Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Arabian hospitality, etc.
 Remarkable instance of courage...
 Indian field sports
 Death of Sir John Moore
 Persian tyranny
 Sketches in Virginia
 The Christian slave
 Violent earthquake in Calabria
 Escape from a ship on fire
 Anecdotes, etc.
 Extraordinary escape from...
 Adventure in the desert, and murder...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Darton's holiday library; no. 10
Title: The Book of enterprise & adventure
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001816/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Book of enterprise & adventure being an excitement to reading ; for young people
Series Title: Darton's holiday library
Alternate Title: Book of enterprise and adventure
Physical Description: 143, <1> p. : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: M'Dowall, William, 1815-1888 ( Printer )
Dalziel, Edward, 1817-1905 ( Engraver )
Absalon ( Illustrator )
Darton & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Darton and Co.
Place of Publication: London (Holborn Hill)
Manufacturer: M'Dowall
Publication Date: 1851
Edition: New and condensed ed.
Subject: Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Summary: Compilation of various advenures such as escape from a ship on fire, crocodile shooting, Persian tyranny, and hiking through wilderness areas.
Statement of Responsibility: with illustrations by Absalon.
General Note: Illus. engraved by E. Dalziel.
General Note: Publisher's ad., <1> p. following text.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001816
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002222373
oclc - 45607566
notis - ALG2615
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Arabian hospitality, etc.
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Remarkable instance of courage in a lady
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Indian field sports
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Death of Sir John Moore
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Persian tyranny
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Sketches in Virginia
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    The Christian slave
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Violent earthquake in Calabria
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Escape from a ship on fire
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Anecdotes, etc.
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Extraordinary escape from drowning
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Adventure in the desert, and murder of a Sheikh
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

.41,411k jqr

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- SILK *-La`~.


The Baldwin Library
RmB ~morica -

A:.m.~ -

7 Vt-,,








Loungs Popke.






THE object of this Volume is that of in-
ducing young people to read, to cultivate in
them a habit of reading and reflection, and to
excite the imagination, the feelings, and the
better emotions of their nature in a pleasur-
able and judicious manner.
The pieces selected are such as will be likely
to exert a beneficial influence upon the reader,
to inspire him with heroic enthusiasm, and to
lead him to despise danger.
In our perpetually migrating population, no
one can tell who will not be called upon to
brave the vicissitudes of "flood and field;" and
a 2


to show how perils may be surmounted, and
privations endured with energy and patience,
is to teach no unimportant lesson.
Nothing whatever has been introduced into.
this Volume, but such subjects as will teach a
dependence upon Divine Providence, in aid of
self-reliance and self-sacrifice, while details
of war and bloodshed have been studiously






* 21
S 26







*. 52










The following three extracts are from a work of consider-
able merit, entitled "The Crescent and the Cross." It
contains, not only much valuable matter relative to
Egypt and Abyssinia, but many interesting anecdotes,
of which we give a specimen.

IN 1804, Osman Bardissy was the most influ-
ential of the Mameluke Beys, and virtualljgo-
verned Egypt. Mehemet Ali, then rising into
power, succeeded in embroiling this powerful odl
chief with Elfy Bey, another of the Mamelukes.


The latter escaped to England, where he was
favourably received, and promised assistance by
our government against Osman, who was in the
French interests. At this time a Sheikh of Be-
douin stood high in Osman's confidence, and
brought him intelligence that Elfy had landed
at Alexandria. Go, then," said the old Bey,
" surprise his boat, and slay him on his way up
the river; his spoil shall be your reward." The
Sheikh lay in wait upon the banks of the Delta,
and slew all the companions of the rival Bey:
Elfy himself escaped in the darkness, and made
his way to an Arab encampment before sunrise.
Going straight to the Sheikh's tent, which is
known by a spear standing in front of it, he en-
tered, and hastily devoured some bread that he
found there. The Sheikh was absent; but his
wife exclaimed, on seeing the fugitive, I know
you, Elfy Bey, and my husband's life, perhaps
atbhis moment, depends upon his taking yours.
Rest now and refresh yourself, then take the
best horse you can find, and fly. The moment
you are out of our horizon, the tribe will be in


pursuit of you." The Bey escaped to the The-
baid, and the disappointed Sheikh presented
himself to his employer. Osman passionately
demanded of him if it was true that his wife
had saved the life of his deadliest enemy, when
in her power. "Most true, praised be Allah!"
replied the Sheikh, drawing himself proudly up,
and presenting a jewel-hilted dagger to the old
Bey; "this weapon," he continued, "was your
gift to me in the hour of your favour; had I
met Elfy Bey, it should have freed you from your
enemy. Had my wife betrayed the hospitality
of the tent, it should have drank her blood;
and now, you may use it against myself," he
added, as he flung it at the Mameluke's feet.
Thifreverence for hospitality is one of the wild
virtues that has survived from the days of the
patriarchs, and it is singularly contrasted, yet
interwoven with other and apparently opposite
tendencies. The Arab will rob you, if he is able;
he will even murder you, if it suits his purpose;
but, once under the shelter of his tribe's black
tents, or having eaten of his salt by the way-



side, you have as much safety in his company
as his heart's blood can purchase for you. The
Bedouins are extortionate to strangers, dishonest
to each other, and reckless of human life. On
the other hand, they are faithful to their trust,
brave after their fashion, temperate, and patient
of hardship and privation beyond belief. Their
sense of right and wrong is not founded on the
Decalogue, as may be well imagined, yet, from
such principles as theyprofess they rarely swerve.
Though they will freely risk their lives to steal,
they will not contravene the wild rule of the de-
sert. If a wayfarer's camel sinks and dies be-
neath its burden, the owner draws a circle round
the animal in the sand, and follows the caravan.
No Arab will presume to touch that lading, how-
ever tempting. Dr. Robinson mentions that he
saw a tent hanging from a tree near Mount Sinai,
which his Arabs said had then been there a
twelvemonth, and never would be touched until
its owner returned in search of it.


THERE appears to be a wild caprice amongst
the institutions; if such they may be called, of
all these tropical nations. In a neighboring
state to that of Abyssinia, the king, when ap-
pointed to the regal dignity, retires into an
island, and is never again visible to the eyes
of men but once-when his ministers come to
strangle him; for it may not be that the proud
monarch of Behr should die a natural death.
No men, with this fatal exception, are ever al-
lowed even to set foot upon the island, which is
guarded by a band of Amazona In another
border country, called Habeesh, the monarch is
dignified with the title of Tiger. He was for-
merly Malek of Shendy, when it was invaded
by Ismael Pasha, and was even then designated
by this ferce cognomen. Ismael, Mehemet Ali'
second eon, advanced through Nubia, claiming
tribute and submission from all the tribes
Nemair (which signifies Tiger), the kng of
hendy, received him hospitably, as iammood,
a B



our dragoman, informed us, and, when he was
seated in his tent, waited on him to learn his
pleasure. My pleasure is," replied the invader,
" that you forthwith furnish me with slaves,
cattle, and money, to the value of 100,000 dol-
lars."-" Pooh!" said Nemmir, you jest; all
my country could not produce what you require
in one hundred moons."-"Ha! Wallah!" was
the young Pasha's reply, and he struck the Tiger
across the face with his pipe. If he had done
so to his namesake of the jungle, the insult could
not have roused fiercer feelings of revenge, but
the human animal did not shew his wrath at once.
"It is well," he replied; let the Pasha rest; to-
morrow he shall have nothing more to ask." The
Egyptian, and the few Mameluke officers of his
staff, were tranquilly smoking towards evening,
entertained by some dancing-girls, whom the Ti-
ger had sent to amuse them; when they observed
that a huge pile of dried stalks of Indian corn
was rising rapidly round the tent. What means
this?" inquiredIsmaelangrily; "am not I Pasha?"
-" It is but forage for your highness's horses,"


replied the Nubian; for, were your troops
once arrived, the people would fear to approach
the camp." Suddenly the space is filled with
smoke, the tent-curtains shrivel up in flames,
and the Pasha and his comrades find themselves
encircled in what they well know is their funeral
pyre. Vainly the invader implores mercy, and
assures the Tiger of his warm regard for him and
all his family; vainly he endeavours to break
through the fiery fence that girds him round; a
thousand spears bore him back into the flames,
and the Tiger's triumphant yell and bitter mock-
ery mingle with his dying screams. The Egyp-
tians perished to a man. Nemmir escaped up
the country, crowned with savage glory, and
married the daughter of a king, who soon left
him his successor, and the Tiger still defies thi
old Pasha's power. The latter, however, took
a terrible revenge upon his people: he burnt all
the inhabitants of the village nearest to the
scene of his son's slaughter, and cut off the right
hands of five hundred men besides. So much
for African warfare.



THE first time a man fires at a crocodile is an
epoch in his life. We had only now arrived in
the waters where they abound; for it is a curi-
ous fact that none are ever seen below Mineych,
though Herodotus speaks of them as fighting
with the dolphins, at the mouths of the Nile.
A prize had been offered for the first man who
detected a crocodile, and the crew had now been
two days on the alert in search of them. Buoyed
up with the expectation of such game, we had
latterly reserved our fire for them exclusively;
and the wild-duck and turtle, nay, even the vul-
ture and the eagle, had swept past, or soared
above, in security. At length the cry of "Tim-
asach, timseach!" was heard from half-a-dozen
claimants of the proffered prize, and half-a-dozen
black fingers were eagerly pointed to a spit of
sand, on which were strewn apparently some
logs of trees. It was a covey of crocodiles! Has-
tily and silently the boat was run in shore. R.
was ill, so I had the enterprise to myself, and


clambered up the steep bank with a quicker
pulse than when I first levelled a rifle at a High-
land deer. My intended victims might have
prided themselves on their superior nonchalance;
and, indeed, as I approached them, there seemed
to be a sneer on their ghastly mouths and wink-
ing eyes. Slowly they rose, one after the other,
and waddled to the water, all but one, the most
gallant or most gorged of the party. He lay
still until I was within a hundred yards of him;
then slowly rising on his fin-like legs, he lum-
bered towards the river, looking askance at me,
with an expression of countenance that seemed
to say, He can do me no harm; however, I
may as well have a swim." I took aim at the
throat of this supercilious brute, and, as soon
as my hand steadied, the very pulsation of nq
finger pulled the trigger. Bang! went the gun!
whizz! flew the bullet; and my excited ear could
catch the thud with which it plunged into the
scaly leather of his neck. His waddle became
a plunge, the waves closed over him, and the
sun shone on the calm water, as I reached the

brink of the shore, that was still indented by
the waving of his gigantic tail. But there is blood
upon the water, and he rises for a moment to
the surface. A hundred piasters for the tim-
seach," I exclaimed, and half-a-dozen Arabs
plunged into the stream. There! he rises again,
and the blacks dash at him as if he hadn't a
tooth in his head. Now he is gone, the waters
close over him, and I never saw him since.
From that time we saw hundreds of crocodiles
of all sizes, and fired shots,-enough of them
for a Spanish revolution; but we never could
get possession of any, even if we hit them,
which to this day remains doubtful.


Arn arksabt Mtaste of Afuragp in a 4tnb,
In the Life of Thomas Day, Esq., an anecdote is related of
Miss B--, afterwards Mrs. Day, shewing with what
remarkable effect presence of mind and courage can
tame the ferocity of the brute creation.
Miss R was, on one occasion, walking in com-
pany with another young lady through a field,
when a bull came running up to them with all
the marks of malevolence. Her friend began to
run towards the stile, but was prevented by Miss
B., who told her, that as she could not reach the
stile soon enough to save herself, and as it is the
nature of these animals to attack persons in
light, her life would be in great danger if she
attempted to run, and would be inevitably lost
if she chanced to fall; but that, if she would
steal gently to the stile, she herself would take
off the bull's attention from her, by standing
between them. Accordingly, turning her face
towards the animal with the firmest aspect she
could assume, she fixed her eyes steadily upon
his. It is said by travellers, that a lion itself


may be controlled by the steady looks of a hu-
man being; but that, no sooner a man turns his
back, than the beast springs upon him as his
prey. Miss B., to whom this property of ani-
mals seems to have been known, had the pre-
sence of mind to apply it to the safety of her
friend and of herself. By her steady aspect she
checked the bull's career; but he shewed the
strongest marks of indignation at being so con-
trolled, by roaring and tearing the ground with
his feet and horns. While he was thus engaged
in venting his rage on the turf, she cautiously
retreated a few steps, without removing her eyes
from him. When he observed that she had re-
treated, he advanced till she stopped, and then
he also stopped, and again renewed his frantic
play. Thus by repeated degrees she at length
arrived at the stile, where she accomplished her
safety; and thus, by a presence of mind rarely
seen in a person of her youth and sex, she not
only saved herself, but also, at the hazard of her
own life, protected her friend. Some days af-
terwards, this bull gored its master.


gifffain fidw dsts.
We give a few anecdotes illustrative of the above, from a
work entitled "Sketches of Field Sports, a followed by
the Natives of India," from the reading of which we
have derived much pleasure. The authority is Dr.
Johnson, East India Company's Service.
He begins by informing his readers, that the Shecar-
ries" (or professed hunters) are generally Hindoos of a
low east, who gain their livelihood entirely by catch-
ing birds, hares, and all sorts of animals; some of them
confine themselves to catching birds and hares, whilst
others practise the art of catching birds and various
animals; another description of them live by destroy-
ing tigers.
THOSE who catch birds equip themselves with
a framework of split bamboos, resembling the
frame of a paper kite, the shape of the top of a
coffin, and the height of a man, to which green
bushes are fastened, leaving two loop-holes to
see through, and one lower down for their rod to
be inserted through. This framework, which is
very light, they fasten before themwheney are
in the act of catching birds, by which men they
Y '^F


have both hands at liberty, and are completely
concealed from the view of the birds. The rod
which they use is about twenty-four feet long,
resembling a fishing-rod, the parts of which are
inserted within one another, and the whole con-
tained in a walking-stick.
They also carry with them horse-hair nooses
of different sizes and strength, which they fasten
to the rod: likewise bird-lime, and a variety of
calls for the different kinds of birds, with which
they imitate them to the greatest nicety. They
take with them likewise two lines to which horse-
hair nooses are attached for catching largerbirds,
and a bag or net to carry their game.
Thus equipped, they sally forth, and as they
proceed through the different covers, they use
calls for such birds as generally resort there,
which from constant practice is well known to
them, and if any birds answer their call they
prepare accordingly for catching them; suppos-
ing it to be a bevy of quail, they continue call-
ing them, until they get quite close; they then
arm the top of their rod with a feather smeared



with bird-lime, and pass it through the loop-
hole in their frame of ambush, and to which
they continue adding other parts, until they
have five or six out, which they use with great
dexterity, and touch one of the quail with the
feather, which adheres to them; they then with-
draw the rod, arm it again, and touch three or
four more in the same manner before they at-
tempt to secure any of them.
In this way they catch all sorts of small birds
not much larger than quail, on the ground and
in trees. If a brown or black partridge answers
their call, instead of bird-lime, they fasten a
horse-hair noose to the top of their rod, and
when they are close to the birds, they keep dip-
ping the top of their rod with considerable skill
until they fasten the noose on one oftheir necks;
theythen drawhim in, and go on catching others
in the same way. It is surprising to oee with
what cool perseverance they proceed. In a si-
milar manner they catch all kinds of birds, near-
ly the size of partridges.


A SERVANT of Mr. William Hunter's, by name
Thomas Jones, who lived at Chittrah, had a full
grown hyenawhich ran loose about hishouselike
a dog, and I have seen him play with it with as
much familiarity. They feed on small animals
and carrion, and I believe often come in for the
prey left by tigers and leopards after their ap-
petites have been satiated. They are great ene-
mies of dogs, and kill numbers of them.
The natives of India affirm that tigers, pan-
thers, and leopards, have a great aversion to
hyenas, on account of their destroying their
young, which I believe they have an opportu-
uity of doing, as the parents leave them during
the greatest part of the day. The inhabitants,
therefore, feel no apprehension in taking away
the young~ whenever they find them, knowing the
dam is seldom near. Hyenas are slow
in their pace, and altogether inactive; I have
often seen a few terriers keep them at bay, and
bite them severely by the hind quarter ; their



jaws, however, are exceedingly strong, and a
single bite, without holding on more than a few
seconds, is sufficient to kill a large dog. They
stink horribly, make no earths of their own, lie
under rocks, or resort to the earths of wolves, as
foxes do to those of badgers; and it is not un-
common to find wolves and hyenas in the same
bed of earths.
I was informed by several gentlemen, of whose
veracity I could not doubt, that Captain Richards,
of the Bengal Nativ% Infantry, had a servant of
the tribe of Shecarries, who was in the habit of
going into the earths of wolves, fastening strings
on them, and on the legs of hyenas, and then
drawing them out; he constantly supplied his
master and the gentlemen at*he station with
them, who let them loose on a plain, and rode
after them with spears, for practiq and amuse-
ment. This man possessed such aI acute and
exquisite sense of smelling, that he could al-
ways tell by it if there were any animrj in the
earths, and could distinguish whether they were
hyenas or wolves.



BEARS will often continue on the road in front
of the palanquin for a mile or two, tumbling and
playing all sorts of antics, as if they were taught
to do so. I believe it is their natural disposi-
tion; for they certainly are the most amusing
creatures imaginable in their wild state. It is
no wonder that with monkeys they are led about
to amuse mankind. It is astonishing, as well as
ludicrous, to see them climb rocks, and tumble
or rather roll down precipices. If they are at-
tacked by any person on horseback, they stand
erect on their hind legs, shewing a fine set of
white teeth, and making a cacklingkind of noise.
If the horse comes near them, they try to catch
him by the legs, and if they miss him, they tum-
ble over and over several times. They are easily
speared by a person mounted on a horse that is
bold enough to go near them.


AN elephant belonging to Mr. Boddam, of the
Bengal Civil Service, at Gyah, used every day to
pass over a small bridge leading from his mas-
ter's house into the town of Gyal. He one day
refused to go over it, and it was with great diffi-
culty, by goring him most cruelly with the Iun-
kuss [iron instrument], that the Mahout [driver]
could get him to venture on the bridge, the
strength of which he first tried with his trunk,
shewing clearly that he suspected that it was not
sufficiently strong. At last he went on, and be-
fore he could get over, the bridge gave way, and
they were precipitated into the ditch, which
killed the driver, and considerably injured the
elephant. It is reasonable to suppose that the
elephant must have perceived its feeble state
when he last passed over it. It is a well known
fact, that elephants will seldom or ever go over
strange bridges, without first trying with their
trunks if they be sufficiently strong to bear their
weight,-nor will they ever go into a boat with-
out doing the same.


I had a remarkably quiet and docile elephant,
which one day came home loaded with branches
of trees for provender, followed by a number of
villagers, calling for mercy (their usual cry when
ill used); complaining that the Mahout had sto-
len a kid from them, and that it was then on the
elephant, under the branches of the trees. The
Mahout took an opportunity of decamping into
:the village and hiding himself. I ordered the
elephant to be unloaded, and was surprised to
see that he would not allow any person to come
near to him, when at all other times he was per-
fectlytractable and obedient. Combining allthe
circumstances, I was convinced that the Mahout
was guilty, and to get rid of the noise, I recom-
pensed the people for the loss of their kid. As
soon as they were gone away, the elephant al-
lowed himself to be unloaded, and the kid was
found under the branches, as described by the
people. I learnt from my Sarcar, that similar
complaints had been made to him before, and
that the rascal of a Mahout made it a practice to
ride the elephant into the midst of a herd of
goats, and had taught him to pick up any of the



young ones he directed; he had also accustomed
him to steal their pumpions andothervegetables,
that grew against the inside of their fences like
French beans, which could only be reached by
an elephant. He was the best Mahout I ever
knew, and so great a rogue that I was obliged
to discharge him.
The very day that he left my service, the ele-
phant's eyes were closed, which he did not open
again in less than a fortnight, when it was dis-
covered that he was blind. Two small eschars,
one in each eye, were visible, which indicated
pretty strongly that he had been made blind by
some sharp instrument, most probably by a
heated needle. The suspicion was very strong
against the former keeper, of whom I never heard
anything after. The elephant I frequently rode
on, shooting, for many years after this, through
heavy covers, intersected with ravines, rivers,
and over hollow and uneven ground, and he
scarcely ever made a false step with me, and
never once tumbled. He usedto touch theground
with his trunk on every spot where his feet were



to be placed, and in so light and quick a man-
ner as scarcely to be perceived. The Mahout
would often make him remove large stones,
lumps of earth, or timber, out of his way, fre-
quently climb up and down banks that no horse
could get over. He would also occasionally
break off branches of trees that were in the way
of the Howdah, to enable me to pass.
Although perfectly blind, he was considered
one of the best sporting elephants of his small
size in the country, and he travelled at a toler-
ably good rate, and was remarkably easy in his

AN occurrence nearly similar happened to me
soon after, which put an end to my shooting on
foot. From that time to the period of my leav-
ing Chittrah, which was many years after, I al-
ways went out to shoot on an elephant. The
circumstance I allude to was as follows:-Fifty
or sixty people were beating a thick cover. I


was on the outside of it, with a man holding my
horse, and another servant with a hog's spear;
when those who were driving the cover called
Suer! Suer! which is the Hindoostanee name
for hog. Seeing something move the bushee
about twenty yards from me, and supposing is
to be a hog, I fired at the spot, with ten or at
dozen small balls. Instantly on the explosion of
my gun, a tiger roared out, and came galloping
straight towards us. I dipped under the horse's
belly, and got on the opposite side from him. He
came within a few yards of us, and then turned
off growling into the cover.
When the people came out, they brought with
them a dead hog, partly devoured. These two
cases, I think, shew clearly that tigers are natu-
rally cowardly. They generally take their prey
by surprise, and whenever they attack openly, it
is reasonable to conclude that they must be ex-
tremely hungry; which I believe is often the
case, as their killing animals of the forest must
be very precarious. It is the general opinion of
the inhabitants, that when a tiger has tasted



human blood he prefers it to all other food. A
year or two sometimes elapses without any one
being killed by a tiger for several miles round,
although they are often seen in that space, and
are known to destroy cattle; but as soon as one
man is killed, others shortly after share the
same fate. This, I imagine, is the reason why
the natives entertain an idea that they prefer
men to all other food. I account for it other-
wise. Tigers are naturally afraid of men, and,
in the first instance, seldom attack them, un-
less compelled by extreme hunger. When once
they have ventured an attack, they find them
much easier prey than most animals of the fo-
rest, and always to be met with near villages,
and on public roads, without the trouble of
hunting about for them through the covers.
A tigress with two cubs lurked about the
Kutlcumnsandy pass, and during two months
killed a man almost every day, and on some
days two. Ten or twelve of the people belong-
ing to government (carriers of the post-bags)
were of the number. In fact, the communi-


cation between the Presidency and the upper
provinces was almost entirely cut off. The go-
vernment, therefore, was induced to offer a
large reward to any person who killed the
She was fired at, and, adds Mr. J., never .
"heard of after;" from which it may be pre-
sumed she was wounded. It is fortunate for
the inhabitants of that country, that tigers sel-
dom survive any wound; their blood being al-
ways in a state predisposing to putrefaction, a
consequence of the extreme heat, and the&
living entirely on animal food. .
Two Biparies* were driving a string of load-
ed bullocks to Chittrah from Palamow. When
they were come within a few miles of the for-
mer place, a tiger seized on the man in the
rear, which was seen by a Guallah [herdsman],
as he was watching his buffaloes grazing. He
boldly ran to the man's assistance, and cut the

Bipar signifies merchandise, and Biparies are people
who buy grain and other articles, which they transport
from one part of the country to another on buillocks.


tiger severely with his sword; upon which he
dropped the Biparie and seized the herdsman:
the buffaloes observing it, attacked the tiger,
and rescued the poor man; they tossed him
about from one to the other, and, to the best
of my recollection, killed him; but of that I
am not quite positive. Both of the wounded
men were brought to me. The Biparie reco-
vered, and the herdsman died.
An elderly man and his wife (of the lowest
caste of Hindoos, called dooms, who live chiefly
by making mats and baskets) were each carry-
ing home a bundle of wood, and as they were
resting their burdens on the ground, the old
man hearing a strange noise, looked about, and
saw a tiger running off with his wife in his
mouth. He ran after them, and struck the
tiger on the back with a small axe: the tiger
dropt the wife, who was soon after brought to
me. One of Jer breasts was almost entirely
taken away, and the other much lacerated: she
had also several deep wounds in the back of
her neck, by which I imagine the tiger struck



at her with his two fore paws; one on the neck,
and the other on the breast. This, if I may
judge from the number I have seen wounded,
is their usual way of attacking men. The old
woman was six months under my care, and at
last recovered.
As an old Mahometan priest was travelling
at mid-day on horseback, within a few miles of
Chittrah, with his son, an athletic young man,
walking by his side, they heard a tiger roaring
near them. The son urged his father to hasten
on; the old man continued at a slow pace, ob-
serving that there was no danger, the tiger
would not molest them. He then began count-
ing his beads, and offering his prayers to the
Almighty; in the act of which he was knocked
off his horse, and carried away by the tiger; ,
the son ran after them, and cut the tiger
with his sword; he dropped the father, seized
the son, and carried him off. The father was
brought to Chittrah, and died the same day;
the son was never heard of afterwards. In
this instance, I think, the tiger must have



been ravenously hungry, or lie would not have
roared when near his prey; it is what they
seldom or ever do, except in the very act of
seizing. .
Some idea may be formed how numerous the
tigers must have been at one period in Bengal,
from the circumstance, that one gentleman is re-
ported to have killed upwards of three hundred
and sixty.


Jrnt! nf fir Upn 3Inorr.
From Mr. Southey's History of the Peninsular War, a
work of sterling merit.
MARSHAL SOULT'S intention was to force the
right of the British, and thus to interpose be-
tween Corunna and the army, and cut it off
from the place of embarkation. Failing in this
attempt, he was now endeavouring to outflank
it. Half of the 4th regiment was therefore or-
dered to fall back, forming an obtuse angle with
the other half. This manoeuvre was excellently
performed, and they commenced a heavy flank-
ing fire: Sir John Moore called out to them,
that this was exactly what he wanted to be
done, and rode on to the 50th, commanded by
Majors Napier and Stanhope. They got over an
inclosure in their front, charged the enemy
most gallantly, and drove them out of the vil-
lage of Elvina; but Major Napier, advancing
too far in the pursuit, received several wounds,


and was made prisoner, and Major Stanhope
was killed.
The General now proceeded tothe 42nd.
Highlanders," said he, "remember Egypt!"
They rushed on, and drove the French before
them, till they were stopped by a wall. Sir
John accompanied them in this charge. He
now sent Captain Hardinge to order up a bat-
talion of Guards to the left flank of the 42nd.
The officer commanding the light infantry con-
ceived at this that they were to be relieved by
the Guards, because their ammunition was
nearly expended, and he began to fall back.
The General, discovering the mistake, said to
them, "My brave 42nd, join your comrades:
ammunition is coming, and you have your bayo-
nets!' Upon this, they instantly moved for-
ward. Captain Hardinge returned, and pointed
out to the General where the Guards were ad&
vancing. The enemy kept up a hot fire, and
their artillery played incessantly on the spot
where they were standing. A cannon-shot
struck Sir John, and carried away his left


shoulder, and part of the collar-bone, leaving
the arm hanging by the flesh. He fell from
his horse on his back; his countenance did not
change, neither did he betray the least sensa-
tion of pain. Captain Hardinge, who dis-
mounted, and took him by the hand, observed
him anxiously watching the 42nd, which was
warmly engaged, and told him they were ad-
vancing; and upon that intelligence his coun-
tenance brightened. Colonel Graham, who
now came up to assist him, seeing the com-
posure of his features, began to hope that he
was not wounded, till he perceived the dread-
ful laceration. From the size of the wound, it
was in vain to make any attempt at stopping
the blood; and Sir John consented to be re-
moved in a blanket to the rear. In raising
him up, his sword, hanging on the wounded
side, touched his arm, and became entangled
between his legs. Captain Hardinge began to
unbuckle it; but the General said, in his usual
tone and manner, and in a distinct voice, "It
is as well as it is; I had rather it should go



out of the field with me Six soldiers of the
42nd and the Guards bore him. Hardinge, ob-
serving his composure, began to hope that the
wound might not be mortal, and said to him,
he trusted he might be spared to the army, and
recover. Moore turned his head, and looking
stedfastly at the wound for a few seconds, re-
plied, "No, Hardinge, I feel that to be impos-
As the soldiers were carrying him slowly
along, he made them frequently turn round,
that he might see the field of battle, and listen
to the firing; and he was well pleased when the
sound grew fainter. A spring-wagon came up,
bearing Colonel Wynch, who was wounded:
the Colonel asked who was in the blanket, and
being told it was Sir John Moore, wished him
to be placed in the wagon. Sir John asked
one of the Highlanders whether he thought the
wagon or the blanket was best? and the man
said the blanket would not shake him so much,
as he and the other soldiers would keep the
step, and carry him easy. So they proceeded


with him to his quarters at Corunna, weeping
as they went .. .
The General lived to hear that the battle was
won. "Are the French beaten?" was the ques-
tion which he repeated to every one who came
into his apartment; and he expressed how great
a satisfaction it was to him to know that they
were defeated. "I hope," he said, "the people
of England will be satisfied! I hope my country
will do me justice." Then, addressing Colonel
Anderson, who had been his friend and compan-
ion in arms for one-and-twenty years, he said to
him, "Anderson, you know that I have always
wished to die this way-You will see my friends
as soon as you can:-tell them everything-Say
to my mother"-But here his voice failed, he
became excessively agitated, and did not again
venture to name her. Sometimes he asked to
be placed in an easier posture. "I feel myself
so strong," he said, "I fear I shall be long dying.
It is great uneasiness-it is great pain." But,
after a while, he pressed Anderson's hand close
to his body, and, in a few minutes, died without



a struggle. He fell, as it had ever been his wish
to do, in battle and in victory. No man was
more beloved in private life, nor was there any
general in the British army so universally re-
spected. All men had thought him worthy of
the chief command. Had he been less circum-
spect,-had he looked more ardently forward,
and less anxiously around him, and on all sides,
and behind,-had he been more confident in
himself and in his army, and impressed with
less respect for the French Generals, he would
have been more equal to the difficulties of his
situation. Despondency was the radical weak-
ness of his mind. Personally he was as brave
a man as ever met death in the field; but he
wanted faith in British courage: and it is faith
by which miracles are wrought in war as well
as in religion. But let it ever be remembered
with gratitude, that, when some of his general
officers advised him to conclude the retreat by
a capitulation, Sir John Moore preserved the
honour of England.
He had often said that, if he were killed in


battle, he wished to be buried where he fell.
SThe body was removed at midnight to the cita-
del of Corunna. A grave was dug for him on
the rampart there, by a party of the 9th regi-
ment,the aides-du-camp attending by turns. No
coffin could be procured; and the officers of his
staff wrapped the body, dressed as it was, in a
military cloak and blankets. The interment
was hastened; for, about eight in the morning,
some firing was heard, and they feared that, if
a serious attack were made, they should be or-
dered away, and not suffered to pay him their
last duty. The officers of his staff bore him
to the grave; the funeral service was read by
the chaplain; and the corpse was covered with
Thus, with a solemn splendour and a sadglory,
closed the career of a gallant but unfortunate




We subjoin the beautiful Ode on the Death of Sir John,
written by the Rev. Mr. Wolfe:-
Nov a drum was heard, not a funeral-note,
As his corse to the ramparts we hurried;
Not a soldier discharged his farewell-shot
O'er the grave where our hero we buried.

We buried him darkly at dead of night,
The sods with our bayonets turning,
By the straggling moonbeam's misty light,
And the lantern dimly burning.

No useless coffin inclosed his breast,
Not in sheet or in shroud we wound him,
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest,
With his martial cloak around him.

Few and short were the prayers we said,
And we spoke not a word of sorrow;
But we stedfastly gazed on the face that was dead,
And we bitterly thought of the morrow.

We thought, as we hallowed his narrow bed,
And smoothed down his lonely pillow, f[ d,
That the foe and the stranger would tread o'eI'
And we far away on the billow!


Lightly they'll talk of the spirit that's gone,
And o'er his cold ashes upbraid him,-
But little he'll reck, if they let him sleep on
In the grave where a Briton has laid him.

But half of our heavy task was done,
When the clock struck the hour for retiring;
And we heard the distant and random gun
That the foe was sullenly firing.

Slowly and sadly we laid him down,
From the field of his fame fresh and gory;
We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone-
But we left him alone with his glory.



ftrin etiraunq.
Sir R. K. Porter, in his travels in Persia, met with the
sufferer from despotic tyranny and cruelty whose story
is here related. He informs us, that the benignity of
this person's countenance, united with the crippled
state of his venerable frame, from the effects of his pre-
cipitation from the terrible height of execution, excited
his curiosity to inquire into the particulars of so amaz-
ing a preservation.
ENTERING into conversation on the amiable
characters of the reigning royal family of Per-
sia, and comparing the present happiness of
his country under their rule, with its misery
during the sanguinary usurpation of the tyrant
Nackee Khan, the good old man, who had him-
self been so signal an example of that misery,
was easily led to describe the extraordinary cir-
cumstances of his own case. Being connected
with the last horrible acts, and consequent fall
of the usurper, a double interest accompanied
his recital, the substance of which was nearly
as follows:-
Having by intrigues and assassinations made


himself master of the regal power at Shiraz, this
monster of human kind found that the governor
of Ispahan, instead of adhering to him, had pro-
claimed the accession of the lawful heir. No
sooner was the intelligence brought to Nackee
Khan than he put himself at the head of his
troops, and set forward to revenge his contemned
authority. Whenhe arrived as far as Yezdikast,
he encamped his army for a short halt, near the
tomb on the north side. Being as insatiable of
money as blood, he sent to the inhabitants of
Yezdikast, and demanded an immense sum in
Sold, which he insisted should instantly be paid
to Ids messengers. Unable to comply, the fact
was respectfully pleaded in excuse; namely,
"that all the money the city had possessed was
already taken away by his own officers, and those
of the opposite party; and that, at present, there
was scarce a tomaun in the place." Enraged at
this answer, he repaired, full of wrath, to the
town, and, ordering eighteen of the principal
inhaiLtants to be brought before him, again de-
manded the money, but with threats and impre-



cations which made the hearers tremble. Still,
however, they could only return the same an-
swer-" their utter inability to pay;" and the
tyrant, without a moment's preparation, com-
manded the men to be seized, and hurled from
the top of the precipice in his sight. Most of
them were instantly killed on the spot; others,
cruelly maimed, died in terrible agonies where
they fell; and the describer of the dreadful scene
was the only one who survived. He could form
no idea of how long he lay after precipitation,
utterly senseless; "but," added he, "by the will
of God I breathed again; and, on opening my
eyes, found myself among the dead and mangled
bodies of my former neighbours and friends.
Some yet groaned." He then related, that, in the
midst of his horror at the sight, he heard sounds
of yet more terrible acts, from the top of the
cliff; and, momentarily strengthened by fear of
he knew not what, for he believed that death had
already grasped his own poor shattered frame,
he managed to crawl away, unperceivd, into
one of the numerous caverned holes which per-


forate the foot of the steep. He lay there in an
expiring state the whole night, but in the morn-
ing was providentially discovered by some of
the town's people, who came to seek the bodies
of their murdered relatives, to mourn over and
take them away for burial. The poor man,
feeble as he was, called to these weeping groups;
who, to their astonishment and joy, drew out
one survivor from the dreadful heap of slain.
No time was lost in conveying him home, and
administering every kind of assistance; but
many months elapsed before he was able to
move from his house, so deep had been the in-
juries inflicted in his fall.
In the course of his awful narrative, he told
us, that the noise which had so appalled him, as
he lay among the blood-stained rocks, was indeed
the acting of a new cruelty of the usurper. After
having witnessed the execution of his sentence
on the eighteen citizens, whose asseverations he
had determined not to believe, Nackee Khan
immediately sent for a devout man, called Saied
Hassan, who was considered the sage of the place,



and, for his charities, greatly beloved by the
people. "This man," said the Khan, being a
descendant of the Prophet, must know the truth,
and will tell it me. He shall find me those who
can and will pay the money." But the answer
given by the honest Saied being precisely the
same with that of the innocent victims who
had already perished, the tyrant's fury knew
no bounds, and, rising from his seat, he ordered
the holy man to be rent asunder in his presence,
and then thrown over the rock, to increase the
monument of his vengeance below.
It was the tumult of this most dreadful exe-
cution, which occasioned the noise that drove
the affrighted narrator to the shelter of any hole
from the eye of merciless man. But the cruel
scene did not end here. Even in the yet sensible
ear of the Saied, expiring in agonies, his execra-
ble murdererordered that hiswife and daughters
should be given up to the soldiers; and that, in
punishment of such universal rebellion in the
town, the whole place should be razed to the
ground. But this last act of blood on a son of


the Prophet cost the perpetrator his life. For
the soldiers themselves, and the nobles who had
been partisans of the usurper, were so struck
with horror at the sacrilegious murder, and ap-
palled with the threatened guilt of violating
women of the sacred family, that they believed
a curse must follow the abettors of such a man
The next step, in their minds, was to appease
heaven by the immolation of the offender; and,
in the course of that very night, a band of his
servants cut the cords of his tent, which, instant-
lyfalling in upon him, afforded them a secure op-
portunity of burying their poniards in his body.
The first strokes were followed by thousands.
So detested was the wretch, that in a few mi-
nutes his remains were hewn and torn to pieces.
It does not become men to lift the veil which
lies over the whole doom of a ruthless murderer;
but there is something in the last mortal yell
of a tyrant, whether it be a Robespierre or a
Nackee Khan, which sounds as if mingled with
a dreadful echo from the eternal shore.



AAkttrlra in 3irginin.
The Rock Bridge is described by Mr. Jefferson, late
President of the United States, as one of the most sub-
lime of the productions of Nature. It is on the ascent
of a hill which seems to have been cloven through its
length by some great convulsion of Nature.
Although the sides of the bridge are provided in some
parts with a parapet of fixed rocks, yet few persons
have resolution to walk to them, and look over into
the abyss. The passenger involuntarily falls on his
hands, creeps to the parapet, and peeps over it. Look-
ing down from this height for the space of a minute,
occasions a violent headache; and the view from be-
neath is delightful in the extreme, as much as that
from above is exquisitely painful.
The following beautiful sketch is from the pen of the
Rev. John Todd, of Philadelphia, author of the Stu-
dent's Manual, Simple Sketches, and other admired
ON a lovely morning towards the close of
spring, I found myself in a very beautiful part
of the great valley of Virginia. Spurred on by
impatience, I beheld the sun rising in splen-
dour, and changing the blue tints on the tops
of the lofty Alleghany mountains into streaks


of purest gold; and nature seemed to smile in
the freshness of beauty. A ride of about fifteen
miles, and a pleasant woodland ramble of about
two, brought myself and my companion to the
Although I had been anxiously looking for-
ward to this time, and my mind had been con-
siderably excited by expectation, yet I was not
altogether prepared for this visit. This great
work of nature is considered by many as the
second great curiosity in our country, Niagara
Falls being the first. I do not expect to con-
vey a very correct idea of this bridge; for no
description can do this.
The Natural Bridge is entirely the work of
God. It is of solid limestone, and connects two
huge mountains together, by a most beautiful
arch over which there is a great wagon road.
Its length from one mountain to the other is
nearly eighty feet, its width about thirty-five,
its thickness forty-five, and its perpendicular
height above the water is not far from two hun-
dred and twenty feet. A few bushes grow on



its top, by which the traveller may hold himself
as he looks over. On each side of the stream,
and near the bridge, are rocks projecting ten or
fifteen feet over the water, and from two hun-
dred to three hundred feet ftom its surface, all
of limestone. The visitor cannot give so good
a description of the bridge as he can of his
feelings at the time. He softly creeps out on
a shaggy projecting rock, and, looking down a
chasm from forty to sixty feet wide, he sees,
nearly three hundred feet below, a wild stream
foaming and dashing against the rocks beneath,
as if terrified at the rocks above. This-stream
is called Cedar Creek. He sees under the arch,
trees whose height is seventy feet; and yet, as
he looks down upon them, they appear like
small bushes of perhaps two or three feet in
height. I saw several birds fly under the arch,
and they looked like insects. I threw down a
stone, and counted thirty-four before it reached
the water. All hear of heights and of depths,
but they here see what is high, and they tremble,
and feel it to be deep. The awful rocks present

I _


their everlasting butments, the water murmurs
and foams far below, and the two mountains
rear their proud heads on each side, separated
by a channel of sublimity. Those who view the
sun, the moon, and the stars, and allow that
none but God could make them, will here be
impressed that none but an Almighty God could
build a bridge like this.
The view of the bridge from below is as
pleasing as the top view is awful. The arch
from beneath would seem to be about two feet
in thickness. Some idea of the distance from
the top to the bottom may be formed, from the
fact, that as I stood on the bridge and my com-
panion beneath, neither of us could speak suffi-
ciently loud to be heard by the other. A man,
from either view, does not appear more than
four or five inches in height.
As we stood under this beautiful arch, we
saw the place where visitors have often taken
the pains to engrave their names upon the rock.
Here Washington climbed up twenty-five feet,
and carved his own name, where it still remains.



Some, wishing to immortalise their names, have
engraven them deep and large, while others have
tried to climb up and insert them high in this
book of fame.
A few years since, a young man, being am-
bitious to place his name above all others, was
very near losing his life in the attempt. After
much fatigue he climbed up as high as possible,
but found that the person who had before occu-
pied his place was taller than himself, and con-
sequently had placed his name above his reach.
But he was not thus to be discouraged. He
opened a large jack-knife, and, in the soft lime-
stone, began to cut places for his hands and
feet. With much patience and industry he
worked his way upwards, and succeeded in
carving his name higher than the most am-
bitious had done before him. He could now
triumph, but his triumph was short; for he
was placed in such a situation that it was im-
possible to descend, unless he fell upon the
ragged rocks beneath him. There was no house
near, from whence his companions could get



assistance. He could not long remain in that
condition, and, what was worse, his friends were
too much frightened to do anything for his re-
lief. They looked upon him as already dead,
expecting every moment to see him precipitated
upon the rocks below and dashed to pieces.
Not so with himself. He determined to ascend.
Accordingly he plies the rock with his knife,
cutting places for his hands and feet, and gra-
dually ascended with incredible labour. He
exerts every muscle. His life was at stake, and
all the terrors of death rose before him. He
dared not look downwards, lest his head should
become dizzy; and perhaps on this circumstance
his life depended. His companions stood at the
top of the rock, exhorting and encouraging him.
His strength was almost exhausted; but a bare
possibility of saving his life still remained; and
hope, the last friend of the distressed, had not
yet forsaken him. His course upwards was
rather oblique than perpendicular. His most
critical moment had now arrived. He had as-
cended considerably more than two hundred


feet, and had still further to rise, when he felt
himself fast growing weak. He thought of his
friends, and all his earthly joys, and he could
not leave them. He thought of the grave, and
dared not meet it. He now made his last effort
and succeeded. He had cut his way not far
from two hundred and fifty feet from the water,
in a course almost perpendicular; and in a little
less than two hours, his anxious companions
reached him a pole from the top, and drew him
up. They received him with shouts of joy, but
he himself was completely exhausted. He im-
mediately fainted on reaching the top, and it
was some time before he could be recovered!
It was interesting to see the path up these
awful rocks, and to follow in imagination this
bold youth as he thus saved his life. His name
stands far above all the rest, a monument of
hardihood, of rashness, and of folly.
We lingered around this seat of grandeur
about four hours; but, from my own feelings, I
should not have supposed it over half an hour.
There is a little cottage near, lately built; here



we were desired to write our names, as visitors
of the bridge, in a large book kept for this pur-
pose. Two large volumes were nearly filled in
this manner already. Having immortalised our
names by enrolling them in this book, we slowly
and silently returned to our horses, wondering
at this great work of nature; and we could not
but be filled with astonishment at the amazing
power of Him who can clothe Himself in won-
der and terror, or throw around His works a
mantle of sublimity.

About three days' ride from the Natural Bridge brought
Mr. Todd and his companions to a place called Port
Republic, about twenty miles from the town of Staun-
ton. Here they prepared themselves to visit this other
natural curiosity.
THE shower was now over, which had wet us
to the skin-the sun was pouring down his most
scorching rays-the heavy thunder had gone
by; we threw around our delighted eyes, and
beheld near us the lofty Alleghany rearing his



shaggy head. The south branch of the Shen-
andoah river, with its banks covered with beau-
tiful trees, was murmuring at our feet-a lovely
plain stretched below us, as far as the eye could
reach; and we, with our guide, were now stand-
ing about half way up a hill nearly two hundred
feet high, and so steep that a biscuit may be
thrown from its top into the river at its foot-
we were standing at the mouth of WIER'S CAVE.
This cavern derives its name from Barnet Wier,
who discovered it in the year 1804. It is situ-
ated near Madison's Cave, so celebrated; though
the latter cannot be compared with the former.
There were three of us, besides our guide, with
lighted torches, and our loins girded, now ready
to descend into the cave. We took our torches
in our left hands and entered. The mouth was
so small that we could descend only by creeping,
one after another. A descent of almost twenty
yards brought us into the first room. The cave
was exceedingly cold, dark, and silent, like the
chambers of death. In this manner we pro-
ceeded, now descending thirty or forty feet-



now ascending as high-now creeping on our
hands and knees, and now walking in large
rooms-the habitations of solitude. The moun-
tain seems to be composed almost wholly of
limestone, and by this means the cave is lined
throughout with the most beautiful incrusta-
tions and stalactites of carbonated lime, which
are formed by the continual dripping of the
water through the roof. These stalactites are
of various and elegant shapes and colours, often
bearing a striking resemblance to animated na-
ture. At one place we saw over our heads what
appeared to be a waterfall of the most beautiful
kind. Nor could the imagination be easily per-
suaded that it was not a reality. You could
see the water boiling and dashing down,-see
its white spray and foam-but it was all solid
Thus we passed onward in this world of soli-
tude-now stopping to admire the beauties of a 4
single stalactite-now wondering at the magni-
ficence of a large room-now creeping through
narrow passages, hardly wide enough to admit



the body of a man,-and now walking in superb
galleries, until we came to the largest room,
called WASHINGTON HALL. This is certainly the
most elegant room I ever saw. It is about two
hundred and seventy feet in length, about thirty-
five in width, and between thirty and forty feet
high. The roof and sides are very beautifully
adorned by the tinsels which Nature has be-
stowed in the greatest profusion, and which
sparkle like the diamond, while surveyed by the
light of torches. The floor is flat, and smooth,
and solid. I was foremost of our little party in
entering the room, and was not a little startled
as I approached the centre, to see a figure, as it
were, rising up before me out of the solid rock.
It was not far from seven feet high, and cor-
responded in every respect to the common idea
of a ghost. It was very white, and resembled
a tall man clothed in a shroud. I went up to
S it sideways, though I could not really expect
to meet a ghost in a place like this. On ex-
amination I found it was a very beautiful piece
of the carbonate of lime, very transparent, and



very much in the shape of a man. This is
called WASHINGTO.'S STATUE as if Nature
would do for this hero what his delivered
country has not done-rear a statue to his
Here an accident happened which might have
been serious. One of our party had purposely
extinguished his light, lest we should not have
enough to last. My companion accidentally put
out his light, and in sport came and blew out
mine. We were now about sixteen hundred feet
from daylight, with but one feeble light, which
the falling water might in a moment have ex-
tinguished. Add to this, that the person who
held this light was at some distance viewing
some falling water.
Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant."

We, however, once more lighted our torches;
but, had we not been able to do so, we might,
at our leisure, have contemplated the gloomi-
ness of the cavern, for no one would have come
to us till the next day. In one room we found



an excellent spring of water, which boiled up
as if to slake our thirst, then sunk into the
mountain, and was seen no more. In another
room was a noble pillar, called the TOWER OF
BABEL. It is composed entirely of stalactites
of lime, or, as the appearance would seem to
suggest, of petrified water. It is about thirty
feet in diameter, and a little more than ninety
feet in circumference, and not far from thirty
feet high. There are probably millions of sta-
lactites in this one pillar.
Thus we wandered on in this world within a
world, till we had visited twelve very beautiful
rooms, and as many creeping places, and had
now arrived at the end,-a distance from our
entrance of between twenty-four and twenty-
five hundred feet; or, what is about its equal,
half a mile from the mouth. We here found
ourselves exceedingly fatigued; but our torches
forbade us to tarry, and we once more turned
our lingering steps towards the common world.
When we arrived again at Washington Hall,
one of our company three times discharged a



pistol, whose report was truly deafening; and
as the sound reverberated and echoed through
one room after another till it died away in dis-
tance, it seemed like the meanings of spirits.
We continued our wandering steps till we ar-
rived once more at daylight, having been nearly
three hours in the cavern. We were much fa-
tigued, covered with dirt, and in a cold sweat;
yet we regretted to leave it. From the farther
end of the cave I gathered some handsome sta-
lactites, which I put into my portmanteau, and
preserved as mementos of that day's visit.
To compare the Natural Bridge and Cave to-
gether as objects of curiosity, is exceedingly dif-
ficult. Many consider the Bridge as the great-
est curiosity; but I think the Cavern is. In
looking at the Bridge we are filled with awe; at
the Cavern with delight. At the Bridge we have
several views that are awful; at the Cave hun-
dreds that are pleasing. At the Bridge you
stand and gaze in astonishment; at the Cave aw-
fulness is lost in beauty, and grandeur is dressed
in a thousand captivating forms. At the Bridge


you feelyourself to be lookinginto another world;
at the Cave you find yourself already arrived
there. The one presents to us a God who is
very "wonderful in working;" the other exhi-
bits the same power, but with it is blended love-
liness in a thousand forms. In each is vast-
ness. Greatness constitutes the whole of one;
but the other is elegant, as well as great. Of
each we must retain lively impressions; and to
witness such displays of the Creator's power,
must ever be considered as happy events in our
lives. While viewing scenes like these, we must
ever exalt the energy of creating power, and
sink under the thoughts of our own insignifi-
cance. The works of nature are admirably well
calculated to impress us deeply with a sense of
the mighty power of God, who can separate two
mountains by a channel of awfulness, or fill the
bowels of a huge mountain with beauties, that
man, with all the aid of art, can only admire,
but never imitate.


|j 'nristin Vam.
We venture to extract another of Mr. Todd's Simple
Sketches, so charmingly are they described.
THE sun had set, and I began to be anxious
to find a place of rest for the night, after a day's
ride under a sultry sun. Iwas travelling in South
Carolina, and was now not far from a branch of
the Cooper river. The country here is a dead
level, and its surface is covered with thinly scat-
tered pines. I came to an old church-it stood
solitary; not a house in sight: it was built of
wood, and much decayed. The breezes of even-
ing were gently sighing through the tops of the
long-leaved pines which stood near; while still
nearer stood several large live-oaks, which spread
out their aged arms, as if to shelter what was
sacred. On their limbs hung, in graceful folds
the long grey moss, as if a mantle of mourning,
waving over a few decayed tombs at the east
side of the church. These oaks give the place
a very sombre and awful appearance; they


seemed to stand as silent mourners over the
dust of generations that had sunk into the
grave, and waiting in solemn expectation that
others would soon come and lie beneath their
shade in the long sleep of death. The time of
d congenial to my own feelings, that I involun-
tarily stopped my horse.
My curiosity was now excited by seeing a very
-aged negro standing and gazing steadily on a
small decaying tomb. He seemed to be intent,
and did not observe me; his woolly locks were
whitened by age; his countenance was manly,
though it bore the marks of sorrow; he was
leaning on his smooth-worn staff, the compa-
nion of many years. I was somewhat surprised
on seeing this aged African silently meditating
among the vestiges of the dead, and accordingly
roused him from his reverie. He started at first,
but his confidence was soon gained. There is
a spring in the bosom of every Christian, which
throws a joy into his heart whenever he meets
a fellow-christian during his pilgrimage here be-



low. I found the old negro to be an eminent
Christian, and we were soon acquainted. I in-
quired what motive induced him, at that hour
of the day, to visit these tombs. Instead of
answering my question directly he gave me
the following account of himself, in broken
About sixty years ago, this negro was living
under his paternal roof in Africa. He was the
son of a chief of a small tribe, the pride of his
parents, and the delight of his countrymen; none
could more dexterously throw the dart; none
more skilfully guide the fragile canoe over the
bosom of the deep. He was not far from twenty
years of age, when, on a fair summer's morn, he
went in his little canoe to spend the day in fish-
ing. About noon he paddled his bark to the
shore, and, under the shade of a beautiful pal-
metto-tree, he reclined till the heat of noon-day
should be passed. He was young, healthy, and
active; he knew none whom he dreaded; he was
a stranger to fear, and he dreamed only of secu-
rity, as he slept under the shade of his own na-



tive tree. Thus, while our sky is encircled with
the bow of happiness, we forget that it may soon
be overspread with darkness. When this Afri-
can awoke, he found his hands bound behind
him, his feet fettered, and himself surrounded
by several white men, who were conveying him
on board of their ship;-it was a slave-ship.
The vessel had her cargo completed, and was
ready to sail. As they were unfurling the sails,
the son of Africa, with many others of his
countrymen, for the last time cast his eyes
upon his native shores. Futurity was dark,
-was uncertain,-was despair. His bosom
thrilled with anguish, as he threw his last
farewell look over the plains of his native
country. There was his native spot where his
had lived, there the home of his infancy and
childhood, there the place where he had in-
haled his earliest breath-and to tear him from
these, seemed like breaking the very strings of
his heart.
After a melancholy passage, during which the
African was forced to wear double the irons to



receive double the number of lashes, that any
of his companions received, on account of his
refractory spirit, he was at length landed and
sold to a planter in the place where he now
resides. There is nothing new, nothing novel
or interesting, that ever takes place in the
life of a slave--describe one day, and you write
the history of a slave. The sun, indeed, conti-
nues to roll over him; but it sheds upon him
no new joys, no new prospects, no new hopes.
So it was with the subject of this narrative.
His master was naturally a man of a very hu-
mane disposition; but his overseers were often
little else than compounds of vice and cruelty.
In this situation the negro lost all his natural
independence and bravery. He often attempted
to run away, but was as often taken and pun-
ished. Having no cultivated mind to which
he could look for consolation-knowing of no
change that was ever to take place in his situa-
tion,-he settled down in gloominess. Often
would he send a silent sigh for the home of his
youth; but his path shewed but few marks of



happiness, and few rays of hope for futurity
were drawn by fancy's hand. Sunk in despond-
ency and vice, he was little above the brutes
around him.
In this situation he was accidentally met by
the good minister of the parish, who addressed
him as a rational and immortal being, and
pressed upon him the first principles of reli-
gion. This was a new subject; for he had never
before looked beyond the narrow bounds before
him, nor had he ever dreamed of a world be-
yond this. After a long conversation on this
subject, the minister made him promise that he
would now attend to his soid."
The clergyman could not, for many months
after this, obtain an interview with his new
pupil, who most carefully shunned him. But
though afraid to meet his minister, he still felt
an arrow of conviction in his heart. Wherever
he went, whether asleep or awake, to use his
own words, his promise, me take care ofsoul,
stick close to him." He now began in earnest
to seek "the one thing needful." By the kind-



ness of his master he learned to read his Testa-
ment, and to inquire more about Jesus. He
was now very desirous to see his minister; and
before a convenient opportunity occurred, he
was in such distress of mind as actually to at-
tempt two several times to kill himself. His
minister visited him, conversed and prayed with
Oh," he would say, God never think such
poor negro, he no love so much sinner, he no
before ever see such bad heart!" The mercy of
Christ, and his compassion towards sinners,
were explained to him, and his soul was filled
with "joy and peace in believing." He now
rejoiced and thanked God that he was brought
from his native shores, as he had a fairer coun-
try, and purer enjoyments presented to his view,
after the scenes of this transitory world shall
be over. He now became more industrious and
more faithful. By uncommon industry he raised
money sufficient to purchase his own freedom.
He next bought the liberty of his wife, and had
nearly completed paying for that of his only


daughter, when she was liberated by the hand
of death. His wife soon followed her, and left
this world a perfect void to the husband and
father. His every tie that bound him to earth
was now broken. Having no earthly enjoy-
ment, he now placed his affections on heaven
above. It is easy for the Christian to make ra-
pid progress in holiness when not fettered by
worldly cares.
It was now dark, and I must leave my new
acquaintance. I left him with his face wet with
tears, still standing beside the tomb-the tomb
of his old minister! This good man had been
his faithful and constant guide, and though his
ashes had been slumbering for years, the negro
had not yet forgotten how to weep at their urn.
I could not but admire the wonderful dealings
of God, in order to bring men to himself. Hap-
py minister who hast been the instrument of
covering a multitude of sins! Happy negro!
his is not this world. Though no sculptured
marble may tell the traveller where he may
shortly lie-though he never trod the thorny



road of ambition or power-though the trum-
pet of fame never blew the echo of his name
through a gaping world-still those eyes, which
will soon be closed in death, may hereafter
awake, to behold, undaunted, a world in flames,
and these heavens fleeing away.

-inlrnt Cnrtlnhlt in (nltrin.
In nature there is nothing which can inspire us with so
much awe as those violent outbreakings which occa-
sionally convulse the earth, creating fearful devasta-
tion, overthrowing cities, and destroying much life and
property. The following is a description of one which
occurred in Calabria and Sicily in the year 1783; and
which, from its violence, overthrew many cities, creat-
ing an universal consternation in the minds of the in-
habitants of the two kingdoms.
ON Wednesday, the fifth of February, about one
in the afternoon, the earth was convulsed in
that part of Calabria which is bounded by the
rivers of Gallico and Metramo, by the mountains
Jeio, Sagra, and Caulone, and the coast between

these rivers and the Tuscan Sea. This district
is called the Piana, because the country extends
itself from the roots of the Appenines, in a plain,
for twenty Italian miles in length by eighteen in
breadth. The earthquake lasted about a hun-
dred seconds. It was felt as far as Otranto, Pa-
lermo, Lipari, and the other Eolian isles; a lit-
tle also in Apuglia, and the Terra di Cavoro;
in Naples and the Abruzzi not at all There
stood in this plain a hundred and nine cities and
villages, the habitations of a hundred and sixty-
six thousand human beings; and in less than
two minutes all these edifices were destroyed,
with nearly thirty-two thousand individuals of
every age, sex, and station,-the rich equally
with the poor; for there existed no power of
escaping from so sudden a destruction. The
soil of the Piana was granite at the base of the
Apennines, but in the plain the debris of every
sort of earth, brought down from the mountains
by the rains, .constituted a mass of unequal
solidity, resistance, weight, and form. On this
account, whatever might have been the cause

of the earthquake, whether volcanic or electrical,
the movement assumed every possible direction
-vertical, horizontal, oscillatory, vorticose, and
pulsatory; producing every variety of destruc-
tion. In one place, a city or house was thrown
down, in another it was immersed. Here, trees
were buried to their topmost branches, beside
others stripped and overturned. Some moun-
tains opened in the middle, and dispersed their
mass to the right and left, their summits dis-
appearing, or being lost in the newly-formed
valleys; others slipped from their foundations
along with all their edifices, which sometimes
were overthrown, but more rarely remained un-
injured, and the inhabitants not even disturbed
in their sleep. The earth opened in many places,
forming frightful abysses; while, at a small dis-
tance, it rose into hills. The waters, too, changed
their course; rivers uniting to form lakes, or
spreading into marshes; disappearing, to rise
again in new streams, through other banks, or
running at large, to lay bare and desolate the
most fertile fields. Nothing retained its ancient


form, cities, roads, and boundaries vanished,-
so that the inhabitants were bewildered as if in
an unknown land. The works of art and of
nature, the elaborations of centuries, together
with many a stream and rock, coeval perhaps
with the world itself, were in a single instant
destroyed and overthrown. Whirlwinds,
tempests, the flames of volcanoes, and of burn-
ing edifices, rain, wind, and thunder, accom-
panied the movements of the earth: all the
forces of nature were in activity, and it seemed
as if all its laws were suspended, and the last
hour of created things at hand. In the mean-
time, the sea between Scylla, Charybdis, and the
coasts of Reggio and Messina, was raised many
fathoms above its usual level; overflowing its
banks, and then, in its return to its channel,
carrying away men and beasts. By these means,
two thousand persons lost their lives on Scylla
alone, who were either congregated on the sands,
or had escaped in boats, from the dangers of the
dry land. Etna and Stromboli were in more
than usual activity; but this hardly excited at-

tention, amidst greater and graver disasters. A
worse fire than that of the volcanoes resulted
from the incidents of the earthquake; for the
beams of the falling houses being ignited by the
burning heaths, the flames, fanned by the winds,
were so vast and fierce, that they seemed to issue
from the bosom of the earth. The heavens,
alternately cloudy or serene, had given no pre-
vious sign of the approaching calamity; but a
new source of suffering followed it, in a thick
fog, which obscured the light of the day, and
added to the darkness of night. Irritating to
the eyes, injurious to the respiration, fetid, and
immoveable, it hung over the two Calabrias for
more than twenty days,-an occasion of melan-
choly, disease, and annoyance, both to man and
to animals. .
At the first shock, no token, in heaven or on
earth, had excited attention; but at the sudden
movement, and at the aspect of destruction, an
overwhelming terror seized on the general mind,
insomuch, that the instinct of self-preservation
was suspended, and men remained thunder-


stricken and immoveable. On the return of re.-
son, the first sentiment was a sort of joy at the
partial escape; but they soon gave place to grief
for the loss of family, and the overthrow of the
domestic habitation. Amidst so many aspects of
death, and the apprehension even of approaching
judgment, the suspicion that friends were yet
alive under the ruins was the most excruciating
affliction, since the impossibility of assisting
them rendered their death-(miserable and ter-
rible consolation)-a matter of preference and
of hope. Fathers and husbands were seen wan-
dering amidst the ruins that covered the objects
of their affections, and, wanting the power to
move the superincumbent masses, were calling
in vain for the assistance of the bystanders; or
haply they lay groaning, night and day, in their
despair, upon the ruinous fragments. But the
most horrid fate-(a fate too dreadful to con-
ceive or to relate)-was theirs, who, buried alive
beneath the fallen edifices, awaited, with an
anxious and doubtful hope, the chances of relief
-accusing, at first, the slowness, and then the


avarice, of their dearest relations and friends;
and when they sank under hunger and grief-
with their senses and memory beginning to fail
them-their last sentiment was that of indig-
nation against their kindred, and hatred of hu-
manity. Many were disinterred alive by their
friends, and some by the earthquake itself;
which, overthrowing the very ruins it had made,
restored them twilight. It was ultimately found,
that about a fourth of those whose bodies were
recovered, might have been saved, had timely
assistance been at hand. The men were chiefly
found in attitudes indicating an effort at escape,
the women with their hands covering their face,
or desperately plunged in their hair. Mothers
were discovered dead who had striven to protect
their infants with their own bodies, or lay with
their arms stretched towards these objects of
affection, when separated from them by inter-
vening masses of ruin.


stoape from a $jijp nU first.
From the Missionary Annual" for 1833.
MaNY of the party, having retired to their
hammocks soon after the commencemenJathe
storm, were only partially clothed l RB ey
made their escape; but the seamen on the watch,
in consequence of the heavy ralhaving cased
themselves in double or treble dresses, supplied
their supernumerary articles of clothing to those
who had none. We Appily succeeded in bring-
ing away two compasses from the binnacle, and
a few candles from the cuddy-table, one of them
lighted; one bottle of wine, and another of por-
ter, were handed to us, with the tablecloth and
a knife, which proved very useful; ba the fire
raged so fiercely in the body of the vessel, that
neither bread nor water could be obtained. The
rain still poured in torrents; the lightning, fol-
lowed by loud bursting of thunder, continued
to stream from one side of the heavens to the
other,--one moment dazzling us by its glare,


and the next moment leaving us in darkness,
relieved only by the red flames of the conflag-
ration from which we were endeavouring to
escape. Our first object was to proceed to a
distance from the vessel, lest she should explode
and verwhelm us; but, to our inexpressible
dist A'M discovered that the yawl had no
rudder, and that for the two boats we had only
three oars. .exertions to obtain more from
the ship proved unsuccessful. The gig had a
rudder; from this they threw out a rope to take
us in tow; and, by means of a few paddles, made
by tearing up the lining of the boat, we assisted
in moving ourselves slowly through the water.
providentiallythe sea was comparatively smooth,
or our overloaded boats would have swamped,
and we should only have escaped the flames to
have perished in the deep. The wind was light,
but variable, and, acting on the sails, which,
being drenched with the rain, did not soon take
fire, drove the burning mass, in terrific grandeur,
over the surface of the ocean, the darkness of
which was only illuminated by the quick glanc-


ing of the lightning or the glare of the conflag-
ration. Our situation was for some time ex-
tremely perilous. The vessel neared us more
than once, and apparently threatened to involve
us in one common destruction. The cargo, con-
sisting of dry provisions, spirits, cotton goods,
and other articles equally combustible, burned
with great violence, while the fury of the de-
stroying element, the amazing height of the
'flames, the continued storm, amidst the thick
darkness of the night, rendered the scene appal-
ling and terrible. About ten o'clock, the masts,
after swaying from side to side, fell with a dread"
ful crash into the sea, and the hull of the vessel
continued to burn amidst the shattered frag-
ments of the wreck, till the sides were consumed
to the water's edge. The spectacle was truly
magnificent, could it even have been contem-
plated by us without a recollection of our own
circumstances. The torments endured by the
dogs, sheep, and other animals on board, at any
other time would have excited our deepest com-
miseration; but at present, the object before



us, our stately ship, that had for the last four
months been our social home, the scene of our
enjoyments, our labours, and our rest, now a
prey to the destroying element; the suddenness
with which we had been hurried from circum-
stances of comfort and comparative security, to
those of destitution and peril, and with which
the most exhilarating hopes had been exchanged
for disappointment as unexpected as it was affic-
tive; the sudden death of the two seamen, our
own narrow escape, and lonely situation on the
face of the deep, and the great probability even
yet, although we had succeeded in removing to
a greater distance from the vessel, that we our-
selves should never again see the light of day,
or set foot on solid ground, absorbed every feel-
ing. For some time the silence was scarcely
broken, and the thoughts of many, I doubt not,
were engaged on subjects most suitable to im-
mortalbeingsonthebrink of eternity. The num-
ber of persons in the two boats was forty-eight;
and all, with the exception of the two ladies,
who bore this severe visitation with uncommon


fortitude, worked by turns at the oars and pad-
dles. After some time, to our great relief, the
rain ceased; the labour of baling water from
the boats was then considerably diminished.
We were frequently hailed during the night by
our companions in the small boat, and returned
the call, while the brave and generous-hearted
seamen occasionally enlivened the solitude of
the deep by a simultaneous "Hurra!" to cheer
each others' labours, and to animate their spirits
The Tanjore rose in the water as its contents
were gradually consumed. We saw it burning
the whole night, and at day-break could distin-
guish a column of smoke, which, however, soon
ceased, and every sign of our favourite vessel
disappeared. When the sun rose, our anxiety
and uncertainty as to our situation were greatly
relieved by discovering land a-head; the sight of
it filled us with grateful joy, and nerved us with
fresh vigour for the exertion required in manag-
ing the boats. With the advance of the day we
discerned morecleary the nature of the country.
It was wild and covered with jungle, without


any appearance of population: could we have got
ashore, therefore, many of us might have per-
ished before assistance could have been pro-
cured; but the breakers, dashing upon the rocks,
convinced us that landing was impracticable.
In the course of the morning we discovered a
native vessel, or dhoney, lying at anchor, at
some distance: the wind at that time beginning
to favour us, every means was devised to ren-
der it available. In the yawl we extended the
tablecloth as a sail, and in the other boat a
blanket served the same purpose. This addi-
tional help was the more seasonable, as the
rays of the sun had become almost intolerable
to our partially covered bodies. Some of the
seamen attempted to quench their thirst by
salt water: but the passengers encouraged each
other to abstain. About noon we reached the
dhoney. The natives on board were astonished
and alarmed at our appearance, and expressed
some unwillingness to rec iv' us; but our cir-
cumstances would admit denialal; and we
scarcely waited till our ese fellow-pas-


senger could interpret to them our situation
and our wants, before we ascended the sides of
their vessel, assuring them that every expense
and loss sustained on our account should be am-
ply repaid.




taorbnths nf 1tt llthatrtss, Art.

The author of the following extracts is Mr. Augustus
Earle, whose life has been one of wandering and peril,
traversing every quarter of the globe. The account of
his residence for nine months among the New Zea-
landers is very interesting; but a description of their
cannibal habits will not suit the taste of many of our
young readers. We shall therefore accompany him to
the Island of Tristan d'Acunha, upon which, by acci-
dent, he was left, where he amused himself hunting
goats, sea elephants, albatrosses, and penguins; while,
like another Crusoe, he occasionally watched for the
ship that should release him from his island prison.
His work is entitled Nine Months' Residence in New
Zealand," &c.
BEINa a fine morning, I determined to ascend
the mountain. As several parties had before
gone up, they had formed a kind of path: at
least we endeavoured to trace the same way;
but it requires a great deal of nerve to attempt
it. The sides of the mountain are nearly per-
pendicular; but, after ascending about two
'hundred feet, it is there entirely covered with


wood, which renders the footing much more
safe; but in order to get to the wood, the road
is so dangerous, that it made me almost trem-
ble to think of it,-slippery grey rocks, and
many of them unfortunately loose, so that when
we took hold, they separated from the mass,
and fell with a horrid rumbling noise. Here
and there were a few patches of grass, the on.
thing we could depend upon to assist us ivt
climbing, which must be done with extreme
caution, for the least slip or false step would
dash one to atoms on the rocks below. By
keeping our eyes constantly looking upwards,
and continuing to haul ourselves up, by catch-
ing firm hold on this grass, after an hour's pain-
ful toil we gained the summit, where we found
ourselves on an extended plain, of several
miles expanse, which terminates in the peak,
composed of dark grey lava, bare and frightful
to behold. We proceeded towards it, the plain
gradually rising, but the walking was most
fatiguing, over strong rank grass and fern se-
veral feet high, with holes concealed under the

* 91


roots in such a way, that no possible caution
could prevent our occasionally falling down
into one or other of them, and entirely dis-
appearing, which caused a boisterous laugh
amongst the rest; but it frequently happened,
while one was making merry at the expense of
another, down sunk the laugher himself. A
death-like stillness prevailed in these high re-
*gions, and, to my ear, our voices had a strange,
unnatural echo, and I fancied our forms ap-
peared gigantic, whilst the air was piercing
cold. The prospect was altogether very sub-
lime, and filled the mind with awe! On the
one side, the boundless horizon, heaped up with
clouds of silvery brightness, contrasted with
some of darker hue, enveloping us in their va-
pour, and, passing rapidly away, gave us only
casual glances of the landscape; and, on the
other hand, the sterile and cindery peak, with
its venerable head, partly capped with clouds,
partly revealing great patches of red cinders,
V or lava, intermingled with the black rock, pro-
duced a most extraordinary and dismal effect.

92 -


It seemed as though it were still actually burn-
ing, to heighten the sublimity of the scene.
The huge albatross appeared here to dread no
interloper or enemy; for their young were on
the ground completely uncovered, and the old
ones were stalking around them. This bird is
the largest of the aquatic tribe; and its plum-
age is of a most delicate white, excepting the
back and the tops of its wings, which are grey:
they lay but one egg, on the ground, where
they form a kind of nest, by scraping the earth
round it. After the young one is hatched, it
has to remain a year before it can fly; it is en-
tirely white, and covered with a woolly down,
which is very beautiful. As we approached
them, they clapped their beaks, with a very
quick motion, which made a great noise. This,
and throwing up the contents of the stomach,
are the only means of offence and defence they
seem to possess. The old ones, which are va-
luable on account of their feathers, my com-
panions made dreadful havoc amongst, knock-
ing on the head all they could come up with.



These birds are very helpless on the land, the
great length of their wings precluding them
from rising up into the air, unless they can get
to a steep declivity. On the level ground they
were completely at our mercy, but very little
jas shewn them; and in a very short space of
time the plain was strewn with their bodies,
one blow on the head generally killing them
instantly. Five months after, many of the
young birds were still sitting on their nests,
and had never moved away from them; they re-
main there for a year before they can fly, and
during that long period are fed by the mother.
They had greatly increased in size and beauty
since my first visit to them. The semblance of
the young bird, as it sits on the nest, is stately
and beautiful The white down, which is its
first covering, giving place gradually to its na-
tural grey plumage, leaves half the creature co-
vered with down; the other half is a fine com-
pact coat of feathers, composed of white and
grey; while the head is of a dazzling, silvery
white. Their size is prodigious, one of them



proving a tolerable load. Upon skinning them,
on our return, we found they were covered with
a fine white fat, which I was told was excellent
for frying, and other culinary purposes; and the
flesh was quite as delicate, and could scarcely be
distinguished in flavour from lamb. Besides*
our albatross, the dogs caught some small birds,
about the size of our partridge, but their gait
was something like that of the penguin. The
male is of a glossy black, with a bright red
hard crest on the top of the head. The hen is
brown. They stand erect, and have long yel-
low legs, with which they run very fast; their
wings are small and useless for flying, but they
are armed with sharp spurs for defence, and
also, I imagine, for assisting them in climbing,
as they are found generally among the rocks.
The name they give this bird here is simply
" cock," its only note being a noise very much
resembling the repetition of that word. Its
flesh is plump, fat, .and excellent eating.



THE spot of ground occupied by our settlers
is bounded on each side by high bluffs, which
extend far into the sea, leaving a space in
front, where all their hogs run nearly wild, as
they are prevented going beyond those limits
by those natural barriers; and the creatures
who, at stated periods, come up from the sea,
remain in undisturbed possession of the beaches
beyond our immediate vicinity. The weather
being favourable, we launched our boat early
in the morning, for the purpose of procuring a
supply of eggs for the consumption of the fa-
mily. We heard the chattering of the penguins
from the rookery long before we landed, which
was noisy in the extreme, and groups of them
were scattered all over the beach; but the high
thick grass on the declivity of the hill seemed
their grand establishment, and they were hid-
den by it from our view. As we could not find
any place where we could possibly land our
boat in safety, I and two more swam on shore


with bags tied round our necks to hold the
eggs in, and the boat with one of the men lay
off, out of the surf. I should think the ground
occupied by these birds (if I may be allowed so
to call them) was at least a mile in circumfer-
ence, covered in every part with grasses and
reeds, which grew considerably higher than my
head; and on every gentle ascent, beginning
from the beach, on all the large grey rocks,
which occasionally appeared above this grass,
sat perched groups of these strange and un-
couth-looking creatures; but the noise which
rose up from beneath baffles all description!
As our business lay with the noisy part of this
community, we quietly crept under the grass,
and commenced our plundering search, though
there needed none, so profuse was the quan-
tity. The scene altogether well merits a better
description than I can give-thousands, and
hundreds of thousands, of these little two-leg-
ged erect monsters hopping around us, with
voices very much resembling in tone that of
the human; all opened their throats together:


so thickly clustered in groups that it was al-
most impossible to place the foot without dis-
patching one of them. The shape of the ani-
mal, their curious motions, and their most ex-
traordinary voices, made me fancy myself in a
kingdom of pigmies. The regularity of their
manners, their all sitting in exact rows, re-
sembling more the order of a camp than a
rookery of noisy birds, delighted me. These
creatures did not move away on our approach,
but only increased their noise, so we were
obliged to displace them forcibly from their
nests; and this ejectment was not produced
without a considerable struggle on their parts;
and, being armed with a formidable beak, it
soon became a scene of desperate warfare. We
had to take particular care to protect our hands
and legs from their attacks: and for this pur-
pose each one had provided himself with a
short stout club. The noise they continued to
make during our ramble through their terri-
tories the sailors said was, Cover 'em up, co-
ver 'em up." And, however incredible it may

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