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The Lepidoptera of Florida;
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001931/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Lepidoptera of Florida; an annotated checklist
Series Title: Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas ;
Physical Description: v, 263 p. : 26 plates (part col.) ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kimball, Charles P., b. 1897
Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Division of Plant Industry, State of Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Lepidoptera -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "Annotated bibliography": p. 310-329.
Additional Physical Form: Electronic version available on the World Wide Web as part of the Linking Florida's Natural Heritage Collection.
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles P. Kimball.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0022
notis - AAA7885
alephbibnum - 000006598
oclc - 01508316
lccn - a 65007844
Classification: lcc - QL434 .A75 v.1
ddc - 595.7809759
System ID: UF00001931:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
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        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
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    Main
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        Plate 1
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Full Text





ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA

AND NEIGHBORING LAND AREAS


VOLUME


LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA

C. P. KIMBALL



FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


DOYLE CONNER, COMMISSIONER





Y - ^-----N

-










The


LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST







BY

CHARLES P. KIMBALL


THE PRINTING OP THIS PUBLICATION WAS PARTIALLY FINANCED
BY THE
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GRANT NO. 23711








1965
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA






$5.OO PER COPY


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Foreword
Introduction ..-- .
Geography ...-
Topography -----------
Climate
Vegetation
Distributional areas --
Comparison with neighboring states
Form of the list _--
Determinations ------
Descriptions ._-----
Locality records---
Dates -- -- -
Collectors _
Abbreviations
Collections
Abbreviations -- -----------
Literature----
Division of Plant Industry records
Food plants --. .
Quarantine interceptions -- -- -
Illustrations --
Summation _ ----
Random observations
Acknowledgments
Abbreviations of bibliographical references
Papilionoidea
Papilionidae
Pieridae
Danaidae
Satyridae
Heliconiidae
Nymphalidae
Libytheidae
Riodinidae
Lycaenidae
Theclinae _---
Gerydinae
Lycaeninae ___
Plebeiinae -------
Hesperioidea
Hesperiidae
Pyrginae ..-... .----.. ..
Hesperiinae
Megathymidae ----
Sphingoidea
Sphingidae ----.-------
Acherontiinae -.- - - -
Ambulicinae ...------- _ ..-


Seslinae ------_---_------
Philampelinae .-- -
Choerocampinae ------
Saturnioidea--
Saturniidae
Citheroniidae _ _
Noctuoidea ----
Amatidae---
Nolidae ------
Arctiidae -------
Lithosiinae -------
Arctiinae --- -
Agaristidae ------
Noctuidae -------
Pantheinae
Acronictinae ------
Agrotinae ---------
Hadeninae .-_----
Cuculliinae
Amphipyrinae
Heliothiinae --
Acontiinae - --
Euteliinae
Sarrothripinae
Plusiinae
Catocalinae
Erebiinae
Hypeninae
Rivulinae
Hermniinae -_
Pericopidae
Notodontidae
Liparidae
Bombycoidea
Lasiocampidae
Zanolidae
Drepanoidea
Thyatiridae
Drepandae .
Geometroidea -.-----
Geometridae -- -----
Oenochrominae
Geometrinae (Hemitheinae)
Sterrhinae
Larentiinae---
Ennominae ----
Uranioidea
Epiplemidae
Lacosomidae -


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Foreword
Introduction
Geography -----
Topography .. --
Climate
Vegetation -
Distributional areas -
Comparison with neighboring states -
Form of the list _ -- ---- -
Determinations
Descriptions
Locality records -_.--
Dates ____
Collectors ..___
Abbreviations -
Collections --
Abbreviations
_ Literature -
Division of Plant Industry records -- -
S Food plants -
Quarantine interceptions
Illustrations
S Summation
Q Random observations
Acknowledgments -. --
Abbreviations of bibliographical references
Papilionoidea
S Papilionidae
Pieridae
Danaidae
Satyridae
Heliconiidae
Nymphalidae
Libytheidae -.-
Riodinidae ____
Lycaenidae ..
Theclinae _ __ _ --
Gerydinae
Lycaeninae
Plebeiinae ---.--__
Hesperioidea
Hesperiidae
Pyrginae -...... --- _-- -.-
Hesperiinae
Megathymidae -
Sphingoidea ___ _
Sphingidae --
4 Acherontiinae -----
s., Ambulicinae .-.-...---. --.-.


Sesiinae -----
Philampelinae
Choerocampinae _-----
Saturnioidea .._-
Saturniidae - -
Citheroniidae _-
Noctuoidea
Amatidae __-----
Nolidae -
Arctiidae - _-_-___
Lithosiinae -----
Arctiinae - .- --
Agaristidae
Noctuidae
Pantheinae
Acronictinae --
Agrotinae __
Hadeninae -- -
Cuculliinae -_
Amphipyrinae
Heliothiinae -.-
Acontiinae -._
Euteliinae _
Sarrothripinae _-_
Plusiinae -.-
Catocalinae ___
Erebiinae -_
Hypeninae .
Rivulinae . .__...
Herminiinae ____
Pericopidae - -s
Notodontidae ______
Liparidae
Bombycoidea
Lasiocampidae
Zanolidae ____
Drepanoidea .- __ _-
Thyatiridae
Drepanidae ____-
Geometroidea __
Geometridae -----
Oenochrominae
Geometrinae (Hemitheinae)
Sterrhinae _--
Larentiinae --- -____
Ennominae --.___ .
Uranioidea ___
Epiplemidae
Lacosomidae -- _--


TABLE OF CONTENTS


68
65
67
68
68
69
70
70
72
78
78
75
80
81
81
81
84
87
92
94
106
110
116
118
119
120
180
188
144
145
150
151
157
159
159
160
160
160
160
161
161
161
161
165
171
174
192
192
192













Zygaenoidea 193
Limacodidae 193
Megalopygidae 196
Epipyropidae 197
Zygaenidae 197
Pyralidoidea 197
Thyrididae 197
Hyblaeidae 198
Pyralidae 198
Odontiinae 198
Glaphyriinae 199
Pyraustinae - - _ 200
Nymphulinae _220
Scopariinae - _ 223
Pyralinae 224
Chrysauginae 225
Schoenobiinae _227
Aacylomiinae 229
Crambinae - . 230
Galleriinae 235
Macrothecinae 238
Epipaschiinae 236
Endotrichiinae -- - 239
Phycitidae _ 239
Phycitinae --239
Anerastiinae _____ 250
Pterophoridae 251
Alucitidae -- - 254
Tortricoidea .-- 254
Olethreutidae _ 254
Olethreutinae 254
Eucosminae 2-__57
Laspeyresiinae 262
Tortricidae ---- ----- 264
Sparganothinae 264
Archipinae 26___ ----------- 7 27
Cnephasiinae 270
Phaloniidae -.- -___------ - 270
Carposinidae _-- _. - - ---- 271
Cossidae ------- 271
Gelechioidea -_--- _----- 272
Cosmopterigidae - --- ---- 272


Cover Illustration:


Walshfidae 2----- 274
Momphidae 275
Epermeniidae 276
Gelechiidae _ 276
Oecophoridae 283
Blastobasidae ____284
Xylorictidae 285
Stenomidae _-- 285
Ethmildae ___ 286
Yponomeutoidea - - 287
Glyphipterygidae 287
Aegeriidae 288
Heliodinidae 290
Hyponomeutidae 291
Scythridae _292
Cycnodioidea 292
Heliozelidae 292
Elachistidae 293
Tineoidea -____293
Coleophoridae 293
Gracillariidae 293
Opostegidae 295
Lyonetidae 295
Tischeriidae 296
Psychidae 297
Acrolophidae -298
Tineidae ____ 299
Nepticuloidea -8----3 02
Nepticulidae __- . _ 302
Incurvarioidea _ ____ 02
Incurvariidae .. ____ ___ 3 802
Prodoxidae ___- 302
Adelidae 803
Appendix 3.--- 04
Quarantine interceptions 804
Map 806
Gazetteer -- 07
Annotated Bibliography ---- -...--- 310
Plates I-XVI - (pages unnumbered)
Index of food plants 330
Index to common names 3-8- 42
Index to genera, species and subspecies --. 344


Diurnal moth, Composia fidelissima vagrants Bates, painted by Marjorie Statham,
American Museum of Natural History.


RELEASE DATE JANUARY 1, 1965










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FOREWORD


Lepidoptera of Florida is to be the first of an
irregularly appearing series of publications re-
lating to the insects and other arthropods of
Florida and neighboring land areas-the south-
eastern United States, the Bahama Islands, and
the West Indies-with emphasis on taxonomy,
ecology, biology, and zoogeography. Emphasis
in this series, to be published by the Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agricul-
ture,1 will be placed on the Florida fauna.
Special acknowledgment is due the National
Science Foundation for generous support in the
publication of Lepidoptera of Florida.
The files and preserved specimens of The
Florida State Collection of Arhropods provided
a basis for many of the records in this publica-
tion. This collection is being developed by staff
members of the Entomology Section, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agricul-
ture, and several appointed associates of the
state collection. Close support is provided by
the Florida State Museum and its several As-
sociates in Entomology.
Commitment to publish Lepidoptera of Flor-
ida originally was made in 1955 during the ad-
ministration of Ed. L. Ayers, then Commissioner
of the State Plant Board of Florida. It was re-
affirmed by his successor, the late Dr. W. G.
Cowperthwaite, and is being published under
the administration of Division Director Hal L.
bones and Florida Commissioner of Agriculture
oyle Conner.
Written in an informal, pleasing style, this
publication should constitute the primary ref-
erence on the butterflies, skippers, and moths of
Florida for both amateurs and professionals, and
it should provide a useful reference for those in-
terested in Florida agriculture. Although any

1 Effective January 15, 1961, the State Plant Board
of Florida became known as the Division of Plant In-
dustry of the Florida Department of Agriculture.


work of this nature never can be complete, a
great deal of effort by the author, with substan-
tial aid from others, has gone into the prepara-
tion of this publication.
The author, Charles P. Kimball, was born in
Rochester, New York, in 1897. He received his
early education in the schools of New York, South
Carolina, and Rhode Island. He received his
A. B. degree from Harvard College in 1919
(1920), following service in Europe during World
War I. After graduation from Harvard he
worked as a bookkeeper for Union Trust Com-
pany, Rochester, New York, and in 1923 he re-
ceived his M. S. degree at the University of
Rochester. He worked as a Fellow in Biochem-
istry at the University of Rochester, School of
Medicine for three years and moved to Nan-
tucket, Massachusetts, in 1925, where he was
active in civic affairs. In collaboration with Dr.
Frank M. Jones, he compiled a list of the Lepi-
doptera of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard
Islands which was published in 1943. During
World War II he was a Research Associate in
Radiology at the University of Rochester School
of Medicine and Dentistry. After the war he
became more seriously interested in Lepidop-
tera, first collecting in Florida in 1946. He
moved to Sarasota in 1951, although continuing
to maintain summer residence in Barnstable,
Massachusetts, and began compilation of the
Lepidoptera of Florida in 1953. His interest in
contributing to our knowledge of the Lepidop-
tera of Florida is continuing beyond the com-
pletion of the manuscript for this publication.
HOWARD V. WEEMs, JR.
Editor
Entomology Section
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture
November 30, 1964


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INTRODUCTION


This is not a text book, nor is it an analysis.
Rather it is a compilation of the distribution, de-
positories, and other pertinent information relat-
ing to the Lepidoptera of Florida as gathered
together from many sources. Falling short of
its goal as it does, as indeed must any similar
list, such accomplishment as has been realized is
due in very large measure to the enthusiastic and
generous cooperation of many people. It is to
their kindly spirit that I would dedicate this
work.
Many problems have arisen. Some of these
have been solved through the generous assist-
ance of one or another authority whose aid will
be acknowledged and recognized individually in
due course. Other problems remain. These I
have attempted to set forth in the hope that
they will inspire the curious student to probe
into them and to build on to what is hoped may
be a solid and firm foundation. First, however,
there are various aspects of the work as a whole
which must be discussed in order that the main
body of the text and the method of treatment
may be reasonably clear, for without a knowl-
edge of this groundwork, the text will not be
completely comprehensible. Unfortunately, be-
cause of the dissimilar nature of the subjects,
this introductory section cannot flow with a
unity of idea and purpose, but must perforce
jump from one topic to another. For this reason,
and also in order to make readier reference to
the various subjects, each subject has been segre-
gated under its own heading.

GEOGRAPHY
Though it may seem gratuitous to stress the
point that the list is limited to the present bound-
aries of the State of Florida, a word of explana-
tion is needed, for in the past the northern
boundary was frequently changing and ever
shrinking southward, the original Florida of the
Spaniards having embraced practically the en-
tire southeastern United States.
The vagaries of this northern boundary are
well described in Florida, Land of Change by
Kathryn Trimmer Abbey (Hanna) (1941) and I
am indebted to Mrs. Hanna personally for fur-
ther elucidation of the mysteries.
Disregarding the few botanists who visited the
region in the early days even though they may
have picked up an odd specimen or so of Lepi-
doptera, only two collectors whose sites of op-
erations concern us were in the region prior
to 1866, when the boundary was fixed in its pres-
eat position. These were John Abbot and Ed-
ward Doubleday.


So far as we know Abbot collected essentially
in Screven County, Georgia, well north of the
state line, and it is not believed that any of his
material can be credited definitely to Florida.
If he did obtain any specimens from here through
other channels, we have no way of knowing
which they were, whence they came, nor where
they are. One of the confusing factors, presum-
ably based on Abbot material, is the Hiibner
locality citations: "Aus Florida" and "Aus Geor-
gien in Florida." However, as pointed out by
Austin Clark (1950, p. 62), these all boil down
to country north of the Altamaha River. The
"Florida in Georgia" citations are a misquotation,
as shown by Franclemont (1951, p. 6). There-
fore, none of Abbot's records need be considered
in connection with this list.
On the other hand Doubleday's collecting was
primarily at St. Johns Bluff, on the south bank
of the St. Johns River, between Jacksonville and
the sea, well within the confines of the state. Of
his collecting more will be said under the sub-
ject of collectors.

TOPOGRAPHY
The topography of the state is relatively un-
complicated. Nevertheless, though the eleva-
tions are slight, even these often may have great
influence on the flora (West and Arnold, 1952,
p. xiii) and consequently on the insect life. The
east-west axis of the northern panhandle is long
and narrow; yet in spite of the fact that there
are different biological areas to be found in it,
the latter must be disregarded as far as the pres-
ent study is concerned because until very re-
cently collecting there has been on a minimal
basis.
On the other hand the north-south peninsula
is most important. It covers roughly 425 miles
in length, including the Keys, the whole thrust-
ing down between the Atlantic Ocean on the
east and the Gulf of Mexico on the west, with
a maximum width of slightly more than 150
miles. The proximity of warm water, especially
that of the Gulf Stream along the Keys and
lower east coast, has a marked effect on the
climate of this peninsula.

CLIMATE
Climate affects the insect fauna anywhere,
and Florida is no exception, though here the
overall influence, aside from that due to the Gulf
Stream, is more limited because of the relatively
more even temperature, the comparatively less
drastic drought conditions, and generally less


_ *


-e--^c�*








THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


excessive rainfall than that in some parts of the
United States.
The temperature ranges from about 250 to
95� F in the northernhalf of the state, from
350 to 950 F in the southern half, and 400 to
90� F on the Keys of Monroe County, generally
known simply as "the Keys. Naturally, there
are exceptions to these figures, and lower tem-
peratures may be encountered the length of the
peninsula. However, these are seldom of suffi-
cient duration to cause permanent injury to the
flora; but when really low temperatures do occur
and persist, there is unquestionably a pronounced
change in the lepidopterous population. An
illustration of this is the extremely severe winter
of 1899, when the thermometer indicated two
degrees below zero F in Tallahassee, the lowest
temperature ever observed in Florida.
The state cannot be divided accurately into
northern and southern halves because the prox-
imity of the Atlantic Ocean on the one side and
the Gulf of Mexico on the other holds the coastal
temperatures a few degrees higher than those
in the interior during cold snaps and lower dur-
ing heat waves. Stated another way, the winter
isotherms would dip more and more sharply in
the center as they moved down the peninsula,
and those of summer would rise less and less
sharply as they moved up.
During the latter part of the Nineteenth Cen-
tury when entomologists were making the first
scientific collections of Lepidoptera in Florida,
a number of species of butterflies were taken
in the Indian River region which since 1899 have
been seen only in the southern most tip of the
peninsula or perhaps only on the Keys. It seems
a reasonable deduction that the intense cold of
that winter, which damaged irreparably an im-
mense segment of the vegetation, caused the
annihilation of certain tropical and semitropical
flora in their northern range, and with them
their dependent species of butterflies, thus con-
fining the latter to the small section of the state
where their food plants managed to survive.
The same probably was true of many moths, but,
because of limited data, little can be said about
them.
The meaning of "Indian River" on labels is
not always clear. Dr. W. T. M. Forbes told me
that much of the Slosson and Dyar material la-
beled "Indian Rive? almost certainly was taken
in the general vicinity of Palm Beach. Yet why
would there be this apparent mislabeling of some
when much of their material was clearly labeled
"Palm Beach" snd "Lake Worth'? The Indian
River itself runs from the very southern edge of
Volusia County; the length of Brevard, Indian
River, and St. Lucie Counties; and more or less
ends at the St. Lucie Inlet in Martin County.


Basing my theory on the known localities where
most of the Nineteenth Century collectors, other
than Slosson and Dyar, made their headquarters,
and the fact that more than half of the river lies
within Brevard County, I have arbitrarily as-
signed all Indian River records to that county.
It is also possible that the small village of Indian
River City in Brevard County just south of Ti-
tusville may have been intended.
Evidence exists that some of the species which
suffered extinction in their northern ranges are,
or have been, spreading northward again. For
some it may be a first migration and an extension
of range. Buchholz took Composta fidelissima
vagrans Bates at Jupiter in 1946, the first record
north of Miami in sixty years. Phoebis statira
fioridensis (Neumoegen) was practically unknown
north of Miami except for a few scattered rec-
ords between 1930 and 1953 when it became
quite common in the Sarasota and Oneco areas.
Asbolis capucinus (Lucas) was taken first near
Miami in 1947; by 1955 it was common on Siesta
Key and had reached St. Petersburg. Although
it is too early to speak with finality as to the
effect of the unusually cold winter of 1957-1958
on other species that have appeared in recent
years north of their customary limits, capuctint
at least has been present on Siesta Key during
the four years succeeding that winter, and in
March 1961 it was found near Oviedo in Sem-
inole County.
Drought conditions occasionally occur but it
is probable that crops and gardens suffer more
severely from these than does the indigenous
flora. Relatively few spots are very high above
the water table, but whether they are or not,
so much of the soil is of a sandy nature that the
vegetation is largely adapted to scarcity of water.
More serious trouble might arise from too much
rainfall. The average varies from 50 to 70
inches per annum in different parts of the state,
but there have been instances when the rainfall
for a single month has reached 25 inches or
more. The resultant flooding may be tempo-
rarily disastrous to the local Lepidoptera along
with everything else.
An important, indirect effect of drought is the
destruction wrought by fire. When dry, much
of the land may burned off by fire of spon-
taneous origin. Some fires are for the purpose
of clearing farm and grazing land; others, unfor-
tunately, are deliberately and maliciously set.
Whatever the origin, the result is a great loss to
all the fauna of the area. Clearing not only for
agricultural purposes but also for real estate de-
velopments, much of the latter purely to catch
the unwary dollar, has been done with the bull-
dozer and the dragline. Nothing more destruc-
tive to the native flora, and consequently the









INTRODUCTION


fauna, has been invented yet. The worst and
most inexcusable phase of this desecration is that
the land is skinned of every last vestige of vege-
tation and most of it burned on the spot. Prob-
ably the greatest crime in this respect has been
perpetrated on the Keys, where grow, or did
grow, plants not found elsewhere in the United
States. If this unmitigated despoliation goes on,
most of the unique flora will vanish forever.

VEGETATION
On the subject of vegetation, and more on the
climate, one cannot do better than refer to Har-
per (1914). Referring to northern Florida on
page 184 he wrote: "Taking the area as a whole,
the salient features of its climate, as compared
with that of Georgia and Alabama, are the mild
dry winters and hot summers. The copious sum-
mer rains, while they make droughts rare, seem
to be largely responsible for the prevalence of
sandy soils and evergreen trees in Florida, for
the rain tends to leach out the clay, lime, pot-
ash, etc., and leave the sand, and evergreens
seem to be especially characteristic of soils poor
in clay and potash, as already noted." Harper
then discussed at length the effects of fire,
caused by lightning or man, and explained that
"Long-leaf pine is injured less by fire than al-
most any other tree, so that the effect of re-
peated fires is to give this tree the advantage
over all its associates.
"It is reasonably certain that if fire were k
out of a long-leaf pine forest long enough har-
wood trees of various kinds would come in and
choke out the pine.... " All of this would
have its influence on the insect population.
Harper divided the northern part of the state
into twenty geographical, or perhaps we should
say "geobotanical, divisions, each having cer-
tain individual characteristics of soil, and hence
of vegetation. Each of these divisions would
have a few species of Lepidoptera not found in
any other part of the state. In Harper's other
papers (1921 and 1927) he carved the rest of the
state into geobotanical areas in the same way
and one of the important fields of research for
some student to undertake is the correlation of
rare and localized species with these areas.
Speaking more broadly, and especially with
reference to the southern third of the state,
Harper (1927, p. 138) wrote: "The native flora
can be divided into northern, tropical, and en-
demic elements. Some of these here called
northern range as far north as Canada, and others
no farther than Georgia. They are mostly plants
of sandy pine lands, swamps, and marshes. A
considerable number . . . seem to reach their


southern limits in the neighborhood of the Peace
River, perhaps mostly because that is practically
the coolest part of South Florida, or else because
the soil there is more like that in the northern
parts of the State. A few others extend nearly
or quite as far south in the lake region or cen-
tral prairies.
"Such counties as Okeechobee,, Glades, and
Charlotte have comparatively few species of
trees, being too far south for most northern spe-
cies, and too cool for most of the tropical ones.
"The strictly tropical species are chiefly con-
fined to the Miami limestone region and south-
ward, and to very narrow strips along both coasts
farther north; and nearly all of them extend
farther north on the east coast than on the
west ....
The endemic element, comprising species pe-
culiar to Florida, is chiefly confined to the lake
region and the Miami pine lands. They are gen-
erally rarer than the more widely distributed
species ... Many of them are confined to single
counties, principally Highlands and Dade. Some
S. . range northward into Polk County or far-
ther. ...
One should recall that Harper was here writing
only of the southern part of the state, the en-
demic element in the northern and central sec-
tions having been discussed in his earlier papers
(1914 and 1921).
Since virtually no collecting has been done in
Okeechobee and Glades Counties there is no way
of estimating the effect of the paucity of tree
species on the lepidopterous fauna in those
counties. On the other hand, Punta Gorda in
Charlotte County has been the scene of inten-
sive collecting, and it should be possible to make
some estimate of the effect in that region. Al-
though I have made no detailed analysis, I am
positive that anyone reading through the list will
readily agree that Punta Gorda stands very high
in the number of species recorded. Whether or
not they are tree feeding, or shrub or grass feed-
ers, is another question, but the fauna is rich
there. As far as the endemic element is con-
cerned, Dade County boasts a number of lepi-
dopterous species which have not been taken
elsewhere. The records for Highlands County,
primarily from the Archbold Biological Station,
are plentiful from November through May, and
in that period at least three undescribed species
have turned up-a species of an unrecognized
genus near Gabra Walker, a species of Platytes
Guen6e, and a Macrotheca Ragonot.
Again writing of the southern section of the
state, Harper, (1927, p. 141) stated, The weeds
seem to be mostly of West Indian origin, but
quite a number are supposed to be natives of the
United States and there are a few from Europe,


~









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


Asia, and Africa." These could account for
some of the exotic species of Lepidoptera which
apparently have become established there. He
wrote further, (pp. 188-191): "Practically all the
plants listed [on the upper Keys] grow also in
the tropics, and there are no very distinct en-
demic species on the upper Keys..... The veg-
etation [on the lower Keys] is more diversified
than that of the upper Keys. .... but there
are several endemic species [of herbs] among
them. . . .
Whether the lepidopterous species that are
unique to the Keys are endemic and are sup-
ported by the endemic flora, of which Harper
states there is very little on the Upper Keys,
would be impossible to say without rearing
them. However, the fact remains that we do
have species unique to the Keys, for example
Scopula insulensis Rindge and an Anicla which
Franclemont is describing. Both of these have
been taken on the upper Keys but because so
little collecting has been done on the lower Keys
(below Bahia Honda), we are not in a position
to say anything about the situation there.
Since there is a certain amount of West Indian
vegetation on the Keys, it is difficult to say
whether the exotic Lepidoptera of Cuban or
Antillean origin may have become established,
or whether they are nothing more than strays
of an occasional or perhaps even frequent ap-
pearance. A West Indian species may effect a
temporary foothold for a year or two, possibly
longer, but the hypothesis would be difficult to
prove. Why the colony should then cease if the
theory is correct, is a problem on which I would
not care to speculate, but will leave for someone
else to puzzle out. Eurema noise (Cramer) may
be a case in point Though first taken in 1933,
it was found common only in 1947, and so far
as I am aware, there have been no records for it
since then.
For exotic strays pure and simple, distances
are not at all insurmountable, the closest of the
Bahamas being less than fifty miles from main-
land Florida. Cuba is less than one hundred
miles from Key West, and the Yucatan Pen-
insula of Central America is only slightly over
three hundred miles away, with Cuba as a con-
venient stepping stone, the water gap between
these two being approximately one hundred and
twenty-five miles. In addition, many of the West
Indian islands are within very reasonable flight
range, even under normal conditions, and during
hurricane weather, insects are carried many hun-
dreds of miles with no apparent injury.
Whether or not strays come from the north is
more difficult to say. Undoubtedly there are
some, but until we have a greater knowledge of
the moths of the neighboring states both to the


north and the west, to say nothing of our own
northern counties, it is unwise to hazard an
opinion. Probably some of the unique records
for moths, perhaps also butterflies, that are well
south of their customarily recognized range are
based on specimens that have been brought into
the state in one or another stage of their life by
carrier, be it on vegetable matter or otherwise.
Some of the butterflies may have come as
strays, such as Lycaena thoe (Guerin), L. phlaeas
americana Harris, and Celastrina argiola pseu-
dargiola (Boisduval & Leconte). A recently
discovered colony of the last near Jacksonville
may indicate that a stray or carrier borne speci-
men has found suitable conditions for propaga-
tion. Or the species may be spreading its range
southward, as an even more recent capture has
been made at Florida Caverns State Park. There
is also the very dubious record of Speyeria diana
(Cramer), which if correct, would be accounted
for by a stray. I had thought that the records
for S. cybele (Fabricius) also were those of strays,
but the taking of several fresh specimens in the
Gainesville region in recent years, suggests that
this species has become established, at least ten-
uously. Of course the presence of any of these
may be explained on other grounds, such as in-
troduction by carrier.
Returning to the question of adventitious spe-
cies of an exotic nature, G. W. Dekle, of the
Division of Plant Industry, has pointed out to
me that many of the nurseries for exotic shrubs
were started years ago when the plant quaran-
tine inspection was either non-existent or not so
thorough as it is today. Oneco is an illustration
of this point, the first nursery for exotics having
been established there in 1881 and many records
for exotic moths having been made in the im-
mediate neighborhood.

DISTRIBUTIONAL AREAS
West and Arnold (1952, p. xii) made eight dis-
tributional areas for the trees which fit more
satisfactorily into our present scheme for locality
records than the more explicit areas of Harper,
for it would require more time than should be
spared on geographic work to allocate the rec-
ords into these latter, highly desirable as the
results would be. Nor is it satisfactory to use
the division into life zones, primarily because
they are too inclusive, but also because authori-
ties vary. However, those who wish to look
more closely into this phase of the subject should
consult Merriam (1894, p. 14) and Howell (1932,
pp. 66-72). Howell also has an interesting chap-
ter (pp. 59-65) on the physiographic regions based
largely on Harper's papers which have been dis-
csed earlier.









INTRODUCTION


The West and Arnold divisions are: I. Western
Florida, west of the Aucilla River; II. Northern
Florida, east of the Aucilla River and north of
the line from Cross City to Gainesville to Pa-
latka; III. Central Florida, south of the last line
and north of the curved line from Tampa to
Avon Park to Melbourne; IV. Southern Florida,
south of the last line, but excluding area V; the
Ten Thousand Islands; VI. the Everglade Keys;
VII. Cape Sable; and VIII. the Florida Keys.
However, for practical purposes I have shifted
the boundaries of areas II, III, and IV to coincide
with county lines as will be seen on the map
(Fig. 1 p. 306).
When these slight changes were discussed
with West, he pointed out that the coastal spe-
cies of area IV extend at least one county far-
ther north on the east coast and three or four
counties farther north on the west coast, though
the inland range does not extend more than a
mile from the shore. This factor should be borne
in mind in the case of Lepidoptera characteristic
of the coastal flora. Another point that West
brought out was that the boundaries between
areas II and III represent an even more ill-
defined transition belt than the boundaries be-
tween the other zones.

COMPARISON WITH NEIGHBORING
STATES
Fauna are frequently compared with those of
adjacent areas. To make such a comparison for
Florida would present several problems. To
begin with, Florida is, geologically speaking, a
newcomer among its neighbors. Long after the
North American land mass to the north and Cuba
to the south were covered with vegetation, Flor-
ida did not exist as a land entity. Eventually
the Ocala region appeared as an island, and sub-
sequently, but very gradually the peninsula took
form and substance. Consequently all of the
fauna is of comparatively recent introduction.
Secondly, although there are butterfly lists for
Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana, there are
none for the moths of any of these states, nor
any list whatsoever for Alabama. There are old
lists for both Cuba and the Bahamas, but none
that would be adequate for such a study except
for a few families where recent, limited lists have
been published. We need to work out the pro-
portion of species of West Indian, Texan, Central
American, especially Mexican, and even South
American origin, as compared with those of
northern origin and the few of endemic sources.
Another approach would be to assess the species
in three broader classifications-continental, An-
tillean, and endemic.
As information in some detail has become


available recently from Quincy and the Pensa-
cola area, it has become evident that there is a
fairly appreciable representation of northern spe-
cies in these two localities, especially around
Pensacola. It becomes more apparent as records
accumulate that there is a definite and sharp in-
crease in the number of what one may calf dis-
tinctly northern species working west from Mont-
icello to Quincy to Pensacola. Not only that,
but Pensacola has produced several unrecog-
nized noctuids, both large and small, and one
apparently new notodontid. This area needs the
attention of collectors of Lepidoptera.

FORM OF THE LIST
Some explanation is in order as to the man-
ner in which the list is put together. For the
most part it follows the order and arrangement
of the McDunnough Check List of the Lepidop-
tera of Canada and the United States (1938,
1939), that being the most recent comprehen-
sive list. There is some divergence where re-
cent revisions warrant it; however, the guiding
principle has been to keep the divergence to a
minimum. For instance, insofar as I have had
access to the nomenclature to be used by C. F.
dos Passes in his forthcoming check list of the
Rhopalocera, it has been followed with his per-
mission. However, I have followed McDun-
nough's (1938, 1939), arrangement with the few
exceptions where subsequent generic reassign-
ments such as those of Evans (1951-1955) in the
Hesperiidae, warrant. On the other hand, I
have not followed the extensive changes made
by Forbes in his various volumes on the Lepi-
doptera of New York (1923-1960), nor in all cases
have I followed his generic nomenclature, large-
ly on Forbes' suggestion that I be guided by fact
rather than opinion, priority of specific name be-
ing fact, classification being matter of opinion.
Species that are not in the McDunnough List
have been interpolated as nearly as possible to
the appropriate place. New species and unde-
termined species, provided the latter are defi-
nitely distinct from named species listed in the
present publication also are placed under an in-
terpolated number, as nearly as may be in the
correct sequence, their status as currently con-
ceived being explained in the text in some cases.
However, because this is not a taxonomic work,
as already explained, no real significance should
be placed on these interpolations, although every
attempt has been made to be sure that it is clear
which insect is under discussion. Obviously, in
the case of new or unplaced species, precision is
not readily achievable.
When a record in the literature is definitely
erroneous, or where there seems to be some









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


question of its validity, the McDunnough num-
ber and name are set in italics and the whole
put in brackets. All presumably valid species
names and their numbers are printed in bold-
face. When the determination is probably cor-
rect but because the amount of material is in-
sufficient for positive determination, or when
the applicability of the name itself may be in
question, the specific name and that of the au-
thor are bracketed. In other words, this last
device will serve to call attention to the fact that
the name used is presently on the list in a tenta-
tive status.
A good deal of thought has been given to the
form in which the records should be organized
and an effort has been made to strike a balance
between fullness and compactness. Except for
species of generally state-wide and common oc-
currence, each locality is given with all its rec-
ord, the locality name being followed by the
date or dates, with the initials of the depository
collection or collections, or the literature refer-
ence. When the material is in more than one
collection or reference, the appropriate data are
set off by semicolons, except that when the
dates are the same, commas only are used. In
most cases the collector's name is omitted, ex-
cept for the rarer species. When it is given, it
is in parentheses.
In as much as the text for each species is rela-
tively short, the location "loc. cit. or the use
of a date for a citation already made within that
text, is omitted. In other words the use of the
word "Smith" by itself as the authority for the
record, would refer back to the previous Smith
citation in the text for that species or the orig-
inal description thereof.
All published records, except those noted be-
low and those for the common species, are in-
cluded, whether or not they are correct. When
an error has been proven or is strongly suspect-
ed, the check list number and name are enclosed
in brackets, and the explanation of the error, or
the reason for suspecting one, is made, or ref-
erence is made to the correct species if it is a
matter of misidentification. Though it has been
stated that all erroneous records from the litera-
ture are discussed, none appearing under my
name in "A proposed revision of the check list
of Florida Lepidoptera" (1953, pp. 103-107) are
included, because as explained in that paper,
the records were not to be accepted as defini-
tive. The same is true for various records under
my name in the 'Season Summaries" (1951, p.
101), in which several typographical errors ap-
peared. An unsigned, mimeographed list of
moths was circulated by me in the spring of
1959. This was supposed to include all valid
names as of that date. However, a few have


since been proved erroneous. Therefore, all of
these "records" should be completely ignored
in the future.
Certain published records are omitted because
they merely duplicate or repeat older records.
Nor is any useful purpose served by quoting all
the references even for the rarer species, because
many of them are of a general nature, giving no
further data than "Fla. Where it is felt that
some useful purpose may be served, they have
been included. On the other hand, all speci-
mens labeled "Fla." even with no additional data
on the label, must be included as they are an es-
sential part of the record.
All data gathered on the common species,
literature references not quoted, all correspond-
ence on the subject, in fact everything pertinent
to the subject, have been filed with the Division
of Plant Industry in Gainesville. These together
with the Works Progress Administration file
hereinafter discussed, which is in the University
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in
Gainesville, are accessible to anyone interested.

DETERMINATIONS
As much of the information has been received
from other collectors, I cannot assume responsi-
bility for all the determinations, though for many
of them I must. Nor can I be responsible for
any in the literature. Nevertheless, every effort
has been made to assure accuracy. When any
question has arisen in my mind concerning the
correctness of a determination, I have asked the
owner of the specimen to check it Sometimes
my guess has been right, sometimes wrong. In
many cases the suspect specimens have been sent
to me, and either I have made the determina-
tions myself, or passed the specimens along to
more competent hands. Many of my own speci-
mens have been passed along for this purpose.
When the authority for the determination is im-
portant, it is given, if known. Many determina-
tions have been made especially for this under-
taking which are not specifically indicated, as
they were not of a critical nature. These are
acknowledged in footnotes to the family and
generic headings.
The statements that someone "said", "report-
ed,c or "wrote" are based primarily on letters
received from the individuals quoted. Some
of the information was related in conversation,
and I must assume responsibility for any misquo-
tation even though the majority of the text has
been read by the individuals involved.
There may be some criticism concerning the
application of the terms subspecies, form, and
variety. The latter has been used sparingly and
perhaps should have been abandoned entirely









INTRODUCTION


in favor of "form." On the basis of our present
limited knowledge of much of the Florida fauna,
it is not always easy to judge whether we are
dealing with a clear cut subspecies, or with one
or more variable and intergrading forms. The
status of many, consequently, must be considered
as placed tentatively in one or other of these
categories solely on the basis of that very lim-
ited Knowledge.
The terms Rhopalocera and Heterocera are
considered incorrect as scientific classifications
but they are used as convenient alternatives, the
former for the butterflies and skippers as a whole,
the latter for the moths. In the same sense, the
terms macrolepidoptera and microlepidoptera are
unscientific but useful for covering certain groups
of superfamilies.

DESCRIPTIONS
No attempt has been made to describe species,
nor has much been given by way of taxonomic
keys to aid in determinations although in a few
instances certain characters that may be helpful
in separating closely related and easily confused
species have been pointed out. However, in
order that it may be possible for anyone using
this list, especially the amateur, to refer to some
source other than the original descriptions, many
of which are in relatively inaccessible works or
periodicals, a few text books and papers should
be mentioned.
The citations to original descriptions will have
some inconsistencies in the abbreviated forms in
which they are given in the text as many of these
citations were taken from secondary sources be-
cause the originals were not available to me.
This will be true particularly in the case of Hiib-
ner and Fabricius citations. The result is that
the same volume may be found abbreviated in
more than one form, and it seemed advisable to
leave them as they were found rather than to
complicate matters further by making changes
which might prove to be erroneous. For the
Same reason, some of the dates may be incorrect
Klots' Guide (1951), Holland's Butterfly Book
(1931), and Ehrlich and Ehrlich, How to Know
The Butterflies (1961), cover the field of but-
terflies thoroughly. The moths are a differ-
ent matter. There is no text book that provides
descriptions, or keys for all the Florida moths,
and all we can do is list the works that should
prove to be helpful to the beginner and the less
advanced student To the more advanced stu-
dent the texts will be familiar.
Holland's Moth Book (1903), though a useful
general work with many illustrations, is too
limited to serve as more than an initiation, and it
is difficult to obtain. Klots has in preparation a


general work on moths, but because of the mag-
nitude of the field, it cannot cover everything.
However, it will give the average collector one
more very valuable tool with which to work.
The only other general work, The Lepidoptera
of New York and Neighboring States, by Forbes
(1923, 1948,1954, and 1960), is an advanced work
which covers all families, but naturally it does
not include all Florida species by any means.
For various individual families and genera, the
following will be of assistance in varying de-
gree:
Sphingidae, Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
Saturniidae, Packard, 1914
Ceratocampidae, Packard, 1905
Amatidae, Nolidae, Arctiidae, Agaristidae, and
Phalaenidae (Noctuidae), Hampson, 1898-
1920, (in large part)
Notodontidae andZanolidae, Packard, 1895
Geometridae, Packard, 1876, (out of date)
Macrolepidoptera and some microlepidoptera,
Seitz, 1913-1931, (far from complete)
Limacodidae, Dyar, 1891 (in part only)
Pyralidae, Amsel, 1954 (on the microlepidop-
tera of Venezuela, includes a surprisingly
large number of Pyralidae common to Flor-
ida, and although the figures of genitalia and
the illustrations of the adults leave much to
be desired, the paper is useful within these
limitations)
Nymphulinae, Lange, 1956
Phycitinae, Heinrich, 1956
Pterophoridae, Barnes & Lindsey, 1921
Olethreutidae, Heinrich, 1923a, 1926
Sparganothinae, Lambert and Powell (in prep-
aration)
Archipinae, Freeman, 1958
Cosmopterigidae, Hodges, 1962b
Walshiidae, Hedges, 1961a, 1961b, 1962a,
1962c, (with others in preparation)
Momphidae, Hodges (in preparation)
Oecophoridae, Clarke, 1941
Blastobasidae, Dietz, 1910 (poor and out of
date); Selander (in preparation)
Stenomidae, Duckworth (in preparation)
Aegeriidae, Beutenmueller, 1901; Engelhardt,
1946
Elachistidae, Braun, 1948
LithocoUetis, Braun, 1908
Bucculatrix, Braun, 1963
Psychidae, Davis (in preparation)
Acrolophidae, Hasbrouck (in press)
Tineidae, Dietz, 1905 (poor and out of date)
Nepticulidae, Braun, 1917

Perhaps it should be noted that several revi-
sions are just being started, or are far short of
completion, namely: Crambinae, Klots; Tortri-









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


coidea, Obraztsov; Phaloniidae, Clarke; Gelechii-
dae, Hodges; and Gracillariidae, Davis.
Many papers on the West Indian fauna are
useful, especially those by Herrich-Schaeffer
(1864-1871), Moeschler (1886, 1890, Forbes (1930,
1931, 1940), Schaus (1940), Busck (1933), and
Walsingham (1891). The Universidad de Ori-
ente, Santiago de Cuba, has been publishing
some excellent papers on the Lepidoptera of
Cuba which, if continued, will be most useful.

LOCALITY RECORDS
Except where the records are so numerous that
it is fully apparent that the species under con-
sideration is to be found throughout the state,
all locality records are given. They are listed
in a north to south order, working from west to
east according to an arbitrary order of counties
which have been grouped to fit into the West
and Arnold areas of distribution previously dis-
cussed. The order admittedly is not happily
set up, but whatever order is used, some incon-
sistency will result, and any improvement to be
gained by changing to one that would be more
logically correct, would not be worth the labor
involved in revising the thousands of locality rec-
ords. The order of counties together with the
localities which are mentioned in each, will
be found in the gazeteer. Intensive collecting
has been carried on in few parts of the state,
namely: Quincy, Monticello, the Gainesville re-
gion, Cassadaga, the Orlando region, Weeki-
wachee Springs (during certain months only), the
Tampa area, Bradenton, Oneco, Siesta Key, Vero
Beach, Port Sewall, Punta Gorda, Archbold Bio-
logical Station, Palm Beach, and the area be-
tween Miami and Paradise Key. Very recently
the Pensacola area has come into this category.
The Keys have been combed for butterflies but
until 1955 the moths were sadly neglected in this
most fruitful region. During 1955 a wild cotton
survey team under the leadership of J. N. Todd
made extensive collections on several of the
upper Keys, from which have come many im-
portant records and several new species. All the
Keys, upper and lower, should be worked over
with great thoroughness before the bulldozers
denude them of all vegetation.
Collecting has amounted to practically noth-
ing in many regions of the state. A glance at
the gazeteer will show how few are the places
which have been visited in western Florida, and
in many of the counties in other sections. Worth-
while unexplored collecting territories can be
found by studying Harpers geobotanical divi-
sions and comparing them with the gazeteer.
Some of the place names have not been located
even with the assistance of the State Department


of Agriculture and the State Librarian, Miss Dor-
othy Dodd, to whom I am indebted for spotting
a number of obscure places, some only after
much research. These unidentified localities ap-
pear at the end of the gazeteer, though listed
first under the species involved.
There is some confusion surrounding the name
Capron. Lucien Harris, Jr. has received ma-
terial from an individual, Louis Capron, who
.lives in West Palm Beach, but in the older rec-
ords the name appears to indicate a place.
Schaus (1880, p. 178) called it both Capron and
Fort Capron and located it on the Indian River,
which as noted earlier covers a long stretch of
territory.
Royal Palm State Park, Royal Palm Hammock,
and Paradise Key are names that have been used
for the same locality, a tropical hammock located
in the Dade County part of Everglades National
Park (Section 15 and 22, Township 58S, Range
37E), and many early records for what today
constitutes Everglades National Park refer to
this hammock. Another large hammock in Col-
lier County, located along the Tamiami Trail
south of Naples, was also known as Royal Palm
State Park. It is listed officially now as Collier-
Seminole Park, although it is shown on the most
recent official road map of Florida as Royal Palm
Hammock. Early records for Royal Palm State
Park, Royal Palm Hammock, and Paradise Key
have been placed arbitrarily under the last of
these names, since Paradise Key is the preferred
name for this hammock according to Dr. William
B. Robertson, Park Biologist, Everglades National
Park, and Dr. John H. Davis, noted plant ecolo-
gist at the University of Florida. Some collect-
ing has been done in the Park at other localities
in recent years, but since they have identifiable
names, there can be no question of ambiguity
with them.
All records for Lake Placid, Childs, and
Hicoria have been placed under Archbold Bio-
logical Station, an affiliate with the American
Museum of Natural History. Although located
nearly ten miles south of Lake Placid, the Arch-
bold Biological Station is the actual site of col-
lection for many specimens bearing a Lake
Placid label. Childs, a very small community,
is located only a mile north of the Station, and
according to information received recently Childs
will not appear on future road maps. Hicoria,
another small community, is located less than
three miles south of the Station. Dr. L. J. Brass,
American Museum of Natural History botanist
permanently assigned to the Archbold Biological
Station, has collected in this general area north-
ward to Childs and southward to Hicoria.
The only locality name which appears under
two county heads is Longboat Key which is









INTRODUCTION


partly in Manatee County and partly in Sarasota
County. Gasparilla Island is partly in Charlotte
County and partly in Lee County, but I believe
that all records from that island are from Boca
Grande, in Lee County.
Any unusual records from Chokoloskee, other
than those of McDunnough, and also some from
Marco, should be viewed with a very jaundiced
eye, as this was the "source" of a number of
specimens representing subspecies that could
have originated only in far distant climes, de-
spite the fact that many strange strays may and
do reach Florida. According to Blatchley (1932,
p. 308), Mrs. C. G. McKinney, wife of the post-
master at Chokoloskee, collected butterflies,
moths, and Orthoptera for northern dealers for
a number of years. All her material unquestion-
ably was valid, but what the northern insect deal-
ers may have foisted on the trusting buyer is
another matter.
The evaluation of strays and essentially exotic
species is one of the most exasperating features
of Florida lepidopterology. I have been told by
various specialists that some of the "Choko-
loskee" specimens were patently fakes because
the subspecies palmed off was a sheer impossi-
bility, the habitat being too far afield to permit
flight hither, whereas an Antillean race might
have been perfectly possible. Such a situation
is most unfortunate because it means that we
simply cannot be sure of any of the unique Chok-
oloskee or Marco records unless the name of a
reliable collector is attached, yet many of the
unusual specimens taken at Chokoloskee in ad-
dition to those taken by McDunnough, undoubt-
edly were authentic.
The difficulty of making a true appraisal of
some of these exotics is well illustrated by an
extract from a letter dated November 19, 1927,
from Dr. H. G. Dyar to Dr. F. M. Jones in con-
nection with material collected by Jones in Royal
Palm State Park.
"Dr. Schaus is very incredulous about this
piece of Mexican fauna occurring in the midst
of the Florida everglades; but it cannot be doubt-
ed. Where is Chokoloskee, Florida? A good
many years ago Dr. Barnes purchased a lot of
material so labeled, which was composed of
mainland Mexican forms, though not the same
species you sent, still of the same fauna. Only
the other day I had before me two specimens of
undoubted Sibine extensa Schaus labeled 'Chok-
oloskee, Fla.' To be sure we laughed Dr. Barnes
out of court at the time for being so easily taken
in by false labels; but now it looks as though the
laugh was the other way." When McDunnough
collected at Chokoloskee, he found none of the
spectacular species which were supposed to be
there, and the more one studies the situation, the


more one is inclined to believe that Dyar's first
laugh was the best.
Besides these "Chokoloskee" records there are
a number from Stemper in various collections
that are surprising, to put it mildly, and here too
the collector's name is invaribly missing. Sev-
eral reliable collectors were active around Stem-
per and Lutz at about the same time-namely,
Bromley, Krautwurm, and Friday, and probably
Engel; but it is not of their material that any
question arises. The most dubiously labeled
specimens either are in the Cleveland Museum
of Natural History or have been transferred in
recent years to the Carnegie Museum. Both
E. C. Welling, who kindly listed the material in
the first instance, and H. K. Clench, who has
examined the part now in the Carnegie, con-
cur in suspicion of certain species records.
Nonetheless it would be very short sighted to
deny the possibility of a species of West Indian
origin wandering a few hundred miles up the
peninsula, for exotics are apt to turn up in
strange places at approximately the same time
because of severe disturbances or freak condi-
tions of the atmosphere. Frequently, distinctly
southern species are taken in New England in
September and October.
The more I have seen of the interceptions
made by the customs and quarantine services,
the more plausible I feel are some of the records
which have been frowned upon as figments of
the imagination or palpable errors. Let us con-
sider an illustration or two. In 1945 Klots cap-
tured a specimen of the South American The-
brone trtcolora (Sulzer) at the airport in Miami.
There is no question about the validity of this
record, nor is there any doubt of its having ar-
rived by plane and having escaped the vigilance
of the quarantine inspection. It is merely a
matter of fortunate coincidence that a collector
of repute happened to be there and was able to
seize the opportunity. In 1953 a species of the
closely allied genus Pericopis was intercepted at
Miami, but had it got by inspection and had
another alert collector been on hand, we would
have had one more "impossible" record. In
April and May of 1956, no less than four striking
exotics were similarly intercepted. How many
escape detection and are not taken, it would be
idle to speculate; but we do know that there
must be some. All of which makes one wonder
whether the commonly accepted belief that Ith-
omia phoeno (Geyer) and Greta diaphana (Dru-
ry) were erroneously recorded, is itself an error,
and whether perhaps they were actually taken
much in the same way as Klots took T. tricolora,
but by obscure collectors. Because they lacked
his prestige, disbelief and time have gradually
relegated them and their prizes to oblivion. In









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


the case of Diaethria clymena (Cramer), we do
have documentation in the literature of a speci-
men taken in 1836; the details appear in the text
under that species.
Whether my estimate on the validity of cer-
tain exotics is accurate or not would be hard to
say. I feel that unless there is strong evidence
on the point of who did the collecting, most of
them should be excluded, awaiting duplication
or confirmation. I have, therefore, taken the po-
sition that it is my duty to chronicle what has
come to my attention, make such comment as to
me seems appropriate, and leave the ultimate
judgment to the reader, or to more evidence.
DATES
Although exact dates should be a part of the
label on every specimen, it would serve no use-
ful end to go into such detail here except in the
case of strays or rare species. In general, all we
want to know is the approximate time or times
during the year when a species is flying in order
to try to determine the number of broods, or
when to look for it. Actually, dates in Florida
have less meaning than in climates where sea-
sonal change is greater. So many insects are
taken in every month of the year that it becomes
difficult to guess accurately the number of
broods; in many instances it seems to indicate
a continuous breeding.
The dates are given in the order of the months,
as that method seems to me more important than
the chronological order of the years. The appar-
ent discrepancy of a more recent year being isted
before an earlier one occurs only a few times,
but this is the explanation for it
The records reveal that most of the collecting
has been done in the first half of the year, too
much, in fact, in the winter months only, and
I feel that until we have more complete infor-
mation covering the whole year we cannot make
categorical statements concerning the number of
broods for most species. This preponderance of
records for the winter months is easily explained
by the fact that this is the time of year when
Florida is popular with the visiting collectors,
and only recently with the advent of more year-
round collectors and the broadening work of the
Division of Plant Industry has the summer fauna
begun to take its place in the scheme of things.
George D. Morgan, who collected in the
Tampa region for many years, very generously
supplied me with notes he had made on the but-
teries of that region, and for the vast majority
the story is the same, "common in every month
from March to December." This, of course, is
not always true for every year, nor on the other
hand would it be accurate to say that there are
never years in which they might be common in


January and February. Constant observation
and meticulous notes will be needed before we
can state authoritatively how many broods this
or that species may have. It is indeed the ex-
ception when a single or double brood is clearly
indicated.
The question of broods is further complicated
by the occasional prolonged periods of cooler or
actually cold weather from November through
March. This period, though longer, might be
likened to the spring in the north, and every col-
lector there knows how variable is the date of
first appearance of the very early species, in-
spite of the hypothesis that appearance is due to
the intensity of the infra-red light from the sun
having reached the critical point
The statement that the records cover every
month does not necessarily mean that the insect
is flying continuously, especially in the northern
part of the state, though it may be true literally
for the southern tip of the peninsula. Never-
theless, because occasional winters are unusually
mild throughout or because there may be pro-
longed warm spells at any time during the win-
ter, many insects will be present every month,
even well up the peninsula, though this may not
happen often in any given year.
In an attempt to learn more about the flight
periods and the peaks of abundance, a record
was kept of all species taken during the year
from April 1, 1955 to April 1,1956 at the Univer-
sity of Florida Gulf Coast Experiment Station at
Bradenton, and a detailed record of the numn-
ber of specimens of each species taken at the
University of Florida Sub-Tropical Experiment
Station at Homestead was compiled for the year
April 1, 1958 to April 1, 1959. Parallel data is
being compiled for the University of Florida
North Florida Experiment Station at Quincy; the
collecting there started in June 1960 and has con-
tinued into 1963. Odd as it may appear, many
of the species usually thought of as being com-
mon and present most of the year, were not
taken at all, or were taken in such negligible
numbers that the figures have no meaning. In
the few instances where some significance is ob-
servable, the records for one or more of the
three localities are added to the text in connec-
tion with the species which are otherwise dis-
missed as being of state-wide occurrence and
taken in every month. If these appear to be
inconsistent at times with the general statement,
it must be recalled that only a specific year is
under consideration.
COLLECTORS
The history of collecting in Florida goes back
a long way. Bryant Mather kindly called my
attention to a passage by Bartram (1791, pp.


C~









INTRODUCTION


xxv-xxix) and although the latter was not a lepi-
dopterist, the passage is worth quoting at length
for he depicted three butterflies, one of which is
readily recognizable as Heliconius charitonius
Linnaeus, but the other two are not identifiable.
Because Bartram was too skilled an observer to
have been very wide of the mark, and his de-
tails are precise rather than general, one wonders
what he actually saw. In the case of the first of
his mysteries it sounds as though he might have
observed several different species of swallowtail
butterflies and made a composite description.
The second suggests Ascia monuste (Linnaeus)
but some extra and highly colorful markings
rule it out. "When travelling on the East coast
of the isthmus of Florida, ascending the South
Musquito river, in a canoe .... I resolved to
make a little botanical excursion alone; crossing
over a narrow isthmus of sand hills which sep-
arated the river from the ocean, I passed over a
pretty high hill . . I continued along the
beech [sic], a quarter of a mile, and came to a
forest of the Agave vivipara ... (which) occu-
pied a space of ground of several acres .... I
proceeded towards the shrubberies on the banks
of the river, and though it was now late in De-
cember (1774) the aromatic groves appeared in
full bloom. The broad leaved sweet Myrtus,
Erythrina corrallodendrun, Cactus cochenelli-
fer, Cacalia suffruticosa, and particularly, Bhiz-
ophora conjugata, which stood close to, and in
the salt water of the river, were in full bloom,
with beautiful white sweet scented flowers,
which attracted to them, two or three species
of very beautiful butterflies, one of which was
black, the upper pair of its wings very long and
narrow, marked with transverse stripes of pale
yellow, with some spots of a crimson colour
near the body. Another species remarkable for
splendor, was of a larger size, the wings were
undulated and obtusely created round their
ends, the nether pair terminating near the body,
with a long narrow forked tail; the ground
light yellow, striped oblique-transversely, with
stripes of pale celestial blue, the ends of them
adorned with little eyes encircled with the finest
blue and crimson, which represented a very
brilliant rosary.' But those which were most
numerous were white as snow, their wings large,
their ends lightly created and ciliated, forming
a fringed border, faintly marked with little
black presents, their points downward, with a
cluster of little brilliant orbs of blue and crim-
son, on the nether wings near the body ....

1 Lucien Harris, Jr. says he has seen large females of
PapUio glaucus Linnaeus with the transverse lines blue,
and believes this is what Bartram saw.


The next collector and the first of importance
was Edward Doubleday who was in the field
from December 1837 to June 1838, mostly at
St. Johns Bluff, as already mentioned, but pos-
sibly also at St Augustine and Jacksonville. As
his material is in the British Museum, the only
records available to me were those taken from
the literature, in this case Packard (1876, and
perhaps his other works) and Grossbeck (1917).
I am assuming that all the Grossbeck references
were based on Walker (1854-1866) or some other
source of information, and am assuming further
that Grossbeck extracted all the records from
Walker and that it was unnecessary for me to
check Walker. All the Grossbeck records for
Doubleday have been credited to the British
Museum as depository. Packard's references
have been left as given by him.
Actually there was a third collector earlier
than Doubleday-a Dr. Leitner, 1836-but as he
is known for only a single specimen, Diaethria
clymena (Cramer), q.v., he hardly need be taken
into consideration.
Perhaps mention should be made of John
James Audubon who was in Florida from 1832
to 1834 during which time he made many paint-
ings of birds. Scattered through his bird studies
there appear numerous illustrations of insects,
mostly Lepidoptera. A collection of these bird
illustrations which included insects was pub-
lished by Alice Ford (1952) but according to the
comments in the text (p. 13), all the insect speci-
mens used as models were supplied to Audubon
by a correspondent in New Orleans. However,
it is not beyond the range of possibility, or prob-
ability, that he may have included some insects
in sketches made during his long stay at Key
West, where many beautiful specimens must
have come within his observations. If so, they
would represent the earliest illustrations of Flor-
ida Lepidoptera, unless some appeared in Cates-
by (1731-1748), a rare work which I have not
seen.
A. W. Chapman collected at Apalachicola in
the late 1860(s. Where his material is deposited,
if extant, I do not know.
Charles J. Maynard made many trips to Flor-
ida from 1868 to 1901 in the course of which he
visited many parts of the state. His primary
interest was in ornithology, but he did collect
some Lepidoptera, records for which appear in
his Manual (1891) and which were repeated by
Grossbeck (1917). Maynard's material is in the
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge,
Massachusetts.
Regular collecting began about 1875 when Ro-
land Thaxter first visited and collected at Apa-
lachicola. He made visits to other parts of Flor-
ida, including Miami, as late as 1897. His ma-








THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


trial is also in the Museum of Comparative
Zoology.
Albert Koebele likewise collected at Apalachi-
cola, in 1882, and covered several other locali-
ties either then or later. His material is scat-
tered in a number of institutions, but where the
bulk of his Florida specimens are to be found is
a mystery. Probably they, too, are scattered.
In the same year, 1882, Dr. Wittfeld was col-
lecting in the Indian River region, probably
around Georgiana, and possibly before that
time, as Strymon wittfeldi was named for him by
W. H. Edwards, the description appearing early
in 1883. Some of Wittfeld s specimens went to
Henry Edwards.
W. W. Hill collected at Rockledge in 1884.
His material is in the New York State Museum
at Albany, and the entire Hill collection was
listed in the 23rd Report of the State Entomolo-
gist (1908, pp. 61-117). Unfortunately, the de-
terminations leave much to be desired accord-
ing to those who have had occasion to work with
the collection, and consequently need to be veri-
fied, as will be noted in the text under certain
species.
H. K. Morrison collected in some parts of
south Florida in 1884 and at Key West in 1885.
In 1888 E. A. Schwarz published on the insect
fauna of tropical Florida; however, references to
Lepidoptera are few and are chiefly in the re-
port of the discussion which immediately fol-
lowed the paper. Nonetheless, he must have
collected many specimens as several authors
mention material of Schwarz and of Schwarz and
Barber. Specimens collected by Schwarz and
Bela Hubbard were noted by Grote (1875c),
which would place Schwarz as one of the earlier
collectors. Grote also mentioned in this paper
specimens received from George Dimmock, but
of the latter there is no other record.
William Beutenmueller and Charles Palm were
in Florida the same year (1887) as Schwarz. A
few' species were named for Palm-a point it is
well to bear in mind as it is easy to assume with-
out thinking that palmi has something to do with
a palm tree, whereas there may be no connec-
tion whatsoever.
In 1890, and again in 1900, Dr. H. G. Dyar
collected assiduously in the Palm Beach-Lake
Worth area, though the inference is clear from
a close reading of his papers relating to the ma-
terial collected there that all the collecting was
done actually at Palm Beach. Accordingly, I
have credited the records to Palm Beach, though
Grossbeck (1917) listed them all under Lake
Worth. The results of these two visits, including
a number of life histories, were published by
Dyar in several papers during 1901 and a few
subsequently. Until recently this was almost the


only source of information regarding microlepl-
doptera in Florida, especially for their life his-
tories.
Mrs. Annie, T. Slosson collected at several
places over a number of years, principally at
Fernandina, Ormond, Charlotte Harbor, and
Biscayne Bay, i.e., the Miami region. Some of
her Lake Worth records were included in Dyar's
paper (1901a). Unfortunately the papers which
she herself published in several early volumes
of the Entomological News and of the Journal of
the New York Entomological Society do not give
satisfactory records, nor do her labels 'supply
any data beyond locality, sometimes not even
that. Although most of her material is in the
American Museum of Natural History, some of
it is scattered and cannot be located now, in-
cluding, unfortunately, several specimens repre-
senting species whose presence in Florida needs
confirmation. Perhaps she did what some of us
have thoughtlessly done, discarded things that
seemed common and worthless; common in the
north, but extremely rare in Florida.
Just before and after 1900, Dr. D. M. Castle
and Phillip Laurent collected in two or three lo-
calities and recorded their captures in the litera-
ture (1896, 1897, and 1903). Laurent's material
is in the collection of the Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia.
Between 1911 and 1914, four expeditions to
Florida were made under the auspices of the
American Museum of Natural History. The re-
sults of these expeditions were published in
1917. The primary author of the paper was Dr.
John A. Grossbeck, but owing to his untimely
death in 1914, the final editing was done by
Frank E. Watson. This has been the standard
list of the Lepidoptera of Florida, and is, of
course, one of the main sources in the literature
on which I have drawn. Some of the records
are a little hard to interpret, but it is quite prob-
able that had Grossbeck lived to finish the work,
there would have been adequate explanation of
the form in which they are written. For ex-
ample, it is difficult to decide whether "Char-
lotte Harbor, Punta Gorda," means that speci-
mens were taken in both places or whether he is
simply aiding the reader to locate the lesser
known place by that which is better known. I
believe this was definitely his motive in writing
"South Bay, Lake Okeechobee," and have ac-
cordingly dropped the second name. It is also
difficult to figure out whether "Punta Gorda,
February, Lake Worth (Sloss.)," means that Slos-
'son took the moth at both places or only at the
latter. I have assumed only at the latter, or, be-
ing in doubt, have not credited her for the for-
mer, but have cited Grossbeck as the authority,
even though she did collect in the Punta Gorda


I� nr m m(l( ra nnranan ------------------- ---`








INTRODUCTION


vicinity. Certain other assumptions have been
made, such as that all specimens on which
Doubleday records are based, are in the British
Museum, as already mentioned; also, that the
specimens for all the Davis records are in the
Staten Island Museum except a few known to
be in the American Museum of Natmal History.
All the records that coincide with the dates of
the 1914 expedition have been credited in this
list to the American Museum of Natural History
as depository.
The first expedition, that of 1911, consisted of
Grossbeck and William T. Davis, the second,
1912, of Grossbeck, Davis, and Joseph Mattes,
who were joined later by Dr. J. H. McDunnough.
The latter related to me an incident that other
collectors may appreciate. "When the other
members of the expedition left for Everglades,
Mattes remained in Fort Myers, where he was
made the butt for a gang of rude boys who fol-
lowed him along from one electric light to an-
other and annoyed him excessively by their re-
marks." Mattes is probably not the only one
who has undergone such trials, but it should be
recalled that Fort Myers was originally a "cow
town" and apparently the rugged life of its early
days still persisted into 1912. This was the ex-
pedition instigated by Barnes to look into the
authenticity of the peculiar Chokoloskee records,
which, needless to say, were not verified. The
third expedition in 1913, was made independent-
ly by Davis. A fourth, in 1914, was carried out
by Frank E. Watson and A. J. Mutchler, the ob-
jective in this case being a month's collecting
across the little explored northern strip from
Jacksonville to Pensacola, with a side trip down
to Gainesville.
McDunnough informed me that all the ma-
terial from the Barnes collection from which
new specific names were proposed in the Barnes
and McDunnough Contributions, Vol. II, No. 4
and Vol. III, No. 4 is in the United States Na-
tional Museum. Part of the material, Gross-
beck's misidentified species as recorded in the
above Vol. III, should be in the American Mu-
seum of Natural History, possibly still under the
wrong name; the balance of the material, for-
merly in the Barnes Collection, should now be
in the United States National Museum.
In addition to the collectors named above and
in the earlier part of this section, there are sev-
eral whose names appear in the Grossbeck list.
Of course it is quite possible that in some in-
stances the parenthetical names may refer to
collections ofthat duyv, rnlicr lhan collectors, but
if So, thterl I not wll y 'fJ illll%,' li.'.l hIl ig (1uIIl flis
point at this time. FPor- ol thi names Rpp-e;r
with relative frequency, Charles E. Sleight,
C. C. Fisher, Johnson, and Palmer. About all


that can be said of Sleight is that Forbes re-
membered him and thought he had been a mem-
ber of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, and
probably the New York Society as well. If his
material was left to the Brooklyn Museum, it
might be in the United States National Mu-
seum where the collection eventually wound up,
or it may be anywhere, as apparently there was
some prior distribution, or in plainer language,
helping one's self. George Clyde Fisher, an
ornithologist attached to the American Museum
of Natural History, made a visit to Lake Wimico
near Apalachicola in December 1909, according
to Howell (1932, p. 31), but in Howell's bibli-
ography (p. 503), the titles of Fisher's papers
show that he was in Florida at Quincy in 1907,
at Apalachicola in 1908, at DeFuniak Springs in
1909 and 1910, and at Tallahassee in 1916.
Grossbeck (1917) gave many records for Lepi-
doptera collected by Fisher at DeFuniak Springs,
but at no other locality. A check for two or
three of these showed that this material is in
the American Museum collection.
The Johnson referred to by Grossbeck almost
surely is Dr. Charles Williston Johnson, for in
Part I of the "Insects of Florida", of which John-
son was the author, he stated that many of his
records for the Diptera (the subject of Part I)
were the result of his residence in St. Augustine
from 1880 to 1888, and the Johnson records cited
by Grossbeck were all from St. Augustine during
that period. Where the material is I have not
been able to discover, but from some of the state-
ments made by Grossbeck it seems that Johnson
may have kept notes of his observations, and
perhaps did not actually collect.
Palmer possibly refers to William Palmer who
was associated with the Smithsonian Institution,
but this a guess based purely on the fact that
he wrote a few papers on Florida birds.
Of the names appearing in Grossbeck with
less frequency than the four above, some can
be identified from the bibliography in this pub-
lication; of the remainder, relatively little in-
formation has been found: A. N. Caudell was
with the Bureau of Entomology of the United
States Department of Agriculture; Dickenson,
also spelled Dickerson, I suspect was W. S. Dick-
inson of Miami, who sent his season's catch for
several years to W. C. Wood, of Mahopac, New
York (Wood, 1939, p. 131). Where Wood's col-
lection is, I do not know. Jacob Doll was the
well known collector from Brooklyn, but there
is no evidence that he visited Florida; the French
named may have been C. H. French, author of
The 1lholl,'lrIh's of theo F,uiliri, Unil'tl Staite"s
John L, I lily of Chicago made at least one visit
to Florida, probably about 1922; Alex K. Wyatt
has informed me that Healy's material was in the


- --------- --- r_ --1..._ 7


I lo 7o I P










THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Chicago Natural History Museum collection but
was destroyed by pests; Prof. J. W. P. Jenks of
Providence, Rhode Island, an ornithologist, col-
lected a few specimens of Lepidoptera in 1887;
R. Ludwig collected around Stemper, but when,
is uncertain; Frank Merrick of New Brighton,
Pennsylvania, made one or more trips to Florida,
being in Dade City at least in 1912, according to
Wyatt, and gave his material to Barnes; Gross-
beck named A. L. Quaintance of the United
States Department of Agriculture, but there is
no evidence of his having visited Florida, unless
the fact were to emerge from some of Quaint-
ance' papers; it is believed that F. Rauterburg
was a dealer, perhaps one of those who obtained
material from Mrs. McKinney, of Chokoloskee;
E. R. Sasscer was with the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture and was with the Division of
Plant Industry for a few months in 1954, but
must have collected in Florida prior to 1917;
Otto Seifert collected in Florida in March 1901,
(see Ent. News 15:47), lived in the New York
area, probably Brooklyn, and his collection may
have gone to Buchholz or the Brooklyn Museum;
the Snow mentioned probably is Prof. Francis H.
Snow of the University of Kansas; Henry Thurs-
ton, an ornithologist from New York, collected a
few specimens at Seven Oak; Wickham may have
been the coleopterist from Philadelphia; and Wil-
liams may have been Roswell C. Williams, the
specialist in Hesperiidae. Finally, there are
those who are no more than names. Perhaps
someone will be able to rescue them from com-
plete oblivion: Babbitt; Brown, who collected at
Hastings; Domer; Hegen and Henderson; Mr.
& Mrs. Hunt; Linden; Neal; Norton; Pollard
(Query: Could this be the curator of the Staten
Island Museum, C. L. Pollard?); Pridday (is this
an error for Friday?); Turner. I believe Linden
was one of the early collectors, but the only in-
formation I have is in Grote & Robinson (1868,
p. 25) in their description of Dyops futilis, now
in the genus Litoprosopus, where the habitat is
given as "Florida (Linden)." This is the form in
which the collector is generally indicated in this
paper. However, there is a town of Linden in
Sumter County and the possibility that it was to
this the reference was intended, cannot be ruled
out entirely.
W. H. Safford made a report (1917) on the
natural history of Paradise Key and the nearby
Everglades, with illustrations of some Lepidop-
tera as well as text references to them.
In 1920, H. L. Dozier published a brief list of
insects of the Gainesville region taken during the
years 1916-1917.
From 1921 to 1942 the late Dr. Frank M. Jones
made a number of visits to Florida to collect
specimens, covering a wide range of localities


from DeFuniak Springs to Paradise Key. In
connection with a survey of the natural history
of the Key projected by the Women's Garden
Club of Florida, at that time the owners of the
Key, he made a complete report of his captures
on the Key. The general editor of the project
was W. S. Blatchley, but apparently the only sec-
tion of the survey that actually reached the re-
port stage was that on Lepidoptera by Jones. A
copy of this Jones very generously turned over
to me together with all his correspondence with
the various specialists in Washington who had
made many of the determinations for him, as
well as his records for other Florida localities.
The material itself, including a very small
amount taken by Blatchley, is partly in the
United States National Museum, partly in the
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,
partly in the Peabody Museum of Natural His-
tory, New Haven, Connecticut, and partly in my
collection.
A small collection was made in the summer of
1936 on the Dry Tortugas by Prof. H. H. Plough,
which is now in the Cornell University collec-
tion, and which was listed by Forbes (1941). The
late W. M. Davidson and Dr. G. W. Rawson
made brief visits to these remote Keys in the
early summers of 1959 and 1960, primarily for
bird banding and observation, but collected some
Lepidoptera there which are in their collections.
A paper prepared by them which will summarize
their captures is scheduled to appear in the
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. Recently
entomologists of the Division of Plant Industry
inaugurated a series of visits to these Keys for
the purpose of a systematic study of the terres-
trial arthropods. Their findings are to be pub-
lished by the Florida Department of Agricul-
ture.
Otto Buchholz made a collecting trip to Flor-
ida in 1946, the results of which added to ma-
terial obtained by him from several other sources,
made his one of the most important Florida col-
lections. Since his death, his collection has been
acquired by the American Museum of Natural
History, but no attempt has been made to change
all the depository records in this publication.
Dr. J. G. Franclemont has made several short,
but intensive collecting visits to Oneco in recent
years, with briefer stays in a few other localities.
Roger W. Pease has made a couple of lengthy
stays at the Archbold Biological Station for col-
lecting, and was joined for a shorter period
by Dr. Charles L. Remington, their material be-
ing deposited partly in the Yale University col-
lection, partly in the Station collection, after be-
ing thoughtfully submitted to me for study and
records.









INTRODUCTION


From November 1 to May 1, in the winters of
1958-1959, 1959-1960, and 1961-1962, Prof. S. W.
Frost also ran a light trap at the Archbold Bio-
logical Station. He, too, generously submitted
all his material for my inspection, and it is in
the collection of the Pennsylvania State Univer-
sity, except for a few specimens which I was per-
mitted to retain through Prof. Frost's kindness
and some specimens which have not been deter-
mined and which are on loan to me.
Alex K. Wyatt spent the winter of 1959-1960 in
St. Petersburg, but because of the prolonged
cold, did not collect much at that time. How-
ever, a briefer, earlier visit, together with the
valuable material collected by Henry Ramstedt
over several winters at Punta Gorda, gave Wyatt
one of the finest of Florida collections. This, to-
gether with his other material, he has turned over
recently to the Chicago Natural History Mu-
seum, but the depository records are still cred-
ited to Wyatt in the text. Ramstedt also col-
lected very briefly on Egmont Key over fifty
years ago and is probably the only person who
has collected there. Some of his Punta Gorda
records are unique, and he is unquestionably
one of the most important collectors to date.
Other collectors have visited Florida for brief
periods, some limiting their activities to one
place, others doing a day or so here and there.
All have contributed to the sum of our knowl-
edge of the fauna, either on their own account
through brief notes in the literature, or through
the current holders of their material, individual
or institutional. The names of some will appear
also under the heading "B" of the section on de-
positories or in connection with various institu-
tions under "C" in the same section, but they
are ennumerated here as collectors in the field.
Henry Engel and Bernard Krautwurmn both col-
lect at Stemper, and probably at Lutz, their
material ending up mostly in the Carnegie Mu-
seum, but also in the hands of a few individuals.
Additional Florida material collected by John
Bauer, E. P. Mellon II, C. W. Stafford, Dr. Wal-
ter Sweadner, and Mrs. Mary Wible, is in the
Carnegie Museum collection. Dr. J. C. Brad-
ley, Fred Marloff, and F. W. Friday are others
who collected at Stemper and perhaps Lutz. Fri-
day's collection is in the Los Angeles County
Museum. C. 0. McBride, Dr. J. G. Needham,
? Henri, ? Hoffman, and Dr. J. S. Rogers col-
lected at various places, with the material go-
ing to the Cormel University collection. Ma-
terial that went essentially to the Museum of
Zoology, University of Michigan, was collected
in a number of localities from Monticello to
Miami by D. M. Bates, H. E. Bratley, Dr. I.J.
Cantrall, H. Friauf, Dr. F. M. Gaige, Dr. T. H.
Hubbell, and F. W. Walker. The American Mu-


seum of Natural History has been enriched by
collections made around Tampa by E. L. Bell,
at Florida City by Mrs. C. F. dos Passes, at Win-
ter Park and Archbold Biological Station by Dr.
A. B. Klots, at Port Sewall and Big Pine Key by
L. J. Sanford, and from various localities by F.
E. Church. Richard Archbold and Dr. L. J.
Brass have collected in the neighborhood of the
Archbold Biological Station, and their material
is at the Station. Prof. R. H. Beamer and a
group of his students made a collecting trip for
te University of Kansas. G. B. Fairchild de-
posited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
some Florida specimens which he had taken.
R. T. Bird of Rye, New York, made a brief col-
lecting trip to Paradise Key about 1930. F. G.
Blaicher collected specimens for Buchholz at
Bonita Springs. William Reiff and Samuel E.
Cassino spent a short time at Rockledge and
wrote of their captures (1917). Cassino described
several geometrids from St. Petersburg, but there
is no evidence that he went there. The late
Prof. P. W. Fattig, a prolific insect collector, who
served as curator of the Emory University Mu-
seum for many years, was a Professor of Agricul-
ture at the University of Florida from 1918 to
1921, during which time he made all or most
of his Florida collections. Collecting trips of
longer or shorter duration have been made byJ.
W. Cadbury and Mrs. Margaret M. Cary; M. O.
Glenn; Dr. R. W. Hodges; H. W. Howe; G. W.
Kamp; E. V. Komarek of Grady County, Georgia;
R. R. McElvare; Lt. Col. S. S. Nicolay; Kilian
Roever; Dr. T. E. Snyder; P. C. Truman; G. S.
Walley of Ottawa, Ontario; and J. P. Knudsen
made a collection while residing briefly at Talla-
hassee. Janice Magill established the most
southerly record for Actias luna L. while a high
school student in Clewiston.
There were others about whom little informa-
tion is available, even whether they were visi-
tors or residents: Applegate and Smith; Beatty
at Milton in 1958; B. L. Boyden; Bramley (per-
haps in error for the late Dr. Stanley W. Brom-
ley of Stanford, Connecticut); H. J. Erb; P. G.
Hawes; Heness at LaBelle; Krueger; J. H. Mc-
Millan at Gainesville; Dr. Levi W. Mengel of
Reading, Pennsylvania; G. F. Moznette at Miami
in 1920; Murrell, in 1938; Niedsgar; Norris; Car-
olyn Ponsonby; Samuel N. Rhoads of Philadel-
phia; William Sawyer; Mrs. L. Walsh; White;
Wood; and R. H. Young in 1917.
A fascinating study which would consume
much patient labor would be to try to find out
where people like Strecker, Henry Edwards,
Hulst, and Smith got the Florida specimens from
which they described so many species. Some of
the sources are mentioned in the descriptions,
but for many of them the source is not indicated.


15


1








16


Were there other early collectors about whom
we know nothing at all?
The resident collectors, permanent and sea-
sonal, have provided the greatest amount of in-
formation, some of it indirectly through the dis-
position of their material to others, although
their impact on that information scarcely began
to take effect until forty years ago.
In the forefront of these in contribution,
though not in point of seniority, stands Mrs.
Leslie E. Forsyth, whose records for macrolepi-
doptera, and to a small degree for microlepidop-
tera, are unmatched by anyone in Florida. Her
material is held by many collectors, for with her
it was largely a commercial venture, but none-
theless, she was the sole source of many a choice
item. Buchholz thoughtfully pulled from his
files and turned over to me some old sales lists
received from Mrs. Forsyth, and these lists are
my authority for one or two species which ap-
pear on them. Even though Mrs. Forsyth did
not indicate that they were currently available,
it is hard for me to believe that the names would
have been on the lists had she not at one time
or another taken specimens. The lists were
headed: "Noctuidae' (etc.) "from So. Fla.," sug-
gesting that although her home was in Florida
City, she probably collected in other, nearby
places.
The earliest resident collectors probably were
Johnson and Wittfeld, both already mentioned.
They were followed by T. L. Mead who lived
at Orlando or Ormond at one time and did some
collecting for his father-in-law, William H. Ed-
wards, and some perhaps for himself; if he had
his own collection, the answer will be forthcom-
ing when someone goes over the Carnegie Mu-
seum collection for Florida records. Edwards
may have done a little collecting on his own, as
F. Martin Brown has written me that Edwards
visited his semi-invalid wife and their son in St
Augustine in the late 1860's. Brown reported
further that there is reference in Edwards' let-
ters to S. F. Baird with regard to specimens col-
lected for him by the son.
Next in importance to Mrs. Forsyth comes
Henry Ramstedt who has been mentioned in
connection with A. K. Wyatt.
To Major Dean Berry goes credit for many
contributions to the knowledge of the butterflies,
Catocala, and other large moths of the Orlando
and Titusville regions. Much of his material was
distributed to various collections. Unfortunately.
after his death Mrs. Berry, due to ill health, was
not able to give proper care to the remainder,
and much data has been lost to mold and pests.
Berry will be remembered especially for the dis-
covery of the hesperiid which bears his name.
George D. Morgan, already mentioned, col-


elected industriously in and around Tampa and
published privately (1933) a list of the butterflies
of the area, a copy of which Lucien Harris, Jr.
kindly made and gave to me. Morgan is re-
sponsible for many notes and comments on the
relative abundance and season of numerous spe-
cies. What little remains of his collection is in
the Biology Department of the University of
Tampa. Prof. Clyde T. Reed, of that depart-
ment has picked up one or two good specimens.
Also collecting at Tampa was U. C. Zeluff, al-
though his activities in the field were essentially
commercial and have been discontinued.
Dr. H. T. Fernald moved to Orlando in 1928
and then to Winter Park in 1930, where he lived
until his death in 1952. Most of his collecting
was done in his early years there. A large part
of his collection is in The Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods, although he sent many speci-
mens to the United States National Museum
where they were made types of species described
by the workers there.
Mrs. Florence M. Grimshawe has been an
active collector of butterflies in Miami and the
upper Keys for some years, but because of other
activities has been able to supply only a small
portion of the large amount of data she possesses.
J. F. Malloch, formerly with the United States
Department of Agriculture, collected much ma- I
trial at Vero Beach which he has deposited in
the United States National Museum, but very
little of it has been worked up.
J. F. May ran a light trap at Weekiwachee
Springs on several occasions, an operation which
Mrs. May has continued at times. Since they
were interested primarily in the larger and more
spectacular species to add to their fascinating
exhibit at the Springs, they most generously
saved the balance of the catches and turned
them over to me. During his life, May did not
have an opportunity to work up his own ma-
terial in a scientific way, nor has Mrs. May, al-
though I have seen and recorded some of it.
S. V. Fuller, who holds a staff appointment
with the Division of Plant Industry, has one of j
the finest collections of Florida material, taken
mostly at or near his home in Cassadaga, but also
from other parts of the state including the upper
Keys.
K . L. King of Sarasota has collected butter.
flies in many parts of the state and has contrib-
uted a number of pertinent observations based
on his wide experience in the field; during one
summer he took many moths which he kindly
turned over to me and which form a part of
my records, without, I fear, always giving due
recognition to him.
In the text much more material is credited to
my personal collection than is actually there, for


~


~-- ~--.l-L~~--~~- _.._.__.__ ._____ 11- -�~-�-�------r~---C~I--�.~ _


THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA









INTROD'

many hundreds of specimens have been distrib-
uted to various individuals and museums, and,
although no record was kept of where they went,
a record was kept of what was caught. In ask-
ing others to list their Florida material it seemed
pointless to have them spend their time dupli-
cating records I already had. Consequently,
they were told to ignore them. Also, many com-
mon species, or what I thought were common
species, were discarded before there was any
thought of compiling a list-a pity, because
what since have turned out to be rare insects in
Florida, though common in the north, were
tossed aside. In going over Buchholz's collec-
tion with him, I discovered that he had done the
same thing. However, a related point should
be mentioned. The more one studies the moths
of Florida, the less sure one becomes. What ap-
pears to be a familiar species of the north turns
out to be something quite different, sometimes
undescribed; what appears to be something
quite different turns out to be nothing more than
a Florida subspecies, of a common species, per-
haps heretofore unrecognized. Species which
seem to be readily determinable turn out to have
been masquerading under assumed names for
years, the name not applicable and the species
often standing without a name.
Another reason for letting many of these speci-
mens remain credited to my collection is that
it pins the responsibility for the determination
on my shoulders.
Small collections have been made by Leroy
N. Kilman of St. Petersburg, .. Harold Matte-
son of Miami, J. M. Plomley of West Hollywood,
and W. T. Thomas of Daytona Beach. W. J.
Platt, III, a student at the University of Florida,
has been collecting for some years and has con-
tributed some interesting records.
H. E. Woodcock, formerly of Chicago, moved
to Jacksonville recently and is getting material
for the Canadian National Collection, to which
he had previously donated most of his own col-
lection, the latter containing many specimens
from Florida, partly from his collecting around
Lake Geneva and Keystone Heights in earlier
years. A part of his collection and literature was
donated to the Division of Plant Industry. An-
other recent settler in Jacksonville is C. F. Zei-
ger, who is working on the butterflies, especially
Asterocampa and Lycaenidae. Still another who
has taken up collecting recently is Dr. I. J.
Abramson of Miami Beach. He is planning to
make a thorough study of the butterflies of Ever-
glades National Park with special reference to
their habitats and seasonal abundance, and to
publish on the same.
Miss Paula Dillman of Oneco ran a light trap
for me during two summers which resulted in


AUCTION 17

some very important contributions, especially in
the microlepidoptera. Not only are many of
these undetermined, but many more are still un-
spread.
From April 1955 through April 1956 the trap
was operated at the University of Florida Gulf
Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton, under the
supervision of Dr. E. G. Kelsheimer, assisted by
Frank Secor. So far as I am aware, the micro-
lepidoptera collections thus made by Dillman
at Oneco, by Kelsheimer and Secor at Braden-
ton, and by the author at Siesta Key, all within
a radius of twenty miles, represent the only in-
tensive year round collecting in this field that
has been undertaken in Florida. The one draw-
back is that there is so much material that it
has been impossible to prepare even a fraction
of it, and because there are so many unrecog-
nized and undescribed species present, the vast
majority of what has been mounted is undeter-
mined beyond the Pterophoridae. However, in
1961, Mrs. Shirley M. Hills began collecting mi-
crolepidoptera with great enthusiasm near Pen-
sacola, and as she is an excellent preparator of
even the smallest specimens, her collection
promises to be one of the finest in this field in
Florida. But again it may be years before many
of her specimens will be identified to species, or
described.
From April 1958 to November 1959, Dr. D. 0.
Wolfenbarger operated the trap at the Univer-
sity of Florida Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
near Homestead. Here, too, complete identifi-
cation of the microlepidoptera must wait until
someone undertakes a thorough study of most of
the families involved. The collections were
made on a weekly basis only, but the great diffi-
culty encountered in trap collecting in this lo-
cality is the presence from time to time of hordes
of small, greasy beetles that make a horrible
mess of all the Lepidoptera, almost totally so of
the microlepidoptera. Sometimes less than one
per cent of the entire catch is recognizable.
William B. Tappan started operating the trap
at the University of Florida North Florida Ex-
periment Station at Quincy in Tune 1960, with
the operation continuing into 1963. Curiously
enough the same greasy beetle problem has
arisen in Quincy, although it was negligible at
both Bradenton and Oneco.
For the benefit of future investigators, it might
be well to summarize the type of results from
these operations. From Homestead come many
unusual and presumably Antillean species; from
Bradenton and Oneco, a wealth of microlepidop-
tera; and from Quincy, northern species that
were not known in Florida, in fact, some of them
were not known south of North Carolina here-
tofore.


_I~ _ ____jP____aaj~Zlb*i�YWI~*~


aaa~









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Among the most important recent collections
are those made by Commodore V. F. Grant, and
William Patterson of Warrington, W. J. Warren,
Jr., of Myrtle Grove, and Mrs. Hills who lives
about twelve miles northeast of Pensacola.
Not only have they gathered a surprisingly
large number of species, but they are provide,
ing us with the first real knowledge of the
fauna of the western tip of Florida. Mrs. Hills
in particular has been most generous in supply-
ing duplicate material which has been distributed
to various collections, primarily those of the
American Museum of Natural History, the Ca-
nadian National Collection, the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, the United States Na-
tional Museum, and the author, although none
of them has been indicated as the depository of
the individual species because of the compli-
cated bookkeeping involved.
Harry 0. Hilton of Fort Walton Beach is an-
other recent addition to resident collectors. Al-
though he has been collecting for some two
years, knowledge of the fact was received too
late to incorporate many of his records. In addi-
tion to collecting, Hilton has made many color
slides of Lepidoptera, not only of adults, but of
the earlier stages as well. It is to be hoped that
some general use of these excellent photographs
may be made in time. In May 1963, Hilton
started operating a light trap and this, coupled
with his other collecting, will give us one more
valuable locality link in the western part of the
state.
There are other collectors whose work has pro-
duced a tremendously important yield, the im-
portance of which is constantly increasing and
becoming the dominant factor-the professional
entomologists, connected with the University of
Florida Experiment Stations and the main cam-
pus at Gainesville, the Division of Plant Industry
of the Florida Department of Agriculture, the
University of Miami, and the other universities,
colleges, and institutions. A few of these have
been named, but it is well to identify them, in
order that as few names as possible remain de-
void of all identity. Their connection with the
Division of Plant Industry (DPI), or the United
States Department of Agriculture (USDA), is in-
dicated by the abbreviations.
Adkins, T. R., DPI, Ocala
Ayers, C. I., DPI, Gainesville
Baker, G. H., DPI, Vero Beach
Baranowski, Dr. R. M., U. of Fla. Sub-Tropical
Exp. Sta., Homestead
Beers, W. L., Jr., Buckeye Cellulose Co., Foley
Betts, H. M., DPI, Macdenny
Bottimer, L. J., USDA, Kerrville, Texas
Brown, A. C., DPI, Gainesville


Dekle, G. W., DPI, Gainevlle
Denmark, H. A., DPI, Gainesville
Desin, G. W., USDA, Sanford
Dickinson, C. L., DPI, DeFuniak Springs
Dowling, C. F., Jr., DPI, Miami
Foster, R. E., DPI, Gainesville
Frierson, P. E., DPI, Gainesville
Genung, W. G., U. of Fla. Everglades Exp.
Sta., Belle Glade
Henderson, W. P., DPI, Groveland
Hetrick, Dr. L. A., U. of Fla., College of Agri-
culture, Gainesville
Hill, L B., DPI, Largo
King, Dr. J. R., U. of Fla. Indian River Field
Sta., Fort Pierce
Knight, R. A., DPI, Gainesville
Link, 0. D., (Deceased) DPI, Gainesville
Merkel, E. P., Southeastern Forest Experiment
Station, U. S. Forest Service, Olustee
Miller, R. H., U. of Fla. Pecan Investigations
Lab., Monticello
Morse, Dr. R. A., Cornell Univ. (formerly with
DPI, Gainesville)
Nakahara, Steve, Plant Quarantine Div.,
USDA, Seattle, Wash. formerlyy stationed at
Miami Springs)
Perry, J. W., DPI, Gainesville
Peterson, Dr. Alvah, Columbus, Ohio (former-
ly with DPI, Gainesville)
Phillips, A. M., U. of Fla. Pecan Investigations
Lab., Monticello
Poucher, Charles, DPI, Winter Haven
Roof, L. R., USDA, Brooksville
Snell, R. R., DPI, Homeland
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr., USDA, Miami
Tissot, Dr. A. N., U. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Gainesville
Vild, R. E., USDA, Winter Haven
Wade, G. F., Sr., DPI, Bushnell
Wagner, W. E., Vero Beach Labs. Inc., Vero
Beach
Weems, Dr. H. V., Jr., DPI, Gainesville
Whitton, Gil, Asst. Co. Agt., Clearwater
Wilson, Dr. J. W., U. of Fla. Central Fla. Exp.
Sta., Sanford
Woodley, J. R., USDA, Orlando
Yax, C. L., USDA, Palmetto
Others, W. W., USDA, Orlando

Special mention should be made of the con-
tributions made by Prof. J. R. Watson of the
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station in Gainesville to whose assiduous efforts
and enthusiasm a large part of the Station col-
lection is due. In addition Prof. Watson made
many notes of his observations. These notes,
now owned by his daughter, Miss Wilmhna Wat-
son of Sarasota, unfortunately were inaccessible.


I









INTRODUCTION


If and when they become available, they should
prove of great value.
In January 1955 there was inaugurated by
the State Plant Board of Florida (DPI) a series
of light traps to be operated for the purpose of
spotting the advent of species of economic im-
portance. These traps are located from Quincy
to Homestead, and although all the material
taken has not been of cabinet quality due to the
difficulty of working out an efficient trap, the de-
terminations resulting from the catches have
been of inestimable value in the knowledge of
geographic and seasonal distribution, and rela-
tive abundance of many species besides those of
purely economic interest. If these traps are
maintained and the catches fully analyzed, the
results will provide an abundance of informa-
tion in the future.
Dr. L. A. Hetrick has operated a trap, pri-
marily to provide specimens for his students,
but in the process has picked up a number of
important species, all of which he has been kind
enough to submit for examination. I am also
indebted to him for the gift of several rare speci-
mens.
COLLECTIONS
There must be authority for every record. This
authority comes from three sources-a speci-
men in a collection, from a statement in the lit-
erature, or occasionally on the word of a re-
liable collector. The literature will be dis-
cussed anon; at the moment we will confine our-
selves to the collections.
The lists and data of material in private hands
have been supplied by the owners of those col-
lections, and without their generous and enthusi-
astic cooperation, amateur and professional, this
list could not have been prepared. To all of
them I want to extend my warmest thanks and
appreciation for all they have done to help, and
to give them credit for supplying the major part
of the data, much of which does not appear,
because with the accumulation of it, the need
for detail vanished, and many species could be
relegated to the classification "generally distrib-
uted."
Since one of the objects of this undertaking
has been to catalogue the present depositories
of specimens, and also to give credit where
credit is due, the collections have been divided
into four sections:
A. those which contain only the generally
distributed species, specific records for none of
which are mentioned in the body of the text.
B. those in private hands, of which at least
some specimens are mentioned in the text.
C. institutional collections.
D. collections, private and institutional,


whence for various reasons, it has not been pos-
sible to get a list of material. In the case of in-
dividuals it has been a question of lack of time,
not unwillingness; in the case of museums, no
staff member could take the time, an under-
standable situation, nor could I take the time
myself. Since someone may wish to study some
special field of Florida Lepidoptera, this last
group should not be forgotten.

Section A
A. C. Allyn, Jr., Evanston, Ill.; R. A. Ander-
son, Pittsburgh, Pa.; F. S. Badger, Kokomo, Ind.;
J. H. Baker, Baker, Ore.; G. H. Berg, New Or-
leans, La.; Dr. J. A. Bishop, Jeffersontown, Ky.;
P. Buxbaum, New York, N. Y.; H. K. Clench,
Pittsburgh, Pa.; P. J. Conway, Aledo, Ill.; J. L.
Creelman, San Diego, Calif.; Dr. J. C. Downey,
Carbondale, Ill.; J. A. Ebner, Butler, Wisc.; J.
H. Fales, Silver Springs, Md.; 0. S. Flint, Jr.,
Amherst, Mass.; Mrs. E. Henriksen, Sunnyside,
Wash.; S. A. Hessel, Washington, Conn.; Mrs.
A. L. Hopf, New York, N. Y.; Mrs. V. P. Hynes,
Battle Creek, Mich.; James R. Jamison, Jr., Can-
ton, N. C.; the late L. N. Kilman, St. Petersburg,
Fla.; B. L. Langston, Berkeley, Calif.; C. G.
Laspe, Camarillo, Calif.; C. D. McNeil, Berkeley,
Calif.; J. A. Malcolm, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa.; Bry-
ant Mather, Jackson, Miss.; D. T. McCabe,
Wellesley Hills, Mass.; W. Paxton, Latrobe, Pa.;
W. L. Phillips, Salt Lake City, Utah; L. A. Pol-
lard, Hialeah, Fla.; Dr. W. J. Reinthal, Knox-
ville, Tenn.; the Rev. J. Rupprecht, Latrobe,
Pa.; F. P. Sala, Burbank, Calif.; G. A. Samuelson,
Concord, Calif.; C. D. Schryver, Denver, Colo.;
A. H. Scott, Pittsfield, Mass.; J. D. Smith, St.
Petersburg, Fla.; C. W. Stafford, Pittsburgh, Pa.;
P. D. Syme, Toronto, Ont.; F. T. Thorne, El
Cajon, Calif.; B. H. Weber, Burbank, Calif.; G.
B. Wren, Gary, Ind.; and M. Zappalorti, Staten
Island, N. Y.
Section B


OA
FRA
DLB
WRB
HB

AB
AFB
AEB
FMB
OB

JWC


Otto Ackermann, Irwin, Pa.
F. R. Arnold, Chippewa Falls, Wisc.
D. L. Bauer, Bremerton, Wash.
W. R. Bauer, Petaluma, Calif.
the late Henry Bird, Rye, N. Y. His
collection is now in the American Mu-
seum of Natural History.
Andri Blanchard, Houston, Texas
Dr. A. F. Braun, Cincinnati, Ohio
Dr. A. E. Brower, Augusta, Maine
F. M. Brown, Colorado Springs, Colo.
the late Otto Buchholz, Roselle Park,
N. J. His collection is now in the
American Museum of Natural History.
J. W. Cadbury, Browns Mills, N. J.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Only a very few specimens of his large
collection of Florida material which in-
cludes the remainder of the Forsyth
collection, have been listed.
JLC J. L. Campbell, Isle of Canna, Scotland
MMC Mrs. M. M. Cary, Philadelphia, Pa.
RCC the late R. C. Casselberry, Scarsdale,
N.Y.
WCC Dr. W. C. Cook, Walla Walla, Wash.
WMD the late W. M. Davidson, Orlando, Fla.
dosP C. F. dos Passes, Mendham, N. J.
HJE H. J. Epstein, Alexandria, Va. Hes-
periid material not catalogued.
RJF R. J. Ford, South Gate, Calif.
JGF Dr. J. G. Franclemont, Ithaca, N. Y.
HAF H. A. Freeman, Garland, Texas
EAF E. A. Froemel, Columbus, Neb.
SVF S. V. Fuller, Cassadaga, Fla.
MOG M. 0. Glenn, Henry, 11l. A great deal
of micro material has not yet been de-
termined.
VFG Commodore V. F. Grant, Warrington,
Fla. Some material is credited to Grant
which has been donated by him to var-
ious schools in Warrington and Pensa-
cola. All of this has been examined by
the author.
LWG L. W. Griewisch, Green Bay, Wise.
FMG Mrs. F. M. Grimshawe, Miami, Fla.
Many of her records are not available.
LH Lucien Harris, Jr., Avondale Estates,
Ga.
BH Bernard Heinemann, New York, N. Y.
Some hesperiid material has not been
processed.
HOH H. O. Hilton, Shalimar, Fla.
SMIH Mrs. Shirley M. Hills, Escambia Co.,
Fla. The location of Mrs. Hills' home
and site of most of her collecting is
about 12 miles northeast of Pensacola
on the US highway 98.
RWH Dr. R. W. Hodges, Washington, D. C.
WHH W. H. Howe, Ottawa, Kans.
LHH L. H. Hulbirt, Whittier, Calif.
FMJ the late Dr. F. M. Jones, Wilmington,
Del. His collection'is now in several
institutions as noted earlier.
GWK G. W. Kamp, Dedham, Mass.
CPK C. P. Kimball, Sarasota, Fla. Many
Phycitidae and species in families from
Olethreutidae to the end of the list have
not been determined.
HLK H. L. King, Sarasota, Fla.
CWK C. W. Kirkwood, Summerland, Calif.
DHK D. H. Kistner, Chicago, Ill.
ABK Dr. A. B. Klots, Pelham, N. Y.
JPK J. P. Knudsen, Raleigh, N. C.
JFM the late J. F. May, Colorado Springs,


Colo. Most of his material has not
been processed.
RRM R.R. McElvare, Southern Pines, N. C.
CGM C. G. Merker, Pittsburgh, Pa.
JRM Prof. J. R. Merritt, Louisville, Ky.
BLM B. L. Munroe, Jr., Baton Rouge, La.
SSN Lt. Col. S. S. Nicolay, Cherrypoint,
N. C.
WP William Patterson, Warrington, Fla.
LSP L. S. Phillips, Chicago, IlL
BHP B. H. Pickell, Overland, Mo.
WJP W. J. Platt, III, Gainesville, Fla.
MP J. M. Plomley, West Hollywood, Fla.
AP A. Powell, Berkeley, Calif.
GWR Dr. G. W. Rawson, New Smyrna Beach,
Fla. Rawson has collected a lot of un-
recorded material which he has turned
over to the U. S. National Museum.
WAR W. A. Rees, Los Angeles, Calif.
PSR P. S. Remington, St. Louis, Mo.
KR Kilian Roever, Tucson, Ariz.
LRR L. R. Rupert, Sardinia, N. Y.
VGS V. G. Sasko, Chicago, Ill.
WES W. E. Sieker, Madison, Wis.
HFS Dr. H. F. Strohecker, Coral Gables, Fla.
TCS J. C. Symmes, Atlanta, Ga.
Dr. J. W. Tilden, San Jose, Calif.
EGV Dr. E. G. Voss, Ann Arbor, Mich.
WJW W. J. Warren, Jr., Myrtle Grove, Fla.
JRW the late Prof. J. R. Watson, Gainesville,
Fla. The references are to his notes
and material in the University of Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station.
HEW H. E. Woodcock, Jacksonville, Fla.
Most of his material is in the Canadian
National Collection.
AKW A. K. Wyatt, Chicago, Ill. Wyatt's col-
lection has been turned over to the Chi-
cago Natural History Museum.
CFZ C. F. Zeiger, Jacksonville, Fla.
JBZ Dr. J. B. Ziegler, Summit, N. J.
EZ S. E. Ziemer, Kewaunee, Wise.

Section C
ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila-
delphia, Pa. Material taken by Cad-
bury, Forsyth, Jones, and others, much
of it unmounted. Only a very few rec-
ords are included here. It is one of the
/important depositories that has not
been studied.
AMNH American Museum of Natural History,
New York, N. Y. The material is from
many sources: Slosson, the Rev. G. D.
Hulst, Sanford, Klots, Mrs. dos Passes,
J. L. Sperry, J. B. Smith, and more re-
cently, that of Buchholz. As previous-
ly noted, the latter is still listed in the


- --- - -------~p-p~i~~ ii-?- --I-Uli_�CII�Il�.--Y�iL








INTRODUCTION


lot
C.






j
at,





I,












s A
i,

i



I
i-








i
5



|�


text under "OB." The older records in
the Museum collection were listed by
Grossbeck: the more recent acquisi-
tions, other than those from Buclhholz,
were examined by the author with val-
uable assistance from Dr. F. H. Rindge.
ABS Archbold Biological Station, a privately
owned biological station affiliated with
the American Museum of Natural His-
tory south of Lake Placid and near
Childs, Fla. A small collection, being
built up by the visiting entomologists.
Some of the specimens credited to PSU
and YU are here.
BM British Museum, South Kensington,
England. A few records in the Hes-
periidae were supplied through the
courtesy of the late Brigadier W. H.
Evans, but except for the Doubleday
records, all of which have been taken
from the literature, that is the extent
of the information from this source.
CAS California Academy of Sciences, San
Francisco, Calif. Contains some Flor-
ida material, but only two or three rec-
ords have been obtained.
CNC Canadian National Collection, Ottawa,
Ont. A list of the noctuids was sup-
plied through the kindness of Dr. D. F.
Hardwick, and a partial list of the mi-
crolepidoptera through the kindness of
Dr. E. G. Munroe and the late Dr. R.
Lambert. However, there is still a lot
of material, especially from Berry and
the more recent additions from Wood-
cock, that should be examined. The
earlier Woodcock collection which has
recently been placed here, stands in
the present list under the symbol
"HEW." Some material was collected
on a visit to Florida in 1952 by Mc-
Gillis, Peck, J. R. Vockeroth, and G. S.
Walley, all connected with the Cana-
dian Department of Agriculture. Mun-
roe also has done some collecting at
various times.
CM Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. A
very few records have been extracted.
H. K. Clench most considerately sent
a list of the Limacodidae and Cossidae,
and has reported broadly on the bal-
ance of the material as follows: 1)
Stemper and Lutz specimens collected
by Krautwurm, very extensive, 2) A
small but diverse and choice lot from
the Titusville area, from Engel. 3)
Many undetermined microlepidoptera
taken by Sweadner in southern Florida.
4) Bauer material from St. Johns and


Flagler Counties. 5) Collection of
small moths from Lochloosa, taken by
Mrs. Wible. 6) The Edwards collection
which contains material taken by T. L.
Mead, probably in Orange and Sem-
inole Counties. 7) Also material from
Matheson, Mellon, and Stafford. There
is obviously valuable information that
should be obtained from this source.
CNHM Chicago Natural History Museum, Chi-
cago, 11. Contains the Strecker col-
lection, from which Wyatt with charac-
teristic kindness supplied certain rec-
ords. Wyatt's personal collection has
been transferred lately to the Museum,
but the specimens are still listed under
"AKW."
CMNH Cleveland Museum of Natural History,
Cleveland, Ohio. A list was prepared
by E. C. Welling. Under the subject
of locality records, mention has been
made of some of this material, a part
of which has been transferred to the
Carnegie Museum.
CU Cornell University Agricultural Col-
lege, Ithaca, N. Y. The material came
from a number of collections: Pasch,
Engel, Rogers, Hoffman, McBride,
Needham, and a few minor sources.
The listing was made by Forbes, as
mentioned earlier.
DPI Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture. This collec-
tion now is known as The Florida State
Collection of Arthropods. This title
was established on September 25, 1961
for the collection being developed by
the Entomology Section, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture, Gainesville, and its associ-
ates. This collection consists primarily
of what was the State Plant Board col-
lection, with subsequent additions.
This collection includes an older col-
lection made by the late Dr. H. T. Fer-
nald, mostly from Orange County, and
a more recent and increasingly impor-
) tant one by members of the staff of the
Division of Plant Industry and several
"officially appointed collaborators. In
addition, the entire arthropod portion
of The University of Florida Collections
has been placed on indefinite loan to
the Division of Plant Industry for con-
tinued development in conjunction with
the Division's collection. Staff ento-
mologists of the Division of Plant In-
dustry and several Associates in In-
sects of the Florida. State Museum are


�- ~- * I-~- I









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


collaborating in this undertaking. Ef-
fective January 15, 1961 the State Plant
Board of Florida became the Division
of Plant Industry of the Florida De-
partment of Agriculture. The symbol
"DPI" is used for specimens in these
collections, and also is used indiscrim-
inately for the records in the Division
of Plant Industry files and, therefore,
may not always represent actual speci-
mens.
EES University of Florida Everglades Ex-
periment Station, Belle Glade, Fla. A
small collection of local species.
ENP Everglades National Park, southwest
of Florida City, Fla. A small collection
from various sources to which addi-
tions are being made by Dr. F. C.
Craighead, mostly from reared micro-
lepidoptera material.
EU Emory University, Atlanta, Ga. Col-
lections made by Lucien Harris, Jr. and
the late Prof. P. W. Fattig. The ma-
terial was examined and listed by Har-
ris and the author. The Fattig collec-
tion was donated to the University of
Georgia by Emory University in 1962.
GSDA Georgia State Department of Agricul-
ture, Atlanta, Ga. In the State Mu-
seum in the State Capitol are or were,
four specimens of special interest from
the collection of W. M. Mills, and ob-
viously acquired from a dealer, the
specimens all labeled "Chokoloskeel"
These specimens were examined by
Harris and the author.
GCES University of Florida Gulf Coast Ex-
periment Station, Bradenton, Fla. Col-
lection made by Kelsheimer and exam-
ined by the author.
LACM Los Angeles County Museum, Los An-
geles, Calif. Rhopalocera listed by
Martin and Truxal (1955). The collec-
tion also contains some moths, a part
of which was collected by Friday.
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology,
Cambridge, Mass. The records have
been extracted in part only, most of
them by Forbes. Thaxter's material is
here. There is also a collection of
some 500 microlepidoptera, collected
in 1942 at Sebring by C. T. Parsons,
which came to my attention too late
to be examined.
NFES University of Florida North Florida Ex-
periment Station, Quincy, Fla. A small
lot collected by W. B. Tappan.
NSMS Nova Scotia Museum of Science, Hali-
fax, N. S. A collection made by Dr.


D. C. Ferguson in March 1962. Only
the most important records are in-
cluded here.
NYSM New York State Museum, Albany, N. Y.
All from the W. W. Hill collection men-
tioned on an earlier page.
PSU Pennsylvania State University, Univer-
sity Park, Pa. Collection made by Prof.
S. W. Frost at the Archbold Biological
Station, and examined by the author.
SPJC St. Petersburg Junior College, St. Pe-
tersburg, Fla. Collection made by H.
E. Willford and examined by the au-
thor.
SDM San Diego Natural History Museum,
San Diego, Calif. A list of the butter-
flies supplied through the kindness of
C. F. Harbison, but he was unable to
take the time to list the moths.
SIM Staten Island Museum, Staten Island,
N. Y. Material collected by the late
W. T. Davis. All records have been
taken from Grossbeck (1917).
STES University of Florida Sub-Tropical Ex-
periment Station, Homestead, Fla.
Consists mostly of material collected
by Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger for the au-
thor and most of it actually credited
to the author's collection, but there are
other specimens collected by the staff.
TU Tulane University, New Orleans, La.
List supplied through the courtesy of
Dr. E. N. Lambremont
USNM United States National Museum, Wash-
ington, D. C. The records from this
are mostly from the literature. A few
have been supplied by members of the
staff in connection with determina-
tions made for me, and I have extract-
ed a few. Unfortunately, the time was
not available to utilize this vast source
of information, a circumstance which
results in a serious weakness in this
publication.
UFA University of Florida College of Agri-
culture, Gainesville, Fla. Collection
made by Dr. L. A. Hetrick and exam-
ined by the author.
UFES University of Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, Gainesville, Fla. An
important collection made by various
members of the staff which was record-
ed by Jed Driggers and the author.
The older records were included in the
Grossbeck List (1917).
UK University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans.
Collection made by the late Dr. R. H.
Beamer and his students, and listed by
them.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


UM University of Michigan, Museum of
Zoology, Ann Arbor, Mich. Collec-
tions made by D. M. Bates, H. E. Brat-
ley, Dr. I. J. Cantrall, H. Friauf, F. M.
Gaige, Dr. T. H. Hubbell, and F. W.
Walker. The long list was made by
Dr. Cantrall, a task for which I am
most grateful. A list of the microlepi-
doptera had been prepared previously
by Ralph Beebe. Dr. Hubbell very
kindly sent a large number of speci-
mens for examination, about the deter-
mination of which there was some ques-
tion and many of these still have not
been determined.
UT University of Tampa, Biology Depart-
ment, Tampa, Fla. A collection made
by G. D. Morgan, perhaps only a rep-
resentative lot as it is not very large
and he was an avid collector. Exam-
ined by the author with assistance from
Harris. One very important item is a
specimen of Thysania agrippina Cra-
mer, taken by Prof. C. T. Reed.
YU Peabody Museum of Natural History,
Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Part of the Florida material of Dr. F.
M. Jones, who furnished a list of his
entire collection. However, none of
the Jones specimens will appear under
"Y" since the list was made before
they were donated to the Museum, and
it is now impossible to separate them
from Jones' other material which has
been distributed several ways. There
is also material from additional sources,
primarily Dr. C. L. Remington and R.,
W. Pease, both of whom collected at
the Archbold Biological Station. Most
of their material was generously sub-
mitted to the author for determination.

Section D
Dr. I. J. Abramson, Miami Beach, Fla.; J. W.
Adams, Philadelphia, Pa.; Amherst College, Am-
herst, Mass.; C. W. Baker, Waynesburg, Ohio;
N. W. Baker, Santa Barbara, Calif.; A. J. Carpen-
ter, Boston, Mass.; Dr. R. L. Chermock, Univer-
sity, Ala.; B. W. Dixon, Pittsburgh, Pa.; A. C.
Frederick, Albany, N. Y.; N. W. Gilham, Cam-
bridge, Mass.; R. J. Jae, Denver, Colo.; David
Jamieson, Miami, Fla.; Prof. R. W. Macy, Port-
land, Ore.; N. L. Marston, Hartman, Colo.; L.
M. Martin, Los Angeles, Calif.; Dr. E. P. Mei-
ners, St. Louis, Mo.; P. A. Opler, Pleasant Hill,
Calif.; D. J. Pirone, Mt. Vernon, N. Y.; C. S.
Quelch, Transcona, Man.; R. H. Reid, Los An-
geles, Calif.; Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla.;


Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa
Barbara, Calif.; D. B. Stallings, Caldwell, Kan-
sas; G. L. Stein, Marietta, Ga.; Dr. E. S. Thomas,
Columbus, Ohio; Tring Museum, Tring, Eng-
land; J. Unseld, Gravel Switch, Ky.; LeRoy Wil-
cox, Speonk, L. I., N. Y.; K. H. Wilson, Law-
rence, Kansas.
If the present list is seen by any of the above
and they have information or data to add, any
such belated items would be greatly appreciated
and should be passed along to the Division of
Plant Industry. It is hoped that eventually one
or more supplements will be published.
Other collections of Florida Lepidoptera sure-
ly exist, but all depositories of such which have
come to my attention are summarized above.
I should appreciate being informed of any omis-
sions.
LITERATURE
Much of the information for the list has been
derived from the literature, Grossbeck (1917)
being the primary source, but since many of his
records are undocumented every effort was made
to trace them back to their sources. Where this
has been possible, citation to Grossbeck has been
dropped in favor of the original. When his
source could not be found or was uncertain, the
citation is to his list. Because there is a host of
such citations, I have departed from the normal
practice of documentation in the interest of brev-
ity in this one case, and have abbreviated "Gross-
beck, 1917, p. xyz" to "Grsb., xyz." Nonetheless,
when reference is a part of the commentary, the
fuller form is used. Annotations as to the rele-
vancy to Florida have been added in the bibli-
ography for some references, but no attempt
was made to do this for all publications listed.
Because no check list can be considered final,
it should be the duty of every compiler or re-
viser to state clearly what literature has been
covered, especially through what date in order
to save later revisers the necessity of plodding
through it once more.
About 1941 the Works Progress Administra-
tion had some women extracting information on
Florida insects from the literature. Because
many of these references were incorrect, either
through carelessness or inept interpretation, it
was necessary to check everything quoted from
that source, but it has been assumed, perhaps
rather naively, that they did make a record for
every reference to Florida Lepidoptera in the lit-
erature which they covered. Consequently I have
gone through the following periodicals only from
the date of the last W.P.A. entry up to the end
of 1961: Annals of the Entomological Society of
America, Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological
Society, Canadian Entomologist, Entomologica









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Americana, Entomological News, Florida Ento-
mologist, Insect Pest Survey Bulletin (and its
successors: Cooperative Economic Insect Report
and Cooperative Insect Pest Survey), Journal of
the Lepidopterists' Society, Journal of the New
York Entomological Society, Lepidopterists'
News, Proceedings of the Entomological Society
of Washington, Psyche, and the Transactions of
the American Entomological Society. As very
little relating to Florida Lepidoptera has ap-
peared in these during the past fifteen years or
so, outside of the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin, it
seems reasonable to assume that little, if any-
thing, has been missed by not checking through
all the other periodicals that touch in any way
on Entomology, although an occasional paper
has come to notice. All separate American
works, and European, which might be presumed
to bear on any phase of the subject, have been
explored with the exception of Walker (1854-
1866) which was apparently covered by Gross-
beck; Seitx, Vol. 5, in part; Romanoff, Vol. 8; the
Lepidoptorum Catalogus; Oberthiir (1876-1902
and 1904-1924); Strand, whose contribution
seems to have been limited to giving names to
Hampson's forms and aberrations; and the
Genera Insectorum.
The necessity for checking the references in
the Works Progress Administration file has been
mentioned. It is impossible to trust them, and
everything of the least importance must be veri-
fied. For example, "Florida" in several cases
turned out to be in Costa Rica. The trouble into
which one might run from blindly following
such misleading guide posts is readily apparent.

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY RECORDS
The Division of Plant Industry has an im-
mense and constantly increasing file of deter-
minations made either by the staff or at the
United States National Museum, or, in connec-
tion with their current light trap project, by the
author or one of the specialists. This file has
provided a quantity of records, all listed under
the depository symbol "DPI," though the actual
specimens in most cases have been discarded.
Many of the records are unique, many supply
important food plant observations, and many
contribute significantly to the distributional pat-
tern. A reference collection of Florida Lepidop-
tera is being developed by the Division of Plant
Industry, and in a few years this should be a
great aid to collectors in determining Florida ma-
terial, a task which at the present time is such
a difficult one. This reference collection should
stimulate and encourage collectors to persist in
a pursuit that is both delightful and rewarding.


FOOD PLANTS

Though food plant records are the most im-
portant factor from the economic aspect, mod-
em thinking limits these to the actual records
within the scope of the subject matter. In other
words, in a state faunal list such as this, only
those food plants which have been observed as
hosts within the state should be noted. Never-
theless, since a knowledge of acceptable food
plants is essential, these have been included, but
only definite Florida records are documented.
These are listed last, set off by semicolons, if
food plants recorded elsewhere are part of the
immediate text. Any undocumented host is not
a specific Florida record, though it is more than
probable that the larva in question will feed on
the plant, if the latter is found within the state.
My own observations on this phase of the sub-
ject being practically nil, I have relied almost
exclusively on the Division of Plant Industry's
findings, and have quoted, though without spe-
cific acknowledgment, from Klots, Forbes, and
Heinrich exclusively for the general records, be-
lieving that they have excluded those of a du-
bious nature. Of course very few of those they
list are specifically for Florida. Many records
have been supplied by Fuller and various other
individuals as indicated in the text.
Erdman West, Botanist and Mycologist at the
University of Florida, has checked the plant
names used in this publication, and currently
recognized plant names have been substituted
for names in the literature considered to be
synonyms. Such synonyms have been placed in
brackets following the currently accepted plant
names.
I have been informed that some of the older
"DPI" records are unreliable because the de-
termination of the plant often was made in the
field by the investigator and was not subject to
critical review, as is the present practice. It
should be borne in mind that some records may
mean that only the pupa was found on a given
food plant. Where this is so stated in the orig-
inal reference, that information is repeated here,
but at times it is uncertain which stage of the in-
sect's life history may have been found, and even
if it did happen to be the larva which was found,
the result still may be confusing, as some larvae
wander to a different environment for pupation.
Some of the records may appear suspicious; I
have quoted these as reported, but cannot vouch
for their validity.
The subject of food plants is a fertile field for
investigation in Florida where the vegetation is
a mixture of the native and the exotic.


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INTRODUCTION


QUARANTINE INTERCEPTIONS
As an appendix there are records of intercep-
tions madeby the customs and quarantine serv-
ices. The specimens involved are not, naturally,
a part of the Florida fauna, the origin in each
instance being clearly stated, but they are in-
dicative of species that might someday slip by
the inspection and become established. As a
matter of fact we do have instances where the
first actual record has been such an interception
and subsequently the species was taken at a
distance from the port. Of course this is not
proof that the insect had not been here all
along, but it does afford a fair inference that
some carrier may have been the agent of intro-
duction.
ILLUSTRATIONS
The choice of specimens for the colored plates
was based on three considerations. First, many
species were selected which had never been il-
lustrated. Second, certain closely related species
were picked to help make determinations in
these complexes easier. Third, some were
chosen for their beauty. Additional illustra-
tions, particularly of butterflies and skippers,
are to be included at such time as a supplement
may be issued.
The selection for the black and white photo-
graphs was done at a time when I was in Flor-
ida and my collection was stored in Massachu-
setts. Fortunately, local collectors and institu-
tions were able to help, and I want to express
my thanks for this generous assistance, especially'
to S. V. Fuller, Commodore V. F. Grant, Mrs.
Shirley M. Hills, and the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods. I am indebted to the United
States National Museum, the American Museum
of Natural History, and the Canadian National
Collection for many of the specimens used. One
or more specimens were borrowed from H. L.
King, Dr. C. T. Reed, W. E. Sieker, C. F. Zei-
ger, the Everglades National Park, the Univer-
sity of Florida Everglades Experiment Station,
the University of Florida Sub-Tropical Experi-
ment Station, the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station in Gainesville, and the
University of Florida College of Agriculture, to
all of whom I am once more beholden for many
and continued kindnesses. In an effort to avoid
error, the names of all specimens illustrated have
been checked by the various specialists who
have assisted throughout the preparation of this
work. For this, too, I thank them.

SUMMATION
In a list like this authors frequently include a
table showing the number of species in each


family. Sometimes they have been known to
pad the numbers by including species and "vari-
eties," enumerating the latter as though they
were valid species. When it is possible to pre-
pare such a table accurately, it is in order. In
Florida the question arises, what should one in-
clude? An accidental stray certainly is a valid
record, but it hardly represents a unit in the
local fauna. Then, too, it is often difficult to
decide what is a stray and what is a rare but es-
tablished species. Next are all the "reported"
species. Some of these may be authentic; some
are patently dubious. How many of these are
strays? Let us take as an example the family
Papilionidae. There are thirteen names on the
list. One is an error. One, if not more, is ques-
tionable, and if they have been taken, undoubt-
ly they are strays. What, then, are we to enu-
merate? Nine? Somewhere between nine and
twelve? Twelve? This may be an extreme
case, but similar problems arise in other fami-
lies. There are many instances where further
study is needed to decide whether we have a
complex involving two or three species, or, on
the other hand, whether two apparent valid spe-
cies are actually forms of a single species. Pres-
ent information is too incomplete to permit any
summation. Even for the macrolepidoptera it
would be misleading, and for the microlepidop-
tera it would be woefully incomplete because
there are so many species that are undetermined,
many of them unnamed.-..

RANDOM OBSERVATIONS
Night insect activity, in the Sarasota region at
least, is greatly reduced when the temperature
falls below 60"F; at 55'F it practically ceases.
Yet on sunny days butterflies are seen often when
the temperature in the shade is down in the 40's.
Studies by Frost at the Archbold Biological
Station, published in the Florida Entomologist
(1962, 1963), agree generally with these crude
observations, but Frost's figures are based on
carefully documented recordings. The moth
collections in his light traps were greatly re-
duced when the temperature fell below 60�F;
at 50�F they almost ceased. This was not en-
tirely true for other insects such as the midges,
which often were still taken in the traps with
temperature as low as 45"F. Frost's papers in-
clude total catches for each night from Novem-
ber 1 to April 1 with totals for certain groups
and some common species, including a few Lep-
idoptera. Precipitation, temperature, and light
intensity are detailed.
The taking of butterflies and diurnal moths in
light traps may be characteristic of warm cli-
mates, but I have never seen it mentioned. Per-


* I




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i


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THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


haps it has something to do with the ultraviolet
lights used, but the catches seem much more
frequent than in the north with the same or sim-
ilar light, furthermore, the insects are seen often
fluttering or resting near ordinary outside lights
or on store windows.
One feature of insect life in Florida is most
intriguing. During the daylight hours one may
drive through the cattle country, prairies, or
other parts of sparse vegetation and see scarcely
a butterfly, but as soon as the dark descends,
multitudes of moths, many of large size, make
constantly shifting kaleidoscopes of the beams
from the car lights. It makes one realize that
in Florida even the most unlikely looking place
may produce a fruitful harvest.
The sporadic abundance of species seems to
be more noticeable here than in the north. Per-
haps it is because during the winter months the
total number of species under observation is
relatively small and their presence or absence is
more readily apparent, whereas in the warm
months, whether north or south, the array of
species is so great that only by chance would an
absence be noted, though the presence in num-
bers of some unusual species, or an unusual
abundance of a common species would force
itself on our attention.
The question often is asked as to which flowers
are the most attractive to the butterflies, and also
to the moths. Each collector probably has his
own favorite, but certain blossoms are generally
recognized as especially favored. Some are sea-
sonal and of a short flowering period. These in-
clude wild plum, poinsettia, Chinaberry, azalea,
and to my mind, the most attrahent of all, Ces-
trum diurnum, but unfortunately the blossoms
of this last only three or four days, and appear
only three or four times a year. Lantana camera
and Senecio confuses (Mexican flamevine), both
have a fairly long florescence, and the two best
of the continuous bloomers are Bidens pilosa
(Spanish needle) and Vinca rose (periwinkle).
Cary has found the collecting of sphingids over
petunias at twilight very profitable. Weems has
supplied these additional comments on attrahent
blossoms: "In general, the Compositate and
Leguminosae include most of the species of
plants the bloom of which is frequented by di-
urnal Lepidoptera. Most leguminous plants are
attractive to many Lepidoptera, and some are
the preferred hosts . . . such plants as the cas-
sias, partridge peas, and the clovers, especially
white sweet clover. Other good hosts that
come to mind are ironweed (Vernonia) and Bac-
charis. Ironweed bloom in the fall is almost in-
variably frequented by papilionids and nymph-
alids, as is thistle bloom in the spring. Sassa-
fras, cherrylaurel, hawthorne and some of the


mint family attract many'butterflies, especially
the hairstreaks. On the Florida Keys, bay cedar
is an extremely good host for sphingids and
hairstreaks, and poisonwood (Metopium toxi-
ferum) attracts many lycaenids, nymphalids, and
sulfurs; Flaveria linearis, the sporadically bloom-
ing weed resembling goldenrod which is found
along roadsides and in fields on the Keys, at-
tracts many kinds of diurnal Lepidoptera. In
the sandy scrub oak country, dogtongue (Erio-
gonum) is a preferred host. In short, one must
learn partly from experience which are the pre-
ferred hosts for a particular area and a particu-
lar season for particular species or groups of
species."
Notations appear in the text to the effect that
a certain subspecies or form is probably the only
one to be found in Florida. These were written
before the opportunity arose to study the fauna
from the western part of the state, and as a re-
sult of this study, limited as it may be, I am now
inclined to believe that in many cases two forms
overlap in the northern, and particularly west-
ern counties. The reader, consequently, should
be wary of any dogmatic statement in the text
about only one form being present It is another
case of not having sufficient material available
on which to base a positive statement.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
In addition to my indebtedness to all those
members of the Lepidopterists' Society who have
so generously aided in this undertaking with
their personal lists, I am beholden to a number
of individuals for assistance of a more specific
nature.
Indebtedness has been expressed to some, but
I do not feel that it will be redundant to once
more extend my grateful thanks to them along
with those who have not been so singled out.
At one time Forbes planned to revise the
Grossbeck list, somewhat along the lines of the
present undertaking, but got only as far as set-
ting up work sheets for the species in Grossbeck
and the additions from the Cornell collection.
These sheets were turned over to me with char-
acteristic generosity, thus saving me much pre-
liminary drudgery. My indebtedness to Dr.
Forbes is greater than this, for not only has he
assisted me with many determinations, but he
has read the entire manuscript and made many
valuable suggestions based on his wide knowl-
edge and experience, giving helpful guidance
from beginning to end.
I am deeply indebted to: Hahn W. Capps for
a number of determinations of pyraloids and
geometrids; Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke for determin-
ing many microlepidoptera, for assisting with









INTRODUCTION


their nomenclature, and for friendly advice, and
equally friendly criticism; Dr. D. B. Davis for
determinations of microlepidoptera; Miss Paula
Dillman for operating a light trap for two sum-
mers and in the process turning up many new
and as yet undescribed microlepidoptera; Dr.
W. D. Duckworth for determinations of Steno-
midae; Dr. W. D. Field for determinations; Dr.
J. G. Franclemont for the determination of many
macroheterocera and ironing out problems of a
generic and specific nature; Dr. T. N. Freeman
for determinations of microlepidoptera; S. V.
Fuller for loan of material for illustrations and
other assistance; Commodore Vernon F. Grant
for the loan of material for illustration; Lu-
cien Harris, Jr. for editorial help; Mrs. Shirley
M. Hills for exceptional generosity with her
material and loan of specimens for illustrations;
Dr. R. W. Hodges for determinations of micro-
lepidoptera; the late Dr. F. M. Jones for his
Paradise Key report in particular and for other
data and the gift of numerous specimens; Dr.
E. G. Kelsheimer for his enthusiastic back-
ing in the initial stages and for supervising
a light trap operation; Dr. A. B. Klots for de-
terminations, reviewing the sections on the but-
terflies and the Crambinae, and editorial advice;
E. M. Collins, Mrs. Mildred Eaddy, F. W. Mead,
and E. L. Wells for photographic and other
work in preparing the colored and black and
white plates; Mrs. Mary Monroe for stenographic
work and keeping office copies of the manuscript
up-to-date; Mrs. A. J. Milner and Mrs. Margue-
rite S. Batey for aid in editing and proofreading
the manuscript; Miss Mary Lee Clary for prepar-
ing the final draft with such great accuracy; Dr.
E. G. Monroe for the determination of many
Pyralidae and for help with the nomenclature
in the family; Dr. N. S. Obraztsov and Dr. J. A.
Powell for determinations of Tortricoidea; Dr.
F. H. Rindge for many determinations and
straightening out the intricacies of the geometrid
arrangement; Frank Secor for operating a light
trap; Miss Marjorie Statham for the painting used


on the cover; W. B. Tappan for operating a light
trap; Dr. A. N. Tissot for encouragement and
many friendly discussions on the form and con-
tent; Dr. E. L. Todd for numerous determina-
tions of noctuids and geometrids; Erdman West
for editing all food lant and other botanical
names, a truly great help; Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbar-
ger for operating a light trap; Mrs. Pauline Chris-
tie and Miss Elita Lovejoy for setting up the in-
dex of food plant names; G. W. Dekle, H. A.
Denmark and Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. for making
available the facilities of the Division of Plant
Industry and cheerful aid and cooperation
throughout the entire undertaking; last but not
least, my wife for proofreading the several stages
of the manuscript and the galley.
I am no less indebted to the following who
have given of their time, material, or skill in vary-
ing degrees, but always without stint: Richard
Archbold, Dr. R. M. Baranowski, the late Dr. R.
H. Beamer, Ralph Beebe, Dr. Lewis Bener, Dr.
Annette F. Braun, Dr. A. E. Brower, the late
Otto Buchholz, Dr. L J. Cantrall, Mrs. Margaret
C. Cary, H. K. Clench, Dr. F. C. Craighead, the
late W. M. Davidson, C. F. dos Passos, the late
Brigadier W. H. Evans, Dr. J. R. Eyer, Dr. D. C.
Ferguson, H. A. Freeman, Prof. S. W. Frost, Dr.
C. F. Harbison, Dr. D. F. Hardwick, Dr. F. F.
Hasbrouck, Dr. L. A. Hetrick, Dr. T. H. Hub-
bell, H. L. King, C. W. Kirkwood, Dr. L. C.
Kuitert, the late Dr. Robert Lambert, Dr. E. N.
Lambremont, the late J. F. May, Mrs. J. F. May,
the late Dr. J. H. McDunnough, R. McEI-
vare, G. B. Merrill, Prof. j. J. B. Merritt, Dr. W. E.
Miller, G. D. Morgan, Prof. C. T. Reed, L. R.
Rupert, W. E. Sieker, the late J. L. Sperry, Dr.
H. F. Strohecker, E. C. Welling, H. E. Wood-
cock, A. K. Wyatt, and the staffs of various in-
stitutions, in particular those of the University
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations at
Gainesville, Bradenton (Gulf Coast), Homestead
(Sub-Tropical), and Quincy (North Florida), and
the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture.












ABBREVIATIONS OF BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES


For additional information see bibliography.
Abhandl. Senck. Naturf.-Abhandlungen der
Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesell-
schaft
Amer. Ent.-American Entomologist
Amer. J. Sci.-American Journal of Science and
Arts
Amer. Mus. Nov.-American Museum Novitates
Amer. Nat.-American Naturalist
Ann. Carnegie Mus.-Annals of the Carnegie
Museum
Ann. Ent Soc. Amer.-Annals of the Entomolog-
ical Society of America
Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y.-Annals of the
Lyceum of Natural History of New York
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.-Annals and Magazine of
Natural History
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.-Annals of the New York
Academy of Science
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belge-Annales de la Socitt6
Entomologique Belge
Ann. Soc. Ent. France--Annales de la Socim6t
Entomologique de France
*Biol. Cent. Amer. Het.-Biologia Centrali-
Americana. Druce, also Walsingham
Bol. Ent. Venezolana-Boletin de entomologia
venezolana
*Brit. Ent.-British Entomolgy. Curtis
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.-Bulletin of the
American Museum of Natural History
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc.-Bulletin of the Brook-
lyn Entomological Society
Bul. Brooklyn Inst Arts Sci.-Bulletin of the
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci.-Bulletin of the Buf-
falo Society of Natural Science.
Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci.-Bulletin of the California
Academy of Sciences
Bull. N. Y. State Mus.-Bulletin of the New York
State Museum
Bull. Soc. Ent France-Bulletin de la Soci6t6
Entomologique de France
Bull. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci.-Bulletin of the
Southern California Academy of Sciences
Bull. U. S. Ent. Comm.-Bulletin of the U. S.
Entomological Commission
Bull. U. S. Geol. Geograph. Surv. Territ.-Bul-
letin of the U. S. Geological and Geographical
Survey of the Territories
*Cat. Anim. Mass.-Catalogue of the animals
and plants of Massachusetts. Harris, T. W.
*Cat. Lep. Phal. Br. Mus.-Catalogue of the
Lepidoptera Phalaenidae in the British Mu-
seum. Hampson
Can. Ent.-Canadian Entomologist


Can. J.-Canadian Journal
Can. Nat. Geol.-Canadian Naturalist and Geol-
ogist
*Cent. Ins. Bar.-Centuria insectorum rariorum.
Johanssen
Cent. Lp. Cuba-Centurie de 16pidopteres de
l'isle de Cuba. Poey
*Chil. et Cramb.-Chilonidarum et Crambida-
rum genera et species. Zeller
Cincinnati Quart. J. Sci.--Cincinnati Quarterly
Journal of Science
*Contrib.-Contributions to the natural history
of the Lepidoptera of North America. Barnes,
et ali.
Coop. Ins. Pest Surv.-Cooperative Insect Pest
Survey
Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept-Cooperative Economic
Insect Report
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb.-Correspondenz-Blatt
des zoologisch-mineralogischen Vereins in Re-
gensburg
*Desc. New genera & spec.-Descriptions of
new genera and species ... (Noctuinae) in the
British Museum. Hampson
*Enc. M6th.-Encyclop6die Methodique. God-
art, also Latreille and Olivier
Ent. Amer.-Entomologica Americana
*Ent. Contr.-Entomological contributions.
Lintner
"Ent. Corresp.-Entomological Correspondence.
Harris, T. W.
Ent. Mitteil.-Entomologische Mitteilungen
Ent. Monthly Mag.-Entomologist's Monthly
Magazine
Ent. News-Entomologists' News
*Ent. Syst.-Entomologica systematic. Fabri-
cius
*'Ent Syst. Suppl.-Supplementum entomologiae
systematicae. Fabricius
*Exot. Micro.-Exotic microlepidoptera. Mey-
rick
*Faun. Bor. Amer.-Fauna boreali-Americana
.... Kirby
*Faun. Suec.-Fauna suecica sistens animalia
Sueciae regni. Linnaeus
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull.-University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
Fla. Buggist-Florida Buggist
Fla. Ent.--Florida Entomologist
Fla. Geol. Surv.-Annual report of the Florida
Geological Survey
*Gen. Diur. Lep,-The genera of diurnal Lepi-
doptera. Doubleday
*Gen. Ins.-Genera insectorum. Wytsman
(* Denotes separate works.)









ABBREVIATIONS OF BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES


Germ. Mag.-Germar & Zincken, Magazin der
Entomologie
Gesch. Ins.-Abgekurtze Geschichte der Insec-
ten nach dem Linndischen System. Sulzer
*Hist. Cuba-Histoire physique, politique et nat-
urelle de l'isle de Cuba. Sagra
"Hist. Nat. Ins.-Histoire naturelle des insects
Orthoptres, . . . Lpidoptares, et DiptEres.
Blanchard
Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross.-Horae Societatis entomol-
ogicae Rossicae
*Icon. RBgne Anim. Ins.-Iconographie du rtgne
animal de G. Cuvier . . . Insectes. Guerin-
M6n6ville
*Ill. Brit. Ent.-Illustrations of British entomol-
ogy .... Stephens
*'Il. Diur. Lep.-Illustrations of Diurnal Lepi-
doptera. Hewitson.
'Ill. Exot. Ent-Illustrations of the natural his-
tory of Exotic entomology. Drury
*U1. Lep. Het. Br. Mus.-Illustrations of typical
specimens of Lepidoptera Heterocera . . .
British Museum. Walshingham
*I1. Zool.-New illustrations of zoology ....
Brown, P.
Ins. Pest Surv. Bull.-Insect Pest Survey Bul-
letin
Ins. Insc. Mens.-Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruum
Ins. Life-Insect Life
Isis-Isis-Encylopiidische Zeitschrift
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.-Journal of the Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
J. Agr. Res.-Journal of Agricultural Research
J. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist.-Journal of the Cin-
cinnati Society of Natural History
J. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico-Puerto Rico Univer-
sity Journal of Agriculture
J. Econ. Ent.-Journal of Economic Entomology
J. Lep. Soc.-Journal of the Lepidopterists' So-
ciety
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc.-Journal of the New York
Entomological Society
J. Wash. Acad. Sci.-Journal of the Washington
Academy of Science
*ULp. Am&r. Sept.-Histoire g6n6rale et icono-
graphique des L6pidopteres ... de rAm6rique
Septentrionale. Boisduval et Leconte
*Lep. Brit.-Lepidoptera britannica .... Ha-
worth
*Lep. Caffr.-Lepidoptera microptera quae J.
A. Wahlberg in Caforum terra collegit. Zell-
er
'L.p. France-Histoire naturelle des L6pidop-
teres de France. Duponchel
*Lep. Ins. Ga.-The natural history of the rarer
lepidopterous insects of Georgia. Abbot and
Smith
Lep. News-Lepidopterists' News
*Lep. New York-The Lepidoptera of New York


and neighboring states. Forbes
*Lep. Rhop. Het.-Lepidoptera, Rhopaloceres
and Heteroceres .... Strecker
Lep. Soc. Mem.-Lepidopterists' Society Mem-
oirs
Linn. Ent-Linnaea Entomologica . . . Verein
in Stettin
*List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus.-List of specimens of
lepidopterous insects in the collection of the
British Museum. Walker, F.
*Macrolep.-The macrolepidoptera of the world.
Seitz
*Man. N. Amer. Butt-A manual of North
American butterflies. Maynard
*Mant. Ins.-Mantissa insectorum. Fabricius
*Mant. Plant.-Mantissa plantarum. Linnaeus
Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc.-Memoirs of the Ameri-
can Entomological Society, Philadelphia
Mem. Amer. Mus.-Memoirs of the American
Museum of Natural History, New York
Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci.-Memoirs of the National
Academy of Sciences, Washington
M6m. Soc. Linn. Paris--M6moires de la Soci6t6
linn6ene de Paris
Mem. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci.Memoirs of
the Southern California Academy of Sciences
*Mono. Geom. Moths-A monograph of the geo-
metrid moths or Phalaenidae of the U. S.
Packard
*Mus. Ulr.-Museum . . . Ludovicae Ulricae
RBeginae .... Linnaeus
*N. Amer. Phycitidae-Diagnoses of North
American Phycitidae and Galleriidae. Rago-
not
N. Amer. Ent.-North American Entomologist
Nail. Geog. Mag.-National Geographic Maga-
zine
*Noct. Eur.-Die Noctuinen Europas. Lederer
*Nouv. Gen.-Nouveau Genera et Espces de
Phycitidae et Galleriidae. Ragonot
Nov. Zool.-Novitates Zoologicae... Tring Mu-
seum
Occasional Papers Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.-Oc-
casional Papers of the Boston Society of Nat-
ural History
Ohio J. Sci.-Ohio Journal of Science
Pan-Pacific Ent.-Pan-Pacific Entomologist
*Pap. Exot.-Papillons exotiques des trois parties
du monde. Cramer, also Stoll
Pomona College J. Ent.-Pomona College Jour-
nal of Entomology
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.-Proceedings of the
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.Proceedings of the Bio-
logical Society of Washington
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.-Proceedings of the
Boston Society of Natural History

(' Denotes separate works.)









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila.-Proceedings of the En-
tomological Society of Philadelp)hia
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash.-Proceedings of the En-
tomological Society of Washington
Proc. Essex Inst.-Proceedings of the Essex In-
stitute
Proc. Hawaii Ent. Soc.-Proceedings of the Ha-
waiian Entomological Society
Proc. Intern. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol.-Pro-
ceedings of the International Society of Sugar
Cane Technologists
Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club-Proceedings of the
New England Zoological Club
Proc. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci.-Proceedings of
the Southern California Academy of Sciences
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.-Proceedings of the
United States National Museum
Proc. Zool. Soc. London-Proceedings of the
Zoological Society of London
*Pteroph. Calif. Ore.-Pterophoridae of Califor-
nia and Oregon. Walsingham
Quart. Bull. State Plant Board Fla.--Quarter-
ly Bulletin of the State Plant Board of Florida
*Reise Nov.-Reise der 6sterreichischen Fregate
Novara um die Erde. Felder
Rept. Ent. Comm.-Report of the United States
Entomological Commission
Bept. Ins. of N. Y.-Reports on the noxious
and beneficial and other insects in the state
of New York. Fitch
*Rept. Ins. Mass.-A report on the insects of
Massachusetts injurious to vegetation. Har-
ris, T. W.
*Rept. Ins. Mo.-Reports on the noxious and
beneficial and other insects of the state of Mis-
souri. Riley
Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci.-Report of the Pea-
body Academy of Sciences
Rept U. S. Dept. Agr.-United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture Report
Rev. Appl. Ent.-Review of Applied Entomology
Rev. Francaise dTEnt.-Revue Francaise d'En-
tomologie
Rev. Zool.-Revue et magasin de zoologie
"Samml. aussereur. Schmett--Sammlung . . .
wenig bekannter aussereuropaischer Schmet-
terlinge. Herrich-Schaeffer
"Samml. eur. Schmett.-Sammlung europlischer
Schmetterlinge. Hiibner
*Samml. exot. Schmett.-Sammlung exotischer
Schmetterlinge. Hiibner
*Schmett. Eur.-Die Schmetterlinge von Europa.
Ochsenheimer, also Treitschke
Sci. Agr.-Scientific Agriculture
Silliman J. Sci. Arts-Silliman's Journal of Sci-
ence and Arts
"Spec. Gen.-Histoire naturelle des insects: sp-
cies g6n6ral des 16pidopt&res. Guen~e


*Spec. GAn. H&t--Histoire naturelle des in-
sectes ... 16pidopteres h&t6rocres ... Sphin-
gides, sesiides, castnides. Boisduval
*Spec. Ins.-Species insectorum. Fabricius
Stett Ent. Zeit.-Stettiner entomologische Zei-
tung
*Surinaam. Vlinders-Surinaaminsche Vlinders
.... Sepp
*Syst Ent.-Systema entomologiae. Fabricius
"Syst. Nat--Systema nature . . . . Linnaeus
"Syst. Verz. Wien.-Systematisches Verzeichniss
der Schmetterlinge der Wiener Cegend. Denis
and Schiffermuller
Tids. Ent.-Tijdschrift voor Entomologie
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc.-Transactions of the
American Entomological Society
Trans. Chicago Acad. Nat. Sci.-Transactions of
the Chicago Academy of Sciences
Trans. Ent. Soc. London-Transactions of the
Entomological Society of London
Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.--Transactions of the
Kansas Academy of Science
Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc.-Transactions of the New
York State Agricultural Society
Trans. St. Louis Acad. SciL-Transactions of the
St Louis Academy of Science
*Treatise Ins. Inj. Veg.-A treatise on some of
the insects injurious to vegetation .... Har-
ris, T. W.
Tulane Studies ZooL-Tulane Studies in Zoology
U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Ent Bull.-United States
Department of Agriculture Division of En-
tomology Bulletin
U. S. Dept Agr. Farmers' Bull.-United States
Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletins
U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull.-United States De-
partment of Agriculture Technical Bulletin
U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull.-United States National
Museum Bulletin
Verh. zool.-botan. Ges. Wien-Verhandlungen
der kaiserlich-koniglichen zoologisch-botanis-
chen Gesellschaft in Wien
*Verz. bek. Schmett-Verzeichniss bekannter
Schmetterlinge. Hiibner
Vet. Acad. Handl.-Vetenskabs Academie Hand-
linger
Wasmann J. Biol.-Wasmann Journal of Biology
Wien. ent. Monat.-Wiener entomologische
Monatsschrift
"Zool. Ill.-Zoological Illustrations .... Swain-
son
*Zutr. exot Schmett.-Zutriige zur Sammlung
exotischer Schmetterlinge.... Hiibner
*Zyg. & Bomb. N. Amer.-Illustrations of the
Zygaenidae and Bombycidae of North Amer-
ica. Stretch

( Denotes separate works.)


I










THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


SUPERFAMILY
PAPILIONOIDEA
The manuscript for the section on the butter-
flies has been read by Prof. A. B. Klots, Messrs.
C. F. dos Passes, S. V. Fuller, L. Harris, Jr.,
and H. L. King, to each of whom I am indebted
for helpful criticism, suggestions, and pertinent
comments, based on their broad knowledge and
experience of the fauna of the area.

Family PAPILIONIDAE
BATTUS Scopoli
1 B. PHILENOR (Linnaeus)
Pipevine swallowtail. P1. 1, Fig. 5, 6.
Mant. Plant, p. 535. 1771.
Phitenor is generally present throughout the
state, though there are few records from the ex-
treme southern portion, and I have found none
from Monroe County. King says it is common
inland but a straggler along the coastal areas.
Morgan termed it abundant in the Tampa re-
gion from March to November. He also listed
te form acauda Oberthur, but Forbes doubts
its presence, and believes that Morgan based
his record on specimens similar to an under-
sized one with greatly reduced tails taken in
Marion County, May 1956, which is in The
Florida State Collection of Arthropods. This is
comparable to the early northern spring brood,
though it is not hirsute like the subspecies hir-
suta Skinner. As several more of these runts
were taken in October 1956, it looks as if fur-
ther study were needed. The usual food plants
are Aristolochia spp., but the larva also feeds on
Asarum.
[2 B. deoilers (Godart)]
Devilliers' swallowtail.
Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 2: P1. 1, Figs. 3,4. 1822.
The records for this species are all dubious,
though admittedly it might stray from Cuba.
III. Lutz: Aug. 2, 1925 dosP. The latter com-
mented, "the locality may be false." V. Chok-
oloskee: Oct 1900, formerly in the W. L. Mills
collection at the Georgia State Capitol, Atlanta,
the data supplied by L. Harris, Jr. However,
when Harris and the writer visited the Capitol
in November 1954, the specimen was no longer
there. What delightful irony that some light
fingered collector should lift a spurious jewel!
Holland (1931, p. 313) said: "The Academy of
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia has a couple of
specimens which were captured in southern Flor-


ida." Edwards (1877, p. 9) noted: 'occasional
in Florida." In the "Synoptic table of the genus
Papiio Linn." (Anon., 1878b, p. 87), the range in
the United States is given as Florida. None of
these references are satisfactory.
8 B. POLYDAMAS LUCAYUS (Rothschild &
Jordan)
Polydamas swallowtail. Pl. I, Fig. 4, 9.
Nov. Zool. 13:521. 1906.
This subspecies is relatively common, though
perhaps somewhat local. The northern limits
appear to be: III. Tampa and Daytona Beach,
though there is one record for II. Gainesville:
Sept. 25, 1957, WJP. Harris found it common at
Daytona Beach in November 1919. Fuller re-
ports it plentiful at DeLand and Cassadaga
April-October, and Davidson said it was com-
moner than Papilio troilus at Orlando. Morgan
listed it as common at Tampa from May to No-
vember, and occasional in the winter. Records
from other localities are in agreement with these
dates. It comes readily to a number of blossoms.
Food: Aristolochia, Bates (1923b, p. 42); Passi-
flora, SVF.

PAPILIO Linnaeus
4 P. POLYXENES ASTERIUS Stoll
Black swallowtail.
Pap. Exot. 4; PL 385, Figs. C, D. 1782.
Here is one of many instances where the nomen-
clature may be confusing to the average col-
lector. At various times this species has been
known as asterius, as polyxenes, and as afax, the
last name having been used for what is now
known as Graphium marcellus (Cramer). The
species is common throughout, with captures in
all months, but mostly from March to May. Sev-
eral forms have been reported: Typical poly-
xenes, FMJ, JPK; calverley Grote, "Synoptic ta-
ble of the genus Papilio Linn." (Anon., 1878a,
p. 22); curvifascia Skinner, CGM, CU; ampliata
M6n trids, UK; amerKcus Kollar., Morgan (1938);
type of ab. forsythea, reared from eggs obtained
from Mrs. Forsythe, Wood (1937, p. 273); for-
sythea Wood, May, LACM. Knudsen has a spec-
imen taken at Tallahassee, July 24, 1950, which
he said "is distinctive in a series of asterius. It
has the yellow sub-marginal band very distinct,
and the color of the band is more ochreous than
in any asterius I have ever seen. It is not an ab-
solutely fresh specimen, but is also not badly
flown. He added that the genitalia do not agree
with asterius from Atlanta, Georgia. Food: Um-
beliferae; celery, Watson (1931, p. 49); dill, Wood
(1937); Oxypo/s filiformis, FMJ.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


[11 P. thoas autocles Rothschild & Jordan]
Thoas swallowtail.
Nov. Zool. 13: 557. 1906.
Castle & Laurent (1896, p. 802, and 1897, p. 9)
and Laurent (1903a, p. 296) recorded this from
several places. However, as they speak of it as
common and did not list P. cresphontes, obvi-
ously, they simply misdetermined the species.
12. P. CRESPHONTES Cramer
Giant swallowtail.
Pap. Exot. 2:106-107. 1777.
Cresphontes is common all over the state, dur-
ing most of the year, though it is infrequent dur-
ing January and February. King reported it
variable in size and markings, with some Florida
specimens that could easily be called pennsyl-
vanicus Chermock & Chermock. A melanic form
which bears the dubiously valuable name melan-
eura Hoffman, has been taken: VIII. Stock Is-
land: Sept. 5, 1961, (Weems), det. Marks, DPI.
The larva, the well known "orange dog," is often
a pest on citrus. Other food plants: Zanthoxy-
lum, Ptelea, Dictamnus; Casimiroa edulis, DPI.
12,1 P. ANDBAEMON BONHOTEI Sharpe
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 201. 1900.
The following records are all unquestionably of
strays. IV. Miami: Holland (1902, p. 489); two,
shortly after a hurricane, (Matheson), Chermock
letter (Oct. 11, 1945) to Forbes; two May 3,
1940, (Win. Sawyer), Clarke (1940a, p. 156). VIII.
Long Key: Oct. 8, 1955, (Applegate & Smith),
AMNH. Klots says this one is too perfect to
have strayed as an adult, and is absolutely au-
thentic. Key West: Chermock (letter above).
14 P. ARISTODEMUS PONCEANUS Schaus
Schaus' swallowtail. P1. 1, Fig. 3, 6.
Ent. News 22:438. 1911.
IV. Schaus described the subspecies from
Miami, but his specimen was taken before the
freeze of 1899. R. J. Ford has a specimen labeled
Miami, but is doubtful of its validity. Bates
(1934, p. 167) reported that G. B. Fairchild took
one at Coconut Grove, May 31, 1924. V. Chok-
oloskee: Nov. 1907, GSDA. Since this is typical
aristodemus, not ponceanus, it is, like many a
Chokoloskee specimen, suspect. VIII. The ma-
jority of records come from Key Largo and Low-
er Matecumbe, and were largely summarized by
Henderson (1945a, pp. 29-32; 1945b, pp. 187-188;
and 1946, pp. 100-101) though there are a num-
ber of records which have escaped him, and
which I have made no attempt to include. The


dates are mostly in May, but extend back into
late April and on to late June. Whatever its
status may have been at one time, and according
to report it was locally abundant, it is now very
rare and should be allowed to multiply. Nor
should it be purchased, because that would en-
courage dealers to collect it. The food plant is
Amyris elmifera, and the life history was de-
scribed in detail by Grimshawe (1940, pp. 567,
611).
15 P. GLAUCUS Linnaeus
Tiger swallowtail. P1. 1, Fig. 1, australis May-
nard, 6; Fig. 2, 9.
Mus. Ulr., p. 190. 1764.
Found all over the state from March to Novem-
ber, with an occasional specimen in other months.
The proportion and distribution of the typical
form and australis Maynard should provide some
inquiring mind with a nice problem. Fuller com-
ments that the dark females are scarce but large
in the Cassadaga region. King finds that the
farther south one goes, the larger the specimens,
with australis coming in September in great
abundance to flowers, especially wild lilies in
open places which earlier in the year were
marshes. The dimorphic female is on the wane
at that time. He finds that glaucus seems to pre-
fer lanes inland from bays and open salt water.
Food: foliage of a wide variety of trees, in-
cluding wild cherry; once on Catalpa (SVF).
20 P. TROILUS Linnaeus
Spice-bush swallowtail.
Mus. Ulr., p. 187. 1764.
Troilus is common throughout the state from
March to November, and occasionally in Janu-
ary and February. Ilioneus Abbot & Smith is
generally considered a subspecies, but Reming-
ton has raised a question on this point, which,
along with the distribution of the two forms or
species, is another problem to be worked out.
King finds illoneus present and dominant from
southeastern Georgia, west to Alabama, and
south to the Keys. Food: sassafras, spicebush,
sweetbay, prickly ash, redbud, DPI; camphor
(Bates, 1923b, p. 42).
21 P. PALAMEDES Drury
Palamedes swallowtail.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1:19. 1773.
Palamedes is abundant throughout the state
from March to December. Food: Perssa, sas-
safras, Magnolia virginiana [glauca], J. & H.
Comstock (1902, p. 75); camphor, UFES.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


GRAPHIUM Scopoli
22 G. MARCELLUS (Cramer)
Zebra swallowtail.
Pap. Exot. 2; P1. 8, Figs. F, G. 1779.
This has been known as Papilio afax Linnaeus,
a name which, as has been noted, has also been
used for P. asterius. This species is abundant
throughout the state from March to December.
Morgan wrote in his notes: "Of the three sub-
species described as differing slightly in size,
hairiness, color, pattern, and length of tails, and
supposed to be restricted to certain seasons or
regions, all may be matched by Hillsborough
County specimens throughout the year. While
it is convenient to follow the line of least resist-
ance and call all our Florida specimens floriden-
sis (Holland), it is perhaps more accurate to sep-
arate them by color pattern into three series cor-
responding to marcellus, telamonides (Felder),
and floriden-is. The rest will be found to vary
in all sorts of ways between these." Fuller, on
the other hand, states that around Cassadaga the
species occurs in the three forms in their usually
recognized sequence, marcellus, February, walshi
(Edwards), March, and lecontei (Rothschild &
Jordan), June and July. King has seen only tela-
monides and lecontel, and has seen only one
specimen in the Keys, at Key Largo. These ob-
servations by various collectors are quoted for
what they are worth, since the whole subject of
subspeciation in marcellus needs to be worked
out. The larva feeds on Asimina triloba, and
wherever this grows the adult is readily found
in season.
[23 G. celadon (Lucas)]
Rev. Zool., p. 130. 1852.
This is certainly not an indigenous species. Strays
from Cuba will account for the valid records,
if any. Grossbeck (1917, p. 8) cast doubt on
Skinner's record for southern Florida, a record
which I have been unable to locate. The "Sy-
noptic table of the genus Papilio Linn." (Anon.,
1878b, p. 37) lists it in Florida under the syno-
nym sinon (Fabricius). Edwards (1877, p. 9)
listed sinon as "occasional." Perhaps all these
"records" can be traced back to Boisduval & Le-
conte (1829, p. 13) where the habitat was given
as "la Floride, la Jamaique et Vile de Cuba."
Florida: ex Doll collection, CGM; April, LACM.
V. Chokoloskee: Feb., dosP. Dos Passos noted
that the locality may be false; Nov., CSDA, for
which the locality also may be false. VIII. Key
West: "Immediately after a hurricane," Cher-
mock (letter cited under 12,1).


Family PIERBIDAE
COLIAS Fabricius
41 C. EURYTHEME Boisduval
Orange sulphur. P1. I, Fig. 10, 8; Fig. 11, 9;
Fig. 12, form 9 alba Stkr. Klots believes that
Figs. 10 and 11 represent hybrids with philodice
Godt.
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, p. 286. 1852.
I. Pensacola: VFG; June, SSN. Tallahassee:
several eriphyle Edwards, April 7, 1950, JPK;
May, 1954, LH. North of Tallahassee: in con-
siderable numbers, May 1954, LH and HLK.
Monticello: April 1933, UM; May 1954, com-
mon, LH and HLK. II. Gainesville: in black
light trap, June 6, 1956, DPI. Platt took it here
first in 1958 and has found it increasingly plenti-
ful since then. Jacksonville: fifteen Feb. 7 and
14, 1959, CFZ. III. Daytona Beach: April 3,
1956, (W. T. Thomas), SVF. Oviedo: three June
16, 1957, WMD. Merritt Island: Tune 15, 1953,
JRM. Tampa: eriphtie, (Henri), CU. IV. "Rare
in lower parts of Florida." Holland (1931, p.
297). Sarasota: April 24, 1960, HLK. Fruitville:
five June 1961, HLK. King believes it is in-
creasing in numbers in the Sarasota area. VIII.
Key Largo: July 9, 1935, UM. Dry Tortugas:
two July 1960, WMD, GWR. Food: chiefly
alfalfa, also white clover, other clovers, Astrag-
alus, Lupinus.
42 C. PHILODICE Godart
Clouded sulphur, common sulphur.
Enc. Math. 9:100. 1819.
I. Western Florida: (Morrison), Scudder (1889,
p. 1111). Pensacola: VFG. II. Gainesville: seen
but not taken, WJP. III. Lakeland: March 28,
AMNH. Food: white clover, other clovers,
vetch, lupine, alfalfa and other Leguminosae.

ZERENE Hiibner
54 Z. EURYDICE (Boisduval)
Western dog face.
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 8:32. 1855.
A specimen of this species was taken in Port
Tampa by U. C. Zeluff, according to Morgan,
who commented that it was evidently imported
by rail or on shipboard. Since Zeluff was in the
Customs service, the latter seems more likely.
In any event, it was an accidental visitor.
55 Z. CESONIA (Stoll)
Dog face. P1. I, Fig. 20, 4; Fig. 21, form rosa
McNeil, 9, underside; Fig. 22, an albino, 9.
Pap. Exot. Suppl.; P1. 41. 1790.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Cesonla is common over most of the state dur-
ing most of the year. Morgan (1933) listed rosa
McNeill as present in late fall and winter, and
Fuller has taken a white form occasionally in
August. King has never seen it south of Home-
stead. Food: Amorpha frutiosa and Trifolium.

ANTEOS Hiibner
55,1 A. MAERVULA LACORDAIREI (Boisdu-
val)
Maerula.
IUp. Am&. Sept. 3. 1836.
The few records are for strays. IV. Port Sewall:
(Carolyn Ponsonby), Sanford (1945, p. 136) Mi-
ami: July 8, 1935, (Young), MCZ; (Grimshawe),
Young (1938, p. 115).

PHOEBIS Hiibner
57 P. SENNAE EUBULE (Linnaeus)
Cloudless sulphur.
Syst Nat., p. 743. 1766.
The cloudless sulphur is abundant throughout
the state the year around. As Klots (1951, p. 191)
said, The subspecific classification is extremely
complex and largely statistical," there is no need
to enter into the subject here. Food: clover,
preferably Cassia, as noted by a number of ob-
servers in Florida. The larvae vary considerably
in color. Klots and the writer have done some
work on the early stages of the genus and hope
to publish on them later.
58 P. PHILEA (Linnaeus)
Orange-barred sulphur. PL. I, Fig. 13, 8; Fig.
14, 9; Fig. 15, form albarithe Brown, 9.
Syst. Nat., p. 764. 1776.
Philea is common in the southern half of the
state all year. There are a few records as far
north as Jacksonville, with one at Warrington in
June 1960, and perhaps it is spreading north as
Fuller reports that there were none in the Cassa-
daga region in 1950, but that by 1955 it was com-
mon. Weems also reared it in Gainesville in
1955. Unlike eubule, it is not a wanderer,
though Harris has taken it at Montezuma, Ga.,
and Jones took a specimen on Marthas Vineyard,
Mass. The form obsoleta Niepelt is not common
and seems to be present only in the summer.
Fuller says the males are the same in any brood,
but females emerging from September to No-
vember are all very brightly colored, while
spring females are pearly white with just a
tinge of yellow. Food: Cassia; C. bicapsularis,
SVF.


[59 P. argante (Fabricius)]
Syst. Ent., p. 470. 1775.
III. St. Petersburg: a pair, April 4, 1924, dosP,
from the Sternitsky collection. Dos Passos does
not vouch for the validity of the localities of this,
nor the Chokoloskee specimen below. Lakeland:
two Sept 8-10,1912, UM. These two are labeled
as having been acquired with a collection pur-
chased from Ramstedt about -1917. However,
as Ramstedt was not in Florida between 1904,
when he collected at Egmont Key, and 1930,
when he first went to Punta Corda, and as he did
not remember obtaining any Florida specimens
from any source except his own collecting, there
must be some error in labeling. It is possible,
of course, that these were taken at Lakeland,
but unless we can find out more about their
source, the record must remain questionable. V.
Chokoloskee: one male, dosP. Edwards (1881b,
p. 9) said, "Argante Fabr. is not a North Ameri-
can species (Edward's italics), but the species
found within the United States and taken for
argante is agarithe Bdv." In view of Edward's
emphatic statement, it is difficult to understand
why the rumor of the presence of this species
still persists, except in Texas.
60 P. AGARITHE MAXIMA (Neumoegen)
Large orange sulphur. P1. I, Fig. 27, 8; Fig.
28 9.
Can. Ent 23:122. 1891.
Maxima is a common species from March to De-
cember, south of the line from Tampa to Port
Sewall, including the Dry Tortugas, the only
records north of this being pre-freeze specimens,
namely, III. Indian River: Neumoegen (1891),
and Upper Indian River: AMNH. The record in
the "Season Summary for 1959," News of the
Lepidopterists' Society, Number 3, p. 11, which
infers a Jacksonville capture, is misleading. Zei-
ger has informed me that the specimen was taken
in West Palm Beach. Food: Cassa, (Lennox),
ABK, NSMS; Pitheceaobinm guadalupense, Dyar
(1900a, p. 618); P. dulce, CPK. The larvae are
reddish in all stages, and feed only on the ten-
der young leaves, at least so far as the last plant
is concerned. I have found the rearing of these
very difficult and have succeeded in getting only
one through to the adult stage. When about one-
fourth grown they stop eating in captivity and
simply die. This needs further study, for even
under natural conditions they mysteriously dis-
appear at about the same stage of development.
This curiosity was first called to my attention
by George Dillman; since that time I have fre-
quently observed the same thing. P. duice may
be acceptable only in the early instars or else









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


only the tender new growth is acceptable. My
supply of the latter was very limited. Perhaps
either the new or old leaves of P. guadalupense
are acceptable. The records on Cassia may refer
to only one acceptable host species. Certainly
the larvae will not eat Cassia bicapsularis in the
Bradenton-Sarasota area, nor have Dillman or I
ever seen the females ovipositing on the latter.
62 P. STATIRA FLORIDENSIS (Neumoegen)
Statira.
Can. Ent 23:122. 1891.
This is a relatively uncommon species which def-
initely seems to be working its way northward.
Most of the records are from Miami, Homestead,
and Key Largo. King has found it from Pom-
pano to Miami, but never south of the latter,
and considered it primarily coastal. Morgan
took two in Tampa in the 1930's. Heineman
took one at Jupiter, 1932. Roever took it on Mer-
ritt Island, August 1951. One specimen turned
up on Siesta Key, January 1952, a few in Decem-
ber 1953; but in November 1954, the writer
found several dozen at the blossoms of Hamelia
patens in Oneco. J. D. Smith also took it in St.
Petersburg in the fall of 1954, and observed fe-
males ovipositing on some shrub which was not
Cassia. Kamp found it in Bradenton, August
1955. King reported that the food plant was
either Dalbergia ecastophyllum, det. West, or
something very similar, and that it is double
brooded. Davidson reported females oviposit-
ing on Caiandra, November 1957. The dates,
from June to September and from November to
February, confirm this

KRICOGONIA Reaklrt
68 K. LYSIDE Godart
Lyside.
Enc. Mith. 9:98. 1819.
Lyside is apparently native but very rare. III.
Indian River: Edwards (1884, p. 262). IV. Fort
Lauderdale: July, Aug., 1935, (Grimshawe), Klots
(1951, p. 194). Hollywood: July 8, 1938, (Stro-
hecker), LH. Miami: About a dozen at flowers
of black mangrove, June 13-17, 1987, Young
(1938, p. 115); MCZ. Matheson Hammock: May,
HLK. VIII. Key Largo: June 24, 1953, JRM; a
number at Bidens blossoms, June 15, HLK. Low-
er Matecumbe: July, Aug., 1935, (Grimshawe),
Klots.
EUREMA Huibner
64 E. DAIRA (Godart)
Barred sulphur. PI. I, Fig. 23, 9; Fig. 24, form


fucunda (Bdv. & Lee.) 4; Fig. 25, 9, under-
side; Fig. 26, form fucunda 4, underside.
Enc. Mith. 9:137. 1819.
Daira is an abundant, variable species, some-
times rather local and found nearly all the year.
The summer form is fucunda (Boisduval & Le-
conte), with the intermediate deliotdes Haskin
occurring in spring and fall. See Haskin's paper
(1933b, p. 120). Down in the Keys confusing
forms are occasionally taken. Edwards (1877, p.
60) recorded elathea (Cramer). In March 1954,
Harris took two males of "a rather pallid form
that occurs in south Florida representing perhaps
some Antillean influence," according to Klots,
and one female which the latter determined as
ebriola (Poey), the first authentic record for the
United States, though he found certain differ-
ences from the typical Cuban specimens. J. &
H. Comstock (1902, p. 76) listed elathea from
Avon Park. For palmira (Poey) there are sev-
eral records: I. Santa Rosa County: adult taken
on peanuts, July 26,1961, (R. W. Albritton), CPK.
It is possible that this is a chemical changeling
as it was received in alcohol in which case it
would be nothing more than fucunda. It is in
poor condition, but there is no trace of yellow
present. Morgan listed fucunda 'albina (ela-
thea)" from Tampa, but there is no specimen of
this in collection TU. IV. Useppa: April 1913,
"acquired from a dealer, differing slightly from
Cuban specimens in having less orange below
marginal band of forewing," BH. Coconut
Grove: five, one on Bidens, July 1945, HLK.
Homestead: Aug. 1951, KR. Miami area and
the Keys: July 1933, (Forsyth), Klots (1951, p.
196); Aug. 1908, Wood (1939, p. 11). VIII. Tom
Harbor: a pair, July 1936, (Chermock?), DLB.
The life history was given by Haskin (1933c, p.
153). Food: Aeschynomene vtscdula, Stylosan-
thes bflora, and probably other related Faba-
ceae.
668 E. MESSALINA BLAKEI (Maynard)
Man. N. Amer. Butt., p. 216. 1891.
Bates (1934, p. 166) said: "E. messalina blakei
is a Bahaman race. The only Florida specimen
seen is the type labeled Sanford, Fla., Oct. 1,
1887, described in 1891 by Maynard." Forbes
noted that the spelling on the label is "Sandford"
and the date "Oct. 16." In view of the effects
of the freeze of 1899, together with the possibil-
ity of a stray from the Bahamas, there is no rea-
son for not considering this a valid record, al-
though there is also no reason to think that the
insect is present now. As for the Chokoloskee
records, four of which were mentioned by Gross-
beck (1917, p. 12) and two of which are in dos









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Passes' hands, there is every reason to be suspi-
cious, as the latter readily agrees.
67 E. NICIPPE (Cramer)
Sleepy orange. PI. 1, Fig. 8, 2, underside; Fig.
9, 2; Fig. 18, form flava (Stkr.) 9, underside;
Fig. 19, form flava, 9.
Pap. Exot. 3:210. 1782.
There is great variation in the abundance of
this species, as well as in its coloration both
above and beneath, though most specimens are
not so bright an orange as those taken farther
north. It may be found in any month but is most
common in July. Howe found it "incredibly
numerous" in Leon County in August 1958. The
form fiava (Strecker) is rare, the following being
the only records. III. Daytona Beach, HLK.
DeLeon Springs: Feb., SVF. DeLand: Feb.,
SVF. Cassadaga: May, Dec., SVF. Lake Helen:
Feb., SVF. Tampa: June, (Morgan), UT. VI.
Florida City: May, CGM. VIII. Dry Tortugas:
July, WMD. Food: clover and other Fabaceae;
Cassia, CPK.
68 E. BOISDUVALIANA (Felder)
Boisduval's sulphur.
Reise Nov. 2:200. 1865.
Paradise Key: Two males, one female, May 25-
June 4, OB.
72 E. LISA (Boisduval & Leconte)
Little sulphur.
LUp. Am6r. Sept. p. 53; P1. 19, Figs. 4, 5. 1829.
Lisa is abundant throughout the state, including
the Dry Tortugas, especially from March to De-
cember, but flying almost every sunny day. The
form alba (Strecker) is not rare. The form clap-
pii (Maynard) with the black on the forewing
much reduced, was taken at Lakeland, May,
FMJ. A specimen which Klots believes may be
form euterpe Mne6trids, was taken on Key Bis-
cayne, July, CPK. It is orange rather than the
usual yellow. Food: Cassia, Trifolium, Amphi-
carpa.
73,1 E. DINA HELIOS M. Bates
Occasional Papers Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8:133.
1934.
IV. Fairchild Gardens, Matheson Hammock:
Aug. 23, 1962, (Plomley), det. Klots, AMNH. A
Bahaman subspecies which may be an accidental
introduction or stray. Collectors should be on
the watch for it.
74 E. NISE (Cramer)
Pap. Exot. 1; Pl. 20, Figs. K, L. 1775.
There has been confusion over this species, it


having been reported as both perimede (Pritt-
witz) and neda (Godart). Dos Passes states
that what we have is probably the subspecies
nelphe (Felder). Klots (1951, p. 198) recorded:
"first found in Florida by Mrs. Margaret Forsyth
in 1933, neda was common both in Royal Palm
State Park [Paradise Key] and on Key Largo in
1947 (July 12-15), absent in 1948.... Possibly
the Florida population results from a recent in-
troduction. In Florida it flies in the bushy and
scrubby margins of woods and flees when
alarmed; it definitely does not fly out in the
open as does the similar lisa." Because of the
close resemblance to lisa and its retiring nature,
it may be overlooked. The only other records
are: VI. Paradise Key: many in May and June,
OB. VIII. Key Largo: Aug. 1, 1947, CGM.
Food: Mimosa pudica.

NATHALIS Boisduval
75 N. IOLE Boisduval
Dainty sulphur.
Spec. G6n. 1:589. 1836.
lole is abundant practically the year around all
over the state, including the Dry Tortugas. In
view of this it is surprising that Grossbeck had
but a single record for it, unless it has suddenly
and rapidly multiplied in the past forty years.
Forbes wrote that a Coconut Grove, 1924 speci-
men in the Museum of Comparative Zoology
looks suspicious but that the collection contains
a series dated 1933-1934. Perhaps the species
began to establish itself during the late 1920's.
It might be of interest to assemble all records
prior to 1930. Food: Dyssodia, Tagetes, Stellaria
media, Helenium, Bidens pilosa.

APPIAS Hiibner
78 A. DRUSILLA NEUMOGENII (Skinner)
Florida white.
Ent. News 5:110. 1894.
The Florida white is found almost exclusively in
Dade and Monroe Counties, the dates including
every month except November. It is, never-
theless, apparently rare, although Howe found
it "quite common" in extreme south Florida,
August 1958. There are a few, mostly older rec-
ords from more northerly localities. II. Gaines-
ville: late fall, WJP. This is a modem record.
III. Indian River: SDM. Dunedin: Feb., 1921,
Blatchley (1931, p. 243). IV. Sarasota: Feb. 14,
1911, Blatchley (1932, p. 66). I suspect both of
Blatchley's records of being misdeterminations
for Ascia monuste phlleta (Fabricius), for he
spoke of the specimens as being "only faintly
tinged above with black," comparing them with









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Pitri rapae. Fort Lauderdale: March, April,
CU. Food: Capparis; DrypeteS lateriflora, Cher-
mock & Chermock (1947, p. 142). These authors
also give the life history.

PIERIS Schrank
82 P. PROTODICE Boisduval & Leconte
Checkered white.
Lp. Am6r. Sept., p. 45. 1829.
At present this species seems to be very rare in
Florida. Florida: (Chapman), Grsb. 9. Gross-
beck also quotes "Abbott." However, the only
localities in the original description by Boisduval
& Leconte are New York and Connecticut. The
plate, No. 17, was engraved under the direction
of Dumenil from a painting by "Abbott," whose
name is correctly spelled in the introduction to
Boisduval & Leconte's work under mention of
Smith & Abbot. Perhaps Grossbeck had this
plate in mind when listing "Abbott" as authority
for protodice in Florida, at least there appears to
be no other explanation for it. I. Pensacola: rel-
atively common, VFG; one Oct. 10, 1914,
AMNH. Fisherville: one Oct. 11, 1914, AMNH.
Tallahassee: two May 1954, LH. Monticello:
two Oct. 5, 1914, AMNH. II. Orange Park:
July 1960, WJP. III. Enterprise: April 1896,
Castle & Laurent (1896, p. 303). Orlando: July,
WMD. Tampa: "common," Feb.-Dec., Morgan
notes; UT. Lakeland: May, DPI. IV. Sarasota:
July 10, 1950, HLK. Fruitville: three June 10,
1961, HLK. Fort Lauderdale: April 1, 1922,
UM. VI. Paradise Key: Jan.-April, rare, in
weedy, burnt over areas, FMJ. Food: cabbage,
cauliflower, probably all of the Cruciferae; Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 59:436, and Watson (1931,
p. 39).
86 P. RAPAE (Linnaeus)
European cabbage butterfly.
Syst. Nat., p. 468. 1758.
Though recorded from most of the state, even
Key West, this species is by no means common
in Florida, with the exception of the northern
and western counties, where it does a good deal
of injury to late cabbage and collards, but not
to winter grown -cabbage because it is not active
at that season. Though Morgan, in his Notes,
called it abundant at Tampa throughout the
year, other records are primarily from March to
May, with a few from October to December, and
one in July at Miami, LSP. Fuller reported see-
ing thousands in a collard patch at Florida City
in May 1954. Outbreaks on cabbage and col-
lards are recorded in the Insect Pest Surv. Bull.
12:107; 14: 85; 16:15.


ASCIA Scopoli
88 A. MONUSTE PHILETA (Fabricdus)
Mustard white.
Syst. Ent., p. 471. 1775.
Phtleta is found throughout the state, includ-
ing the Dry Tortugas, all through the year in the
southern portion and during warm weather else-
where. At times it is present in great abund-
ance, especially along the coasts. There is an
exhaustive paper on the habits, life history, and
migrations by Nielsen & Nielsen (1950). "This
is by far the most common and troublesome cat-
erpillar on cabbage and collards grown during
the late spring and summer in the southern part
of the state," according to Watson (1931, p. 39).
Other foods: Lepidium, Cakile maritime, Cleome
rufidosperma [ciliata], Batis maritime, nastur-
tium, all recorded by Nielsen & Nielsen; to this
I can add Calendula. Pease is preparing a pa-
per on the effect of the length of daylight on the
color forms of this and Eurema daira (Godart).

Family DANAIIDAE
DANAUS Kluk
89 D. PLEXIPPUS (Linnaeus)
Monarch, or milkweed butterfly.
Syst. Nat., p. 471. 1758.
Plexippus is all over the state, occasionally abun-
dant, but generally far from common, probably
every month, but with most of the records in
early spring or late fall. Subspecies megalippe
(Hilbner). Key West: Dec. 18, 1936, det. Austin
Clark, LH. Klots took a specimen close to meg-
alippe, Key Largo, July 16, 1947. Thaxter (1880,
p. 75), reported an overwintering swarm near
Apalachicola 1875-76, with the trees festooned
in an area of about an acre. In January 1956,
Urquhart & Harris found a large overwintering
population also in the vicinity of Apalachicola.
According to Harris, this locality had been used
for many years and may even be that recorded
by Thaxter. Unfortunately by 1958 it was being
engulfed by real estate developers. Urquhart
wrote of similar populations near Sarasota, Cedar
Key, Lighthouse Point, East Point, St. Joseph's
Bay, and a peninsula near Springfield. Harris
wrote of a colony at Alligator Point, Wakulla
County, and of finding many detached wings di-
rectly beneath bird perches in myrtle bushes.
Bromley (1928, p. 96) recorded a flight in num-
bers in January, in the Everglades. King tells
of seeing an assemblage of thousands hanging
from a punk tree near Lejeune Road and West
Flagler Street, in Miami. Two were seen by
Rawson and Davidson on Garden Key, Dry Tor-









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


tugas, 1960. Though the usual food plant is
Asclepias or Apocynum, the Division of Plant
Industry has recorded the larvae on citrus and
sweet potato.
90 D. GILLIPPUS BERENICE (Cramer)
Queen.
Pap. Exot. 3; PI. 205, Fig. E. 1782.
The queen is much more abundant than plexip-
pus, and found the year around. Strigosa Bates
has been taken at Miami, (Harris), EU; Hebard
(1904, p. 40), and there are specimens which have
a suggestion of gray on the veins, but King states
that these intermediates with grayish bordered
veins are not uncommon in the Everglades,
though the ground color never tends to the pale
brown of typical strigosa of the Southwest. The
white markings on the upper side of the pri-
maries vary to a considerable degree, as does the
size. Food: Asclepias, Nerlum, Gonolobus, Sar-
costemma, Stapelia.
91 D. ERESIMUS TETHYS Forbes
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 51:301. 1943.
VI. Near Paradise Key: (Chermock), Klots (1951,
p. 79). VIII. Lower Matecumbe: Feb. 8, 1932,
(F. E. Church), AMNH. Both are undoubtedly
strays from the West Indies.
91, 2 D. JAMAICENSIS Bates
Ent Monthly Mag. 1: 32. 1864.
Florida: (Thaxter), USNM. This will also be a
stray, unless, as Forbes commented, it is a case
of mislabeling since Thaxter collected in Jamaica
as well as Florida.

LYCORELLA Hemming
92 L. CERES DEMETER (Felder)
Reise Nov. 2:352. 1867.
The two following records presumably result
from strays. IV. Miami: Jan. 19, 1899, as form
atergatis (Doubleday), (S. N. Rhoades), Skinner
(1899, p.112); April 21, 1941. This specimen in-
Mrs. Grimshawe's collection "emerged from
pupa found in Miami (B.M.G.)," according to
Klots (1951, p. 276).

Family SATYRIDAE
LETHE Hiibner
96 L. PORTLANDIA (Fabricius)
Pearly eye.
Spec. Ins. 2:82. 1781.
Florida: Feb., May, Aug., Oct., (Chapman), Grsb.
18. I. Wakulla Springs: April, MCZ. Tallahas-
see: Aug. 24-Sept 2,1950, JPK. Monticello: Oct.


4,7,1914, AMNH. II. Gainesville: March, April,
Sept.-Nov., UM, AMNH; USNM. III. 10 miles
north of Ocala: Oct 26, 1941, JRW. Rock
Springs: March 23-May 3, AMNH; April, JWT.
Apopka: Sept., WMD. Orlando: March 27-
May 3, OB. Food: grasses, Arundinaria gigan-
tea..
97 L. CREOLA (Skinner)
Creole pearly eye.
Ent. News 8: 236. 1897.
Florida: May, Skinner (1926, p. 42). II. Alachua
Co.: April 14-29, Sept. 30, in dense hammocks,
Dozier (1920, p. 375). Gainesville: UFES. III.
Port Orange: April 2, PSR. Food: Arundinarfa
tecta.
106 L. EURYDICE APPALACHIA
R. L. Chermock
Eyed brown.
Ent. News 58: 33. 1947.
I. Northern Florida: Klots (1951, p. 68). Monti-
cello: common, Oct. 6-8, JRW. Food: grasses.

EUPTYCHIA Hiibner
98 E. GEMMA (Hiibner)
Gemmed satyr.
PL. I, Fig. 7, ?, underside.
Zutr. exot. Schmett. 1; Fig. 4. 1818.
I. Torreya State Park: April 12, 1960, DPI. Tal-
lahassee: Sept. 17, 1950, JPK. II. Gainesville:
(Watson), UFES. Jacksonville: two Feb. 29,
1960, two May 31, 1959, CFZ. III. Ormond:
March 22, 1899, Blatchley (1902, p. 230). Port
Orange: June 28-30, 1948, (King), CPK. Frost-
proof: Feb. 18, BH. Food: grasses.
100 E. ABEOLATA (Abbot & Smith)
Georgia satyr.
PI. I, Fig. 16, 8; Fig. 17, 9, underside.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1; PL. 13. 1797.
There are a number of records from all over the
state with the exception of the Keys whence
there is only one, Big Pine Key: HLK. It is pres-
ent practically every month. However, it is
probably local in habit Morgan noted that it
was found "in damp, grassy or weedy places."
Food: grasses.
102 E. HERMES SOSYBIA (Fabricius)
Carolina satyr.
Ent. Syst. 3:219. 1793.
This species is found all over the state and is
abundant throughout the year. Food: grasses.


I









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


103 E. CYMELA VIOLA (Maynard)
Little wood satyr.
PI. I, Fig. 29, 8; Fig. 30, 9, underside.
Man. N. Amer. Butt, p. 109. 1891.
Florida: June, LACM. I. Apalachicola: March-
May, (Chapman), Grsb. 19. II. Gainesville:
March, UM. Femandina Beach: April, CFZ.
Jacksonville: April, MCZ; May, CFZ. Ortega:
Sept, Grsb. 19. Orange Park: April, CFZ. St
Augustine: March 28, OB; April, May, common,
(Johnson), Grsb. 19. III. Gulf Hammock: April,
Castle & Laurent (1897, p. 9). DeLand: HLK.
Ormond: common, March 20, 1899, Blatchley
(1902, p. 230). Juniper Springs: April 12, 1955,
VF. Enterprise: type, spring 1888, May-
nard; April, Castle & Laurent (1896, p. 302).
Altamonte Springs: March, MCZ. Ocoee:
March, SDM; April, Brown (1950, p. 7). Orlan-
do: March, OB; April, OA. La Grange: Sept,
Grsb. 19. King reported that it was very com-
mon in early March in the Daytona Beach-St
Augustine region, especially near salt bays and
brackish streams. Food: grasses.
CERCYONIS Scudder
116 C. PEGALA (Fabricius)
The wood nymph.
P1. I, Fig. 31, 9; Fig. 32, 9, underside.
Ent. Syst, p. 494. 1793.
Florida: June, July, LACM. I. Pensacola: VFG.
July, SSN. Apalachicola: (Chapman), Grsb. 18.
Tallahassee: July, JAP. II. Okeefenokee Swamp:
July, (Beamer), UK. Lake City: Aug., UK.
Alachua Co.: July, UFES. Gainesville: UFES;
July, UM. Jacksonville: July-Oct., (Ashmead),
Grsb. 18; Sept., SIM. Orange Park: July, CFZ.
St. Augustine: common in summer, (Johnson),
Grsb. 18. III. Oviedo: (Mead), Grsb. 18. Day-
tona Beach: common, July, SVF. Cassadaga:
July, SVF. Fuller reports that the eye spots on
the primaries are very variable and often miss-
ing. Tampa: July, LHH.
Family HELICONIIDAE
ITHOMIA Doubleday
[I. phoeno (Geyer)]
Zutr. exot. Schmett. Figs. 987, 988. 1837.
Grote (1875b, p. 246) said: "Placed here (Florida)
on the authority of Gever," but this must have
been an error on Geyer s part. There is no au-
thentic record.
GRETA Hemming
[G. diaphana (Drury)]
ll. Exot. Ent. 2; P1. 7, Fig. 3. 1773.


Florida: Edwards (1872, p. 10). Grote (1875b, p.
246) had this to say: "I cannot find any authority
for the occurrence of this butterfly within our
limits, excepting Edwards' Synopsis, and Mr.
Edwards does not recollect upon what grounds
he placed it there." Here, then, is another error.

HELICONIUS Kluk
155 H. CHARITONIUS TUCKER
Comstock & Brown
Zebra.
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1467: 15. 1950.
The zebra is general and common though per-
haps not so abundant in the northern counties,
but present at all times except during the coldest
weather. There is an interesting description
of the habits of charitonius by W. H. Edwards
(1881e, pp. 209-215). Food: various Passiflora.

DRYAS Hiibner
156 D. JULIA CILLENE (Cramer)

ap. Exot. 3; P1. 215, Figs. D, E. 1782.
This species is common from Miami down
through the Keys, principally in summer, but the
records include all months. King says that it is
most common on Key Largo, but he has not seen
it in the Everglades or below Marathon. Dyar
took it at Palm Beach (1901a, p. 447). Plomley
reported two in Broward County, July 1961. A
specimen labeled "Arlington, May, LHH, would
seem to be in error, as Arlington is close to Jack-
sonville. There has been much disagreement
and debate over the form or forms found here,
but I am content to follow Klots and leave the
problem to others. The life history is given by
Schneider (1933, p. 2). Food: Passifora.

DRYADULA Michener
[157 D. phaetusa (Linnaeus)]
Syst. Nat. 1:486. 1758.
The records for this species do not appear sound,
although they may be perfectly valid. The fact
that a total of fourteen specimens were collected
at two different localities on two different dates,
but that no other collector has ever seen the in-
sect, indicates the need for more substantiation.
IV. Miami: Feb. 21, 1932 (Grimshawe), LACM.
VIII. Key Largo: Feb. 10, 1932, (Grimshawe),
LACM. This data was supplied by Martin; Mar-
tin & Truxal (1955, p. ll) list simply, Florida:
Jan.-May.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


AGRAULIS Boisduval & Leconte
158 A. VANILLA NIGRIOR Michener
Gulf fritillary.
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1215:7. 1942.
The Gulf fritillary is abundant everywhere the
entire year. The form comstocki Gundlach was
taken on Key Largo, March 30, 1932, det. Schaus,
Forsyth (1933, p. 2). Food: Passiflora. I have
also found the larvae on grasses, and a chrysalis
on Agave, fifty feet from the nearest Passiflora,
which indicates how far a larva will travel to
select a spot for pupation.

Family NYMPHALIDAE
EUPTOIETA Doubleday
159 E. CLAUDIA (Cramer)
Variegated fritillary.
Pap. Exot. i; P1. 69, Fig. E. 1779.
Claudia is found throughout the state, though
according to King it is not common on Key
Largo, and probably does not occur much be-
low that point; at least there are no records from
anywhere southwest of it. It is present March-
Dec., but mostly in the late summer and au-
tumn. The ab. albaclaudia was described from
Miami, Field (1936, p. 23). Food: Passiflora,
Podophyllum, Sedum, Desmodium [Meibomia],
Portulaca, Menispermum, violet and pansy.
[160 E. hegesia (Cramer)]
Mexican fritillary.
Pap. Exot. 3; P1. 209, Fig. E. 1782.
Florida: four, MCZ. Forbes commented that
these are definitely "Antillean," not Mexican,
but that he is very suspicious of them and be-
lieves that Thaxter took them in Jamaica. V.
Chokoloskee: Dec. 1902, GSDA. While the spe-
cies does occur in Cuba, we need something
more substantial than a Chokoloskee specimen
and four others that are equally doubtful before
accepting the record.

SPEYERIA Scudder
[162 S. diana (Cramer)]
Diana.
Pap. Exot.; P1. 98, Fig. D. 1779.
Diana was reported from Florida (Grossbeck,
1917, p. 14) on the authority of Skinner. H. J.
Grant, Assistant Curator of the Academy of Nat-
ural Sciences, Philadelphia, informs me that
there is no Florida specimen of diana in the Skin-
ner collection. The nearest record known is
that of L. Harris, Jr., at Atlanta, Ga., nearly
three hundred miles north of the Florida border.


Mather reports two other southern records:
northern Mississippi and Tallulah, La. There
would appear to be no reason for retaining this
species on the Florida list.
166 S. CYBELE (Fabricius)
Great spangled fritillary.
Syst. Ent., p. 516. 1775.
Grant informed me that in this instance there
is a specimen in the Academy of Natural Sci-
ences collection labeled "Florida, SM. No. 18,
det. Skinner, collected Skinner." There are two
Gainesville records: Grsb. 14, and one in Wat-
son's hand, "June 11, 1941." Though neither of
these last two is to be found in the University of
Florida Experiment Station collection today,
there is every reason to believe that they are
valid records. I had assumed that all three were
strays, but a fourth specimen was taken at
Gainesville by Denmark in a black light trap,
une 6, 1956, and is in too fresh a condition to
ve strayed from any great distance. It is
in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
There is one other record: Dec. 10, 1921,-UM.
The lavel also bears the word "cherry," but the
significance is anyone's guess. Food: violets.

PHYCIODES Hiibner
264 P. GORGONE (Hiibner)
Gorgone present.
Samml. exot. Schmett.; PI. 41. 1824.
Here we have another case where collectors will
be confused with the changes in nomenclature.
Ismeria (Boisduval & Leconte) instead of be-
ing a synonym of gorgone has recently been re-
stored to specific status but phaon (Edwards)
has been sunk as a synonym of gorgone. The
latter is common during most of the year all
over the state, including the Dry Tortugas, the
winter form hiemalis Edwards occurring into the
late spring. Plomley has taken in Broward
County, an aberration in which the black mar-
gin of the hind wing is solid and covers the outer
third of the wing. Food: in California, Lippia
lanceolata and L. nodiflora. King suspects that
here it may feed on Bidens.
265 P. THAROS (Drury)
Pearl crescent.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1: 43. 1770.
This species is equally common and flying with
gorgone through the year. It also has a winter
form, marcia (Edwards), but is perhaps even
more variable than gorgone and plagued with
more intermediates. Food: asters, Verbesina
helianthoides.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


ERESIA Boisduval
273 E. FRISIA (Poey)
Cuban cresent.
Cent. L6p. Cuba, p. 9. 1832.
Fairly common during most of the year in Dade
and Monroe Counties, but there are very few
records further north. II. Gainesville: (Watson),
UFES. III. La Grange: Sept. 9, (Sleight), Grsb.
14; (Davis), SIM. IV. South Bay: May 1, 2,
(Davis), AMNH, SIM. V. Everglades: Dec.,
WMD. The life history was described by Cher-
mock & Chermock (1947, p. 142).
[275 E. leucodesma Felder]
Wien. ent. Monat. 5: 103. 1861.
Holland (1931, p. 141) wrote that Edwards (1864,
p. 502) in describing Anthanassa cincta, which
dos Passes tells me is a synonym of this, attrib-
uted it to Texas and Florida. However, there
was no specimen labeled cincta in the Edwards
collection, nor in any other, so far as he could
discover. He thought that Edwards was prob-
ably deceived as to the origin of the Florida
specimen.
TRITANASSA Forbes
274 T. TEXANA SEMINOLE (Skinner)
Seminole cresent.
PL. I, Fig. 6, 9.
Ent. News 22:412. 1911.
I. Five miles south of Clarksville: Aug. 26, 1952,
BLM. Tallahassee: one March 17, 1951, JPK;
two May 1954, LH. These were all in fresh
condition. III. Levy Co.: May 7, 1955, (Weems),
DPI, in fresh condition. La Grange: Sept. 9,
10, (Sleight), Grsb. 15; (Davis), SIM. There are
also three "Florida" references in the older lit-
erature. Grote (1875b, p. 268); "Synopsis of but-
terflies" (Anon., 1883, p. 26); Edwards (1877,
p. 27).
MESTRA Hiibner
[283 M. cana floridana (Strecker)]
Lep. Rhop. and Het. Suppl. 3: 24. 1900.
Wyatt kindly checked the Strecker collection
for me and reported that there is in it a speci-
men labeled "original type, Florida, from L. W.
Mengel." There is also one labeled "Fla." in
the Comell University collection. However,
there is something very curious about this form
fioridana. Fox (1942, p. 14) gives a very interest-
ing account of te history o the type specimens.
Apparently these specimens, presumably includ-
ing the one on which the form was erected, all
came from Cedar Key, not the Everglades as
Strecker claimed. Forbes reports one in the
Weeks collection, MCZ, labeled "Crystal River,"


which is not far from Cedar Key. It is also
labeled "florodora Stkr." Since these specimens
were taken before the freeze of 1899, there would
appear to be two possible explanations. The
first, and most tenable, is that they were not
taken in Florida in the first place. Second, and
less likely, is the possibility that they may have
represented an isolated colony along the rela-
tively inaccessible northern third of the west
coast of the peninsula, where they could have
been wiped out by the freeze. It is remotely
possible that they may still survive in this large-
ly unexplored region. However, against the case
for the species ever having been in Florida, is
the fact that cana with its form flortdana is found
only in Trinidad and Venezuela whereas even
the southern Antilles have a different subspecies,
corviana Butler, and no form of the species is
known north of St. Lucia and Dominica. The
record looks more than dubious.

HYPOLIMNAS Hiibner
284 H. MISIPPUS (Linnaeus)
Mus. Ulr., p. 264. 1764.
This species is without doubt a stray of very
infrequent appearance in Florida. For illuminat-
ing comment on misippus the reader is referred
to a paragraph under Lois lorina (Druce) in
Barnes & Benjamin (1926, p. 20). III. Oak Hill:
Sept. 1916, (Mrs. L. Walsh), AMNH. Banana
River: Dec. 1, 1895, Cory (1896, p. 140). Indian
River: Nov., (Wittfeld), Edwards (1888, p. 128).
IV. Miami: in a grove, April 1934, (Young),
MCZ; larva on parsley, Klots (1951, p. 278). Klots
believes this may have been reported to him er-
roneously, instead of purslane, as Romm (1937,
p. 53) listed the larva as feeding on the latter
plant. In the copy of the earlier Lepidopterists'
News 1(1):2, which I have examined, in the
paper by James S. Haeger which is the apparent
source of the parsley report, the words parsley
(Petroselinum petrosiUnum)" are crossed out and
written above is the word "pulsey." The paper
describes the larva from which Haeger reared
an adult, the latter emerging in late April or
early May. V. Chokoloskee: June 11, 1902, June
4, 1904, CMNH. The validity of the last two is
open to question. VII. Everglades National
Park: Nov. 10, 1960, (H. B. Muller), ENP.

POLYGONIA Hiibner
285 P. INTERROGATIONIS (Fabricius)
Question mark.
Ent. Syst. Suppl., p. 424. 1798.
I. Warrington: Feb. 1961, Feb. 24, 1962, Pens.
Ent. Soc. Bull. 4. Pensacola: Jan., SMH; Sept.,









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


SSN. Tallahassee: July 1951, JAP. II. East
Florida: Jan., Dec., (Doubleday), BM. Gaines-
ville: March-May, Aug.-Oct., WJP, UM; Sept.
30, UFES; April, May, Aug., WJP. Jacksonvie:
Feb. 22, 1959, CFZ. St Augustine: very rare
during autumn, (Johnson), Grsb. 15. III. Day-
tona Beach:, Oct. 20, 1955, SVF. Tampa: April-
Nov. local, in the larger hammocks and bay-
heads. This butterfly and the large noctuid
moth Erebus odora may be easily mistaken in
dense jungles for the Mourning Cloak which is
rumored to have been seen near Hannah's
Whirl," Morgan (Notes). IV. Palmetto: form
umbrosa Lintner, May 10, 1956, HLK. Fort
Myers: Walker (1918, p. 78). Fort Lauderdale:
Aug. 3, 1924, UM. Food: Ulmus, Celtis, Urtica,
Tilia, Humulus, Boehmeria.

NYMPHALIS Kluck
298 N. ANTIOPA (Linnaeus)
Mourning cloak.
Syst Nat., p. 476. 1758.
I. Northern Florida: (Chapman), Grsb. 15. Es-
cambia Co.: Feb., SMH. Warrinton: Feb.,
Pens. Ent. Soc. Bull. 4. II. Gainesvile: Feb. 25,
Walker (1918, pp. 6, 59); larvae abundant on
Rumex acetosella, Mar. 23, Ins. Pest Surv. Bull.
18: 56. Hogtown Creek: Feb. 17, Bratley (1931,
p. 7). IV. Oneco: (Dillman). Siesta Key: CPK.
Food: elm, willow, poplar, hackberry, rose.

VANESSA Fabricius
299 V. ATALANTA (Linnaeus)
Red admiral.
Syst. Nat., p. 478. 1758.
The red admiral is common throughout, even to
Key West and on the Dry Tortugas, appearing
in every month. Harris saw thousands of freshly
emerged specimens along a two mile stretch
of road near South Bay, May 13, 1953, not mi-
grating but hovering over flowers. Fuller saw
similar swarms over Cephalanthus at Florida
City, May 1954, and April 1955. Food: Urtca,
Humulus, Boehmeria, Parletaria.
300 V. VIRGINIENSIS (Drury)
American painted lady.
Ill. Exot Ent 1; Fig. 5. 1770.
Virginiensts is not common but probably found
all over the state, though there are no records
south of Fort Myers, except the Dry Tortugas,
WMD. Morgan called it abundant the year
around at Tampa. Most records are for the
spring and late fall, but they do cover the year.
Food: everlastings and other composites.


301 V. CARDUI (Linnaeus)
Painted lady.
Syst. Nat., p. 475. 1758.
I. Escambia Co.: very common in 1960, rare in
1961, VFG. II. St. Augustine: rare during win-
ter and spring, (Johnson), Grsb. 15. II. De-
Land: April, May 1954, SVF. Cassadaga: April,
May 1954, SVF. Orlando: April, WMD. Dun-
edin: April, Blatchley (1931, p. 230). Tampa:
common Feb.-Dec., Morgan (1933). IV. Braden-
ton: Feb., WMD. Sarasota: few Jan. 29, 1911,
common Feb. 14, 1911, Blatchley (1932, pp. 39,
65). Siesta Key: Nov., CPK. VI. Paradise Key:
irregularly present Dec.-March, Blatchley ms.
VIII. Key West: May 8-10, 1916, Williams (1926,
p. 197). Food: Compositae.

PRECIS Hiibner
303 P. ORITHYA EVARETE (Cramer)
Buckeye.
Pap. Exot. 3:18; P1. 203, Figs. C, D. 1779.
This species has been bandied about so in the
past few years as regards name, that it would not
be surprising were its oldest friends to fail to
recognize it. We have all known it as Junonsa
coenia (Hiibner). Under how many and what
aliases it has paraded recently I leave to the his-
torian of curiosities. The subspecies evarete is
general and common throughout the state, prob-
ablyin every month, except that in the Keys,
including the Dry Tortugas, it may be entirely
replaced by the subspecies zonalis (Felder),
which ranges north as far as Fort Myers on the
west coast and Orange County on the east. The
dates for zonalis also cover most of the year,
but how much the two subspecies overlap geo-
graphically I cannot say; it is another problem
for research. There is one record for the form
rosa Whittaker & Stallings from Titusville, Oct.
17, 1945, (Berry), LACM; one from Longboat
Key, Jan. 3, 1956, (Remington), YU; and King
reports that it is occasionally taken in the Port
Orange region in the fall months. Food: Plan-
tago, Linaria, Antirrhinum, Ludwigia, Sedum;
Gerardia, DPI. The larva of zonals feeds on
Lippfa in Cuba.

ANARTIA Hiibner
30S A. JATROPHAE GUANTANAMO Munroe
White peacock
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1179:2. 1942.
Common in the southern half of the state ex-
cept in cold weather. King believes it is essen-









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


tially a coastal species, and inasmuch as he has
taken it at Savannah, Ga., it is probably found
along the entire Florida east coast. Along the
west coast so little collecting has been done
north of Tampa that Tampa must remain its
northern limit according to our present infor-
mation. Platt has seen it at Gainesville in the
late fall. Davidson said it was not common in
the Orlando area, but reported finding a good
colony around a wet spot northeast of Oviedo,
thus confirming Morgan's observation in calling
it locally common about swampy places. Food:
Jatropha manihot in Brazil, Lippia in Cuba, Ba-
copa in Puerto Rico. The larva has been re-
ported recently on Bacopa sp. at Coral Gables,
Coop. Ins. Pest Surv. 5:146.
[306 A. fatima (Fabricius)]
Fatima.
Ent. Syst. 3(1):81. 1793.
III. Stemper: May 14, 1920, CMNH. We need
to know more about this before accepting it.

METAMORPHA Hiibner
807 M. STELENES (Linnaeus)
The malachite.
Syst. Nat, p. 465. 1758.
It is difficult to say whether this species is actual-
ly established in the Keys, and perhaps lower
Dade County, or whether it is only a relatively
frequent visitor. III. Stemper: Oct.. 10, 1918,
CMNH. The record seems doubtful, but in
view of the next one not impossible. IV. Saraso-
ta: "seen March 23, 1946. The notation is in
Watson's hand on page 195 of the Experiment
Station's copy of Holland, and can hardly be
questioned. Miami: end of Dec. 1897, Schaus
(1898a, p. 96); as form lavinia, (Fabricius), Kaye
(1925, p. 475); Sept. 18, 1949, FMG. VI. Per-
rine: Nov. 23, 1947, HFS. Strohecker has seen
at least two others in the Matheson Hammock
region. VII. Everglades National Park: Jan. 20,
1960, (V. C. Gilbert), ENP. VIII. Key Largo:
Jan. 1950, HLK. Key West: 1935-1936, (Kea),
UFES; Dec. 18,1936, (L. Harris, III), LH. Food:
Blechum; Acanthaceae, Bates (1923b, p. 43).

EUNICA Hiibner
309 E. MONIMA (Stoll)
Dingy purple wing.
Pap. Exot. 4; PL. 387, Fig. F. 1782.
The status of monima in Florida is uncertain,
but whether a stray or established, it is very
rare, and found only in dark, shaded, heavy
hardwood hammocks. Florida: Aug., LACM.


IV. Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 448). Biscayne
Bay: (Slosson), Grsb. 17. Miami: May, June, Aug
Klots (1951,p. 111); June 10, JMP; two July
8-28, 1943, dosP. Matheson Hammock: Aug.
1951, KR. VIII. Key Largo: HLK; May, July,
Klots; Aug. 20, 1928, (Forsyth), LACM. Key
West: CGM. In Mexico the larva feeds on
Zanthoxylum pentamon.
310 E. TATILA TATILISTA Kaye
Florida purple wing.
Pl. I, Fig. 33, 9.
Trans. Ent Soc. London, p. 472. 1925.
IV. Lake Worth: Schaus, (1894, p. 17). Fort
Myers: "Eunica sp.," Walker, (1918, p. 78) is
surely this species. Relatively common in Dade
and Monroe Counties, especially in dense ham-
mocks along the coast, with records for every
month except June, but none of them sufficiently
clustered to say what the proper season might
be.
DIAETHRIA Billberg
314 D. CLYMENA (Cramer)
Pap. Exot. 1; PL 24, Fig. E. 1775.
Some of the records for this species are undoubt-
edly questionable, but there is no question about
its being a very rare stray, or accidental visitor.
III. Stemper: March 30, 1918, CM. Clench re-
ports that this is a different race from the two
Key West" specimens in the Carnegie Museum
collection, and he believes that all three are un-
doubtedly fakes. IV. In Doubleday & Hewit-
son (1849, p. 238) appears this statement: "The
only evidence I have obtained of the occurrence
of any species so far north as East Florida is a
drawing shown to me by Dr. Bachman of
Charleston, S. C., of a species, which, as far as
can be determined without comparison of speci-
mens, is CaUicore clymene. This drawing was
made by Dr. Leitner from a specimen which he
took during his journey to the southern parts of
East Florida, in 1836." Fort Lauderdale: ob-
tained from a very old collection, CGM. VI.
Paradise Key: Feb. 26, 1944, (P. G. Hawes),
Klots (1951, p. 279). VIII. Key West: July 1895,
July 1897, CM. Bates (1923b, p. 43) gave the
food plant in Brazil as Trema micrantha and
noted that T. micrantha [fioridana] grows in
southern Florida, to which it might be added
that West & Arnold (1952, p. 158) also listed
T. k/narckiana.

MARPESIA Hiibner
317 M. CORESIA (Godart)
Waiter.
Enc. M6th. 9:359. [1824].









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


III. Indian River: (Wittfeld). The reference
from the literature for this as given in my notes
is incorrect, and for the present, therefore, must
remain undocumented. Stemper: June 4, 1920,
CMNH. There are a number of strange records,
like this, from the Cleveland Museum and it
would be a great help in evaluating their authen-
ticity, if we knew who was the collector. The
records for this species, if valid, represent strays.
318 M. CHIRON (Fabricius)
Many-banded dagger wing.
Syst. Ent., p. 452. 1794.
IV. Miami: (Dickenson), Laurent (1903a, p. 297);
June, July, Klots (1951, p. 280). These, likewise,
are probably strays.
319 M. PETREUS (Cramer)
Ruddy dagger wing.
Pap. Exot. 1; Pl. 87, Figs. D, E. 1779.
If the Florida subspecies differs from typical
petreus, there is no name available, as thetys
(Fabricius) and also peleus (Sulzer) are bothpre-
occupied. I. Apalachicola: larva on Anacardium
occidentale, (Chapman), Grote (1875b, p. 256).
II. Gainesville: seen in the late fall, WJP. III.
Coronado Beach: larva on fig, Robertson-Miller
(1934, p. 29). Daytona Beach: HLK. Indian
River: (Wittfeld), Grsb. 17. Egmont Key: April,
UM. IV. Oneco: P. Dillman. Avon Park: May,
J. & H. Comstock (1902, p. 77) Archbold Biologi-
cal Station: Dec. 16, 1959, (Frost), PSU. Sara-
sota: from pupa, Sept. 15, 1956, HLK. Siesta
Key: four April, May 1956; four Jan., Feb. 1957,
CPK. Is this another case of te range being
extended northward? Englewood: CU. Punta
Gorda: April, FMJ. Palm Beach: HLK. From
Fort Lauderdale south the species is common
May-July, with occasional appearances before
andafter these months. King reports that it is
attracted greatly to giant milkweed. Food: Ficus
carica, Bates (1923b, p. 43); F. brevifolia, Stro-
hecker (1938, p. 294). The latter reference in-
cludes a description of the early stages.
320 M. PELLENIS Godart
Enc. M6th. 9:359. [1824].
This has been reported under the synonym
eleuche Hiibner. I. Apalachicola: 1869 or earlier,
(Chapman?), Edwards (1869, p. 311). III. Cen-
tral Florida: ex Doll collection, MCZ. Forbes
is suspicious of this one. IV. Biscayne Bay: (Slos-
son), Grsb. 17. Miami: Dec. 1897, Schaus (1898a,
p. 96); between Jan. 28 and Feb. 8, Hebard (1903,
p. 253), but Hebard (1904, p. 40) says the de-
termination was in error and that they were all
petreus; Jan., Slosson (1899, p. 96).


LIMENITIS Fabricius
322 L. ASTYANAX (Fabricius)
Red-spotted purple.
Syst. Ent., p. 447. 1794.
There is a difference of opinion as to whether
this is a valid species or merely a subspecies of
L. arthemis (Drury). I. Warrington: VFG. Leon
Co.: two Aug., 1958, WHH. Tallahassee: July
9-24, 1950, JPK; July 1951, JAP. Monticello:
Sept. 3, 1934, UM; Oct. 4, 1914, AMNH. II.
Gainesville: May 4, 1941, (JRW); June, Aug.,
WJP; Sept. 27, 1914, AMNH. Newman's Lake:
Oct, CFZ. Zeiger reported seeing an astyanax
and archippus in copulo. III. Levy Co.: form
ursula (Fabricius), 1917, Laurent (1918, p.39).
DeLand: May, SVF. Lake Thonotosassa: March
21, Bell (1923, p. 26). Tampa: one Aug., Mor-
gan (19383). IV. Tamiami Trail: March 24, 1931,
BH. Dade Co.: HFS. Food: poplar, wild cher-
ry.
325 L. ARCHIPPUS (Cramer)
Viceroy.
Pap. Exot. 1; P1. 16, Fig. A. 1779.
The species is abundant all through the state
except during cold weather. The vast majority
of specimens are in the form floridensis Strecker.
Some may be typical archippus, but it is prob-
able that those reported as such may be the in-
termediate watsoni (dos Passes), which I have
seen as far south as Bradenton. King believes
the clinal area is essentially in northern Florida.
Ab. hall (Cook & Watson) taken at Miami, July
8, 1920, (Grimshawe), LACM. Food: willow,
poplar, and a number of other trees.

ASTEROCAMPA Roeber
There is a paper by Davidson, 1958, on the hab-
its of the two species of Asterocampa in Florida
which is too long to quote here, but to which
the interested reader should refer. Zeiger
wrote of finding hundreds of both species of
Asterocampa revelling on rotten persimmons ly-
ing on the ground at Newman's Lake in Alachua
County in October 1962. He described it as a
true "bonanza."
327 A. CELTIS (Boisduval & Leconte)
Hackberry butterfly.
Lap. Amsr. Sept., p. 210. 1833.
All of the records probably belong to the sub-
species alicia (Edwards), except one from Cen-
tury, July 17, 1937, FRA. Century is close to
the Georgia border. Florida: MCZ; April-June,
LACM. I. Warrington: VFG. Tallahassee:









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Aug., Sept, JPK. II. Gainesville: May, LH;
June, Aug., Sept., Nov., JRW. St. Augustine:
rare, June, (Johnson), Grsb. 18. III. Daytona:
Aug., LH. Port Orange: common, HLK; July,
OB. Cassadaga: common, two broods, March,
Sept., SVF. Fuller adds that in Oct. 1955, near
Daytona Beach, he saw many hundreds of alicia
at the oozing sap of an old hackberry tree, to-
gether with a few A. clyton flora, V. atalanta,
and P. interrogationis. Ocoee: March-May, Sept.,
FRA, OB, EAF, LHH, CGM, PSR, SDM, JWT.
Orlando: April, OB; Aug., DLB. Tampa: May,
Morgan (1933). IV. Lake Josephine: J. & H.
Comstock (1902, p. 77). Sarasota: July, HLK.
Fort Myers: Walker (1918, p. 78). Matheson
Hammock: July, HLK. V. Chokoloskee: USNM.
Food: Celtis.
329 A. CLYTON (Boisduval & Leconte)
Tawny emperor.
LUp. Amnr. Sept., p. 208; P1. 56. [1834].
One typical clyton, Tampa: (Henri), CU; one
form proserpina (Scudder), Florida: MCZ, both
det. Forbes. All other records are for the sub-
species flora (Edwards). Florida: April, May,
LACM. I. Warrington: VFG. St. Marks: June
CMNH. II. Palatka: July, Edwards (1881c, p.
83). St Augustine: rare, June, July, (Johnson),
Grsb. 18. III. Port Orange: June, July, CGM;
July, WHH, CPK. Cassadaga: not common, two
broods, March, Sept., SVF. Okahumpka: April,
MCZ. Ocoee: March-May, FBA, EAF, PSR,
SDM, JWT; Nov., SDM. Orlando: April, FRA.
Indian River: Edwards. Tampa: March-Nov.,
Morgan (1933). IV. Bradenton: GCES. Lake
Josephine: May, AKW. Dade Co.: July, DPI.
Biscayne Bay: typical clyton, (Slosson), Grsb.
18. Is this last determination correct? Food:
Celts.
HISTORIC Htibner
Both species listed are possible as strays, but
the records need further confirmation.
331 H. ODIUS (Fabricius)
Syst. Ent., p. 457. 1794.
Florida: as orion (Fabricius), "occasional," Ed-
wards (1877, p. 62); in the "Synopsis of Butter-
flies" (Anon., 1883, p. 116) the habitat is given
as "Fla.(?)." (Note: these synopses were usually
checked by Edwards.); Kaye, (1925, p. 470). This
last may merely refer to the older references;
Ziemer has one dated June 24, 1940, but does
not know the name of the collector nor whence
came the specimen originally. Forbes reported
a specimen of the mainland race in the Museum
of Comparative Zoology but he believed the


label "Fla." to be false. Klots (1951, p. 280)
spoke of one authentic record.
332 H. ACHERONTA (Fabricius)
Syst. Ent p. 501. 1794.
Florida: one female, obtained from a very old
collection, CGM. Holland (1931, p. 171) re-
ported that it had been taken in southern Flor-
ida.
ANAEA Hiibner
333 A. ANDRIA Scudder
Goatweed butterfly.
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2:248. 1875.
I. Escambia Co.: Sept. 1 and 8,1962, SMH. Pen-
sacola: VFG; Aug., SSN. Monticello: Sept. 4,
1932, UM. II. Gainesville: April 2, 1960, WJP.
Jacksonville: Aug. 14, 1959, CFZ. III. Ocala:
June 2, 1955, WJP. Food: crotons.
334 A. AIDEA FLORIDALIS Johnson &
Comstock
Florida leafwing.
J. N. Y. Ent Soc. 49:307. 1941.
II. Gainesville: JRW; Feb. 25, 1962, April 15,
1959, July 5, 1955, WJP. Platt's records for the
two species of Anaea suggest that their range
overlaps in the Gainesville-Ocala area. The im-
plied Jacksonville record in the "Season Sum-
mary for 1959," News of the Lepidopterists' So-
ciety, Number 3, p. 11, is an error. Zeiger in-
forms me that it was a misdetermination for
Andria above. IV. West Palm Beach: HLK.
Boynton Beach: Feb., March, CPK. Dade Co.:
common, the records covering ever month.
VIII. Big Pine Key: April, OA. Food: Croton
linearis, Klots (1951, p. 188). For description of
the early stages, see Matteson (1930, pp. 7-9).

Family LIBYTHEIDAE
LIBYTHEANA Michener
336 L. BACHMANII (Kirtland)
Snout butterfly.
The Family Visitor 5:189. 1851.
Florida: MCZ. I. Warrington: one, VFG. Ap-
alachicola: (Chapman), Grsb. 21. Liberty Co.:
April, (Hubbell), UM. II. Alachua Co.: Sept.,
UFES. Gainesville: April, UFES; May, UM;
Aug., WJP. III. Daytona: April, May, Sept.,
SVF. Oviedo: Davidson reported a good flight
in a hackberry area, March 1957. Belleair: (Slos-
son), Grsb. 21. IV. Oneco: Jan., (Dillman), CPK.
Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 448). South Mi-
ami: HLK. Food: Celtis.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Family RIODINIDAE
LEPHELISCA Barnes & Lindsey
45 L. VIRGINIENSIS (Gu6rin-M6neville)
Little metalmark.
Icon. Rbgne Anim., p. 489; PL 81. 1844.
The little metalmark is general but very local in
grassy places. Not rare where found, mostly
in April and May and again from August to Oc-
tober, but appearing occasionally in other
months.
Family LYCAENIDAE
Subfamily THECLINAE
EUMAEUS Huibner
854 E. ATALA FLORIDA Roeber
Atala.
P1. I, Fig. 34, 9.
Ent. Mitteil. 15:373. 1926.
It had been feared that this once common and
beautiful butterfly was extinct, but two recent
records testify to its having survived the ravages
of collectors and real estate developers, or per-
haps having re-established itself. Curiously,
the recent records, August 20 and September 5,
1958, (G. & B. Klopfer), and March 22, 1959,
(C. J. Dempfer), were both from Broward
County, whereas all the earlier ones were lim-
ited to Dade and Monroe Counties. Dempfer
reported his colony was flourishing as of March
15, 1960. As records exist for every month ex-
cept October, this species probably flew all
year. Harris said that it was abundant thirty
years ago at what is now 7th Ave., N.W. and
about 152nd St. in Miami. The last record prior
to the two given above is from a Works Progress
Administration file card in the University of
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gaines-
ville, which reads: "Miami, April, 1940, June
Hawthorne," but the source of the data is not
given. In view of some of the W.P.A. cards,
June Hawthorne" may be a tree or a person.
Food: Zamia integrifolia. For more detailed in-
formation, the reader should refer to Klots (1951,
pp. 132-133). The life history was described by
Schwarz (1888) and Rawson has written one in
1962, telling of the attempts that are being made
to establish a colony at the Visitors' Center of
the Everglades National Park, where, of course,
it will be well protected.
ATLIDES Hiibner
8586 A. HALESUS (Cramer)
Great purple hairstreak.
PI. I, Fig. 35, 8; Fig. 39, 9; Fig. 40, 9, under-
side.


Pap. Exot., 2; P1. 98, Fig. 3. 1779.
Probably to be found wherever its food plant,
mistletoe, grows. While the records include
every month, April, May, September, October,
appear to be the more abundant seasons. The
adults frequent flowers, the favorites being Bid-
ens and star jasmine, Klots (1951, p. 133); saw
palmetto, Haskin (1933a, p. 72); wild plum, Wat-
son (1919a, p. 114); poinsettia, SVF. The life
history was described by Haskin.

STRYMON Hfibner
[557 S. endymion (Fabricius)]
Syst. Ent., p. 519. 1794.
The only reference for this in Florida is under
the synonym hugon (Godart), Dyar (1902, p. 36).
Until it is possible to trace his authority, it would
seem advisable to omit the species. Holland
(1931, p. 242) said that it might occur in the Flor-
ida Keys. However, Comstock & Huntington
(1943, p. 54) expressed the belief the name had
been introduced erroneously in North American
lists by Herrich-Schaeffer.
361 S. MARTIALIS (Herrich-Schaeffer)
Martial hairstreak.
PL. I, Fig. 45, 8.
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. 18:164. 1864.
IV. Longboat Key: Feb., HLK. Fort Pierce:
March, BH. Siesta Key: Nov.-Jan., CPK. Bo-
keelia: April, FMJ. Useppa Island: CGM. V.
Everglades: Aug., HAF. IV, VI, VIII. Dade and
Monroe Counties: including the Dry Tortugas,
common, March-Aug., Oct., Dec., FMB, OB,
SPJC, WMD, CMNH, EAF, HAF, SVF, LH,
LHH, FMJ, CGM, BHP, CAS, SDM, JWT, BJZ.
Fuller found it very local near Florida City in
April 1955, twenty-six being taken in one spot,
but no others were seen elsewhere. Food: Tre-
ma micrantha [floridana], Klots (1951, p. 138),
Slosson (1901a, p. 203).
362 S. ACIS BARTRAMI (Comstock &
Huntington)
Bartram's hairstreak.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 45:65. 1943.
Dade and Monroe Counties only, except for four
specimens from Lake Worth, Palm Beach, and
Jupiter, see Comstock & Huntington; common
but very local, the dates covering Feb.-May,
July, Aug. and Oct.-Dec. Klots J1951, p. 139)
gave the food as "wild croton (?).
365 S. CECROPS (Fabricius)
Red-banded hairstreak.
Ent. Syst. 3(1):270. 1793.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Cecrops is common throughout the state, re-
corded in every month but July. There is some
variation in the width and color of the transverse
band of the hind wing beneath, but no specimen
that could be called beon (Cramer) has turned
up. Food: croton.
365,1 S. MAESITES Herrich-Schaefer
Maesites hairstreak.
P1. I, Fig. 41, 8; Fig. 42, 9.
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. 18:165. 1864.
Maesites is very rare, but the reader should re-
fer to Young's paper (1937) for notes on the hab-
itat of the species. IV. North Miami Beach: June,
FMG. Miami: between Jan. 28 and Feb. 8,
Hebard (1903, p. 253); Feb., July, OB; April,
FMG, PSR, HAF, dosP, FMG; Dec., Schaus
(1898a, p. 96). Brickell Hammock: June, July,
BHP. Buchholz had one specimen-Florida:
(Slosson), which is form telea (Hewitson).
366 S. COLUMELLA MODEST (Maynard)
Columella hairstreak.
Amer. Nat., 7: 178. 1873.
This is a common species in the southern part of
the state including the Dry Tortugas, the north-
ern limits being Tampa and Delray Beach. This
is a curious reversal of the usual situation of the
east coast records extending farther north than
those for the west coast. Perhaps when the
food plant is discovered, the anomaly may be
explained. It has been taken in every month
but October.
366, 1 S. CYBIRA Hewitson
Ill. Diur. Lep. 158; PL. 62, Fig. 427. 1874.
Comstock & Huntington (1943, p. 81) made this
a subspecies of columella above. They Ilaced
here the series taken in the Dry Tortugas in June
which were reported by Forbes (1941, p. 147)
as columeUa modest. The only other record is
a single specimen from the Dry Tortugas: March
20,1927, OB. Buchholz did not recall the source
of this.
372 S. M-ALBUM (Boisduval & Leconte)
White M hairstreak.
PL. I, Fig. 37, 8; Fig. 88, 9.
LUp. Am&. Sept, p. 86; P1. 26. 1833.
M-album is common all over the state, with
most records from March to May, but also scat-
tered ones from June-October and December.
Food: oak. Zeluff found the adults abundant
around rubber trees at Fort Pierce in summer,
and Fuller reports it abundant at poinsettia in
April.


873 S. MELINUS Hiibner
Gray hairstreak.
Zutr. exot. Schmett.; Fig. 121. 1818.
Melinus is common everywhere in the state
March-August, and again in October, with oc-
casional records for other months. The larva
feeds on a number of plants, preferably hops and
beans; okra, cotton, loquat, Watson (1931, p.
73); blossoms of scrub palmetto, FMJ; hibiscus,
DPI; Lupinus diffususw, CPK; Echttes, (Craig-
head), ENP.
374 S. FAVONIUS (Abbot & Smith)
Southern hairstreak.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1: 27. 1797.
Though this species is common in Georgia, and
from Alachua County south, there is only one
record from the northern or western parts of
the state-Tallahassee: May 1954, HLK. The
species is distinctly limited to one brood, flying
only from the middle of March to early May,
though there are specimens dated June and
July, LACM. Fuller reports it common but
quite local about DeLand at Bidens blossoms.
Food: Quercus spp.
375 S. ONTARIO (Edwards)
Northern hairstreak.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 2: 209. 1868.
H. A. Freeman is describing the Florida race as
a new subspecies from material taken in Grady
County, Georgia, by E. V. Komarek, now in
the collection of Lucien Harris, Jr. I. Escambia
Co.: May 15, 1961, May 15, 1962, SMH. War-
rington: June 15, 1960, VFG. Pensacola: April,
SSN. Tallahassee: May 6, 1951, det. Kiots, JPK.
The last was taken by Knudsen at light at 11
P. M.

[380 S. titus mopsus Hfibner]
Coral hairstreak.
Zutr. exot. Schmett.; Figs. 135, 1386. 1818.
The record, Florida: (Hiibner), Grsb. 25, is prob-
ably attributable to one of those mixed "Florida
in Georgia" and "Georgia in Florida" records, all
of which seem to boil down to Abbot's collect-
ing in Screven County, Georgia. Probably Hol-
land (1931, p. 250) has also attributed it to Flor-
ida for the same reason. Harris has not taken
it south of Macon, Georgia. Food: wild cherry,
plum.

385 S. EDWABDSII (Grote & Robinson)
Edwards' hairstreak.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 1: 172. 1867.
The following are in the American Museum of









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Natural History, were collected by Palm, and
the data supplied by dos Passes: one male, one
female, each with 324 Fla Ac 5409" on label;
the third, a female, is labeled "Kissimmee."
Food: oak, especially Quercus iicifolia.
886 S. CALANUS (Hiibner)
Florida hairstreak.
Samml. exot. Schmett., 1. 1824.
Florida: April, May, LACM. L Escambia Co.:
May, SMH. St. Marks: May, HLK. Tallahas-
see: May, HLK. II. Alachua Co.: April, DPI.
Gainesville: wittfeldi, two on chinquapin blos-
som April, JCS. Island Grove: May, Comstock
(1913, p. 261). Jacksonville: May, Skinner (1907,
p. 48); CFZ. III. Cassadasa: April, SVF. Lake
George: Skinner. Apopka: Feb., HAF; A
OB; May, JWT. Rock Springs: April, F
LHH, SDM, SSN; May, HI., SSN, HEW.
Ocoee: April, OB, LHH, SDM, JWT. Orlando:
June, Berry. Georgiana: June, ANSP. Indian
River: type of wittfeldi, Edwards (1883, p. 136).
St. Petersburg: CGM. Tampa: Morgan (1933).
Lakeland: May, SIM. Grossbeck (1917, p. 24)
noted that the Lakeland specimens "differ from
the typical by their smaller size and by the pres-
ence of a clearly marked inner white line to the
transverse row of spots beneath." Berry (1914,
p. 13) described a new form found at Ocoee in
the Spring, but gave it no name. Food: Quer-
cus, Comstock.
387 S. [FALACER Godart]
Banded hairstreak.
Enc. Moth. 9:633. [1824].
The status of the relationship of this to calanus
is uncertain; the only possible record, that from
Tallahassee, has been included under calanus on
Klots' advice.
889 S. LIPAROPS (Leconte)
Striped hairstreak.
L.p. Amnr. Sept, p. 99; P1. 31. 1833.
I. Escambia Co.: May 6, 1961, SMH. Tallahas-
see: one female, May 20, 1954, HLK. Taken on
the University campus. King says it is impos-
sible to say whether this is typical liparops or
the form strigosa Harris.
389, 1 S. KINGI Klots & Clench
King's hairstreak.
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1600:2. 1952.
I. Escambia Co.: June 3, 1962, SMH. Tallahas-
see: two females, June 3, 1951, det. Klots, JPK.


MITOURA Scudder
[398 M. nelsoni Boisduval]
Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige 12:43. 1869.
Through a mixup in check-list numbers or other
clerical error, a record for this was published
(Coop. Ins. Pest Surv. 3(23): 4). Denmark as-
sures me that this is completely erroneous.
401 M. GRYNEUS SWEADNERI
F. H. Chermock
Olive hairstreak.
Can. Ent. 76:216. 1944.
This subspecies is evidently very local, and usu-
ally very rare. North Florida: Scudder (1876,
p. 109). II. Jacksonville; two June, (Chermock),
HAF. St. Augustine: seventy-five June, (Swead-
ner), types and paratypes, Chermock. Two
miles south of St. Augustine: on red cedar in
sand dunes, GWR. III. Guntown: April, BJZ.
Citrus Co.: reported abundant on cedar near the
coast below Crystal River, March, HLK. Lake
Helen: occasional, end of March, around juni-
per, SVF. Port Orange: June, HLK. Food: red
cedar, at least for typical gryneus.

INCISALIA Scudder
[403 1. augustinus (Westwood)]
Brown elfin.
Gen. Diur. Lep., p. 468. 1850-1852.
Recorded by Morgan (1933), but he wrote that
this was an error and that the records correctly
belong under the next species.
407 I. HENRICI MARGARETAE dos Passos
Henry's elfin.
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1230:4. 1943.
I. Escambia Co.: March 1961, SMH. III. Eight
miles east of DeLand: types, two males, March
3, 1932, (Heineman), AMNH. Tampa: scarce
and very local, usually around Vaccinium, March-
Nov., Morgan (1933). Aubumdale: one female,
March 26-April 2, 1926, (Haskins), AMNH.
Food: Vaccnium paUidumn [acil/ans] and
Prunus.
413 L NIPHON (Hiibner)
Pine elfim
Zutr. exot Schmett.; Fig. 203. 1823.
I. Pensacola: March, SSN. Klots (1951, p. 149)
quoted Florida as the type locality, though he
has told me this may be part of the "Florida in
Georgia" mix-up. Food: pine of several species,
Packard (1890a, p. 767).









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Subfamily GERYDINAE
FENISECA Grote
419 F. TABQUINIUS (Fabricidus)
Harvester.
Pl. I, Fig. 86, 9.
Ent. Syst. 3:319. 1793.
II. Gainesville: ten Sept., UFES; larva on woolly
aphids, Dec., (Hetrick), UFA. Catocala Glen:
rare, May, July, Dozier (1920, p. 375). Fair-
banks: Sept., UFES. Fernandina: Scudder (1889,
p. 1016). III. Ocoee: Feb., March, FMB, HLK;
March, April, JWT; March, EAF.

Subfamily LYCAENINAE
LYCAENA Fabricius
424 L. THOE (Guerin-M&n6ville)
Bronze copper.
Icon. RBgne Anim. Ins.; P1. 81, Fig. 4. 1844.
II. Gainesville: June 26, 1922, (Walker), UM.
This is unquestionably a stray from the North.
Food: curly dock.
435 L. PHLAEAS AMERICANA Harris
American copper.
Treatise Ins. Inj. Veg., p. 273; Fig. 104. 1862.
The ab. fasciata was described from Florida by
Strecker (1878, p. 101) but there is no other Flor-
ida record. Food: Runex.

Subfamily PLEBEIINAE
LEPTOTES Scudder
438 L. CASSIUS THEONUS (Lucas)
Cassius blue. P1. I, Fig. 43, 8; Fig. 44, 9.
Hist. Cuba 7:611. 1856.
I. Escambia Co.: July 10, 1961, VFG. Abundant
from Orlando and Tampa south, practically
whenever the sun shines. Food: Galactia volu-
bilis [pilosa], Haskin (1933c, p. 154); Plumbago,
SVF. Morgan noted that it was "sometimes
swarming around poison ivy as though that were
the food plant."
[439 L. marinus Realdrt]
Marine blue.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 87. 1868.
IV. Fort Myers: Walker (1918, p. 78). This is un-
questionably an error for theonus.

BREPHIDIUM Scudder
441 B. PSEUDOFEA (Morrison)
Eastern pigmy blue.


Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1:186. 1874.
This species is very closely limited to the south-
ern coastal regions from New Smyrna on the east
to Cedar Key on the west. King reports that its
presence is very spasmodic. He has gone for
years without seeing it, and then it will suddenly
be plentiful, often on the palmetto blossoms in
June. The majority of records are from March
to July; in the extreme south they cover all
months except August and November. Rawson
(1961) has described the early stages, rearing it
from Salicornia bigelovi. He believes it also
feeds on Batis maritime.

CYCLARGUS Nabokov
442 C. THOMASI BETHUNE-BAKERI
(Comstock & Huntington)
Miami blue. P1. I, Fig. 46, 9; Fig. 47, 8.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 45:97. 1943.
The Miami blue was previously known as cati-
lina (Fabricius). It is not rare in the area from
Gainesville and Tampa south, and is common in
Dade and Monroe Counties. It has been taken
in the Dry Tortugas. The records include all
months. Food: PitheceUobium and Caesalpinia
[Guilandina].

HEMIARGUS Hiibner
443 H. CERAUNUS ANTIBUBASTUS
Hiibner
Ceraunus blue.
Zutr. exot. Schmett.; Figs. 99, 100. 1818.
An abundant species found all through the pen-
insula, the Dry Tortugas, and as far west as Wa-
kulla, the dates covering every month. Buch-
holz' collection had one specimen, Bonita
Springs: Nov. 29, 1934, (Blaicher)- which has
much larger and more prominent markings on
the hind wings than usual. Haskin (1933c, p.
155) discussed the life history. Food: Cassia
[Chamaechrista], Phaseolus, Abrus.

ECHINARGUS Nabokov
[446 E. isolus (Reakirt)]
Reakirt's blue.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 332. 1866.
V. Chokoloskee: May 10, 1919, CMNH. This is
either a misdetermination or a false locality la-
bel.
EVERES Hiibner
447 E. COMYNTAS Godart
Eastern tailed blue.
Enc. Meth. 9:660. [1824].









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


I. Pensacola: Feb., March, SSN, Sept, VFG.
Florida Caverns State Park: three April 14,
1960. DPI. Apalachicola: (Chapman), Scudder
(1889, p. 911). Tallahassee: three March 8,
1951, JPK; "common," (Harris). II. Jacksonville:
Sept. 26, 1959, CFZ. IV. Siesta Key: May 24,
1946, CPK. This specimen was discarded, as
the rarity of the species in southern Florida was
not realized at the time. To the best of my
memory, the determination was checked by
Forbes. Miami: two March 23, 1945, CGM.

PHILOTES Scudder
[471 P. 8onorenss (Felder)]
Reise Nov. 2: 281. 1865.
IV. Miami: one female, March 3, 1907, CM.
This one came from the Cleveland Museum.
Whatever its origin prior to that, there is grave
doubt that it ever saw Florida, even as a stray.

CELASTRINA Tutt
475 C. ARGIOLA PSEUDARGIOLA
(Boisduval & Leconte)
Spring azure.
PL I, Fig. 48, 8; Fig. 49, 9.
LUp. Am&. Sept., p. 118; PL. 86. [1833].
I. Florida Caverns State Park: April 14, 1962,
(Weems), DPI. II. Jacksonville: seen but not
captured, March 24, two taken, April 2, 1961,
CFZ. South of Jacksonville: three March 18,
1961, CFZ. Gold Head Branch State Park: five
April 2, 1961, CFZ. Zeiger reported that all of
these were apparently form neglect (Edwards).
III. Lakeland: one male, May 9, 1945, (Need-
ham), CU. Holland (1888, p. 202) said that in
the Edwards collection there were specimens
of this species from "Alaska to southern Florida."


SUPERFAMILY
HESPERIOIDEA
Family HESPERIIDAE
Subfamily PYRGINAE

PHOCIDES Hiibner
477 P. PIGMALION OKEECHOBEE
Worthington
Mangrove skipper.
PI. II, Fig. 1, 9; Fig. 2, 8, underside.
Papilio 1:133. 1881.
Commonly known as batabano (Lucas), this is
a common species along the coast from Port


Sewall to Tampa from November to May. In
the southern part of its range it also flies from
June to August. There is one Tampa record for
August, UT. Food: Rhizophora mangle. Early
stages described by Strohecker (1938, p. 295).

POLYGONUS Hubner
481 P. LEO (Gmelin)
Hammock skipper.
Syst. Nat 13th Ed. 1: Pt. 5, p. 2363, No. 836.
1790.
Leo was previously referred to as lvidus savigny
latrille). IV. Boca Grande: FMJ. Palmetto
Island: ex pupa, Dec., CPK. Dade and Monroe
Counties: common, with records including all
months. Food: Piscidia piscipula; Pongamia
pinnata, DPI; Jamaica dogwood, (Stegmaier),
DPI.
481,1 P. MANUELI Bell & Comstock
Manuel's skipper.
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1379:4. 1948.
Florida: 1910, (Franck), BM. IV. Miami: Feb.,
uly, Oct., dosP. VI. Paradise Key: paratype,
Feb. 25, 1948, (Wood), Bell & Comstock; July,
dosP. VIII. Key Largo and Bonefish Key:
March, April, July, Nov., dosP.

PROTEIDES Hiibner
482 P. MERCURIUS SANANTONIO (Lucas)
Hist. Cuba 7:626. 1857.
II. A single stray of this Cuban species was
taken at Gainesville, May 24, 1920, (Fattig), det.
Klots, AMNH.

EPARGYBEUS Hfibner
488 E. ZESTOS Geyer
Zestos skipper.
Zutr. exot Schmett. 4; P1. 106, Figs. 615, 616.
1832
Florida: BM. II. Sanford: (Skinner), Grsb. 27.
IV. Miami: Jan. 28-Feb. 8, Hebard (1903, p. 253);
April, (King), LH; June, LH; June, July, Aug.,
dosP; July, JWT; Aug., (Strohecker), LH; Skin-
ner (1899, p. 112). Biscayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb.
27. V. Marco: types of oberon Worthington
(1881, p. 132). May, (Worthington), BM. VI.
Florida City: July, OB. Paradise Key: March,
OB; March, April, FMJ; April, HAF. South-
west of Paradise Key: Sept, HAF. VIII. Key
Largo: March-May, OB; common, May 1954,
SVF; June, JRM, JWT; Aug., LWG; Aug., Sept.,
LHH. Upper Matecumbe: June, MCZ. Key
West: (Skinner) Grsb. 27.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


484 E. CLARUS (Cramer)
Silver-spotted skipper.
Pap. Exot. 1; Pl. 41, Figs. E, F. 1776.
Claws is commonly known as E. tityrus (Fabri-
cius), and is common throughout but with no
record for January. Larva on various Legumi-
nosae, locust, and wisteria.

GONIURUS Hfibner
486 G. PROTEUS (Linnaeus)
Long-tailed skipper.
P1. II, Fig. 5, 8.
SystL Nat., p. 484. 1758.
Proteus is abundant throughout whenever the
sun shines, though not as common in late spring
and early summer. The larvae are a pest on
beans, Watson (1931, p. 28). Also recorded on
turnips and cabbage (Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull.
45:55) and on wild plum and catnip, Fla. Bug-
gist 2:114.
[487 G. dorantes (Stoll)]
Dorantes skipper.
Pap. Exot. Suppl.; P1. 39, Fig. 6. 1791.
This is another suspicious record from the Cleve-
land Museum. It bears two labels-Miami: Oct.
11, 1916, and Tampa: June, 1908. Both labels
are open to question, though there is the possi-
bility of a stray from Cuba, in which case it
should be the subspecies santiago (Lucas).

ACHALARUS Scudder
496 A. LYCIADES (Hiibner)
Hoary edge.
Zutr. exot Schmett.; Figs. 621, 622. 1832.
Florida: two males, one female, (Strecker?), BM;
three, MCZ. I. Monticello: one old specimen,
Oct 5, Grsb. 27. II. Gainesville: one old speci-
men, Sept. 27, Grsb. 27. III. Central Florida:
three, 1884, (Morrison), MCZ. Food: Desmo-
dUum.
AUTOCHTON Hiibner
5W0 A. CELLUS (Boisduval & Leconte)
Golden-banded skipper.
L.p. Am&. Sept.; P1. 73. [1834].
Florida: four, BM; (Thaxter), MCZ. I. Torreya
State Park: Aug. 28, 1958, (Weems), DPL Tal-
lahassee: Feb. 23, 1949, HEW; April 17, (May-
nard), Skinner (1911, p. 189). II. Gainesville:
April 14 and 18, 1963, (Weems), DPI. IV. Bis-
cayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb. 27. Food: Amph-
campa.


THORYBES Scudder
Because of the close similarity of the three spe-
cies, it is more than probable that the records are
confused.
503 T. BATHYLLUS (Abbot & Smith)
Southern cloudy wing.
Lep. Ins. Ga.; P1. 22. 1797.
Florida: Aug., LACM. I. Pensacola: Feb.,
March, June, Aug., SSN. DeFuniak Springs:
Oct. 17, AMNH. Lake Stanley: Oct., AMNH.
Alford: July, UK. Marianna: July, TU. Monti-
cello: Oct., AMNH. II. Lake Geneva: March,
HEW. III. Fort Reed: April, CU. Longwood:
March, LWG. Winter Park: Sept., EGV. Or-
lando: July, Sept., WMD; Sept., Oct., JWT. La
Grange: Sept., SIM. Merritt Island: Sept., Oct.,
JWT. Tampa: March, Bell (1920, p. 237); Sept.,
Oct., JWT. IV. Biscayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb.
28. Miami: Laurent (1903a, p. 297); Sept., SIM.
Food: various Fabaceae.
504 T. CONFUSIS Bell
Confused cloudy wing.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 48:205. 1922.
Florida: Aug., LACM. I. Millview: July, VFG.
Pensacola: March, April, SSN. Alford: July,
UK. III. Rock Springs: March, JWT. Orlando:
July, WMD. Merritt Island: April, JWT; June,
JRM; Aug., HAF. Tampa: CU; types, "abun-
ant," March, AMNH; common, March-Dec.,
Morgan (1933); June, Aug., Oct., LHH. VI.
Florida City: Sept., det with "?," HEW. Home-
stead: March, LWG.
505 T. PYLADES (Scudder)
Northern cloudy wing.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 207. 1870.
I. Pensacola: Aug., SSN. Apalachicola: (Chap-
man), Grsb. 27. II. Okeefenokee Swamp: July,
UK. Gainesville: March, SIM, JRW; May,
DPI. Island Grove: April, AMNH. St. Augus-
tine: (Palmer), Grsb. 27. III. Cedar Key: July,
UK. Enterprise: April, Castle & Laurent (1896,
p. 302). Ormond: common in March and April,
Blatchley (1902, p. 232). Rock Springs: March,
JWT. Orlando: March, July, WMD. La Grange:
Sept., SIM. Indian River: (Palmer), Grsb. 27.
Tampa: March, Bell (1920, p. 237); fairly com-
mon, March-Dec., Morgan (1933). Winter
Haven: April, SIM, JRW. IV. Oneco: March,
CPK. Sarasota Co.: March, CPK. Siesta Key:
Feb., March, CPK. Punta Gorda: March, AKW.
Fort Myers: March, SIM. South Bay: May,
AMNH. Miami: Sept, SIM, JRW. Food: prob-
ably many Fabaceae.









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


PYRGUS Hiibner
519 P. OILEUS (Linnaeus)
Tropical checkered skipper.
Syst. Nat. 1(2): 795. 1767.
Oileus is more familiarly known under the syn-
onym syrichtus (Fabricius). It is common from
Tampa and Gainesville south, principally as
montivagus Reakirt. Fuller reports it scarce at
DeLand, which would suggest that that is about
its northern limit. However, two recent speci-
mens from Escambia County, taken by Hills, ex-
tend the range. It flies all year. Food: Mal-
vaceae.
521 P. COMMUNIS (Grote)
Checkered skipper.
Can. Ent. 4:69. 1872.
Florida: BM. I. Escambia Co.: July, VFG. Pen-
sacola: March, Oct., SSN; Oct., AMNH. Crest-
view: Oct., AMNH. DeFuniak Springs: Oct,
AMNH. Tallahassee: JPK. Monticello: Oct.,
AMNH. II. Gainesville: Sept., Oct., AMNH.
Jacksonville: FMJ; Sept., AMNH. III. Orlando:
July, CU. La Grange: Sept., Grsb. 28. Lake-
land: Nov., SIM. IV. Punta Gorda: April, FMJ.
VI. Paradise Key: Aug., Matteson letter to FMJ.
VIII. Key West: Sept., SIM. Food: Malvaceae.

STAPHYLUS Godman & Salvin
534 S. MAZANS HAYHURSTII (Edwards)
Southern sooty wing.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 3:22. 1870.
The records follow the coast quite closely from
St. Augustine on the east around to Sanibel
Island on the west, but with only a few records
from the Keys. The only inland records are: II.
East Gainesville: Sept., AMNH. Gainesville:
Sept., AMNH. Island Grove: July, SDM. III.
Ocala: Feb., YU. DeLeon Springs: March, SVF.
Ocoee: March, Aug., Sept., JWT. Eggs were
found on pigweed, July 25, Scudder (1899, p.
1857). VI. Paradise Key: Aug., (Matteson)
Jones' ms.

EPHYRIADES Hiibner
589 E. BRUNNEA FLORIDENSIS Bell &
Comstock
Florida dusky wing.
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1379: 17. 1948.
Outside the Keys this species has been taken
only in the Florida City area and once at Miami:
Feb. 28, 1929, (Kruger), AKW. The dates cover
all months except November. It is not rare. A
recent paper (Tamburo & Butcher, 1955) de-


scribes the life history and gives the food plan
as Malpighia glabra. Baranowski has reared it
from a leaf-tier on Byrsonima.

ERYNNIS Schrank
[541 E. tcelus (Scudder & Burgess)]
Dreamy dusky wing.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13:287. 1870.
I am very much in doubt as to whether this spe-
cies is really native to Florida, in spite of certain
apparently valid records. Lindsey, Bell and Wil-
liams (1931, p. 60) did not consider the range to
extend below North Carolina, in which they are
followed by Klots (1951, p. 222). Harris has
taken it in Georgia, but not south of Atlanta.
Florida: one male, det. Evans, BM. The late
Brigadier Evans informed me that there was
nothing to indicate the source of this specimen;
Scudder (1889, p. 1507) on the authority of Ed-
wards. I. Millview: March 26, 1961, det. Forbes
as "apparently this," VFG. III. Ormond: March,
April 1899, det. Skinner, Blatchley (1902, p. 231).
542 E. BRIZO SOMNUS (Lintner)
Sleepy dusky wing.
Papilio 1: 73. 1881.
Somnus is relatively common throughout the
state February-April. Evans listed one speci-
men, of thirteen in the British Museum, as typi-
cal brizo (Boisduval & Leconte). Food: Quer-
cus ilicifolia.
[546 E. persius (Scudder)]
Persius' dusky wing.
Proc. Essex Inst. 3:170. 1862.
III. Dunedin: April. IV. Osprey: March. Both
are attributed to Blatchley by Skinner and Wil-
liams (1924b, p. 197), though I do not find any
reference to them in Blatchley's books. In any
event they undoubtedly belong under the next
species.
547,1 E. BAPTISIAE (Forbes)
Wild indigo dusky wing.
Psyche 43:111. 1936.
Evans (1953, p. 208) makes this a subspecies of
lucilius (Scudder & Burgess). It was described
from Florida among other localities by Forbes,
but this and sixteen specimens in the British
Museum constitute the entire local record, un-
less we include the persius records above. The
food plant, Baptisia tinctoria, is not found in
Florida, though other species of the genus are
present
550 E. MARTIALIS (Scudder)
Mottled dusky wing.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Trans. Chicago Acad. Nat. Sci 1: 355. 1869.
Florida: Skinner (1941a, p. 208). I. Escambia
Co.: July 1 and Aug. 15, 1962, SMH. A speci-
men taken by Grant at Warrington is probably
this, but it is not fresh enough to be sure.
551 E. JUVENALIS (Fabricius)
Juvenal's dusky wing.
Ent. Syst. 3:339. 1793.
This is a common species all over the state
January-May, but mostly in March. Food: oak
and hazelnut.
554 E. HORATIUS (Scudder & Burgess)
Horace's dusky wing.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13:301. 1870.
Horatius is abundant throughout the state ex-
cept in cold weather. The food plants have been
given as wisteria and oak, but Klots (1951, p.
223) thought these might not be correct.
555 E. ZARUCCO (Lucas)
Zarucco dusky wing.
Hist. Cuba 7: 641. 1857.
Zarucco is likewise general and abundant. It is
apparently absent from the Keys, though Skin-
ner (1914a, p. 213) credited it to Key West The
records include all months. Food: Baptisia, and
in Cuba, Sesbanta grandiflora.
560 E. FUNERALIS (Scudder & Burgess)
Funereal dusky wing.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13:293. 1870.
According to Evans (1953, p. 209) this is a sub-
species of zarucco. Quite possibly these rec-
ords belong there. I. Bayou Chico: three males,
Oct. 12, 1914, AMNH. Big Bayou: one male,
Oct. 14, 1914, AMNH. All taken by F. E. Wat-
son. Food: Medicago sattva and M. hispida.
Subfamily HESPERIINAE
ANCYLOXYPHA Felder
567 A. NUMITOR (Fabricius)
Least skipper.
Ent Syst. 3:324. 1793.
Numitor is probably common throughout the
state but is overlooked because of its small size.
The records cover February-July and Septem-
ber-December. Food: grasses.
COPAEODES Edwards
574 C. MINIMA (Edwards)
Southern skipperling.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 3:196. 1871.
This was not listed by Grossbeck but is com-


mon everywhere except in the Keys from which
there are no records. Morgan (1933) noted
it as abundant everywhere around Tampa,
March-December. Elsewhere in the state dates
cover the year.

HESPEBIA Fabricius
[579 H. uncas Edwards]
Uncas' skipper.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 2:19. 1863.
Florida: (W. W. Hill), NYSM. Since this is a
western species, there must be a misdetermina-
tion.
581 H. METEA Scudder
Cobweb skipper.
Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 177. 1862.
Florida: Skinner & Williams (1924b, p. 183); May
17, LACM. III. Orlando: April 20, 1940, HAF.
Food: grasses.
[591 H. leonardus Harris]
Leonardus skipper.
Treatise Ins. Inj. Veg., p. 314. 1862.
The present status of this species is uncertain.
There are two old records: II. Northeastern
Florida: March, April, Scudder (1889, p. 1673).
III. Indian River: Edwards (1884, p. 311). How-
ever, Skinner and Williams (1924b, p. 181) made
North Carolina the southern limit of its range,
though Klots (1951, p. 238) said, "s. to Florida."
Klots has seen no recent material and based the
range on the authority of Scudder and Edwards.
Harris (1950, p. 21) reported no captures in
Georgia, and Mather (1958, p. 102) said there
were no records for Mississippi, but did quote
one record each for Louisiana and Alabama. If
present, it would be in the form stalllngsi H. A.
Freeman.
595 H. ATTALUS SEMINOLE (Scudder)
Dotted skipper.
Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci for 1871, p. 76. 1872.
This is a variable species, often very difficult to
determine. It is found in pine flats, according
to Nicolay. Florida: Feb.-May, LACM. I. Es-
cambia Co.: April, SMH. Pensacola: Feb.-April,
Aug., SSN; Oct., AMNH. Crestview: Oct.,
AMNH. Lake Stanley: common, Oct., AMNH.
DeFuniak Springs: Oct., AMNH. III. Dunellon:
July, UK. Orlando: April, JWT; Oct., WMD,
HAF. Lockhart: April, HAF. Tarpon Springs:
Jan., Skinner and Williams (1924b, p. 179); Feb.,
JLC. Gulfport: March, UM. Tampa: March,
Bell (1923, p. 27); "formerly common in woods
along Hillsborough River, now scarce or absent









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


around Tampa," Morgan (Notes). Lakeland:
May, FMJ; May, Nov., Grsb. 32. IV. Fort Pierce:
March, CPK. Sarasota: April, HLK. Punta
Gorda: April, AKW. Pine Island: March, CPK.
Fort Myers: March, Grsb. 32. Allen River to
Deep Lake: April, SIM. Miami: Laurent (1903a,
p. 297). Biscayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb. 32. South
Florida: common, Dyar (1905a, p. 130).
596 H. MESKEI (Edwards)
Meske's skipper.
Can. Ent 9:58. 1877.
III. Orlando: Sept., Oct., JWT; Oct., OB, HAF,
LHH, LACM, PSR. Indian River: type of straton,
Edwards (1881d, p. 78); AMNH; Brooklyn Mu-
seum, Grsb. 32. Titusville: Sept., LWG; Oct.,
LHH, JWT. Merritt Island: May, Sept., dosP;
Oct., HAF. IV. Avon Park: May, LACM. Sar-
asota: Sept., Bates. Fort Lauderdale: June,
MCZ. VIII. Big Pine Key: Dec., JCS.
[598 H. sassacus Harris]
Indian skipper.
Treatise Ins. Inj. Veg., p. 315. 1862.
Florida: Klots (1951, p. 238). II. Jacksonville:
(Slosson), Grsb. 32. Since dos Passos has not
seen this south of Virginia and Tennessee, and
it is very rare in Tennessee, the Florida record
needs to be duplicated. Food: grasses.

HYLEPHILA Billberg
601 H. PHYLEUS (Drury)
Fiery skipper.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1; P1. 13, Fig. 4. 1770.
Phyleus is abundant and state-wide, including
the Dry Tortugas, primarily in spring and fall,
but it has been taken in every month. Food:
grasses.
ATALOPEDES Scudder
602 A. CAMPESTRIS (Boisduval)
Sachem.
Ann. Soc. Ent. France Ser. 2, 10:316. 1852.
This is a common species, probably found
throughout the state, but because of its com-
monness I did not ask for data and ended up
with records only along the west coast from
Fort Myers to Cedar Key, and very few others.
Fuller says it is abundant around Cassadaga.
Food: Bermuda grass.

POLITES Scudder
611 P. THEMISTOCLES (Latreille)
Tawny-edged skipper.
Enc. M6th. 9:769. [1824].


Themistocles is relatively common throughout
the state, though there are no records from the
Keys. It is on the wing practically all the year.
Food: grasses.
612 P. BABACOA (Lucas)
Baracoa skipper.
Hist. Cuba 7:650. 1857.
This species is common and generally distrib-
uted March-November, with one January record.
III. Dade City: Bell (1923, p. 27). Food: grasses.
[614 P. pecklus (Kirby)]
Peck's skipper.
Faun. Bor.-Amer. 4:300. 1837.
Field (1938, p. 252) wrote: "south to Florida."
However, Field told me that his statement was
one of those unfortunate ambiguities which may
be interpreted as meaning either "up to the
Florida border," or "including Florida. There
are no Florida specimens in the U. S. National
Museum, nor have any Florida records turned
up. Food: grasses.
619 P. BRETTUS (Boisduval & Leconte)
620 P. VIBEX (Geyer)
Whirlabout.
LUp. Am6r. Sept.; PL 75. [1834]; Zutr. exot.
Schmett. 4:22. 1832.
These two have been considered separate spe-
cies, but I am following Klots (1951, p. 247) who
lumped them together under vibex on the au-
thority of specialists. It would be hopeless to
try to separate the records, which cover the state
and include every month. Food: grasses.

WALLENGRENIA Berg
621 W. OTHO (Abbot & Smith)
Broken dash.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1:31. 1797.
The species is common and is found state-wide,
probably all the year. There is an overlapping
of typical otho with the form egeremet (Scudder),
but I have made no attempt to locate that zone.
Forbes thinks it is very wide.

POANES Scudder
622 P. VIATOR (Edwards)
Broad-winged skipper.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila.; 4:202. 1865.
Florida: Scudder (1889, p. 1604); (23rd NY. Rpt.,
1908, p. 78). II. Gainesville: April 3 and 10,
1946, JGS. Duval Co.: Aug. 11, 1962, HLK.
This last was reported in the News of the Lepi-
dopterists' Society" No. 4, June 1963, p. 11, as









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


having been taken by Symmes, "13 August,
Trout River." It was taken by King Aug. 11, on
U. S. highway 17 north of Jacksonville near the
Trout River Bridge. III. Central Florida:
(Morrison), Skinner and Williams (1924a, p. 57).
625 P. ZABULON (Boisduval & Leconte)
Zabulon skipper.
L6p. Am6r. Sept.; P1. 76, Fig. 6. [1834].
I. Florida Caverns State Park: April 14, 1960,
(Denmark), DPI. III. Ormond: March 1899,
Blatchley (1902, p. 231). As Blatchley reported
taking several specimens, and as no one else has
taken it in Florida since then until 1960, it would
appear as though there might be some error in
determination, especially in view of the fact that
collecting in the general neighborhood of Or-
mond has been thorough.
628 P. AARONI HOWARDI (Skinner)
Aaron's skipper.
Can. Ent. 28:187. 1896.
III. Orlando: Aug., Oct., LHH; Sept., Oct., OB,
HAF; Oct., PSR, JWT. Titusville: April, JWT;
Oct. GWR. Merritt Island: Sept., LWG. All
the foregoing were probably taken by Berry.
Georgiana: type, Skinner. VI. Paradise Key:
March 20-April 9, 1933, on Pontederia flowers
at edge of glade, FMJ.
629 P. YEHL (Skinner)
Yehl skipper.
Ent. News 4:212. 1893.
I. Tallahassee: May 22, 1954, (E. V. Komarck),
LH. Although described from Florida, this spe-
cies seems to be very rare here, the principal
habitat being somewhat more northerly.
[630 P. radians (Lucas)]
Hist. Cuba 7:650. 1857.
Skinner (1920, p. 186) wrote: 'I described the
species as streckeri in Entomological News 4, p.
211, the specimen having been said to be from
Florida." Skinner (1917a, p. 82) also cast doubt
on the origin of his type of streckeri. Unless
there is some other, and more valid record, the
name should not be retained on the Florida list.
631 P. HAITENSIS (Skinner)
Ent. News 4:211. 1893.
Haitensis is of rare occurrence, presumably only
as a stray. III. Guntown: types, one male, one
female, April 3-6, 1901, (Laurent), Skinner.

PROBLEMA Skinner & Williams
632 P. BYSSUS (Edwards)
Byssus skipper.
Can. Ent 12:224. 1880.


Capron: MCZ. I. Tallahassee: June, JPK. III.
Indian River: May, Edwards (1884, p. 315). Mer-
ritt Island: April, LWG; April, Aug., Sept., OB;
April, Sept., Oct., HAF; Sept., GWR, PSR; Aug.-
Oct., JWT. Titusville: April, LWG; April, Sept.,
LHH. IV. Sarasota: Sept., Bates. Punta Gorda:
April, FMJ. Fort Lauderdale: Aug., MCZ. Bis-
cayne Bay: Oct., Skinner (1921, p. 277). Miami:
AKW, MCZ. VI. Paradise Key: March, April,
FMJ, CPK.
ATRYTONE Scudder
634 A. AROGOS (Boisduval & Leconte)
Arogos skipper.
L6p. Am6r. Sept; P1. 76, Fig. 3. [1834].
Florida: Dyar (1905a, p. 140). III. Orlando:
AKW; March, LWG, NSMS; April, Nov., WMD;
June, Sept., JWT; Sept., OB, HAF, LH, PSR. La
Grange: Sept., SIM. Tampa: April-Oct., 'espe-
cially numerous in summer when Lachnanthes
[Gyrotheca] is in bloom," Morgan (Notes), not
common, March, Bell (1923, p. 27). IV. Port
Sewall: April, OB. Sarasota: a small, dark, al-
most melanic pair, Sept. 1961, HLK. Miami:
April, OB; July, Skinner & Williams (1924a, p.
64); Aug., AMNH; Sept. MCZ.
635 A. LOGAN (Edwards)
Delaware skipper.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 2: 18; P1. 1, Fig. 5. 1863.
This species is never common, but is found ev-
erywhere except on the Keys, February-October.
Food: grasses.

EUPHYES Scudder
636 E. ARPA (Boisduval & Leconte)
Arpa skipper.
Lep. Am6r. Sept; P1. 63. [1834].
The records are confined almost exclusively to
the peninsula where it is not rare, March-No-
vember. The other records are: I. Apalachicola:
Sept., 1869, ex Scudder collection, MCZ; larva on
Serenoa, Edwards (1879, p. 191). VIII. Big Pine
Key: March, LH; Dec., JCS.
637 E. PALATKA (Edwards)
Palatka skipper.
P1. II, Fig. 3, 8; Fig. 7, 9.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 1: 287. 1867.
Palatka is more common than the other species
of the genus, and is found over the entire state.
While collection dates include all months except
May and December, there seem to be two fairly
well defined broods in spring and fall. Klots
thinks one very dark specimen (VIII. Sugarloaf
Key: Nov., CPK.) may represent a subspecies.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


More material is needed from the lower Keys in
order to prove it, but as Symmes has a series from
Big Pine Key which are all definitely typical, it
may have been merely a slight aberration. Food:
Cladium jamaicensis [Mariscus famaicensis].
638 E. DION ALABAMAE (Lindsey)
Dion skipper.
Ent. News 34:210. 1923.
I. Pensacola: May, SSN.
641, 1 E. BERRYI (Bell)
Berry's skipper.
Ent. News 52: 165. 1941.
I. Pensacola: May, SSN. Monticello: type,
March, Bell (1941). III. Orlando: Sept., Oct.,
(Berry), FRA, OB, LWG, HAF, LHH, LACM,
GWR, PSR, JWT, EGV. Merritt Island: March,
OB; Sept., Bell. IV. Deep Lake: March 1961,
LH, HLK, SSN, JCS. Monroe Station: Sept.,
HLK. Miami: Bell. According to Nicolay and
Symmes, berryi is taken primarily in swamps,
especially on pickerel-weed.
642 E. VESTRIS (Boisduval)
Dun skipper.
Ann. Soc. Ent. France Ser. 2, 10: 317. 1852.
I. Escambia Co.: July 9, 1961, SMH. Bayou
Chico: Oct. 14, 1914, AMNH. II. Gainesville:
Oct. 1, 1914, AMNH. St. Augustine: Dec. 21,
1949, CGM. III. Indian River: Edwards (1884,
p. 313). Merritt Island: Sept., JWT. Tampa:
Morgan (1933). IV. Arcadia: July 4,1953, (King),
CPK. Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 449).

ATRYTONOPSIS Godman
643 A. LOAMMI (Whitney)
Loammi skipper.
Can. Ent. 8:76. 1876.
I. Escambia Co.: July, VFG. Apalachicola:
MCZ. II. Jacksonville: type, March, Whitney
III. Orange Co.: Edwards (1881a, p. 5). Or-
lando: April, LG; April, May, Oct., Nov., WMD;
April, July, Oct., HAF; Aug., Sept., LHH;
Sept., GWR, PSR, SDM, JWT. Merritt Island:
April, GWR. Tarpon Springs: Skinner & Wfl-
liams (1924a, p. 68). Tampa: March, Edwards
(1884, p. 313); March-Oct., Morgan (1933). IV.
Sarasota: April, CPK. Englewood: March, CPK.
Punta Gorda: FMJ; April, AKW. Fort Myers:
March, SIM. Miami: Jan., Skinner & Williams
(1924a); Feb., April, Laurent (1903a, p. 297);
March, CPK, FMJ. Biscayne Bay: Skinner &
Williams (1924a). VI. Florida City: April, June,
Sept., Oct., OB. Paradise Key: March, FMJ.


OLIGORIA Scudder
652 0. MACULATA (Edwards)
Twin spot skipper.
Proc. Ent Soc. Phila. 4:201. 1865.
This species is quite common all over the state,
especially in the spring. Food: presumably grass.

LEREMA Scudder
653 L. ACCIUS (Abbot & Smith)
Clouded skipper.
Lep. Ins. Ga.; P1. 23. 1797.
Accius is common throughout the state, in every
month in the southern part of the state, probably
with spring and fall broods in the northern part.
Food: grasses.

AMBLYSCIRTES Scudder
659 A. [celia Skinner]
Celia's roadside skipper.
Ent. News 6: 113. 1895.
Florida: (Skinner), Grsb. 33. Since I have not
been able to trace Grossbeck's reference to Skin-
ner, and since the species is not usually found
east of Texas, I believe this must be an error. H.
A. Freeman believes the record may belong to
A. belli Freeman, which has been found in sev-
eral areas in Georgia. A specimen, I. Escambia
Co.: March 1961, SMH, is placed here tenta-
tively by Klots.
660 A. VIALIS (Edwards)
Roadside skipper.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 58. 1862.
I. Apalachicola: (Chapman), Scudder (1889, p.
1582). II. Gainesville: March 20, 1913, (Davis),
Watson's record in the University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station copy of Holland
(p. 340). III. Cassadaga: March, SVF. Tampa:
common, March, Bell (1923, p. 27). Since Mor-
gan never took it, and in view of the paucity of
records elsewhere in the state, this observation
by Bell is astounding. Food: grasses.
663 A. ALTERNATA (Grote & Robinson)
Least Florida skipper.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 1: 3. 1867.
Florida: Feb., March, Skinner & Williams (1923,
p. 139); as meridionalis Dyar, Grsb. 33. I. Pen-
sacola: Feb.-April, SSN. III. Central Florida:
Lindsey, Bell and Williams (1931, p. 129). Or-
lando: March, HAF. Tampa: scarce, in fields
and along roadsides, March-Nov., Morgan
(Notes). VII. Everglades National Park: July
8, 1958, LSP.









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


666 A. AESCULAPIUS (Fabricius)
Textor skipper.
Ent. Syst. 3(1): 347. 1793.
Aesculapius is generally known as textor (Hiib-
ner). I. Apalachicola: type of wakulla, Edwards
(1869, p. 311). II. Gainesville: two Jan. 31,
1959, DPI; Sept. 27, 1914, AMNH. III. Central
Florida: (Morrison), Skinner & Williams (1923,
p. 141). Orange Co.: dosP; April, JWT. Rock
Springs: March, LWG; March, April, HAF, dosP;
April, WMD.
NASTRA Evans
671 N. LEIERMINIERI (Latreille)
Swarthy skipper.
Enc. Mith. 9:777. [1824].
L'herminieri is common March-June and August-
October, but as there are no records south of the
line Naples-Archbold Biological Station-Titus-
ville, it appears to avoid the subtropical regions
of the state.
672 N. NEAMATHLA (Skinner & Williams)
Neamathla skipper.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 49:145. 1923.
II. Gainesville: Aug., WJP. Jacksonville: Sept.,
King), CPK. III. Central Florida: 1884, types,
(Morrison), Skinner & Williams (1923). Chulu-
ota: March, HAF. Orlando: Sept., (Berry),
LWG; Oct., HAF. Tampa: Feb., OB; Feb., May,
Aug., JWT; May, June, Aug.-Oct., LHH; Aug.,
Morgan (1933). IV. Sarasota: May, (King), CPK.
La Belle: July, (Beamer), UK. Miami: May,
June, Aug.-Oct, LHH. VI. Florida City: Feb.-
May, OB.
LERODEA Scudder
674 L. EUFALA (Edwards)
Eufala skipper.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 2:311. 1869.
The records for eufala cover the state except for
the Keys, Jan.-May, July, Sept.-Dec. Food:
grasses.
CYMAENES Scudder
675 C. TRIPUNCTUS (Herrich-Schaeffer)
Three spotted skipper.
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. 19: 53. 1865.
IV. Lake Worth: March, BH. Miami: Feb.,
April, June, Oct., OB; July, JAP; Sept., HAF.
Brickell Hammock: Aug., HAF. VI. Florida
City: Feb., April, June, Oct., OB; March, HAF;
July, LSP. VIII. Long Key: Aug., KR. Key
West: July, JRM. Food: in Cuba, sugar cane.


THESPEIUS Godman
[676 T. macareus (Herrich-Schaeffer)]
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. 23: 192. 1869.
V. Marco Island: "I have seen lately in the col-
lection of Mr. George Franck the following spe-
cies of Hesperiidae caught within the limits of
the United States and heretofore unrecorded:
Thespeius macareus, Panoquina nero," (Skinner,
1902, p. 183). This is a record that should be
viewed with suspicion.

CALPODES Hiibner
677. C. ETHLIUS (Stoll)
Brazilian skipper. P1. II, Fig. 6, 8.
Pap. Exot. 4; P1. 382, Fig. A. 1782.
Ethlius is often abundant where its favorite food,
canna, grows. It flies principally in the heat of
the day. While the records cover all months,
it is probably commonest in the summer. The
larvae have also been reported on celery, Bare
(1935, p. 804) and Phyllanthus, DPI.

PANOQUINA Hemming
678 P. [sylvicola (Herrich-Schaeffer)]
Sylvicola skipper.
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. 19: 55. 1865.
V. Marco Island: See the quotation from Skinner
under 676 above where nero is used as a syno-
nym for sylvicola. VIII. Key Largo: July 19,
1939, (Beamer), UK. Bell, as quoted by Klots
(1951, p. 270), believed that these records might
be referable to hecebolus (Scudder) below.
678,1 P. [hecebolus (Scudder)]
Hecebolus skipper.
Rept. Peabody Acad. 4: 81. 1872.
I find no actual record of this in Florida, but if
Bell's theory that sylvicola has been misdeter-
mined, is correct, the Key Largo record for that
would belong here. What one would do with
the Marco record is anyone's guess.
680 P. PANOQUIN (Scudder)
Salt-marsh skipper.
Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 178. 1862.
Panoquin is relatively common and limited to
the coastal strip, though there are three speci-
mens from Winter Park (April, SDM) and one
from Lakeland (May, AMNH). The dates run
February-December, but a spring and fall brood
seem to be indicated, with possibly a small one
in summer.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


681 P. PANOQUINOIDES (Skinner)
Obscure skipper.
Eat. News 2:175. 1891.
This species not common. I. Apalachicola: Feb.,
MCZ. II. Rock Point: May, Aug., Oct., GWR.
III. Titusville: May, Sept., JWT, LHH; Sept.,
WMD, HAF; Oct., PSR, AKW. Merritt Island:
March, Sept., JWT; April, Sept., Oct, OB; Sept,
HAF, LWG. Tampa: scarce March-Dec., Mor-
gan (1933). IV. Siesta Key: March, CPK. Punta
Gorda: April, CPK; Nov., AMNH. Boca Grande:
April, CPK. Miami: Feb., March, Skinner &
Williams (1923, p. 148); Feb., May, Sept., Oct.,
LHH. V. Marco Island: April, SIM. VIII. Big
Pine Key: April, OA. Key West: June, JRM;
Sept., SIM. Dry Tortugas: summer, Forbes
(1941, p. 147); July, WMD.
683 P. OCOLA (Edwards)
Ocola skipper.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 2: 20. 1863.
Ocola is wide spread in Florida and not rare,
but there are no records from the Keys. It flies
in all months of the year.

ASBOLIS Mabille
683,1 A. CAPUCINUS (Lucas)
Monk. P1. II, Fig. 4, 8; Fig. 8, 9.
Hist. Cuba 7:625. 1857.
Capucinus is a recent introduction, first taken
in Miami, Sept. 1947, by Grimshawe; it has
spread north to Hobe Sound on the east coast
and Pinellas County on the west Platt took it
at Lake Helen in 1953. Davidson took a pair
May 10, 1961, three miles northwest of Oviedo,
and Rawson took one in New Smyrna Beach on
July 2, 1961, and again on April 10, 1962. At
Siesta Key there are two broods at least, March-
April and November-December; but, as it has
been taken in Pinellas County in August, (BLM),
there may be a third in that area. Farther south
it has been taken in every month. I have taken
it at light. Franclemont found the larva on a
species of Sabal at Oneco in March. The deter-
mination of this species has baffled a number of
collectors, perhaps because it has so few out-
standing characteristics. Yet Klot's description
(1951, p. 271) should leave no one in doubt
Food: Cocos nucifera, Phoenix and Paurotis
palms, DPI.
Family MEGATHYMIDAE
So much has been discovered recently, and is


still being discovered, about this elusive family
of highly localized species that the records may
be in hopeless confusion. I give them as re-
ceived. Such order as may have been achieved
for the Florida species is due to the kindness of
Mr. H. A. Freeman, who has revised this sec-
tion, as well as reviewing the entire Hesperiidae
text
MEGATHYMUS Scudder
684 M. YUCCAE BUCHHOLZI Freeman
Florida yucca skipper. P1. II, Fig. 9, 9.
Field and Laboratory 20: 31. 1952.
Florida: NYSM. I. Crestview: frass-tubes and
tunnels in Yucca smalliana [filamentosa], May,
no adults reared, FMJ. Apalachicola: March
1876, (Thaxter), MCZ. Freeman noted that this
might be another species. III. Marineland: pu-
pal cases and adults, March, LH, JCS. Enter-
prise: May, Castle (1916, p. 380). Orlando:
March, LG. Indian River: April 1880, MCZ.
Melbourne; LACM; March, Castle. Georgi-
ana: March, Skinner & Williams (1924b, p.
206). Lisbon: May, DPI. Tarpon Springs:
at light, Feb., JLC. St Petersburg: April,
CMNH. Gulfport: (Ludwig), Grsb. 35. Lutz:
March, LACM. IV. Avon Park: J. & H. Corn-
stock (1902, p. 77); March, LACM. Port SewallU:
March, HAF. Jupiter: Feb., BH; March, April,
OB, LH; larvae reared on Yucca gloriosa, (Buch-
holz), HAF; April, AKW; May, LH. Sarasota:
March, HAF. Venice: April, Skinner & Williams
(1924b). Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 449); DPI.
Boynton Beach: Larva on Spanish bayonet,
Aug., DPI.
686 M. COFAQUI (Strecker)
Cofaqui skipper.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 148. 1876.
II. St. Augustine: Skinner (1911, p. 204). III.
Georgiana: Aug., Skinner & Wlfiams (1924b,
p. 207). St. Petersburg: LACM; on Yucca aloi-
folia, Bonniwell (1916, p. 372). Lutz: March,
LACM. Lake Thonotosassa: March, Skinner
& Williams. Tampa: March, Bell (1923, pp.
25 and 27); Sept, Morgan (1933). Port Tampa:
Morgan (1933). IV. Bradenton: April, OB.
Longboat Key: March, HLK; March, Nov., LH.
Sarasota: March, LACM. Siesta Key: March,
Oct., Nov., CPK; Nov., LH. Venice: March,
April, LACM; April, Skinner (1917b, p. 480), OB.
Boca Grande: SIM. A great deal has been done
on the life history of the species by Harris, King,
and Knudsen, some of which has been published
(Harris, 1955, and H. A. Freeman, 1955).









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


SUPERFAMILY
SPHINGOIDEA
Family SPHINGIDAE
I am greatly indebted to Mrs. Margaret M.
Cary for various comments and for many of the
food plant records, which, except for those doc-
umented for Florida, are taken irom her "Distri-
bution of Sphingidae in the Antillean-Caribbean
Region" (1951). She also notes that in Florida
she has had the greatest success in collecting
Sphingidae over petunias in the early dusk, and
to a lesser extent at the blossoms of night bloom-
ing jessamine and phlox. The punk tree, Mela-
leuca leucadendra, periwinkle, Vinca rose, and
azalea might be added to the latter.
Because Sphingidae are so wont to stray and
are popular with collectors, many of whom may
have bought specimens from unscrupulous deal-
ers, it is almost impossible to assess satisfactorily
most of the records for the rarer species. Many
are valid but far too many are either doubtful
or very probably out and out frauds.

Subfamily ACHERONTIINAE
HERSE Oken
693 H. CINGULATA (Fabricius)
Sweetpotato worm. PL. VII, Fig. 1, 4, Fig. 2, 9.
Syst. Ent., p. 545. 1775.
Cingulata is state wide and relatively common.
It has been recorded for all months except Feb-
ruary, although it is probably present all year.
Var. decolorata (Henry Edwards), described
from Indian River (1882a, p. 11), which lacks
the pink of the hind wing, also occurs, together
with intermediates. Food: sweet potato, Coop.
Econ. Ins. Rept 4:407; morning-glory and
moonflower vine, (Cary).
COCYTIUS Hiibner
694 C. ANTAEUS MEDOR (Cramer)
Giant sphinx. Pl. VII, Fig. 10, 9.
Pap. Exot. 4, T. 394; Fig. A. 1782.
III. Cassadaga: May, SVF. Stemper: Oct.,
CMNH. Tampa: DPI; June, CMNH. IV. Arch-
bold Biological Station: April, (Pease), ABS.
Punta Gorda: May, AKW. Fort Myers: USNM.
Lehigh Acres: Nov., CPK. Belle Glade: Aug.,
WHH. Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 451). Lake
Worth: Larva on Annona glabra [laurifolia],
Dyar. Fort Lauderdale: Aug. 1925, UM. Dade
Co.: Feb., HFS. Miami: Jan., WES; June,
CMNH, PSR. Coral Gables: Oct., WES. Bis-
cayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb. 37. VI. Paradise


Key: at flowers of moonflower vine, March,
FMJ. VIII. Tavernier: Oct., CPK. Key West:
Grote (1875a, p. 224); RCC; larva on Annonaceae,
Feb. 27, 1929, DPI. Food: custard apple. The
larva was described by Dyar (1901b, p. 256),
also by Matteson (1933, pp. 3-5).
[695 C. duponchel (Poey)]
Cent. Lep. Cuba; Fig. 4. 1832.
Florida: Grote (1886, p. 134) determined this
with "?". Smith (1888,yp. 154) speaking of an-
taeus medor, said only: there is a closely allied,
but smaller species in Cuba, differing from the
present by a decided mossy green powdering.
It is a Poey's A. duponchel." The record would
hardly seem valid. Food: Annonaceae.
PHLEGETHONTIUS Hiibner
696 P. SEXTA (Johanssen)
Tobacco hornworm. P1. VII, Fig. 4, 8.
Cent. Ins. Rar. 27, No. 81. 1763.
This species is found throughout the state, prob-
ably all year. Larvae have been found on to-
matoes, potatoes, and tobacco, DPI.
697 P. QUINQUEMACULATA (Haworth)
Tomato hornworm. P1. VII, Fig. 3, 9.
Lep. Brit, p. 59. 1803.
Q uinquemaculata probably occurs throughout
e state but is not nearly as common as sexta:
Feb., April, May, July-Sept Food: tobacco and
tomato, DPI.
698 P. RUSTICA (Fabricius)
Six-spotted sphinx, or rustic sphinx. P. VII,
Fig. 5, 9.
Syst. Ent., p. 340. 1775.
I. West Pensacola: Sept., VFG. Warrington:
WP; rare, summer, VFG. Myrtle Grove: July,
WJW. Quincy: May, CPK. Monticello: July,
UM. II. Gainesville: May, WJP, UFES; June,
DPI. Jacksonville: May, CPK. III. Cassadaga:
June, SVF. Oviedo: reared on Callicarpa amer-
kcana, Skinner (1922, p. 280). Orlando: May,
CPK; July, FRA, WRB; Aug., WES. Brooks-
ville: June, AKW. Tampa: Sept., WRB. IV.
Bradenton: GCES. Archbold Biological Station:
Nov., PSU. Belle Glade: DPI. Boynton Beach:
Feb., DPI. Fort Lauderdale: Aug., UM. Dade
Co.: Feb., July, Oct., HFS. Miami Beach: May,
WES. Miami: Sept., CGM. VI. Florida City:
May, OB. Food: Bignonia.
699 P. BRONTES CUBENSIS (Grote)
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 5:189. 1865.
III. Indian River: AMNH. Brooksville: June




_7


THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


PARATREA Grote
711 P. PLEBEIA (Fabricius)
Plebeian sphinx. Pl. VIII, Fig. 5, 6.
Gen. Ins., p. 27. 1777.
I. Escambia Co.: May, Aug., SMH. Warring-
ton: rare, summer, VFG. Quincy: July-Sept.,
CPK. Monticello: March, June, DPI. II. Lake
Butler: Dec., UFES. Gainesville: April, Aug.,
DPI. Jacksonville: Grsb. 38. Enterprise: (Slos-
son), Grsb. 38. Cassadaga: common, May, SVF.
Sanford: June, Grsb. 38; Dec., DPI. Orlando:
March, WMD, LH, CPK; July, WES; Aug.,
Sept., WRB. IV. Bradenton: March, CPK.
Oneco: March, JGF. Archbold Biological Sta-
tion: Sept., YU; Nov., PSU. Siesta Key: April,
CPK. Fort Meyers: April, AMNH. Food: Te-
coma, and reported on lilac, Bignonla, and Passi-
flora.
SPHINX Linnaeus
719 S. CHERSIS (Hiibner)
Great ash sphinx.
Samml. exot. Schmett. 2; P1. 167. 1824.
II. Macclenny: larva on evergreen ash, Sept.
27, 1927, (Betts), DPI. III. Tampa: imago, (Kil-
man), WES. Bartow: larva on gardenia, Sept
8, 1949, (Poucher), DPI. Cary comments that
this is a most surprising food plant. It is also
reported on Ligustrum, DPI. Usual food: ash,
lilac.
[721 S. mordecai McDunnough]
Can. Ent. 55:148. 1923.
This is an example of another mixup in check-
list numbers or some other clerical error, which
resulted in a record appearing in the Coop.
Ins. Pest Surv. 3(27): 6. It is quite incorrect.
728 S. GORDIUS Cramer
Apple sphinx.
Pap. Exot. 3; P1. 247, Fig. B. 1780.
II. Welaka: April 8, 1962, (Ferguson), NSMS.
IV. Archbold Biological Station: Feb. 23 and
March 26, 1963, March 20, 1962, April 4, 1959,
(Frost), PSU.
[730 S. drupiferarum Abbot & Smith]
Wild cherry sphinx.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1; P1. 71. 1797.
Packard (1890a, p. 609) wrote, "occurring from
Florida to Canada." The occurrence in Florida
seems questionable. Food: Prunus, and occa-
sionally Celtis.


LAPARA Walker
The records for this genus are probably mixed
as all three species are quite similar in appear-
ance.
734 L. HALICARNIAE (Strecker)
P1. VIII, Fig. 4, 6.
Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 3: 35. 1880.
Some of these determinations are tentative.
Florida: type, Strecker, (Wyatt wrote that this
came from Hulst and that the label, with no
date or collector's name, is possibly Hulst's
handwriting); det. B. P. Clark, MCZ. Fort
Schuyler: B. P. Clark (1919, p. 102). I. Escambia
Co.: May, SMH. West Pensacola: April, VFG.
Tallahassee: March, JPK. II. Gainesville: July,
CU. Jacksonville: Aug., WHH. III. Enterprise:
April, (Castle), Laurent (1903c, p. 133). St. Pe-
tersburg: June, OB. IV. Archbold Biological
Station: March, CU, PSU. Charlotte Harbor:
Clark. Fort Myers: Feb., CU. Dade Co.:
March, May, HFS. Miami: April, WES. Coral
Gables: Jan., WES. VI. Homestead: May, CPK.
Florida City: Jan., May, OB. Food: pine.
735 L. CONIFERARUM (Abbot & Smith)
Pine sphinx. P1. VIII, Fig. 2, 6; Fig. 3, 2.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1:83. 1797.
Florida: det. Clark, MCZ. I. Escambia Co.:
March, SMH. Big Bayou: larva on Pinus vir-
giniana (?), Oct., Grsb. 38. Warrington: rare,
summer, VFG. Tallahassee: Aug., JPK. Mont-
icello: March, DPI. II. Alachua Co.: May, DPI.
Gainesville: Feb., CPK.; on Pinus taeda, April,
UM; June, July, Sept., UFES; Aug., DPI. Cal-
lahan: Aug., GWK. Jacksonville: Grsb. 38. III.
Enterprise. (Slosson), Grsb. 38. Cassadaga: com-
mon, May, SVF. Sanford: June, Rothchild &
Jordan (1903, p. 151). Orlando: Sept., WES.
Weekiwachee Springs: March, AEB; May, CPK.
Tampa: Aug., GWK. IV. Archbold Biological
Station: Sept., YU; Nov.-Jan., PSU. Punta
Gorda: abundant, Feb., Slosson (1890b, p. 82).
Lake Worth: Slosson (1894b, p. 107). Fort Lau-
derdale: Feb., UM.
[736 L. bombycoides Walker]
List. Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 8:232. 1856.
Currently this species is believed to be too
northern in its range to reach Florida. Certain-
ly there is no clear-cut record of it here; in fact
the only one is "Florida" (Rothschild & Jordan,
1903, p. 152), unless we accept Seitz (1913, p.
860) which is probably nothing more than a
quotation from Rothschild & Jordan.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Subfamily AMBULICINAE
PROTAMBULYX Rothschild & Jordan
737 P. STRIGILIS (Linnaeus)
Mant. Plant., p. 538. 1771.
The validity of most of the following records
is questioned. Cary believes that the one from
Palm Beach is valid, and it probably is that of
a wind blown stray. She has also seen a record
from Chokoloskee dated in the early 1940's, a
relatively safe date, but she cannot place the
record. It is her belief that the species, if ever
present and established, may have been replaced
by carter. However, a specimen has been taken
recently by Howe, which is very fresh and may
indicate a new colony. On the basis of a very
detailed sketch and description, Cary has deter-
mined it as typical strigilis. III. St. Petersburg:
Aug. 30, 1919. CMNH. The source of this, like
so many of the Cleveland Museum specimens,
is not known. IV. Palm Beach: form rubripennis
(Butler), "cannot vouch for the correctness of
the locality label," Barnes & McDunnough (1910,
p. 197). Miami: Feb. 2, Skinner (1914b, p. 477),
but the note added that this was the form called
carter, which would place it below. The date,
which was not given in this original reference,
was supplied by Grossbeck (1917, p. 38). VIII.
Plantation Key: Aug. 13, 1958, WHH. Food:
Anacardiaceae.
738 P. CARTERI Rothschild & Jordan
PI. II, Fig. 14, 8; Fig. 15, 9.
Nov. Zool. 9, Suppl. 180; P1. 66, Fig. 3;
PI. 67, Fig. 12. 1903.
The hind wing varies from brick red to dusky
yellow, and there is also some variation in the
forewing. It has been taken over night-bloom-
ing jessamine in April by Cary and Cadbury. IV
& VI. Dade Co.: many records, taken in every
month, OB, JWC, MMC, CMNH, LH, DPI,
CPK, ENP, HFS, WES. VIII. Key Largo: Dec.,
including a variety (?) with greenish forewings
and purplish hind wings, (Munroe), CNC. Tav-
ernier: Aug., Nov., DPI, CPK.

SMERINTHUS Latreille
739 S. JAMAICENSIS GEMINATUS (Say)
Twin spotted sphinx. P1. III, Fig. 8, 8.
Amer. Ent. 1: 25; P1. 12. 1824.
I. Warrington: rare, summer, VFG, WP. Quin-
cy: June 29, two Aug, 9, 1960, (Tappan), CPK.
Tallahassee: March 29, 1950, JPK. Monticello:
June 16, 1955, DPI. III. Cassadaga: June 15,
SVF. Food: wild cherry.


PAONIAS Hiibner
741 P. EXCAECATUS (Abbot & Smith)
Blind-eyed sphinx. PI. VII, Fig. 8, o; Fig. 9, S.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1:49. 1797.
I. Escambia Co.: March, SMH. Warrington:
rare, summer, VFG. Quincy: March, June-Sept.,
CPK. Tallahassee: April 11, 1951, JPK. Monti-
cello: March, DPI. II. Gainesville: March 31,
1955, (Perry), CPK; Sept 20, 1956 (Denmark),
DPI. Jacksonville: Aug. 17, 1958, WHH. III.
Tampa: two, (Kilman), LH. IV. Bradenton:
March 5, 1955, (Kelsheimer), CPK. Oneco:
March 1955, JGF. Belle Glade: Oct 25, 1955,
EES. Archbold Biological Station: Sept. 15,
1960, (Pease), YU. Food: wild cherry.
742 P. MYOPS (Abbot & Smith)
Small-eyed sphinx. P1. VIII, Fig. 11, S.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1: 51. 1797.
Forewings much lighter in color than those of
northern specimens. I. Warrington: one March,
rare, summer, VFG, WP. Quincy: frequent,
March, June-Sept., CPK. Monticello: March,
DPI; April, June, Sept., CPK. II. Alachua Co.:
Sept., DPI. Jacksonville: Aug. 17, 1958, WHH.
III. Cassadaga: two Sept. 4-15, SVF. Haines
City: July 13, 1917, (R. H. Young), DPI. Food:
Rosaceae; willow, SVF.
743 P. ASTYLUS (Drury)
Huckleberry sphinx. P1. II, Fig. 19, 8.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 2:45. 1773.
I. Quincy: July 29, 1960, (Tappan), CPK. Monti-
cello: March 23, Sept. 13, 1955, (Phillips), DPI;
July 22, 1932, UM. II. Gainesville: April, 1960,
UFA. Food: blueberry, huckleberry.

CRESSONIA Grote & Robinson
744 C. JUGLANDIS (Abbot & Smith)
Walnut sphinx. P1. VII, Fig. 6, 8; Fig. 7, 2.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 1:57. 1797.
These are typical juglandis, the northern sub-
species being robinsonii Butler. I. Escambia
Co.: April, SMH. Warrington: occasional, sum-
mer, VFG. Quincy: March, April, Aug., CPK.
Tallahassee: April-June, JPK. Monticello: April,
CPK. II. Gainesville: March-May, Sept., UM,
April, UFA; Sept., Grsb. 39; WJP. Green Cove
Springs: (Slosson), Grsb. 39. Putnam Co.: April
1, DPI. III. Sanford: Rothschild & Jordan,
(1903, p. 346). Altamonte Springs: DPI. Rock-
ledge: type of hyperbola Slosson (1890, p. 59);
Reiff & Cassino (1917, p. 76). IV. Bradenton:
March, DPI. Oneco: April, JGF; Oct., CPK.
Archbold Biological Station: Feb., March, YU.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Punta Gorda: March, CPK; March, AKW. Food:
walnut, hickory.

PACHYSPHINX Rothschild & Jordan
745 P. MODESTA (Harris)
Amer. J. Sci. 36:292. 1839.
I. Warrington: two, which are the pale western
form, WP; rare, summer, VFG. Quincy: May
2 and July 8, 1962, July 17, 1960, (Tappan), CPK.

Subfamily SESIINAE
PSEUDOSPHINX Burmeister
746 P. TETBIO (Linnaeus)
Giant gray sphinx. PL. VII, Fig. 15, 8.
Mant. Plant., p. 538. 1771.
Although recorded in Florida primarily from
extreme southern localities, a stray has been
taken in Connecticut (Britten, 1934, p. 43). IV.
Archbold Biological Station: March, PSU. Sar-
asota: larvae on Plumeria sp., Aug. 28, 1960,
Coop. Ins. Pest Surv. 7:87. Canal Point: reared
from frangipani, Nov., EES. V. Everglades:
one, over petunias, April, MCC. IV, VI. Dade
Co., VIII. Monroe Co.: not rare, March, June,
July, Sept., Nov., OB, SVF, CMNH, LH, DPI,
CPK, CGM, HFS, UFES. Food: Plumeria
rubra, DPI.
ERINNYIS Hiibner
747 E. ALOPE (Drury)
PI. II, Fig. 16, 9.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1; P1. 27, Fig. 1. 1773.
Alope is common throughout the southern por-
tion of the state, including the Dry Tortugas,
the northern Florida records being: III. Lees-
burg and Orlando (despite the fact that strays
have been taken as far north as Massachusetts,
CPK). Indian River: type of edwardsii Butler
(1881, p. 105). There are no records for July or
September but it is probably on the wing all
year. Food: Jatropha, Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 14:
14; papaya, DPI; Allamanda, Cary (1951, p. 102).
748 E. LASSAUXII MERIANAE Grote
Proc. Ent Soc. Phila. 5:75. 1865.
This species is present only as a stray from Cuba.
Florida: (Slosson), Grsb. 39; Barnes & McDun-
nough (1910, p. 199). IV. Myakka: two Sept.
4-6, 1918, CMNH. It would be interesting to
learn the origin of these two. Food: Morenta.
749 E. ELLO (Linnaeus)
Ello sphinx. Pl. II, Fig. 17, 9.
Syst Nat., p. 139. 1758.


EUo is probably the commonest sphingid
throughout the peninsula. It has also been
taken on the Dry Tortugas. Food: Yucca; pa-
paya, DPI; poinsettia, SVF, CPK; Euphorbia
heterophylla, Holland (1886, p. 103); E. buxi-
folia, det. West, CPK; Cnidoscolus, Cary (1951,
p. 103).
750 E. (ENOTRUS (Stoll)
Pap. Exot. 4; P1. 301, Fig. C. 1780.
CEnotrus is rare, and possibly is present only as
a stray. Florida: (Slosson), Grab. 39; Schaus
(1898b, p. 136); Rothschild & Jordan (1903, p.
368). IV. Miami: July 25, 1916, July 20, 1918,
CMNH. Smith (1888, p. 160) speaking of Dl-
ophontla melancholica (Grote), said: 'Fla.?
This species is very confusedly marked and diffi-
cult to describe except by comparison with its
allies E. merianae and E. cenotrus," but he makes
no mention of Florida in connection with either
of these last two. Rothschild & Jordan stated
that Grote's "melancholica" was true cenotrus,
while his "cenotrus" was crameri (Schaus). Food:
oleanders.

751 E. CRAMERI (Schaus)
Ent. News 9: 136. 1898.
Florida: OB. IV. South Florida: CGM; Schaus.
Punta Gorda: WES. Palm Beach: July 22, 1942,
DHK. Miami: July 7, 1939, DHK; Aug. 3, 1918,
CMNH. Brickell Hammock: MCZ. VI. Home-
stead: WES. VIII. Key West: OB. Food: pa-
paya, Allamanda.

752 E. OBSCURA (Fabricius)
P1. II, Fig. 18, 8.
Syst. Ent., p. 538. 1775.
One specimen has been recorded from I. Myrtle
Grove: Aug., WJW. There are occasional rec-
ords from Jacksonville south, but it is common
in Dade and Monroe Counties where it flies
all year. Also taken in the Dry Tortugas. Ac-
cording to Cary the favorite food in Florida is
Gonolobus and in Jamaica it feeds on papaya.
Larva on Sarcostemma clausum [Philibertia vim-
inalis] and Cynanchum [Vincetoxcum] palus-
tre, Dyar (1901a, p. 450).

753 E. DOMINGONIS (Butler)
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 697. 1875.
Domtngonis is rare, possibly only a stray. TV.
Miami: June 10, 1908, CMNH; July 10, 1927,
(Strohecker), LH. V. Everglades: two April,
over petunias, MMC. VI. Florida City: over
"four o'clock," May 2, 1955, SVF; July 16, 1938,
CMNH; Aug. 7, 1937, (Forsyth), HEW.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


PHRYXUS Huibner
755 P. CAICUS (Cramer)
P1. II, Fig. 10, 9.
Pap. Exot. 2; P1. 125, Fig. F. 1779.
III. Indian River: OB; Neumoegen (1891b, p.
123). IV. Fort Lauderdale: five Aug., Sept.,
UM; Sept. 3, 1932, MCZ. Biscayne Bay: (Slos-
son), Grsb. 40. Miami: Jan., Feb., Hebard (1903,
p. 253); May, Laurent (1903b, p. 305); May 15,
1920, FMG; July, PSR; July, Aug., OB; Aug.,
LHH; Sept., LH. V. Chokoloskee: USNM. Ev-
erglades: nineteen over petunias, MMC, JWC;
Jan., WES. Paradise Key: March, FMJ. VII.
Flamingo: Jan. 1960, (Christensen), ENP.

PACHYLIA Walker
756 P. FICUS (Linnaeus)
Fig sphinx. PL. VII, Fig. 14, 9.
Syst. Nat., p. 491. 1758.
III. Indian River: CU. IV. Bradenton: Feb.,
CPK. Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 451). Fort
Lauderdale: May, July, Aug., UM. Miami: Jan.,
Slosson (1899, p. 96); Jan., Feb., Hebard (1903,
p. 253); April, WRB, CPK; Aug., CGM; Sept.,
CMNH; Oct., Nov., RCC; "almost any month,"
FHS. Coral Gables: Jan., LH. V. Everglades:
"always the first moth to come at dusk over pe-
tunias, followed closely by lugubris," April,
MCC. VI. Florida City: Jan., HFS; Aug., Nov.,
OB; Nov., FRA. Everglades National Park:
Dec., CNC. Paradise Key: March, CPK. VIII.
Tavermier: Oct., DPI. Key West: Grote (1875a,
p. 226). Food: Ficus, occasionally Cecropia.
757 P. RESUMENS Walker
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 8: 190. 1856.
Florida: Rothschild & Jordan (1903, p. 378); Seitz
(1913, p. 869), probably quoting from Rothschild
& Jordan. III. Tampa: Oct. 30, 1921, CMNH.
We really need more proof for the presence of
this species in Florida, even as a stray. Food:
Echites umbellata [echites].

MADORYX Boisduval
758 M. PSEUDOTHYREUS (Grote)
PI. III, Fig. 18, S.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 5:46. 1866.
III. Lakeland: March, AKW. IV. Siesta Key:
Jan. 29, 1957, CPK. Punta Gorda: Slosson
(1890c, p. 102). Fort Myers: (Mattes), Grsb. 40.
Biscayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb. 40. Miami: April,
MCC; May, OB, CMNH. Coral Gables: Oct.,
WES. V. Everglades: March, abundant, "of 42
specimens taken, 40 were taken over petunias


and only two at light," MMC. Chokoloskee:
Nov., Rothschild & Jordan (1903, p. 386); Barnes
& McDunnough (1910, p. 199). VI. Florida
City: April, Cary (1940, p. 165). Paradise Key:
March, CMNH. VII. Flamingo: Feb., DPI;
May, ENP. VIII. Key Largo: March, OB; Aug.,
WHH; Dec., CNC. Tavernier: Oct., Nov., DPI.
Windley Key: Dec.-April, Oct., CPK. Upper
Matecumbe: Aug., WHH. Craig: March, July,
Aug., CPK.

CALLIOMMA Walker
759 C. PARCE (Fabricius)
Syst. Ent., p. 543. 1775.
Florida: four, OB; Barnes & McDunnough (1910,
p. 199). IV. Myakka: OB. Biscayne Bay: (Hol-
land), Grsb. 40. Miami: April 4, 1915, CMNH;
Aug. 12, 1943, DHK.

ENYO Hiibner
760 E. LUGUBRIS (Linnaeus)
Mourning sphinx. P1. III, Fig. 2, 9.
Mant. Plant., p. 537. 1771.
Lugubris is probably common throughout the
state, all the year, in the southern half of the
state at least Food: Ampelopsis, Cissus; grape,
rose, DPI.
[761 E. ocypete (Linnaeus)]
Syst. Nat., p. 489. 1758.
III. Stemper: May 23, CMNH. Until more can
be learned about the source of this specimen,
its acceptance as a valid record should be held
in abeyance. Barnes & McDunnough (1910, p.
199) mentioned a female in the Barnes collection
labeled Florida, but "refrain from adding this
species to the list until more authentic data can
be secured." Grote (1886, p. 131) said: "Fla.
northward," which must be an error.

CAUTETHIA Grote
762 C. GROTEI (Henry Edwards)
P1. III, Fig. 6, 9.
Papilio 2:10. 1882.
At times grotei is abundant in the twilight at
blossoms, and it also comes freely to light. All
year. It is subject to wide variation. Siesta
Key and Indian River are the most northerly
Florida records. It is common, especially in
Dade and Monroe Counties. VI. Homestead:
Feb., April-Nov., with peak abundance in May
gradually falling off. Food: Chiococca alba
[racemosa], Dyar (1901b, p. 255).









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


PERIGONIA Herrich-Schaeffer
763 P. LUSCA BAHAMENSIS Clark
Proc. N. E. Zool. Club 6: 108. 1919.
Florida: as interrupta Walker, (Rothschild & Jor-
dan, 1903, p. 428). IV. Miami: June 6, 1920,
FMG. VI. Homestead: form bahamensis, Dec.
31, 1954, Oct. 14, 1958 (Wolfenbarger), det.
Forbes as probably form interrupta, CPK. Flor-
ida City: Nov. 1, 1933, CMNH. Paradise Key:
Safford (1919, p. 399); at flowers, from Jan.-
April, (Jones), FMJ, CPK; Feb. 1919, Dyar,
(1921b, p. 138); a few at wild verbena blossoms
Feb. 24-28, 1920, Wood (1921, p. 208); March
25, 1930, (Bramley), CMNH; Nov. 10, OB.

AELLOPUS Hiibner
The three species in this genus are very apt
to be confused.
764 A. TANTALUS ZONATA (Drury)
PI. VIII, Fig. 12, 8.
Ill. Exot. Ent., p. 57; P1. 26, Fig. 5. 1776.
Florida: Aug., Oct., Rothschild & Jordan (1903,
p. 435). II. St. Augustine: (Johnson), Grsb. 41.
III. Indian River: March, Aug., OB. Stemper:
Sept., CMNH. IV. Port Sewall: common Nov.-
March, AMNH. Siesta Key: March, Nov., CPK.
Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 451). Deep Lake:
April, AMNH. Biscayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb.
41. Miami: May, CPK; July, OB. V. Ever-
glades: April, (Davis), SIM. VI. Florida City:
Jan., OB; July, CMNH; Dec., STES. Paradise
Key: Feb., Wood (1921, p. 208); in daytime flight
Feb., FMJ. VII. Flamingo: Dec., CNC. VIII.
Key West: ab. ixion (Linnaeus), June, CMNH;
Sept., SIM.
765 A. TITAN (Cramer)
Pap. Exot. 2:73. 1779.
Florida: CU. III. Indian River: four June, July,
OB. IV. Miami: two July 31, 1933, (Grim-
shawe), PSR; three July 9-26, OB. VI. Home-
stead: June 6, 1932, CMNH. Food: Rubiaceae.
766 A. FADUS (Cramer)
Pap. Exot. 1:95. 1775.
Florida: OB; Barnes & McDunnough (1910, p.
200); Smith (1888, p. 119). VI. Florida City:
Nov. 3, 1933, CMNH. Food: Genipa claustae-
folia [americana].
HEMARIS Dalman
767 H. THYSBE (Fabricius)
Hummingbird moth. P1. VIII, Fig. 13, 8.
Syst. Ent., p. 548. 1775.


Thysbe is not common, but present in several
forms. I agree with Grossbeck s statement (1917,
p. 41) that floridensis (Grote & Robinson) and
fuscicaudis (Walker) are not synonymous, that
it is "larger than thysbe and cimbiciformis" and
has "the dark chestnut abdomen" of fuscicaudis.
These are probably seasonal forms of two races,
either summer and winter or wet and dry, but
I do not have sufficient information to suggest
the seasonal or geographic limitations, both of
which might easily overlap. I. Warrington:
fairly common, Aug., VFG. II. Gainesville: sev-
eral, including fuscicaudis, UFES; larva on
Abelia, DPI. Hastings: both typical and cim-
biciformis (Stephens), June, Rothschild & Jor-
dan (1903, p. 445). III. Sanford: fuscicaudis,
June, Rothschild & Jordan. Melonville: flori-
densis, Rothschild & Jordan. Orlando: March,
Oct., WMD. Port Orange: fuscieaudis, May,
CPK. Tampa: Oct., UT. Bartow: FMJ. IV.
Bradenton: GCES. Oneco: floridensis, March,
CPK. Arcadia: fuscicaudis, July, CPK. Punta
Gorda: floridensis, April, WRB; fusdccaudis,
April, May, AKW. Food: Viburnum, snow-
berry.
768 H. GRACILIS Grote & Robinson
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 5: 174. 1865.
IV. Archbold Biological Station: March 26, 1962,
(Ferguson), NSMS. Ferguson writes that so
far as he knows, this is the first record south of
the Philadelphia region.
770 H. DIFFINIS (Boisduval)
Bumble bee moth. P1. VIII, Fig. 9, 8.
Spec. G6n. Het. 1; P1. 15, Fig. 2. 1836.
I. Warrington: rare, summer, VFG. Tallahas-
see: AMNH. Food: Lonicera, Symphoricarpos,
Apocynum, Triosteum.

Subfamily PHILAMPELINAE
PHOLUS Hiibner
772 P. SATELLITIA (Drury)
Satellite sphinx. P1. II, Fig. 20, pandorus
(Hiibner) S.
Ill. Exot. Ent.; P1. 29, Figs. 1, 2. 1770.
SateUitia is normally found in Florida as race
pandorus (Hiibner). Cary doubts the earlier
records for race posticatus Grote, unless as a
wind-blown stray from Cuba. The only posi-
tive record is the one determined by her, from
Miami. Several specimens exhibit unusual col-
oring, even an extreme, bright orange. There
is every reason to believe that these are chemi-
cal changelings due to the use of ethyl acetate
as a killing agent. Florida: Rothschild & Jor-









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


dan (1903, p. 483). I. Warrington: fairly com-
mon, VFG. De Funiak Springs: as posticatus,
(Fisher), Grsb. 41. Quincy: MCC, NFES; two
May 3, 1961, CPK; July 27, 1959, WJP; one
pandorus, one form ntermedia Clark, both July
8, 1962, (Tappan), CPK. Monticello: July 26,
1932, UM. II. Gainesville: UFES; UFA; Jan.
26, 1952, Aug. 15, 1947, DPI; four July, Aug.
WJP. St Augustine: (ohnson), Grsb. 41. III:
Sanford: three April 24-27, 1955, (Wilson), CPK.
Orlando: July 8, 1940, WRB. Tampa: Sept 9,
1940, DPI. Miami: posticatus, Aug. 1936, det.
Cary, OB. Food: Vftls, Ampelopsks, Cissus.
773 P. ACHEMON (Drury)
Achemon sphinx. PI. II, Fig. 21, 9.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 2:51. 1773.
II. Lake City: UFES. III. Cassadaga: April,
SVF. Leesburg: larva on Jatropha and Carica,
July 5, 1934, UFES file card. Tampa: (Reed),
UT. IV. Bradenton: March 30, 1955, CPK.
Oneco: May 24, 1953, (Dillman), CPK. Arch-
bold Biological Station: March, JGF. Food:
grape, Ampelopsis.
775 P. VTIS (Linnaeus); P. HORNBECKI-
ANA (Harris)
Vine sphinx. Pl. II, Fig. 12, 9.
Syst. Nat., p. 491. 1758; Sill. J. Sci., Art 36:299.
1839.
There is disagreement as to the name that is
applicable to this insect. The crux of the mat-
ter rests on the interpretation of the illustrations
in Madame Merians "Insects of the Suriname,"
which vary in different editions. Florida: CU;
Henry Edwards (1887b, p. 165); Smith, (1888,
141, 143). II. St. Augustine: (Johnson), Grsb.
42. III. Gulf Hammock: Castle & Laurent (1897,
p. 9). Stemper: Aug. 8, 1915, CMNH. IV. Bis-
cayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb. 42. V. Chokoloskee:
USNM. VI. Florida City: six May 11-26, OB;
Aug. 9, Oct. 9, 1938, (Forsyth), WES; Nov. 15,
1933, CMNH. VII. Flamingo: April, DPI.
VIII. Tavernier: Sept., Oct., CPK. Food: Vitfs,
Cissus.
776 P. FASCIATUS (Sulzer)
PI. II, Fig. 3, 8.
Gesch. Ins., p. 151. 1776.
Fasciatus is unquestionably commoner and more
widespread than the records indicate. Florida:
CU. I. Warington: occasional to common,
summer, VFG, Quincy: April, July-Oct, CPK.
Monticello: March, autumn, UM. II. Gaines-
ville: May, Oct., UM; Sept., UFES. Jackson-
ville: Aug., WHH. III. Cassadaga: common,
reared on grape and ampelopsts, May, SVF.
Sanford: April, DPI. Orlando: June-Aug., Oct.,


WRB; Aug., WMD, PSR. La Grange: larvae,
Sept., (Davis), Grsb. 42. Mango: Sept, DPI.
Lutz: June, CMNH. Tampa: April, LHH. IV.
Bradenton: GCES; April, CPK; Oct., DPI. On-
eco: Oct, CPK. Archbold Biological Station:
April, Sept, YU. Siesta Key: Feb., April, CPK;
Nov., YU. Fort Myers: Sept., DPI. Fort Lau-
derdale: June-Aug., UM. Miami: 1925, LH;
April, WES; Oct., Dec., CGM. Dade Co.: HFS.
V. Everglades: four over petunias, April, MCC.
VI. Goulds: Aug., WHH. Florida City: Jan.,
FRA; May, CPK; Sept., AKW; Nov., CMNH.
VIII. Tavernier: Oct., DPI. Craig: Oct., DPI.
Food: Onagraceae, especially Juss&aea angusti-
foli.
777 P. LABRUSCAE (Linnaeus)
Gaudy sphinx. P1. Ill, Fig. 11, 8.
Syst Nat., p. 491. 1758.
Florida: Smith (1888, p. 137). II. Gainesville:
larva found under rubber tree, Dec. 5, 1935,
pupated Dec. 10, and emerged Dec. 19, UFES;
no date, UFES. High Springs: larva on Cissus
incisa, DPI. IV. Punta Gorda: (Slosson), Grsb.
42. Lehigh Acres: Nov., CPK. South Bay: April,
SIM. Belle Glade: Sept, DPI. Fort Lauder-
dale: Aug., Sept, UM. Miami: Jan., Slosson
(1899, p. 96); Nov., RCC; Dec., CGM. Coral
Gables: July, WES. Dade Co.: UFES; Jan.,
Nov., CPK. Coconut Grove: Dec., MCZ. V.
Chokoloskee: MCZ. VI. Florida City: Jan., OB;
Jan., Feb., Nov., HFS; April, Sept., Oct., CMNH.
Homestead: Feb., DPI. Paradise Key: Dec.,
CNC. VIII. Key Largo: Dec., CNC. Food:
Eupatorium odoratum, Vltis, Ampelopess.

AMPELOECA Rothschild & Jordan
778 A. VERSICOLOR (Harris)
Hydrangea sphinx. Pl. II, Fig. 11, 8.
Amer. J. Sci. 36: 303. 1839.
I. Warrington: rare, summer, WP. III. Sanford:
June 6, 1962, (Desin), DPI. IV. Archbold Bio-
logical Station: March 6, 1959 (Frost), PSU.
Moore Haven: on a screen door, March 31, 1941,
JWC. Miami: at blossoms, March, Slosson (1901,
p. 238). VI. Paradise Key: at bait, late Feb.,
FMJ. Food: Hydrangea arborescens, Cepha-
lanthu, Decodon.
779 A. MYRON (Cramer)
Virginia-creeper sphinx. P1. HII, Fig. 3,
a Florida form, 8.
Pap. Exot 8:91. 1779.
The form commonly found in Florida has pale
fawn, uniformly colored forewings with the mac-
ulation reduced. This form appears to be char-
acteristic of the southern two-thirds of the state.


dr









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


In the northern third an occasional specimen
turns up with darker brown forewings, the post-
median area lighter, somewhat reddish, and the
subterminal area much darker and strongly con-
trasting. Presumably one of these is the sub-
species cnotus (Hiibner), but no one seems to
be sure just what that is. The pale form may be
texana Clark, but that is supposedly limited to
southwestern Texas. Wyatt took several speci-
mens at the Archbold Biological Station with
the primaries uniformly green. He believes
these to be cnotus. The only conclusion that
one can reach is that the species as found in
Florida needs study to establish the status of
the forms or races present. A common species
all over the state, probably in every month.
Food: grape, Ampelopsis.

DARAPSA Walker
780 D. PHOLUS (Cramer)
Azalea sphinx. P1. III, Fig. 4, 8.
Pap. Exot. 1: 137; P1. 87, Fig. B. 1776.
I. Warrington: occasional, summer, VFG, WP.
Quincy: June, Sept., CPK. Monticello: April,
DPI; June, UM. II. Gainesville: March, July,
UM. III. Cassadaga: occasional, May, SVF.
Orlando: May, LHH; Oct., WMD. Food: aza-
lea, Viburnum.

SPHECODINA Blanchard
781 S. ABBOTII Swainson
Abbot's sphinx.
Zool. Ill. 3; PL 60. 1821.
I. Quincy: July 7, 1961, (Tappan), DPI. This is
a little abnormal in that the black of the sec-
ondaries is more extended than usual.

DEIDAMIA Clemens
782 D. INSCRIPTUM (Harris)
PI. III, Fig. 5, 9.
Amer. J. Sci 36:306. 1839.
I. Escambia Co.: one Feb., March 1, 1961, SMH.
Quincy: March 31, 1963, (Tappan), CPK. Mont-
icello: two April 4, 1961 (Phillips), CPK.

AMPHION Hiibner
785 A. NESSUS (Cramer)
Nessus sphinx. P1. VIII, Fig. 6, a.
Pap. Exot. 2; P1. 107, Fig. D. 1777.
Nessus is probably general throughout and on
the wing February-September. The form flori-
densis, described from Parrish, Clark (1920, p.
73), is supposed to be the summer form, but it


or intermediates are present in the spring as well.
It is characterized by the more solidly dark hind
wing. Food: grape and pepper, Sept., UFES;
citrus. Dec., DPI.

PROSERPINUS Hfibner
786 P. GAURAE (Abbot & Smith)
PL. VIII, Fig. 8, S.
Lep. Ins. Ca. 1: 61; Pl. 31. 1797.
I. Escambia Co.: Aug. 3, 1955 (Mead), det. Cary,
DPI. Warrington: one, VFG. Pensacola: on
flowers of Amsonia ciliata, April 14, Slosson
(1893, p. 148). Food: Gaura, and in Missouri
it was reported on Oenothera biennis by O'Byrne
(1935, p. 160).
Subfamily CHOEROCAMPINAE
XYLOPHANES Hiibner
794 X. PLUTO (Fabricius)
P1. III, Fig. 7, 8.
Gen. Ins., p. 274. 1777.
I. Monticello: MCZ. III. Brooksville: June 1955,
AKW. IV. Bradenton; Feb., April, DPI, GCES.
Punta Gorda: March, Slosson (1894b, p. 107).
Charlotte Harbor: (Slosson), Grsb. 43. The last
is probably the same as the previous record.
Fort Lauderdale: June, Aug., Oct., Nov., UM.
V. Everglades: over petunias, April, MCC.
Chokoloskee: USNM. IV, VI. Dade Co. and
VIII. Monroe Co.: common, probably all year.
Homestead: April-July. Paradise Key: at wild
verbena, Feb., Wood (1921, p. 208). Food: prob-
ably Chiococca alba or C. pinetorum, Cary (1951,
p. 104).
795 X. PORCUS (Hiibner)
Zutr. exot. Schmett. 2 T. 162. 1818-1825.
Cary states that there is no authenticated record
for the race continentalis Rothschild & Jordan
in the United States, and that the only three
more or less authentic records for porous are
those of Dyar, Slosson, and Laurent Florida:
(Thaxter), MCZ. IV. South Florida: (Dyar),
USNM. Punta Gorda: Feb., (Slosson), Grsb. 43.
The last specimen is not in the AMNH at pres-
ent Miami: one April or May, Laurent (1903b,
p. 305). VI. Paradise Key: Aug. 31, 1925, UM.
[795,1 X. chiron nechus (Cramer)]
Pap. Exot 2; P1. 177, Fig. B. 1779.
Florida: Rothschild & Jordan (1903, p. 699). It
would be interesting to find out who supposedly
collected this specimen. Until there is some-
thing more substantial, the record should be
viewed with suspicion.









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


797 X. TERSA (Linnaeus)
Tersa sphinx. P1. III, Fig. 10, 9.
Mant. Plant. 2:538. 1771.
Tersa is generally common, February-November.
Food: Spermacoce, Rubiaceae.

CELEBIO Oken
799 C. LINEATA (Fabricius)
White-lined sphinx. P1. III, Fig. 9, 9.
Syst. Ent., p. 541. 1775.
I. Warrington: common, summer, early fall,
VFG, WP. Quincy: April-July, DPI. Tallahas-
see: July, JPK. Monticello: March, June, Aug.,
DPI; April, UM. II. Gainesville: April, DPI;
April, May, Oct., UM; Aug., UFA. III. Cassa-
daga: common, Sept., SVF. Crystal River: Aug.,
WHH. Sanford: April, DPI. Orlando: Oct.,
WMD. IV. Bradenton: GCES. Siesta Key:
May, CPK. Fort Lauderdale: March, UM.
VIII. Craig: Aug., DPI. Key West: UFES;
March, DPI. Food: Onagraceae; tomatoes, Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bull. 112:36; beets, purslane, ibid.,
232: 34.


SUPERFAMILY

SATURNIOIDEA
Family SATURNIIDAE
PLATYSAMIA Grote
804 P. CECROPIA (Linnaeus)
Cecropia moth. Pl. III, Fig. 12, 8.
Syst. Nat. 1: 447. 1758.
This moth is apparently rare in Florida and lim-
ited to the northern border region. I. Escambia
Co.: March, SMH. Ensley: larva on plum,
March, DPI. Warrington: one ex cocoon, VFG.
Pensacola: larva on pecan, Oct., DPI; on hick-
ory, adult emerging July 1960, WJP. Mulat:
Nov., DPI. Freeport: Packard (1914, p. 213).
De Funiak Springs: (Fisher), Grsb. 43. Quincy:
March, CPK. II. Macclenny: April, DPI. Gaines-
ville: May 10, 1958, WJP.

CALLOSAMIA Packard
809 C. PROMETHEA (Drury)
Promethea moth. P1. II, Fig. 23, S.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 2; P1. 11, Fig. 1. 1773.
Florida: Packard (1914, p. 228). I. Florida Cav-
erns State Park: two April 14, 1960, (Denmark),
DPI. Tallahassee: Aug. 1, 1950, JPK. Monti-
cello: a series, (Fairchild), MCZ. III. Cassa-
daga: July, SVF. Food: many kinds of trees.


810 C. ANGULIFERA (Walker)
Tulip tree silk worm. P1. II, Fig. 24, 9.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 5:1224. 1855.
I. Warrington: WP. Quincy: April 26 and May
1, 1962, (Tappan), CPK. Tallahassee: two March
6, 1951, JPK. II. Jacksonville: Aug. 17, 1958,
WHH. Food: tulip tree.
810,1 C. CAROLINA Jones
P1. II, Fig. 25, e; Fig. 26, 9.
Ent. News 19:231. 1908.
There is some question as to the exact status of
this insect. Although described originally as a
"variety of angulifera (Walker)," the constant
differences from that species as shown especially
by the cocoons and adults, the underside of the
latter being quite distinct, make it fairly evident
that it is not a form of angulifera. That it may
possibly be a subspecies of the Central Ameri-
can C. securifera Maassen is Forbes' thought,
but it will require a thorough study to work out
the relationships. I. Escambia Co.: Sept. 8, 1962,
SMH. Warrington: two May 1, 1962, VFG.
Quincy: Feb. 27, 1962, July 19 and Sept. 13,
1960, (Tappan), CPK. Monticello: Sept. 4, 1923,
UM. II. Gainesville: Sept., (Hetrick), CPK. III.
Winter Park: Packard (1914; P1. 14, Fig. 5), as a
"variety of angulifera." Tampa: (Reed), UT. IV.
Oneco: two March 22-25, 1954, JGF. Archbold
Biological Station: sixty or more, reared from co-
coons, March, April, 1958 (Pease), YU. Fruit-
ville: male in daylight flight, March 4, 1952,
CPK. Food: Magnolia virginiana [glauca].

ACTIAS Leach
811 A. LUNA (Linnaeus)
Luna moth. P1. II, Fig. 22, form mariae Benj.,
S, a dwarf.
Syst. Nat., p. 496. 1758.
Probably most Florida specimens are of the sub-
species dictynna (Walker), or the spring form
thereof, mariae (Benjamin, with the possible
exception of some from the northern counties
where there may be an overlapping of the sub-
species. Nevertheless, it should be borne in
mind that in describing mariae, Benjamin (1922,
p. 192) noted that the exact status of dictynna
was questionable and that it was quite possible
it might prove to be a valid species. I. Escam-
bia Co.: March, SMH. Warrington: fairly com-
mon, late summer and fall, VFG. De Funiak
Springs: (Fisher), Grsb. 43. Wewahitchka: DPI.
Quincy: March, June-Sept., CPK. Tallahassee:
AMNH; March, Aug., JPK. Monticello: Feb.,
form rubromarginata (Davis), (Fairchild), MCZ;
May, MCZ; June, CPK; larva on pecan, July,


r









THE LEPIDOPTEBA OF FLORIDA


University of Florida Pecan Lab. file card. II.
Madison: Packard (1914, p. 196). Lake City:
Feb., UFES. Gainesville: Feb., Aug., Oct.,
UFES; March, April, June, UM; April, July, Oct.,
UFA; the July and Oct. specimens are larger
and paler than the April ones. Devil's Mill Hop-
per: Sept., AMNH. Hogtown Creek: in num-
bers at light, April, Dozier (1920, p. 376). Jack-
sonville: Oct., RLL. III. Cassadaga: April, SVF.
Brooksville: March, DPI. Astor Park: Packard.
Orlando: June, WRB. St. Petersburg: type of
mariae, Benjamin. Kissimmee: Packard. IV.
Bradenton: Feb., DPI. Clewiston: (Janice Ma-
gill), UFA. Food: walnut, birch, beech.

TELEA Hiibner
812 T. POLYPHEMUS (Cramer)
Polyphemus moth. P1. X, Fig. 11, 8.
Pap. Exot. 1; P1. 5, Figs. A, B. 1775.
Polyphemus is probably found throughout the
state, though the records from southern counties
are few, with none from Monroe. Mostly in
February, but straggling on into July, and again
October-December. IV. Bradenton: Feb.-April,
Oct. Food: live oak, FMJ; maple, SVF.

AUTOMEBIS Hiibner
818 A. IO LILITH (Strecker)
Io moth. P1. III, Fig. 19, $; Fig. 20, 9.
Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 139; P1. 15, Fig. 17. 1878.
Common and state-wide, Feb.-Dec. In the
northern part of the state it occurs mostly as
typical io (Fabricius), though both appear con-
currently at Quincy. I. Quincy: April, July,
Aug. IV. Bradenton: Feb., March, April, Sept.,
Oct. Food: avocado, bean, rose, redbud, corn,
azalea, saw palmetto, lychee, wild cotton, Hi-
biscus tiliaceus [elatus], Rhapis sp., ornamentals,
all DPI;Turnera ulmifolia, Coop. Ins. Pest Surv.
6: 35;. Tabebuia argentea, ibid. 7: 10; larvae on
Galactia sp., Sept., and eggs and larvae on Am-
orpha fruticosa, Nov., (Pease), YU.

HEMILEUCA Walker
880 H. MAIA (Drury)
Buck moth. P1. X, Fig. 2, a.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 2; P1. 24, Fig. 3. 1773.
In Florida maia is smaller and darker than north-
em specimens with the white bands greatly re-
duced, sometimes to spots; in this respect they
approach or may even be ab. lintneri Cockerell.
II. Archer: April 11, 1932, (Tissot), UFES. Gold
Head Branch State Park: Dec. 1955, UM. St. Au-
gustine: (Johnson), Grsb. 44. III. Daytona Beach:


Dec. 31, 1936, LH. Cassadaga: larva on oak,
adult emerged Jan. 9, 1952, SVF. IV. Vero
Beach: Oct. 15,1935, (Baker), DPI. Palm Beach:
Dec. 1898, (Thaxter), MCZ.

Family CITHERONIIDAE
ANISOTA Hiibner
842 A. STIGMA (Fabricius)
Spiny oakworm. P1. III, Fig. 21, 8; Fig. 22, 9.
Syst. Ent., p. 563. 1775.
Florida: defoliating oaks and attacking maize
and melons. Watson [192-]. I. Warrington:
occasional, summer, VFG, WP. Quincy: July,
Aug., CPK. II. Madison Co.: Aug., UM. Hog-
town Creek: Aug., UFES. III. McIntosh: June,
DPI. La Coochee: June, DPI. Cassadaga: fair-
ly common, July, Aug., SVF. Orlando: Aug.,
WRB. IV. South Florida: Forsyth sale list
West Palm Beach: larvae, Jan., (Dyar), Grsb. 44.
844 A. SENATORIA (Abbot & Smith)
Orange-striped oakworm.
Lep. Ins. Ga., p. 113; P1. 57. 1797.
Neal, (Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 9: 9) said, "State-
wide, 1890, defoliating shade trees, etc." This
seems amazing in view of the apparent rarity
since that time. I. Monticello: Aug. 1930, (Walk-
er), MCZ. II. Gainesville: June, UM. III.
Marion Co.: July-Sept., UM. Volusia Co.: July,
UM. Cassadaga: fairly common, July, Aug.,
SVF. Brooksville: larva on okra, Sept. 20, 1935,
(Williams), Works Progress Administration file
card. Hillsborough Co.: Aug., UM.
845 A. CONSULABIS Dyar
P1. III, Fig. 23, 8; Figs. 24, 25, 9.
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 4:166. 1896.
My understanding of consularis Dyar has been
in error and certain of the records herein-
under belong to virginiensis (Drury). It is
presently impossible to sort out the errors. How-
ever, individuals and institutions may be able
to rectify these by reference to the illustrations.
Consularis is characterized by the total ab-
sence of, or at most very faint transverse lines.
I. Escambia Co.: July, SMH. Quincy: Aug.,
Sept., CPK. Tallahassee: July, JPK. Monti-
cello: (Fairchild), MCZ. II. Alachua Co.: July,
DPI. Gainesville: July, Aug., UFES; Aug.,
CPK; Sept., DPI; Oct., det. Franclemont, CPK,
the last a very dark specimen. III. Orlando:
Aug., JGF. IV. Bradenton: GCES. Oneco:
Oct., CPK. Stuart: larva on live oak, Oct., UM.
West Palm Beach: larva on live oak, type, Jan.,
Dyar. Miami: AMNH.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


846 A. VIRGINIENSIS (Drury)
Pl. III, Fig. 27, 8; Figs. 26, 28, 9.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 2; PI. 13, Fig. 2. 1773.
I. Escambia Co.: May, SMH. Warrington: oc-
casional, summer, VFG, WP. Tallahassee: Aug.,
JPK. III. Cassadaga: July, Aug., SVF. Or-
lando: Aug., CPK, PSR. IV. Sarasota: June,
CPK. Punta Gorda: April, AKW. Food: oak.
848 A. RUBICUNDA (Fabricius)
Green-striped mapleworm. P1. III, Fig. 29, 8;
Fig. 30, 9.
Ent. Syst. iii (1): 429, No. 69. 1793.
In view of its present commonness where found,
it is surprising that there were no records when
Grossbeck prepared his list I. Escambia Co.:
April, SMH. Warrington: April, occasional,
summer, VFG. Quincy: April, Aug., CPK. Tal-
lahassee: March, Aug., JPK. Monticello: June,
Sept, DPI. II. Glen St. Mary: April, DPI.
Gainesville: May, June, UFA, UFES; Aug., DPI.
Lake Alice: larvae very abundant on swamp
maple, Oct. 1, Dozier (1920, p. 376). III. Marion
Co.: Feb., DPI. Crystal River: Feb., CPK.
Cassadaga: occasional, July, Aug., SVF. Weeki-
wachee Springs: June, CPK. Sanford: Feb.,
DPI. Hillsborough Co.: Aug., UM. St. Peters-
burg: March, AKW. IV. Bradenton: Feb., DPI.
Myakka City: Feb., CU. Oneco: May, CPK.
Archbold Biological Station: Jan., PSU; Feb.,
May, YU; June, AKW. Okeechobee: Jan., CPK.
Indian River Co.: Oct., UM. Siesta Key: Feb.,
May, CPK. Dade Co.: June, HFS. Ochopee:
April, DPI, CPK. From the last locality the
yellow median area on both wings is greatly
reduced, and in some specimens it is strongly
suffused with pink.

CTIHERONIA Hiibner
856 C. REGALIS (Fabricius)
Royal walnut moth. Pl. III, Fig. 14, 8;
Fig. 15, 9.
Ent. Syst. iii (1): 436, No. 93. 1793.
I. Escambia Co.: July, SMH. Warrington: rare,
summer, VFG. Milton: Aug., DPI. De Funiak
Springs: (Fisher), Grsb. 44. Clarksville: June,
DPI. Tallahassee: Aug., DPI. Monticello: June,
CPK; larva on pecan, Sept., DPI. II. Bradford
Co.: larva on sea-island cotton, Packard (1905,
p. 135). Starke: larva on cotton, Powell, (1891,
p. 160); Sept., larva on pecan, DPI. Gainesville:
July, UFA. Jacksonville: Sept., DPI. Dins-
more: Aug., DPI. Cresent City: (Hubbard),
MCZ. III. Volco: larva on black gum, July,
DPI. Brooksville: June, AKW. Bartow: May,


DPI. Socrum: larva on pecan, July, DPI. IV.
Oneco: pupa, Nov., emerged May, CPK.
858 C. SEPULCHRALIS Grote & Robinson
Pine devil moth. P1. X, Fig. 4, 8; Fig. 12, 9.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 4:222. 1865.
I. Warrington: rare, summer, VFG, WP. Monti-
cello: April, Aug., UM. II. Gainesville: June,
UFA; July, DPI. Jacksonville: (Slosson), Grsb.
45; Aug., WHH. III. Cassadaga: July, SVF.
Brooksville: June, AKW. Weekiwachee Springs:
May, Mrs. J. F. May. Fort Meade: April, CU.
IV. Archbold Biological Station: April, Aug.,
Sept., YU. Fort Myers: (Mattes), Grsb. 45.
North Miami: HFS. Kendall: Oct., DPI. VI.
Florida City: March, July, OB; July, CMNH.
Food: white and pitch pine; Caribbean pine,
Forsyth (1933, p. 1).

EAGLES Hiibner
860 E. IMPERIALIS (Drury)
Imperial moth. P1. III, Fig. 16, form didyma
(Beauv.), 8; Fig. 17, 9.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1:17 (App. ii); P1. 9, Figs. 1, 2.
1770.
The imperial moth probably occurs mostly in
the form didyma (Beauvois). I have seen one
typical imperialis, I. Quincy: July. The records
cover the state except for the Keys, with the
dates running from late August to early Novem-
ber, with a few from April through July. Food:
many kinds of trees.

SUPERFAMILY
NOCTUOIDEA
In addition to making many determinations,
Dr. John G. Franclemont has untangled numer-
ous knotty problems, read the manuscript,
brought the nomenclature up to date, and made
valuable'suggestions in connection with the en-
tire Noctuoidea, for which I am deeply in-
debted.
Family AMATIDAE
COSMOSOMA Hiibner
861 C. MYRODORA Dyar
P1. III, Fig. 43, 9.
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 15: 226. 1907.
Myrodora is not infrequent from Callahan and
Gainesville south to Long Pine Key. It has been
taken in every month. Food: Mikania scandens,
Dyar (1896d, p. 414).









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


SYNTOMEIDA Harris
863 S. IPOMOEAE Harris
PI. VIII, Fig. 15, 8.
Amer. J. Sci. 36:316. 1839.
Ipomoeae occurs rather infrequently from Es-
cambia County to Long Pine Key, with records
for every month except November and Decem-
ber. VI. Homestead: Feb., July, Sept., Oct.,
with a small peak in May. In some specimens
the white spots are much reduced, sometimes
there being but a single small spot on each wing.
Food: thistle, grapefruit, and bloom of morning
glory, DPI.
864 S. EPILAIS JUCUNDISSIMA Dyar
Oleander caterpillar. P1. VIII, Fig. 16, 9.
J. Y. N. Ent Soc. 15: 227. 1907.
The subspecies is common through the penin-
sula and Keys, including the Dry Tortugas, but
the only record from the western counties is
Warrington, where it is reported to be rare. On
the wing in every month. Larva are often a
pest on oleander, as frequently reported in the
Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. and Dyar (1890b, p. 360,
and 1896a, p. 72). It has been reported on
Echites umbellata.

PSEUDOCHARIS Drury
866 P. MINIMA (Grote)
P1. VIII, Fig. 10, S.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 6:298. 1867.
IV. Fort Lauderdale: June 16, 1933, (Bates),
MCZ. Dade Co., and VIII. Monroe Co.: not
common, but taken in every month, AMNH,
DPI, FMJ, CPK, HFS, EU, AKW, HEW. Food:
Crossopetalum floridanum [Myginda ilicifolia].

DIDASYS Grote
867 D. BELAE (Grote)
PI. III, Fig. 13, 9.
Can. Ent. 7:145. 1875.
Type locality, Cedar Key. Usually uncommon
but found throughout the state, probably more
commonly around marshy areas. There are no
records south of Coconut Grove and Flamingo.
It has been taken in every month except March,
Sept., Dec.
EUCEREON Hubner
869 E. CAROLINA (Henry Edwards)
PI. VIII, Fig. 14, a.
Ent. Amer. 2:166. 1886.
There is a lengthy taxonomic note by McDun-


enough quoted by Grossbeck (1917, p. 46). III.
Sanford: several April-June, 1957, (Wilson), DPI.
Indian River: AMNH. IV. Port Sewall: Jan. 21,
March 28, (Sanford), AMNH. Oneco: June 6,
1954, (Dillman), CPK. Fort Myers: April 25,
(McDunnough), AMNH. Belle Glade: Jan.,
EES. Palm Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 452); (Fair-
child), MCZ. Ochopee: May, DPI, CPK. Co-
conut Grove: (Fairchild), MCZ. VI. Homestead:
June-Aug., (Wolfenbarger), CPK. Florida City:
March, JGF; April 26, June 16-21, OB. Paradise
Key: Feb., March, FMJ. Food: Sarcostemma
clausum [Philibertia viminalis] and Cynanchum
palustre [Vincetoxicum palustre] Dyar (1901b,
p. 262).
LYMIRE Walker
870 L. EDWARDSII (Grote)
P1. III, Fig. 31, 8.
Papilio 1: 4. 1881.
I. Monticello: reared, (Fairchild), MCZ. III.
Orlando: Feb., Oct., WRB. Indian River: (Thax-
ter), MCZ. It is abundant from St. Petersburg
and Vero Beach south and may be found flying
in all parts of the year. Food: Ficus spp., DPI,
Dyar (1890b, p. 361), Bratley (1929, p. 44) and
(Cary), MCZ; Nectandra coricea, DPI.

CISSEPS.Franclemont
871 C. FULVICOLLIS (Hubner)
P1. VIII, Fig. 7, 9.
Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: 164. 1827.
Fulvicollis is found all over Florida, but it is not
nearly so common as it is in the northern states.
The records cover from January through No-
vember. I have seen only a few examples that
might be called form pallens (Henry Edwards),
the form with the yellow collar. These were all
taken in November 1959, at Siesta Key, and the
color appeared not to be due to fading, for at the
same time, a few fresh specimens were taken,
and in every instance, the collar of these was
bright red.

DAHANA Grote
885 D. ATRIPENNIS Grote
Can. Ent. 7:175. 1875.
Type locality, Enterprise. Atripennis is fairly
common in areas III and IV, with a few records
in I: Escambia Co., Quincy, and Monticello,
and II: Gainesville, Green Cove Springs, and
Putnam Co. Found every month. The moth
often comes to blossoms at dusk. Food: Span-
ish moss, Bonniwell (1918, p. 58); Jan., Hills-
borough Co.: fruitfly trap.


~1










THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Family NOLIDAE
CELAMA Walker
888 C. [CILICOIDES (Grote)]
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1: 175. 1873.
I. Escambia Co.: May 2, June 12 and 26, 1961,
SMH. This is small and not strictly typical of
cdlicoides but is certainly very close to it, if it
is not. More material is needed.
889 C. SORGHIELLA (Riley)
P1. IX, Fig. 14, a.
Rept. Dept. Agr., p. 188. 1882.
I. Escambia Co.: April, SMH. Quincy: July,
Aug., CPK. II. Gainesville: May, DPI; June,
CU; Aug., UFES. Hastings: Aug., AMNH; Aug.,
Sept., UFES. III. Weekiwachee Springs: June,
CPK. IV. Bradenton: March, DPI; June, July,
CPK. Oneco: May, June, CPK. Archbold Bio-
logical Station: March, PSU; June, AKW; Dec.,
CU. Siesta Key: April, May, CPK, LRB. Fort
Myers: AMNH. V. Everglades: April, AMNH.
VI. Homestead: Feb.-Nov., CPK. Florida City:
April-June, OB. Paradise Key: March, CU.
Food: Sorghum vulgare.
890 C. TRIQUETRANA (Fitch)
1st & 2nd Rept. Insects N. Y., p. 244. 1856.
I. Escambia Co.: Feb., SMH. Warrington: VFG.
Florida Caverns State Park: April 13, 1960, (Den-
mark), DPI. III. Cassadaga: April 28, 1962,
SVF.
892 C. OVILLA (Grote)
Can. Ent. 7:22L 1875.
I. Pensacola: March 16, 1961, VFG. II. Old
Town: April, AKW. Food: oak.

NOLA Leach
[894 N. apera Druce]
Biol. Cent. Amer. Het. 2: 404. 1897.
Dyar (1901a, p. 465, and also 1902, p. 351), re-
ported this from Palm Beach, but later decided
it was a new species to which he gave the name,
lagunculariae, q.v.
895 N. LAGUNCULARIAE Dyar
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 4:465. 1901.
III. Volusia Co.: Aug., DPI. IV. Bradenton:
May, Nov., CPK. Oneco: March, JGF. Long-
boat Key: Dec., CPK. Port Sewall: Dec.,
AMNH. Stuart: July, AMNH. Siesta Key: Jan.,
Feb., May, Nov., CPK. Fort Myers: April, Grsb.
47. Palm Beach: type, and larvae on Laguncu-
larti racemosa, Dyar (1901a, p. 465). V. Ever-


glades: April, type of obliquata Barnes & Mc-
Dunnough (1913c, p. 116). Marco: April,
AMNH. VI. Florida City: March, AKW. Par-
adise Key: Dec., AMNH. VII. Flamingo: Feb.,
DPI.
NIGETIA Walker
Franclemont (Forbes, 1960, p. 55) places the
genus in Acontiinae, following Eublemma Hiib-
ner.
896 N. FORMOSALIS Walker
P1. IX, Fig. 3, 8.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 34:1506. 1865.
I. Escambia Co.: May, July, SMH. II. Gaines-
ville: June, UFES. III. Anthony: July, DPI.
DeLand: March, AKW. Cassadaga: April, July,
Sept., Oct., SVF. Orange Co.: Feb., March, DPI.
Winter Park: April, DPI; May, AMNH. Tarpon
Springs: Feb., JLC. IV. Oneco: March, JGF;
May, June, Oct., CPK. Archbold Biological Sta-
tion: Dec.-March, YU; Feb., Nov., Dec., PSU.
Siesta Key: one April, CPK. Punta Gorda:
Feb., WRB; March, April, AKW. South Bay:
April, Grsb. 47. V. Everglades: April, AMNH.

MEGANOLA Dyar
Franclemont (Forbes, 1960, p. 53) separates
minuscule and phylla and discusses a third spe-
cies. I believe all are present in Florida but can
be sure only of minuscule as determined by
Franclemont. Earlier determinations should be
reviewed. They are given as received at the
time or as made by myself prior to Franclemont's
separation.
897 M. MINUSCULA (Zeller)
Verh. zool.-botan. Ges. Wien 22:455. 1872.
All det. Franclemont. I. Warrington: April,
VFG. West Pensacola: July, Sept., VFG. II.
Gainesville: Feb., CPK. III. Cassadaga: Aug.,
SVF. Weekiwachee Springs: May, Aug., CPK.
IV. Siesta Key: Jan., Feb., CPK.
[897,1 M. phylla Dyar]
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 6: 43. 1898.
All specimens reported as this were believed
to be the new species below and so recorded.
However, they are more likely to be phylla, as
Franclemont recorded the latter from Alabama.
It is interesting to note that Grossbeck (1917, p.
47) raised the question of a possible new species.
[897,2 M. sp.]
As mentioned above all these determinations
should be reviewed, and it is possible that none
of them actually belong here. I. Escambia Co.:









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Aug., SMH. II. Old Town: March, CPK.
Gainesville: April, DPI. III. Central Florida:
Feb., May, WMD. Cassadaga: Feb., March,
June-Aug., Oct., SVF. Weekiwachee Springs:
March-June, CPK. Winter Park: June, DPI.
Orlando: OB. Tarpon Springs: Feb., JLC. St
Petersburg: Feb., AMNH. Lakeland: May,
AMNH. IV. Bradenton: March, CPK. Arch-
bold Biological Station: Feb., PSU, YU; July,
AMNH. Port Sewall: Feb., AMNH. Siesta
Key: Feb., May, Dec., CPK. Punta Gorda:
March, AKW. Bonita Springs: OB. VI. Para-
dise Key: Feb.-April, FMJ.

Family ARCTIIDAE
Subfamily LITHOSIINAE
CRAMBIDIA Packard
906 C. [PALLIDA Packard]
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 3: 99. 1864.
Franclemont is of the opinion that none of the
following records belong under this name. Fur-
thermore, he also believes that there are perhaps
three species hiding under the name pallida,
and that at least one of them occurs in Florida.
Grossbeck (1917, p. 47) noted that the speci-
mens he had seen were smaller than northern
ones. I. Quincy: Oct., CPK. II. Lake Geneva:
March, HEW. III. Cassadaga: Feb., Dec., SVF.
Winter Park: May, AMNH. IV. Archbold Bio-
logical Station: April, PSU; July, Nov., AMNH.
Port Sewall: March, Dec., AMNH. Miami: Nov.,
DPI. V. Marco: April, AMNH. Everglades:
April, AMNH.
906,1 C. SP.
This is very similar to pallida, but smaller. Some
at least of the records for that species belong
here, and possibly the one for uniformis below.
I. Myrtle Grove: June, WJW. III. Cassadaga:
Sept., Nov., SVF. Weekiwachee Springs: April,
May, (May), CPK. IV. Siesta Key: Nov., det.
Field, CPK. Two specimens, Archbold Biologi-
cal Station: Jan., (Remington), YU; Feb., (Frost),
PSU, are also placed here tentatively.
907 C. LITHOSIOIDES Dyar
P1. IX, Fig. 1, T; Fig. 2, 2.
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 6:33. 1898.
I. Escambia Co.: May, SMH. II. Alachua Co.:
June, DPI. Gainesville: April, DPI. III. Levy
Co.: Sept., DPI, CPK. DeLand: March, AKW.
Cassadaga: Feb., March, Nov., SVF. Weeki-
wachee Springs: Feb.-April, June, CPK. IV.
Bradenton: March, DPI; April, Sept.-Nov., CPK.
Oneco: March, April, JGF; April, AKW; April,


May, Oct., CPK. Archbold Biological Station:
Jan.-April, YU; June, AKW; July, AMNH; Dec.,
GWK, PSU. V. Everglades: AMNH. Marco:
AMNH. VI. Homestead: Jan., Feb., DPI; Jan.,
April, May, July, Sept., CPK.
908 C. UNIFORMS Dyar
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 6: 33. 1898.
IV. Fort Myers: (McDunnough), AMNH. I do
not find this in the collection.
912 C. PURA Barnes & McDunnough
Contrib. 2:101. 1913.
I. Escambia Co.: April 5, two Sept. 3, 1961,
SMH. II. Old Town: March 2, 1951, CPK. III.
Cassadaga: rare, March-July, Sept., SVF.
916,1 C.? SP.
There is a species resembling lithosioides but
smaller, of which Field has examined the geni-
talia (the Sarasota specimen only), and after com-
parison with those of the genus on file at the
U. S. National Museum, he states that this is
not only unlike any species of the genus, but
also exhibits characteristics differing sufficiently
to make him question its being placed in the
genus. It is probably not uncommon but may
have been passed over as a small pallida, which
it also resembles, but at the same time it is dis-
tinct from 906, 1 above. The following records
seem safe. III. Cassadaga: May, July, SVF.
Weekiwachee Springs: Aug., (May), CPK. IV.
Oneco: March 20-31, JGF. Sarasota: March 27,
1955, CPK.
PAGARA Walker
918 P. SIMPLEX Walker
P1. IX, Fig. 4, &.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 7: 1679. 1856.
Simplex is never common. I. Escambia Co.:
March, SMH. West Pensacola: May, VFG.
Monticello: March, CPK. II. Glen St. Mary:
Feb., DPI. Gainesville: Feb., Dec., DPI. III.
Cassadaga: April, June, Oct., SVF. Wacasassa:
April, JGF. DeLand: March, AKW. St. Pe-
tersburg: CMNH; Dec., AKW. IV. Oneco:
March, April, JGF. Archbold Biological Sta-
tion: June, AKW; Feb., Dec., YU; Nov.-Jan.,
PSU. Charlotte Harbor: (Slosson), Grsb. 47.
Bonita Springs: Feb., April, Dec., OB. Miami:
Feb., CPK; Oct., WRB. South Miami: Oct.,
NSMS. V. Everglades: April, AMNH. Home-
stead: Feb., March, Dec., DPI; Feb.-Sept., CPK.
Florida City: Jan., April, June, Sept., Oct., OB;
June, July, HEW; July, WRB; "5.3", CNC. VIII.
Tavernier: Sept., DPI. Stock Island: April, DPI.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


NEOPLYNES Hampson
920 N. EUDORA (Dyar)
PI. IX, Fig. 16, 9.
Ent. News 5:198. 1894.
III. DeLand: March, AKW. 'St Petersburg:
May, OB. IV. Oneco: March, JGF. Archbold
Biological Station: Feb., PSU. Siesta Key:
March, CPK. Fort Myers: April, AMNH. Bo-
nita Springs: March, OB. Miami: June, CNC.
VI. Homestead: June, July, CPK. Florida City:
Dec., CNC. VIII. Big Pine Key: April, AMNH.
Key West: March, DPI.
AFRIDA Moeschler
931 A. YDATODES Dyar
P1. IX, Fig. 15, 8.
Ins. Insc. Mens. 1:31. 1913.
Undoubtedly overlooked because of its small
size and superficial resemblance to an olethreu-
tid. I believe there may be one, or possibly
two additional species involved, as there is con-
siderable, uniform, variation in the transverse
lines. I. Escambia Co.: Sept., SMH. II. Gaines-
ville: Feb., April, Sept., DPI, CPK. III. Cassa-
daga: Feb., April, June, Sept., Nov., SVF. Win-
ter Park: May, AMNH. IV. Bradenton: May,
DPI. Oneco: March, JGF; May, CPK. Fort
Pierce: March, OB. Port Sewall: Dec., AMNH.
Archbold Biological Station: Jan., Feb., Nov.,
PSU; Dec., YU. Siesta Key: Sept.-March, May,
June, OB, CPK. Fort Myers: April, Grsb. 47.
V. Everglades: April, type of Aresia parva
Barnes & McDunnough (1913d, p. 167). VI.
Homestead: Feb.-Sept., Nov., CPK. VIII. Log-
gerhead Key, Dry Tortugas: June, DPI.
CISTHENE Walker
Inasmuch as Knowlton, in Forbes (1960, pp.
46-48) has made quite a revision of the genus,
the names as applied heretofore are no long-
er tenable and all determinations should be re-
viewed. Since this is impossible at the present
writing, I have tried to give an approximation
of the records as I believe they should read.
934 C. TENUIFASCIA Harvey
PI. IX, Fig. 5, 8.
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 3:4. 1875.
Some of these records unquestionably belong
to kentuckiensis below, but it is presently im-
possible to assign them. Florida: six, AMNH.
I. Escambia Co.: July, SMH. Quincy: Oct.,
CPK. Monticello: March, DPI; April, May, CU.
II. Alachua Co.: Sept., CPK. Gainesville: Oct.,
UFES, CPK; Nov., DPI. Fernandina: three
April, HEW; five April, Sept., OB.


947 C. PLUMBEA Stretch
PI. IX, Fig. 8, S.
Ent. Amer. 1:102. 1885.
These records had been determined previously
as unifascia Grote & Robinson or inlecta (Dyar).
Florida: co-type of unifascia, Grote & Robinson
(1868, p. 175). I. Warrington: April, VFG.
Monticello: April, May, CU; Sept., CPK; Oct.,
OB, DPI. II. Gainesville: Feb., CPK; March,
April, UM; Sept., DPI; Oct., UFES.
942 C. STRIATA Ottolengui
P1. IX, Fig. 6, 8.
Can. Ent. 30: 101. 1898.
Some variation occurs, a few specimens lacking
all but a suggestion of the striate rays. Ii.
Alachua Co.: May, DPI. Gainesville: April,
DPI. Lake Geneva: March, HEW. III. De-
Land: March, AKW. Enterprise: Grsb. 48.
Cassadaga: April, SVF. Weekiwachee Springs:
Feb.-April, Aug., CPK. Orange Co.: April, Dec.,
DPI. Winter Park: April, DPI; May, AMNH.
Orlando: March, OB; April, CNC. IV. Braden-
ton: Feb., March, Aug.-Nov., DPI. Oneco:
March, April, JGF; May-July, CPK. Archbold
Biological Station: March, Dec., YU; April, Nov.,
PSU. Port Sewall: Feb., AMNH. Siesta Key:
not rare, Dec.-June, CPK. Punta Gorda: March,
April, Dec., AKW. Bonita Springs: Jan., OB.
Miami: type, Ottolengui. VIII. Tavernier: Oct.,
DPI.: , .^
945 C. PACKARDH Grote
Proc. Ent Soc. Phila. 2:31; P. 2, Fig. 5. 1863.
As I interpret Knowlton, a few of the larger
specimens that may have passed for bellicula,
would belong here. I am also assuming that
he makes bellicula a synonym of subject and
have so treated it. I. Escambia Co.: April, SMH.
This is the larger "form." Just where his "form"
stops and the smaller "bellicula" begins, I am
not sure because of the earlier misapprehension
as to synonymy, but they probably overlap in
the middle of the state, with bellicula found as
the only form in the southern part.
943 C. SUBJECT Walker
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 2: 534. 1854.
If I am correct that bellicula is a synonym of
this, subject is common all year through the
southern half of the state.
944 C. BELLICULA Dyar
PI. IX, Fig. 7, S.
Ins. Insc. Mens. 9: 138. 1921.
See statement under 945 and 943 above.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


936 C. KENTUCKIENSIS (Dyar)
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 6: 198. 1904.
Some of the records standing under tenuifasda
above belong here, but which?

CLEMENSIA Packard
952 C. [ALBATA Packard]
P1. IV, Fig. 9, a.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 3:110. 1864.
According to Franclemont the specimens rep-
resent either a local race or a new species. Cer-
tainly they differ widely from typical northern
specimens. I. Escambia Co.: Feb., SMH. Quin-
cy: Oct., CPK. Monticello: March, CU. III.
Cassadaga: April, Oct, Dec., SVF. Lakeland:
May, Grsb. 48. IV. Oneco: March, JGF; May,
CPK. Archbold Biological Station: Feb., PSU.
Punta Gorda: Jan., Feb., AKW. La Belle:
March, JGF; April, AMNH. Food: lichens.

PALPIDIA Dyar
953 P. PALLIDIOR Dyar
P1. III, Fig. 32, 8.
J. N. Y. Ent Soc. 6: 84. 1898.
I. Cassadaga: Nov., SVF. Weekiwachee
Springs: May, CPK. Tarpon Springs: Feb., JLC.
Egmont Key: April, UM. IV. Oneco: March,
April, JGF. Port Sewall: Jan.-March, Nov.,
AMNH. Siesta Key: not rare, Oct.-June, CPK.
Venice: May, CU. Punta Gorda: March-May,
AKW. Fort Myers: March, AMNH; April, SIM.
Bonita Springs: OB. Biscayne Bay: (Slosson),
Grsb. 48. Matheson Hammock: Jan., Feb.,
AMNH. Miami: April, OB. Coconut Grove:
type, Dyar. VI. Homestead: April-June, Aug.,
Oct, CPK. Florida City: March, June, Oct, OB.
Food: rachis of coconut palm.
HYPOPREPIA Hiibner
958 H. MINIATA (Kirby)
P. IX, Fig. 10, c; Fig. 11, 9.
Faun. Bor. Amer. 4: 305. 1837.
I. Warrington: common in July; occasional, late
summer, VFG. II. Gainesville: Aug., DPI. IV.
Allen River to Deep Lake: April 14, AMNH. VI.
Homestead: two Aug., CPK. Florida City: three
May 23-June 4, OB. Everglades National Park:
Dec., CNC. Paradise Key: Jan., FMJ. Food:
lichens.
959 H. FUCOSA Hiibner
P1. IX, Fig. 12, a; Fig. 13, S.
Zutr. exot Schmett. 3; P1. 21, Fig. 471. 1825.
There is only one record for typical fucosa in


Florida-I. Tallahassee: May, JPK. From the
middle of the peninsula south, there is a rela-
tively common insect which looks like fucosa
but which is orange on the forewing where fu-
cosa is pink. One specimen from Weekiwachee
Springs: (May), CPK, exactly matches a speci-
men of f. subornata Neumoegen & Dyar from
San Antonio, Texas. In the Florida City area,
the orange is replaced by orange yellow or even
yellow. Franclemont is of the opinion that we
have either two undescribed races of fucosa,
or as a remote possibility two undescribed spe-
cies or a combination of the two. Whatever
they may be, they are present most of the time.
IV. Bradenton: March, Nov. VI. Homestead:
Jan., Feb., April-Nov., with peaks in May, July,
and a higher one in Sept Food: lichens, mosses.

Subfamily ARCTIINAE
EUPSEUDOSOMA Grote
968 E. INVOLUTUM FLORIDUM Grote
PI. III, Fig. 33, 9.
Can. Ent. 14: 187. 1882.
There are no records north of Tarpon Springs
and Cassadaga for this species which is rela-
tively common in its southern range, probably
flying most of the year except in the cold weath-
er. IV. Bradenton: March, April, Aug.-Dec.
VI. Homestead: Feb., March, May-Nov., with
peak in July, tapering off through Sept. Food:
Psidium guajava var. pyriferum, Eugenia myr-
toides [buxifolia], Dyar (1901b, p. 258).

CALIDOTA Dyar
969 C. STRIGOSA (Walker)
P1. III, Fig. 34, 8.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 3: 736. 1855.
IV. Palm Beach: larva on Guettarda elliptica,
Dyar (1901b, p. 268). Dade Co.: common. VIII.
Monroe Co.: common. All year.

HALISIDOTA Hiibner
[977 H. caryae (Harris)]
Ins. Mass., p. 258. 1841.
This was recorded from Miami, Coop. Ins. Pest
Surv. 4:153, but Denmark says it was in error
for H. tesselaris Abbot & Smith. I suspect it
was more apt to have been H. cinctipes, but in
any event, it was not caryae.
[981,1 H. interlineata Walker]
List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. 3:739. 1855.
This was reported from Florida by Neumoegen










THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


& Dyar (1893, p. 168). However, I am of the
opinion that this was an error of determination
and should be referred to cinctipes below.

982 H. CINCTIPES Grote
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 5: 242. 1865.
There is a great deal of confusion between this
and tessellaris. Both are present, but they are
very similar in appearance, especially in the
northern range of cinctipes which apparently
overlaps the southern range of tessellaris, and
where a subspecies or form of the latter not un-
like the aberration tesselaroides Strand, is pres-
ent almost exclusively. Hampson bases the sep-
aration on the presence of black streaks in the
orange-filled basal patches of the forewing in
cinctipes and the absence of both the streaks
and the orange filling in tessellaris. In cinctipes
the lower part of the frons is black, but in tes-
sellaris it is ochreous throughout. From Miami
down through the Keys, typical cinctipes with
the aberrations ata Strand and meta Strand, and
probably other variations, are to be found. It
is fairly common from September to June in
this region. VI. Homestead: Feb.-May, Sept.,
Oct., peaks in Feb. and Oct. The northern limit
would appear to be Gainesville-Cassadaga,
though I suspect that all records north of Oneco,
where Franclemont has taken it, need to be re-
examined with great care. Food: Coccoloba
diversifolia [floridana], and C. uvifera, Dyar
(1901a, p. 452); hibiscus, Smith (1890g, p. 206);
Trema micrantha, Slosson (1901a, p. 202).

984 H. TESSELLARIS (Abbot & Smith)
P1. IX, Fig. 17, 8.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 2: 149. 1797.
As with cinctipes above, several color forms are
present, something close to tesselaroides Strand
being relatively common, and the prime cause
of confusion with cinctipes. Because of the pres-
ence of Platanus occidentalis in Florida, one
should expect H. harrisii Walsh, which can be
distinguished only in the larval stage. I. War-
rington: occasional, summer, VFG. Quincy:
Feb.-Sept., CPK. Tallahassee: March, Sept.,
JPK. Monticello: June, Aug., Sept., DPI. II.
Gainesville: Jan., March, DPI; Aug., Sept.,
UFES. III. Weekiwachee Springs: May, CPK.
Brooksville: June, AKW. Sanford: Feb., DPI.
Winter Park: March, June, Aug., DPI. St. Pe-
tersburg: Feb., AKW. IV. Bradenton: Jan.-
March, CPK. Oneco: March, JGF; May, June,
Aug., Oct., CPK. Archbold Biological Station:
Feb., Sept., YU; Nov., PSU. Siesta Key: Jan.,
Feb., June, CPK. Food: willow, maple, beech,
sycamore.


987 H. LONGA (Grote)
P1. IX, Fig. 18, 4.
Can. Ent. 12: 213. 1880.
The records cover the state, and all months ex-
cept July. Food: "Wide-bladed marsh grass,"
Bonniwell (1918, p. 59).

CYCNIA Hiibner
990 C. INSULATA (Walker)
P1. IX, Fig. 24, 9.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 3: 734. 1855.
III. Williston: Feb., AKW. Orange Co.: Feb.,
DPI; Oct., WMD. Winter Park: April, DPI. IV.
Bradenton: Feb., CPK, Oct., DPI. Oneco:
March, JGF. Port Sewall: Dec., AMNH. Stuart:
May, UM. Archbold Biological Station: March,
PSU; June, AKW; Dec., YU. Sarasota: March,
April, Nov., CPK. Punta Gorda: March, AKW.
Bonita Springs: OB. Delray Beach: April, GWK;
Nov., CPK. Pahokee: Jan., DPI. Fort Lauder-
dale: MCZ; Feb., April, June-Aug., Oct-Dec.,
UM. Dade Co.: common. VII. Flamingo: Feb.,
April, DPI. VIII. Monroe Co.: common all
year. Food: Ageratum, DPI.
992 C. INOPINATUS (Henry Edwards)
Papilio 2: 13. 1882.
Specimens which have been reported under the
name C. tenera Hiibner and Pygarctia eglenensis
(Clemens) all belong under C. inopinatus nivalis
Stretch, with the color on the tegulae and costa,
pale orange rather than buff yellow, this color
being limited to the basal third of the costa and
not extending the full length as it does in typi-
cal inopinatus. The ground color of the wing is
whitish not testaceous as in typical inopinatus.
All the records except for the type from Indian
River belong under the form name. Florida:
five, (Slosson), AMNH. I. Warrington: WP. II.
Keystone Heights: March 7, 1953, HEW. Has-
tings: three, AMNH. III. Orlando: May 7,
Oct. 6, CNC. Weekiwachee Springs: May, CPK.
Indian River: type, Edwards. Oldsmar: Sept.
3, 1944, WRB. St. Petersburg: three, (Pasch),
CU. Lakeland: May 5, AMNH. IV. Oneco:
June 8, 1953, (Dillman), CPK. Archbold Bio-
logical Station: Jan., Feb., (Remington), YU.
Siesta Key: June, CPK. Charlotte Harbor: (Slos-
son), AMNH. Fort Myers: April 22, (Davis),
SIM. Miami: June 10, (Forsyth), JGF. VI.
Florida City: March 4, April 6, May 20, JGF.
Food: milkweed, Cissus, and low pea.
EUCHAETIAS Lyman
[994 E. albicosta (Walker)]
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 3:630. 1855.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Denmark says that the record for this, Coop.
Ins. Pest Surv. 3(14): 4, was due to a mixup in
check-list numbers. He does not know to what
the record actually referred.
1001 E. EGLE (Drury)
Il. Exot. Ent. 2; P1. 20, Fig. 3. 1773.
Florida: (Slosson), Grsb. 51. IV. Palmetto:
March 6, 1951, DPI. Bradenton: Feb. 1955,
(Kelsheimer), det. Field, CPK. The last speci-
men is darker than northern specimens, espe-
cially the hind wings. Food: Asclepias.

PYGARCTIA Grote
1007 P. ABDOMINALIS Grote
Can. Ent. 3: 124. 1871.
Florida: (Grote), Neumoegen & Dyar (1893, p.
165). I. De Funiak Springs: FMJ. Tallahassee:
May, JPK. III. Cassadaga: Aug., SVF. Orange
Co.: May, DPI. Winter Park: May, Sept.,
AMNH. IV. Archbold Biological Station: Feb.,
PSU. Fort Myers: Davis (1913, p. 59). Palm
Beach: Dyar (1901a, p. 452). Miami: FMJ; EU;
Feb., WRB.
1008 P. GROSSBECKI Davis
P1. IX, Fig. 25, 8.
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 8:60. 1913.
I. Escambia Co.: May, SMH. West Pensacola:
April, VFG. Myrtle Grove: Aug., WJW. II.
Gainesville: July, DPI. Fernandina: April, OB.
III. Weekiwachee Springs: April, CPK. Fort
Meade: OB; May, AKW. IV. Bradenton: March,
CPK. Archbold Biological Station: March, YU.
Fort Myers: type, April, Davis. Bonita Springs:
March, OB. Lake Worth: Grsb. 51. Palm
Beach: (Slosson), Grsb. 51. Biscayne Bay: (Slos-
son), Grsb. 51. Miami: March, OB. VI. Florida
City: May, OB.
[1009 P. eglenensis (Clemens)]
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 12: 533. 1860.
See discussion under 992 Cycnia inopinatus.
1010 P. VIVIDA (Grote)
Papilio 2: 131. 1882.
Florida: Brooklyn Museum, Grsb. 51.

HOLOMELINA Herrich-Schaeffer
1016 H. LAETA (Gu6rin-M6n6ville)
P1. IX, Fig. 26, 9.
Icon. R~gne Anim. Ins.; P1. 88, Fig. 6. 1829.
I. Escambia Co.: May, SMH. Myrtle Grove:
Aug., WJW. Monticello: March, DPI. II.


Gainesville: Feb., March, Sept., DPI; June,
UFES. III. Central Florida: Oct., WMD. Cas-
sadaga: April, May, July-Sept, SVF. Weeki-
wachee Springs: April-June, CPK. Orlando:
March, April, May, CNC; May, WRB. Rock-
ledge: NYSM. Tampa: Hampson (1901, p. 190).
IV. Bradenton: Feb., March, CPK. Oneco:
March, JGF; May, CPK. Archbold Biological
Station: Jan., PSU; Feb., Aug., YU; June, AKW;
July, AMNH. Siesta Key: Feb., May, Nov.,
Dec., CPK. Charlotte Harbor: (Slosson), Grsb.
49. Fort Myers: March, April, AMNH. Bonita
Springs: March, OB. The Bradenton specimens
show an intergrading towards treatii (Grote),
and in one specimen from Oneco (JGF) the red
of the hind wing is replaced by yellow. Food:
dandelion, plantain.
1019 H. AURANTIACA (Hiibner)
P1. III, Fig. 42, S.
Zutr. exot Schmett. 3, p. 9; P1. 206, Fig. 411.
1825.
While the usual form of this species as commonly
found all over the state and all year, is rubicun-
daria (Hiibner), or perhaps more exactly, dimin-
utiva (Graef), a number of the other forms do
turn up, and it occasionally comes close to H.
ferruginosa immaculate (Reakirt) in color. I.
Quincy: June-Oct. IV. Bradenton: Feb.-May,
July-Sept. VI. Homestead: Feb.-Nov., tremen-
dous peak in May, falling off through July.
Food: Plantago and grasses.
1022 H. OPELLA (Grote)
Proc. Ent Soc. Phila. 1: 345. 1863.
Forbes (1960, p. 23) noted that Florida specimens
with solid oche forewing and solid vermillion
hindwing and underside are determinable only
by genitalia. I. Escambia Co.: common May,
form nigricans (Reakirt), Sept 6, SMH. III.
Rockledge: NYSM. Lakeland: nigricans, May,
AKW. IV. Oneco: March, April, JGF.
1023 H. [FERRUGINOSA IMMACULATE
(Reakirt)]
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 2: 372. 1864.
As these may all be merely a form of aurantiaca,
the record should not be considered definite.
III. Orlando: Feb., March, USNM, as reported
by Marshall & Musgrave (1937, p. 103). IV.
Oneco: three March, JGF, det with ?."

APANTESIS Walker
1033 A. VIRGO (Linnaeus)
Syst Nat., p. 501. 1758.
Florida: Forbes (1960, p. 32). II. Gainesville:









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Jan. 2, 1918, (Foster), det with ?" F. F. Bibbey,
DPI file; Sept 1962, (R. A. Stuebe), DPI.
1034 A. INTERMEDIA (Stretch)
Zyg. & Bomb. N. Amer. 1:216. 1873.
I. Escambia Co.: April 1, 1962, SMH. It is pos-
sible that the record under 1033 above might
belong here.
1037 A. DORIS (Boisduval)
P1. IX, Figs. 19, 20, 8.
Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige 12: 77. 1869.
All but two of the records are of the form nerea
(Boisduval). I. Pensacola: AMNH. Quincy:
orm mine (Slosson), March, MCZ; Sept., CPK.
Tallahassee: May, JPK. I. Suwanee Springs:
April, Slosson (1893, p. 150). Gainesville: typi-
cal doris, Feb., CPK; nerea, Jan., April, May,
Oct., UM; April, EU; May, UFES; July, UFA;
Sept., DPI. III. Ormond: Grsb. 50. Cassadaga:
April, SVF. Winter Park: (Slosson), Grsb. 50.
Orlando: April, July, Oct., CPK. Tampa: UT;
April, CU. IV. Southern Florida: Aug., CPK.
Archbold Biological Station: Nov., AMNH, YU.
Food: lettuce, dandelion.
1038 A. ARGE (Drury)
Pl. IX, Fig. 21, 8.
Ill. Exot Ent 1: 35. 1770.
I. Warrington: occasional, May-Sept., VFG, WP.
Brent: March, VFG. Near De Funiak Springs:
(Fisher), Grsb. 50. Quincy: Oct. 8, 1956, (Tap
pan), DPI. II. Jacksonville: Oct. 6, 1946, (J. L.
Langston), RLL. Interlachen: May 21, 1939,
(Brown), DPI. IV. Archbold Biological Station:
Nov., PSU. Food: Plantago, Chenopodium.
1054 A. PHYLLIRA (Drury)
Pl. III, Fig. 35, S.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1: 15. 1770.
I. Warrington: occasional, April-Sept., VFG.
Near De Funiak Springs: (Fisher), Grsb. 50.
Quincy: July, Sept., Oct, CPK; larva on tobacco,
March (Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 5:35). Tallahassee:
March, JPK. Monticello: Jan., March, Aug.,
DPI; March, June, Aug., CPK, larva on chinqua-
pin, Feb., May, DPI; larva on corn and truck
crops, UFES. II. Live Oak: April, UFES.
Gainesville: Feb., CPK; May, EU; Aug., Sept,
Dec., DPI. Newberry: larva on watermelon,
spring, UFES. III. Orange Co.: Oct., DPI.
Tampa: March, UT. IV. Lake Worth: Dyar
(1901a, p. 452). Food: tobacco, Ins. Pest Surv.
Bull. 10: 658.
1057 A. PLACENTIA (Abbot & Smith)
P1. III, Fig. 36, 8; Fig. 37, 9.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 2: 65. 1797.


The female is an unusually beautiful moth; the
male looks like a large figurata (Drury), the wing
spread ranging from 1�" to 2", but both sexes
are quite rare. I. Warrington: occasional, May-
Sept., VFG. Quincy: May, DPI. Tallahassee:
April, May, JPK. Monticello: Sept., DPI. II.
Gainesville: April, UFA; April, Sept., UM. III.
Cassadaga: March-June, SVF. Weekiwachee
Springs: April, May, J. F. May. Indian River:
type of flammea, (Wittfeld), Neumoegen (1881,
p. 9). This last is mentioned by Ottolengui
(1895, p. 288). Smith's reference (1890d, p. 32)
probably refers to the same specimen. IV.
Archbold Biological Station: Jan.-April, YU;
Feb., April, Nov., Dec., PSU, CU. Miami: June,
UM; Nov., PSU. Coral Gables: May, HFS.
1058 A. NAIS (Drury)
P1. IX, Fig. 22, .
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1; P1. 7, Fig. 3. 1770.
It is almost impossible to sift out the records
for the nais complex in Florida. Franclemont
believes that there actually exist only two spe-
cies, nais and phalerata, basing his belief on ex-
tensive rearing. Nais is undoubtedly to be found
throughout the state and probably at any time
except in the colder weather. The larva is a
general feeder.
[1059 A. vittata (Fabricius)]
Mant. Ins. 2: 127. 1787.
Vittata was described from a female of the
"radians" pattern, which occurs commonly in
both species, i. e., phalerata and nais. Records
that have appeared under the name vittata,
may belong, therefore, under either one.
[1060 A. radians Walker]
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 3: 62. 1855.
The comment under vittata above applies here
equally.
1061 A. PHALERATA (Harris)
PI. IX, Fig. 23, 9.
Cat. Anim. Mass., 73. 1837.
This species, too, is probably found everywhere
in the state during the first half of the year, the
only sure records after June being in October.
There has been taken an aberration which is
almost devoid of maculation, II. Alachua Co.:
Nov. 18, 1954, (Perry), DPI.

DIACRISIA Hiibner
1065 D. VIRGINICA (Fabricius)
P1. IX, Fig. 27, 9.
Ent Syst. Suppl., p. 487. 1798.


I










THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Virginica is relatively common and taken in
every month, undoubtedly all over the state.
The aberration fumosa (Strecker) taken at
Gainesville, September 5, 1958, (Perry), DPI.
A general feeder on low herbage; watermelon,
Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 3: 395.

ISIA Walker
1069 I. ISABELLA (Abbot & Smith)
Banded woollybear. PI. III, Fig. 38, 8.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 2: 131. 1797.
Like D. virginica, this is not rare, but neither of
them are so common as they are in the northern
states. The dates range from December through
October. Jones found the larvae in Paradise
Key with the hairs all black, not brown and black
as they are familiarly seen.
ESTIGMENE Hiibner
1070 E. ACRAEA (Drury)
Salt marsh caterpillar. P1. III, Figs. 39 and
40, 8; Fig. 41, 9.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1; PI. 3, Fig. 2. 1770.
Quite common throughout, and taken October-
May. Most specimens show varying degrees of
darkening but Field does not believe they can
be referred to form dubia (Walker) which was
described from Hudson Bay. The larva, a gen-
eral feeder on low plants, has been reported
specifically in Florida on: watermelon, weeds,
and corn, Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 3:64 and 12:
84; tobacco, USDA Proc. 19th Amer. Econ. Ent.
Bull. 67:109; Cucurbita okeechobeensis [Pepo
okeechobeensis], Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 3: 119;
ramie and native vegetation, ibid. 3: 469; black-
eyed peas, ibid. 4: 331.
1072 E. PRIMA (Slosson)
Ent. Amer. 5:40. 1889.
This is a rather remarkable find, as the species
is distinctly northern, in fact, Forbes (1960, p.
27) said: "Almost limited to the Canadian zone."
Ferguson commented: "-quite unmistakable.
They are much like our northern ones but less
heavily spotted. E. congrua was also flying at
Welaka at the same time." I. Quincy: April 3,
1962, (Tappan), CPK. II. Welaka: three March
19, 1962, (Ferguson), NSMS. Franclemont has
examined the specimens and has found slight
differences which may eventually prove this to
be a distinct species, but more material is needed
to be certain.
1073 E. CONGRUA (Walker)
PL IX, Fig. 28, 9.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 3:669. 1856.


Although Dozier (1920, p. 376) called it abun-
dant at Gainesville, other records are few. I.
Warrington: VFG. Quincy: Aug., CPK. II. Olus-
tee: March, DPI. Gainesville: UFES; March,
UFA; April, DPI. Keystone Heights: March,
HEW. IV. Bradenton: Feb., Oct., DPI. Arch-
bold Biological Station: Dec., YU. Siesta Key:
March, CPK. Food: various species of low
plants.
HYPHANTRIA Harris
There has been great debate over the question
of whether textor and cunea are separate species,
but Franclemont has recently proved on the ba-
sis of genitalia that such is the case.
1074 H. TEXTOR Harris
P1. IX, Fig. 29, 8.
Rept. Ins. Mass. p. 255. 1841.
There are only a very few positive records for
this species, but because of the impossibility of
making the separation on superficial characters,
many records for cunea may, probably do, be-
long here. II. Fernandina: Aug., NSMS. IV.
Punta Gorda: March, CPK, AKW. VI. Florida
City: May, NSMS.
1075 H. CUNEA (Drury)
Fall webworm. P1. IX, Fig. 30, 9.
Ill. Exot. Ent. 1; P1. 18, Fig. 4. 1770.
The records, which have been consistently as-
signed to this species, show it to be state-wide
in occurrence and present most of the year. It
is found not only in the immaculate form, but
with spots in every degree of profusion, and with
the ground color suffused with brown. Food:
pecan, Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 3:286; sweet gum,
Packard (1890a, p. 657); cypress, DPI.
EUERYTHRA Harvey
1078 E. PHASMA Harvey
P1. III, Fig. 44, 8.
Can. Ent. 8: 5. 1876.
Phasma is a beautiful but rare insect. I. Escam-
bia Co.: Feb., March, SMH. Warrington: rare,
summer, VFG. Quincy: Feb., Aug. (Tappan),
CPK. Tallahassee: March, June, July, JPK.
Monticello: March, DPI. II. Alachua Co.:
March, UFES; Aug., DPI. Waldo: June, (King),
CPK. Gainesville: Feb., CPK; April, UM. III.
Ormond: Grsb. 49. New Smyrna: March, JGF.
Markham: March, DPI. Rockledge: (Slosson),
Grsb. 49.
ARACHNIS Geyer
1082 A. PICTA Packard
Proc. Ent Soc. Phila. 3: 126. 1864.


I










THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


IV. Palm Beach: Feb. 2, 1890, Dyar, USNM. It
seems odd that Dyar did not mention this speci-
men in his paper (1901a) on the collections made
in the Lake Worth-Palm Beach area. Perhaps
he simply forgot it, or perhaps he considered it
an accidental stray and not properly a part of the
local fauna. Because the species is western, and
too large and striking to be overlooked by sub-
sequent collectors, the conclusion is obvious that
this was an accidental introduction, whether by
carrier or on imported plantings.

ECPANTHERIA Hiibner
1085 E. SCRIBONIA (Stoll)
PI. X, Fig. 3, 9.
Pap. Exot. Suppl., p. 177; P1. 41, Fig. 3. 1787.
Scribonia is found commonly throughout the
state, probably in every month. The male form
denudata Slosson, which looks as though the
scales on the apical fifth had been rubbed off,
appears to be the most common and variation in
the spots is considerable. IV. Siesta Key: 1 inch
larva found on Plumbago May 25, taken north
and fed on Lonicera tatarica from June 7 to
July 15 when pupation occurred. Imago Aug.
1, CPK. Food: Euphorbia heterophyUa [cy-
athophora], Ricinus communis, Helianthus, Plan-
tago, Salix, and various other plants; magnolia,
Dozier (1920, p. 376); tangerine, bougainvillea,
Pyrostegia ignea venustaa], rough lemon, ba-
nana, orange, DPI.

SEIRARCTIA Packard
1091 S. ECHO (Abbot & Smith)
P1. X, Fig. 1, 8.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 2:135. 1797.
Since echo occurs in Georgia, it is probably
found throughout the state, but there are no
records north of Old Town and Daytona, except
one for Warrington. Fuller found it moderately
plentiful at Cassadaga, March 1956. It is cer-
tainly much more common in the southern part
of the state, and is on the wing from February
through December. VI. Homestead: Feb.-Oct,
a high peak in May. Food: Sabal palmetto,
Packard (1890b, p. 351); lupine, Forbes; Zamia
integrifolia, Bonniwell (1918, p. 59); Z. umbrosa
[pumila], DPI; croton, Quercus laevis, DPI; oak,
persimmon, Smith (1890e, p. 102); "tecumseh,"
Wyatt.

UTETHEISA Hiibner
1099 U. BELLA (Linnaeus)
Bella moth. PI. III, Fig. 45, 9.
Syst Nat., p. 534. 1758.


Forbes (1960, p. 37) made this a form of orna-
trix below. It is found all over the state the year
round in all its forms and varieties. The long
series in the collections of Buchholz, Francle-
mont, and Yale show these in all their multi-
plicity and beauty. I. Quincy: May-Nov. IV.
Bradenton: Feb.-April, Nov., Dec. VI. Home-
stead: Feb.-May, Oct., peak in May. Food:
Crotalaria and Lespedeza; native lupines, USDA,
"The more important insect records for the win-
ter and spring to March 31, 1945," p. 5.
1100 U. ORNATRIX (Linnaeus)
Syst. Nat., p. 511. 1758.
There are relatively few records for typical
onatrix. III. Orlando: Dec., WMD. Mims:
Feb., DPI. IV. Gillette: Jan., DPI. Braden-
ton: Jan., one typical, one form stretchii (Butler),
CPK; Feb., March, DPI. Archbold Biological
Station: Jan., YU. Sarasota: May, CPK. Lake
Worth: (Slosson), Grsb. 51. Rockdale: Jan., DPI.
Kendall: Oct., DPI. VI. Homestead: July, CPK.
Paradise Key: Jan., March, rare, FMJ. VIII. Key
West: AKW.
HAPLOA Hiibner
1101 H. CLYMENE (Brown)
Ill. Zool., p. 96. 1776.
Lyman (1887, p. 189), referring to interrupto-
marginata (Beauvois), said: "Habitat: Can. to
Fla. I. Escambia Co.: Aug., SMH. Warring-
ton: occasional, summer, VFG, WP. Tallahas-
see: July 25, 1913, UM.
1102 H. COLONA (Hilbner)
Samml. eur. Schmett. 2: 135. 1804.
Florida: (Thaxter), MCZ. I. Escambia Co.: form
carolina Harris, May 1962, SMH. Apalachicola:
(Chapman), Stretch (1872-1873, p. 173). II.
Trenton: April 19, 1925, UM. Gainesville: June
10, 1924, UM; form fulvicosta Clemens, June 20,
1957, (Denmark), DPI.

Family AGARISTIDAE
ALYPIA Hiibner
[1112 A. octomaculata (Fabricius)]
Eight-spotted forester.
Syst. Ent., p. 830. 1775.
This was reported by Grossbeck (1917, p. 52)
as being in the Grote collection from Florida,
but I feel it needs duplication before it should
be accepted as valid, since all the other records
are definitely wittfeldi. Food: Vitis, Ampelop-
sis.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


1114 A. WITTFELDI Henry Edwards
P1. IX, Figs. 31, 32, 9.
Papilio 3:34. 1883.
An occasional dayflyer recorded mostly from
south of Gainesville-St. Augustine, but as it has
been taken in Escambia County: March, VFG,
and Santa Rosa County: March, SMH, it is prob-
ably found throughout the state. Except for
a pair taken at III. Clearwater: Aug., (Fattig),
LH, the flight seems to be limited to January-
April. Food: Japanese persimmon, DPI.

Family NOCTUIDAE
Subfamily PANTHEINAE
COLOCASIA Ochsenheimer
[1123 C. propinquilinea (Grote)]
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 4: 293. 1873.
Grote (1874, p. 6) said: "Mass. to Fla." This is
probably another case of ambiguity. Smith
(1893, p. 32) made no reference to Florida, and
Forbes (1954, p. 291) found no records south of
Tennessee. The probability is that Grote mixed
the two species of the genus, and if there is any
Colocasia in Florida, it would be flavicornis
(Smith), which Franclemont has taken in Ala-
bama. Food: birch, walnut, maple, beech.

PANTHEA Hiibner
1130 P. [FURCILLA (Packard)]
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 3:374. 1864.
Most of the known Florida specimens are very
dark and Franclemont is fairly certain that they
represent a new species. If that is the case, he
will describe it. I. Escambia Co.: Feb., SMH.
West Pensacola: July, VFG. Quincy: Oct.-Jan.,
CPK. Monticello: Feb., DPI. II. Alachua Co.:
Jan., DPI. Gainesville: Feb., March, Dec., (Per-
ry, Morse), CPK; March, (Hetrick), UFA. III.
Cassadaga: Sept., SVF. St. Petersburg: Dec.,
AKW. IV. Archbold Biological Station: Jan.,
March, PSU; Dec., (Pease), YU. Food: larch,
pine, Tilia.
CHARADRA Walker
1135 C. DERIDENS (Guende);
1136 C. CIRCULIFERA (Walker)
P1. IX, Fig. 33, 9.
Spec. GCn. 5:35. 1852; List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus.
32: 446. 1865.
Franclemont is of the opinion that the latter is
nothing more than a Florida race of the former.
Certainly they intergrade, and it is often impos-


sible to say which one has. Consequently, if
there is specific difference, the records cannot
be separated at present. These run from Es-
cambia County to Florida City, but with none
for the Keys. The dates cover September-April,
with an occasional specimen taken May, June.

LICHNOPTERA Herrich-Schaeffer
1139 L. ILLUDENS (Walker)
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9: 37. 1856.
Specimens in the United States National Mu-
seum collection look suspiciously like dealer
material, and to my mind very much open to
question. What Dvar's record was based on I
do not know. Florida: Dvar (1902, p. 99); Seitz
(1923, p. 28), which is probably based on Dyar's
record. V. Marco: eight, USNM. Cypress
Swamp: one June, USNM.

RAPHIA Hiibner
1140 R. ABRUPTA Grote
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 2: 336. 1863.
I. Quincy: July 29, 1960. (Tappan), CPK. II.
Old Town: March 2, 1951, det. Franclemont,
CPK.
1140,1 R. SP.
This is an unrecognized species, of which
Franclemont has a specimen from Georgia. I.
Quincy: June 28, 1960, (Tanpan), CPK. IV. Pal-
metto: April 6. 1959, GWK. Bradenton: Auril
10, 1955, (Kelsheimer), det. Franclemont, CPK.
Archbold Biological Station: Feb., YU. Siesta
Key: April 29, 1956, CPK.

Subfamily ACRONICTINAE
ACRONICTA Ochsenheimer
1148 A. AMERICANA Harris
American dagger moth.
Rept. Ins. Mass., p. 317. 1841.
III. Cassadaga: May 10, 1956, SVF. IV. Braden-
ton: Feb. 1955, (Kelsheimer), CPK. Siesta Key:
Feb. 22, 1952, (Kimball), CU. Food: maple and
other trees.
1151 A. DACTYLINA Grote
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 16: 239. 1874.
IV. Archbold Biological Station: Feb. 10, 1959,
(Frost), PSU. The specimen is too rubbed
for determination on maculation. Franclemont
called it either dactylina or hastulifera (A. & S.),
but has agreed that the only logical conclusion









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


is that it is the former, since the only recorded
food plant for hastulifera is Alnus. West has
informed us that the alder that occurs in Flor-
ida, Anus serrulata, has not been recorded south
of Alachua and Putnam Counties, whereas wil-
low, one of the food plants for dactylina, is
found in the Archbold Biological Station region.
Franclemont called attention to the fact that
the larvae of the two species are quite distinct.
1153 A. LEPUSCULINA Guenbe
Cottonwood dagger moth.
Spec. G6n. 5: 46. 1852.
Florida: one, presumably in Sept., Smith & Dyar
(1898, p. 63). Food: poplar.
1159 A. TRITONA (Hiibner)
PL IX, Fig. 38, 8.
Zutr. exot. Schmett; P1. 21, Figs. 107, 108. 1818.
I. Escambia Co.: April, SMH. Warrington: WP.
Myrtle Grove: June, WJW. Quincy: Sept., CPK.
II. Gainesville: Nov., DPI. III. Cassadaga: May,
SVF. Weekiwachee Springs: March, AEB.
Lutz: April, CWK. Stemper: July, CWK; Aug.,
Sept., CNC. St. Petersburg: Feb., AKW. IV.
Oneco: March, April, JGF. Archbold Biological
Station: May, YU; Nov., Dec., PSU. Siesta Key:
Nov., CPK. Punta Gorda: abundant, Jan.-May,
CPK, AKW. Food: Vaccinium, azalea, deer-
berry.
1167 A. CONNECT Grote
P1. IX, Fig. 37, 8.
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1: 79. 1873.
I. Quincy: Sept., Oct, CPK. II: Alachua Co.:
April, DPI. Gainesville: Feb., CPK; Sept., DPI.
IV. Oneco: March, April, JGF. Archbold Bio-
logical Station: Jan., PSU. Siesta Key: April,
CPK. Punta Gorda: Jan., Aug., CGM; March-
May, AKW. VI. Homestead: May, June, CPK.
Paradise Key: occasional, March, April, det
Dyar as "not typical," FMJ. One of the Para-
dise Key specimens is in collection of USNM
and is discussed by Todd (1959, p. 278). Todd
reported subsequently that some Florida speci-
mens are atypical in that they are lighter, and
the dark shade in the median area is discontinu-
ous. Food: willow.
1172 A. VINNULA (Grote)
P1. IX, Fig. 35, S.
Proc. Ent Soc. Phila. 2: 436. 1864.
Florida specimens are very pale, whitish. II.
Gainesville: Feb. 21, 1955, (Morse), CPK. II.
Cassadaga: Dec. 3, 1962, SVF. IV. Bradenton:
four Oct 7-16, 1955, (Kelshelmer), CPK. Siesta
Key: March 3, 1961, CPK.


1174 A. LAETIFICA Smith
Ent. News 8: 150. 1897.
Forbes (1954, p. 240) said: "The locality of Flor-
ida in the original description has been chal-
lenged by Dod (1913, p. 252), and I have seen
no material from there." However, it is only
the male type from Florida which Dod ques-
tioned, stating that it is interrupt Guenee. A
Florida female in the Rutgers College collec-
tion, now presumably in the American Museum
of Natural History, he did not question. There
are five recent records, none of them seen by
Forbes: I. Escambia Co.: March 1961, SMH.
II. Gainesville: April 1958, (Hetrick), det. Todd,
CPK. III. Cassadaga: Oct. 20, 1954, det. Todd,
SVF. Brooksville: June 20, 1955, AKW. VI.
Homestead: Sept. 19, 1958, (Wolfenbarger), det.
Todd, CPK. All of these are more lightly
marked than northern specimens.
[1175 A. furdfera Guenee]
Spec. C6n. 5:44. 1852.
Furdfera was recorded from Florida by Smith
& Dyar (1898, p. 85), but as Forbes has seen
none from south of Tennessee, we need some-
thing more definite to validate the record. It
probably belongs under the next species, the
two having been frequently confused and by
some treated as synonyns.
1176 A. HASTA Guenke
P1. IX, Fig. 34, 8.
Spec. Cn. 5:45. 1852.
I. Quincy: not uncommon, March, ril, July,
Aug., (Tappan), CPK. II. Gainesvflle: April
1958, (Hetrick), det Franclemont; May 1958,
CPK.
[1177 A. thoracica (Grote)]
N. Amer. Ent. 1: 94. 1880.
Draudt (in Seitz, 1923, p. 24) credits this species
to Florida, but as the species is found primarily
in the higher parts of Arizona, he would appear
to be in error.
1181 A. MORULA Grote & Robinson
Ochre dagger.
Trans. Amer. Ent Soc. 2: 196. 1868.
I. Escambia Co.: July, VFG. Quincy: Aug. 23,
1960, (Tappan), CPK. II. (?). Dozier (1920, p.
377) reported finding a cocoon between loose
bark of a pine stump in a hammock, presumably
near Gainesville, from which issued, Feb. 26,
an adult that he determined as morua with "?."
Forbes (1954, p. 239), gave the southern limit
as D. C. Food: elm, apple, linden.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


1182 A. INTERRUPTA Guenbe
Gray dagger.
Spec. GCn. 5:46. 1852.
Dod (1913, p. 252) said that the male type of
laetifica from Florida was a "well-marked" in-
terrupta. Food: elm, apple, plum.
1183 A. LOBELIAE Guen6e
Spec. G6n. 5: 44. 1852.
Florida: (Doubleday), Smith & Dyar (1898, p.
82). I. Escambia Co.: March, SMH. Warring-
ton: Jan., VFG. Quincy: Sept. 13, 1960, (Tap-
pan), CPK. II. Gainesville: April 15, 1925, UM.
Food: oak.
1184 A. PRUNI Harris
Ent. Corresp., p. 313. 1869.
Forbes (1954, p. 241) makes this a form of cares
cens Guenee, q. v. I. Escambia Co.: March
1961, SMH. Myrtle Grove: Aug. 30, 1962, WJW.
Quincy: June 27, 1961, Sept. 24, 1962, CPK.
Monticello: June, UM; Sept. 13, 1955, (Phillips,
DPI. II. Gainesville: Feb. 17, 1955, (Morse,
CPK. IV. Punta Gorda: Feb., AKW.
1188 A. MODICA Walker
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9:56. 1856.
I. Florida Caverns State Park: April 13, 1960,
(Denmark), DPI. Quincy: March 27, 1961, (Tap-
pan), CPK.
1190 A. CLARESCENS Guenbe
Spec. Gn. 5:54. 1852.
IV. South Bay: May 1, Grsb. 53. V. Marco:
April 21, AMNH. Food: apple family.
1193 A. HAMAMELIS Guen6e
Spec. G&n. 5:52. 1852.
II. Lakeland: June 24, AMNH. Food: witch
hazel.
1194 A. INCBETA Morrison
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist 17: 131. 1874.
I. Quincy: two June 15, 1963, (Tappan), det.
Forbes, CPK.

1195 A. BETABDATA (Walker)
P1. IX, Fig. 36, 8.
Can. Nat. Geol. 6: 38. 1861.
I. Escambia Co.: Aug., Sept., SMH. Warring-
ton: VFG. Quincy: July, CPK. II. Gainesville:
March, (Hetrick), det. Todd, UFA. III. Cassa-
daga: March, Sept, SVF. Not typical. IV.
Punta Gorda: Feb., AKW. VI. Homestead:
May, (Wolfenbarger), CPK. Food: maple.


1197 A. SUBOCHBEA Grote
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. ScL 2: 153. 1874.
I. Escambia Co.: July 4, 1961, det Franclemont,
SMH.
1198 A. AFFLICTA Grote
Pl. IX, Fig. 39, 8.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 2: 438. 1864.
Florida: (Doubleday), BM. I. Warrington: VFG.
Quincy: May, Sept., CPK. II. Gainesville: Feb.
22, 1955, (Morse), CPK. III. Cassadaga: March,
SVF. Sanford: Oct., DPI. St. Petersburg:
March, including one form schmalzriedi Lem-
mer, AKW. IV. Archbold Biological Station:
Dec.-Feb., (Frost), PSU. Punta Gorda: March,
AKW. Food: oak.
1199 A. BRUMOSA Guene
Spec. G6n. 5: 52. 1852.
Some specimens are in the form persuasa Har-
vey, and according to Forbes (1954, p. 244) lit-
urata Smith. I. West Pensacola: April, VFG.
Quincy: Oct, CPK. Monticello: Sept., DPI.
II. Alachua Co.: July, DPI. Gainesville: Feb.,
DPI; March, CPK. Archer: March, Smith &
Dyar, (1898, p. 130). III. Cassadaga: March,
Aug., SVF. Weekiwachee Springs: March, June,
CPK. Lutz: March, HEW. Stemper: Aug.,
CNC. IV. Oneco: March, JGF. Archbold Bio-
logical Station: Feb., March, Nov., PSU; March,
YU. Siesta Key: March, CPK. Punta Gorda:
Feb., March, CGM; March, AEB, AKW; March,
April, CPK.
1201 A. IMPLETA Walker
P1. IX, Fig. 40, 9.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9: 57. 1856.
I. Escambia Co.: July, VFG. Quincy: July,
CPK. Monticello: March, WAR; Sept, DPI.
II. Gainesville: Feb., CPK. III. Cassadaga:
March, Aug., SVF. Sanford: March, CPK.
Brooksville: June, AKW. IV. Archbold Biologi-
cal Station: Feb., YU. Punta Gorda: March,
CPK, AKW. Food: cherry, hickory, Dozier
(1920, p. 376).
[1204 A. impressa Walker]
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 11: 61. 1856.
Smith (1893, p. 41) said: "Canada to Florida,"
whereas Forbes (1954, p. 248) said: "south at
least to central New York," which is a long way
from Florida. Food: willow.
1207 A. LONGA Guenbe
P1. IX, Fig. 41, c.
Spec. G6n. 5:54. 1852.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


I. West Pensacola: April, July, Aug., VFG.
Quincy: March, July, Sept., CPK. III. Brooks-
ville: June, AKW. Stemper: Sept., CNC. IV.
Bradenton: Nov., CPK. Oneco: March, JGF.
Archbold Biological Station: Feb., Nov., PSU;
Sept., YU. Vero Beach: April, CPK. Punta
Gorda: March, AKW; March, April, CPK. Mi-
ami: March, OB. Matheson Hammock: June,
CPK. VI. Homestead: July, Sept., CPK. Florida
City: May, July, OB. Food: birch, alder, cher-
ry, blackberry.
1209 A. LITHOSPILA Grote
Streaked dagger.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 16:240. 1874.
Florida: Smith & Dyar (1898, p. 98). Food:
hickory, oak, chestnut.
1214 A. ARIOCH Strecker
PL. XI, Fig. 1, 2.
Lep. Rhop. Het. Suppl. 1: 5. 1898.
As this is considered by Franclemont to be mere-
ly a larger, more yellowish southern race of
oblinita (Abbot & Smith), it is probable that the
records for the two are mixed, and also that both
are present, whatever their status. Wyatt be-
lieves the two are distinct. The only certain
records for arioch are: I. Escambia Co.: Sept.,
SMH. Pensacola: Feb., VFG. Quincy: Feb.,
Oct., CPK. II. Jacksonville: USNM. Gaines-
ville: Sept., DPI. III. Cassadaga: March, det.
Todd, SVF. Orlando: May, OB. St. Peters-
burg: USNM. IV. Bradenton: Nov., CPK. Arch-
bold Biological Station: Jan., YU; Feb., April,
PSU. Siesta Key: March, Nov., CPK. Miami:
March, OB. VI. Florida City: March, OB.
1215 A. OBLINITA (Abbot & Smith)
Smeared dagger. P1. XI, Fig. 2, 8; Fig. 3, 9.
Lep. Ins. Ga. 2: 187; P1. 94. 1797.
Some of these records may belong under arioch.
II. Alachua Co.: Feb., DPI. Gainesville: Feb.,
DPI. III. Cassadaga: Nov., SVF. Weekiwachee
Springs: March, April, CPK. Orlando: Feb.,
Oct., WMD. IV. Bradenton: Feb., April, DPI.
Oneco: June, CPK. Port Sewall: Jan.-March,
AMNH. Archbold Biological Station: Jan., YU;
Jan.-March, PSU. Sarasota: Feb., CPK. Siesta
Key: March, CPK. Punta Gorda: March, April,
AKW. Dade Co.: Aug., HFS. Miami: Jan.,
WRB. VI. Homestead: Sept., CPK. Florida
City: March, OB. Paradise Key: Jan.-April,
FMJ. Larva a general feeder on low shrubs
and herbs.
1216 A. LANCEOLARIA (Grote)
P1. XI, Fig. 4, &.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 418. 1875.


III. Cassadaga: March, April, SVF. IV. Arch-
bold Biological Station: Feb., March, YU; ten
March 4-8, 1959, (Frost), PSU. Port Sewall:
Feb., AMNH. Food: low bushes, willow, pop-
lar, wild cherry, blueberry, sweet fern.

SIMYRA Ochsenheimer
1222 S. HENRICI (Grote)
P1. XI, Fig. 5, S.
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1: 10. 1873.
Some Florida specimens are nearly an even ale
reddish brown, others a very pale, very slightly
rosy beige. I. Warrington: VFG, WP. III.
Yankeetown: March, Cole (1931, p. 9). Orlando:
Feb., WMD. IV. Bradenton: Feb.-April, Dec.,
CPK. Archbold Biological Station: Nov., PSU.
Fort Pierce: June, DPI. Port Sewall: Jan.,
March, AMNH. Siesta Key: Feb., Nov., CPK.
New Port Comfort: Jan., CPK. Miami: Aug.,
AMNH. Hialeah: reared from Typha, Feb.,
DPI. Biscayne Bay: (Slosson), Grsb. 54. V.
Everglades: Feb., larva on Typha latifolia, Cole.
Food: low plants.
HARRISIMEMNA Grote
1223 H. TRISIGNATA (Walker)
Harris' three-spot. P1. XI, Fig. 25, 8.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9:29. 1856.
Florida: (Slosson), Grsb. 54. I. Warrington: two,
summer, VFG, WP. III. Cassadaga: Oct., SVF.
IV. Archbold Biological Station: Feb. 1955,
(Remington), YU; March 27, 1959, JGF. Siesta
Key: March 29, 1952, CPK. Food: lilac, Ilex,
Dirca, Liquidambar; Ligustrum sp., DPI.
Subfamily AGROTINAE
EUXOA Hibner
[1310 E. messoria (Harris)]
Dark-sided cutworm.
Rept. Ins. Mass., p. 824. 1841.
Florida: (Slosson), Grsb. 58. I feel that this
must be an error, as Forbes (1954, p. 89) has
seen none from below southern New Jersey.
[1341 E. tessellata (Harris)]
Rept. Ins. Mass., p. 824. 1841.
Florida: (Slosson), Grsb. 58. This looks like
another error, though in this case Forbes has
seen material from Virginia.
EUCOPTOCNEMIS Grote
1410 E. FIMBRIARIS (Guen6e)
PI. XI, Fig. 6, &.
Spec. G6n. 5: 172. 1852.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


I. Warrington: VFG. West Pensacola: Nov.,
VFG. Myrtle Grove: Oct., WJW. Quincy:
Nov., CPK. Monticello: Nov., DPI, CPK. II.
Alachua Co.: Oct., DPI. Gainesville: April,
UFA, including fprm sordida Grote, Sept.-Nov.,
DPI, CPK.
1411 E. TRIPARS (Walker)
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9:78. 1856.
There is some question as to whether this is
actually distinct from fimbriaris, and the type
should be examined and compared. Florida:
Forbes (1954, p. 31). I. Escambia Co.: Oct. 27,
1961, SMH. II. Gainesville: Nov. 14, 1925, UM.
1412 E. DAPSILIS (Grote)
P1. XI, Fig. 7, 8; Fig. 8, 9.
Bull. U. S. Geol. Geograph. Surv. Territ.
6: 582. 1883.
Dapsilis is a dull, pale gray species with a vari-
able amount of black spots on the primaries. I.
Escambia Co.: Oct. 19, 1961, SMH. West Pen-
sacola: Oct., VFG. Pensacola: Nov., CU. II.
Newberry: Nov., SIM. III. Cassadaga: Nov.,
Dec., SVF., CPK. St. Petersburg: CU; Oct., OB,
CNC. IV. Archbold Biological Station: Nov.,
CU, YU; seventeen Nov. 1958; five Nov. 1959,
PSU. Port Sewall: Dec., OB. Bonita Springs:
OB.
AGROTIS Ochsenheimer
1416, 1 A. SP.
I. Escambia Co.: March 10, 1962, SMH. Francle-
mont places this very close to vetusta Walker
and believes that it may be a dark, southern form
of the latter. He has another specimen from
Mississippi, but as both are females, more exact
determination is not possible.
1422 A. GLADIARIA Morrison
Clay-backed cutworm. P1. XI, Fig. 9, 8.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 17: 162. 1874.
I. Quincy: Crumb (1929, p. 68). Food: grasses
and many other plants.
1425 A. VENERABILIS Walker
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 10: 328. 1856.
Venerabilis was first recorded in the state in
1955 and is becoming increasingly more numer-
ous. I. Escambia Co.: Nov., SMH. Quincy:
Nov., Dec., DPI. Monticello: Nov., DPI. II.
Gainesville: Sept., Nov., Dec. 1955, DPI, JGF.
Food: white clover.
[1432 A. volublis Harvey]
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sd. 2:118. 1874.
An error in my determination was responsible


for a record of this being published in Coop.
Ins. Pest Surv. 3(5): 6. The record is included
under venerabilis above, where it properly be-
longs.
1434 A. MALEFIDA Guenke
Pale-sided cutworm. P1. XI, Fig. 16, 9.
Spec. G6n. 5: 267. 1852.
Malefida is found throughout the entire state,
including the Dry Tortugas, January-October,
and is spasmodically common. Larva a general
feeder; sugar cane, Ingram & Jaynes (1938, pp.
89-98).
1435 A. YPSILON Rottenberg
Greasy cutworm. P1. XI, Fig. 18, 9.
Naturforscher, Noct., xli; p. 141. 1776.
Ypsilon is not such a pest as it is in the North,
but is relatively common all year. I. Quincy:
Aug.-May, a large peak in mid-Sept. IV. Brad-
enton: Jan., Feb. VI. Homestead: Jan., April-
Oct., with one peak in May. Larva a general
feeder; sugar cane, Ingram & Jaynes (1938, pp.
89-98); celery, UFES; cabbage, Coop. Econ.
Ins. Rept. 4:217.
1435,1 A. SP.
This was determined by Franclemont as a dis-
tinct, undescribed species close to but small-
er and darker than ypsilon. He will describe
it. III. St. Petersburg: five, March, April,
1960, AKW. IV. Archbold Biological Station:
Jan. 5, 1960, Nov. 1958, (Frost), PSU; April 19,
1958, (Pease), YU. Miami: May 28, 1938, (For-
syth), OB. Miami Beach: three April 15-19,
JGF. VI. Homestead: Jan., March, May, July-
Oct., (Wolfenbarger), CPK. Florida City: June
5, 1947, OB; June 11, JGF.
1450 A. SUBTERRANEA (Fabricius)
Granulate cutworm. P1. XI, Fig. 17, 8.
Ent. Syst. 3(2): 70. 1794.
Subterranea is more familiarly known under the
name Feltia annexa (Treitschke); it is of state-
wide occurrence and is probably on the wing
throughout the year. I. Quincy: all year, peaks
in July and Sept. IV. Bradenton: Oct.-Aug.
VI. Homestead: Jan.-Oct., peak in May, falling
off through July and rising again through Oct
It is certainly one of the most abundant Florida
noctuids. It is a general feeder.

FELTIA Walker
1442 F. DUCENS Walker
Dingy cutworm. Pl. XI, Fig. 26, 9.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9:203. 1856.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


I. Quincy: seven Sept. 27-Oct. 26, 1960, (Tap-
pan), DPI, CPK. The one female is slightly
aberrant in that the hind wing is heavily infus-
cated only as a broad border on the outer mar-
gin.
1446 F. HERILIS Gipte
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1: 99. 1873.
I. Escambia Co.: Oct. 25, 1961, SMH.
1450,1 F. REPLETA Walker
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 1 7386. 1857.
Repleta looks much like a large subterranean,
and may have been overlooked by many col-
lectors. IV. Biscayne Bay: (Slosson), McDun-
nough (1949a, p. 12). VI. Homestead: Jan. 28,
1955, (Wolfenbarger), det. Franclemont, CPK.
1451 F. GENICULATA (Grote & Robinson)
P1. XI, Fig. 10, 9.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 1: 349. 1868.
Forbes (1954, p. 47) said: "a large pale race in
Florida. Specimens of geniculata from Cassa-
daga are more strongly marked than New Eng-
land specimens. I. Escambia Co.: Oct. 16, 1961,
SMH. West Pensacola: Sept. 30, Oct 13, 1961,
VFG. II. Goldhead Branch State Park: Oct 14,
1961, AB. III. Cassadaga: relatively common
Oct., Nov., SVF. Sanford: Oct 1, 1925, WRB;
Oct. 19, 1960, DPI. Titusville: (Engel), JGF.
IV. Archbold Biological Station: seven Nov.,
(Frost), PSU; one of these is very pale.

CHOEPHORA Grote
1474 C. FUNGORUM Grote & Robinson
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 2: 220. 1868.
I. Quincy: Nov. 16, 1960, two Nov. 14, 1961,
five Nov. 3-Dec. 4, 1962 (Tappan), CPK. Larva
a cutworm.
EUROIS Hiibner
1475 E. OCCULTA (Linnaeus)
Great brocade.
Syst. Nat 1: 514. 1757.
Here is a very surprising record, the species
being distinctly northern. It makes one won-
der about the propriety of questioning some of
the records for other northern species. III. Cas-
sadaga: July 4, 1952, det. Todd, SVF.

ANICLA Grote
1481 A. INFECTA (Ochsenheimer)
P1. XI, Fig. 19, 9.
Schmett Eur. 4:67. 1816.


Infecta is one of the commonest noctuids in the
state, probably all year. I. Quincy: Feb.-Dec.,
with small peak in Sept. IV. Bradenton: Dec.-
June, Oct. VI. Homestead: Feb.-Nov., peaks in
May, Sept, and Oct. Food: grasses; Cenchrus
tribuloides, Dyar (1894a, pp. 18-20); beets, to-
bacco, plantain, purslane, Crumb (1929, p. 103);
lawns, Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept 4:301.
1481, 1 A. SP.
This is a new species which is being described
by Franclemont. VII. Flamingo: May 8, 1963,
(Kimball), ENP. VIII. Tavernier, Windley Key,
and Craig: July-Nov. 1955, (J. N. Todd), JGF,
CPK. Big Pine Key: May 12, 1961, (Mead),
DPI.
EUAGROTIS McDunnough
1482 E. LUBRICANS (Guen6e)
P1. XI, Fig. 12, 9.
Spec. G6n. 5: 323. 1852.
I. Warrington: May, VFG. Marianna: Dec.,
DPI. Quincy: March, CPK. II. East Florida:
(Doubleday), Smith (1891b, p. 272). Alachua
Co.: April, DPI. Gainesville: Feb., CPK. Has-
tings: type of spreta Smith, AMNH. III. Win-
ter Park: March, DPI. Orlando: April, WMD.
St. Petersburg: March, CU. IV. Oneco: March,
April, JGF. Archbold Biological Station: Jan.,
YU; Feb., PSU; April, CU. Port Sewall: Jan-
March, AMNH. Siesta Key: Jan., Feb., CPK.
Charlotte Harbor: (Slosson), Grsb. 58. Bonita
Springs: March, OB. VI. Homestead: April,
May, CPK. Florida City: Jan., OB.

1483 E. [ILLAPSA (Walker)]
P1. XI, Fig. 11, 8; Fig. 13, 9.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 11:744. 1857.
Franclemont thinks this may be a species dis-
tinct from northern illapsa, or a subspecies there-
of. I. Escambia Co.: Feb., SMH. West Pensa-
cola: March, VFG. III. Egmont Key: April 30,
1904, UM. IV. Oneco: March, JGF. Archbold
Biological Station: Jan., PSU; Jan., Feb., YU.
Siesta Key: March 1, 1952, CPK. Punta Gorda:
Feb., March, AKW. VI. Homestead: May, CPK.
1488 E. DIGNA (Morrison)
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 18: 115. 1875.
IV. Charlotte Harbor: (Slosson), Grsb. 58.

PERIDROMA Hiibner
1496 P. MARGARITOSA (Haworth)
Variegated cutworm. P1. XI, Fig. 20, 9.
Lep. Brit. p. 218. 1809.
Although margaitosa has been recorded from









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


almost every part of the state, including the
Dry Tortugas, it does not seem to be especially
common, as it is in the North. The dates in-
clude October-August. The form saucia (Hiib-
ner) is infrequent. Larva a general feeder; to-
matoes, Watson (1914, pp. 57-78); Nicotiana ta-
bacum, Coop. Ins. Pest Surv. 8: 28.

GRAPHIPHORA Ochsenheimer
1511 G. C-NIGRUM (Linnaeus)
Syst. Nat. 10: 516. 1758.
I. Myrtle Grove: May 11, 1963, WJW. Quincy:
Oct. 30, 1961, (Tappan), CPK. II. Gainesville:
May 13, 1958, (Denmark),.det Franclemont,
DPI. Larva a cutworm.

ANOMOGYNA Staudinger
1561 A. ELIMATA Guen6e
PI. XI, Fig. 21, 8.
Spec. G6n. 5:333. 1852.
I. Quincy: Nov. 15, 1960, (Tappan), det. Francle-
mont, CPK. Food: young pine, spruce, and
tamarack trees.
1562 A. JANUALIS (Grote)
Bull. U. S. Geol. Geograph. Surv. Territ 4: 169.
1878.
I. Escambia Co.: Nov. 2, 1961, SMH. Quincy:
Oct. 30, Nov. 14, 1961, Nov. 15, 1960, (Tappan),
CPK. II. Alachua Co.: Nov. 18, 1959, (Perry),
det. Franclemont, DPI. III. Cassadaga: Nov.
20, 1962, SVF. Food: Vaccinium.

ABAGROTIS Smith
1601 A. ALTERNATA (Grote)
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 3:526. 1864.
III. Juniper Springs: July 28, 1938, (Hubbell &
Friauf), UM.

Subfamily HADENINAE
TRICHOCLEA Grote
1647 T. FLORIDA (Smith)
PI. XI, Fig. 22, 9.
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 22: 465. 1900.
III. Cassadaga: March, SVF. IV. Biscayne Bay:
type, (Slosson), Smith. VI. Florida City: March
80, Oct. 7, OB. VII. Flamingo: April, DPI, CPK.
VIII. Key Largo: March, SVF; Oct., CPK. Tav-
ernier: Aug.-Dec., CPK. Windley Key: March,
CPK. Big Pine Key: Feb., AMNH.


1657 T. VINDEMIALIS (Guen6e)
P1. XI, Fig. 23, 9.
Spec. G6n. 5: 344. 1852.
There has been some confusion between this
species and vindemialis Grote which is a syn-
onym of Sideridis maryx (Guenee). The latter is
not found in Florida, and I have transferred all
records for it to this species. I. Escambia Co.:
May, SMH. West Pensacola: April, VFG. II.
East Florida: (Doubleday), Smith (1891b, p. 230).
III. DeLand: March, OB, AKW. Cassadaga:
March, SVF. Weekiwachee Springs: March,
CPK. Elfers: April, JGF. Stemper: Feb., AKW;
April, Dec., OB. Lutz: March, USNM, ,HEW.
IV. Rye: USNM. Archbold Biological Station:
Feb., YU, March, JGF. Punta Gorda: Feb.,
March, AKW. Sanibel Island: March, OB. Bo-
nita Springs: March, OB. VIII. Tavernier: Nov.,
CPK.
POLIA Ochsenheimer
1671 P. DISTINCTA (Hiibner)
Samml. exot Schmett. 1; P1. 194. 1810.
I. Warrington: VFG. West Pensacola: March
29, 1962; April 9, 1961, VFG. Food: maple and
the leaves of many trees.
1683 P. LEGITIMA (Grote)
Striped garden caterpillar. P1. XI, Fig. 24, 8.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 3: 82; P1. 2, Fig. 4. 1864.
I. Escambia Co.: Sept. 24, 1961, SMH. II.
Gainesville: Oct. 10, 1961, (Denmark), DPI; larva
on Cassia fistula, Nov. 6, 1955, (Weems), det.
Capps, Coop. Ins. Pest Surv. 6:14. Feeds on
exposed, low plants.
1710 P. GOODELLI Grote
Can. Ent 7:223. 1875.
I. Florida Caverns State Park: April 14, 1960,
(Denmark), det Todd, DPI.
1712 P. MEDITATA (Grote)
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1: 104. 1873.
I. Myrtle Grove: Sept. 26, 1961, WJW.

LACINIPOLIA McDunnough
[1714 L. lustralis (Grote)]
Can. Ent. 7:223. 1875.
This was reported from Biscayne Bay: (Slosson),
Grsb. 59, but Franclemont believes it must have
been an error for L. parvula below.
1743 L. ERECTA (Walker)
PI. XI, Fig. 14, 8.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 10: 264. 1856.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Florida: March, April, (Doubleday), Smith
(1893, p. 127). I. Escambia Co.: March, SMH.
Warrington: VFG. Quincy: March, April, Oct.-
Dec., CPK; Dec., DPI. Monticello: Feb., March,
(Phillips), CPK. II. Gainesville: Feb., March,
UM. Fernandina: April 25, 1941, OB, WRB.
Jacksonville: AMNH. III. Central Florida:
March 1957, WMD.
[1745 L. olivacea (Morrison)]
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 17: 143. 1874.
IV. Myakka: Smith (1891b, p. 231). Smith gave
the range as "Eastern U.S. to Florida." Draudt
(in Seitz, 1923, p. 108) also listed Florida, but
was probably copying Smith. Forbes (1954, p.
91) placed the southern limit of range in North
Carolina. The record needs confirmation. What
Smith saw might have been a specimen of L.
explicata McDunnough below.
1747 L. PARVULA (Herrich-Schaeffer)
P1. XI, Fig. 15, S.
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. 22: 118. 1868.
III. St. Petersburg: Jan., AKW. IV. Bradenton:
GCES; Sept., Dec., CPK. Oneco: April, June,
JGF. Port Sewall: Feb., Dec., AMNH. Siesta
Key: Nov.-June, CPK. Miami: April, AKW.
VI. Homestead: May-July, Sept, CPK. Florida
City: May, June, OB, WRB, JGF, AMNH; June,
July, AKW; July, OB. Food: Cestrum diumum,
CPK.
1748 L. LAUDABILIS (Guen6e)
PI. IV, Fig. 1, T.
Spec. G6n. 6: 30. 1852.
Laudabilis is generally present throughout the
state as the records include Escambia County
to Florida City, January-June, August, October,
and November. It is quite variable, being found
as typical laudabilis, as well as rufoirrorata
(Strand), mediosuffusa (Strand), and in various
other, fortunately unnamed, color forms.
1750 L. EXPLICATA McDunnough
Can. Ent. 69: 181. 1937.
I. Monticello: March 24, 1955, (Phillips), det.
Franclemont, CPK. Inasmuch as the determina-
tion of this specimen was made by genitalic dis-
section, it is conclusive. However, there are
several other specimens listed below which had
been determined previously on superficial char-
acters as L. implicata McDunnough. These will
have to be re-examined critically to be certain
which species they are, but in order not to in-
troduce another name in view of the uncer-
tainty, I am putting them here on a tentative


basis. Furthermore, implicata was figured by
Holland (1903, P1. 24, Fig. 1) under the name
laudabilis, and it is possible that some of the
records for that species actually belong under
one or other of the McDunnough species. I.
Quincy: Oct. 15, 1956, Coop. Ins. Pest Surv.
3(42): 5. Tallahassee: MCZ. II. Gainesville:
April, DPI. IV. Rye: MCZ.

SIDERIDIS Hiibner
[1802 S. maryx (Guenee)]
Spec. G6n. 5: 344. 1852.
Smith (1893b, p. 120) stated that Grote's refer-
ence of vindemialis Guen6e to this species is in-
correct, a point which has been mentioned un-
der that species. As I have not located Grote's
reference, I do not know whether it has a Flor-
ida citation, but the point should be stressed in
order to emphasize the fact that records for
vindemialis (Guen6e) do not belong to S. maryx,
nor do those for vindemialis (Grote), a synonym
for maryx, belong in Florida.

ANEPIA Hampson
1804 A. CAPSULARIS (Guen6e)
P1. XI, Fig. 27, 9.
Spec. G6n. 6: 22. 1852.
I. Quincy: March-May, CPK. Monticello:
March, (Phillips), DPI, CPK. II. Gainesville:
April, CPK. Fernandina: April, OB. St Johns
Bluff: (Doubleday), BM. VI. Florida City: April,
OB.
TRICHOLITA Grote
1821 T. SIGNATA SEMITROPICAE
(Barnes & Benjamin)
P1. XII, Fig. 1, S.
Can. Ent. 59: 5. 1927.
The few specimens taken have all been of this
form. I. Warrington: summer, WP. Quincy:
Oct. 12, 1960, (Tappan), CPK. III. St. Peters-
burg: types, one male, two females, Oct. 15-20,
1914, (Ludwig), Barnes & Benjamin. IV. Brad-
enton: two Nov. 12-17, 1955, (Kelsheimer), CPK.
Siesta Key: seven mid-Nov., CPK.
1827 T. LUTINA (Smith)
PI. XII, Fig. 2, a.
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 25: 176. 1902.
Florida: type of velutina, Smith (1900a, p. 480).
IV. Biscayne Bay: type, (Slosson), AMNH. Coral
Gables: April 22, 1946, (R. L. Chermock), JGF.
VI. Homestead: Feb., (Wolfenbarger), CPK
Florida City: June 8-10, OB; June 1934, JGF.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


ULOLONCHE Smith
1831 U. CULEA (Guenbe)
Spec. G6n. 5:404. 1852.
Florida: (Slosson), Grote (1874, p. 24). I. Es-
cambia Co.: March, SMH. Quincy: March,
(Tappan), CPK. Monticello: Feb., (Phillips),
CPK. I. Gainesville: Feb., (Morse), DPI.

ORTHODES Guen6e
1855 0. OVIDUCA (Guen6e)
PI. XII, Fig. 3, 8.
Spec. G6n. 5:357. 1852.
These specimens are much grayer than northern
examples. I. Escambia Co.: March, SMH.
Monticello: Feb. 26, 1956, (Phillips), CPK. II.
Gainesville: three March 9-11, 1955, (Morse),
Feb. 6, 1957, (Denmark), DPI. Jacksonville:
April 1955, HEW. III. Marion Co.: March 3,
1960, DPI. Cassadaga: Feb. 8, 1956, Sept. 12
and 15, 1962, SVF.

1871 0. CRENULATA (Butler)
Pl. XII, Fig. 4, 4.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 6:97. 1890.
The spring specimens are larger than the aver-
age. I. Brent: March, VFG. Quincy: Feb.-Oct,
CPK. Monticello: Feb., Aug.-Oct., Dec., DPI,
CPK. IV. Oneco: March, JGF. Archbold Bio-
logical Station: March 1959, (Frost), PSU.

MORRISONIA Grote
1901 M. MUCENS (Hiibner)
PI. XII, Fig. 5, form sectilis, 9.
Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 243. 1816.
Mucens is fairly common down the peninsula as
far as Punta Gorda-Port Sewall, flying January-
March, with one record each for July and Au-
gust. Besides typical mucens, sectilis (Guen6e),
sectilana Strand, and various intermediate forms
occur. Rileyana was described from Florida,
Smith (1890b, p. 212).

1904 M. CONFUSA (Hiibner)
PI. XII, Fig. 6, 9.
Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 243. 1816.
I. Tallahassee: March, JPK. Monticello: March,
DPI. II. Gainesville: March, DPI. III. Wacca-
sassa River: March, JGF. Cassadaga: Jan., Feb.,
SVF. IV. Archbold Biological Station: Jan., YU.
Sarasota: Feb., CU. Punta Gorda: Feb., March,
CPK., AKW. Food: many kinds of trees, Vac-
cinium.


1904,1 M. SP.
A new species which is being described by
Franclemont. I. Escambia Co.: four April 9,
1961, one May 6, 1962, SMH.

XYLOMYGES Guen6e
1917 X. ALTERNANS (Walker)
Pl. XII, Fig. 7, &.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 10: 360. 1856.
I. Escambia Co.: Feb. 1961, SMH. The me-
dian and subterminal areas are distinctly green.
Monticello: two Feb. 21, 1955, (Phillips), CPK.
III. Cassadaga: March 2, 1955, SVF. Food:
Lonicera.
ORTHOSIA Ochsenheimer
1941 0. ALURINA Smith
J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 10: 47. 1902.
I. West Pensacola: Feb. 23, 1962, VFG. Quincy:
four Feb. 14-20, 1961, (Tappan), det Francle-
mont, CPK. Food: choke cherry.
1943 0. HIBISCI (Guen6e)
Green fruitworm.
Spec. G6n. 5:352. 1852.
I. Monticello: Feb. 16, 1955, (Phillips), det
Franclemont, CPK. Larva a general feeder.

CERAMIC Guen6e
[1951 C. picta (Harris)]
Rept. Ins. Mass., p. 329. 1841.
Felt (1898, p. 204) said: "reported from most of
the eastern states from Mass. to Fla." S. A.
Forbes (1900, p. 153) said: "distributed from Can-
ada to Florida." However, W. T. M. Forbes
(1954, p. 106) had seen no material from south
of Virginia. This is another case where con-
firmation is needed before accepting such a very
indefinite record.

XANTHOPASTIS Hiibner
1954 X. [TIMAIS (Cramer)]
Spanish moth.
Pap. Exot. 3:148; Pl. 275, Fig. B. 1782.
Though Dyar (1913d, p. 50) provided a key for
the separation of the larvae in this complex and
assigned specific names to each, it will need
much further larval study in order to be sure
which species are found in Florida, or indeed to
be sure which are valid species and which are
mere forms. At present we can report two from
Florida, regnatrix (Grote), below, and a single
specimen of the timais complex, from St. Peters-









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


burg in the Pasch collection now at Cornell. In
the latter the colors are dull, not bright as in
regnatrix, and this is a characteristic feature, not
the effect of fading. The black area along the
lower side of the outer half of the cell is a solid
triangle in regnatrix, but broken up and spurred
in the Pasch specimen, which is characteristic
of Antillean and South American species. In
addition to timais, names given to the latter in-
clude amaryUlidis Sepp and antillium Dyar. The
food plant of at least one of the three is Ficus.
1954,1 X. REGNATRIX (Grote)
PL IV, Fig. 2, S.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 2:339. 1863.
This was described from a Pennsylvania speci-
men, is apparently a valid species, and is the
one commonly found in Florida November-May
and in September. The larvae were abundant
at Cape Romano, November and December
1955, on Hymenocallis keyensis. Many of them
were reared by Denmark and Weems, the
adults emerging during January, DPI. Den-
mark found larvae on H. keyensis on Loggerhead
Key, May 1961, and took larvae and adults in
January 1962. Phillips likewise reared it at
Monticello on Amarylis sp., in September. He-
trick has reported larvae on Amaryllis in mid-
April at Biven's Arm Lake, with larvae entering
partially decayed wood of live oak, with some
excavating pupal cells in the corky bark of liv-
ing live oak on the lake margin at levels four
to five feet above ground. Other food plant
records, all of which are presumably for this
species are: Hymenocallis rotatum [Pancratium
rotatum], Slosson (1894b, p. 107); Chinese lily,
Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 7:81; Narcissus, Hymen-
ocallis, ibid. 22: 57.

FARONTA Smith
1960 F. QUADRANNULATA (Morrison)
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. p. 430. 1875.
III. Stemper: Aug. 12-Oct. 2, (Engel), CNC.
1961 F. RUBRIPENNIS (Grote & Robinson)
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 3: 179. 1870.
I. Escambia Co.: two Sept. 13, 1961, SMH.
Warrington: two, VFG, WP. Myrtle Grove:
Sept. 12, 1961, WJW. III. St. Petersburg: CU;
Sept., OB; Sept., Oct., AEB. VI. Florida City:
Aug., OB.

LEUCANIA Ochsenheimer
1966 L. EXTINCTA Guen6e
PI. XII, Fig. 8, 9.
Spec. G6n. 5:79. 1852.


Extincta is relatively common the length of the
peninsula and is also found in the western
counties where the form flabilis (Grote) has
been taken, but there are no records from the
Keys. Every month except December. There
is one other record for flabilis, III. Egmont Key:
April 20, 1904 (Ramstedt), det Dyar, UM.
1970 L. LINITA Guen6e
Spec. G6n. 5: 81. 1852.
II. Ferandina: April, AEB, OB. St. Johns
Bluff: (Doubleday), BM. III. New Smyrna: Feb.,
AEB. IV. South Bay: April, AMNH.
[ L. ebriosa Guen6e]
Spec. G6n. 5: 74. 1852.
This was reported by Smith (1893, p. 190) as:
"Am. Sept., a curious species to be an Ameri-
can insect-If from America at all, it is probably
from Florida, of Doubleday material." Hamp-
son (1905, p. 479) said: "Tasmania (not U. S.
A.)." The Florida, in fact the North American
record, is of course an error.
1972 L. PILIPALPIS (Grote)
P1. XII, Fig. 9, 4.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 18:415. 1875.
I. West Pensacola: Feb., VFG. Apalachicola:
type, MCZ. III. Cassadaga: Feb., SVF. Stem-
per: June, July, CNC; July, Aug., OB. Lutz:
Jan., OB; March, AEB. IV. Bradenton: Feb.,
CPK. Oneco: April, JGF. Archbold Biological
Station: Jan., March, PSU. Port Sewall: Jan.,
AMNH. Siesta Key: occasional, Nov.-May,
CPK. Punta Gorda: Jan., Feb., AKW; Feb.,
AEB, OB. Palm Beach: MCZ. VI. Florida
City: Feb., April, Aug., OB. Larva on grasses-
reared at Ithaca, N. Y. from Florida material, by
Franclemont on Dactylis glomerata.
1977 L. COMMOIDES Guen6e
Spec. G6n. 5: 86. 1852.
Florida: March, Smith (1902, p. 197).
[1978 L. phragmatidicola Guen6e]
Spec. G6n. 5:89. 1852.
Franclemont believes that the several records
given by Grossbeck (1917, p. 60) refer to one of
te undescribed species below.
1979 L. SCIRPICOLA Guende
PL XII, Fig. 10, 9.
Spec. G6n. 5:84. 1852.
I. Escambia Co.: Feb., SMH. Quincy: Feb.-
June, Aug.-Nov., CPK. Monticello: June, DPI.
I. Alachua Co.: reared from St Augustine grass
roots, May, DPI. Gainesville: Feb., CPK. III.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Weekiwachee Springs: March, AEB, CPK. Drew
Field, Tampa: April, WRB. IV. Bradenton:
Feb., April, July, DPI. Archbold Biological Sta-
tion: Dec.-Feb., PSU; Jan., Feb., YU; June, AKW.
Siesta Key: occasional, Jan.-May, CPK. Punta
Gorda: Jan., AKW; March, OB. Fort Myers:
as calpota Smith, Grsb. 60. Bonita Springs:
March, OB. V. Chokoloskee: type of pendens
Smith, AMNH. VI. Homestead: Jan., DPI; May,
July, CPK. VIII. Key Largo: Nov., DPI.
1980,1 L. SP.
This is a new species being described by Francle-
mont, close to but definitely not incognita Barnes
& McDunnough. It is apparently relatively
common in the Homestead-Florida City area a
year, OB, WRB, CPK, AKW. There is one
record from Clewiston: April, JGF.
[1981 L. PENDENS Smith]
Can. Ent. 37:66. 1905.
McDunnough (1943, p. 56) made this, which was
reported by Grossbeck (1917, p. 60) a synonym
of scirpicoa, q. v.
[1982 L. multilinea Walker]
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9: 97. 1856.
Reported from Palm Beach and Miami: Grsb.
60, but Franclemont believes that these belong
under solita which follows, to juncicola, or to
adjuta below.
1982,1. L. SOLITA Walker
The determination made by Franclemont, has
been verified by Fletcher on comparison of the
genitalia with that of the type at the British
Museum. III. Tampa: April 5, 1959, GWK. IV.
Siesta Key: seventeen Dec.-May, JGF, CPK.
VII. Flamingo: Feb., DPI. VIII. Dry Tortugas:
July 13, 1960, WMD.
1989 L. JUNCICOLA Guen6e
Pl. XII, Fig. 11, i.
Spec. GCn. 5:83. 1852.
The commonest species of the genus in Florida,
and being variable, is troublesome to determine;
there is also confusion with the next species
which superficially is difficult to separate, but
quite distinct in both male and female genitalia,
according to Franclemont. It is found through
the peninsula and Keys all year, but there are no
records for the western counties.
1989,1 L. ADJUTA (Grote)
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2: 158. 1874.
Franclemont has specimens from Oneco, and
wrote that there are also specimens in CU and
USNM. He thought that it was probably to be


found in the southern two-thirds of the state,
but until all the material now placed under
juncicola can be reviewed, the localities, dates,
and depositories must remain uncatalogued.
1991 L. LATIUSCULA Herrich-Schaeffer
P1. XII, Fig. 12, 9.
Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. 22: 148. 1868.
The records for latiuscula are scattered but cover
the state, and every month. Food: sugarcane,
Ingram & Jaynes, 1938, Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept.
4:214.
1991,1 L. SP.
This species is close to latiuscula, with which it
is easily confused, and is being described by
Franclemont. I. uincy: July, CPK. IV. Brad-
enton: Feb., March, (Kelsheimer), CPK. Belle
Glade: Feb., (Genung), CPK. VI. Homestead:
March, May, (Wolfenbarger), CPK.
1991,2 L. SP.
This species is also near latiuscula, but not so
readily confused with it. Possibly it is incon-
spicua Herrich-Schaeffer, but it will need further
study to decide the point. If new, Franclemont
will describe it. VI. Homestead: Feb., April,
Oct., Nov., (Wolfenbarger), CPK. VII. Fla-
mingo: Feb., DPI.
PSEUDALETIA Franclemont
1994 P. UNIPUNCTA (Haworth)
The armyworm. P1. XII, Fig. 13, 8.
Lep. Brit., p. 174. 1809.
Though Grossbeck was unable to find any record
for this in Florida, it now seems to be quite com-
mon all over the state, but never a serious pest,
with the exception of Quincy, where there is a
record of 796 specimens, September 13, 1960.
It has been taken in every month except No-
vember. Food: grasses, cereals; milletgrass
Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 4:598, 625.
ALETIA Hiibner
[1995 A. oxygala luteopallens (Smith)]
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 25:180. 1902.
There is something mysterious about the Florida
record of this species. Among Smith's types
for the species was a co-type female, Archer:
March 1882, AMNH. The species is definitely
northern in its range, and Franclemont does not
think it occurs in Florida. However, the Archer
specimen has the clear, uniform collar character-
istic of luteopallens, with no suggestion of the
violaceous collar of juncicola. Perhaps it is a
case of mislabeling.









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Subfamily CUCULLIINAE
Rancora Smith
[2016 R. albicinerea Smith]
Can. Ent. 35: 137. 1903.
Due to confusion of check-list number or other
clerical error, a record of this was published
Coop. Ins. Pest Surv. 3:4. Like several other
errors, it is untraceable according to Denmark.

CUCULLIA Schrank
2036 C. ALFARATA Strecker
PI. XII, Fig. 14, 4.
Lep. Rhop. Het. Suppl. 1: 9. 1898.
I. Monticello: Sept. 13, 1955, (Phillips), CPK. II.
Gainesville: Aug. 30, 1955, (Morse), det. Francle-
mont, CPK. St. Augustine: type, CNHM. Wy-
att says no date or collector's name is given on
the label of the type. Food: aster.

COPANARTA Grote
[2059 C. area (Grote)]
Bull. U. S. Geol. Geograph. Surv. Territ. 5:205.
1879.
The occurrence of this in Florida seems very
questionable and needs confirmation before it
should be accepted as valid. There is no Flor-
ida specimen in the American Museum of Nat-
ural History collection, though there may be one
elsewhere. Florida: (Slosson), Grsb. 57.
LEPIPOLYS Guen6e
2063 L. PERSCRIPTA Guenbe
P1. XII, Fig. 15, i.
Spec. G6n. 6: 174. 1852.
I. Escambia Co.: March, SMH. Quincy: March,
April, CPK. II. Gainesville: Feb., Dec., DPI.
Island Grove: April, OB; larva on Linaria cana-
densis, Dyar (1903a, p. 292). St. Johns Bluff:
(Doubleday), BM. III. DeLand: March, AKW.
Sanford: March, DPI. Elfers: April, JGF. Bar-
tow: larva, det. Capps, on citrus, DPI. IV. Brad-
enton: Feb., March, CPK. Archbold Biological
Station: April, YU; Dec., PSU. Fort Pierce:
larva, det. Capps, on Antirrhinum sp., DPI. Port
Sewall: Jan., March, AMNH. Englewood:
March, CU. VI. Florida City: April, OB.

ONCOCNEMIS Lederer
2093 0. SAUNDERSIANA Grote
Can. Ent. 8: 29. 1876.
I. Escambia Co.: Oct. 18, 1962, det. Forbes,
SMH.


HOMOHADENA Grote
2153 H. INFIXA (Walker)
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 9: 178. 1856.
Florida: type, (Doubleday), BM. I. Escambia
Co.: June 2, 1962, SMH.

FERALIA Grote
2185 F. MAJOR Smith
P1. XII, Fig. 16, S.
Ent. Amer. 6:26. 1890.
I. Escambia Co.: three Feb., Dec. 8, 1961, SMH.
Warrington: two, VFG, WP. Quincy: Feb. 1,
1961, (Tappan), det. Franclemont, CPK.

PSAPHIDA Walker
2190 P. RESUMENS Walker
PI. XII, Fig. 17, a.
List Lep. Ins. Br. Mus. 32: 448. 1865.
Resumens is found mostly in the form viride-
scens (Walker), but some specimens lack the
characteristic green of this, even when fresh.
Florida: (Doubleday), Smith (1892, p. 56). I. Es-
cambia Co.: Feb., SMH. Brent: March, VFG.
Monticello: Feb., March, DPI, CPK. II. Gaines-
ville: Jan., Feb., DPI. III. Winter Park:
March, DPI. Orlando: Feb., WMD; March,
CNC. St. Petersburg: Jan., Feb., AKW. IV.
Bradenton: Feb., DPI, CPK. Siesta Key: Jan.,
Feb., CPK. Punta Gorda: March, AKW. Belle
Glade: Feb., DPI. Food: maple, oak.

EUTOLYPE Grote
2196 E. ROLANDI Grote
PI. XII, Fig. 18, &.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 26: 198. 1874.
I. Escambia Co.: March, SMH. Quincy: Feb.,
DPI. Monticello: Feb., DPI, CPK. II. Alachua
Co.: Jan., DPI. Gainesville: Jan., Nov., DPI;
Feb., March, CPK. III. Williston: Feb., AKW.
Cassadaga: Feb., SVF. Winter Park: Feb.,
DPI. Orlando: Feb., WMD. St. Petersburg:
Jan., Feb., AKW.

COPIPANOLIS Grote
2198 C. STYRACIS Guen6e
P1. IV, Fig. 3, form stigma (Slosson), 9.
Spec. G6n. 5: 357. 1852.
Florida: type of form stigma, (Slosson), Smith
(1890c, p. 220); form cubilis Smith ex Edwards
coll. OB. I. Escambia Co.: Feb., SMH. III.
Cassadaga: Feb. 28, 1955, Feb. 29, 1956, March
12, 1961, SVF. Tarpon Springs: Feb. 1949, det









THE LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA


Rindge, JLC. IV. Archbold Biological Station:
Feb. 6, 1962, (Frost), PSU.

LEMMERIA Barnes & Benjamin
2214 L. DIGITALIS (Grote)
Bull. U. S. Geol. Geograph. Surv. Territ. 6: 584.
1882.
III. Cassadaga: Sept. 4, 1951, SVF.

LITHOPHANE Hiibner
2258,1 L. SP.
Franclemont has found that this is a new species
and is describing it. I. Escambia Co.: March
1961, SMH. Monticello: Jan. 14, 1958, (Phillips,
CPK. II. Gainesville: Dec. 27, 1961, (Perry,
JGF. III. Lutz: Jan. 1, March 5 and 23, 1916,
(Friday), LACM.

CHAETAGLAEA Franclemont
2289 C. SERICEA (Morrison)
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 17:151. 1874.
I. Escambia Co.: Feb., 1961, SMH. II. Gaines-
ville: May 4, 1956, (Denmark), det. Franclemont,
DPI. Also reported from Florida: (Slosson),
Grsb. 61, but I suspect that this may be an error
in determination for one of the many varieties
of tremula. I have examined the American Mu-
seum of Natural History collection in this and
the next genus and fnd only one Florida speci-
men in this group taken by Slosson. Though
the maculation on the forewings of this is prac-
tically obsolete, I would certainly determine it
as tremula rather than sericea or Epiglaea apiata,
below.
2290 C. TREMULA (Harvey)
P1. XII, Fig. 19, 9; Fig. 20, aberrant &.
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2:276. 1874.
It is odd that the records are so limited as it is
so abundant at Titusville, Siesta Key, and Punta
Gorda. It exhibits a bewildering range of vari-
ation.. Escambia Co.: Jan., Feb., Nov., SMH.
Warrington: VFG. II. Alachua Co.: Jan., DPI.
Gainesville: Feb., March, DPI. III. Cassadaga:
Jan., Feb., SVF. Weekiwachee Springs: April,
CPK. Titusville: Jan., Feb., JGF; Nov.-Feb.,
CNC. IV. Bradenton: Feb., CPK. Archbold
Biological Station: Jan., Feb., YU; Dec., PSU.
Siesta Key: Jan., Feb., CPK. Punta Gorda: Jan-
March, CPK, AKW.
EPIGLAEA Grote
[2294 E. apiata (Grote)]
Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. 6:30. 1874.


Florida: (Slosson), Grsb. 61. This looks like an-
other misdetermination for C. tremula, as it is
primarily a cranberry feeder, though reported
from blueberry. Forbes (1954, p. 153) limits the
southern range to Washington, D. C. See also
the note on C. sericea above.

METAXAGLAEA Francemont
2297 M. [VIATICA (Grote)]
P1. XII, Fig. 21, 9.
Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. 6: 29. 1874.
Franclemont thinks that Florida specimens quite
probably represent a new species. I. Escambia
Co.: Feb. 1, 1962, Nov. 11, 1961, SMH. Quincy:
Jan. 23, 1962, Dec. 8, 1960, (Tappan), CPK.
Monticello: Dec. 17, 1955, (Phillips), det. Francle-
mont, DPI. IV. Archbold Biological Station:
Dec. 28, 1958, (Frost), det. Franclemont, PSU.
Punta Gorda: Jan., Feb., AKW.

PYREFERRA Franclemont
2299 P. HESPERIDAGO (Guen6e)
Spec. G6n. 7:393. 1852.
I. Escambia Co.: Feb., SMH. Warrington: Feb.
15, 1961, VFG. Food: Hamamelis.
2302 P. CEROMATICA (Grote)
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2:70. 1874.
I. Escambia Co.: Jan. 0, 1962, SMH.

XYSTOPEPLUS Franclemont
2308 X. RUFAGO (Hiibner)
P1. XII, Fig. 22, 8.
Zutr. exot. Schmett. 1; P1. 15, Figs. 61, 62. 1818.
I. Escambia Co.: Feb., March, SMH. Quincy:
Feb., CPK. Monticello: Jan., Feb., DPI, CPK.
II. Alachua Co.: Jan., DPI. Gainesville: Feb.,
March, DPI, CPK. Lake Geneva: March, HEW.
III. Cassadaga: Feb., SVF. Orlando: Jan.,
WMD. IV. Rye: MCZ. Siesta Key: Feb., CPK.
Food: presumably oak and reported on willow.

SUNIRA Franclemont
2312 S. BICOLORAGO (Guen6e)
Spec. G6n. 5:397. 1852.
All are the form ferrugineoides (Guenee). I. Es-
cambia Co.: Nov. 11, 1961, SMH. Quincy: six
Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1962, (Tappan), CPK.

EUCIRRHOEDIA Grote
2321 E. PAMPINA (Guen6e)
Spec. G6n. 5:402. 1852.




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