• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
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 Spine






Group Title: The young man's evening book : embracing sketches and anecdotes in natural history, incidents of travel, biographical sketches, poetical selections, and other subjects suited to interest and instruct the mind
Title: The young man's evening book
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001912/00001
 Material Information
Title: The young man's evening book embracing sketches and anecdotes in natural history, incidents of travel, biographical sketches, poetical selections, and other subjects suited to interest and instruct the mind
Alternate Title: Evening book
Winter evening book
Physical Description: 324 p., <8> leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Francis, Joseph H ( Publisher )
C.S. Francis & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: C.S. Francis & Co.
Joseph H. Francis
Place of Publication: New-York
Boston
Publication Date: 1851
 Subjects
Subject: Handbooks, vade-mecums, etc -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Biography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Travel -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Biographies -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Massachusetss -- Boston
 Notes
General Note: Illustrated engraved t.p.; engraved plates are lightly tinted.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001912
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002240278
oclc - 45635249
notis - ALJ0824
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page 1
        Front page 2
    Half Title
        Front page 3
    Frontispiece
        Front page 4
        Front page 5
        Front page 6
    Title Page
        Front page 7
        Front page 8
    Copyright
        Front page 9
        Front page 10
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
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        Page viii
    Main
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THP


YOUNG MAN'S EVENING BOOK;

EMBRACING


SKETCHES AND ANECDOTES IN NATURAL HISTORY; INCI-
DENTS OF TRAVEL; BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES; POETI-
CAL SELECTIONS; AND OTHER SUBJECTS SUITED
TO INTEREST AND INSTRUCT THE MIND


ILLUSTRATED BY FIFTY BNGRAVINGS.


NEW-YORK:
C. S. FRANCIS & CO., 252 BROADWAY.
BOSTON:
JOSEPH H. FRANCIS, 128 WASHINGTON 8T
1851.




boB















CONTENTS.


Account of Pompeii . 10&
Advantages of the Diffusion of Knowledge .. ... 325
Adventures in India 961
Air Brahmin ..... ... 14
Air we breathe 297
American Vines 168
Anecdote of the Stage . 820
Anecdote of Dr. Adam Clarke . 118
Anecdotes of the Sloth . 109
Animal Associations . 89
Antwerp .. ...... . 39
Ant Eater 166
Arabian Hospitality ..... 187
Attraction 98
Baboons 27
Bamboo 80
Banana 214
Bear, Adventure with ........ 327
Bible 21
Bisset, the animal teacher . 60
Blind Persons, anecdotes of .. 396
Burning Mummies 53
Buckingham's Travels in Persia . 71
Camel of Arabia . 983
Capture of Elephants . .203
Chinese, their fraud and ingenuity . 329
Children 154
Chick in the Egg 86
Circulation of the blood . 324
Clever Women 50
Clove 73
Country, The 91
Cocoa ..... 258
Crows, courts of justice among . 290
Curran 36
Curassow 46
Curious Typographical Anecdote . 167
Curious River 226
Cypress of Montezuma 3B1











CONTENTS.


Davil ITuine and his mother 128
Decision of Character .. 231
Derbyshire Tale . 319
Deafness in old persons . 320
Destructive Shell . 329
Dexterity of a Goat 95
Diamond Beetle . 47
Dogs of St. Bernard 190
Dragon Tree of Orotava . 2.55
Driving Wild Cattle 55
Duels 271
Dutch Shipmaster and Russian cottager 212
Earthquake at Lisbon . 175
Effects of Expansion . 93
Egyptian Egg Oven . 316
Epithets . 282
Esop and his Fables . 185
Esquimaux Dogs . 101
Evening Cloud, by Wilson . 83
Expedient to split Granite . 298
Extraordinary Preservation of Life . 196
Excess in the Pursuit of Knowledge . 104
Fascination of Serpents . 266
Fearful Adventure . 137
Filial Affection among the Moors 48
Galileo ... 9
Gas Light 27
Gaming Houses of London . 130
General Putnam . 169
Ginger 159
Gladness of Nature, by W. C. Bryant . 5-
Good Providence of God 328
Good Breeding 51
Great American Aloe .... .. 111
Grisly Bear 287
Happy Life 294
Harbor and town of Muscat . 183
Havana Shark . 919
Hermit and the Vision . 51
Horns of Cattle ..... 129
Hogg the Ettrick Shepherd . 391
Hunting the Zebra 179
Icebergs 163
Infidelity. By R. C. Sands. . 01










CONTENTS. vli

Influence of the Moon 36
Inexhaustibility of Literature .. 958
Imitation from the Persian. By Southey 205
Irish Bull on hoard Ship 299
Ispahan 27i
Kentucky Sports 140
Labor of distinguished Men ... 178
Ledyard, John, Life and Travels of 42
Learning, a little is dangerous 327
Liverpool andl Manchester Railway 27
Literary Piracy .. 213
Lines by Bishop Horne 28
Life, its average duration 325
Longevity 227
Luther's Story of the Monk 329
Manufacture of Glass 2.07
Marvellous Story 181
Mental Physic 100
Morning Air 21
Morning, by Heher 37
Mountain Travelling in South America 947
Navigation of the Mississippi 981
Necessity and Invention ........ 64
Nightly Prayer of Jeremy Taylor 38
Ocelot.. 150
On the Death of a Friend. By Mongomery .. 103
Ostrich of Africa 990
Papyrus .. 39
Persian Account of the origin of Wine 57
Philosophy and Consistency 81
Popular Poison I31
Printing Press in Turkey 78
President's House 171
Printing and Stereotyping 915
Properties of the kSgar Cane 953
Puma, or the American Lion .. 64
Rats in Jamaica .. 5
Religious Education of Childjn 164
Rise of Water in Lake Erie 321
Round Robin 987
Rocks of Lake Superior 383
Russian Justice ...... .41
Scenes among the Indians .. 18
Scenery of the Ohio 945














CONTENTS.


Sheridan and Tickell
Fingular providential escape
2mnill Capue Eale .
Snutf Taking-Smoking .
Song. By the Rev. Th'omas Dale
blotted Kangaroo
Steel Plates for engraving
Study .
Stormy Petrel. By Barry Cornwall
St. Helena .
Steam Engines in 1543
Strength of the human frame
Successful Courage
Sugar .
Superstition of th florse Shoe
Summer and the Poet
Tasso .


Tea .
Teeth .
Ten Rules to be observed .
They are gone. By T. Moore .
Tortoise Catching .
Tough Morsel .
Tornado .
Tornado in Pennsylvania .
Tour from the Pacific to the Atlantic ocean
Turn for Business .
Tucker, American Commodore .
Uniform Rotation of the Earth .
Vandalia .
Valley of the Mississippi .
Variations ofthe Weather .
Waterton's Account of the Sloth .
Whale Fishery . .
Wild Bushman .
Wild Sports of the East .
Wolves .
Worm and the flower ..




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283
S 210
S 193
133
63
* 334
S 67
S 160
S 30
S 243
330
S 318
S 156
223
2 33
. 235
1.23
56
122
S 144
S. 64
S 23
97
128
S. 77
S 299
S 144
S 318
S 151
S 49
S 114
332
84
S 53
1 99
294
256







9


GALILEO.
The 19th of February by some accounts, but
according to the best authorities the 15th, is the
anniversary of the birth of one of the greatest
philosophers of modern times, the celebrated GALI-
LEO GALILEI. He was born at Pisa, in 1564.
His family, which, till the middle of the 14th centu-
ry, had borne the name of Bonajuti, was ancient
and noble, but not wealthy; and his father, Vin-
cenzo Galilei, appears to have been a person of








10

very superior talents and accomplishments. He is
the author of several treatises upon music, which
show him to have been master both of the practice
and theory of that art. Galileo was the eldest of a
family of six children, three sons and three daugh-
ters. His boyhood, like that of Newton, and of
many other distinguished cultivators of mathemati-
cal and physical science, evinced the natural bent
of his genius by various mechanical contrivances
which he produced; and he also showed a strong
predilection and decided talent both for music and
painting. It was resolved, however, that he should
be educated for the medical profession; and with
that view he was, in 1581, entered at the university
of his native town. He appears to have applied
himself, for some time, to the study of medicine.
He contrived several little instruments for counting
the pulse by the vibrations of a pendulum, which
soon came into general use, under the name of
Pulsilogies; and it was not till after many years
that it was employed as a general measure of time.
It was probably after this discovery that Galileo
began the study of mathematics. From that instant
he seemed to have found his true field. So fascina-
ted was he with the beautiful truths of geometry,
that his medical books henceforth remained unopen-
ed, or were only spread out over his Euclid to hide
it from his father, who was at first so much grieved
by his son's absorption in his new study, that he
positively prohibited him from any longer indulging
in it. After some time, however, seeing that his
injunctions were insufficient to overcome the strong
bias of nature, he yielded the point, and Galileo
was permitted to take his own way. The year 1609
was the most momentous in the career of Galileo
as an enlarger of the bounds of natural philosophy








11
It was in this year that he ma& his grand discovery
of the telescope-having been induced to turn his
attention to the effect of a combination of magnify-
ing glasses, by a report which was brought to him,
while on a visit at Venice, of a wonderful instru-
ment constructed on some such principle, which had
just been sent to Italy from Holland. In point of
fact, it appears that a rude species of telescope had
been previously fabricated in that country; but
Galileo, who had never seen this contrivance, was
undoubtedly the true and sole inventor of the in-
strument in that form in which alone it could be ap-
plied to any scientific use.
The interest excited by this discovery transcend-
ed all that has ever been inspired by any of the
other wonders of science. After having exhibited
his new instrument for a few days, Galileo present-
ed it to the Senate of Venice, who immediately
elected him to a professorship for life, and made his
salary one thousand florins. He then constructed
another telescope for himself, and with that proceed-
ed to examine the heavens. He had not long
directed it to this, the field which has ever since
been its principal domain, before he was rewarded
with a succession of brilliant discoveries. The four
satellites, or attendant moons, of Jupiter, revealed
themselves for the first time to the human eye.
Other stars unseen before met him in every quarter
of the heavens to which he turned. Saturn showed
his singular encompassing ring. The moon unveil-
ed her seas and her mountains. The sun himself
discovered spots of dark lying in the midst of his
brightness. All these wonders were announced to
the world by Galileo in the successive numbers of
a publication which he entitled the Nuncius Side-
reus, or Intelligence of the Heavens," a newspaper









12

undoubtedly unrivallfl for extraordinary tidings by
any other that has ever appeared. In 1610 he was
induced to resign his professorship at Padua, on
the invitation of the Grand Duke of Tuscany to
accept of the appointment of his first mathematician
and philosopher at Pisa. Soon after his removal
thither Galileo appears to have for the first time
ventured upon openly teaching the Copernican sys-
tem of the world, of the truth of which he had
been many years before convinced. This bold step
drew down upon the great philosopher a cruel and
disgraceful persecution which terminated only with
his life. An outcry was raised by the ignorant
bigotry of the time, on the ground that in maintain-
ing the doctrine of the earth's motion round the sun
he was contradicting the language of Scripture,
where, it was said, the earth was constantly spoken
of as at rest. The day is gone by when it would
have been necessary to attempt any formal refuta-
tion of this absurd notion, founded as it is upon a,
total misapprehension of what the object of the
Scriptures is, which are intended to teach men
morality and religion only, not mathematics or as-
tronomy, and which would not have been even in-
telligible to those to whom they were first address-
ed, unless their language in regard to this and vari-
ous other matters had been accommodated to the
then universally prevailing opinions. In Galileo's
day, however, the Church of Rome had not learned
to admit this very obvious consideration. In 1616
Galileo, having gone to Rome on learning the hos-
tility which was gathering against him, was gra-
ciously received by the Pope, but was commanded
to abstain in future from teaching the doctrines of
Copernicus. For some years the matter was al-
lowed to sleep, till in 1632 the philosopher publish-







13
ed his celebrated Dialogue on the two Systems of
the World, the Ptolemaic and the Copernican, in
which he took but little pains to disguise his
thorough conviction of the truth of the latter. The
rage of his enemies, who had been so long nearly
silent, now burst upon him in a terrific storm. The
book was consigned to the Inquisition, before which
formidable tribunal the auth% was forthwith sum-
moned to appear. He arrived at Rome on the 14th
of February, 1633. We have not space to relate
the history of the process. It is doubtful whether
or no Galileo was actually put to the torture, but
it is certain that on the 21st of June he was found
guilty of heresy, and condemned to abjuration and
imprisonment. His actual confinement in the dun-
geons of the Holy Office lasted only a few days;
and after some months he was allowed to return
to his country seat at Arcetri, near Florence,
with a prohibition, however, against quitting that
retirement, or even admitting the visits of his
friends. Galileo survived this treatment for sever-
al years, during which he continued the active per-
suit of his philosophical studies, and even sent to
the press another important work, his Dialogues on
the Laws of Motion. The rigor of his confine-
ment, too, was after some time much relaxed; and
although he never again left Arcetri (except once
for a few months), he was permitted to enjoy the
society of his friends in his own house. But other
misfortunes now crowded upon his old age. His
health had long been bad; and his fits of illness were
now more frequent and painful than ever. In 1639
he was struck with total blindness. A few years
before, the tie that bound him most strongly to life had
been snapped by the death of his favorite daughter
Weighed down by these accumulated sorrows, on









14

the 8th of January, 164-, the old man breathed his
last at the advanced age of seventy-eight. For a
full account of Galileo-of what he was and what
he did-the reader ought to peruse his Life in the
"Library of Useful Knowledge," from which the
above rapid sketch has been abstracted. The sub-
ject of the philosopher and his times is there treat-
ed in ample detail, .nd illustrated with many dis-
quisitions of the highest interest.

THE AIR BRAHMIN.
Most of our readers will recollect the celebrated
Indian Jugglers, who a few years ago visited this
country, and performed some very extraordinary
feats at public exhibitions. One of them had acqui -
ed the astonishing and dangerous power of passing
a naked metal blade into his stomach, or, as he
himself termed it, of swallowing a sword." H o
fell a sacrifice to his temerity: in one of his per-
formances the blade taking a wrong direction,
wounded him internally, and he expired in violent
convulsions.
Another person of this description, but of a
higher native caste, has lately appeared in India.
His performance, though of a no less astonishing,
is altogether of a harmless, nature. By the kind-
ness of a friend we are enabled to present our read-
ers with an engraving, from the original drawing
of an Indian artist, together with an account, which
may be relied upon, of this singular person, as he
appears when exhibiting this strange feat.
The drawing was taken at the Government
House at Madras, and represents the Cuddapah
Brahmin. named Sheshal, in the act of sitting in
the air, apparently without any support, an exploit








15
Nvhich he performs with great address. When he
is about to exhibit, his attendants surround him with
a blanket so as to screen him from the view of the
spectators until he is mounted; a signal is then
given, the blanket is removed and he is beheld sit-
ting in the posture represented in the sketch.
The only part of his body which appears to have
any support whatever is the wrist of his right arm,
which rests upon a deer skin rolled up and fixed
horizontally before him to a perpendicular brass
bar. This brass bar is fitted into the top of a small
four legged stool, near one end of it. While in this
attitude he appears engaged in prayer, holding in his
hand a number of beads, and having his eyes half-
closed. As soon as the exhibition, which usually
continues only a few minutes, has ended, he is again
screened by his attendants till he has dismounted
and taken the whole of his apparatus to pieces,
when he produces only the stool, the brass bar,
and the deer skin for the inspection of the spec-
tators.
In person he is a slender, middle sized man, and
has attained a considerable age. He wears a long
chintz gown; a yellow dyed turban, and a high
waistband. Around his neck is suspended a row
of large Pundaram beads.
Sheshal is frequently invited to the gardens of
gentlemen residing at Madras, for the purpose of
exhibiting his singular skill. By this means he
obtains a considerable sum of money. A friend
who has witnessed his performance, writes us the
following account of it from Tanjore.
He exhibited before me in the following man-















16


J r..
02:.:


*'* .A'C(


e9*~c~~1~`1T



r

(
j3?hA!
*' ,
L









17
ner : he first allowed me to examine a stool about
18 inches in height, on the seat of which were two
brass'stars inlaid, a little larger than a dollar; he
then displayed a hollow bamboo two feet in length
and 20 inches in diameter. The next article was a
roll of antelope skin, perhaps four inches in circum-
ference, and two feet in length. The man then con-
cealed himself in a large shawl, with these three
articles and a large bag; after a delay of five min-
utes, during which he appeared very busy under
the shawl, he ordered the covering to be taken off
him, and he was discovered actually sitting cross-
legged on the air; but leaning his right arm on the
end of the antelope skin, which communicated hori-
zontally with the hollow bamboo, which again was
connected perpendicularly with the stool immediate-
ly over one of the brass stars. He sat for more
than half an hour, counting his beads in his right
hand, and without once changing the expression
of his countenance which was quite calm, and as if
this new mode of sitting was no exertion to him.
I saw him exhibit four times, and each time
tried my utmost to discover the secret but without
success. A large bribe was offered to induce him
to reveal his mode of performance, but he declined
the explanation.
I account for it thus. The brass stars conceal
a receptacle for a steel bar passing through the
hollow bamboo; the antelope skin conceals another
steel rod which is screwed into the one in the bam-
boo; other machinery of the same kind passes
through the man's sleeves and down his body, and
supports a ring on which he sits."
B










18

SCENES AMONG THE INDIANS.
The following description is from a work enti-
tied, "Adventures on the Columbia River, &c.
By Ross Cox." It furnishes a forcible example of
the effects of intoxication. The author states that
there are three descriptions of men in the service
of the Fur Company. First come the white Ca-
nadians; and, secondly, the half-breeds, which
race is now numerous throughout the Indian coun-
try.
"The third description of men in the Compa-
ny's service are the Iroquois, Nipisings, and others
of the native tribes of Canada. These Indians
have been all nearly reclaimed from their original
state of barbarism, and now profess the Roman Ca-
tholic religion. They engage for limited periods
in the Company's service as canoe-men and hun-
ters, but on lower terms than are usually allowed
to the French Canadians. They are strong, able-
bodied men, good hunters, and well acquainted
with the management of canoes. They are im-
moderately attached to the use of ardent spirits;
are rather quarrelsome, revengeful, and sometimes
insubordinate; and during their periods of intoxica-
tion the utmost prudence and firmness are necessary
to check their ferocious propensities, and confine
them within proper bounds. They are generally
employed on the east side of the mountains, but we
had a few of them on the Columbia. One, named
George Teewhattahownie, was a powerful man
about six feet high. On one occasion, during our
voyage to the sea, we had a stiff breeze, and
George, who was foreman of my canoe, kept up
a heavy press of sail. I requested him repeat-
edly to take in a reef, and pointed out the dan-
ger to which we were exposed in the event of an









19
accident. He appeared to pay no attention to my
request, and I was at length obliged to use peremp-
tory and threatening language, which produced a
forced and sulky obedience. A few days after
our arrival at Fort George he came into my room
in a state of intoxication, and ungovernable rage,
with a vessel containing rum in his left hand,
and in his right his hunting-krife ; in short, his
whole appearance was wild and savage, and I at
once guessed his visit was not of a friendly na-
ture. His opening speech realized my suspicions."
Cox, you toad, prepare for death! you abus-
ed. me, and I must have my revenge.'
'You're not sober, George; go sleep awhile,
and we'll talk on this subject to-morrow.'
"' No; you insulted me before the men, and
I must have satisfaction; but as you're a young
man, I will now only take one of your ears!'
I became a little easy on finding he had low-
ered his demands; but as I had an equal affection
for both lugs, and as 'the prejudice ran in favor
of two,' I had no wish, like Jack Absolute, to af-
fect singularity in that respect. After some further
parley, and finding he was determined to try his
knife on my auricular cartilages, I told him to
retire, or I should be obliged to order him into
confinement. 'Ha! crapaud !' said he, 'do you
threaten Teewhattahownie?' and at the same in-
stant he rushed on me like a grisly bear. I was now
forced to draw my dagger in self-defence, and in
parrying off his thrust gave him a severe wound
across the fingers of the right hand. He dropped
the knife, but instantly seized it with the left hand,
and at the same time attempted to catch me, which
I avoided by running under his arm, and as he
turned round was compelled to give him a severe









20
cut, which nearly laid open one side of his head
He now became quite furious, roared like a buffa-
lo, and with the blood streaming down his face ap-
peared more like a demon than a human being.
I thought to fly, but in the attempt he seized the
skirt of my coat, and I was obliged once more to
give him another wound across the left hand, which
obliged him to drop the knife; a desperate strug-
gle then followed for the dagger, which, from his
great strength, he must have wrested from me,
had not the noise occasioned by his bellowing, and
my cries for assistance, brought Mr. Montour and
some of the men into the room. With much diffi-
culty they succeeded in binding him hand and foot,
and lodging him in the guard-room. He tore off
the dressings that were applied to his wounds,
refused every assistance, and the greater part of
the night was spent in wild yells and ferocious
threats against me. Nature at last became ex-
hausted, and he fell asleep, in which state his
wounds were dressed. None of them were dan-
gerous. Between the loss of blood and a long
fast he became quite cool on the following day, and
when told of what had occurred he could scarcely
believe it, cursed the rum as the cause, and made
a solemn promise never again to drink to intoxica-
tion. At the end of a couple of days I interceded
and had him liberated. He appeared most grate-
ful, acknowledged that he deserved what he got,
expressed his surprise that I did not kill him, and
declared if he ever heard a man say a bad word
of me for wounding him he would knock him down.
I believe his regret was sincere, and from that pe-
riod until the following year, when I quitted the
Columbia, I never saw him in a state of inebriety."







21


TAKING HONEY IN CASHMERE.
The honey mentioned in the Apocalypse was
sweet in the mouth, but bitter in the stomach; but
we cannot say that honey is ever very sweet to us,
because we keep thinking of the cruel method of
taking it from the bees, which generally prevails.
The following method, said to be pursued in Cash-
mere, though cruel enough, seems to be far less so
than the common mode, and appears to be per-
formed with perfect safety to the individuals who
are concerned.
Having in readiness a wisp of dry straw, and a
small quantity of burning charcoal in an earthen
dish, the master of the house, with a few strokes
of the point of the sickle,- disengages the inner
plaster of the hive, bringing into view the combs
suspended from the roof of the hive, and almost
wholly covered with bees, none of which, however,
offer to resent the aggression, or to enter the room.
Having placed the straw upon the charcoal, he holds
the dish close to the mouth of the hive, and blows
the smoke strongly against the combs, but removes
the dish the instant the straw takes fire, to prevent
it burning the bees, and quenches the flame before
he employs it again.
Almost stifled by the smoke, the bees hurry out
of the outer door with such rapidity, that the hive
is cleared of its inhabitants within a few minutes,
when the farmer, introducing the sickle, cuts down
the combs nearest to him, which are collected into
a dish previously slidden underneath them, leaving
undisturbed about one-third of the combs, which
were almost close to the outer door. He then
re-places the inner plaster, and brushing off hastily
a few bees that cling to the combs, apparently in a
state of stupefaction, throws them out of the house.






22

Sometimes you will see several bees lying mo-
tionless on the floor of the hive, but they soon
recover. The expelled bees return as soon as the
cavity is freed from smoke, without stinging a sin-
gle individual, and the whole business is completed
in less than ten minutes, without any perceptible
loss. The honey is light colored, and of a taste
as pure and sweet as any in the world.
The peasantry of Cashmere are unacquainted
with the employment of honey as the basis of a
fermented liquor, but eat it raw or mixed with
articles of common food, whilst the most wealthy
substitute it for sugar in preserving fruits. It is
customary to take the hive every year. About the
end of September or beginning of October is found
the best season for this operation; a little time still
remaining for the bees to add to the portion left
for their support during five months. This amounts
to about one-third of the whole produce, and would
appear to suffice, as swarms seldom die, and the
Cashmeres substitute no other article of food.
It is stated that an old swarm yields more honey
than a young one, and that families seldom die ex-
cept of old age. It is said to be no uncommon cir-
cumstance to preserve the same community for ten
or even fifteen years; and some instances are men-
tioned of a family having been retained for twenty
years; but this is a rare occurrence. In conse-
quence of the bees being thus literally domesticat-
ed, they acquire a mildness of conduct far more
decided than those of Europe; and it is possible
that the confidence thus gained, subduing their
natural irascibility, may generate an increase of
industry, or at least an increase of produce in re-
lation to the number and size of the individuals ot
each community.



























(I







23
It is not improbable that some of our readers,
who reside near a great commercial port, may have
seen the landing of a cargo of strange looking
animals, which, turned upon their backs, appear
the most helpless of creatures, and in this condition
may have naturally led the spectator to imagine
that they are incapable of removing from pelce to
place, and have therefore little enjoyment of exist-
ence. These creatures, to use the language of
the epicure, are fine "lively turtles"-the term
" lively" being understood to mean that they have
suffered little from a long voyage-that they are in
good health-and that the green fat," the glory of
aldermen, is in the most perfect state of excellence.
Without asking our readers to feel any very strong
interest in the prospects of high living which the<
arrival of a cargo of turtles offers to many individ-
uals who are somewhat too much inclined to set a
high value upon the gratifications of the palate, we
may be able to satisfy a rational curiosity as to the
habits of these singular animals, which offer some
higher benefits to mankind than that of furnishing
the most costly luxury of a city feast.
The turtle and the tortoise belong to the same
group of reptiles-in fact the turtle is a tortoise
which principally inhabits the water, and is only
found occasionally on the land. The two varieties
represented in the above plate are the Green Tor-
toise (a), and the Loggerhead Tortoise (b). The
former is the species chiefly used for food. It is
found, in great numbers, on the coasts of all the
islands and continents of the torrid zone. The
shoals which surround these coasts are covered
with marine plants; and in these water pastures,
which are near enough to the surface to be readily
seen by the naked eye in calm weather, a prodi-
gious abundance of animals, mostly amphibious,








24
feed, and amongst them multitudes of tortoises
Dampier, the old voyager, describing the Gallapa-
gos Islands, says, There are good wide channels
between these islands fit for ships to pass; and in
some places shoal water, where there grows plenty
of turtle grass; therefore these islands are plenti-
fully stored with sea turtle." The tortoise, whether
of the land or water species, is, as most of our
readers know, protected, both on the back and belly,
by a hollow shield, which is open at each end, for
the issuing of the head and fore-feet at one time,
and the tail and hind-feet at another.
The upper shield is termed the back-plate, or
buckler; the lower shield the breast-plate. The
middle of the buckler, in most of the species, is cover-
ed by numerous pieces or plates resembling horn in
texture and composition; and the beautiful sub.
stance known by the name of tortoise-shell is ob-
tained principally from a small species called the
Hawksbill. The feet of the marine tortoises are
much longer than those of the land, and their toes
are united by a membrane, so that they swim with
great facility. The head, feet, and tail are covered
with small scales. The jaws of the wide mouth are
not provided with teeth, but the jaw-bones are very
hard and strong, and being at the same time very
rough, the animal is enabled to consume its vege-
table food with ease, and at the same time to crush
the shell-fish on which the marine species also feed.
The green tortoise attains an enormous size and
weight; some individuals measuring six or seven
feet in length from the tip of the nose to the ex-
tremity of the tail, by three or four feet broad, and
weighing as much as eight hundred pounds. Dam-
pier says, I heard of a monstrous green turtle
once taken at Port Royal, in the bay of Campeachy
that was four feet deep from the back to the belly









and the belly six feet broad. Captain Rocky's son,
of about nine or ten years of age, went in it (mean-
ing in the shell) as in a boat, on board his father's
ship about a quarter of a mile from the shore."
The green tortoise commonly weighs from two to
three hundred pounds.
The female turtle deposits her eggs on the loose
sand, and leaves them to be hatched by the influence
of the sun's rays. These eggs are round, and two
or three inches in diameter; they are covered with
a membrane something like wet parchment. They
are hatched in less than a month after they are laid;
and in about eight or ten days the young reptiles
creep to the water.
The wood-cut at the head of this article repre-
sents the manner in which the marine tortoises are
caught on the coast of Cuba, and on parts of the
South American continent. The Count de Lace-
pede, in his History of Oviporous Quadrupeds, has
described the various modes in which the business
of tortoise-catching is carried on; and we shall
conclude this notice with an abstract of his account.
It must be remarked that the turtle is a most im-
portant addition to the ordinary mode of victual-
ling a ship; and that, therefore, the war in which
the human race engages against them is rendered
absolutely necessary by the wants of navigators.
In spite of the darkness which is chosen by the
female tortoises for concealment when employed in
laying their eggs, they cannot effectually escape
from the pursuit of their enemies: the fishers wait
for them on the shore, at the beginning of the night,
especially when it is moonlight, and, either as they
come from the sea, or as they return after laying
their eggs, they either despatch them with blows of
a club, or turn them quickly over on their backs,
C









not giving them time either to defend themselves,
or to blind their assailants, by throwing up the sand
with their fins. When very large, it requires the
efforts of several men to turn them over, and they
must often employ the assistance of handspikes or
levers for that purpose. The buckler of this spe-
cies is so flat as to render it impossible for the ani-
mal to recover the recumbent posture, when it is
once turned on its back.
"A small number of fishers may turn over forty
or fifty tortoises, full of eggs, in less than three
hours. During the day, they are employed in se-
curing those which they had caught in the prece-
ding night. They cut them up, and salt the flesh
and the eggs. Sometimes they may extract above
thirty pints of a yellow or greenish oil from one
large individual; this is employed for burning, or,
when fresh, is used with different kinds of food
Sometimes they drag the tortoises they have caught,
on their backs, to enclosures, in which they are
reserved for occasional use.
The tortoise fishers, from the West Indies and
the Bahamas, who catch these animals on the coasts
of Cuba and its adjoining islands, particularly the.
Caymanas, usually complete their cargoes in six
weeks or two months; they afterwards return to
their own islands, with the salted turtle, which is
used for food both by the whites and the negroes.
This salt turtle is in as great request in the Ameri-
can colonies, as the salted cod of Newfoundland is
in many parts of Europe; and the fishing is follow-
ed by all these colonists, particularly by the British,
in small vessels, on various parts of the coast of
Spanish America, and the neighboring desert isl-
ands.
The green tortoise is likewise often caught at







27
sea in calm weather, and in moon-light nights.
For this purpose two men go together in a small
boat, which is rowed by one of them, while the
other is provided with a harpoon, similar to that
used for killing whales. Whenever they discover
a large tortoise, by the froth which it occasions on
the water in rising to the surface, they hasten to
the spot as quickly as possible, to prevent it from
escaping. The harpooner immediately throws his
harpoon with sufficient force to penetrate through
the buckler to the flesh; the tortoise instantly dives,
and the fisher gives out a line, which is fixed to the
harpoon, and, when the tortoise is spent with loss
of blood, it is hauled into the boat or on shore."


GAS LIGHT.
Daily habit has the effect of so soon familiarising
objects to us, that we seldom pause to think how
they have had a commencement. Gas light is now
as familiar to us as the light of the sun or moon.
It even illumines cellars and recesses, where the
rays of either of these luminaries never pierce;
and yet we have only to go back a very few years,
when it was totally unknown, at least for all useful
purposes. We recollect, when gas first began to
be talked of, a gentleman observing, in a pretty
large assemblage, that he would not be surprised,
in the course of a few years, to see the substance,
as a common commodity, sold about the streets in
centworths. The idea was received with that
smile of incredulity which the vagaries of a fanci-
fil mind often meet with; and yet those very few
years had not expired when gas was actually con-
veyed through pipes into every street and dwelling,








28
measured out by metres, and sold by the cubic
foot.
The inflammable nature of coal-gas was first
known from its dreadful explosive effects in mines,
and received the name of fire or choke-damp. It
was also observed to issue sometimes from crevices
on the surface of the earth, when, on a lighted
torch being presented to it, it would inflame, and
continue to burn for a considerable period. In
the year 1726, Stephen Hales procured an elastic
air or gas from the distillation of common coal; and
although some experiments of the inflammability
of air so procured were occasionally made by indi-
viduals, and related in the scientific publications
of the day, yet the subject excited little attention,
and was ultimately thrown aside for a long period
of years.
The most casual observer must have remarked,
that, when a piece of coal becomes heated in the
fire, it begins to swell; it then bursts at a particu-
lar part; a stream of air rushes out, and, coming
in contact with the fire, ignites into a flame. If a
common tobacco pipe is taken, a small piece of
coal put into the bulb, the top of this cemented
closely with moist clay, and the bulb then put into
the fire, a stream of inflammable air will, in a
short time, issue from the extremity of the pipe,
and continue to do so till the whole gas the coal
contains is exhausted. On examining the matter
remaining, it will be found to be coke, or charcoal.
Coal, then, by this mode of distillation, is found to
consist of an inflammable gas, called carburetted
hydrogen, and of charcoal. The extension of this
long-known and simple experiment into a process
of general usefulness, proceeded by gradual and
oft-interrupted steps; and, as is usual in many im-








29
portant processes ot the kind, the real inventor is
involved in some degree of doubt. In the year
1792, a Mr. Murdoch, residing in Cornwall,
England, made use of coal-gas for lighting up his
house and offices; and in 1797, he again made a
similar use of it at Old Cumnock, in Ayrshire. In
1802, he was residing at Messrs. Boulton and
Watt's establishment, Soho, near Birmingham,
where, under the combined talents of several in-
genious engineers who were assembled at that
highly liberal and celebrated seat of the arts and
sciences, a splendid illumination of gas was exhib-
ited on the occasion of the celebration of the peace
of that year.
But some time previous to this public exhibition
of gas illumination at Soho, it had been made use
of in a similar manner at Paris, by a M. le Bon.
In 1801, a friend of the gentlemen at Soho had
written a letter from Paris, communicating the in-
formation that a gentleman of that city had lighted
up his house and gardens, and had it in contempla-
tion to light the streets of Paris with gas from wood
and coal.
Adopting the hint from this gentleman, a Mr.
Winsor, a foreigner, came to London, in 1803, and
publicly exhibited gas illumination, and explained
its nature, and held out its numerous advantages,
in a series of lectures at the Lyceum Theatre.
Winsor was a mere quack, a man of little talent,
but one of those active, bustling, indefatigable be-
ings, well calculated to spread a new invention.
For several years, under many failures and great
disadvantages, he persevered in his projects, and,
in 1807, lighted up a part of Pall Mall, which was
the first instance of gas light being applied to such
a purpose in Britain. Public attention was now








SO
roused; subscriptions were set a-going; various
companies were formed; great improvements in the
manufacture of the gas were introduced; its use-
fulness was fairly established; and its adoption in
manufactories and public places soon became uni-
versal. Gas light first made its appearance in
Edinburgh in the spring of 1818, a company having
been formed, and incorporated by act of Parliament,
for that purpose. This establishment produces
annually about 46,000,000 cubic feet of gas, con-
suming, for this purpose, about 4000 tons of cannel
or parrot coal, besides 1000 tons of coal used in
heating the retorts. The process of making gas is
not complicated. The coal is put into large retorts
of iron, and fire applied underneath. The gas,
which is separated by this heat, then passes through
an apparatus, where it is freed from an oily or tarry
matter, which drops from it, and is afterwards
purified by passing through lime water. It is then
stored up into large reservoirs, or gasometers, from
whence it is sent by pressure through pipes, laid
under ground, to the various parts of the city.
Gas was introduced into the chief cities of the
United States but a few years since, and now its
use is daily increasing. In Boston it is no longer
an object of wondering curiosity to the passers-by;
although our readers can recollect the time when
the few windows illuminated by its glare would at-
tract crowds of spectators. The gas which lights
London is calculated to consume 38,000 chaldrons
of coals per annum, lighting 42,000 lamps in shops,
houses, &c., and 7,500 street lamps. In 1830, the
gas pipes in and round London were above 1,000
miles in length. Gas lights of half an inch in
diameter, supply a light equal to 20 candles; of
one inch in diameter, equal to 100; two inches,
420; three inches to 1000








31
The kind of coal best suited for the distillation
of gas, is that which contains in its composition the
greatest proportion of bituminous or inflammable
matter. It is called parrot or cannel coal, and is
only found in particular situations. The Edinburgh
Gas Works are supplied from the coal pits of the
Marquis of Lothian, near Dalkeith. Gas bids fair
almost entirely to supersede oil or tallow as articles
of illumination. It produces ten times the quantity
of light at an equal or inferior rate of expense,
and it can be increased or modified at pleasure.
Objections have been made to the deleterious nature
of the gas on the lungs. There can be no doubt,
but, if inhaled in any quantity for a very short
period, it will produce instantaneous death, and
even, in less quantities, headaches and uncomfort-
able sensations; but this applies to the unburnt
gas. If sufficient care is taken that the whole be
accurately consumed by flame, there is no greater
danger or inconvenience in its combustion than in
that of any other inflammable substance.
The illumination of our streets with gas has been
said, and with justice, to be one of the best preser-
vatives against crime. How different are the
streets of the populous cities in Europe now to
what they were in former days! In the year 1417,
Sir Henry Barton, then Mayor of London, ordained
" lanterns with lights to be hanged out in the win-
ter evenings between Hallow tide and Candlemas."
The city of Paris was first lighted in 1524; and in
the beginning of the 16th century, the streets being
infested with robbers, the inhabitants were ordered
to keep lights burning in the windows of all such
houses as fronted the streets. The aqueducts of
the ancients, by which they brought water from a









32
distance for the supply of their cities, were contriv
ances much talked of, and certainly some of them
appear to have been stupendous undertakings; but
how would an ancient stare if he were shown the
streets of a modern city, laid bare to view with its
water and gas pipes passing along, and ramifying in
all directions, like the arteries and air-vessels of
an animal body, circulating, as from a centre,
moisture and heat to the most remote extremities!


PAPYRUS.


The first manufactured paper of which we have
any record, is the celebrated papyrus, made of a
species of reed growing in Egypt on the banks of









the Nile. According to a passage in Lucan,
which is likewise corroborated by other authorities,
this paper was first manufactured at Memphis, but
it has been a matter of much controversy to fix the
precise period of its invention.
The papyrus formed, without doubt, at a very
early period, an important branch of commerce to
the Egyptians, and was one of the manufactures
carried on by that people at Alexandria. It obtain-
ed an increasing importance among the Romans as
literature became more valued and diffused; in the
Augustan age it grew into most extensive demand.
We are told in the reign of Tiberius, of a popular
commotion which arose in consequence of a scarcity
of this valuable material. The commerce in papy-
rus continued to flourish during a long period, the
supply being always less than the demand. Its
value was so great towards the end of the third
century, that when Firmus, a rich and ambitious
merchant, striving at empire, conquered for a brief
period the city of Alexandria, he boasted that he
had seized as much paper and size as would support
his whole army.
Papyrus was much used in the time of St. Je-
rome, who wrote at the latter end of the fourth
century. An article of so much importance in
commerce was made largely to contribute to the
revenue of the Koman empire, and fresh imposts
were laid on it under successive rulers, until the
duty on its importation at length became oppressive.
'Ihis was abolished by Theodoric, the first king of
the Goths in Italy, at the end of the fifth or begin-
ning of the sixth century. Cassidorus records the
gracious act in the thirty-eighth letter of his elev-
enth book, in which he takes occasion to congratu-
late the whole world on the repeal of an impost







34
upon an article so essentially necessary to the
human race," the general use of which, as Pliny
has remarked, polishes and immortalizes man."
The roots of the papyrus are tortuous, the stem
triangular, rising to the height of twenty feet,
tapering gradually towards the extremity, which is
surmounted by a flowing plume.
Paper was prepared from the inner bark of the
stem by dividing it with a kind of needle into thin
plates or pellicles, each of them as large as the
plant would admit. Of these strata the sheets of
paper were composed. The pellicles in the centre
were considered as the best; and each plate dimin-
ished in value according as it receded from that
part. After being thus separated from the reed,
the pieces, trimmed and cut smooth at the sides
that they might the better meet together, were ex-
tended close to and touching each other on a table;
upon these other pieces were placed at right angles.
In this state the whole was moistened with the
water of the Nile, and while wet was subjected to
pressure, being afterwards exposed to the rays of
the sun. It was generally supposed that the muddy
waters of the Nile possessed a glutinous property,
which caused the adhesion to each other of these
strips of papyrus. Bruce, the traveller, however,
affirms that there was no foundation for this suppo-
sition, and that the turbid flu'J has in reality no
adhesive quality. On the contrary, he found that
the water of this river was of all others the most
improper for the purpose, until, by the subsidence
of the fecula, it was entirely divested of the earthy
particles it had gathered in its course. This trav-
eller made several pieces of papyrus paper both in
Abyssinia and in Egypt, and fully ascertained that
the saccharine juice, with which the plant is replete,







35
causes the adhesion of the parts together, the
water being only of use to promote the solution of
this juice, and its equal diffusion over the whole.
Sufficient evidence of the abundant use of the
papyrus is to be found in the fact that nearly eigh-
teen hundred manuscripts written on paper of this
description have been discovered in the ruins of
Herculaneum.
Paper made of cotton entirely superseded the
papyrus in the course of time, as being much more
durable and better calculated for all the purposes
to which paper is ordinarily applied. This new
substance was called charla bombycina. It cannot
be exactly ascertained when this manufacture was
first introduced. Montfaucon fixes the time as
being the end of the ninth or beginning of the tenth
century, a period when the scarcity of parchment
and the failure in the supply of papyrus called forth
the powers of invention to supply some adequate
substitute. It was about this time that the dearth
of writing materials induced the Greeks to pursue
the almost sacrilegious practice of erasing the valu-
able writings of ancient authors, that they might
obtain the parchment on which these were inscribed.
Many proofs are afforded that in the beginning
of the twelfth century cotton-paper was commonly
used in the eastern empire for books and writings;
but it was not deemed sufficiently durable for im-
portant documents, for which purpose parchment
was still employed.
The fabrication of this kind of paper has been a
flourishing branch of industry in the Levant for
many centuries, and is carried on with great suc-
cess even to the present time. The paper produced
from cotton is very white, strong, and of a fine
grain, but not so well adapted for writing upon as






36
the paper made of linen. Much ingenuity must
have been exercised, and many previous experiments
must have been required, successfully to reduce
the cotton to a pulpy substance, and to conduct the
subsequent process, so as to render this material
suitable to the purposes of writing.
After this first great step, the adaptation to a
similar use of linen rags and other fibrous materials,
called comparatively but for little invention, and it
was probably not very long after the general use
of cotton for paper, that linen rags were discovered
to be a still better material.


CURRAN.
One morning, at an inn in the south of Ireland,
a gentleman travelling upon mercantile business,
came running down stairs a few minutes before the
appearance of the stage coach, in which he had
taken a seat for Dublin. Seeing an ugly little fel-
low leaning against the doorpost, with dirty face
and shabby clothes, he hailed him and ordered him
to brush his coat. The operation proceeding rather
slowly, the impatient traveller cursed the lazy valet
for an idle, good-for-nothing dog, and threatened
him with corporal punishment on the spot, if he did
not make haste and finish his job well before the
arrival of the coach. Terror seemed to produce
its effect; the fellow brushed the coat and then the
trowsers, with great diligence, and was rewarded
with sixpence, which he received with a low bow.
The gentleman went into the bar, and paid his bill,
just as the expected vehicle reached the door.
Upon getting inside, guess his astonishment to find
his friend the quondam waiter, seated snugly in one
corner, with all the look of a person well used to








37

comfort. After two or three hurried glances, to be
sure that his eyes did not deceive him, he com-
menced a confused apology for his blunder, con-
demning his own rashness-and stupidity-but he
was speedily interrupted by the other exclaiming,
" Oh, never mind, make no apologies-these are
hard times, and it is well to earn a trifle in an honest
way-I am much obliged for your handsome fee
for so small a job-my name, sir, is John Philpot
Curran, pray what is yours?" The other was
thunderstruck by the idea of such an introduction;
but the drollery of Curran soon overcame his con-
fusion; and the traveller never rejoiced less at the
termination of a long journey, than when he beheld
the distant spires of Dublin glitter in the light of
the setting sun.

MORNING.
The God of mercy walks his round
From day to day, from year to year,
And warns us each with awful sound,
"No longer stand ye idle here."
Ye whose young cheeks are rosy bright,
Whose hands are strong, whose hearts are clear.
Waste not of youth the morning light,
Oh fools why stand ye idle here ?

And ye whose scanty locks of gray,
Foretell your latest travail near,
low fast declines your useless day,
And stand ye yet so idle here ?
One hour remains there is but one,
But many a grief and many a tear
Through endless ages, must atone
For moments lost iand wasted here.- HEBKR.









CLEVER WOMEN.
There is an unaccountable antipathy to clever women.
Almost all men profess to be afraid of blue stockings-that is,
of women who have cultivated their minds; and hold up as
a maxim, that there is no safety in matrimony, or even in the
ordinary intercourse of society, except with females of plain
understandings. The general idea seems to be, that a dull
ordinary woman, or even a fool, is more easily managed than
a woman of spirit and sense, and that the acquirements of the
husband ought never to be obviously inferior to those of his
wife. If these propositions were true, there would be some
show of reason for avoiding clever women. But I am afraid
they rest on no good grounds. Hardly any kind of fool can
be so easily managed, as a person of even first-rate intellect;
while the most of the species are much more intractable. A
dull fool is sure to be obstinate--obstinate in error as well as
in propriety; so that the husband is every day provoked to
find that she wilfully withholds him from acting rightly in the
most trifling, and perhaps also the most important, things.
Then the volatile fool is full of whim and caprice, and utterly
defies every attempt that may be made by her husband to
guide her aright. In the one case, his life is embittered for
days, perhaps, by the sulkiness of his partner; in the other,
he is chagrined by the fatal consequences of her levity. Are
these results so much to be desired, that a man should marry
beneath the rank of his own understanding, in order to se-
cure them ? I rather apprehend that cowardice in this case,
as in most others, is only the readiest way to danger. As for
the rest of the argument, I would be far from saying, that to
marry a woman much superior to one's self in intellect, is a
direct way to happiness. I must insist, however, that there
is more safety for a man of well-regulated feelings, in the
partnership of a superior than of an inferior woman. In the
former case, I verily believe, his own understanding is likely
to be more highly estimated than in the other. In the first
place, he is allowed the credit of having had the sense at least
to choose a good wife. In the second, he has counsel and
example always at hand, for the improvement of his own ap-
pearances before society. The very superiority, however, of
his wife, ensures that she will be above showing, off to the
disadvantage of her husband: she will rather seek to conceal
his faults, and supply his deficiencies, for her own credit.
Now, what sense a fool has, she must always show it, even
though sure to excite ridicule from its being so little.














ANTW'ERP.


A I


West front of Antwerp Cathedral.
Page 39.







39
The city of Antwerp stands on the east or right
bank of the Schelde, in north lat. 510 14', and about
twenty-five miles in a straight line nearly due north
of Brussels, the present capital of Belgium The
Flemish name for this place is .Antwerpe the
Spaniards, who once possessed it, call it Amberes,
and the French, Anvers. Few places are more
favorably situated for foreign commerce than Ant-
werp. The river opposite the town is from 1500 to
2000 feet wide, and admits the largest ships to come
up to Antwerp, and to enter the docks and canals.
From Antwerp to the mouth of the river is about
fifteen miles, and this space is lined with forts.
Antwerp is strongly fortified on the land side like
most of the old Belgian towns, and has also on the
south a remarkably strong citadel, in the form of a
pentagon, which was erected by the Duke of Alva
in 1568. During the occupation of Antwerp by
the French, in the reign of Napoleon, the works
of the citadel were strengthened, and several addi-
tions made by which its outward form has been
altered; and it is now considered able to make a
formidable resistance. The principal houses of
Antwerp are built of a kind of sandstone, brought
about ten miles from the town; the streets are gen-
erally wide, and on the whole it may be called a
well-built city. It is said to contain twenty-six
public places, or squares, (of which the Meer, the
finest of all, contains a palace built by Napoleon,)
seventy public buildings, and one hundred and
sixty-two streets. The chief public buildings are
the Bourse or Exchange, said to be the pattern
after which those of London and Amsterdam were
built, though it is superior to either of them. The
pillars that support its galleries are of marble. The
Town-house is also reckoned a fine structure.
But the glory of Antwerp is its Cathedral, which,







40
in spite of some paltry shops that stick to its walls,
strikes every stranger with admiration when he
views the noble elevation of its steeple, and the
costly~ ecorations of its interior. The steeple is of
stone~lnd 400 feet high, according to those ac-
counts which make it least; but others make it as
much as 450 feet. When the spectator has ascend-
ed to the highest point that is accessible, he sees
all the city spread out like a map before him, while
by the aid of a small glass his eye travels over the
flat plains of Belgium and Holland for forty miles
in every direction.
Antwerp, besides its connexion with the sea,
has a ready water communication, either by the
Schelde or canals, with Mechlin, Louvain, and
Brussels on the south and east, and with Ghent and
Bruges on the west. In 1831 its population was
77,199. Before the late revolution in 1830, the trade
of Antwerp was considerable; though it must doubt-
less have suffered very much since that period, in
consequence of the unsettled state of the Belgic
question. In 1829, near 1000 ships entered its
ports. Antwerp has also extensive manufactures
of black sewing silk, linen and woollen cloth, silk,
sugar refining, &c.
Antwerp has been the scene of many remarkable
political events, and has often suffered the evils
attendant on war. As late as 1830 it sustained con-
siderable damage from the cannonading directed
against it by the Dutch troops in the citadel.
Many of our readers have probably read of the
great siege of Antwerp in 1585, by the Prince of
Parma, against whom it held out for fourteen
months. The Prince, in order to command the
navigation of the river, built strong projecting piers
on each side, which were mounted with cannon;









41
while the intermediate space, which was thus ren-
dered comparatively narrow, was filled up with
boats chained together, and firmly moored. This
enormous work, which withstood all the floods of
winter, was destroyed by the fireships of Antwerp
One of these horrible machines, in its course down
the river, struck against one of the piers, and its
explosion burst through the bridge of boats, destroy-
ed the pier, and blew up the men and ammunition
with which it was loaded. In spite, however, of
the courage and obstinacy of the Antwerpers, they
were at last compelled to surrender to the Spanish
troops. The history of this once flourishing city
exhibits rather a melancholy retrospect. Reduced
to a population of less than 80,000, with its trade
diminished, and an enemy in its citadel, we can-
not help looking back to its flourishing days of the
early part of the sixteenth century, when 290,000
inhabitants and strangers are said to have filled its
streets, and the commerce of the world was in its
harbor. The names of such illustrious painters as
Rubens, Van Dyke, and Jordaens, have shed a
lustre on it as a school of painting; and among its
illustrious citizens we may mention the name of the
early geographer, Abraham Ortelius.

Russuan Justice.-The following story gives a lively
idea of the Russian rule of Poland. A Jew met a Coasac
in the forest; the latter robbed him of his horse. On return
ing to the town, he lodged a complaint with the Major in
command, who was (with what truth we shall say) reputed
so be a most rigorous disciplinarian. The Cossacks were
paraded, the robber was pointed out, when, with the utmost
effrontery, he declared he had found the horse.-" How?
replied the Jew, I was on his back." Yes," retorted the
Cossack, I found you too; but having no use for a Jew, I
did not keep you." The excuse was deemed sufficient, and
the Jew lost his steed.







42
LIFE AND TRAVELS OF JOHN LEDYARD.
LEDYARD was an American. He was born at
Groton, in Connecticut, in 1751. He was first de-
signed for the law, a study which did not suit his
romantic turn of mind; secondly, for a missionary
among the Indians, which proved as uncongenial
to his habits and dispositions. While prosecuting
his theological studies at College, to relieve the
tedium of the chapel and the lecture-rooms, he in-
troduced the acting of plays, occasionally perform-
ing himself in a long gray beard. The missionary
scheme was soon abandoned, and he made his
escape from college in a canoe which he hollowed
from the trunk of aetree; sailing alone, and dressed
in a bear-skin, he reached home after performing
a voyage of 140 miles on a dangerous river. His
next profession was that of a common sailor on
board a vessel bound for Gibraltar. Having heard
his grandfather speak of some wealthy relation in
England, he resolved on a journey to London; and
accordingly setting out from New York, he was
landed at Plymouth without a shilling or a single
acquaintance. In company with an Irishman as
thoughtless and poor as himself, and agreeing to
take their turns in begging along the road, he
reached London, where he discovered the house
of his rich relation. His story, however, was dis-
credited, and himself treated as an impostor, which
roused his indignation to such a pitch that he
abruptly left the house, resolved never to return.
Upon further inquiry his friend became satisfied of
the truth of the connexion, and sent Ledyard a
kind invitation, which he haughtily declined. He
even rejected a sum of money which his relation,
on hearing of his distressed situation, had sent;
desiring the servant to tell his master that he be-








43
longed not to the race of the Ledyards. His next
function was that of a corporal of marines, on
board the ship of Captain Cook, then preparing for
his third and last voyage round the world; in which
capacity he made the tour of the globe. He was
present at Cook's death, and published a short nar-
rative of the voyage. From a marine he was next
converted into a fur-merchant, having his head full
of romantic projects about a trading voyage to Noot-
ka Sound. His main difficulty was in procuring a
ship. He applied to various individuals in New
York and Philadelphia, but all he got was a pro-
mise. Finding himself disappointed, and cursing
the lack of enterprise among his own countrymen,
he resolved to try his fortune in Europe. He
visited Cadiz, Brest, L'Orient, and Paris, with no
better success. At Paris he got acquainted with
Paul Jones, an adventurer as enthusiastic as him-
self, and with Sir James Hall, who generously gave
him fifteen guineas, as he was now reduced to a
sort of wandering vagabond, without employment,
motive, or means of support. His next plan was a
journey, by land, through the northern regions of
Europe and Asia, then to cross Behring's Straits
to the continent of America. While waiting for the
permission of the Empress of Russia, he received
an invitation to London from Sir James Hall, who
had procured him a free passage in an English ship,
bound for the Pacific Ocean, and permission to
be put on shore at any spot he chose on the north-
west coast. Sit James, moreover, gave him twenty
guineas, with which Ledyard bought two great
dogs, an Indian pipe, and a hatchet," the only
companions of his journey. The happy moment
seemed now arrived when he was to open to his
blinded countrymen the path to unbounded wealth:








44
but, on reaching Deptford, the vessel was seized
by a custom house officer, brought back, and ex-
chequered. This was a severe blow, but Ledyard
was never without a resource: I shall make the
tour of the globe, (says he,) from London east-
ward, on foot," A subscription was raised by Sir
Joseph Banks, Sir James Hall, and others, by
which means he got over to Hamburgh, which he
reached, he tells us, "in perfect health, and with
ten guineas exactly," with which he had to traverse
the vast continents of Europe and Asia. His ten
guineas, however, were otherwise disposed of
His host, at the tavern where he lodged, having
informed him that a Major Langhorn, an American
officer, and a very good kind of man," had left
Hamburgh for Copenhagen, "with only one spare
shirt, and very few other articles of clothing,"
Ledyard concluded that the man must necessarily
be in distress; and, moreover, that a person in this
situation was just suited to be the companion of his
travels. The sympathy was irresistible. I shall
fly to him, (says he,) and lay my little all at his
feet." Accordingly, though it was the dead of
winter, and Copenhagen several hundred miles
out of his way, he set out on this charitable expe-
dition. After a tedious journey through Sweden
and Finland, he reached the Danish capital, and
discovered his countryman, the Major, shut up in
his room, where he had been some time detained
in captivity for want of money and a clean shirt.
Ledyard's countenance glowed with joy as he dis-
bursed the remains of his ten guineas into the palm
of this needy adventurer. After staying a fort-
night, he propounded to his friend the other grand
object of his visit, viz. that the Major should ac-
company him to St. Petersburgh. The proposition







45
met with an abrupt refusal. "No,"was the reply;
I esteem you, but no man on earth shall travel
with me the way I do." This dissolved the in-
tended association; and Ledyard, having parted
with his friend and his last shilling, set out alone
for the Russian capital. The passage by sea being
impracticable, he was obliged to perform a journey
of twelve hundred miles, round the Gulf of Both-
nia, which, in a direct line, did not exceed fifty.
We cannot here follow him in his route from St.
Petershurgh across the regions of snow and deso-
lation which he traversed on his way to Okotsk.
After many hardships and delays, he reached
Irkutsk, where he was apprehended as a French
spy, and put under arrest by an order from the
Empress. Accompanied by a guard of soldiers, he
was conveyed back to the frontiers of Poland, a
distance of six thousand versts, in six weeks!
Thank Heaven!" he exclaimed, as he approach.
ed the boundaries of civilized Europe, petticoats
appear, and the glimmerings of other features."
Here the soldiers set him at liberty, giving him to
understand that he might go where he pleased, only
if he again returned to the dominions of the Em
press, he would certainly be hanged. He contriv-
ed, by drawing on his friends, to reach London,
where he was introduced to Mr. Beaufoy, Secre-
tary to the African Association. In a short time
he set out on a mission of discovery to that ill-fated
country; and was among the first that fell a vic-
tim to the cause of African Geography. His plan
was to proceed up the Nile as far as Senaar, and
from thence to strike across the African continent
to the coast of the Atlantic. He died, however,
at Cairo, of a billious complaint, about the end of
Novenmoer, 1788, in the thirty-eighth year of his age.







46
THE CURASSOW
Is a bird which bears much resemblance to the
pheasant, though naturalists have agreed in consider-
ing it as a distinct genus. It comprehends four or
five species, with some varieties, but they are all
of them foreign birds, and belong only to the warm
climates of America. They are mostly about the
size of a small turkey, and are generally distinguish-
ed by a crest of feathers, which curl at the ends.

















This crest can be raised or depressed at will. The
plumage of the Crested Curassow is of a deep
black, with a slight gloss of green upon the head,
crest, neck, back, wings, and upper part of the
tail; and dull white beneath, and on the lower tail-
coverts.
There is another species which is called the
CASHEW CURASSOW, or CASHEW BIRD, from a large
blue gibbosity, resembling a cashew nut, and as







47
large as a pear, which is situated at the base of the
forehead. The whole bird is of a shining bluish
color, reflecting purple glosses; except the lower
part of the belly, the covert feathers, under the tail,
and the tips of the tail feathers, which are white.
In Mexico, Guiana, and Brazil, these birds are
very numerous, both in a wild and a tame state.
The flesh is excellent. We hope ere long to see
this fine bird domesticated in the United States.

THE DIAMOND BEETLE.
This Beetle belongs to the weevil tribe, and its
scientific denomination is the Imperial Weevil. It
inhabits South America, chiefly Brazil, and is the
most resplendently colored of all the insect class.









The ground color of the wings is a coal black,
with numerous parallel lines of sparkling indentations
round, which are of a green gold color, highly bril-
liant, from minute reflecting scales, like the scales
of a butterfly. There is another rich and elegant
species of this insect in India; where, however, it is
so very scarce, that the wing cases (and sometimes
the whole insect), are set like a gem on rings, and
worn by the great. The body is of a silky green
with broad golden bands. This insect is the Cur-
culio regalis.







48
FILIAL AFFECTION OF THE MOORS.
A Portuguese surgeon was accosted one day by
a young Moor from the country, who, addressing
him by the usual appellation of foreign doctors in
that place, requested him to give him some drogues
to kill his father, and, as an inducement, promised
to pay him well. The surgeon was a little surpris-
ed at first, as might be expected, and was unable
to answer immediately; but quickly recovering him-
self (for he knew.the habits of the people well),
replied with sangfroid equal to the Moor's, Then
you don't live comfortably with your father, I sup-
pose? Oh, nothing can be better," returned
the Moor; "he has made much money, has marri-
ed me well, and endowed me with all his possessions;
but he cannot work any longer, he is so old, and
he seems unwilling to die." The doctor, of course,
appreciated the amiable philosophy of the Moor's
reasoning, and promised to give him what he de-
sired. He accordingly prepared a cordial potion,
more calculated to restore energy to the old man,
than to take it away. The Moor paid him well,
and departed. About eight days after he came
again, to say that his father was not dead. Not
dead!" exclaimed the apothecary, in well-feigned
surprise; "he will die." He composed according-
ly another draught, for which he received an equal
remuneration, and assured the Moor that it would
not fail in its effects. In fifteen days, however,
the Moor came again, complaining that his father
thrived better than ever. "Don't be discouraged,"
said the doctor, who doubtless found these periodi-
cal visits by no means unprofitable, give him
another potion, and I will exert all my skill in its
preparation." The Moor took it, but returned no
more. One day the surgeon met his young ac-







49
quaintance in the street, and inquired the success
of the remedy. It was of no avail," he replied
mournfully; "my father is in excellent health.
God has preserved him from all our efforts; there
is no doubt that he is a Marabout "-(a Saint.)

VANDALIA.
Volumes on the subject of the United States
continue to succeed each other in London with a
rapidity, which proves that a deep interest has been
awakened in the minds of the people of England,
with regard to our country. We find the following
notice of the quick growth of Vandalia, in Illinois,
in a book recently published, called "Three Years
in America," by James Stuart: It is an extraor-
dinary fact, that in this town, (Vandalia) the capi-
tal of Illinois, a state more extensive, and infinitely
more fertile than England, and the first house in
which was not begun until the year 1821, three
annual meetings of an antiquarian and historical
society have already taken place, and the whole of
their published proceedings are as regular, as well
conducted and as well printed, as if the seat of the
society had been at Oxford or at Cambridge. The
whole annual disbursements in this state for salaries
to the executive do not exceed 10,000 dollars.
The people of Illinois have adhered tenaciously to
democratic principles, retaining in their hands every
power which can be conveniently withheld from the
rulers. Elections are frequent, and the right of
suffrage general. Imprisonment for debt and laws
against usury are abolished." Speaking of the
Bostonians, the author says: All are, or seem to
be, in the full enjoyment of the necessaries of life,
and all busy, active and employed."
E







50
THE GLADNESS OF NATURE.
BY W. C. BRYANT.
Is this a time to be cloudy and sad,
When our mother Nature laughs around;
When even the deep blue heavens look glad,
And gladness breathes from the blossoming ground ?
There are notes of joy from the hang-bird and wren,
And the gossip of swallows through all the sky:
The ground-squirrel gaily chirps by his den,
And the wilding bee hums merrily by.
The clouds are at play in the azure space,
And their shadows at play on the bright green vale,
And here they stretch to the frolic chase,
And there they roll on the easy gale.
There's a dance of leaves in that aspen bower,
There's a titter of winds in that beechen tree,
There's a smile on the fruit, and a smile on the flower,
And a laugh from the brook that runs to the sea.
And look at the broad-faced sun how he smiles
On the dewy earth that smiles in his ray,
On the leaping waters and gay young isles,
Ay, look, and he'll smile thy gloom away.


RATS IN JAMAICA.
In no country is there a creature so destructive
of property as the rat is in Jamaica; their ravages
are inconceivable. One year with another, it is
supposed that they destroy at least about a twentieth
part of the sugar-canes throughout the island,
amounting to little short of L.200,000 currency
per annum. The sugar-cane is their favorite food;
but they also prey upon the Indian corn, on all the
fruits that are accessible to them, and on many of
the roots. Some idea will be formed of the immense








51
swarms of those destructive animals that infest
this island, from the fact, that on a single plantation
thirty thousand were destroyed in one year. Traps
of various kinds are set to catch them, poison is
resorted to, and terriers, and sometimes ferrets, are
employed to explore their haunts, and root them
out; still, however, their numbers remain undimin-
ished, as far at least as can be judged by the rava-
ges they commit. They are of a much larger size
than the European rat, especially that kind of them
called by the negroes racoons. On the experiment
being tried of putting one of these and a cat to-
gether, the latter declined attacking it.

BURNING MUMMIES.
The Arabs who inhabit the neighborhood of the
great cemeteries of Upper Egypt have a strange
way of cooking their victuals. Whenever fuel is
wanting, they descend into their tombs, and, dis-
lodging a mummy, and throwing it on their shoul-
ders, return to their tent. Then taking a hatchet,
and seizing the mummy by one leg, they hew the
body into two at a blow, and, afterwards cutting it
into smaller pieces, make use of a leg or an arm,
or part of the trunk, as it may happen, to boil their
kettle. As the ancient Egyptians always enclosed
their dead in resinous substances, the mummies are
easily combustible, and make excellent fuel.


Whale Fishery.-In 1832, the whale Fishery, produced to
American industry 78,999 barrels. In 1831 the produce was
107,752 barrels; deficiency for 1832, 28,753 bbls. Of the
quantity sent home in 1832, upwards of 36,000 bbls. were
imported into New Bedford, 31,000 into Nantucket, into
Newport 4120; into Plymouth 2120.







52


THE CORK OAK.
THE Cork Oak is not so large a tree as the com-
mon oak. There are several varieties: a broad
leaved and a narrow leaved, which are evergreens;
besides other varieties which shed their leaves.
The broad leaved evergreen is, however, the most
common, and it is the one from which the cork of
commerce is chiefly obtained. It was well known
in the days of the Greeks and Romans,-the latter
of whom used it for a variety of purposes, and
among the rest for the stopping of bottles. They
used it for floats to their nets and fishing tackle;
for buoys to their anchors; and when Camillus was
sent to the Capitol, through the Tiber, during the








53

siege by the Gauls, he had a life-preserver of cork
under his dress.
The Cork Oak is abundant, in Portugal, Spain,
part of the south of France, and Italy; on the
opposite coast of the Mediterranean, and the Le-
vant. Spain and Portugal supply the greater por-
tion of the cork which is consumed in Europe.
The cork is the bark which the tree pushes outwards,
as is common to all trees; but here the outer bark
is of larger quantity, and is more speedily renewed.
When removed, there is a liber, or inner bark,
below it, and from this the cork is reproduced in
the course of a few years,-while the tree is said
to live longer, and grow more vigorously, than if
the cork were not removed. The first time that the
cork is taken off, is when the tree is about fifteen
years old. That crop is thin, hard, full of fissures,
and consequently of little value; and the second,
which is removed about ten years after, is also of
an inferior quality. After this, the operation is re-
peated once in eight or ten years, the produce
being greater in quantity, and superior in quality,
each successive time. According to Duhamel, a
cork-tree, thus barked, will live a hundred and fifty
years.
The months of July and August are those which
are chosen for removing the cork. The bark is
cleft longitudinally, at certain intervals, down to
the crown of the root, with an axe, of which the
handle terminates in a wedge; and a circular in-
cision is then made from each extremity of the
longitudinal cuts. The bark is then beaten, to
detach it from the liber; and it is lifted up by in-
troducing the wedged handle, taking care to leave
sufficient of the inner laminae upon the wood, with-
out which precaution the tree would certainly die.
The bark being thus removed, it is divided into








54
convenient lengths; and it iq then flattened, and
slightly charred, to contract the pores. This sub-
stance is the rough cork of commerce; and it is
thus fit to be cut into floats, stoppers, shoe-soles,
and other articles of domestic use, by the manu-
facturer. The cork of the best quality is firm,
elastic, and of a slightly red color. Two thousand
five hundred tons of cork were imported into Great
Britain in 1827. Cork burned in vessels of a
particular construction gives the substance called
Spanish black.

THE TEAK TREE.
THOUGH the Teak Tree is a tree of quite a
different family from the oak, and a native of India,
it is used in ship-building like the oak, and has
some resemblance to it in its timber. It is a tree
of uncommon size, with leaves twenty inches long,
and sixteen broad, and bears a hard nut. The
country ships in India, as well as many very fine
ones that trade between India and this country,
are built of it. A specimen was introduced into
England, about sixty years ago; but from the
warmth of the climate of which it is a native, it can
never become a forest-tree in this country.
Besides its value as timber, the teak has great
beauty as a tree. It is found more than two hun-
dred feet high, and the stem, the branches, and the
leaves, are all very imposing. On the banks of the
river Irrawaddy, in the Birman empire, the teak
forests are unrivalled; and they rise so far over the
jungle or brushwood, by which tropical forests are
usually rendered impenetrable, that they seem al-
most as if one forest were raised on gigantic poles,
over the top of another. The teak has not the








55


broad strength of the oak, the cedar, and some
other trees; but there is a grace in its form which
they do not possess.


Our enemies increase with our conquests, and
our poverty with our possessions.
The art of living upon good terms with the world,
appears to consist, chiefly, in the indulgence and
assumption of false feelings.
One of the greatest instances of cruelty is to re-
quire what you condemn.








56
TEA.
Tea was first imported into Europe by the Dutch
East-India Company, in the early part of the
seventeenth century; but it was not until the year
1666 that a small quantity was brought over from
Holland to England by the Lords Arlington and
Ossory: and yet, from a period earlier than any to
which the memories of any of the existing genera-
tion can reach, tea has been one of the principal
necessaries of life among all classes of the commu-
nity. To provide a sufficient supply of this aliment,
many thousand tons of shipping are annually em-
ployed in trading with a people by whom all dealings
with foreigners are merely tolerated; and from this
recently-acquired taste, a very large and easily-
collected revenue is obtained by the state.
The tea-plant is a native of China or Japan, and
probably of both. It has been used among the







57

natives of the former country from time immemorial.
It is only in a particular tract of the Chinese em-
pire that the plant is cultivated; and this tract,
which is situated on the eastern side, between the
30th and 33d degrees of north latitude, is distin-
uished by the natives as "the tea country."
'he more northern part of China would be too
cold; and farther south the heat would be too great.
There are, however, a few small plantations to be
seen near to Canton.
The Chinese give to the plant the name of tcha
or tha. It is propagated by them from seeds, which
are deposited in rows four or five feet asunder; and
so uncertain is their vegetation, even in their native
climate, that it is found necessary to sow as many
as seven or eight seeds in every hole. The ground
between each row is always kept free from weeds,
and the plants are not allowed to attain a higher
growth than admits of the leaves being conveniently
gathered. The first crop of leaves is not collected
until the third year after sowing; and when the trees
are six or seven years old, the produce becomes so
inferior that they are removed to make room for a
fresh succession.
The flowers of the tea-tree are white, and some-
what resemble the wild rose of our hedges: these
flowers are succeeded by soft green berries or
pods, containing each from one to three white seeds.
The plant will grow in either low or elevated situa-
tions, but always thrives best and furnishes leaves
of the finest quality when produced in light stony
ground.
The leaves are gathered from one to four times
during the year, according to the age of the trees.
Most commonly there are three periods of gather-
ing; the first commences about the middle of April;







58
the second at Midsummer; and the last is accom-
plished during August and September. The fol-
lowing cut of tea-gathering is from a Chinese
drawing. The leaves that are earliest gathered













are of the most delicate color and most aromatic
flavor, with the least portion of either fibre or
bitterness. Leaves of the second gathering are
of a dull green color, and have less valuable quali-
ties than the former; while those which are last
collected are of a dark green, and possess an
inferior value. The quality is farther influenced by
the age of the wood on which the leaves are borne,
and by the degree of exposure to which they have
been accustomed; leaves from young wood, and
those most exposed, being always the best.
The leaves, as soon as gathered, are put into
wide shallow baskets, and placed in the air or wind,
or sunshine, during some hours. They are then
placed on a flat cast-iron pan, over a stove heated
with charcoal, from a half to three quarters of a
pound of leaves being operated on at one time.
These leaves are stirred quickly about with a kind









of brush, and are then as quickly swept off the pan
into baskets. The next process is that of rolling,
which is effected by carefully rubbing them between
men's hands; after which they are again put, in
larger quantities, on the pan, and subjected anew
to heat, but at this time to a lower degree than at
first, and just sufficient to dry them effectually
without risk of scorching. This effected, the tea
is placed on a table and carefully picked over,
every unsightly or imperfectly-dried leaf that is
detected being removed from the rest, in order that
the sample may present a more even and a better
appearance when offered for sale.
The names by which some of the principal sorts
of tea are known in China, are taken from the
places in which they are produced, while others
are distinguished according to the periods of their
gathering, the manner employed in curing, or
other extrinsic circumstances. It is a commonly
received opinion, that the distinctive color of green
tea is imparted to It by sheets of copper, upon
which it is dried. For this belief there is not,
however, the smallest foundation in fact, since
copper is never used for the purpose. Repeated
experiments have been made to discover, by an
unerring test, whether the leaves of green tea con-
tain any impregnation of copper, but in no case
has any trace of this metal been detected.
The Chinese do not use their tea until it is about
a year old, considering that it is too actively nar-
cotic when new. Tea is yet older when it is brought
into consumption in England, as, in addition to the
length of time occupied in its collection and trans-
port to that country, the East-India Company are
obliged by their charter to have always a supply
sufficient for one year's consumption in their Lon-







60
don warehouses; and this regulation, which en-
hances the price to the consumer, is said to have
been made by way of guarding in some measure
against the inconveniences that would attend any
interruption to a trade entirely dependant upon the
caprice of an arbitrary government.
The people of China partake of tea at all their
meals, and frequently at other times of the day.
They drink the infusion prepared in the same man-
ner as we employ, but they do not mix with it either
sugar or milk. The working classes in that coun-
try are obliged to content themselves with a very
weak infusion. Mr. Anderson, in his Narrative
of Lord Macartney's Embassy, relates that the na-
tives in attendance never failed to beg the tea-leaves
remaining after the Europeans had breakfasted,
and with these, after submitting them again to boil-
ing water, they made a beverage which they ac-
knowledged was better than any they could ordi-
narily obtain.


BISSET, THE ANIMAL TEACHER.
Few individuals have presented so striking an
instance of patience and eccentricity as Bisset,
Sthe extraordinary teacher of animals. He was a
native of Perth, in Scotland, and an industrious
shoemaker, until the notion of teaching animals
attracted his attention in the year 1759. Reading
an account of a remarkable horse shown at St. Ger-
main's, curiosity led him to experiment on a horse
and a dog, which he bought in London, and he
succeeded in training these beyond all expectation.
Two monkeys were the next pupils he took in hand,
one of which he taught to dance and tumble on the
rope, whilst the other held a candle in one paw for








61
his companion, and with the other played the bar-
rel organ. These antic animals he also instructed
to play several fanciful tricks, such as drinking to
the company, riding and tumbling on a horse's back,
and going through several regular dances with a
dog. Being a man of unwearied patience, three
young cats were the next objects of his tuition. He
taught those domestic tigers to strike their paws in
such directions on the dulcimer, as to produce sev-
eral regular tunes, having music-books before them,
and squalling at the same time in different keys or
tones, first, second, and third, by way of concert.
He afterwards was induced to make a public exhi-
bition of his animals, and the well known Cats'
Opera, in which they performed, was advertised
in the Haymarket Theatre. The horse, the dog,
the monkeys, and the cats, went through their sev-
eral parts with uncommon applause to crowded
houses; and, in a few days, Bisset found himself
possessed of nearly a thousand pounds, to reward
his ingenuity and perseverance.
This success excited Bisset's desire to extend
his dominion over other animals, including even the
feathered kind. He procured a young leveret, and
reacted it to beat several marches on the drum, with
its hind legs, until it became a good stout hare.
He taught canary birds, linnets, and sparrows, to
spell the name of any person in company, to dis-
tinguish the hour and minute of time, and perform
many other surprising feats: he trained six turkey
cocks to go through a regular country dance; but,
in doing this, confessed he adopted the eastern
method, by which camels are made to dance, by
heating the floor. In the course of six months'
teaching, he made a turtle fetch and carry like a
dog; and having chalked the floor and blackened







62
its claws, could direct it to trace out any given
name in the company. He trained a dog and a
cat to go through many amazing performances.
His confidence even led him to try experiments on
a goldfish, which he did not despair of making per-
fectly tractable. But, some time afterwards, a
doubt having started to him, whether the obstinacy
of a pig could be conquered, his usual patient for-
titude was devoted to the experiment. He bought a
black sucking pig, and trained it to lie under the
stool at which he sat at work. At various intervals,
during six or seven months, he tried in vain to bring
the young boar to his purpose; and, despairing of
every kind of success, he was on the point of giving
it away, when it struck him to adopt a new mode
of teaching; in consequence of which, in the course
of sixteen months, he made an animal, supposed the
most obstinate and perverse in the world, to become
the most tractable. In August 1783, he once again
turned itinerant, and took his learned pig to Dublin,
where it was shown for two or three nights. It
was not only under full command, but appeared as
pliant and good-natured as a spaniel. When the
weather made it necessary that he should move
into the city, he obtained the permission of the
chief magistrate, and exhibited the pig in Dame
Street. It was seen," says the author of Jn-
thologia Hibernica, for two or three days by many
persons of respectability, to spell, without any ap-
parent direction, the names of those in the com-
pany; to cast up accounts, and to point out even the
words thought of by persons present; to tell exact-
ly the hour, minutes, and seconds; to point out
the married, to kneel, and to make his obeisance
to the company," &c. &c. Poor Bisset was thus
in a fair way of bringing his pig to a good mar-








63

ket," when a man, whose insolence disgraced au-
thority, broke into the rooms without any sort of
pretext, assaulted the unoffending man, and drew
his sword to kill the swine, an animal that, in the
practice of good breeding, was superior to his as-
sailant. The injured Bisset pleaded in.vain the
permission that had been granted him; he was
threatened to be dragged to prison. He was now
constrained to return home, but the agitation of his
mind threw him into a fit of illness, and he died, a
few days after, at Chester, on his way to London.

SONG.
BY THE REV. THOMAS DALE.
O, breathe no more that simple air,-
Though soft and sweet thy wild notes swell,
To me the only tale they tell
Is cold despair!-
I heard it once from lips as fair,
I heard it in as sweet a tone,--
Now I am left on earth alone,
And she is-where ?
How have those well-known sounds renewed
The dreams of earlier, happier hours,
When life-a desert now-was strewed
With fairy flowers!-
Then all was bright, and fond, and fair,-
Now flowers are faded, joys are fled,
And heart and hope are with the dead,
For she i--where ?
Can I then love the air she loved ?
Can I then hear the melting strain
Which brings her to my soul again,
Calm and unmoved ?-
And thou to blame my tears forbear;
For while I list, sweet maid to thee,
Reemembrance whispers, "such was she,"
And she is-where -







64


THE PUMA.
The above engraving is a portrait of one of the
most beautiful of the cat tribe in the Zoological
Gardens in London. This creature appears per-
fectly mild and playful; sleeping, for the most part,
in the day; but sometimes rising when interrupted
by a stranger, and occasionally knocking about a
little ball in its cage.
The puma is a native of the New World, and is
principally found in Paraguay, Brazil, and Guiana.
He is, however, often seen in the United States;
but there, as in every other part of the world, civi-
lisation daily lessens the range of those animals
which live by the destruction of others. The puma,
in its natural state, is a sanguinary creature, at-
tacking the smaller quadrupeds, and often destroy-
ing more than can be necessary for the satisfaction
of his appetite. He is alarmed at the approach of








65
men or dogs, and flies to the woods, where he
mounts trees with great ease. He belongs to the
same division of cats as the lion, by the essential
character of the unspotted color of his skin, which
is of a reddish-yellow, or silvery-fawn; but, unlike
the lion, he is without a mane, and the tail has
no tuft. The average length of the puma is about
four feet, and its height about two feet. It stands
lower on the legs than the lion, and the head is
round and small.
The puma, which was long called the American
lion, though a large animal, is not an object of
great dread to the natives of the regions to which
he belongs. He is easily tamed. D'Azara, the
naturalist, had one which was as sensible to caresses
as the common cat; and Mr. Kean, the tragedian,
had a domesticated puma, which was much attached
to him. Although there have been instances of the
puma attacking, and even destroying the human
species, in South America they have an instinctive
dread of any encounter of this nature. Capt. Head,
in his Journey across the Pampas," has the fol-
lowing interesting anecdote of the puma, which, in
common with other travellers, he incorrectly calls
the lion:
"The fear which all wild animals in America
have of man is very singularly seen in the Pampas.
I often rode towards the ostriches and zamas,
crouching under the opposite side of my horse's
neck; but I always found that, although they would
allow any loose horse to approach them, they, even
when young, ran from me, though little of my figure
was visible; and when one saw them all enjoying
themselves in such full liberty, it was at first not
pleasing to observe that one's appearance was
every where a signal to them that they should fly
F








66
from their enemy. Yet it is by this fear that man
hath dominion over the beasts of the field," and
there is no animal in South America that does not
acknowledge this instinctive feeling. As a singular
proof of the above, and of the difference between
the wild beasts of America and of the Old World,
I will venture to relate a circumstance which a
man sincerely assured me had happened to him
in South America.
He was trying to shoot some wild ducks, and,
in order to approach them unperceived, he put the
corner of his poncho (which is a sort of long, nar-
row blanket) over his head, and crawling along the
ground upon his hands and knees, the poncho not
only covered his body, but trailed along the ground
behind him. As he was thus creeping by a large
bush of reeds, he heard a loud, sudden noise, be-
tween a bark and a roar: he felt something heavy
strike his feet, and instantly jumping up, he saw,
to his astonishment, a large lion actually standing
on his poncho; and, perhaps, the animal was equal-
ly astonished to find himself in the immediate pre-


sence of so athletic a man. The man told me he
was unwilling to fire, as his gun was loaded with
very small shot; and he therefore remained mo-








67
tionless, the lion standing on his poncho for many
seconds: at last the creature turned his head, and
walking very slowly away about ten yards, he stop-
ped and turned again: the man still maintained his
ground, upon which the lion tacitly acknowledged
his supremacy, and walked off."

STEEL PLATES FOR ENGRAVING.
For several years past sheet steel has beet, used
in large quantities, instead of copperplates, by the
engravers. By this fortunate application of so
durable, and, it may be added, so economical a
material, not only has a new field been discovered
admirably suited to yield in perfection the richest
and finest graphic productions, which the ingenuity
of modern art can accomplish, but to do so through
an amazingly numerous series of impressions with-
out perceptible deterioration. The art of engraving
on iron or steel for purposes of ornament, and even
for printing, in certain cases, is by no means a dis-
covery of modern times; but the substitution of
the latter material for copper, which has invited the
superiority of the British burine to achievements
hitherto unattempted by our artists, is entirely a
modern practice.
In the year 1810, Mr. Dyer, an American mer-
chant, residing in London, obtained a patent for
certain improvements in the construction and method
of using plates and presses, .c., the principles of
which were communicated to him by a foreigner
residing abroad. This foreigner was Mr. Jacob
Perkins, an ingenious artist of New England, and
whose name subsequently became so extensively
known in this country, in connexion with roller-
press printing from hardened steel plates. The







68
plates used by Mr. Perkins were, on the average,
about five eights of an inch thick; they were either
of steel, so tempered as to admit of the operation
of the engraver, or, as was more generally the case,
of steel decarbonated, so as to become very pure
soft iron, in which case, after they had received
the work on the surface, they were casehardened
by cementation.
The decarbonating process was performed by
enclosing the plate of cast steel, properly shaped,
in a cast iron box, or case, filled about the plate to
the thickness of about an inch, with oxide of iron
or rusty iron filings. In this state the box is luted
close, and placed on a regular fire, where it is kept
at a red heat during from three to twelve days.
Generally about nine days is sufficient to decar-
bonize a plate five eights of an inch in thickness.
When the engraving or etching has been executed,
the plate is superficially converted into steel by
placing it in a box as before, and surrounding it on
all sides by a powder made of equal parts of burn-
ed bones, and the cinders of burned animal matter,
such as old shoes or leather. In this state the box,
with its contents, closely luted, must be exposed
to a blood red heat for three hours; after which it
is taken out of the fire, and plunged perpendicularly
edgewise into cold water, which has been previous-
ly boiled, to throw off the air. By this means the
plate becomes hardened, without the danger of
warping or cracking. It is then tempered, or let
down, by brightening the under surface of the plate
with a bit of stone; after which it is heated by be-
ing placed upon a piece of hot iron, or melted lead,
until the rubbed portions acquire a pale straw color.
For this purpose, however, the patentee expressed
himself in favor of a bath of oil heated to the tem-







69
perature of 460 degrees, or thereabouts, of Fah-
renheit's scale. The plate being cooled in water,
and polished on the surface, was ready for use.
A more material peculiarity in Mr. Perkins's
invention, and one which does not seem to have
been approached by any preceding artist, was the
contrivance of what are called indenting cylinders.
These are rollers of two or three inches in diameter,
and made of steel, decarbonized by the process be-
fore described, so as to be very soft. In this state
they are made to roll backward and forward under
a powerful pressure, over the surface of one of the
hardened plates, until all the figures, letters, or
indentations are communicated with exquisite pre-
cision, in sharp relief upon the cylinder, which be-
ing carefully hardened and tempered becomes, by
this means, fitted to communicate an impression to
other plates, by an operation similar to that by
which it was originally figured. It will be obvious,
that one advantage gained by this method must be
the entire saving of the labor and expense ofrecut-
ting, in every case on different plates, ornaments,
borders, emblematical designs, &c., as these can
now be impressed with little trouble on any number
of plates, or in any part thereof, by the application
of the cylinder. At first sight, the performance of
such an operation as the one now alluded to, may
appear difficult, if not impracticable and, indeed,
many persons, on its first announcement, were
disposed to doubt or deny its possibility altogether.
With a proper and powerful apparatus, however,
this method of transferring engravings from plates
to cylinders, and vice versa, is every day performed
with facility and success, not only in the production
of Irish bank-notes, labels, &c., but in works exhibi-
ting very elaborate engravings.-Lardner's Cyclo-
pedia.







70
GENERAL PUTNAM.
Few men have been more remarkable than General Putnam
for the acts of successful rashness to which a bold and intrepid
spirit frequently prompted him.
When he was pursued by General Tryon at the head of
fifteen hundred men, his only method of escape was precipi-
tating his horse down the steep declivity of the rock called
Horseneck; and as none of his pursuers dared to imitate his
example, he escaped.
But an act of still more daring intrepidity was his venturing
to clear in a boat, the tremendous waterfalls of Hudson's river.
This was in the year 1756, when Putnam fought against the
French and their allies, the Indians. He was accidentally
with a boat and five men, on the eastern side of the river,
contiguous to these falls. His men, who were on the opposite
side, informed him by signal, that a considerable body of
savages were advancing to surround him, and there was not
a moment to lose Three modes of conduct were at his option
-to remain, fight, and be sacrificed; to attempt to pass to the
other side exposed to the full shot of the enemy ; or to sail
down the waterfalls, with almost a certainty of being over-
whelmed. These were the only alternatives. Putnam did
not hesitate, and jumped into the boat at the fortunate instant,
for one of his companions, who was at a little distance, was
a victim to the Indians. His enemies soon arrived, and dis-
charged their muskets at the boat before he could get out of
their reach. No sooner had he escaped this danger through
the rapidity of the current, but death presented itself under a
more terrific form. Rocks, whose points projected above the
surface of the water; large masses of timber that nearly closed
the passage; absorbing gulfs, and rapid descents, for the dis-
tance of a quarter of a mile, left him no hope of escape but by
a miracle. Putnam however placed himself at the helm, and
directed it with the utmost tranquillity. His companions saw
him with admiration, terror, and astonishment, avoid with
the utmost address the rocks and threatening gulfs, which
they every instant expected to devour him. He disappeared,
rose again, and directing his course across the only passage
which he could possibly make, he at length gained the even
surface of the river that flowed at the bottom of this dread-
ful cascade. The Indians were no less surprised. This mira-
cle astonished them almost as much as the sight of the first
Europeans that approached the banks of this river. They
considered Putnam as invulnerable; and they thought that
they should offend the Great Spirit, if they attempted the life
of a man that was so visibly under his immediate protection




















































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EXTRACT FROM BUCKINGHAM'S TRAVELS.
The town of Khan-e-Keen consists of two por-
tions, occupying the respective banks of the river
Silwund, which are connected together by a bridge
across the stream. The river here flows nearly
from south to north through the town; about half
a mile to the southward of the bridge the bend of
the river is seen, where the stream comes from the
eastward; it then goes. north for about a mile, and
afterwards turns westerly, bending gradually to
the southward, so as to form the Giaour-Soo, which
runs to the west of Kesrabad.
The river is here, however, called the Sirwund or
Silwund, and has its source in the eastern moun-
tains, though no one at the place pretends to know,
the exact distance of it from hence. The bridge is
newly built of brick-work, and is supported on
thirteen pointed arches and buttresses all of good
masonry. It is high, broad, and well paved across,
and is a hundred and eighty horse paces long,
though the river itself is not, on an average, more
than half that breadth.
Advantage has been taken of a bed of solid rock,
which lies in the centre of the stream, to make it
the foundation of the bridge; and the water of the
river is led under each of the arches, through a
narrow and deep channel, originally cut no doubt
in the rock, but since worn into deep and apparent-
ly natural beds, leaving each side of the rock dry.
In this way each arch has under it two broad level
spaces of stone with a deep and rapid current going
between them; so, that at this season of the year,
when the water is low, a person can walk dry shod,
across the rock, by the side of the bridge, and the
places beneath the arches form so many shady re-







7S
treats, where parties assemble to enjoy refreshments
by the water, which is particularly clear, from
running in a gravelly bed, and is of pure and excel-
lent taste.
The western portion of Khan-e-Keen, which is the
largest, approaches close to a cliff, overlooking the
stream, and is banked up in some places by a brick
wall. The eastern division is smaller, but contains
an excellent khan built in the Persian style, and
capable of receiving a large caravan. Both divi-
sions together contain about fifteen hundred dwel-
lings, and a population of twelve thousand inhabi-
tants. There are two principal mosques in the
place, and the people are all of the sect of the
Soonnees. Among the inhabitants are a few Jews,
but no Christians. The governor is subject to
Bagdad, and pays a tribute to the Pasha, which is
drawn from agriculture, and the profits made on
supplies to casual passengers. The language spo-
ken is chiefly Turkish.
There are many excellent gardens at Khan-e-
Keen, and no want of trees; while the banks of the
river, which are low both above and below the town,
though one of them is high as the town itself, are
covered with verdure. Tradition says that in this
place was formerly a fine park, and two palaces,
the work of Ferhad, the celebrated architect and
sculptor, and lover of Shirine; one of these palaces,
named Berzmahan, being for Shirine herself and the
other the place from whence Khosrau or Kesra,
her lord used to survey his troops. No situation
can he more agreeable for parks or palaces, bu'
no remains of any great buildings were now to be
traced.








73


THE CLOVE.

The Clove is a native of most of the Molucca
islands, where it has been produced, from the
earliest records, so abundantly, that in exchange
for their spicy produce, the inhabitants were ena-
bled, before the intrusion of the Europeans into
their country, to procure for themselves the pro-
ductions which they required of almost every other
region. Although Europeans have for more than
G







74
two thousand years known the use of this spice.
yet little more than three hundred years back they
were ignorant whence it was obtained. The Per-
sians, Arabians, and Egyptians formerly brought
cloves and nutmegs to the ports in the Mediterra-
nean, and hither the Venetians and Genoese re-
sorted to buy the spices of India, until the Portu-
guese, in 1511, discovered the country of their
production. This nation did not, however, long
enjoy the fruits of its discovery; the Dutch soon
drove them from the Moluccas, and for a long time
retained a very strict monopoly over the productions
of these islands. It is said that they destroyed
the clove trees growing on the other islands, and
confined their culture wholly to Amboyna. They
allotted to the inhabitants four thousand parcels of
land, on each of which it was expected that one
hundred and twenty-five trees should be cultivated;
and in 1720 a law was passed compelling the natives
to make up this number; there were in consequence
five hundred thousand clove-trees planted in this
small island; each of these on an average produced
annually more than two pounds of cloves, so that
the aggregate produce weighed more than a mil-
lion of pounds.
Subsequently to this period, the policy of the
Dutch somewhat relaxed, and the tree has been
suffered to grow on other islands, and even to be
carried to the West Indies; where, however, it
does not appear until very lately to have succeed-
ed. Sir Joseph Banks introduced it into Eng-
land about 1797, but of course it is raised there
only as a mere ornament or curiosity of the hot-
house.
The clove is a handsome tree, somewhat like the
bay tree in some of its characters, though the leaves





s'


75
more nearly resemble those of the laurel. The
flowers of the clove grow in bunches at the very
extremity of the branches; when they first appear,
which is at the beginning of the rainy season, they
are in the form of elongated greenish buds, from
the extremity of which the corolla is expanded,
which is of a delicate peach-blossom color. When
the corolla begins to fade, the calyx turns yellow,
and then red: the calyces, with the embryo seed,
are in this stage of their growth beaten from the
tree, and after being dried in the sun, are what are
known as the cloves of commerce. If the fruit
be allowed to remain on the tree after arriving at
this period, the calyx gradually swells, the seed
enlarges, and the pungent properties of the clove
are in great part dissipated. Each berry contains
only one seed, which is oval, dark colored, and of
a considerable size. It is a long time before a
clove-tree yields any profit to the cultivator; it
rarely producing fruit till eight or nine years after
being first planted.
The whole tree is highly aromatic, and the foot-
stalks of the leaves have nearly the same pungency
as the calyx of the flowers. Clove-trees," says
Sir T. Raffles, as an avenue to a residence are
perhaps unrivalled-their noble height, the beauty
of their form, the luxuriance of their foliage, and
above all, the spicy fragrance with which they
perfume the air, produce, on driving through a long
line of them, a degree of exquisite pleasure only
to be enjoyed in the clear light atmosphere of these
latitudes."
Cloves contain a very large proportion of essen-
tial oil, larger perhaps than any other plant or parts
of a plant. This oil is extremely pungent, and is
one of the few essential oils which is specifically







76
heavier than water. It is usually procured by dis-
tillation, but when the cloves are newly gathered
it may be obtained by pressure. A part is often so
taken, and the cloves, which are thereby rendered
of little value, are fraudulently mixed with sound
ones; but the robbed cloves are easily detected by
their pale color, shrivelled appearance, and want
of flavor.
The pungent and aromatic virtues of the clove
reside in this essential oil, combined with the resi-
nous matter of the spice; but it does not appear
that these qualities are absolutely necessary to the
growth or fructification of the tree. To give to
this its greatest value, it must, however, be culti-
vated in a situation where they can be elaborated
in the greatest quantity. Its profitable growth is
therefore limited to a very narrow range of temper-
ature and climate; as the clove loses its flavor if
the situation be too moist or too dry, too near the
sea, or too much elevated above its level. Though
the tree be found in the larger islands of Eastern
Asia and in Cochin China, it has there little or no
flavor. The Moluccas seem to be the only places
where the clove comes to perfection without culti-
vation.
This tree is so great an absorbent of moisture
that no herbage will grow under its branches; while
the cloves, when gathered, if placed in a heap near
a vessel of water, are found very much to have
increased their weight at the end of only a few
hours, in consequence of the large portion of water
which they have attracted and imbibed. It is said
that both the grower and trader in cloves avail
themselves of the knowledge of this fact, and since
this spice is always sold by weight, thus give a
factitious value to their goods.








77


SONGS AND DANCES OF THE NEW
ZEALANDERS.
The New Zealanders have a variety of national
dances; but none of them have been minutely de-
scribed. Some of them are said to display much
grace of movement: others are chiefly remarkable
for the extreme violence with which they are per-
formed. As among the other South Sea tribes,
when there are more dancers than one, the opst







78
perfect uniformity of step and attitude is preserved
by all of them; and they do not consider it a dance
at all when this rule is not attended to. Capt. Dil-
lon very much amused some of those who came on
board his ship by a sample of English dancing,
which he made his men give them on deck. A
company of soldiers going through the manual
Exercise would certainly have come much nearer
their notions of what a dance ought to be.
We are as yet very imperfectly informed in re-
gard to the distinctions of rank, and other matters
appertaining to the constitution of society, in New
SZealand. It would appear, however, that, as among
most other Asiatic races, the great body of the
people are in a state approaching to what we should
call slavery, or vassalage, to the few owners of the
soil. Yet we are nearly altogether ignorant of the
real extent of the authority possessed by the latte:
over the former Some circumstances seem to
indicate, that in so far as respects the right of com-
manding their services, the chiefs are not absolutely
the masters of the common people who live within
their territories; while, on the other hand, they
would appear to have the power, in some cases, of
even putting them to death, according to their mere
pleasure. Although there are no written laws in
New Zealand, all these matters are, no doubt,
regulated by certain universally understood rules,
liberal enough, in all probability, in the license
which they allow to the tyranny of the privileged
class, but still fixing some boundaries to its exer-
cise, which will accordingly be but rarely over-
stepped. Thus, the power which the chief seems
to enjoy of depriving any of his slaves of life, may
be limited to certain occasions only; as,for instance
the death of some member of the family, whose









.79
manes, it is conceived, demand to be propitiatea
by such an offering. That in such cases slaves are
often sacrificed in New Zealand, we have abund-
ant evidence. Captain Cruise even informs us,
that when a son of one of the chiefs died in Mr.
Marsden's house, in New South Wales, it required
the interposition of that gentleman's authority to
prevent some of the boy's countrymen, who were
with him, from killing a few of their slaves, in honor
of their deceased friend. On other occasions, it is
likely that the life of the slave can only be taken
when he has been convicted of some delinquency;
although, as the chief is the sole judge of his crim-
inality, he will fin& this, it may be thought, but a
slight protection The domestic slaves of the
chiefs, however, it is quite possible, and even likely,
are much more completely at the mercy of their
caprice and passion, than the general body of the
common people, whose vassalage may, after all,
consist in little more than the obligation of follow-
ing them to their wars, and rendering them obedi-
ence in such other matters of public concern.


Use of Forks.-A foreigner remarks, in his work on Great
Britain, that an Englishman may be discovered anywhere if
he be observed at table, because he places his fork upon the
left side of his plate; a Frenchman by using the fork alone
without the knife; and a German by planting it perpendicu-
larly into his plate; and a Russian by usig it as a toothpick.
Holding the fork is a national custom, and nations are char-
acterized by their peculiarities in the use of the fork at table.
An affectation of the French usages in this respect seems now
to be gaining ground in this country.

Whenever you speak any thing, think well, and look nar
rowly what you speak; of whom you speak; and to whom
you speak, lest you bring yourself into great trouble.








80


~1


THE BAMBOO.
The bamboo is a native of the hottest regions of
Asia. It is likewise to be found in America, but
not in that abundance, with which it flourishes in the
old world. It is never brought into this country in
sufficient supply for any useful purposes, being
rather an object of curiosity than of utility. But
in the countries of its production it is one of the
most universally useful plants. There are about








81

fifty varieties," says Mr. Loudon, in his Botanical
Dictionary, of the Jlrundo bambos, each of the
most rapid growth, rising from fifty to eighty feet
the first year, and the second perfecting its timber
in hardness and elasticity. It grows in stools which
are cut every two years. The quantity of timber
furnished by an acre of bamboos is immense. Its
uses are almost without end. In building it forms al-
most entire houses for the lower orders, and enters
both into the construction and furniture of those of
the higher class. Bridges, boats, masts, rigging,
agricultural and other implements and machinery;
carts, baskets, ropes, nets, sail-cloth, cups, pitchers,
troughs, pipes for conveying water, pumps, fences
for gardens and fields, &c. are made of it. Mace-
rated in water it forms paper; the leaves are gen-
erally put round the tea sent to Europe: the thick
inspissated juice is a favorite medicine. It is
said to be indestructible by fire, to resist acids, and,
by fusion with alkali, to form a transparent perma-
nent glass."


PHILOSOPHY AND CONSISTENCY.
Among all the excellent things which Mrs. Bar-
bauld has written, she never penned any thing bet-
.er than her essay on the inconsistency of human
expectations; it is full of sound philosophy. Every
thing, says she, is marked at a settled price. Our
time, our labor, our ingenuity, is so much ready
money, which we are to lay out to the best advan-
tage. Examine, compare, choose, reject; but
stand to your own judgment, and do not, ike
children, when you have purchased one thing, re-







82
pine that you do not possess another, which you
would not purchase. Would you be rich? Do you
think that the single point worth sacrificing every
thing else to? You may, then, be rich. Thousands
have become so from the lowest beginnings by toil,
and diligence, and attention to the minutest articles
of expense and profit. But you must give up the
pleasures of leisure, of an unembarrassed mind, and
of a free unsuspicious temper. You must learn to
do hard if not unjust things; and as for the embar-
rassment of a delicate and ingenuous spirit, it is
necessary for you to get rid of it as fast as possible.
You must not stop to enlarge your mind, polish
your taste, or refine your sentiments; but must
keep on in one unbeaten track, without turning
aside to the right or to the left. "But," you say,
"I cannot submit to drudgery like this; 1 feel a
spirit above it." 'Tis well; be above it, then;
only do not repine because you are not rich.
Is knowledge the pearl of price in your estima-
tion? That too may be purchased by steady ap-
plication, and long solitary hours of study and re-
flection. "But," says the man of letters, "what
a hardship is it that many an illiterate fellow, who
cannot construe the motto on his coach, shall raise a
fortune, and make a figure,while I possess not the
common necessaries of life!" Was it for fortune,
then, that you grew pale over the midnight lamp,
and gave the sprightly years to study and reflection ?
You, then, have mistaken your path, and ill employ-
ed your industry. What reward have I, then,
for all my labor?" What reward! a large compre-
hensive soul, purged from vulgar fears and preju-
dices, able to interpret the works of man and God
-aperpetual spring of fresh ideas, and the con-
scious dignity of superior intelligence. Good Hea-







83
vens! what other reward can you ask? "But is it
not a reproach upon the economy of Providence
that such a one, who is a mean, dirty fellow, should
have amassed wealth enough to buy half a nation?"
Not the least. He made himself a mean, dirty
fellow for that very end. He has paid his health,
his conscience, and his liberty for it. Do you envy
him his bargain? Will you hang your head in his
presence because he outshines you in equipage
and show? Lift up your brow with a noble confi-
dence, and say to yourself, I have not these
things, it is true; but it is because I have not de-
sired them nor sought them; it is because I possess
something better. I have chosen my lot; I am
content and satisfied." The most characteristic
mark of a great mind is to choose some one object,
which it considers important, and pursue that object
through life. If we expect the purchase, we must
pay the price.


THE EVENING CLOUD.
A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun,
A gleam of crimson tinged its braided snow;
Long had I watched the glory moving on
O'er the soft radiance of the lake below.
Tranquil its spirit seemed, and floated slow:
E'en in its very motion there was rest;
While every breath of eve that chanced to blow
Wafted the traveller to the beauteous west.
Emblem, methought, of the departed soul,
To whose white robe the gleam of bliss is given;
And, by the breath of mercy, made to roll
Right onward to the golden gates of heaven,
Where to the eye of faith it peaceful lies,
And tells to man his glorious destinies.
WILSOn.






81
WATERTON'S ACCOUNT OF THE SLOTll.
The character and habits of that singular animal,
the Sloth, according to Charles Waterton, the en-
thusiastic traveller in the wilds of South America,
have been strangely misrepresented by naturalists.
"This singular animal (says he) is destined by
nature to be produced, to live, and to die, in the
trees. He is a scarce and solitary animal, and,
being good food, he is never allowed to escape.
He inhabits remote and gloomy forests, where
snakes take up their abode, and where cruelly-sting-
ing ants and scorpions, and swamps, and innumer-
able thorny shrubs and bushes, obstruct the steps
of civilized men. This, then, is the proper place
to go in quest of the Sloth. We will first take a
near view of him. By obtaining a knowledge of his
anatomy, we will be enabled to account for his
movements. His fore-legs, or, more correctly
speaking, his arms, are apparently much too long,
while his hind-legs are very short, and look as if
they could be bent almost to the shape of a cork-
screw. Both the fore and hind legs, by their form,
and by the manner in which they are joined to the
body, are quite incapacitated from acting in a per-
pendicular direction, or in supporting it on the
earth, as the bodies of other quadrupeds are sup-
ported, by their legs. Hence, when you place
him on the floor, his belly touches the ground.
Now, granted that he supported himself on his legs
like other animals, nevertheless he would be in pain,
for he has no soles to his feet, and his claws are
very sharp and long, and curved; so that, were his
body supported by his feet, it would be by their
extremities, just as your body would be, were you
to throw yourself on all-fours, and try to support it
on the ends of your toes and fingers. Were the







85
floor of a polished surface, the sloth would actually
be quite stationary; but as the ground is generally
rough, with little protuberances upon it, such as
stones, or roots of grass, this just suits the Sloth,
and he moves his fore-legs in all directions, in order
to find something to lay hold of; and when he has
succeeded, he pulls himself forwards, and is thus
enabled to travel onwards, but, at the same time,
in so tardy and awkward a manner, as to acquire
him the name of the Sloth. Indeed, his looks and
his gestures evidently betray his uncomfortable
situation; anlas a sigh every now and then escapes
him, we may be entitled to conclude that he is actu-
ally in pain.





Some years ago I kept a Sloth in my room for
several months. I often took him out of the house,
and placed him upon the ground, in order to have
an opportunity of observing his motions. If the
ground were rough, he would pull himself forwards
by means of his fore-legs, at a pretty good pace;
and he invariably shaped his course towards the
nearest tree. His favorite abode was the back of
a chair; and after getting all his legs in a line upon
the topmost part of it, he would hang there for
hours together, and often, with a low and inward
cry, would seem to invite me to take notice of him.
The Sloth, in its wild state, spends its whole life in
the trees, and never leaves them but through force,
or by accident. An all-ruling Providence has or-
dered man to tread on the surface of the earth, the







86
eagle to soar in the expanse of the skies, and the
monkey and squirrel to inhabit the trees; still these
change their relative situations without feeling much
inconvenience; but the Sloth is doomed to spend
his whole life in the trees; and, what is more ex-
traordinary, not upon the branches, like the squirrel
and the monkey, but under them. He is as much
at a loss to proceed on his journey upon a smooth
and level floor, as a man would be who had to walk
a mile upon a line of feather-beds. He moves sus-
pended from the branch, he rests suspended from
it, and he sleeps suspended from it. To enable
him to do this, he must have a very different for-
mation from that of any other known quadruped.
Hence, his seemingly bungled conformation is at
once accounted for; and in lieu of tht Sloth leading
a painful life, and entailing a melancholy and mise-
rable existence on its progeny, it is but fair to
surmise that it enjoys life just as much as any other
animal, and that its extraordinary formation and
singular habits are but farther proofs to engage us
to admire the wonderful works of Omnipotence.


CHICK IN THE EGG.
The hen has scarcely sat on the egg twelve hours,
when we begin already to discover in it some
lineaments of the head and body of the chicken that
is to be born. The heart appears to beat at the
end of the day; at the end of forty-eight hours, two
vesicles of blood can be distinguished, the pulsa-
tion of which is very visible. At the fiftieth hour,
an auricle of the heart appears, and resembles a
lace, or noose folded down upon itself. At the end of
seventy hours we distinguish wings, and on the head
two bubbles for the brain; one for the bill, and two








87

others for the forepart and hindpart of the head--
the liver appears towards the fifth day. At the end
of one hundred and thirty-one hours, the first volun-
tary motion is observed. At the end of one hun-
dred and thirty-eight hours the lungs and stomach
become visible-at the end of 142, the intestines,
the loins, and the upper jaw. The seventh day,
the brain, which was slimy, begins to have some
consistence.-At the 190th hour of incubation, the
bill opens, and the flesh appears in the breast. At
the 194th, the sternum is seen, that is to say, the
breastbone. At the 210th, the ribs come out of
the back, the bill is very visible, as well as the gall-
bladder. The bill becomes green at the end of 236
hours; and if the chick is taken out of its covering,
it evidently moves itself.-The feathers begin to
shoot out towards the 240th hour, and the skull
becomes gristly. At the 264th the eyes appear.
At the 288th, the ribs are perfect. At the 331st,
the spleen draws near to the stomach, and the lungs
to the chest. At the end of 355 hours, the bill fre-
quently opens and shuts; and at the end of 451 ,.
hours, or the 18th day, the first cry of the chick is
already heard-it afterwards gets more strength, 4
and grows continually, till at last it sets itself at .
liberty, by opening the prison in which it was shut
up. Adorable wisdom of God! it is by so many
different degrees that these creatures are brought
into life. All these progressions are made by rule!
and there is not one of them without sufficient rea-
son. No part of its body could appear sooner or
later, without the whole embryo suffering, and each
of its limbs appear at the most proper moment.
This ordination, so wise, and so invariable in the
production of the animal, is manifestly the work of
a Supreme Being.

























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