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Group Title: Catechetical theology, for youth : especially of Bible-classes and Sabbath-schools
Title: Catechetical theology, for youth
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001919/00001
 Material Information
Title: Catechetical theology, for youth especially of Bible-classes and Sabbath-schools
Physical Description: 159 p. : ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ford, John, 1787-1872
Dodd, Moses Woodruff, 1813-1899 ( Publisher )
Publisher: M.W. Dodd
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1851
Subject: Presbyterian Church -- Catechisms, English -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Sunday school literature   ( lcsh )
Children's questions and answers   ( lcsh )
Catechisms -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Catechisms   ( rbgenr )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by John Ford.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002220730
oclc - 31999972
notis - ALG0929

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Full Text




Zihle-dlbases ash 6flhiti-8r6 nils.




Entered, according to Act of Congre, In the year 1851, by
in the Clerk's Office of the Ditrict Court of the Southern District of


On the importance of catechetical instruction, a single page
or paragraph would be superfluous. The public sentiment as
to this mode of instruction for youth, is settled; and has been
for centuries: as the various catechetical treatises, both sacred
and profane, from Socrates down to the present day, demon-
strate. But if any thing be considered prerequisite, as intro-
ductory of another cateohetical essay, it will probably be an
apology for adding another to the heavy burdens of the same
or similar species of publications, under which the shelves of
our booksellers are already groaning. And yet the author of
the following knows of none who would claim any apology
unless the special friends of the Westminster Divines. But
amongst these friends he claims a place; for he verily believes
that the Westminster Catechism is the richest book of its size
in the world, and ought to be studied and committed; this, or
any others that have been, are, or may be hereafter, notwith-
"But if that be so good why publish any thing else 1" We
might about as well say, now that we have so many good ser-
mons already printed, why publish any more, or any more
religious essays, tracts, or volumes ? The question answers
itself: and the answer is, that even if no new ideas should be
presented, the different modes of illustration, adapting them-
selves to the ever varying postures, circumstances, and edu-
cations of the human mind, seem highly important to the
production of the best results.
But another, and the chief reason for the appearance of the
following pages, is that the author knows of no book adapted


to fill the place of this: and he has long found the subjoined
course of instruction necessary, for his own Bible classes; and
from what brethren in the ministry of highest standing in the
churches have said, as well as from convictions in his own
closet, he ventures to hope it may be useful to others: not to
supersede the Union questions, nor the Westminster Cate-
chism, nor any others of kindred character; but as an humble
aid and addition to them all.
As this was originated and is now intended, chiefly for
Bible classes, it will not be thought strange that so many of
the answers are simply scAptural language, and especially on
controverted points.
The theology contained, which will of course be denomi-
nated Calvinistic, it is hoped will not be found offensive to
any; and although neither this book nor any other will be
considered Orthodox by all the multiformed and nmultifaced
and ever-shifting Calvinism of the present day, yet it is hoped
that the conservative character of this will preserve it from
violent assault from any; for if Calvinists ever hold together
as a body, they must consent to permit those that say Sibbo-
leth and those that say Shibboleth to walk the heavenly way
together. On one point toward the close, on which so much
has beed said and printed and published on both sides, espe-
cially of late, the author hopes that, for obvious reasons, he
may be excused for saying so little. Commending the fore-
going pages to God and the prayers of his people, his prayer
is that they may be conducive to the instruction, sanctification,
and salvation of thousands of our beloved youth. J. F.



1. What is man?
A being with soul and body.
2. What is the soul or mind ?
That which thinks.
3. What kind of a being is man?
A free moral agent.
4. What is a free agent?
One that acts from choice; like the birds of the
air, or the beasts on the mountains.
5. What is it to choose ?
Of different things offered, to decide which to
6. What is a moral agent ?
A free agent that has reason and conscience.
7. What is reason ?
The power of inferring one truth from another.
8. What is conscience?
That faculty which approves what it deems right
and feels bound to do it; condemns what it deems
wrong, and feels bound to avoid it.


9. Is conscience an infallible guide?
No; Paul's conscience deemed it right to per-
secute and slaughter men for being Christians.
10. What is necessary to keep consciencefreefrom
mistakes ?
Bible knowledge; and freedom from all bias to
11. What is the difference between RIGHT and
Doing our duty is Right. Violating or neglect-
ing duty is Wrong.
12. What is duty?
Whatever we are under obligation to do.
13. From what does moral obligation arise?
From characters, contracts and relations.
14. How from characters?
Excellence in character deserves and therefore
demands our love; wickedness in character our
15. How does moral obligation arise from rela-
tions and contracts?
All lawful contracts or engagements we are
bound to fulfil; and the mutual relations between
Creator and creature; parent and child; ruler and
subject, &c., &c., create mutual obligations which
all are in duty bound to perform.
16. Can any one be under obligation to full a
wicked promise or contract ?
No; never; but to break it immediately.
17. To whom are we in duty bound ?
To God, our fellow creatures, and ourselves.
18. How far does the subject of right and wrong,
or of moral obligation, extend ?
To the whole field of morality and religion.


19. What is Religion?
Obeying God.
20. What is sin?
Disobeying God.
21. But does not religion embrace also love, faith,
submission, 4fc., as well as obedience?
Yes; but as God commands all these and all
other duties, obeying God would embrace them all.
22. Are some things right because God com-
mands them, and others wrong because he forbids
No (except in positive institutions); but he com-
mands certain things because they are right; and
forbids others because they are wrong
23. Have you any Scripture proof of this?
Yes ; children obey your parents in the Lord,
for this is right." Eph. 6: 1.
24. If nothing be right or wrong in itself, and
God's command alone make a thing right, then
what can be meant by saying that God's law is
right, and that God himself is right?
Nothing. Neither God nor his law could have
any moral character.
25. What is the fundamental principle of right?
Moral Virtue? or Goodness?
Love, or Benevolence.
26. How do you prove that ?
Reason teaches that love to God and man would
lead to every duty to both.
27. Do the Scriptures, too, make love the funda-
mental principle ?
Yes; for they tell us that God is love ;" that
"love is the fulfilling of the law;" and that on


this hang all the law and the prophets. Jno. 4:
8. Rom. 13: 10; Matt. 2: 40.
28. What is morality?
Duty done to man, without regard to God.
29. What is the difference between morality and
Religion is duty done to both God and man,
because commanded of God; morality, duty done
to man only, without respect to God.
30. Is that all the difference ?
No; for morality seeks man's temporal interests
only; religion, both his temporal and eternal in-
31. Can the same action or course of action be
religion in one case and mere morality in another ?
Yes; honest dealing, done from obedience to
God's commands, is Religion: done irrespectively
of God, it is mere morality.
32. May some of the commendable actions of re-
ligious men be mere morality?
Yes, many; and none save those done from obe-
dience to God have any religion in them.
33. Is there any difference between religion and
moral excellence?
Yes; religion is morally excellent, because it is
obedience to God's excellent commands: but true
benevolence is moral excellence and our duty, were
there no law, and no God to command it.
34. Which may we predicate of God, religion
or moral excellence?
Moral excellence; for as religion consists in
obeying God, it can pertain to his creatures only.


35. Which existed first, religion or moral ex-
Moral excellence existed in God, from all eter-
nity; but religion has existed only since the exist-
ence of his law and his creatures.
36. Is there any difference between sin and wick-
Yes; sin is always wicked, because a violation
of God's excellent law; but malice is wickedness;
and we are bound to shun it, even were there no
law and no God in the universe to forbid it.
37. Are such distinctions of any use or benefit?
Yes; for it is of great importance for us to un-
derstand that there is an intrinsic, total, and eter-
nal difference between right and wrong in them-
selves; independently of all law or command; and
uncreated even by the will of God himself.
38. What further good may such distinctions do?
Enable us to understand the Scriptures when
they tell us that "God is good;" and his "law
good; and to see and feel that every rational crea-
ture in the world and in the universe, with law or
without law, is under absolute and eternal obliga-
tion to do right; and to see the inexcusable wick-
edness of doing any thing that is wrong in itself.
39. What is false religion?
Devotion to false gods; or to false views and
practices in regard to the true God,
40. How many kinds offalse religions are in the
world ?
Four; polytheism, pantheism, atheism, and de-
41. What is polytheism ?
A belief in many gods.


42. In how many gods have men believed ?
The ancient. Greeks and Romans had tens of
thousands; the present Hindoos hundreds of mil-
43. What is pantheism?
The belief that every thing is God.
44. What is atheism?
The belief that there is no God.
45. What is deism?
Belief in a God, but not in the Bible.
46. What is theology ?
That science which treats of God.
47. How many kinds of theology are there?
Two; natural and revealed.
48. What is the difference ?
Natural theology teaches what may be known of
God from the mere light of nature; Revealed, that
which the Bible teaches concerning Him.
49. What is discoverable by the light of nature ?
The existence, the character, and the will of God;
man's duty, and a future state of rewards and pun-
50. But if all this be discoverable from the mere
light of nature, what need of a revelation ?
Though discoverable, it is not discovered, and
never would be by the light of nature alone; be-
cause sinful man loves darkness rather than light,
and never would seek for truth or duty as he ought.
51. Is there any important truth man never could
find out from the light of nature, however faithful in
study he might be ?
Yes; one. important above all others, and that
is the way of pardon and salvation through Christ.


This man never could learn without a revelation
from God.
52. Who is God?
The creator of the universe.
53. What is the universe ?
All worlds, and all creatures.
54. How can you prove from the mere light of na-
ture that the universe ever was created ? How do
you know it has not existed always, and the crea-
tures come down from sire to son, without any be-
ginning ?
Because that would be an infinite series; and
an infinite series is an impossibility.
55. What do you mean by an infinite series?
A chain with an infinite number of links would
be an infinite series.
56. Why would an infinite series be impossible ?
Because each link in a chain is a finite thing;
and no number of finites can make an infinite. As
every link has its end, so must every chain like-
wise; but an infinite chain would be an endless
57. How else do you know that an endless series
is impossible?
Because subtracting one link would shorten the
chain; and continuing to shorten, would of course
come to an end. Besides; an infinite number of
ages would contain a greater infinite of years, days,
&c., and thus one infinite be greater than another,
which is absurd.
58. Suppose there could be an infinite series,
would every link in the chain, or every creature in
the whole series, furnish in itself unanswerable de-


monstration that the universe had a maker, and that
there is a God ?
Yes, just as unanswerable demonstration as does
a timepiece or steamship that it had a maker, and
far greater still.
59. How do you know they had a maker ?
By the design and contrivance they exhibit.
60. What do you mean by design?
The purpose or end to be attained. The design
of the timepiece is to carry the hours of the day.
61. What do you mean by contrivance ?
The means to accomplish an end. All the wheels
and machinery in a timepiece are the contrivance to
accomplish the design for which it was made.
62. What renders the argument from design and
contrivance so strong and unanswerable?
This; that there cannot be contrivance without a
contriver, nor design without a designing mind.
63. Do you find design and contrivance in the
works of nature?
Yes, both.
64 Is there as much of design and contrivance in
the works of nature as in a watch or steamer ?
Yes; thousands and millions to one.
65. In what world or creature do you find design
and contrivance ?
In every world, and every creature, and every
part of every creature, world, and atom.
66. Mention any part of any creature wherein you
find design and contrivance.
The eye, the ear, the hand, the foot, the fin, the
wing, the tooth, the stomach, &c., &c., &c.
67. What is the design of the eye?
To see.


68. What its contrivance ?
All the various machinery within; its fluids, len-
ses, &c., to answer its design.
69. Are there other instances of design in other
parts of animals?
Yes; every part of every animal exhibits design
and skill far surpassing all the works of art to-
70. In what creature do you find exhibitions of
the most consummate skill and design?
In man.
71. Do, then, every limb and organ, of the being
who denies the existence of a God furnish unan-
swerable evidence that there is one ?
Most certainly.
72. Do the worlds themselves furnish evidence
decisive of the being of a God ?
Yes; the whole frame of nature is one great
clockwork-one vast machinery of matchless skill
and power.
73. Do the movements of nature prove the existence
of a God ?
Yes; for there cannot be motion without a mover;
and none but power great enough to create the uni-
verse is great enough to perform all the mighty
movements within and around us.
74. Do the powers of the soul also prove a crea-
Yes; for such noble powers of mind never could
have come into existence without a cause.
75. Is the very being, then, who denies the exist-
ence of a God a double demonstration of the truth
that he denies?
Yes; both his body and his soul, and especially


do those very powers of soul which argue against
the being of a God unanswerably prove there is
76. What kind of a being, then, is he that denies
his God ?
It is the fool that saith in his heart, There is
no God."
77. Have you any other arguments to prove the
existence of a God, and the foolishness of atheism?
Yes; but the argument from design and contri-
vance is enough without any more.
78. What is practical Atheism ?
Believing in the existence of a God, and yet liv-
ing as if there were none.
79. Are there any practical Atheists in Christian
Yes, millions.
80. Are you one of that number?
81. Can any one fully believe there is a God and
yet live as if there were none?
82. Do you believe the Bible ?
83. Do u live as ifyou believed it?
84. How,do you know that the Bible is true?
We have many proofs of its truth.
85. Mention a few.
We have two preliminary arguments; the first is
the great probability that a revelation has been
given, and the certainty that no book but the Bible
deserves the name.
86. Why is it probable that a revelation has been
Because man stands in perishing need of a reve-
lation; and God is too good to leave him perishing
for what he could so easily supply.


87 Wherein appears man's perishing need of a
revelation ?
In his utter and awful ignorance of his God, and
his Saviour; his duty and his destiny; and in the
degradation and barbarity of his nature where no
gospel influence has ever reached him.
88. How great, then, is the probability that a re-
velation has been given ?
Just about as great as that God is good, and that
he desires the welfare of his creatures, present and
89. But does not the light of nature which God
has set before us, and the knowledge thereby set with-
in man's reach, if that light were duly studied, vindi-
cate God's goodness, even though no further light
were given ?
The light of nature alone leaves man without ex-
cuse; but it could never save, however faithfully
improved, because it never could lead to the know-
ledge of the Saviour, and, therefore, without a reve-
lation man must perish at last.
90. But would not man be saved, even without the
knowledge of the Saviour, if he faithfully studied
and fully obeyed the light and law of nature?
Yes, if he believed without error, and obeyed
without fault, from the beginning to the end of life;
but no man does it, or ever will; and, therefore,
without a Saviour revealed, we perish.
91. How then stands the question at last as to the
probability that a revelation has been given ?
It is just as probable as that a God of infinite
goodness would give us effectual means of know-
ledge and happiness here; and the possibility of
eternal happiness hereafter.


92. Does it then need any very strong argument
to prove what is in itself so probable as to be almost
certain, prior to any direct argument on the sub-
ject ?
No; but we have arguments strong and all-suf-
93. Would arguments such as to force conviction
be proper on moral subjects?
No; only enough to satisfy a candid, and patient,
and prayerful mind; for in forced belief there could
be no moral character, good or evil. Evidence on
moral subjects must be so left as to try the honesty
of the heart.
94. What is your second preliminary argument ?
This: that by the mere light of nature we know
that almost all the Bible is true-all its great and
leading doctrines.
95. What great and leading doctrines do we
know, or might we know, from the mere light of na-
ture, iffaithfully and prayerfully studied ?
The being and attributes of God; our duties to
God and one another; the soul's immortality ; future
rewards and punishments; that we are in perish-
ing need of pardon'and deliverance from sin, but
that in the light of nature there is no hope of par-
don and salvation for a sinner, consistently with the
law and justice or holiness of God.
96. What one doctrine of the Bible is there, then,
not proved by the light of nature ?
That there is hope for man, and a way of pardon
and salvation opened for sinners through Jesus
97. How can any one, then, deny and resist that
blessed book.for giving man his only hope?


Because man's wicked heart hates a book and a
God so holy; and therefore it is that the most con-
clusive arguments leave many infidels still.
98. What are the four principal and direct proofs
of the truth of the Bible?
Its miracles and prophecies, its object and ef-
99. What is a miracle?
A counteraction of the laws of nature ; like stop-
ping the sun; dividing the sea; raising the dead, &c.
100. How do miracles prove the truth of the
Scriptures ?
As none but the power of God can work a miracle,
miracles wrought in proof of the Scripture must
prove it came from God.
101. But have not miracles been wrought by ma-
gic or satanic power ?
No; no magician or evil spirit ever wrought
any miracle, unless by power given of God, and
given to prove not disprove the truth of the Bible
102. If, then, we can prove that the Scripture
miracles were really wrought, will that be decisive evi-
dence that the Bible is front God?
Yes, absolutely unanswerable; because no power
but that which created the laws of nature can re-
verse or control them.
103. How then can you prove that miracles were
ever really wrought in proof of Scripture?
We have many proofs.
104. Mention a few of them.
One is, that the Bible says so, and says it with
all apparent simplicity and sincerity of style and
manner, descending to all the particulars of time,


place, and circumstance, as no counterfeiters would
dare to do.
105. Why would not counterfJiters dare descend
to particulars?
Because descending to particulars always endan-
gers false men to detection.
106. What is your second proof?
The memorials of the miracles set up at the time,
and continued to the present day.
107. What memorials?
Such as Circumcision, the Passover, the Christian
Sabbath, &c.
108. Of what miracle was Circumcision the memo-
That of God's appearance to Abraham, and enter-
ing into covenant with him.
109. How far and hov long has Circumcision
been practised ?
Amongst all the descendants of Abraham, Isaac,
and Ishmael, Jews, Arabians, and Mohammedans,
from Abraham to the present hour.
1 10. Of what miracle is the Passover a memorial?
That of the destroying angel's passing by the
first-born of Israel, and slaying all the first-born of
the Egyptians.
111. Of what miracle is the Christian Sabbath
the memorial?
The miracle of Christ's rising from the dead on
the first day of the week.
112. How do these memorials prove that the mir-
acles were really wrought?
Just as our fourth of July celebration of inde-
pendence proves that on that day independence
was really declared.


113. Have we any other memorials besides the
three above mentioned?
Yes; all our Bibles, and churches, and church
services; indeed the whole existence, operations
and progress of the Bible religion, based on mira-
cles from the beginning, are standing memorials of
the truth of those miracles on which our religion
was founded.
114. What is your third proof of the fact that
the miracles were really wrought?
The Jews adopting, obeying and continuing in
the law of Moses.
115. How does their adopting and obeying Mo-
ses' law prove the reality of the miracles ?
Because Moses appealed to the miracles as the
support of his law: and his law required sacrifices
they never would have submitted to, if they had
not known the truth of the miracles by which it
was attested.
116 What sacrifices did the law of Moses re-
quire ?
At least one fifth of all their annual incomes,
Numb. 18: 21, Deut. 14: 22, 28, besides all their
stated and occasional offerings; in addition to all
their bloody rites and burdensome ceremonies; and
the self-loving and money-loving Jews, never would
have sacrificed so much of money, toil and blood, to
follow a leader they knew to be false; and to obey
laws they knew to be falsely imposed.
* 117. But how would they know Moses to be false
and his law falsely imposed ?
Because he appealed to their own eyes and ears
for the truth of the miracles; and if they had not
been performed, they would of course have known


that Moses was an impostor and his law falsely
palmed upon them.
118. Where do you find any such appeals ?
One of many is in Deut. 11: 2, 3, "I speak not
with your children, who have not seen his miracles,
but your eyes have seen all the great works of the
Lord.- Therefore, shall ye keep all his com-
mandments" Also, Deut. 7: 10 and 5: 34, &c.
119. Does the same argument apply with equal
force in proof of the New Testament?
Yes, and far greater.
120. Why greater ?
Because to follow Christ and his religion, still
greater sacrifices were required; and required on
the ground of the miracles: for the truth of which
their eyes and ears were appealed to, as in the case
of Moses.
121. What sacrifices did the New Testament re-
To give up all, and even life itself, whenever the
interests of religion demanded.
122. Did any of the early disciples sufer the loss
of all things for Christ's sake?
Yes; of property, friends, home, country, and
even life itself, by the sword or at the stake, in the
assertion or propagation of their religion.
123. How do you know they did?
Christ himself declares they should thus suffer;
and the best histories, both sacred and profane, de-
clare they did.
124. What does Christ foretell that his disciples
should suffer ?
Behold I send you forth as sheep in the midst
of wolves ; they will deliver you up to councils, and


scourge you in their synagogues;" "The brother
shall deliver up the brother to death, and the fa-
ther the child; the children shall rise up against
their parents and cause them to be put to death ;"
" Ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake."
"Yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you,
will think that he doeth God service." Matt. 10:
16, 22. Jn. 16: 2.
125. But how did Christ's foretelling that they
should thus suffer, prove that they did ?
Because, if what he foretold did not come to
pass, he and his cause would have been forsaken as
126. Did Christ too like Moses base his demand
for their faith and obedience on his miracles?
Yes; for he says, If I do not the works of my
Father believe me not." Jn. 10: 37.
127. Does Christ like Moses appeal to their own
eyes and ears for the truth of his miracles?
Yes; Ye do hear and see the blind receive their
sight; the deaf hear; the dead are raised." Matt.
11: 5. Jn. 10. 37.
128. Do the appeals then of both Moses and
Christ, to the eyes and ears of those around them,
furnish decisive evidence that the miracles were
really wrought ?
Yes; entirely decisive; for if their eyes and ears
had not witnessed the miracles alleged, the laws
and sacrifices required by either Moses or Christ,
would never have been submitted to, but both have
been forsaken as false prophets, and their religion
have perished in the bud.
129. But might they not have been deceived-


have thought the miracles really wrought, and yet
have been mistaken ?
No; it is impossible for them to have believed
they passed through the sea dry shod; fed on man-
na forty years; saw the dead raised; and that
themselves understood and spoke unknown tongues
unless it were true; and especially men of the
mind they possessed.
130. How do you know they were men of mind ?
Their writings prove it.
131. Have you any other argument in proof of
the miracles?
Yes; the enemies of the cause themselves ad-
mitted the fact; such as Celsus, Julian, Por-
phyry, &c.
132. HIow many miracles wrought in proof of the
Bible, would prove the Bible true?
One; because none but God could work one real
133. How many miracles were wrought in proof
of the Scriptures?
Tens of thousands.
134. When and where?
Tens of thousands in the gift of manna alone, for
forty years.
135. What is the second direct proof of the truth
of Scripture?
136. What is the argument from prophecy?
That no man, unless inspired of God, can utter
one clear independent prediction.
137. What do you mean by an independent pre-


One that does not depend on any known law of
nature. Any one can predict the rising of the sun;
the tides, eclipses, &c., for they depend on previ-
ously known laws of nature.
138. How many clear independent predictions
would prove the Scriptures to be true ?
One; because none but God can foresee the
events of a single hour.
139. How many does the Bible contain
The Bible is one great system of prophecy from
beginning to end.
140. Give afew specimens of particular prophe-
The predictions concerning Ishmael and Esau;
the four great kingdoms of antiquity; particulars
of the coming, the character, and death of Christ;
the destruction of Nineveh, of Babylon, Tyre,
Egypt, and Jerusalem; the dispersion and fate of
the Jews; the rise and progress of the man of sin,
&c., &c.. Gen. 16. Deut. 28. Ezek. 26th, 27th,
28th. 29th and 30th chapters. Isa. 23. Isa. 13th,
19: 22; also 14th and 51st. Gen. 49: 10. Dan. 7th,
Isa. 53. 2. Thes. 2d, &c.
141. What is the third proof of the truth of
Its object.
142. What is the grand object of the sacred
To make men holy and happy here and here-
143. What does that prove ?
It proves that the men who wrote and preached
a book so holy must be good men; for wicked men
would never toil and travel and suffer as they did,


to put down wickedness, and make the world
144. But what if they were good men?
Good men would not utter falsehoods.
145. But might they not have been mere enthu-
siasts or fanatics?
No; a fanatic, is a wild-brained man; but there
is no wildness in them, or extravagance, but the
calmest reason.
146. What is your fourth great argument for the
truth of the Scriptures ?
The effects of the Bible.
147. What are its effects ?
It changes the whole face of the world where it
goes; revolutionizes all the usages of society; en-
lightens, civilizes, elevates, purifies, and blesses the
nations for this world; and regenerates and saves
the soul for the next.
148. How do you know it regenerates the soul?
We have testimony such as is regarded by all
enlightened and candid courts as ample proof,
in any cause however great the stake at issue.
149. What kind of testimony have we?
First, that of many of the most enlightened, cool
and candid men, who would testify, if necessary,
that their minds have undergone a radical change
as to their highest affection, their highest aim;
and their highest happiness.
150. But can a man testify as to what he feels ?
Yes; just as well as to what he sees, provided
his feelings be strong and distinct. The sufferer
knows as well when he feels the thrills of pain, as
when he sees men or mountains before him.


151. What other proofof regeneration ?
That of observation. We see men, and some-
times those who were once very wicked, radically
changed in their whole life and character: ready
to give, and sometimes actually giving up for the
cause of Christ, property, friends, home, and coun-
try; exiling themselves; and wearing out life in
some far distant and barbarous clime; and when
death comes, meeting it with a calmness, a joy,
yea, a glorious triumph, to which unregenerated
nature, even in its noblest forms, is an utter stran-
152. What further testimony?
That of God Himself: for He declares that the
Christian is born again;" "a new creation ;" that
"old things are passed away and all things become
new." I Pet. 1: 23. 2 Cor. 5: 17.
153. But do not many professors of religion ex-
hibit a life and death of very inconsistent character?
Yes: because all are imperfect, and many have
no religion.
154. How do you know that the Bible, coming
down through so many hands and so many ages,
has not been altered ; so altered that we cannot now
tell what it was at first, giving perhaps statements
of miracles and prophecies, -c., 4-c., now, when no
such things were affirmed in the original copies ?
That is impossible: for the various translations
from the earliest centuries of Christianity, and the
various and jarring sects of nominal Christians,
watching each other, have kept the New Testa-
ment pure and unadulterated since the days of the
apostles: and then, all the Christian sects on the
one hand, and the Jews on the other, have kept
watch of the Old Testament, back to the days of


Jesus Christ : thence the Septuagint translation
of the Old Testament into Greek bears witness to
the Hebrew for two hundred years further back;
and the Samaritan and Chaldean copies, and in-
deed the original Hebrew itself, proves its own pu-
rity back to the days of the prophets themselves;
and even to the days of the captivity; for no pure
Hebrew has been given to the world since then.
155. But have not the Bible and the Christian re-
ligion been the cause of more war and bloodshed in
the world than any and all other causes together?
No; the want of religion, in those that bore the
Christian name, has often caused war and blood;
but not religion itself; for the religion of the Bi-
ble is love ; and it is impossible that love should
produce hatred and war, but the contrary.
156. Where then must we go to find what the
religion of the Bible is? To its abuses in the
world or to the Bible itself?
To the Bible itself.
157. In what way were the Sacred Scripturesim-
parted to mankind?
By men inspired of God.
158. What do you mean by inspiration?
Divine teaching by supernatural influence.
159. How do you prove that the Scripture writers
were inspired of God ?
By their own declaration, confirmed by all the
miracles they wrought, and the prophecies they ut-
160. What do they affirm in regard to the inspi-
ration of the Old Testament?


That all Scripture is given by inspiration of
God." 2 Tim. 3: 16. Holy men of old spake as
they were moved by the Holy Ghost." 2 Peter
1: 21.
161. How do you know that that declaration refer-
red to the Old Testament only or chiefly ?
The New Testament writings were not then col-
lected and added to the Old.
162. What affirmation or proof that the New
Testament was also inspired ?
Christ promised the twelve apostles that his spirit
should guide them "into all truth ;" and we have
the testimony of Peter, one of the twelve, to the in-
spiration of Paul, who wrote more than all the rest.
John 16: 13. 2 Peter 3: 16.
163. How many kinds of inspiration are there?
There are generally reckoned three-the inspi-
ration of elevation, superintendence, and sugges-
164. What is meant. by the inspiration of eleva-
That of raising the mind to a sublimity of style
and sentiment entirely above what it could ever
reach unaided from on high.
165. What is the inspiration of superintendence?
That guidance from God which taught the Scrip-
ture writers what facts, of those they knew, to re-
cord, and how to record them free from error.
John 21: 25.
166. What is the inspiration of suggestion?
Direct communications from God, like the Law on
Sinai, and the visions of the prophets.



167. What do the Scriptures principally teach ?
The existence, the attributes, the agency, and the
will of God; the character, duty and destiny of
168. Do the Scriptures assert the existence of
Yes; There is one God." 1 Tim. 2: 5.
169. What is God?
God is a spirit." John 4: 24.
170. What is a spirit ?
A being without a body, like the soul after death.
171. Are there more Gods than one?
There is but one true God.
172. How do you prove that?
From both Scripture and reason.
173. Give a Scripture proof
"The Lord our God is one Lord." Deut. 6: 4.
"God is one." Gal. 3: 20.
174. How does reason prove the Divine unity ?
As one cause is sufficient to account for all things,
philosophy forbids us to suppose more. Besides,
the oneness of design in the whole creation indi-
cates that all is from one creator.
175. But did not the ancient Persians suppose
there were two different and opposite designs, indi-
cating two opposite and antagonistic deities-one
good, the other evil-one the author of all good, the
other of all evil-one of all joy, the other of all
sorrow-one the maker of the lamb, the other of the
wolf to devour the lamb-one the author of sick-


ness, the other of medicine to heal the sickness ? And
how would you answer their arguments? Is the
same being the author of both good and evil, right-
eousness and wickedness?
No; but it belongs to the same being who makes
free agents, with full power to choose, to give them
their choice between good and evil, and when they
choose good or choose evil, to treat them accordingly.
176. How can it belong to the same being to cre-
ate the lamb and the dove, and then to create wolves
and vultures to devour them ? to send sickness, and
medicines to heal it ?
Because it is incumbent on the same being who
creates any animal, to create food for its supply;
and for the same God, who has revolted subjects
under probation, to send both judgments and mer-
cies to discipline them for their eternal destiny.
177. But how can the Unity of God be consistent
with the Trinity ? Can three be one, and one three ?
Not in the same sense; yet they may be in dif-
ferent senses. A human being is but one man, and
yet he is two, in one sense, for he consists of soul and
178 What then is the proper statement of the doc-
trine of the Trinity?
That there are three persons in one God.
179. What do you mean by persons ? Beings?
No; not three beings, else there would be three
Gods; but three distinctions, existing in a mysteri-
ous manner, incomprehensible to us.
180. Is this a doctrine of both Scripture and rea-
son, or of Scripture only?
Of Scripture only; though it is not contrary to
reason, but above it.


181. Where do you find three Divine persons re-
cognized in Scripture ?
I John 5: 7, There are three that bear record in
heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost,
and these three are one ;" but more especially in the
apostolic benediction, and in the form of baptism-
baptizing in the name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 2 Cor. 12: 13, 14,
and Matt. 28: 19.
182. What additional proof of the divinity of the
three persons?
This ; that each person is separately declared to
be divine.
183. What passages prove the Father divine?
So many we will not repeat them. nor need we,
for none deny it.
184. What proof that the Son is God ?
Four classes of texts; first, applying to him the
attributes; second, the works; third, the wor-
ship; and fourth, the names of God.
185. Mention some that impute to Him the at-
tributes of God.
In a single verse He is styled both eternal and
omnipotent; in another, eternal and immutable.
In Rev. I : 8, He is declared to be the beginning,
and the ending, the Almighty." In Heb. 13: 8,
"the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever."
186 Where are the works of God affirmed of
Col. 1: 16, All things were created by Him and
for Him;" and Heb. 1: 3," Upholding all things by
the word of his power."
187. But was not Christ's power delegated power ?
Does He not say, All power is given me in heaven


and. in earth?" Matt. 18: 18; and Of mine
own self I can do nothing ?" John 5 : 30.
As man he could do nothing of himself, any
more than we; and Christ was man as well as God,
As Mediator, both his power and himself were dele.
gated; for God sent his Son (Gal. 4: 4); but a
son being sent of a father does not prove him to be
of an inferior nature.
188. Besides, can we suppose all power in heaven
and earth given to a mere creature ?
No; that is absurd.
189. Is the Son as well as the Father a proper ob.
ject of worship ?
Yes "When he bringeth in the first begotten
into the world, he saith, Let all the angels of God
worship Him." Heb. : 6, and Rev. 5: 11-13.
190. Is the name of God also applied to Christ ?
Yes. In the beginning was the Word, and the
Word was God." 1 John 1: 1, 2.
191. But is not the term God sometimes used in an
inferior sense, as when the Psalmist says, Ihave
.said, Ye are gods ?" Ps. 82: 6; and is there any
proof that Christ is called God in the highest sense in
this passage in the first of John ?
Yes; for it is immediately added that all things
were made by Him;" and surely all things were not
made by an inferior god, or mere creature.
192. But is it not said that God created all
things by Jesus Christ?" Eph. 3: 9.
Yes; for it was by the second person of the Deity
that creating power was exerted.
193. Are there any other passages in which Christ
is called God in the highest'sense ?
Yes; Rom. 9: 5, Christ is said to be over all


God," or God over all;" and 1 John 5: 20, the
apostle says," This is the true God and eternal life;
and in Isa., where the seraphim cried, Holy, holy,
holy is Jehovah of hosts." John says, These
things Esaias said when he saw his glory, and spake
of him" (Christ). Isa. 6: 1. John 12: 41. And
thus Christ is the real Jehovah.
194. But does not Christ himself say, The Father
is greater than I?"
Yes; and Christ as man was inferior in his na-
ture, and acted a subordinate part as God's messen-
ger; but in his divine nature, He thought it not
robbery to be equal with God." Philip. 2: 6.
195. Do the Scriptures any here affirm that
the Holy Ghost is God ?
Yes; for "to lie unto the Holy Ghost is to lie
unto God." Acts 3: 5.
196. But is not the term Spirit sometimes used
in Scripture as implying merely a divine power or
influence, as in Joel 2: 28, "I will pour out my
Spirit upon all flesh?"
Yes; but in others, the Spirit is expressly spo-
ken of as a person; for he is represented as speak-
ing, teaching, &c.-The Holy Ghost saith, To-
day if ye will hear his voice," and He shall teach
you," using the personal and masculine pronoun,
although the word (Nrvc'a) spirit is neuter.
197. But is not the doctrine of the Trinity a mys-
tery; something incomprehensible; and are we bound
to believe what we cannot understand?
Yes; for it is a mystery how the soul and body
are united; how the mind acts upon the body; how
God acts on all the universe; how God came to
exist; and in short almost every thing is a mys-


198. What kind ofa being is God ?
An infinite Being.
199. What do you mean by infinite?
Without bounds or limits.
200. In what respects is God infinite ?
Infinite in all his attributes.
201. What do you mean by the attributes of
The qualities of his nature.
202. How are his attributes divided ?
Into two classes ; NATURAL and MORAL.
203. Which is the first of his natural attributes ?
204. What do you mean by the eternity of God ?
His existence without beginning or end.
205. How do you know that God has existed
for ever without any beginning?
Something must have existed without any be-
ginning; because if there had ever been a period
when nothing existed; no thing ever could have
existed; because something never could spring up
out of nothing; and as the worlds and creatures
did not exist without beginning, God did.
206. How do you know that God will exist for
ever without end ?
Because He has existed for ever without beginning.
207. Do the Scriptures affirm the eternity of
Yes; From everlasting to everlasting thou art
God." Ps. 90: 2.
208. What is the second natural attribute of God?
209. What do you mean by his independent e-


That his existence is uncaused; and depending
on no one but himself alone.
210. How do you know that God's existence is
uncaused ? How do you know that He had not a
cause before Him; and that another; and the
third; fourth and so on for ever ?
Because that would be an infinite series again;
which is impossible. There must be a first link in
every chain however long; and a first cause, in eve-
ry series of causes; and the first cause could have
no cause.-Besides, God could have had no cause,
because He had no beginning.
211. What should such wondrous attributes as
the eternal and independent existence of Jehovah
teach us ?
The deepest reverence and awe.
212. On what does our existence depend?
On God every moment.
213. What is the third natural attribute of God?
214. What do you mean by his omnipresence?
His being always every where present.
215. How do you prove the omnipresence of God ?
God is every where, because He acts every
216. He acts only throughout the unirerse; how
do you know He is present through infinite space
beyond ?
Because He who fills so vast a universe can find
no limit any where.
217. What is the Scripture testimony on this sub-
ject ?
"If I ascend up to heaven, thou art there; if I
make my bed in hell, behold thou art there; if I


take the wings of the morning and dwell in the
uttermost parts of the sea, even there shall thy
hand lead me and thy right hand shall hold me."
Ps. 139: 8-10.
218 But if always present with us, why do we
not see Him ?
Because God is a Spirit;" and spirit is invis-
219. Does God always see us, though we do not
Him ?
Yes;" All things are naked and opened unto
the eyes of Him with whom we have to do."
Heb. 4: 13.
220. Does not the darkness hide from God?
No ; the darkness and the light are both alike to
him." Ps. 139: 12.
221. What should that teach us?
Never to do any thing we should be unwilling
God should see.
222. What is the fourth natural attribute of God?
223. What do you mean by the omniscience of
That God knows all things, past, present and
224. What prooffrom reason that God knows all
things present, past, and future?
Being always every where present, upholding
and beholding all things, he must know all things
present; and he must know all that ever has been,
and all that ever will be, because nothing ever has
been, or ever will or can be without Him.
225. Do the Scriptures affirvt the omniscience of


Yes; Peter says; Lord, thou knowest all
things." John 16: 30.
226. Does God know all we do?
Yes; "Thou art acquainted with all my ways."
Ps. 139: 3.
227. Does God know all we say ?
Yes; There is not a word in my tongue, but lo,
0 Lord, Thou knowest it altogether." Ps. 139: 4.
228. Does God know all our thoughts?
Yes; Thou understandest my thought afar off."
Ps. 139: 2.
229. If all we do, or say, or think, or feel, is known
,to God, what should that teach us?
Never to say, or do, or think, or feel, any thing
.save what would please God.
230. Whatis the fifth natural attribute of God?
231. What is wisdom ?
:Skill to devise what is best to be done; and the
best way of doing it.
232. Are wisdom and knowledge the same thing?
No; knowledge is a mere treasury of ideas ; wis-
dom is skill to acquire and apply them. A man
may have great skill and but little knowledge; or
great knowledge, and but little skill to apply it.
233. How great is the wisdom of God ?
His understanding is infinite. Ps. 147: 5.
234. Where is the wisdom of God seen?
Throughout the whole universe; in every plant
and flower; in every world and creature.
235. Wherein do the things created prove God's
wisdom ?
In the unparalleled skill and contrivance dis-


played in their structure; the ends they are de-
signed to accomplish; and the adaptation of every
thing to answer the end designed.
236. Can that be properly called wisdom which
has no good end to answer ?
No. Subtlety without any good end in view, is
mere cunning.
237. What should we learn from that wisdom
which planned, and which directs the whole uni-
To admire and adore the wonder-working God.
238. What is the sixth natural attribute of God?
239. What do you mean by Omnipotence?
Almighty power; power without limits.
240. How do you prove the Omnipotence of
He who could do what God has done can do any
241. What is the BiSle testimony on the subject?
"I am the Almighty God." Gen. 17: 1.
242. What can Almighty power do, for, or
against us?
Destroy us in a moment, or preserve and bless
us for ever.
243. What truth, then, does the Omnipotence of
God teach us?
Our safety if his friends, our danger if his ene-
244. Is the Omnipotence of God a ground of
joy or grief ?
Of great joy to the Christian; of grief and terror
to the sinner.


245. What duty does it teach the Christian, and
what the sinner?
The Christian to confide in his Almighty friend;
the sinner to flee his wrath and secure his favor.
246. Have you secured his favor yet ?
247. What are you doing to secure it?
248. Are you not afraid to stand out against a
Power that is Almighty ?
249. What is the seventh natural attribute of God?
250. What is Immutablity. ?
251. In what respect is God unchangeable?
In his essence, character, and purposes.
252. How do you prove him unchangeable as to
his essence ?
To suppose that any thing can change that has
neither beginning nor end, and that exists inde-
pendently and above the reach of all things that
could produce any change, would be absurd.
253. How do you proveHim unchangeable in his
character ?
Perfect in his nature, and above the reach of all
influences that tend to change character, we can-
not conceive a change in character possible.
254. How do you prove Him unchangeable in his
With perfection of knowledge, no new views or
circumstances can arise to change his mind; and
with no new views, and an unchangeable character,
a change of purpose is inconceivable.
255. What is the Scripture testimony on the sub-


"I am the Lord, I change not." Mal. 3: 6.
256. Is the Immutability of God a ground ofjoy
or grief?
Of joy to his friends; grief and terror to his en-
257. Why?
Because he will never change from blessing his
friends, or punishing his incorrigible enemies.
258. What do you mean by the Sovereignty of
God ?
His doing what he thinks best, without giving an
account to his creatures of his actions.
259. Does the Sovereignty of God imply his act-
ing from mere caprice, or without any reason?
No; but implies merely his acting from reasons
unknown to us.
260. Have you any proof from nature that God
does act as a Sovereign ?
Yes; when one man is born blind or deaf, and
another with perfect sight or hearing, God acts
from reasons unknown to us.
261. Do the Scriptures affirm God's Sovereignty?
Yes; He giveth n)t account of any of his mat-
ters." "He doeth according to his will in the ar-
mies of heaven and amongst the inhabitants of the
earth." Job 33: 13. Dan. 4: 35. Also Eph. 1:
262. Do men here on earth ever act in Sovereign-
ty, or without giving their reasons to those under
their authority ?
Yes; masters often do amongst their servants,
and fathers amongst their children.
263 Is it more proper for God than man to act
as a Sovereign?


Yes; because He knows so much better what is
best, and is so much more inclined to do it.
264 What proof have you that God will do what
is best?
All the attributes of
265. What is the first attribute of His Moral
character ?
Love, or Goodness.
266. How many kinds of Love are there?
Two; Benevolence and Complacency.
267. What is Benevolence?
Good will; desire of others' happiness.
268. How do you prove the Benevolence of God ?
In the same way we do his existence; i. e., by the
design discoverable in all his works.
269. How does that appear ?
The original and leading design in all his works,
is to make creatures happy, not miserable.
270. Give an example.
The grand design of the eye, the ear, the tooth,
the stomach, was to contribute to our happiness,
not our misery.
271. Where else in Nature do you find illustra-
tions of the goodness of God ?
In every sun and shower;
In every plant and flower;
In every pulse and breath,
And every hour till death.
272. Where else besides in Nature do you find
proofs of the Divine Benevolence?
The best smiles of His face,
Are the gifts of His grace:


The gift of His Spirit, His Sabbath and Word,
And his gift above all of our crucified Lord.
273. What Scripture proof of the Love or Good-
ness of God ?
": God is Love." The earth is full of the good-
ness of the Lord." 1 Jn. 48; Ps. 33: 5.
274. But why so much pain in the world if He
who made us desires our happiness ?
We must have nerves sensible to pain, or they
would be insensible to pleasure; and the pain of
the eye, the tooth, or any other organ, is incidental,
and not the prominent and primary object of its
formation; and often the pain our nerves occasion,
is sent to warn and save us from greater evils:-
the pain from cold, to warn us against freezing,
&c., &e.
275. Have you any other reason why there is so
much pain and distress in the world ?
Yes; the chief reason of all is sin.
276 If there were no' sin in the world, would
there be no sorrow?
No; neither sorrow nor death.
277. Have you any proof of this from Reason?
Yes; for a Benevolent Being would not afflict
his children without cause.
278. Have you any prooffrom Scripture?
Yes;" The curse, causeless shall not come;" and
"Death is the wages of sin." Prov. 26: 2. Rom.
6: 21.
279. What is Complacency ?
Delight in Character.
280. Towards whom does God exercise the Love
of Complacency ?


Towards the righteous only.
281. Has He any Complacency then in you?
282. Towards whom does God feel the Love of
Towards all, both good and evil.
283. What duty do you infer from the infinite
love and goodness of God?
Obligation to love him supremely in return. "The
goodness of Godleadeth to repentance." Rom. 2: 4.
284. Has His love ever yet won yours, or you ?
285. What is the second Moral Attribute of God?
286. What is Justice?
In its general sense, it means mere righteousness
in general; but in its strict and specific import, it
means disposition to render to every one his due.
287. How do you prove the justice of God?
By our own consciences and the Divine benevo-
288. How by our own consciences?
God would never have created us with conscien-
ces to approve of justice and scorn injustice, if
Himself unjust.
289. How do you prove the justice of God by His
Benevolence would, of course, desire the promo-
ter of good rewarded, and the destroyer of good
punished; and that is what justice herself de-
290. What say the Scriptures as to the justice of
I the Lord am a just God." Isa. 45 : 21.


291. What truth do you infer from the justice of
That if God be just, there must be tremendous
retribution in store for the impenitent sinner.
292. If God be just, what will become of you?
293. What is the third moral attribute of God ?
294. What do you mean by Veracity?
Disposition to tell the truth.
293. What is Truth?
Representation corresponding to reality.
296. Give an illustration.
The exact picture of a man is a true likeness;
and language that represents things as they are, is
297. How many kinds of truth are there?
Two: Natural and Moral.
298. What is the difference?
Moral truth refers to right and wrong; Natural
truth, to all other subjects.
299. How do you prove that the Lord is a God
of truth ?
From both reason and Scripture.
300. Whatproof of the Veracity of God from rea-
No one ever falsifies without some motive of gain
or gratification. God could have no motive, and,
of course, never falsifies. The same is proved also
by the greatness and goodness of God.
301. How from these?
A God so great, would not be guilty of the mean-
ness of falsehood; nor a God so good, of the mea-
sureless mischiefs that falsehood occasions.


302. What do the Scriptures teach in regard to
the Veracity of God ?
That it is impossible for God to lie." Heb. 6: 18.
303. What is the fourth moral attribute of God?
304. What is Holiness ?
Purity, freedom from,.and hatred of, all that is
wrong or wicked; love of, and devotion to, all that
is right or righteous.
305. How do you prove the Holiness of God?
From all the three moral attributes preceding-
love, justice, and veracity ; for each one requires it;
and true holiness comprises them all.
306. What is the Scripture testimony ?
Holy, holy,holy is the Lord of hosts." Isa. 6: 3.
307. To what duty should the consideration of a
holy and sin-hating God lead us ?
To be pure and holy ourselves.
308. What is the fifth moral attribute of God ?
309. What do you mean by the Patience of God?
His slowness to anger, and long-suffering dispo-
210. How do you prove His Patience ?
By His daily forbearance, exercised towards the
guilty children of men; and by Scripture.
311. What is the Scripture testimony ?
The Scriptures declare Him to be, the God of
patience;" slow to anger," long-suffering."
Rom. 15: 5; Ex. 34:6; Neh. 9: 17.
312. What praicical inference from the Patience
of a long-suffering God ?
The duty of great gratitude to God for his long-


suffering, towards us; and the duty of great for-
bearance on our part, towards our offending fellow-
313. What if God were as quick to anger and re-
tribution as men are, or would be, if they had full
power for vengeance?
The earth would long ago have been emptied of
its inhabitants.
314. What is the sixth moral attribute of God?
315. What do you mean by his Compassion?
Pity towards sufferers.
316. How do you prove the Compassion of God?
Benevolence, of course, leads to pity the dis-
tressed; and the Scriptures say, Thou art a God
full of compassion." Ps. 86: 15.
317. What practical inference does the Compassion
of God yield us?
Great consolation to ourselves in distress; and
our great duty to compassionate our suffering fel-
318. What is the seventh moral attribute of
319. What is Mercy?
In a general sense, it means mere compassion.
"He was neighbor that showed mercy." Luke
10: 36,37.
320. What is the meaning of Mercy in its strict
gospel sense ?
Disposition to pardon and forgive.
321. What is it to forgive?
To lay aside anger.


322. What is it to pardon ?
To lay aside punishment.
323. Whose prerogative is it to pardon? and
whose to forgive ?
It belongs to the ruler to pardon ; to the private
individual to forgive.
324. Which is it our duty to extend to our of-
fending fellow-creatures ?
Forgiveness: pardon is not our prerogative.
325. Which may we seek from God ?
325. What is the difference between Mercy and
Mercy is an attribute of God; Grace is not, but
refers to mere favors shown, and the terms on which
favor is granted.
327. Give an illustration.
Grace is mere unmerited favor, like a gift to a
beggar; but Mercy is disposition to pardon the
328. How do you prove the Mercy of God ?
By both Scripture and reason
829. What is the Scripture testimony?
The Lord is of great mercy, forgiving iniquity,
transgression and sin." Num. 14: 8.
330. How does reason prove the mercy of God ?
His benevolence would, of course, desire, if con-
sistent, the happiness of all, even the most wicked.
331. Can reason prove it consistent with the law
and justice of God to pardon the guilty? and in
what way consistent, if at all ?
No; nothing but a revelation from God can show
in what way it might be consistent, or whether it
could be consistent at all.


332 Does this add another proof that a revelation
has been given ?
Yes; for infinite goodness would certainly lead
him to reveal what is indispensable to the happi-
ness of his creatures to know.
333. What then is the greatest reason of all why a
revelation has been given to mankind?
To teach the fact, and the way, of Salvation
through Christ.
334. From what originated the plan of Salva-
From the love, the wisdom, and

335. What do you mean by the Purposes of
That God from eternity planned all things, for
the best.
336. How do youprove this ?
By His goodness and wisdom.
337. How from these?
God could not be infinitely good without desir-
ing what was best; nor infinitely wise without de-
vising a plan for its accomplishment.
338. Did any man ever start to build any thing
without any desire, or design, as to what his build.
ing should be?
Never. Much less could an infinitely wise God
be guilty of such folly.
339. Can you prove the being of a God without
proving his Purposes ?
No; because the main argument that proves his


existence, is the argument from design or pur-
340. Do the Scriptures teach the doctrine of the
Divine Purposes?
Yes. He worketh all things after the counsel
of his own will." Eph. 1: 11.
341. Do not the Purposes of God take away our
freedom ?
No; for they do not touch us.
342. How is it that His Purposes do not touch
us ?
Because purposing to touch, touches nothing;
purposing to do, does nothing.
343. What, then, does touch us?
The hand or agency of God.
344. Can the hand or agency of God, then, reach
and govern our actions, and yet leave us free ?
Yes; for we reach and govern each others' ac-
tions, day by day, and yet leave each other free;
and surely God can do what we can.
345. When do we govern our neighbor's actions
and yet leave him free?
In every offer or invitation that we give and he
346. Does God exert no other kind of agency over
us but that of motive?
No, except in regeneration; nor then save in view
of motive.
347. Do. then, neither his agency, nor his pur-
poses, disturb our freedom?
Neither the one nor the other.
348. How far, then, may the purposes of God ex-
tend and yet leave us free ?


To every thing.
349. How far do the Scriptures teach, that his
Purposes do extend ?
He worketh all things, after the counsel of his
own will." Eph. 1: 11.
350. Do the Purposes of God extend to the time of
man's existence on the earth ?
Yes. "There is an appointed time for man up-
on the earth." Job 7: 1.
351. Do the Purposes of God extend to the place
of our abode?
Yes. "He hath determined the place of their
habitation." Acts 17: 26.
352. Do the Purposes of God extend to the time of
our death ?
Yes; "his days are determined; the number of
his months are with thee; Thou hast appointed his
bounds that he cannot pass." Job 14: 5.
353 But does not David say that "men of deceit
and blood shall not live out half their days ?" Ps.
55: 23. (Original.)
Yes; for God has purposed they shall not live
out half the days he would have allowed them,
were it not for their sins.
354. What then comes under the Purposes of
All worlds; all creatures; and all events. "He
worketh all things after the counsel of his own
will." Eph. 1: 11.
355. Did the Purposes of God extend to the ex-
istence of sin?
Yes; for REDEMPTION was the first grand object
of Creation. "All things were created-for Him."


(Christ) i. e. for the display of the Meditorial glo-
356. Did the Agency of God extend to the en-
trance of sin ?
Yes; so far as to arrange all the circumstances
necessary for the trial of a being under probation;
such as the garden, the apple, the appetite, &c.:
and so in regard to our own sin; but not so far as
at all to necessitate or compel its commission ; nor
at all to impair the most perfect freedom of choice
in our actions.
357. Did both God's purpose and agency com-
prise the existence of sorrow in the world and the
universe ?
Yes; as the punishments or consequent of sin.
358. Is there any difference between the Purposes
of God and the Sovereignty of Gbd ?
Yes ; His purposes respect His designs and plans;
His sovereignty, the reasons of His actions. His
plans purpose all things for the best, we know; but
in following out His plans, He does many things
from reasons entirely unknown to us; and His act-
ing from reasons all His own, is what we mean by
His sovereignty.
359. How does God execute His Purposes?
In Creation, Providence, Redemption, and final


360. Does the Bible teach that God is the Crea-
tor or first Cause of all things ?
Yes; All things were created by Him." Col.
1: 16.


361. How did God create all things?
By the word of His power. He spake and it
was done: He copnmanded and it stood fast: He
said, "Be light, and light was." (Original.) Ps.
33: 9. Gen. 1:3.
362. When did God create all things?
In the beginning God created the heavens and
the earth." Gen. 1: 1.
363. How long ago was that beginning?
We do not know; the Bible does not tell us.
364. In how long time did God create the world ?
"In six days the Lord made heaven and earth,
the sea, and all that in them is." Exodus 20: 11.
365. How long since the creation of Man ?
About six thousand years.
366. For whom were all things created ?
The Lord made all things for Himself." Prov.
16; 4.
367. For whom then were you made?
For God.
368. For whom ought you to live ?
For God.
369. For whom are you living ? for God? or
for yourself ?
370. For what were all things made ?
To please God. For His pleasure all things
were created." Rev. 4: 11.
371. For what then ought you to live?
To please God.
372. How can we please God ?
By doing His will.
373. Which is your highest aim and dearest ob-
ject ? To do God's will, or your own ?


374. For what special purpose did God create
man in particular?
I have created him for my glory." Isa. 43 7.
375. What then ought to be the great aim of all
our actions?
To glorify God. Whether ye eat or drink, or
whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God." 1
Cor. 10: 21.
376. What is it to glorify God?
To love Him and keep His commandments.
377. What then is the chief end for which we
were created ?
To love and serve the Lord.
378. Have you ever yet begun to answer the end
for which you were created?
379. Man destroys that which does not answer
the end for which it was made, and will not God
destroy the soul that will not answer the end for
which it was created ?
He will.
380. What then will become of you ?
381. When God had completed the great work of
Creation to what did he next proceed ?


382 Of how many parts "does Providence con-
Two: Upholding and Governing the Universe.
383. But when any thing is brought into exist-
ence will it not continue to exist, of itself, unless
something destroys it ?


No; it requires the same power to uphold that it
did to create. It was the word of God's power that
created; and Paul tells us that He upholds all
things by the word of his power." Heb. 1: 3.
384. What then would become of the world and
the creatures, were God to withhold his supporting
power for a single moment?
That moment we should sink into non-existence.
385. Could we not draw a single breath without
God ?
Not one; nor could another pulse beat unless
God were there to send it.
386. Whatproof of this?
In Him we live, and move, and have our being."
Acts 17: 28.
387. Have you any proof from Reason?
Yes; Nothing can move without a mover-the
pulse, no more than a world.
388. How far does the PROVIDENTIAL GOVERN-
MENT of God extend ?
ment, especially to the Physical and Mental.
389. What do you mean by Physical Govern-
ment ?
Government over matter.
390. What do mean by Mental Government ?
Government over mind.
391. How does God govern matter?
By force.
392. How does He govern mind ?
By motive.
393. Give an instance of His governing matter


Moving the winds, and waves, and worlds in their
394. Give an instance of His governing mind by
rotive ?
By books He moves the scholar, and by appetite
the animal, to desire, to choose, and to enjoy.
395. How far does God's Physical Government
extend ?
Over the whole empire of matter.
396. How far does the Mental Government of
God extend?
Over the whole empire of created mind.
397. Does the Physical Government of God cause
our existence?
Yes; Thy hands have made me." Job. 10: 8.
Ps. 13 : 9, 16.
398. Does God provide food for all His crea-
tures, both brute and human ?
Yes; He causeth grass to grow for cattle, and
herb for the service of man. Thou openest Thy
hand and satisfiest the desire of every living thing."
Ps. 104: 14, and 145: 15, 16.
399. But does not man provide his own food
and raiment ?
. No; man's agency is necessary as means; but
no agency nor effort of man can bring one drop of
rain from heaven, or cause one lamb or seed to
400. For how much, then, are we indebted to God ?
For every crumb, and thread, and breath, and
401. And what ought we to render in return to
God for all His blessings ?
All we are and have, for ever.


402. Does the Providence of God extend to the
smallest, as well as the greatest matters ?
Yes; Not a sparrow falleth on the ground with-
out your heavenly Father;" and" the very hairs of
your head are all numbered." Matt. 10: 29, 30.
403. Does the Providence of God extend to what
men term matters of chance?
Yes; "The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole
disposal thereof, is of the Lord." Prov. 16: 33. 1
Kings 22: 34.
404, is there any such thing then as chance or ac-
cident ?
No. Nothing happens without God.
405. Does the Providence of God extend to all
our afflictions ?
Yes; "Affliction cometh not forth of the dust;
neither doth trouble spring out of the ground."
Job 5: 6.
406. Does God's Providence extend to all our
Yes; Every good and perfect gift is from above,
and cometh down from the Father of lights." Jas.
1: 17.
407. Wherein does the Mental Government of
God appear in the Providential?
In God's Providential government over the em-
pire of mind.
408. Does the Providential Government of God
extend to the hearts of men, and even to their lips?
Yes; The heart of the King is in the hand of
the Lord as the rivers of waters; He turneth it
whithersoever He will;" and The preparations of
the heart and the answer of the tongue are from the
Lord." Prov. 16: 1, and 21: 1.


409. Does the Providential Government of God
extend to the ordinary actions of men ?
Yes; "Except the Lord build the city, they labor
in vain that build it: Except the Lord keep the
city the watchman waketh but in vain." Ps. 127: 1.
410. Does it extend to the actions of good men ?
Yes; The steps of a good man are ordered by
the Lord." Ps. 37: 23.
411. Does it extend to the actions of bad men?
Yes; for God calls the sinner His "rod," His
" saw," His axe ;" and says I will send him against
a hypocritical nation." Isa. 10. Again, It was
not you that sent me hither, but God." Gen. 45: 8.
412. Does it extend to the actions of devils ?
Yes; The Lord said to Satan, Behold he is in
thine hand; but save his life." Job 2: 6.
413. Does the Providence of God extend to the
revolutions of empires ?
It does. "I will overturn, overturn, overturn,
till He come whose right it is." "Promotion com-
eth neither from the east nor from the west, nor
from the south, but God is judge; he putteth down
one and setteth up another." Ez. 21,7. Ps. 75:
6 ;7.
414. Does the Providential Government of God
decide the earthly condition of men, as to wealth or
poverty, elevation or depression in life?
Yes; The Lord maketh poor and maketh rich:
He bringeth low and lifteth up." 1 Sam. 2: 7.
415. Does God govern the actions of the brute
Yes; I will appoint over them the dogs to tear,
and the fowls of heaven and the beasts of the field."
" I will send hornets before thee."-" He spake and


locusts came and caterpillars."-" Against Israel
shall not a dog move his tongue."-" I have com-
manded the ravens to feed thee." Jer. 15: 3. Ps.
105: 34. Exod. 23 : 28. I Kings 17: 4.
416. Does the Providential extend to


It does.
417. What do you mean by His Moral Govern-
Government by moral influences on the mind.
418. Give an example of Moral Government.
That of a parent over his child; or of a ruler over
his subjects.
419. What is the difference between Mental and
Moral Government?
All Moral is Mental government; but all Mental
is not Moral. The controlling influence of all mo-
tive on mind is mental government; but the influ-
ence of none but moral motives is moral govern-
420. Where do we see the difference?
The minds of all animals are governed by motive,
yet none but the minds of moral agents are ruled by
moral influences.
421. Amongst men are there any instances of
motive influence, that is not also moral influence ?
Yes; one mind is drawn by an argumentative,
another by a florid style; one by the sublime, an-
other by the beautiful. The influence is mental,
but not moral. It rules the mind or choice, but
has no moral character for good or evil.


422. But do not mere natural influences, like that
of taste or appetite, sometimes assume a moral char.
acter ; a merely mental, become a moral motive?
Yes it did in the case of Eve's transgression;
and always does when the divine command reaches
the question of animal indulgence.
423. Into how many parts is the Moral Govern-
ment of God divided?
Four; Providential, Legal, Mediatorial and Spir-
424. How is the Providential a part of God's
Moral Government?
Because the events of the Providential Kingdom
are so ordered as to bear a moral influence on the
minds of men.
425. Do the Scriptures affirm this ?
Yes; The Lord thy God hath led thee these
forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and
to prove thee, and to know what was in thine heart,
whether thou wouldst keep the commandments of
God or not." Deut. 8: 2.
426. What are the three grand requisites for a
Moral Government?
A moral governor, moral agents, and a moral
427. What are the three grand requisites in a
Moral Governor ?
Character, Capacity, and Authority.
428. Why these?
Because without character no one is fit to reign;
without capacity, no one is qualified to reign; and
without authority, no one has a right to reign.
429. Has God these three requisites ?
Yes, in infinite perfection. Infinite goodness is


His character; infinite wisdom and power His capa-
city; and His claims as our Creator, Preserver, and
Redeemer, give Him infinite authority over us alL
430. What is Moral Agency?
A course of action, either right or wrong.
431. Who are Moral Agents?
God, and all His rational creatures.
432. Are all Moral Agents accountable beings?
No; none but created moral agents. God is not
an accountable Being.
433. What is the difference between a Moral
Agent and an Accountable Being ?
Both have duties to perform ; but the one-is un-
der law, the other is not; one is bound to give an
account of his actions, the other is not. God is a
Moral Agent, but is not accountable to any; but
man is both a moral agent, and an accountable be-
ing likewise.
434. Has God duties to perform ?
Yes; to love Himself, and His law, and His glo-
ry; and to maintain His righteous government over
His creatures, are duties He owes to Himself.
435. What is necessary to Moral Agency?
Capacity to understand what is right, and power
(possessed or accessible) to do it.
436. What is necessary to Accountability ?
Righteous moral law, proclaimed, by rightful au-
thority, with capacity to understand, and power to
437. Why is righteous law necessary; and that
proclaimed or published ?
Because a wicked law no one is bound to obey;
nor any law unless published.


438. But is no one bound by any law unless he
know what it is ?
Not unless the law has been duly published.
439. What proof that capacity to understand,
and power to obey, are necessary to accountability ?
Common sense decides that a brute creature with
no capacity to understand, nor power to obey moral
law, can be accountable.
440. What are the capacities and powers necessa-
ry to moral agency or accountability?
Reason, Conscience, Liberty of Choice, and Moral
441 What do you mean by Moral Sensibility ?
Sensibility of mind to moral objects.
442. What is the difference between Conscience
and Moral Sensibility ?
Conscience is that power of the mind which
merely approves or disapproves; but Moral Sensi-
bility, that attribute of the heart, which loves or
hates the right or the wrong, the good or evil pre-
443. What do you mean by the Liberty of Choice
necessary to Moral Agency ?
The power of choosing or refusing, when good or
evil is set before us.
444. But is it not essential to Freedom to have
not only the power of choosing, but of doing as we
No: it is to Physical, but not to Moral freedom
-for if a man choose or desire to kill his neighbor,
he is in God's sight a murderer, even though he is
lying in a dungeon and in chains.
445. How do you know that we possess all these


powers and faculties that are necessary to Moral
Agency ?
By our consciousness.
446. Is there any power above our own accessible
to help us to perform our duties ?
Yes; the power of God; for me may come to God
and find grace to help in time of need." Heb. 4: 16.
447. What constitutes


The government by his moral law.
448. What is the Law Book of God's Moral
Government ?
The Bible.
449. Where in that Book do you find God's
Moral Law?
Chiefly in the Ten Commandments. Ex. 20.
450. What is the greatfundamental principle of
God's Moral Law?
Love to God and our fellow-creatures.
451. Does God claim this as the sum of all His
requirements ?
Yes; Christ tells us that on these two hang all
the law and the prophets." Luke 10: 27.
452. Which kind of love are we bound to exercise
towards God; Benevolence, or Complacency?
453. What must be the measure or amount of our
love to God ?
With all our heart, and soul, and strength, and
mind." Luke 10: 27.


454. What are we to understand by that?
That we are to love God more than all other ob-
jects; and as much more as our utmost capacity
455. Why?
Because God is infinitely greater and better than
all, and deserves to be loved in proportion to His
456. Do you love Him so much more?
457. Do you love Him as much as you do self?
458. Do you love Him at all?
459. What is the second branch of the law of love ?
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.
460. What is meant by neighbor ?
All other men, whether friend or foe: whether of
our own nation, or any other.
461. How do you prove that ?
The good Samaritan regarded and treated as his
neighbor, the Jew he found in distress, although
the Jews and Samaritans were different nations,
and deadly enemies to each other; and this case
Christ quotes to show that we must love as our
neighbors, all men, of every clime and color, friend
and foe. Luke 10: 33-37.
462. But why should we love others as our-
selves ?
Because our fellow-creatures are of as much
value in the scale of being as ourselves.
463. Does the command to love our neighbor as
ourselves require the father to feel the same natural
affection towards others' children as for his own ?
or to leave his own children or interests to take care
of others?


No; but it requires us to desire as much good
to others as to ourselves; and to do all for them
that in like circumstances we should like others to
do for us. Whatsover ye would that men should
do to you, do ye even so to them." Matt. 7 : 12.
464. What is the preface to the Ten Command-
ments, otherwise called the Decalogue ?
The preface to the Ten Commandments is, "I
am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of
the land of Egypt and out of the house of bondage."
Ex. 20 : 10.
465. What does the preface to the Ten Command-
ments teach us ?
That those who are God's own people by special
covenant and by special favor are bound above all
others to keep His commandments.
446. And are we now as specially bound to God
on these grounds as were Israel of old ?
Yes, and more so; for we, as a nation, above all
others, have been adopted into their place, and have
been more, and far more, blest than they.
467. What is the first commandment?
Thou shalt have no other gods before me." Ex.
20: 3.
468. What is the leading object of the first com-
To forbid all outward idolatry like that of the
heathen, and all the inward idolatry of the
469 What do you mean by the inward idola-
try of the heart?
Allowing to any other object the highest place in
the heart-that place which of right belongs to God


470. Is there any idolatry in Christian lands?
Yes; sinners in Christian lands are as deep in
idolatry as the heathen, though not addicted to
image worship.
471. How can men be as deep in idolatry here as
in heathen lands ?
Because all sinners in Christendom, as well as
heathendom, allow to other objects that place in
their hearts which of right belongs to God only.
472. Which, then, is the real idolatry of the hea-
then world-their image uorship, or the alienation
of their hearts from God to other objects?
Their alienation of heart to other objects; the
same as the idolatry in Christian lands.
473. What, then, are in reality the religious rites
and idolatrous worship of the heathen ?
Mere superstitious observances, adopted to qui-
et the demands of the religious principle in
474. Has any religious principle survived the
fall in the heart of man?
Yes; a religious principle, but no principle of
religion. Conscience is still alive to the duty of
religion, though the heart is dead against it.
475. What, then, is the true philosophy or cause
of the heathen worship and religion?
It is the wicked heart's attempt to quiet and
compromise with conscience. Conscience urges
the duty of religion and religious worship ; but the
heart, hating a holy God and a holy worship, con-
trives deities that will allow their votaries to wor-
ship and yet to sin on undisturbed.
476. What, then, are the grand objects of the


heart's idolatry here and every where? what the
trinity of idols that the wicked world adore ?
Wealth, Honor, and Pleasure.
477. Do the Scriptures consider devotion to these
as real idolatry ?
They do: they tell us that covetousness (i. e. the
love of gold) is idolatry ;" and, of course, the same
is true in regard to the others. Col. 3: 5.
478. But why do wealth, honor and pleasure hold
the highest place in the sinful heart ?
Because they tend to self-gratification.
479. What, then, at last is the real and the only
idol of the sinful heart ?
Self: self-love is always highest till love to God
takes the throne, and puts down self into subordi-
480. Are you, then, an idolater?
481. Are you a worshipperr of the true God? or
do you worship nothing?
482. If you worship nothing, then what compromise
does your heart make with yumr conscience ? how
manage to stifle the voice within, which tells you that
every rational being in every world ought to love and
worship the God that made him ?
483. When the first commandment forbids idola-
try, what opposite duty does it require ?
That we choose the Lord alone for our God.
484. What do you mean by choosing the Lord for
our God?
Yielding to him the highest place in our hearts,
and devoting our hearts and lives to his service.
485. What, then, is the sum and substance of what
the first commandment both forbids and requires?


That we must have no God but the Lord, but
must have the Lord for our God ?
486. Have you ever yet renounced every idol, and
chosen the Lord for your God ?
487. What ought to be the object of your highest
love ?
488. What is your highest and dearest object?
self or God ?
489. Is it a small sin, or a heinous crime, to cast
the love and fear of God away, and to allow sinful
self to be your God ?
490. Why is the command against idolatry made
the first commandment ?
Because idolatry is the most universal and the
greatest sin.
491. What is the second commandment?
Thou shalt not make unte thee any graven
image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven
above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in
the waters under the earth: Thou shalt not bow
down thyself to them, nor serve them : for I the
Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the ini-
quity of the fathers upon the children unto the
third and fourth generation of them that hate me."
Ex. 20: 4,5.
492. What is the difference between the second com-
mandment and the first?
The first forbids all idols, the second all images;
the first forbids having any idols in the heart, the
second all images before the eye. The sin forbid-
den in the first is the cause, the sin denounced in
the second the effect: yet both refer to the same
great and wide-spread species of wickedness.


493. What, then, is it the main object of the second
commandment to forbid and require ?
To forbid all image worship, and all that would
tend thereunto; and to require all men to worship
God in spirit and in truth." John 4: 2, 3.
494. Do you worship God in spirit and in truth 2
495. What reasons are given for obeying this com-
mand ?
The first is, "that the Lord is a jealous God."
496. What is meant by His being a jealous God ?
That God watches the first wanderings of the
heart, and is angry whenever any of that glory and
honor that are due to Him alone, are given to any
other object.
497. What is the second reason ?
That God visits the iniquities of the fathers upon
the children to the third and fourth' generations of
them that hate Him."
498. Is itjust to visit the iniquities of fathers
upon children ?
Yes; when children follow in the wicked footsteps
their fathers trod, and hate and disobey God them-
499. What is the third reason for keeping the
second commandment ?
That God shows mercy to thousands (of genera-
tions) that love Him and keep His commandments.
500. Does the Bible add the word generations
after the word thousands, making the text read
thousands of generations?
No; nor does the Hebrew text add it after the
third and fourth; and if it may be added in the one
case, it may also in the other.
501. Suppose it then added to both, what must


we then understand by God's visiting the iniquities
of thefathers upon the children to the third and
fourth generation of them that hate Him, and show-
ing mercy to thousands of generations of them that
love Him and keep His commandments?
That God will follow far down with judgments
those who hate and rebel against Him; and very
much further still, with mercies, those who love
Him and keep His commandments.
502. What loud warning does this passage sound
in the ears of sinners ?
Immediately to cease their career of iniquity,
lest they entail their own character and curse upon
generations yet unborn.
503. What great encouragement does this afford
to men to a life of piety ?
That their characters and blessings may flow
down to generations unnumbered, when themselves
are dead.
504. Are your life and example such as you
would wish those who come after you to copy?
505. What is the third commandment?
Ex. 20: 7. Thou shalt not take the name of
the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not
hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain"
506. What is it to take the name of God in
To use it irreverently.
507. Can men violate the spirit of this command
even when they do not use the name of God at all?
Yes; by speaking irreverently of His works, His
word, His worship, His ordinances, His Provi-
dences, His people, or His religion.


508. What penalty does God threaten against
all who take his name in vain?
That He will not hold them guiltless.
509. What is meant by not holding them guilt-
That He will hold and treat them as guilty, and
inflict condign punishment.
510. What then will befall those who not only take
His name in vain, but are guilty of profane swear-
ing and blasphemy?
A still more terrible doom.
511. What is Christ's rule as to profane or irrev-
erent language of every kind ?
Let your communication be yea, yea, and nay,
nay, for whatsoever is more than these cometh of
evil." Matt. 5: 37.
512. Is profaneness the most inexcusable of all
Yes; the thief pleads his hunger, and the mur-
derer the abuses he has received, or the gain he is
going to reap; but the profane swearer has neither
the one excuse nor the other for breaking the third
513. Does God regard the words we utter, the
language we use, as a true index of our hearts?
Yes; for out of the abundance of the heart the
mouth speaketh." Matt. 12: 34.
514. Will our words come up in remembrance
at the last day?
Yes; for every idle word we must give account
in the Day of Judgment. Matt. 12: 36.
515. Will our words have an influence in fixing
our eternal destiny?
Yes; By thy words thou shalt be justified, and


by thy words thou shalt be condemned." Matt. 12:
516. What influence is brought to bear upon the
It is set on fire of hell." Jas. 3: 6.
517. What kind of sin is that for which there is
no forgiveness, neither in this life nor that which is
to come?
A sin of the tongue. "Whosoever speaketh a
word against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiv-
en,,neitber in this world nor in the world to come."
Matt. 12: 32.
518. Is your tongue ever "set on fire of hell'?"
519. Have you any idle words to give an ac-
count of at the Day of Judgment?
520. Are you sufficiently cautious and prayerful
as to the language of your lips?
521. What is thefourth commandment?
"Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.
Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work :
But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy
God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor
thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor
thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stran-
ger that is within thy gates: for in six days the
Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that
in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore
the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it."
Ex. 20: 8-11.
522. What is the first precept of the fourth com-
Remember the Sabbath day."
523. Why are we commanded to remember the
Sabbath Day ?


Because so much is said and read, and done on
the Sabbath, without remembering what day it is.
524. Do you not sometimes forget it?
525. Has the Sabbath become entirely forgotten
and lost by any portion of mankind?
Yes; by whole nations; even where the septen-
ary division of time continues.
526. Is there no danger of its being lost here?
527. What is the second precept of the fourth
commandment ? b
To keep the Sa bath holy."
528. What is it to keep the Sabbath holy ?
To devote our thoughts, words and actions, all
that day to heavenly, not to worldly things.
529. What is the third precept of the fourth
commandment ?
Six days shalt thou labor."
530. Is it every one's duty to labor six days in
the week ?
Yes; in some useful employment of body or
531. But may not wealth excuse a man for idle-
ness ?
No; nothing but weakness, or disease of mind or
532. What evils does idleness engender ?
Crime, disease, death, perdition.
533. But what shall a man do who has already
all the wealth he needs for his support ?
Labor for God and the salvation of souls; gain
and give to the cause of humanity and religion, at
home and abroad, over all the world.


534. What is the fourth precept of the fourth
commandment ?
To finish all our secular business within the six
secular days. "Six days shalt thou labor and do
all thy work."
535. But have not some men more secular busi-
ness than they can perform in the six secular days ?
Yes; but they have no right to more. God al-
lows no man to take more on his hands than he
can do in the six.
536. How do you prove that?
God would never have commanded us to do all
in six days if he allowed us to take more than we
could complete in six.
537. By the month or year together, could a man
do as much in the whole seven days of the week as
in the six?
No. No man can do so much, or travel so far.
538. What motive is here presented for finish-
ing our works within the six days ?
God's own example; "for in six days the Lord
made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is."
539. What is the fifth injunction (or series of in-
junctions) of the fourth commandment?
In the Sabbath of the Lord thy God thou shalt
not do any work; thou, nor thy son, nor thy daugh-
ter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor
thy cattle, nor the stranger that is within thy
540. Is any man, then, held to be a Sabbath
breaker if he set his servants, or children, or cattle
at work, even though he do not work himself?
Yes ; r if he permit either a child or a domestic


or even a stranger that is sheltered beneath his
roof to labor, or otherwise violate the day of God.
541. But suppose he has not power to prevent his
son or servant, or the stranger from violating the
Sabbath ?
He must prevent it. God will take no excuse at
his hands. The head of every house is in God's
sight bound to be its master, and actually to pre-
vent Sabbath-breaking in his house; or banish the
Sabbath-breaker from his establishment.
542. But which is the easy and the right way to
prevent, without resort to severity ?
To begin early, and to teach and train every soul
in the mansion to reverence the Lord's day from
the very beginning.
543. What will God do to those parents or guar-
dians or masters, who let go the reins of govern-
ment, till those they are bound to govern are above
and beyond them?
He will task them to a dread account hereafter.
544. When God says thou shalt not do any
work, thou, nor thy son nor thy daughter, nor thy
man servant, 4c., are not only all kinds of work,
but all other worldly occupations or engagements
forbidden, such as travelling, studying, reading,
writing, and conversation on worldly sulyects ?
Yes; and all worldly visiting, amusements, and
self-gratification. God's words are, Not doing
thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor
speaking thine own words." Isa. 58: 13.
545. Do you not sometimes seek your own plea-
sure or speak your own words on the day of God ?
546. What was the penalty in former days for
violating the Sabbath ?


Every one that defileth it shall surely be put to
death: whosoever doeth (any) work therein, that
soul shall be cut off from his people." Ex. 31:
14; and 35: 2.
547. Is God as angry now as ever against the
Sabbath-breaker ?
Just the same now, and always will be.
548. Is there any kind of work a man may do
on the day of God ?
Yes; works of mercy-to man or beast. Luke
13: 10; and 14: 15. Matt. 12: 1. We may im-
part food to the hungry, or relief to the distress of
man or beast on the Sabbath day.
549. By what motives is the duty of keeping the
Sabbath here enforced ?
That God rested on the seventh day; blessed
the Sabbath day and hallowed it."
550. How long did the seventh day continue to
be the Sabbath ?
More than four thousand years. The seventh
day was set apart for a Sabbath in the garden of
Eden, twenty-five hundred years before this fourth
commandment was given on Mount Sinai.
551. How does that appear?
Because we are told immediately on the comple-
tion of the creation, that God blessed the seventh
day and sanctified it" (Gen. 2: 3); and because it
was needed before the law as much as since; and
it commemorated God's rest then as now.
552. What reason have we for supposing that
the first day has been kept as the Sabbath since the
days of Christ ?
Because it is called in the New Testament,
"The Lord's day;" and on this day the disciples


met for worship. Rev. 1: 10; Acts 20: 7; 1
Cor. 16: 2. And it was kept by the early Chris-
tians as a Sabbath.
553. What is meant by God's blessing the Sab-
bath day ?
His making it a blessing to all who keep it.
554. Is the Sabbath a real blessing to the world ?
Yes; it is the guardian of all the dearest -in-
terests of mankind ; the great promoter of learning,
liberty, peace, prosperity, morality, religion, and
555. What is the condition of the nations where
no Sabbath isfoand ?
They are all sunk in barbarian or heathen degra-
556. Does every nation then and every individual
that turns his back on this day of God, shut him-
self of from the richest blessings of Heaven ?
Yes; and brings himself under the curse.
557. What is meant by God's hallowingg the
Sabbath day ?"
Setting it apart from a common to a sacred use.
558. Does God regard it as a great sin for man
wilfully to profane what he has hallowed ?
Yes; and punishes accordingly.
559. Do you recollect any cases where men have
wilfully desecrated this day that God hath so so-
lemnly consecrated ?
Yes; the man in the wilderness, who in contempt
of God's law gathered sticks on the Sabbath day;
and the case of the French nation in the day of
their great revolution, when they wilfully blotted
out the day of God from their calendar, and even


abolished the seventh day division of time for de-
cades, or divisions of ten days each.
560. What were the consequences ?
The man in the wilderness was stoned to death
by express command of God. Numb. 15: 35.
And the French nation was deluged in blood.
(See French Revolution.)
561. Do you know of any other cases of the sore
judgments of God, though less severe, on nations or
individualsfor Sabbath-breaking, either in former
or later days ?
Yes; the whole nation of Israel was carried and
kept captive for seventy years, that the land might
enjoy her Sabbaths of which they had despoiled it.
Lev. 26: 34-35; and 2d Chron. 36: 21.
And in our own days the destruction of pleasure
riders on land and water on the Sabbath day, is of
appalling frequency.
562. As a general rule, are men gainers or losers
in their temporal interests, by breaking the Sabbath
for gain ?
Great losers in their temporal, and infinite losers
in their eternal interests; and therefore all who
would be happy in the world to come, or even pros-
per in this world, must keep holy the Sabbath day.
563. What division of the ten commandments is
supposed to end here with the fourth?
That part which was written on the first table of
stone, containing our duties to God; the remaining
six, containing our duties to man, being written on
the second table.
564. What is the fifth commandment ?
"Honor thy father and mother, that thy days
may be long in the land that the Lord thy God
giveth thee." Ex. 20 : 12.


565. What is it to honor parents?
To love, reverence, and obey them.
566. What peculiar kind of love or affection are
children bound to exercise towards their parents?
Kindred and grateful affection.
567. Is kindred affection the duty of children
towards their parents ?
Yes; and of parents towards their children; and
of brothers and sisters, and of all other kindred, one
towards another.
568. How does that appear? ls not kindred af-
fection a mere animal instinct, common both to the
brute and human race ?
Yes; and therefore the want of it is worse than
brutish; and hence to be without natural afec-
tion" is rated in Scripture as the lowest stage of
human depravity. 2 Tim. 3: 3.
569. Is gratitude one part of that love which
children owe to their parents ?
Gratitude and love are not the same thing: for
love refers to persons, gratitude to favors shown;
yet love and gratitude, like benefactor and benefits,
are closely connected together.
570. For what is gratitude due from children to
parents ?
For all their countless favors;
Their counsels and cares;
Their pains and their prayers;
Their toils and their tears,
From first to latest years.
571. Why ought children to honor their parents?
Because of the parents' superiority in age; and
the respect naturally due to the parental relation.
572. Are children bound by this commandment


to honor or reverence parents who, by their charac-
ter or conduct, merit nothing but contempt ?
Yes; children are always bound to honor, who-
ever else may despise them.
573. Are children bound to do every thing that
parents may command?
Yes; unless what they command be impracticable
or wicked.
574. What is the Bible rule on this subject?
Children, obey your parents in the Lord."
Eph. 6: 1.
575. What is meant by obeying in the Lord ?"
Obeying in all that the Lord approves.
576. What did God in ancient times command
to be done with a son that would not obey his father
or mother, after they had chastened him themselves
in vain ?
God's command was, All the men of his city
shall stone him that he die." Deut. 21: 21.
577. What if a child cursed his father or
mother ?
Every one that curseth his father or his mother
shall surely be put to death." Lev. 20 : 9.
578. Is God as angry now as ever against dis-
obedient children?
Yes, the same.
579. Do you always obey the ffth command-
ment ?
580. What promise does this command contain
for all who obey it ?
That thy days may be long in the land which
the Lord thy God giveth thee."
581. Is this a promise that the nation of Israel, if


obedient, should remain long in the land of Ca.
naan, the land the Lord gave them ? or that all
men who obey shall live long on the earth, or both?
Both. Primarily it was a promise to that nation;
inferentially, "it is a promise of long life and pros-
perity, so far as shall subserve God's glory and their
own highest good, to all such as keep this command-
582. Why does Paul call this the'first command-
ment with promise ?" Eph. 6 : 2, 3. Does not
every commandment of God contain a promise ex-
pressed or implied to all who keep it ?
Yes; and Paul does not say that this is the first
commandment with promise, but the first command-
ment with this particular promise; that it may be
well with thee, and that thou mayest dwell long in
the earth or the land." Ephes. 6: 2, 3. Original.
583. Why the earth or the land ?
Because the Greek word means either.
584. But have we a right to put those two verses
together, and to read it, the first commandment
with the promise that it may be well with thee, and
that thou mayest dwell long in the land ?"
Yes; because the verses never ought to have
been divided ; their sense and truth require them to
be joined together.
585. But are not the divisions of chapters and
verses inspired divisions ?
No. The original Scriptures had neither chapter
nor verse.
586. Who then divided the Bible into chapters
and verses ?
Chiefly the monk Hugo, 1240; Robert Stephens,
1551; and the Jew, Mordecai Nathan.


587.Does thefifih command imply also the duty of
subjection to rulers and all others in authority, as
well as parents ?
Yes ; "Let every soul be subject to the powers
that be; for there is no power but of God. The
powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever
therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordi-
nance of God ; and they that resist, shall receive to
themselves damnation." Rom. 13 : 1, 2.
588. If rulers make wicked laws are we bound to
obey them ?
No; for "we ought to obey God rather than
men." Acts 5 : 29.
589. But who is to judge whether a law be wick-
ed, and one that it would be wicked to obey ?
The Bible, or the principles it lays down.
590. But who is to interpret the Bible ?
Every individual for himself, after patient and
prayerful investigation, as he shall answer it at the
Last Day.
591. But what must men do if masters, magis-
trates, or monarchs attempt to compel them to obey
wicked laws?
Do as Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego and Daniel
did in Babylon; go into the furnace or lion's den,
rather than sin against God. Dan. 3d and 6th
592. What is the sixth commandment ?
Thou shalt not kill." Ex. 20: 13.
593. Does this commandment forbid taking the
life of a fellow creature in any case ?
No; it is the duty of the Law to take "life for
life." "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall
his blood be shed." Gen. 9: 6.


594. But was not this precept merely one of the
enactments of the Levitical Law, now abrogated and
done away?
No; for this precept was given six hundredyears
before Levi was born; and more than eight hun-
dred before the Levitical Law was enacted.
595. If the sixth commandment does not forbid
taking life for life, what does it forbid?
It forbids all murder. Matt. 19 : 18. Thou
shalt do no murder."
596. What is murder ?
Killing a man intentionally, without the com-
mand or authority of law.
597. Is there any difference between the command
of the law, and the authority of law?
Yes; the legal executioner who executes the
murderer on the scaffold, does it by regular com-
mand of the law: but he who kills the man who is
in the act or effort to murder him, or his family, is
acting by the authority of the law against murder,
provided the law could in no other way afford pro-
598. Has the law itself a right to take life for any
thing but life?
599. Is malice aforethought," always essential
to murder ?
No; a man may murder his neighbor for money;
or himself for grief, with no malice against either.
600. What else besides murder does the law
against murder forbid ?
Every thing that would lead or tend to murder
of any kind; whether murder for malice, or money,
or grief


601. Can a man be a murderer without taking
Yes; "whosoever hateth his brother is a mur-
derer." 1 Jn. 3: 15.
602. Are you, then, one in heart?
603. Whence do all murders proceed ?
From within; "out of the heart proceed evil
thoughts, murders." Matt. 15: 19.
604. What then does the sixth commandment en-
join in regard to the spirit of our mind ?
To avoid every thing that would lead or tend to-
wards murder: hatred, envy, jealousy and avarice;
and to cultivate the opposite spirit of loving our
neighbors as ourselves, and of entire submission to
the will of God.
605. What does the sixth commandment enjoin
as the rule of our practice in regard to life ?
To avoid every thing that might endanger our
own or our neighbor's life or health; and to use "all
lawful endeavors to preserve our own life, and the
life of others." West. Catech.
606. What is the first part of the punishment
that God denounces against the murderer ?
'- The murderer shall surely be put to death."
Num. 35: 17.
607. What is the second part ?
Murderers shall have their part in the lake
that burneth with fire and brimstone." Rev. 21:
608. Is there any other kind of murder besides
that of the body?
Yes; soul-murder.
609. In what way may souls be murdered ?
By being tempted into sin.


610. What sort of sin?
Unbelief, or any open, or secret sin.
611. Who is guilty of soul-murder ?
Satan; for "he was a murderer from the begin-
ning." Jn. 8 : 44.
612. Who else besides Satan may be guilty of soul-
murder ?
The infidel, who leads the soul to reject God's
truth; the seducer, who leads the soul into any
open or secret sin; the mere moralist, whose influ-
ence stops the soul this side of Christ; and the pro-
crastinator, who leads the sinner to put off for a
more convenient season.
613. May a person be guilty of the blood of souls,
without any of these or any other overt transgres-
sions against them ?
Yes; by neglecting the instructions and warn-
ings, the prayers and efforts that God requires fir
the salvation of all we can reach or influence.
614. Who are in special danger of becoming
guilty of the blood of souls in this way?
Parents, of the blood of their children ; teachers,
of the souls of their pupils; ministers, of the souls
of their people; and all that have or might have in-
fluence over others, are in danger of their blood by
615. Which is worse, to be guilty of the blood of
the soul, or that of the body ?
That of the soul is as much worse, as the soul is
more important than the body.
616. If the murderer of the body be doomed to
death in this world, and eternal misery in the next,
what does the soul-murderer deserve?
A far sorer death, both temporal and eternal.


617. Of which are there the greater numbers,
murderers of the body, or of the soul?
Of soul-murderers, incomparably more.
618. Are you one of the number, either by leading
them to sin, or by neglecting efforts for their salva-
tion. or your own?
619. May a person destroy the souls of others by
neglecting his own ?
Yes; for he thus influences others to the same
fatal neglect.
620. Is there any kind of soul-murder besides
that against a fellow-creature ?
Yes; there is soul suicide, or destroying one's
own soul.
621. How may a man be guilty of destroying his
own soul?
By doing any thing that God forbids, or neglect-
ing any thing that God requires; especially by ne-
glecting or delaying to repent and believe; and give
the heart to God.
622. How much need you do then, to be a destroyer
of your own soul?
Nothing; for to do nothing when God requires
us to do something, yea, and to do much, is certain
623. But may we not do something, and yet
perish ?
Yes; much. We may give punctual attention
to the Bible, the Sabbath, the closet, and even the
communion, and yet perish by neglecting to lay
hold on Christ, and give the heart and life to God.
624. Are you daily perilling your own soul now
by such neglect, or in any other way ?


625. Which is the greater crime, self-murder or
the murder of others ?--to destroy your own soul, or
the soul of your fellow-creature ?
Suicide is the worst sort of murder; because
our own life is put more entirely under our own
care than the life of any other.
626. May a man be guilty of both kinds of mur-
der at the same time; destroying his own soul, and
that of his fellow-creatures ?
Yes; many a man is guilty of the blood of his
own soul, and that of hundreds of his fellow-
627. And are those hundreds then guiltless them-
selves because led on by others ?
No; but the tempter who leads, is guilty of the
blood of the souls he leads; and those who are led
are guilty of self-murder for consenting to go.
628. What then must we do to in order to avoid
the guilt of soul-murder of every sort?
Do all we can for the salvation of our own souls,
and the souls of all our fellow-creatures.
629. What is the seventh commandment?
Thou shalt not commit adultery." Ex. 20:
630. What does the seventh commandment for-
All unchaste thoughts, words, and actions."
631. What does it require?
Our best endeavors to preserve our own and
our neighbor's chastity in heart, speech, and be-
avior." West. Catech.
632. What is the eighth commandment?
Thou shalt not steal." Ex. 20: 15.


633. What is it to steal?
To take what belongs to another, without his
knowledge or consent, and without compensation.
634. What is robbery ?
Taking what belongs to another with his know-
ledge, but without his consent, and without com-
635. Which of these does this command forbid?
Both; and all fraud, gambling, over-reaching, and
extortion in our dealings with our fellow-men, as
individuals, or with the government under which
we live.
636. What does the eighth commandment re-
quire ?
All that conduct towards our neighbor's inter-
ests that we should desire from him towards our
637. Is the common course of the world in viola-
tion of the spirit of the eighth commandment ?
Yes; the common principle and practice of get-
ting the most possible from our fellow-creature for
the least possible in return, is the very spirit of
robbery itself; and, of course, all extortion of pro-
perty or labor for less than its value is robbery.
638. What will the day of judgment reveal in
the light of this command ?
That a great portion of mankind that stood high
in the world, were in God's sight mere thieves and
639. Do you in all business transactions aim to
make your neighbor's side fully equal to your own ?
640. Do you deal with him as you would wish
him in like circumstances to deal with you ?


641. Is not a contrary course robbery in the sight
of God ?
642. Do you not deem the contrary robbery when
against you ?
643. Is there any other sort of robbery besides that
against man ?
Yes; robbery of God. Ye have robbed me,
even this whole nation." Mal. 3: 9.
644. Wherein may a man rob God ?
In tithes and offerings." Mal. 3: 8.
645. How are we to understand that ?
That withholding from the cause of religion a
full tenth of all their annual incomes God con-
sidered, in the days of Israel. decided robbery of
Himself; and he is the same God still.
646. Which was the more costly comrrand, theirs
to maintain the Levitical ceremonies, or ours to give
the gospel to every creature, and which is the more
Our duty to give the gospel to every creature is
far more expensive, and likewise far more import-
647. Which'then were thegreater robbers of God.
those who withheld their tenth from the Levitical
ceremonial, or those who will not give now the pro-
portion necessary to sustain the gospel at home, and
to send it over the world to every creature abroad ?
648. Is there a still worse way of robbing God ?
Yes; withholding our hearts is worse than with-
holding our money.
649. Are you doing both ?
650. What did God say to those who withheld
their tenth from the support of religion?


Ye are cursed with a curse." Mal. 3: 9.
651. What will Hie then soon say to you if you
withhold from Him your money, or your heart, or
both ?
652. What is the ninth commandment ?
Thon shalt not bear false witness against thy
neighbor. Ex. 20: 16.
653. What is meant by false witness?
Testifying falsely under oath.
654. Does this command forbid no false testimo-
ny, save that which is against your neighbor ? May
we bear false witness in our neighbor's favor ?
No; no more in his favor, than against him; but
no one bears false testimony, unless to operate
against some other; or to promote some selfish end.
655. Does this command forbid our bearing true
witness against our neighbor ?
656. Does it forbid any other kind of falsehood,
but false testimony, and that before the courts ?
Yes; every kind of falsehood, and lying every-
657. What is it to lie, or commit falsehood ?
Intentionally to deceive.
658. In how many different ways may a person
be guilty of lying, or falsehood?
By the tongue, or the pen, or the press; by ac-
tions, or by silence itself, when truth requires us to
659. Does this command forbid both slander and
flattery ?
Yes, both; for both are falsehoods; flattery is
false praise; slander, false dispraise.


660. Does this command forbid speaking either
falsehood or truth against any fellow-creature ?
The spirit of the command forbids our saying
any thing, whether true or false, against a fellow-
creature, unless absolutely necessary.
661. Where is this commandment daily and
hourly broken?
In the chase of gain, fame, pleasure and revenge.
662. Give one instance from the pursuers of gain.
In the constant practices of the business-world
extolling things to be sold, above their value, and
decrying things to be bought, beneath it; and
amongst the pursuers of gain, pleasure or power in
every sort of false representation and misrepresen-
tation to carry a point.
663. Is this a false world ?
Yes; so false that David said "all men are li-
ars." Ps. 116: 11.
664. What is the evil tendency of falsehood?
Its tendency is to embitter and embroil all the
relations of life; to take away peace and send mal-
ice and war through hearts and houses, neighbor-
hoods and nations; to render useless all testimony
and all courts of justice; all books, even the Bible
itself; and thus the tendency of falsehood is to de-
stroy all our earthly ardl all our eternal interests to-
665. What punishment has God denounced
against liars and deceivers ?
All liars shall have their part in the lake that
burns with brimstone and fire." Rev. 2: 8.
666. What is the tenth commandment?
Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou
shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his man-


servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his
ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor's." Ex. 20:
667. What is it to covet ?
To desire.
668. But is it wrong to desire, and to purchase
any thing that is our neighbor's ?
No; but it is wrong to desire what he is unwil-
ling to impart; or what we have no right or power,
or providential permission, to possess.
669. What does this command forbid in spirit
and in practice ?
In spirit, it forbids all avarice, and envy, and dis-
contentment with our own condition; and in practice,
all gambling, and lotteries; and not only all un-
righteous or extreme efforts to gain wealth, but
even to make the attainment of wealth the aim and
object of our life and our pursuit.
670. What does it require?
Entire submission to the will of God, and the al-
lotments of His Providence ; that we love our neigh-
bor as ourselves, and his happiness as our own ;
choose God for our portion and happiness; to set
our affection on things above, and to lay up our trea-
sure there.
671. Does God consider copetousness a great sin?
Yes; He declares it to be Idolatry ;" and sets
down as His first command on the first table of
stone, and the first precept ever written by the fin-
ger of God, his law against idolatry, as the front
and leading transgression of all human depravity.
672. How does God feeltou'ards the covetous?
"The covetous, the Lord abhorreth." Ps. 10: 3.
673. What will be their final destiny ?


"No man who is an idolater shall inherit the
kingdom of God." Eph. 5: 5.
674. What did Paul find out by the study of the
tenth commandment?
That the law of God reaches the heart, and even
the heart's desires; forbidding the first start of wrong
emotions; requiring not only that all our words
and actions, but that all our feelings, should be such
as God approves.
675. Does any mere man then since the Fall per-
fectly keep the commandments of God?
No; : there is not a just man upon earth that
doeth good and sinneth not." Eccles. 7: 20.
676. What, is the character of all impenitent
Totally depraved.
677. What do you mean by Total Depravity ?
Does it mean that there is no truth nor honesty, nor
amiableness in man, in his natural state?
No; there is often much of them all; so much so
that the young man in the Gospel, though totally de-
praved, was beloved of Christ Himself. Mk. 10: 21.
678. In what then does Total Depravity consist,
especially as to its elementary principle?
In supreme love to self ; with no love to God, and
no holiness.
679. Does the Bible affirm the total depravity of
all natural men ?
Yes; it declares them to be lovers of their own
selves ;" and adds, In me, i. e., in my flesh, dwell-
eth no good thing." I know you that ye have not the
love of God in you." The carnal mind is enmity
against God." Every imagination of the thought
of the heart is only evil, and that continually." 2


Tim. 3:2; Jn. 5:42; Rom. 7: 18, and8: 7, and
Gen. 6:5.
680. Is man's depravity a mere incident derived
from circumstances, or temptations, or is it by na-
ture ?
We are by nature children of wrath, even as
others." Eph. 2: 3.
681. How early does mankind go astray ?
They go astray as soon as they are born."-
"Death hath passed upon all men, for that all have
sinned." Ps 58: 3; Rom. 5: 12.
682. But how can man go astray, or be depraved,
as soon as he is born ?
Because self-love is as really on the throne of the
heart, at first, as ever afterwards.
683. How came the mind of man in that depraved
condition ?
By his being a fallen creature.
684. What do you mean by a fallen creature?
One from the throne of whose heart the love of
God has departed, and self-love taken the throne in
its place.
685. Was love to God on the throne as the high-
est affection, in the heart of Adam ?
Yes; before his fall; and self-love was entirely
686. How do you know that man is a fallen crea-
ture ?
The Bible declares it; God made man upright,
but they have sought out many inventions." Eccl.
7: 29. In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt
surely die." Gen. 2: 17. I had planted thee a
noble vine, wholly a right seed; now then art thou


turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine ?"
Jer. 2: 21.
687. How did man'sfall occur ?
By Adam's eating the forbidden fruit. Gen. 3:
6, 7.
688. Hozo came he to eat it ?
By being left to the freedom of his own will, and
to the temptation of the devil. Gen. 3d chapter.
689. How came we to befallen creatures ?
It is by reason of our covenant connection with
690. What do you mean by a covenant ?
Amongst men, it is a mere voluntary compact, or
agreement, between contracting parties.
691. What do you mean by a voluntary com-
pact ?
One like a deed or a mortgage, or marriage con-
tract, in which either party may engage or not, as
he pleases.
692. Of what kinds, is the covenant of God ?
God had four different kinds of covenants.
693. What are they ?
One is a mere promise or decree, like the rain-
bow covenant, which consisted in a mere promise or
decree that the earth should never be destroyed
by a deluge again. Gen. 9: 15.
694. Mention another.
The Covenant of Redemption, for the Redemp-
tion of man ; a compact between the Persons of the
Trinity; voluntary, like the covenants between man
and man.
695. But are not the covenants of God with men


voluntary in like manner, leaving it optional with
man to enter into them or not ?
No; God does indeed make proposals or over-
tures to man, and promises reward in case of com-
pliance; yet He does not leave it to man to comply
or not, but commands compliance, and denounces
terrible penalty against non compliance.
696. If, then, all God's overtures or proposals to
us come in theform of commands, is there any real
deference between the covenant of God, and the law
of God ?
The law of God on Sinai is very often styled his
covenant. Ex. 24: 7; Heb. 3 : 8. Yet there is a
difference between a covenant of God and law, as
understood amongst men.
697. What is the difference?
God's covenants with men consist of four things:
requirement and promise, prohibition and penalty:
human law of but two things, prohibition and
698. Give an illustration of the two things only
in human law.
The law of man forbids murder, and threatens
death against the man who commits it ; but it makes
no promise to the man who does not commit mur-
699. Give an illustration of the four things com-
prised in a covenant of God.
(1st) If ye be willing and obedient (2d) ye shall
eat of the good of the land ; (3d) but if ye refuse
and rebel (4th) ye shall be devoured with the sword,
for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." Isa.
1: 19. 20. Such is the substance of all God's com-


700. How many covenants has God made with
The principal are two: the covenant of works and
the covenant of grace.
701. What was the Covenant of Works?
That made with Adam in Eden before the fall.
702. What was the purport or substance of that
Covenant ?
Do and live.
703. How much is comprised in do and live ?
It means, obey Me perfectly during the whole
time of thy probation, then shalt thou be, and con-
tinue, holy and happy, now and for ever.
704. How do you prove that God made such a
covenant with Adam?
When God said to Adam, In the day thou
latest thou shalt surely die," it implies, that if he
had not eaten there would have been no death:
and when he says, after Adam had sinned, Lest
he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of
life, and eat and live for ever." it implies that, if
Adam had not sinned, he might have taken of the
tree of life, and eaten and lived for ever. Gen.
2: 17, and 3:22.
705. Was this covenant made with Adam for
himself only ?
No; it was made with Adam for man, including
himself and all his posterity.
706. How do you prove that ?
Our depraved condition proves it; for we cannot
suppose creatures to come out of the hands of a
pure and benevolent God so depraved as man, un-
less some dire lapse or catastrophe had passed over
his nature in some former state or period.


707. What Scripture proofs have you that the
covenant with Adam included the race ?
In Adam all die." By one man sin entered
into the world, and death by sin." By one man's
disobedience many were made sinners." "By the
offence of one, judgment came upon all men to con-
demnation," &c. 1 Cor. 11: 22; Rom. 5: 12; 18: 19.
708. Does that same covenant still exist, and still
reach us ? and is it still binding on us?
Yes it still reaches us with tremendous power,
or the whole race would not come into the world
fallen, depraved, suffering, and dying creatures.
And its commands are still as binding as ever;
for God's moral law never commanded any thing
but what is morally right; and moral right is bind-
ing for ever.
709. Are the promises or proposals of that cove-
nant still extended to us ?-does it still present itself
to us as a covenant of life, saying to us, as to Adam,
obey, and live ?
It still says to us, Ye shall keep my statutes
and my judgments, which, if a man do, he shall live
in them;" and that The man' which doeth these
things shall live by them." Lev. 18: 5; Rom.
10: 5. Yet all this is no promise to sinners.
710. Why not?
Because those promises are made to nothing short
of sinless perfection, from the first breath to the
last; and of course every past transgression or
failure cuts off all hope by that old covenant of
711. What proof of this ?
"It is written, cursed is every one that continu-
eth not in all things written in the law to do them."
Gal. 3: 10.


712. What then is our present relation to the old
law covenant ?
Its promises are dead to us, because we are sin-
ners; but its commands still lie upon us, and its
curse too is on us as its violators.
713. But is the old requirement of sinless perfec-
tion made upon Adam in the first covenant still
binding upon us ?
Yes; even Christ himself commands it, saying,
"Be ye therefore perfect, as your Father in heaven
is perfect;" Matt. 5 : 48 ; and he could not command
less without commanding us to sin.
714. But if sinless perfection be. commanded in
this life, then is it not possible?
Yes; naturally or physically possible; for God
requires no physical impossibility of His creatures.
715. But if possible in itself, and commanded of
God, then is not the doctrine that some men attain
sinless perfection in this life, true?
No; because men are not what they ought to be.
God commands many things which man never
obeys; the command to be perfect, especially.
716. Suppose we could and should be perfectly ho-
ly and obedient the rest of our days, would that save
No ; past transgressions would forever debar us;
"yea, any one of all our past transgressions; for
cursed is every one that continueth not in all
717. Is there any hope or possibility of relief or
salvation by the Old, or First Covenant ?"
718. But why could not the Law Covenant af-
ford any hope or relief?


Because we are sinners needing pardon ; and Law
knows nothing of pardon ; all it has to say to man
or angel is, obey and live; disobey and die.
719. Is there any hope then anywhere for sinful
Yes, there is hope in the New Covenant;


720. What is the Covenant of Grace?
Its brief purport or substance is, Believe and
live. The covenant of works, Do and live; the cov-
enant of grace, Believe and live.
721. What proof of this ?
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved;
but he that believeth not shall be damned." Mark
16: 16.
722. Where is this new covenant revealed to us?
In the Gospel.
723. What is the Gospel?
The good news of salvation for world of sinners.
724. What is the difference between the Law and
the Gospel ?
The Law is a Rule; the Gospel a Remedy.
725. What is the leading difference between the
teachings of the Law and those of the Gospel ?
The Law teaches what we must do, to do right;
the Gospel, what we must do to be saved.
726. But does not the Gospel teach us also to do
right ?
Yes; but its teachings of right are the echoes or
enlargements of the principles of right, before es-
tablished by the divine law.

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