. The entire front is, I
think, about four hundred feet, and I reckoned forty-



four columns forming a colonnade; these are forty-
five feet high. The portico is now receiving mag-
nificent sculpture in relief; and when the whole is
finished, and the colossal statues surmount the pedi-
ment, and the fine iron palisadoes, now erecting, are
completed, I think the edifice will be among the
finest in the world. The entrance hall is most im-
posing, and the ceiling is richly painted in encaustic.
The staircases are very grand, and their side walls
are cased with red Aberdeen granite, brought to an
exquisite polish. To describe the British Museum
would be a vain attempt. In the hall are several
fine statues. Especially did we admire the one of
Shakspeare by Roubilliac, and given by Garrick.
We soon found our way to the Nineveh Gallery, and
were wide awake to look after the relics of Nineveh
dug up by Layard on the banks of the Tigris.
Here is a monstrous human head, having bull's horns
and ears, many fragments of horses' heads, bulls,
&c., &c. The colossal figure of the king is very
grand, and discovers great art. There is also a fine
colossal priest, and the war sculptures are of the deep-
est interest. Then we went to the Lycian Room.
The sculptures here were found at Xanthus, in
Lycia. These ruins claim a date of five hundred
years before Christ. Here are some exquisite frag-
ments of frieze, describing processions, entertain-
ments, sacrifices, and female figures of great beauty.


In the Grand Saloon are numerous Roman re-
mains of sculpture. In the Phigalian Saloon are mar-
bles found at a temple of Apollo, near Phigalia, in
Arcadia, in 1814. The Elgin Saloon is devoted to
the magnificent marbles taken in 1804, from temples
at Athens, by the Earl of Elgin, and were purchased
by Parliament for thirty-five thousand pounds.
They are chiefly ornaments from the Parthenon, a
Doric temple built in the time of Pericles, B. C. 450,
by Phidias. No one can fail to be impressed with
the great beauty of these conceptions. The famous
Sigean inscription is written in the most ancient of
Greek letters, boustrophedon-wise; that is, the lines
follow each other as oxen turn from one furrow to
another in ploughing.
There are five galleries devoted to natural history,
and are named thus: the Botanical Museum, Mam-
malia Gallery, Eastern Zoological Gallery, Northern
Zoological Gallery, and the Mineral Gallery. The
specimens in all these are very fine. Nothing can
be finer than the mammalia. The preservation has
been perfect, and far surpasses what I have been
accustomed to see in museums, where decay seems
to be often rioting upon the remains of nature. The
department of ornithology is wonderful, and I could
have enjoyed a whole day in examining the birds of
all climates. In conchology the collection is very
rich. I do not often get such a gratification as I


had among the portraits which are hanging on the
walls of these galleries. The very men I had heard
so much of, and read about, were here lifelike,
painted by the best artists of their day. I was
much pleased with the picture of Mary, Queen of
Scots, by Jansen; of Cromwell, by Walker; of
Queen Elizabeth, by Zucchero: of Charles II.. by
Lely; of Sir Isaac Newton; of Lord Bacon; of
Voltaire; of John Guttenburg; and of Archbishop
Cranmer. As to the library and the MSS., what
shall I say ? The collection of books is the largest
in the kingdom, and valuable beyond calculation.
It amounts to seven hundred thousand. We looked
at illuminated gospels, Bibles, missals, till we were
bewildered with the gold and purple splendor; and
then we walked from one glass case to another,
gazing upon autographs that made us heart-sick
when we thought of our juvenile treasures in this
line. If ever I did covet any thing, it was some old
scraps of paper which had the handwriting of Mil-
ton, Cromwell, Luther, Melancthon, Erasmus, and
a long et cactera of such worthies. You know how
much we love medals and coins; well, here we rev-
elled to our heart's delight. Country after country
has its history here, beautifully illustrated. The
museum has two spacious rooms devoted to reading,
and the access to these treasures is very liberal.
If I could stay in London one year, I should


certainly propose to spend three or four months in
study and research at the British Museum; nor do I
imagine that it would be lost time. It seems to me
that such a place must make scholars; but I know,
by my own painful recollection, that opportunities for
improvement are not always valued as they should
be. I have been much struck lately with the thought
that men of leisure are not the men who do much
in literature. It never has been so. Here and
there a rich man cultivates his mind; but it is your
busy men who leave the mark upon the age.
While in the museum, we were shown Lord
Chief Justice Campbell, the author of the Lives
of the Chancellors, &c. He is a working-man, if
there be one in England, and yet he finds time to
elaborate volume upon volume. I feel ashamed
when I think how little I have acquired, how very
little I know that I might have understood, and
what immensely larger acquisitions have been made
by those who have never enjoyed half my advan-
tages. There is a boy, only fifteen, who resorts
to this museum, and is said to understand its con-
tents better than most of its visitors; and a livery
servant, some few years ago, used to spend all his
hours of leisure here, and wrote some excellent
papers upon historical subjects. If I have gained
any good by my journey yet, it is the conviction,
I feel growing stronger every day, that I must work,


and that every one must work, in order to excel.
It seems to me that we are in a fair way to learn
much in our present tour, for every day's excursion
becomes a matter of regular study when we come
to our journal, which is now kept posted up daily,
as a thing of course. We are trying, at all events,
to make ourselves so familiar with the great attrac-
tions of London, that in future life we may under-
stand the affairs of the city when we hear of them.
Yours affectionately, WELD.

fetter 14.
Ever since we reached London, I have wanted to
go to Woolwich, the great naval arsenal and dock-
yard, because I expected I should obtain a pretty
good idea of the power of the British navy; and
then I like to compare such places with our own;
and I have often, at Brooklyn Navy Yard, thought
how much I should like to see Woolwich. Wool-
wich is on the Thames, and about ten miles from
the city. You can go at any hour by steamer from
London Bridge, or take the railway from the Surrey
side of the bridge. We were furnished with a
ticket of admission from our minister; but unfortu-
nately, we came on a day when the yard was closed


by order. We were sadly disappointed, but the
doorkeeper, a very respectable police officer, told us
that our only recourse was to call on the command-
Sing officer, who lived a mile off, and he kindly gave
us a policeman as a guide. On our way, we met
the general on horseback, attended by some other
officers. We accosted him, and told our case. He
seemed sorry, but said the yard was closed. As
soon as we mentioned that we came from America,
he at once gave orders for our admission, and was
very polite. Indeed, on several occasions we have
found that our being from the United States has
proved quite a passport.
We had a special government order to go over
all the workshops and see the steam power, &c.,
&c. I think I shall not soon forget the wonderful
smithery where the Nasmyth hammeis are at work,
employed in forging chain cables and all sorts of iron
work for the men-of-war. We went in succession
through the founderies for iron and brass, the steam
boiler manufactory, and saw the planing machines
and lathes; and as to all the other shops and facto-
ries, I can only say, that the yard looked like a city.
We were much pleased with the ships now in
progress. One was the screw steamer, the Aga-
memnon, to have eighty guns. There, too, is the
Royal Albert, of one hundred and twenty guns,
which they call the largest ship in the world. Of


course, we think this doubtful. It has been nine
years in progress, and will not be finished for three
more. It is to be launched when the Prince of
Wales attains the rank of post captain. We saw,
among many other curiosities, the boat in which Sir
John Ross was out twenty-seven days in the ice.
We went into an immense building devoted to mili-
tary stores, and in one room we saw the entire
accoutrements for ten thousand cavalry, including
bridles, saddles, and stirrups, holsters, &c.
The yard is a very large affair, containing very
many acres; it is the depository of the cannon be-
longing to the army and navy for all the region,
and there were more than twenty thousand pieces
lying upon the ground. Some were very large, and
they were of all varieties known in war.
After a delightful hour spent in listening to the
best martial music Iever heard played, by the band,
we took steamboat for Greenwich, and, landing
there, walked to Blackheath, where we had an en-
gagement to dine at Lee Grove with a London mer-
chant. Here we had a fine opportunity to witness
the luxury and elegance of English social life. This
gentleman, now in the decline of life, has an exqui-
sitely beautiful place, situated in a park of some
sixty acres. The railroad has been run through his
estate, and, of course, has made it very much more
valuable for building; but as it injures the park for



the embellishment of the mansion, it was a fair sub-
ject for damages, and the jury of reference gave its
proprietor the pretty verdict of eleven thousand
pounds. At the table we had the finest dessert
which the hothouse can furnish. Our host gave us
a very interesting account of his travels in America
more than forty years ago. A journey from New
York to Niagara, as related by this traveller, was
then far more of an undertaking than a journey
from New Orleans to New York, and a voyage
thence to England, at the present time.
In the evening, we took the cars for London, and
reached our comfortable hotel, the Golden Cross,
Charing Cross, at eleven o'clock. By the way, we
are all very much pleased with the house and its
landlord. Mr. Gardiner is a very gentlemanly man,
of fine address and acquirements. He has been a
most extensive traveller in almost every part of the
world, and has a fine collection of paintings, and one
of the prettiest cabinets of coins and medals I ever
saw. He has a pretty cottage and hothouses four
or five miles from the city, and his family resides
partly there and at the hotel. The hotel is every
tiling that can be desired.
A few evenings ago, Mr. Lawrence had a splen-
did soiree. There were probably from two to three
hundred present. Among the company were Sir
David Brewster, Leslie the artist, Miss Coutts, the



Duke of Wellington. "6 The duke," as he is called,
is the great man of England. All the people idol-
ize him, and he is known to be a great man. He
has become more identified with the history of Eng-
land for the last forty years than any other man.
Of course, he was to us Americans the great man
of the country. Whenever I have read of Napo-
leon, I have had Wellington in my eye, and to see
him was next to seeing the emperor. I never ex-
pected the pleasure, but here it is allotted me. He
is quite an old man in his bearing and gait. lHe
was dressed in a blue coat with metal buttons, wore
his star and garter, and had on black tights and
shoes. He had been to the opera, and then came
to this party. Every one pays the most deferential
homage to the old hero. Waterloo and its eventful
scenes came directly before me, and I felt almost
impatient for our visit to the battle-field.
A gentleman who knows the duke told us that
he spends from four to five hours every morning at
the Horse Guards in the performance of his duties
as commander-in-chief. Although he looks so feeble
in the drawing-room, he sits finely on his horse;
and when I saw him riding down Piccadilly, he
seemed to be full twenty years younger than he was
the day before at the party.
We shall always be glad that we came to Eng-
land in time to see the duke," and if we live


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