Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: National series of selections for reading
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001814/00001
 Material Information
Title: National series of selections for reading adapted to the standing of the pupil
Alternate Title: National series
Parker's second reader
Physical Description: 204 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Parker, Richard Green, 1798-1869 ( Author, Primary )
Felter, John D ( Engraver )
A. S. Barnes & Burr ( Publisher )
Hobart and Robbins ( Stereotyper )
Publisher: A.S. Barnes & Burr
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: c1851
Subject: Readers (Elementary) -- 1800-1870   ( lcsh )
Recitations -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Readers -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Readers   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Richard G. Parker.
General Note: At head of title: Parker's second reader.
General Note: On cover: National series.
General Note: Ill. stereotyped by Hobart & Robbins.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements: on back cover.
General Note: Frontispiece signed: Felter, SC John D. Felter?.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001814
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002235459
oclc - 16149205
notis - ALH5913
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front 1
        Front 2
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
    Back Cover
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
Full Text

19- ~~

I ,rr

L I.
~L~ *!


The Baldwin Library

F- Ii444

1 /1//Llz
1fji l//










"Understandest thou what thou readest ? ACTs 6: 30.

51 & 53 JOHN STREET.

L --i

i.- .


Entere' according to Act of Congress, In the tear Eighteen WIfndred ani


In tb Alerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of
New York.



IN the preparation of this volume, I have
kept fresh in my recollection the immature state
of the minds which I have endeavored to en-
lighten; and while it has been my aim to pre-
sent such a succession of reading lessons as are
suitable for the younger classes in our common
schools and academies, I have not forgotten that
the first step to be taken, in making good read-
ers, is to open the understanding wide enough
to afford a sufficient entrance for the ideas
which are to be communicated by reading.
Words are but sounds, by which ideas should
be conveyed; and written language is of little
use, if it convey but sound alone. Great pains
have therefore been taken to exclude from this
volume what the young scholar cannot under-
stand, while, at the same time, it has been the
aim of the author to avoid a puerile style, by
which the early intellect is kept down, and its
exertions are repressed. In every step and
stage of its progress, the maxim "Excelsior"
should be the aim of the youthful mind; and the
hand of the teacher should be extended, not to


lift it up, but only to assist it in its endeavors
to raise itself. All of the labor must not be
done by the teacher, nor by books. They are
of use only in exciting the mind to act for
itself. They may, indeed, act as pioneers, but
the pupil must not be carried in their arms;
he must perform the march himself. And
herein lies the great difficulty of the teacher's
task: on the one hand, to avoid the evil of leav-
ing too little to be done by the scholar; and,
on the other, to be careful that he be not
required to do too much. Real difficulties
should be lightened, but some labor should be
permitted to remain. To make such labor
attractive, and easily endured without discour-
agement, is the task which best shows the tact
and skill of the teacher. If this volume be
found useful in aiding the teacher, by doing all
that should be required from the book, the
design of the author will be accomplished.
R. G. P.
Kneeland Place, 1
May, 1851. S

t -


e Poetical Extracts are designated by Italic Letters J
Lesson Page
Preface ....... ............... v
1. The Author's Address to the Pupil, . .. .. 9
2. Same subject, continued, .. ...... 13
8. . . . 17
4. The Discontented Pendulum, ... Jane Taylor, 19
6. Address of the Author to the Pupil, continued, 23
6. " concluded, .26
7. How to find out the Meaning of Words, Original, 29
8. Same subject, continued, . 31
9. concluded, . 84
10. Words,. ...... ......... 88
11. Definitions, ........ 42
12. Reading and Spelling, . ...... 48
18. Importance of Learning to Spell, Original Version, 51
14. Demosthenes . . ... Original, 53
15. Hard Words, ........ .. 57
16. Fire: a Conversation, ........ 68
17. Same subject, continued, .. ... 67
18. concluded, . .. 73
19. The Lark and her Young Ones, Altered from .Esop, 79
20. Dogs, .................. Original, 82
21. Same subject, concluded, ... .. ..... 85
22. Frogs and Toads, .. ... Bigland, 87
23. Maida, the Scotch Greyhound, Alteredfrom Bigland, 90
24. Gelert, .......... 94
25. Knock again .. ..... Child's Companion, 96
26. Same subject, continued, 98
27. concluded, 100


28 Make Good Use of Time, Emma C. Embury, 102
29. Same subject, continued, .. 107
30 concluded, 111
31. Verse, or Poetry, ........ Original, 116
32. A Morning Hymn, ...... .Anonymous, 121
33. Evening Hymn, .... .. 122
34. The Gardener and the Hog, ..... Gay, 123
35. The Hare and many Friends, ..... 125
36. Maxims, . . . .. Selected, 128
37. How to be Happy, .... .... Child at Home, 129
38. Obedience and Disobedience, Child's Companion, 133
39 Obstinacy, ...... Lessons without Books, 139
40. King Edward and his Bible, L. H. Sigourney, 144
41. What does it Mean to be Tempted ? ose-bud, 147
42. Same subject, continued . .. 151
43. .. ....... 154
44. ." concluded, .... 157
45. Mary Dow, ........ .. H. F. Gould, 163
46. It Snows, .. ........ .. 165
47 The Dissatisfied Angler Boy, 166
48. The Violet: a Fable, .Children's Magazine, 168
49. Captain John Smith, .... Juvenile Miscellany, 170
50. Same subject, continued, 173
51 176
52. concluded, 179
58. John Ledyard, .. 180
54. Same subject, concluded, 183
55. Learning to Work, .. ... .. Original, 185
b6. Same subject, continued, ..... .Jfbott, 187
57. concluded, ...... 189
68. The Comma, .... Parker's Rhetorical Reader, 193
69. The Semicolon, .... ." 199
60. The Colon, ...... 202

_ ~


The Author's Address to the Pupil.
1. I PRESENT to you, my little friend, a
new book, to assist you in learning to read.
I do not intend that it shall be a book full
of hard words, which you do riot under-
2. I do not think it proper to require
children to read what they cannot under-
stand. I shall, therefore, show you how
you may understand what is in this book,
and how you may be able, with very little
assistance from your teacher, to read all
the hard words, not only in this hook, but
also in any book which you may hereafter
take up.
3. But first let me repeat to you a say-
ing, which, when I was a little boy, and
went to school, my teacher used to repeat
to me. He said that any one might lead a
horse to the water, but no one could make
him drink. The horse must do that himself.


He must open his own mouth, and draw in
the water, and swallow it, himself.
4. And so it is with anything which I
wish to teach you. I can tell you many
things which it will b useful for you to
know, but I cannot open your ears and
make you hear me. I cannot turn your
eyes so that they will look at me when I
am talking to you, that you may listen to
me. That, you must do yourself; and if
you do not do it, nothing that I can say to
you, or do for you, will do you any good.
5. Many little boys and girls, when
their teacher is talking to them, are in
the habit of staring about the school-room,
or looking at their fellow-pupils, or, per-
haps, slyly talking to them or laughing
with them, when they ought to be listening
to what their teacher is saying.
6. Others, perhaps, may appear to be
looking at their teacher, while, at the. same
time, they are thinking about tops and
marbles, or kites and dolls, and other play-
things, and have no more idea of what
their teacher is saying to them than if he
were not in the room.
7. Now, here is a little picture, from
which I wish to teach you a very import-
ant lesson. The picture represents a nest,
with four little birds in it. The mother
bird has just been out to get some food for




them. The little birds, as soon as their
mother returns, begin to open their mouths

wide, and the mother drops some food from
her bill into the mouth of each one; and
in this manner they are all fed, until they
are old enough to go abroad and find food
for themselves.
8. Now, what would these little birds
do, if, when their mother brings them their
food, they should keep their mouths all
shut, or, perhaps, be feeling of one another
with their little bills, or crowding each
other out of the nest?
.9. You know that they would have to go
Without their food; for their mother would
not open their mouths for them, nor could




she swallow their food for them. They
must do that for themselves, or they must
10. Now, in the same manner that little
birds open their mouths to receive the food
which their mother brings to them, little
boys and girls should have their ears open
to hear what their teachers say to them.
11. The little birds, as you see in the
picture, have very large mouths, and they
keep them wide open to receive all the food
that their mother drops; so that none of
their food ever falls into the nest, but all
goes into their mouths, and they swallow
it, and it nourishes them, and makes them
12. So, also, little boys and girls should
try to catch, in their ears, everything that
their teacher says to them, and keep it in
their minds, and be able to recollect it, by
often thinking about it; and thus they will
grow wise and learned, and be able to
teach other little boys and girls, of their
own, when they themselves grow up.
13. Now, my little friend, please to
open your eyes and see what I have put
into this book for you, and open your ears
to hear what your kind teacher has to say
to you, that your minds may grow, ed
that you may become wise and good chil-


The same subject, continued.
1. I TOLD you, in the last lesson, that I
would teach you how to understand what is
in this book, and how to read the hard
words that you may find in this or in any
other book.
2. Now, before you can understand them,
you must be able to read them; and in or-
der that you may understand how to read
them, your must take the words to pieces;
that is, take a few of the letters at a time,
and see whether you can read a part of the
word first, and then another part, until you
have read the whole of it in parts, and then
you can put the parts together, and thus
read the whole word.
3. Now, in order that you may under-
stand what I mean, I will explain it to you
by taking a long word to pieces, and let-
ting you read a part of it at a time, until
you have learned how to read the whole
4. In the next line. you may read the
parts of the word all separated:
Ab ra ca dab ra.
Now you have read the parts of the word
ab-ra-ca-dab-ra all separated, you can read



them very easily together, so as to make one
word, and the word will be Abracadabra.
5. This long and hard word was the
name of a false god, that was worshiped
many hundreds of years ago, by a people
who did not know the true God, whom we
worship ; and they very foolishly supposed
that by wearing this name, written on
paper, in a certain manner, it would cure
them of many diseases.
6. Here are a few more long and hard
words, divided in the same manner, which
you may first read by syllables, that is, one
syllable at a time:
Val e tu di na' ri an.
In de fat i ga bil' i ty.
Hy po chon dri' a cal.
Me temp sy cho' sis.
Hal lu ci na' tion.
Zo o no' mi a.
Ses qui pe dal i ty.
7. You may now read these long words
as they are here presented, without a divis-
ion of the syllables, as follows: valetudi-
narian, indefatigability, hypochondriacal,
metempsychosis, hallucination, zoonomia,
8. Now, you see that words which look
hard, and which you find difficult to read,
can be easily read, if you take the pains to


divide them into parts or syllables, and not
try to read the whole word at once.
9. I now propose to relate to you a lit-
tle story which I read when I was a little
boy, and which I think will make you re-
member what I have just told you about
reading hard words, by first taking them to
pieces, and reading a part of them at a
10. A father, who was dying, called his
seven sons around his bed, and showed

them a bundle of small sticks tied to-
gether, and asked each one to try to break
all the sticks at once, without untying the
11. Each of the sons took the bundle


of sticks, and putting it across his knee,
tried with all his strength to break it; but
not one of them could break the sticks, or
even bend them, while they were tied to-
12. The father then directed his oldest
son to untie the bundle, and to break each
stick separately. As soon as the bundle
was untied, each of the sons took the sticks
separately, and found that they could easily
break every one of them, and scatter them,
in small pieces, all about the floor.
13. "Now," said the father, "I wish you,
my dear sons, to learn a lesson from these
sticks. So long as you are all united in
love and friendship, you need fear little
from any enemies; but, if you quarrel
among yourselves, and do not keep to-
gether, you see by these little sticks how
easily your enemies may put you down
14. Now, this was a very wise father,
and he taught his sons a very useful lesson
with this bundle of sticks. I also wish to
teach you, my little friend, whoever you
are, that are reading this book, another use-
ful lesson from the same story.
15. Hard words, especially long ones,
will be difficult to you to read, unless, like
the sons in the story, you untie the bundle ;
that is, until you take the long words apart,


and read one part or syllable at a time.
Thus you may learn what is meant by that
wise saying, "Divide and conquer."


The same subject, continued.
1. I HAVE another lesson to teach you
from the same story of the old man and the
bundle of sticks, which I think will be very
useful to you, and will make your lessons
very much easier to you. t
2. Whenever you have a lesson to learn,
do not look at it all at once, and say, I can-
not learn this. long lesson; but divide it into
small parts, and say to yourself, I will try
to learn this first little part, and after 1 have
learned that, Iwill rest two or three minutes,
and then I will learn another little :'t, and
then rest again a few minutes, and then I
will learn another.
3. I think that in this way you will find
study is not so hard a thing as it seemed to
you at first, and you will have another ex-
planation of that wise saying, Divide and
4. I will now tell you another story that
I read when I was a little boy. It was


called a fable. But before I tell you the
story, I must tell you what a fable is.
5. A fable is a story which is not true.
But, although it is not a true story, it is a
very useful one, because it always teaches
us a good lesson.
6. In many fables, birds and beasts are
represented as speaking. Now, you know
that birds and beasts cannot talk, and there-
fore the story, or fable, which tells us that
birds and beasts, and other things, that are
not alive, do talk, cannot be true.
7. But I have told you, that although
fables are not true stories they are very
useful to us, because they teach us a useful
lesson. This lesson that they teach is
called the moral of the fable; and that is
always the best fable that has the best
moral to it, or, in other words, that teaches
us the best lesson.
8. The story, or the fable, that I promised
to tellVu, is in the next lesson, and I wish
you, when you read it, to see whether you
can find out what the lesson, or moral, is
which it teaches; and whether it is at all
like the story of the father and the bundle
of sticks, that I told you in the last lesson.
While you read it, be very careful that you
do not pass over any word the meaning of
which you do not know.


The Discontented Pendulum.-JANE TAYLOR.

1. AN old clock, that had stooa, for fifty
years in a farmer's kitchen, withouteF ving
its owner any cause of complaint, ry one
summer's morning, before the f r was
stirring, suddenly stopped.
2. Upon this, the dial-plate (if we ma
credit the fable) changed countenance with
alarm; the hands made a vain effort to con-
tinue their course; the wheels remained
motionless with. surprise ; the wehts hung
speechless ; -each member felt disposed to
lay the blame on the others.
3. At length the dial institute a formal



inquiry as to the cause of the stagnation,
when hands, wheels, weights, with one
voice, protested their innocence.
4. But now a faint tick was heard below
from the pendulum, who thus spoke :- I
confess myself to be the sole cause of the
present stoppage ; and I am willing, for the
general satisfaction, to assign my reasons.
The truth is, that I am tired of ticking."
5. Upon hearing this, the old clock be-
came so enraged, that 4t was on the very
point of striking. "Lazy wire!" ex-
claimed the dial-plate, holding up its
hands. lF
6. "Very good!" replied the pendulum;
"it is vastly easy for you, Mistress Dial,
who have always, as everybody knows, set
yourself plu above me, it is vastly easy
for you, I say, to accuse other people of
laziress You, who have had nothing to
do, akl e days of your life, but to stare
people the face, and to amuse yourself
with watching all that goes on in the
kitchen !
7. "Think, I beseech you, how you would
like to be shut up for life in this dark closet,
and to wag backwards and forwards, year
after year, as I do."
8. "As to that," said the dial, "is there
not a window in your house, on purpose for
you to look through?"-"For all that,"




resumed the pendulum, "it is very dark
here; and although there is a window, I
dare not stop, even for an instant, to look
out at it.
9. "Besides, I am really tired of my
way of life; and, if you wish, I'll tell you
how I took this disgust at my employment.
I happened this morning to be calculating
how many times I should have to tick in
the course of only the. next twenty-four
hours; perhaps some of you, above there,
can give te the exact sum."
10. Th'iminute-hand, being quick at
figures, pr |ly replied, "Eighty-six
thousand fouYlundred times."
11. "Exactly so," replied the pendu-
lum; "well, I appeal to you all, if the
very thought of this was not enough to fa-
tigue one; and when I began to multiply
the strokes of one (ay by those of months
and years, really, it is no wonder if I felt
discouraged at the prospect: so, after a
great deal of reasoning and hesitation,
thinks I to myself, I'll stop."
12. The dial could scarcely keep its
countenance during this harangue; but,
resuming its gravity, thus replied: "Dear
Mr. Pendulum, I am really astonished that
such a useful, industrious person as your-
self, should hate been overcome by this
sudden action.




13. "It is true, you have done a great
deal of work in your time ; so have we all,
and are likely to do; which, although it
may fatigue us to think of, the question is,
whether it will fatigue us to do. Would
you now do me the favor to give about
half a dozen strokes, to illustrate my argu-
ment ?"
14. The pendulum complied, and ticked
six times in its usual pace. "Now," re-
sumed the dial, "may I be allowed to in-
quire if that exertion was at all fatiguing
or disagreeable to you?"
15. Not in the least," Wied the pen-
dulum; "it is not of six strokes that I
complain, nor of sixty, but of millions."
16. "Very good," replied the dial;
"but recollect, that though you may think
of a million strokes in an instant, you are
required to execute but one; and that, how-
ever often you may hereafter have to swing,
a moment will always be given you to
swing in."
17. "That consideration staggers me, I
confess," said the pendulum.-" Then I
hope," resumed the dial-plate, "we shall
all immediately return to our duty ;,for the
maids will lie in bed, if we stand idling
18. Upon this, the weights, who had
never been accused of light conduct, used




all their influence in urging him to pro-
ceed; when, as with one consent, the
wheels began to turn, the hands began to
move, the pendulum began to swing, and,
to its credit, ticked as loud as ever; while
a red beam of the rising sun, that streamed
through a hole in the kitchen window, shin-
ing full upon the dial-plate, it brightened
up, as if nothing had been the matter.
19. When the farmer came down to
breakfast that morning, upon looking at the
clock, he declared that his watch had gained
half an hour in the night.

Address of the Author to the Pupil,--
continued from Lesson 3d.
1. THE fable of the old clock, which has
just been read, is intended to teach us a
lesson, or moral, and that is, that when-
ever we have anything to do, whether it
be a long lesson or a piece of hard work,
we must not think of it all at once, but
divide the labor, and thus conquer the dif-
2. The pendulum was discouraged when
it thought that it had to tick eighty-six




thousand four hundred times in twenty-four
hours; but when the dial asked it to tick
half a dozen times only, the pendulum
confessed that it was not fatiguing or disa-
greeable to do so.
3. It was only by thinking what a large
number of times it had to tick in twenty-
four hours, that it became fatigued.
4. Now, suppose that a little boy, or a
little girl, has a hard lesson to learn, and,
instead of sitting down quietly and trying
to learn a little of it at a time, and after
that a little more, until it is alllearned,
should begin to cry, and say I cannot learn
all of this lesson, it is too long, or too hard,
and I never can get it, that little boy, or
girl, would act just as the pendulum did
when it complained of the hard work it
had to do.
5. But the teacher says to the little boy,
Come, my dear, read over the first sentence
of your lesson to me six times. The little
boy reads the first sentence six times, and
confesses to his teacher that it was not very
hard work to do so.
6. The teacher then asks him to read it
over six times more ; and the little boy finds
that, before he has read it to his teacher so
often as the six times more, he can say it
without his book before him.
7. In this way, that little boy will find,



that it is not, after all, so hard work to get
what he calls a hard lesson; because all
that he has to do, is to read a small portion
of the lesson at a time, and to repeat the
reading of that small portion until he can
repeat it without the book.
8. When he has done this, he can take
another small portion of the lesson, and do
the same with that, until, by degrees, he
has learnt the whole lesson; and then he
will feel happy, because he knows that his
teacher, and his parents, will be pleased
with him.
9. But some pupils say to themselves,
when they have a lesson to learn, I do not
want to study this lesson now; I will study
it by and by, or to-morrow morning.
10. But, by and by, and when to-
morrow comes, they feel no more disposed
to study their lesson than they did when
the lesson was first given to them.
11. Now, my little friend, if you wish
your time at school to pass pleasantly, do
not say to yourself, I will get my lesson
by and by, or to-morrow, but set yourself
about it immediately, learn it as quickly as
you can, and I will assure you will not only
make your teachers and your parents hap-
pier, but you will be much happier your-




The Author to the Pupil.
1. IN the first lesson, I told you that I
would show you how to understand what is
in this book; and how you may, with very
little assistance from your teacher, be able
to read all the hard words that you find in
any book.
2. Many little boys and girls are very fond
of running out of their places in school,
and going up to their teachers with a great
many unnecessary questions. This always
troubles the teacher, and prevents his going
through with all his business in time to
dismiss you at the usual hour.
3. Whenever you meet with any real
difficulty, that you cannot overcome your-
self without his assistance, you should
watch for an opportunity when he is at
leisure, and endeavor to attract his atten-
tion quietly, and without noise and bustle,
so that your fellow-pupils may not be dis-
turbed, and then respectfully and modestly
ask him to assist you.
4. But if you are noisy and troublesome,
and run up to him frequently with questions
that, with a little thought, you could easily
answer yourself, he will not be pleased with
you, but will think that you wish to make


trouble; and, perhaps, will appear unkind
to you.
5. I will now endeavor to show you
how you may understand what is in your
book, so that you will have no need to be
troublesome to your teacher.
6. In the first place, then, always en-
deavor to understand every line that you
read; try to find out what it means, and,
if there is any word that you have never
seen or heard of before, look out the word in
a dictionary, and see what the meaning of
the word is; and then read the line over
again, and see whether you can tell what
the whole line means, when you have found
out the meaning of the strange word.
7. Now, as you can understand every-
thing best when you have an example, I
will give you one, as follows. In the tenth
chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, at the
first verse, there are these words:
1. "There was a certain man in Cesarea, called
Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian
2. A devout man, and one that feared God with all
his house, and gave much alms to the people, and prayed
to God always."
8. I suplfbse you know what most of
the words in these verses mean, except the
word centurion in the first verse, and the
word alms in the second.


9. Now, if you look for the word cen-
turion in the dictionary, it will tell you that
centurion means a military officer, who com-
manded a hundred men. Thus you find
that Cornelius was a soldier; and not only
that he was a soldier, but that he was an
officer, that commanded soldiers.
10. Again, if you look for the word alms
in your dictionary, you will find that it
means money given to the poor; and thus
you find that Cornelius was a very good
man, and not only prayed to God, but also
gave much money to assist the poor.
11. You see, then, how useful a book a
dictionary is at school, and how important
it is that you should have one. If your
parents cannot give you a very good one,
any one is better than none.
12. But if you have no dictionary, or
if you cannot find the word you wish to
find in the dictionary, you must then wait
for a convenient time to ask your teacher,
and he will always be pleased to find that
you are trying to understand the words in
your lesson.
13. If you have a dictionary, and do
not know how to find out the words in it,
ask your teacher to show you and when he
has showed you how to use it, be sure never
to pass over a single word without know-
ing what it means.



How to find out the Meaning of Words.

1. MANY years ago, when I lived in a
small town, near the Merrimac river, a little
Spanish girl came to board in the same
2. She could speak very well in her own
language; but the people in her country
speak a language very different from ours:
and when she first began to speak, she
heard nothing but Spanish words; and she
learned no other.
3. She could not speak a word of Eng-




lish, and did not understand a word that
was spoken to her by any of the family.
4. Her parents were very rich, but they
placed her in the family, that she might
learn to speak English.
5. She had no dictionary to turn to, to
look out the meaning of words; and if she
was hungry, she could not ask for bread,
and if she was thirsty, she could not ask
for water, nor milk, nor tea, for she did not
know the meaning of either of the words,
water, tea, nor milk.
6. Perhaps you would be puzzled to tell
how she could learn to speak English, if
she had no one to teach her, and had no
dictionary to inform her about the words.
7. But it was not many days before she
could say "bread," if she was hungry,
and "water," if she wanted to drink; and
I was very much surprised to find how
soon it was, at the dinner-table, she could
ask for meat, or potato, or pudding; and,
at tea-time, for tea, or milk, or sugar, or
butter, or bread.
8. I have no doubt that you would like
to know how this little Spanish girl learned
to speak all of these words. I do not
intend to tell you quite yet, but I think
you will find out yourself, if you will read
the next lesson.




The same subject, continued.
1. ABOUT twenty years ago, I was very
ill, and, for a long time, my friends thought
I never should recover.
2. By the very attentive care of my phy-
sician, and by the devoted attention of my
wife, I unexpectedly grew better; and the
doctor said that I must take a voyage for
the recovery of my health.
3. A kind friend, who was going to the
West Indies, in a vessel of his own, very
generously offered to take me with him,
and I gratefully accepted the offer.
4. We sailed from Boston early one
morning, and were soon out of sight of the
land. I was quite ill during the voyage;
but fortunately the voyage was a short one,
and we reached the place of our destina-
tion on the fourteenth day after we sailed.
5. The island, where we landed, was a
beautiful spot; and lemons, oranges, pine-
apples, and many other delicious fruits,
were growing out in the open air.
6. The people who lived on this island
did not speak the English language; and
the family with whom I was to reside could
speak only in French.
7. I observed, at dinner-time, that some


of the persons at the table held out their
tumblers to the servant, and said something
which sounded to me like O.
8. I often heard this word; and every
time it was spoken, water was brought, or
poured out, or something was done with
9. I then made up my mind that this
word that I thought was O meant water;
and I found out afterwards that I was
right, except that I did not spell it right.
10. This I discovered by means of the
Bible, from which the family used to read.
11. It was a very large one, with very
large letters; and as I was very fonJ of
hearing them read, and of looking over the
book while some one was reading aloud, I
noticed that whenever the reader came to
the letters e, a, u, he called them 0;
and thus I found out that water, in their
language, wos called 0, but was spelt
e, a, u.
12. In the same manner, I found out
the words, or names, which they gave to
bread, and sugar, and butter, and meat,
and figs, and oranges, and lemons, and
13. And now, perhaps, you may be able
to find out how the little Spanish girl, men-
tioned in the last lesson, learned the meaning
of English words that she had never heard


until she came to live in the family where
nothing but English was spoken.
14. She was obliged to listen, when any
one spoke, and watch to see what was
wanted; and in the same manner in which
I found out the meaning of 0, and what to
call bread, and sugar, and butter, and meat,
and figs, and oranges, and other fruits, she
learned to call things by their English names.
15. But, in order to do this, she was
obliged to listen very attentively, to try to
remember every new name thatshe learned;
and, by so doing, in less than a year she
could talk almost as plainly as any one in
the house.
16. It was very easy for her to learn the
names of things, because she heard them
spoken very often. Such words as chair,
table, water, sugar, cake, potato, pudding,
and other words which are the names of'
things she could see, she learned very
17. But such words as come and go, or
run and walk, and the little words to and
from, and over and under, or such words
as quickly and slowly, and many other w, :
of the same kind, she could not learn s,
18. In the next lesson perhaps you will
find out how she learned the meaning of
these words.


The same subject, jntinued.


1. THERE was a small family living very
near to your residence, my young friends
who are reading this lesson, consisting of
the father, the mother, and four young chil-
2. The oldest was a boy of twelve years
old, the next was a little girl of about eight,
the third was another pretty little girl of
six, and the youngest was an infant boy,
only nine months old.
3. As you may well suppose, the baby,
as he was called, was the delight, not only
of the father and the mother, but also of
his elder brother and his two sisters.






4. The oldest brother had a dog whose
name was Guido, -an Italian name, which
is pronounced as if it were spelt Gwe'do.
5. The dog had learned to love the dear
little baby as much as the rest of the fami-
ily; and very often, when he was lying on
the floor, the baby would pull his tail, or
his ears, or put his little hand into the crea-
ture's mouth, and Guido would play as
gently with him as if he knew that the
baby was a very tender little thing, and
could not bear any rough treatment.
6. Nothing pleased the whole family,
and Guido among the rest, so much, as to
hear the baby try to say papa, and mamma,
and bub, and sis; for he could not say
brother, nor sister, nor pronounce any othel
words plainly.
7. The youngest sister was very fond of
making him say these words; and every
time the little creature repeated them to
her, she would throw her arms around his
little neck, and hug and kiss him with all
the affectionate love her little heart could
8. She often used to dress her little doll
as prettily as she knew how; tying its frock
on one day with a pretty blue ribbon, and on
another with a red one; for she had noticed,
that whenever the doll was newly dressed,
the dear little baby would look very stead-
t -.


ily at it, and hold out its little arms towards
it; and then she would carry it to her little
brother, and say to him, Dolly, pretty
dolly, bub want to see dolly ?"
9. One day she had dressed her doll in
a very bright new dress, with very gay rib-
bons, and was carrying it towards her father
to show it to him, when suddenly she heard
the baby cry out, Dolly !"
10. She immediately ran with delight
to her little brother, holding up the doll in
its new shining dress, and repeated her
usual words, Dolly, bub want dolly ?"
11. The baby, delighted, looked up in its
mother's face, and laughed, and crowed,
and giggled, and in its delight again re-
peated the word "Dolly!"
12. Pleased with her success, the little
sister was unwearied in her efforts to make
her little brother repeat other words; and
day by day she was gratified to find the
list of words which he lisped was growing
in length.
13. By the unwearied endeavors of
father, mother, brother and sisters, this
pretty little baby, by the time that it was
three years old, could speak plainly any-
thing that was repeated to him, and had
learned the names of almost everything that
he saw about the house, the yard, and the


14. But it was observed that Guido,
the dog, although he could not speak a
wcrd, had also learned the names of many
things; and when George, the oldest son,
told him to go and bring his ball to him,
(Guido would wag his tail, and go up into
SGeorge's chamber, and look about the room
until he had found the ball; and then he
would run down the stairs, and dropping
the ball at his young master's feet, look up
in his face, expecting that George would
throw it down for him to catch again.

15. The baby, however, learnt words
and names much faster than Guido; for
although Guido knew as much as any dog
knows, yet dogs are different creatures from


children, and cannot learn so much nor so
fast as children can, because it has not
pleased God to give them the same powers.
16. Now, perhaps you may wish to know
who this interesting family were of whom I
have been speaking; and you will probably
be surprised to learn, that all I have told
you about this little baby is true of every
little baby, and that the manner that every
infant is taught to speak is the same.
17. It is the same manner as that in
which the little Spanish girl, mentioned in
the seventh lesson, was taught to speak the
English language.

1. I TOLD you, in the last lesson, how an
infant child first learned to speak, when it
was taught by its father and mother, and
brother and sisters.
2. I intend to show you, in this lesson,
how the little child learned the meaning of
a great many words himself, without the as-
sistance of any one else.
3. He was very fond of Guido, the dog,
and watched everything he did, especially


when his brother George was playing with
4. When George called Guido, and said
to the dog, "Come here, Guido," the little
boy could not help noticing that Guido went
to George.
5. When George's father or mother called
George, and said, Come here, George,"
the little child saw that George went to his
father, or his mother.
6. Now, nobody told the little child what
George, or his father, or his mother, meant
by the word come; but he always saw, that
when any one said to another, "Come,"
that the one who was spoken to always
moved towards the person who called him,
and in this way the little child found out
what his father or his mother meant by the
word come.
7. It was in this way, my young friend
who are reading this lesson, that you, your-
self, learned the meaning of most of the
words that you know.
8. When you were a little child, like
the infant of whom I have been speaking,
you knew no more about words, or about
speaking, than he did.
9. But, by hearing otLe;ds speak and use
words, you learned to use them yourself; and
there is no word ever used, either in books
or anywhere else, that you cannot find out




its meaning, provided that you hear it used
frequently, and by different persons.
10. I will now give you an example, to
show you what I mean. I will give you a
word that you probably never heard of be-
fore; and although I shall not tell you what
the word means, I think you will find it out
yourself, before you have read many more
lines of this lesson.
11. The word hippoi is the word that I
shall choose, because I know that you do
not know the meaning of it; but I wish you
to read the following sentences in which
the word is used, and I think that you will
find out what hippoi means, before you
have read them all.
12. In California, and in Mexico, and
in most parts of South America, there are
many wild hippoi, which feed on the grass
that grows wild there.
13. The Indians hunt the hippoi ; and
when they catch them, they tame them,
and put bridles on their heads, and bits in
their mouths, and saddles on their backs,
and ride on them.
14. A carriage, with four white hippoi,
has just passed by the window, and one of
the hippoi has dropped his shoe. The
coachman must take him to the blacksmith,
to have the shoe put on.
15. The noise which hippoi make is a


very strange noise, and when they make it
they are said to neigh (pronounced na).
16. The hoofs of cows and goats and
sheep and deer are cloven; that is, they are
split into two parts; but the hoofs of hippoi
are not split or cloven, and for that reason
they are called whole-hoofed animals.
17. My father has in his barn four
hippoi. One of them is red, and has a short
tail; another is white, with a few dark hairs
in his mane, or long hair on the top of his
neck; the third is gray, with dark spots on
his body; and the fourth is perfectly black,
and has a very long tail, which reaches
almost to the ground.
18. Now, from these sentences, I think
you will see that hippoi does not mean cows,
or goats, or sheep, or deer; and I do not
think it necessary to tell you anything more
about it, except that it is a word that was
spoken by the Corinthians and the Colos-
sians and the Ephesians, the people to whom
St. Paul addressed those epistles or letters
in the Bible called by their names.
19. When you have read this lesson,
your teacher will probably ask you what
the word hippoi means; and I hope you will
be able to tell him that hippoi means--
[here put in the English word for hippoi.]
I -


1. IN the last lesson, I gave you a word
which you had not seen before, to find out
the meaning of it, without looking in a
2. I told you, in a foriner lesson, how the
little Spanish girl found out the meaning
of words which she did not know; and
afterwards informed you how the infant
child was taught to speak.
3. Now, I doubt not that you can speak
a great many words, and know what they
mean when you use them; but I do not
think that you ever thought much about
the way in which you learned them.
4. Perhaps you will be surprised to hear
that everybody learns to talk and to use
words in the same way that the little Span-
ish girl and the little infant learned them;
that is, by hearing others use them in differ-
ent ways, just as the word hippoi was used
in the last lesson.
5. Nobody ever told you, probably, the
meaning of a great many words that you
know ; and yet you know them full as well,
and perhaps better, than if any one had told
you about them.
6. Perhaps you have a brother whose


name is John, or George, or James, or a
sister whose name is Mary, or Jane, or Ann,
or Lucy. You have always heard them
called by these names, ever since you, or
they, were quite young; and have noticed
that when John was called, that the one
whose name is John would answer; and as
each one answered when spoken to, you
learnt which was John, and which was
Mary, and which wai Lucy.
7. So also, when a certain animal, having
two large horns and a long tail, and which
is milked every night and morning, passed
by. you heard some one say cow ; and in this
way you learned what the word cow means.
8. So also, when water falls from the
sky in drops, little children hear people say
it rains; and thus they find out what rain
9. Now, when anybody asks you what
any word means, although you know it very
well, yet it is a very hard thing to tell
what it means,-that is, to give a definition
of it, as you will see by the little story I!
am about to tell you.
10. A teacher, who was very anxious to'
make his scholars understand their lessons,
once told them he had a very hard question
he wished to ask them, and that he would
let the one who answered the question best
take the head of the class.
. . .


11. This teacher never allowed any of
his pupils to speak to him without first
raising his right hand above his head, to
signify that the child had something to say;
and when any child raised his hand in this
way, if he was not busy, he called upon the
child to say what he wished.
12. In this way he prevented the children
from troubling him when he was busy; and
in this way he also prevented them from in-
terrupting each other, as would be the case
if several of them should speak at once.
13. On the day of which I am about to
speak, he said to them, Now, children, I
have a very hard question to ask you, that
does not require you to study, but only to
think about it, in order to answer it well;
and the one who gives me the best answer
shall go to the head of the class. The
question is this: What is a bird ?
14. Before they heard the question, they
looked very sober, and thought their mas-
ter intended to puzzle them, or to give them
a long sentence to commit to memory.
But as soon as they heard the question, they
began to smile among themselves, and won-
Sder how their teacher should call that a
hard question.
15. A dozen hands were immediately
raised, to signify that so many of the chil-
dren were ready to answer it.


16. Well, John, said the teacher, your
hand is up ; can you tell me what a bird is ?
17. John immediately rose, and stand-
ing on the right-hand side of his seat, said,
A bird is a thing that has two legs.
18. Well, said the teacher, suppose some
one should saw off two of the legs of my
chair; it would then be a thing that has two
legs; but it would not be a bird, would it ?
You see, then, that your answer is not cor-
19. I will not mention the names of the
other children who raised their hands; but
I will tell you what the answers were
which some of them made to the questions,
and what the teacher said about each of
their answers.
20. One of the children said that a bird
is an animal with two legs. But, said the
teacher, all little boys and girls, and all
men and women, are animals with two legs;
but they are not birds.
21. Another child said that a bird is an
animal that has wings. But the teacher
said there c:e some fishes that have wings,
and that fishes are not birds.
22. A bright little girl then modestly
rose and said, A bird is an animal that has
legs and wings, and that flies. The teacher
smiled upon her very kindly, and told her
that it is true that a bird has legs and


wings, and that it flies; but, said he, there
is another animal, also, that has legs and
wings, and that flies very fast in the air. It
is called a bat. It flies only in the night;
but it has no feathers, and therefore is not
a bird.
23. Upon hearing this, another bright-
eyed child very timidly rose and said, A
bird is an animal that has legs, wings and
feathers. Very well, said the teacher;
but can you not think of anything else that
a bird has, which other creatures have not ?
24. The children looked at one another,
wondering what their teacher could mean;
and no one could thinr what to say, until
the teacher said to them, Think a moment,
and try to tell me how a bird's mouth
looks. Look first at my mouth. You see
I have two lips, and these two lips form
my mouth. Now, tell me whether a bird
has two lips; and if he has not, what he
has instead of lips. 0
25. One of the children immediately
arose and said, that a bird has no lips, but
he has a bill; and that bill opens as the
lips of a man do, and forms the mouth of
the bird.
26. Yes, said the teacher; and now
listen to me while I tell you the things you
should always mention, when you are asked
what a bird is, -

-- ---~-*--===--^=.

First, A bird is an animal.
Secondly, It has two legs.
Thirdly, It has two wings.
Fourthly, It has feathers.
Fifthly, It has a hard, glossy bill.
27. And now, said the teacher, you see
that I was right when I told you that I had
a hard question to ask you, when I asked
What is a bird ?
28. Now, if you will join all of these
things which belong to a bird in the descrip-
tion which you give in answer to my ques-
tion, What is a bird, you will then give a cor-
rect definition of a bird, -that is, you will
tell exactly what a bird is, and no more,
and no less.
29. A bird is an animal covered with
feathers, having two legs, two wings, and
a hard, glossy bill.
30. When you are asked what anything
is, recollect what I have told you about a
bird, and try to recall everything that you
ever knew about the thing, and in this way
you will be able to give a satisfactory
31. This will also teach you to think,
and that is one of the most important ob-
jects for which you go to school. It will
enable you also to understand what you
read; and you can always read those things
best which you understand well.


Reading and Spelling.
t ANOTHER important thing for which
you go to school is to learn how to spell.
It is not always very easy to spell, because
there are so many different ways in which
the same letters are pronounced in differ-
ent words.
2. That you may understand what I
mean, I shall give an example, to show you
how many different ways the same letters
are pronounced in different words; and
also another example, to show you how
many different ways there are of spelling
the same syllable.
3. To show you, first, in how many dif-
ferent ways the same letters are pronounced
in different words, I shall take the letters
o, u, g, h.
4. The letters o, u, g, h, are sounded
or pronounced like the letter o alone, in the
word though. The letters o, u, g, h, are
pronounced like uf, in the word tough.
5. In the word cough, the letters o, u,
g, h, are pronounced like off. In the words
slough and plough, the letters o, u, g, h,
are pronounced like ow ; and in the word
through, they are pronounced like ew, or
like u.


6. In the word hiccough the letters ough
are pronounced like up-and in the word
lough, the letters are pronounced like lok.
7. There are many words which end
with a sound like shun; and this syllable
is spelled in many different ways, as you
will see in the following example.
8. In the words ocean, motion, mansion,
physician, halcyon, Parnassian, Christian,
and many other such words, the last sylla-
ble is pronounced as if it were spelled shun.
9. You see, then, that in some words
a syllable sounding very much like shun
is spelled
cean, as in ocean;
in some it is spelled tion, as in nation;
in some it is spelled sion, as in mansion;
in some it is spelled cian, as in physician;
in some it is spelled cyon, as in halcyon;
in some it is spelled sian, as in Parnassian.
10. It is s" h things as these which
make both reading and spelling very hard
lessons for young children. If they think
of them all at once, as the pendulum did of
the eighty-six thousand times that it had
to swing in twenty-four hours, it is no won-
der if they feel discouraged, and say, I
can't get these hard lessons.
11. But you must recollect that, as the
pendulum, every time it had to swing, had
a moment given it to swing in, so you


also have a moment given you to learn
everything in; and if you get a little at a
time, you will, in the end, finish it all, if it
be ever so large.
12. You have seen the workman en-
gaged in building a brick house. He takes
one brick at a time, and lays it on the mor-
tar, smoothing the mortar with his trowel;
and then he takes another brick, and an-
other, until he has made a hrng row for the
side of the house.
13. He then takes another brick, and
lays that on the first row; and continues
laying brick after brick, until the house
gradually rises to its proper height.
14. Now, if the workman had said that
he could never lay so many bricks, the
house would never have been built; but he
knew that, although he could lay but one
brick at a time, yet, by continuing to lay
them, one by one, the house would at last
be finished.
15. There are some children, who live
as much as a mile, or a half of a mile,
from the school-house. If these children
were told that they must step forward with
first one foot and then the other, and must
take three or four thousand steps, before
they could reach the school-house, they
would probably be very much discouraged,
every morning, before they set out, and



would say to their mothers, Mother, I can't
go to school, it is so far; I must put out
one foot, and drag the other after it, three
thousand times, before I can get there.
16. You see, then, that although it may
appear to be a very hard thing to learn
to read and to spell so many words as there
are in large books, yet you are required to
learn but a few of them at a time; and if
there were twice as many as there are, you
will learn them all, in time.
17. I shall tell you a story, in the next
lesson, to show you how important it is to
know how to spell.

Importance of Learning to Spell.-
1. A RICH man, whose education had
been neglected in early life, and who was,
of course, very ignorant of many things
which even little boys and girls among us
now-a-days know very well, lived in a
large house, with very handsome furniture
in it.
2. He kept a carriage, and many ser-
vants, some of whom were very much bet-
ter educated than he was himself.

r 1


3. This rich man had been invited out
many times to dine with his neighbors;
ar4l he observed that at the dinners to
which he was invited there were turkeys,
and ducks, and chickens, as well as par-
tridges, and quails, and woodcocks, to-
gether with salmon, and trout, and pickerel,
- with roasted beef, and lamb, and mutton,
and pork.
4. But he noticed that every one seemed
to be more fond of chickens than anything
else, but that they also ate of the ducks
and the turkeys.
5. He, one day, determined to invite his
friends to dine with him, in return for their
civilities in inviting him; and he made up
his mind to have an abundance of those
things, in particular, of which he had ob-
served his friends to be most fond.
6. He accordingly sent his servant to
market, to buy his dinner; and, for fear the
servant should make any mistake, he wrote
his directions on paper, and, giving the
paper, with some money, to the servant, he
sent him to the market.
7. The servant took the paper and
the money, and set off. Just before he
reached the market, he opened the paper,
to see what his master had written.
8. But his master wrote so very badly,
it took him a long time to find out what was


written on the paper; but, at last, he con
tried to make it out, as follows:
9. "Dukes would be preferred to Turks;
but Chittens would be better than either."
10. What his master meant by dukes,
and turks, and chittens, he could not guess.
No such things were for sale at the market,
and he did not dare to return home with-
out buying something.
11. As he could find nothing like dukes
nor turks, he happened to see a poor woman
carrying home a basket full of kittens. This
was the most like chittens of anything he
could find; and not being able to get what
his master had written for, he thought his
master meant kittens. He therefore bought
the basket of kittens, and carried them
home for his master's dinner.

Demos'thenes. ORIGINAL.
1. THERE lived, a great many years ago,
in Athevs, one of the most renowned cities
of Greece, a very celebrated orator, whose
name was Demos'thenes.
2. But you will not understand what an
orator is, until you are told that it means a
person who speaks before a large number


of people, to persuade them what to do, or
to give them information, or good advice.
3. Thus, when a minister or clergyman
preaches a good sermon, and speaks in such
a manner as to please "ll who hear him,
convincing them of thef.' duty, and per-
suading them to do it, he is called an
4. Demos'thenes was not a clergyman,
or minister, but he spoke before large assem-
blies of the Athenians, and they were very
much delighted to hear him. Whenever it
was known that he intended to speak in
public, every one was anxious to hear him.
5. Now, I wish to show you how hard
he worked, and what he did, to become a
great orator.
6. In the first place, then, he had a very
weak voice, and could not speak loud
enough to be heard by a large assembly;
and, besides this, he was very much troubled
with shortness of breath. These were very
great discouragements, and had he not
labored very hard to overcome them, he
never could have succeeded.
7. To cure his shortness of breath, he
used to go up and down stairs very fre-
quently, and run up steep and uneven
places; and to strengthen his voice, he
often went to the sea-shore, when the
waves were very noisy and violent, and



talked aloud to them, so that he could hear
his own voice above the noise of the waters.


8. He could not speak the letter r plainly,
but pronounced it very much as you have
heard some little boys and girls pronounce
it, when they -iyy a wed wose for a red rose,
or a wipe cherwy instead of a ripe cherry.
9. Besides this, he stammered, or stut-
tered, very badly. To cure himself of
these faults in speaking, he used to fill his
mouth full of pebbles, and try to speak
with them in his mouth.
10. He had a habit, also, of making up
faces, when he was trying to speak hard
words; and, in order to cure himself of this,
he used to practice speaking before a look-


ing-glass, that he might see himself, and
try to correct the habit.
11. To break himself of a habit he had
of shrugging up his shoulders, and making
himself appear hump-back-', he hung up a
sword over his back, so t:,.t it might prick
him, with its sharp point, whenever he
did so.

12. He shut himself up in a cave under
ground, and, in order to confine himself
there to his studies, he shaved the hair off
of one half of his head, so that he might
be ashamed to go out among men.
13. It was in this way that this great
man overcame all of his difficulties, and, at
last, became one of the greatest orators
that have ever lived.




14. Now, whenever you have a hard
lesson to read, or to study, think of De-
mos'thenes, and recollect how he overcame
all his difficulties, and I think you will find
that you have few things to do so hard as
these things which he did.
15. When your teacher requests you to
put out your voice and speak loud, remem-
ber what Demos'thenes used to do to
strengthen his voice, and you will find
very little trouble in speaking loudly enough
to be heard, if you will only try.

Hard Words.
1. IN one of the former lessons, you
were taught how to read long and hard
words, by taking them to pieces, and read-
ing a part of a word at a time.
2. I promised you also that this book
should not be filled with hard words; but I
did not promise that there should be no
hard words in it.
3. Having taught you how to read hard
words, I propose, in this lesson, to give you
a few long words to read, -not for the pur-
pose of understanding what they mean, but

C ~~



only to make you able to read such words,
when you find them in any other book.
4. The best way of getting rid of all
difficulties, is to learn how to overcome
them, and master them; for they cease to
be difficulties, when you have overcome
5. Demos'thenes, as I told you in the
last lesson, had a very hard task to per-
form, before he became a great orator.
You, also, can become a good scholar, if
you will take pains to study your lessons,
and learn them well.
6. Before you read any lesson to your
teacher from this book, it is expected that
you will study it over, and find out all the
most difficult words, so that you may read
them right off to him, without stopping to
find them out, while he is waiting to hear
you read them.
7. Now, here I shall place a few hard
words for you to study over, to read to
your teacher when you read this lesson to
him; and he will probably require every
one in your class to read them all aloud
to him.
8. I wish you not to go up to your
teacher to ask him to assist you, until you
have tried yourself to read them, and find
that you cannot.
9. There are some words that are not

_ __



pronounced as they are spelt, as I have
taught you in a former lesson.
10. Such a word as phthisic, which is
pronounced as if it were spelled tis'ic,Idare
say would puzzle you, if you had never
seen it before; but before you go up to your
teacher, to ask him any questions, you
should read over the whole of your lesson,
and perhaps you will find, in the lesson
itself, something that will explain what puz-
zled you; and thus you could find it out
from your book, without troubling your
11. Here are some of the long words I
wish you to read.
12. Organization, Theoretical, Meta-
physical, Metempsychosis, Multitudinous,
Arithmetician, Metaphysician, Hyperboli-
13. Apotheosis, Indefeasible, Feasibil-
ity, Supersaturated, Prolongatir'l, Meridi-
onal, Ferruginous, Fastidiousness.
14. Haberdashery, Fuliginous, Exhala-
tion, Prematurely, Depreciation, Appre-
ciability, Resuscitate, Surreptitious, Inter-
15. Sometimes the letters a e, and o e,
are printed together, like one letter, as in
the words Caesar, Coelebs, and then the syl-
lable is pronounced as if it were spelled
with e alone, as in the following words:


16. Diaeresis, Aphseresis, (Ecumen-
ical, JEthiop, Subpoena, Encyclopaedia,
Phoenix, Phoebus, Eolus.
17. When there are two little dots over
one of the letters, they are both to be
sounded, as in the word Aerial, which is
pronounced a-e-ri-al.
18. The letter c is one which puzzles
many young persons who are learning to
read, because it is sometimes pronounced
like k, as in the word can, and sometimes
like s, as in the word cent; and they do not
know when to pronounce it like k, and
when to sound it like s.
19. But if you will recollect that c is
sounded like k when it stands before the
letters a, o, or u, and that it is sounded
like s before the letters e, i, and y, you
will have very little trouble in reading
words that have the letter c in them.
20. So also the letter g has two sounds,
called the hard sound, and the soft sound.
The hard sound is the sound given to it in
the word gone ; the soft sound is that which
is heard in the word gentle.
21. The same rule which you have just
learnt with regard to the letter c applies to
the letter g. It has its hard sound before
a, o, and u, and its soft sound before e, i,
and y.
.#22 There are, it is true, some words


where this rule is not applied; but these
words are very few, so that you may safely
follow this rule in most words.
23. The letters ph are sounded like f.
The letters ch are sounded sometimes like
k, as in the words loch and monarch, and
sometimes like sh, as in the words chaise
and charade; and they have sometimes a
sound which cannot be represented by any
other letters, as in the words charm and
24. I suppose that you have probably
learned most of these things which I have
now told you in your spelling-book; but I
have repeated them in this book, because
I have so often found that little boys and
girls are very apt to forget what they have
25. If you recollect them all, it will do
you no harm to read them again, but it
will impress them more deeply on your
memory. But if you have forgotten them,
this little book will recall thr"i to your
mind, so that you will never forget them.
26. I recollect, when I was a little boy,
that the letter y used to trouble me very
much when it began a word, and was not
followed by one of the letters which are
called vowels, namely, a, e, i, o, u. I
knew how to pronounce ya, ye, yi, yo, yu ;
but one day, when I was studying a lesson


in geography, I saw a word which was
spelt Y, p, r, e, s, which puzzled me very
27. I knew that the letters p, r, e, s,
would spell pres, but I did not know what
to cal the y. After studying it a long
time, I found that the letter y, in that word
and some others, was to be pronounced
like the long e, and that the word was
pronounced Epres, though itwas spelled
Y, p, r, e, s.
28. Perhaps you will be able, when you
grow up, to write a book; and to tell little
boys and girls who go to school, when you
have grown up, how to read hard words, bet-
ter than I have told you.
29. If you wish to do so, you must try
to recollect what puzzles you most now,
and then you vill be able to inform them
how to get over their difficulties and
troubles at school; and when they grow
up, I have no doubt that they will feel very
grateful to you for the assistance you have
given them.


Fire,*--a Conversation between a Mother
and her little Daughter.

Daughter. Mother dear,"~7u told me,
the other day, that nobody knows what
light is, except the Great Creator. Now,
can you tell me what fire is ?
Mother. I fear, my child, that you have
asked another question which I cannot

This lesson, together with the two following lessons, is
taken from a little book, called Juvenile Philosophy," pub-
lished by Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co., 51 John-street, New
York. It consists of nine conversations, between a little
girl and her mother, on the subjects, Rain, Color, Vision or
Sight, the Eye, Light, Fire, Heat and Wind.



directly answer. What fire is, is known
only by its effects.
Daughter. And what are its effects,
mother ?
Mother. Some of its effects are as well
known to you, my dear, as they are to me;
and I shall, in the first place, call to your
recollection what you yourself know about
fire, before I attempt to give you any
further information in relation to it.
Daughter. Why, mother, I am sure I
do not know what fire is.
Mother. No, Caroline, I know that you
do not know what fire is; neither do I, nor
does any one, except the Great Creator
himself. This is one of his secrets, which,
in his wisdom, he reserves for himself.
But you certainly know some of the
effects of fir, r instance, you know
that when been out into the old,
you wish, oq ur return, to go to the fire.
Now, can you tell me what you go to the
fire for ?
Daughter. Why, certainly, mother; I
go to the fire to warm myself.
Mother. And how does the fire warm
you, my dear?
Daughter. Why, it sends out its heat,
mother; and I hold out my hands to it, and
feel the heat.



Mother. And where does the heat come
from, Caroline ?
Daughter. Why, the heat comes from
the fire, mother.
Mother. Then, my dear, you know at
least one of the effects of fire. It produces,
or rather sends out, heat.
Daughter. But does not the fire make
the heat, mother ?
Mother. If you had a little bird, or a
mouse, in a cage, and should open the door
and let it out, should you say that you
made the little bird, or the mouse ?
Daughter. Say that I made them, moth-
er ? why, no; certainly not. I only let
them go free. God made them. You told
me that God made all things.
Mother. Neither did' Xe fire make the
heat. It only made illnomewhat in
the same manner that yei make the
bird or the mouse free, by o g the door
of the cage.
Daughter. Why, mothc, is heat ept in
cages, like birds or mice ?
Mother. No, my dear, not exactly in
cages, like birds or mice ; but a great deal
closer, in a different kind of cage.
Daughter. Why, mother, what sort of a
cage can heat be kept in ?
Mother. I must answer your question,
Caroline, by asking you another. When


Alice makes her fire in the kitchen, how
does she make it ?
Daughter. She takes some wood, or some
coal, and puts under it some pine wood,
which she calls kindling, and some shav-
ings, and then takes a match and sets the
shavings on fire, and very soon the fire is
Mother. But does she not first do some-
thing to the match?

Daughter. 0, yes; I for ot to say that
Sshe lights the match first, an3 then sets fire
II to the shavings with the lighted match.
Mother. But how does she light the
match, my dear ?
Daughter. Why, mother, have you never


seen her ? She rubs one end of the match
on the box, where there is a little piece of
sand-paper, and that sets the match on fire.
Mother. Is there any fire in the sand-
paper, Caroline ?
Daughter. Why, no, mother; certainly
Mother. Was there any fire in the match,
before she lighted it ?
Daughter. Why, no, mother; if there
had been, she would have had no need to
light it.
Mother. You see, then, that fire came
when she rubbed the match against the
sand-paper; and that the fire was not in the
sand-paper, nor in the match.
Daughter. Yes, mother, but I did not
see where it came from.
Mother. I am going to explain that to
you, my dear, in the next lesson.

The same subject, continued.
Mother. Did you ever see a person rub
his hands together, when he was cold ?
Daughter. 0 yes, mother, a great many
times. I have seen father come in from the


cold, and rub his hands together, and after-
wards hold them to the fire and rub them
again, and then they get warm.
Mother. And now, Caroline, take your
hand and rub it quickly backwards and for-
wards, over that woolen table-cloth, on the
table in the corner of the room, and tell me
whether that will make your hand warm.
Daughter. 0, yes, dear mother; I feel
it grow warmer, the faster I rub it.
Mother. Here are two small pieces of
wood. Touch them to your cheek, and
tell me whether they feel warm now.
Daughter. They do not feel warm, hor
cold, mother.
Mother. Now rub them together quickly
a little while, and then touch them to your
Daughter. 0, dear,
mother! they are so hot
that they almost burnt my
Mother. Yes, Caroline;
and do you not recollect,
when you read Robinson A
Crusoe, that his man Fri-
day made a fire by rubbing two pieces of
wood together ?
Daughter. 0, yes, dear mother; and I
have often wondered why Alice could not
light her fire and the lamp in the same




manner, without those matches, which have
so offensive a smell.
Mother. It is very hard work, my dear,
to obtain fire by rubbing two pieces of wood
together; and it would take too long a
time to do it. The two pieces of wood
would grow warm by a very little rubbing;
but in order to make them take fire, they
must be rubbed together a great while.
Daughter. But, mother, if it takes so
long a time to get fire by rubbing two
pieces of wood together, why can Alice set
the match on fire so easily by rubbing it
once on the sand-paper ?
Mother. That is what I am about to ex-
plain to you, my dear. Here, take this
piece of paper and hold it up to the lamp.
Daughter. It has taken fire, mother.
Mother. Now take
this piece of pine wood,
and hold that up to the
lamp in the same man-
ner, and see whether
S that will take fire too.
Daughter. Yes, mo-
ther, it has taken fire;
but I had to hold it up
to the lamp much longer than I did the
Mother. Now take this piece of hard
wood, and do the same with that.


Daughter. The hard wood takes longer
still to catch fire, mother.
Mother. Yes, my child. And now I am
going to make the hard wood take fire more
quickly than the paper did.
Daughter. Dear mother, how can you do
it ?
Mother. I am going to show you, my
dear. Here is a small phial, which con-
tains something that looks like water. It
is spirits of turpentine. I shall dip the
point of the piece of hard wood into the
phial, and take up a little of the spirits of
turpentine. Now, Caroline, touch the
point of the hard wood with the turpentine
on it to the flame. *,
Daughter. Why, mother, it caught fire
as soon as I touched the flame with it!
Mother. Yes, certainly; and you now
see that some things, like the spirits of tur-
pentine and the paper, take fire very readi-
ly, and others take fire with more difficulty.
Daughter. Yes, mother; but when Alice
drew the match across the sand-paper,
there was no flame nor fire to touch it to.
How, then, could it take fire ? .
Mother. Hold this piece of paper up to
the blaze of the lamp, my dear, but be
careful not to touch the fire or flame of the
lamp; only hold it close to the blaze.


Daughter. Why, mother, it has .taken
fire !
Mother. You see, then, that a thing will
sometimes take fire when it does not touch
the fire.
Daughter. Yes, mother; but I do not
understand where the fire comes from.
Mother. The fire comes from the heat,
my dear. Now, you know that heat is pro-
duced by rubbing two things together; and
that some things, like the spirits of turpen-
tine, take fire very easily, or with very
little heat; and others, like the hard wood,
require to be heated some time,-or, in other
words, require much heat, to make them
take fire, or to b .". Some things require
only as much heat to make them take fire
as can be obtained by rubbing them to-
gether very quickly, like the wood which
Robinson Crusoe's man Friday used.
Daughter. But, mother, the match is
made of wood, why does that take fire
so easily?
Mother. It is true, Caroline, that the
match is made of wood; but it has some-
thing at thev end of it, which takes fire
much m6rei"easily than the spirits of tur-
pentine. Indeed, so easily does it take fire,
that it requires only so much heat to set it
on fire as can be obtained by drawing the
match once across the sand-paper.


Daughter. But, mother, matches do not
always take fire. I have seen Alice rub
several across the sand-paper, before she
could set one on fire.
Mother. That is true, and the reason of
this is, that the matches are not all well
made. Now, if I should take several pieces
of hard wood and tie them together, and
dip their ends into the spirits of turpen-
tine, what would happen, if the ends of
some of the pieces did not touch the spirits
of turpentine, because I had not tied them
together with their points all even ?
Daughter. Why, mother, some of them
would take fire easily, because the points
had the spirits of tur#en on them;
while those which did not t l the spirits
could not be lighted so easily.
Mother. So it is, my dear, with the
matches. They are all dipped into the sub-
stance which takes fire so easily;. but some
of the ends do not reach the substance, and
do not become coated with it, and therefore
they will not light more easily than the
pine wood of which they are made.





The same subject, concluded.
Daughter. Well, mother, I understand,
now, how the match is set on fire. It is
rubbed on the sand-paper, and that pro-
duces heat, and the heat sets the match on
fire. But I always thought that fire makes
heat, and not that heat makes fire.
Mother. Heat does not always make fire,
Caroline; for, if .it did, everything would
be on fire. .
Daughter. Everything on fire, mother!
why, what do you mean ?
Mother. I mean, my dear, that every-
thing contains heat.
Daughter. Everything contains heat,
mother, did you say? Why, then, is not
everything warm ? Some things, mother,
are very cold; as ice, and snow, and that
marble slab.
Mother. Yes, my child, everything con-
tains heat, as I shall presently show you.
When Alice goes to make a fire in a cold
day, she does not carry the heat with her,
and put it into the fire, nor into the wood,
nor the coal, does she ?
Daug ter. Why, no, to he sure not,
Mother. And the heat that comes from

the fire, after it is made, does not come in
at the windows, nor down the chimney,
does it ?
Daughter. Why, no, mother; it feels
cold at the windows, and cold air comes
down the chimney.
Mother. But, after the fire is made, we
feel much heat coming from the fire, do we
Daughter. Why, yes, mother; that is
what the fire is made for. We feel cold,
and we want a fire to make us warm; and
when the fire is made, it sends out heat,
and makes us warm.
Mother. Well, now, where can the heat
come from ? You know what fire is made
from, do you not ?
Daughter. Certainly, mother; the fire
is made of wood, or of coal.
Mother. But is the wood or the coal warm
before the fire is made ?
Daughter. No, mother, the wood and the
coal come from the cold wood-house, or the
cellar, and they are both very cold.
Mother. And yet, the wood and the coal
become very hot when they are on fire.
Daughter. 0 yes, mother, so hot that
we cannot touch them with our hands,
and we have to take the shovel or the tongs
to move them.

r L-------




Mother. And do they burn the shovel
and the tongs, my dear ?
Daughter. Why, no, mother; if they
did, the shovel and the tongs would be of
little use in stirring the fire.
Mother. Can you think of any reason why
they do not burn the shovel and the tongs ?
Daughter. You told me, mother, that
some things require a very little heat to set
them on fire, and that other things require
a great deal. I suppose that there was not
heat enough to set them on fire; and if
there had been, they would not burn, be-
cause they are made of iron.
Mother. You are partly right, my dear,
and partly wrong. They would not burn,
because there was not heat enough in the
fire to burn them. But there are very few
things, and in fact it may be doubted
whether there is anything, which will not
burn, when sufficient heat is applied. But
let us return to the fire: you say the heat
does not come from the windows nor from
the chimney, and you say, also, that the
wood and the coal are both cold. Now,
where can the heat come from ?
Daughter. I am sure I cannot tell,
mother; will you please to tell me ?
Mother. You recollect that I told you
that the rubbing of the match on the sand-
paper produces a little heat, which caused


the match to burn. The match was then
applied to the shavings, and, as it was
burning, gave out heat enough to set the
shavings on fire; the shavings produced
heat enough to set the pine wood, or
kindling, on fire, and then the pine wood,
or kindling, produced more heat, and set
the wood and coal on fire. Now, there
was nothing to produce the heat but the
match, the shavings, the wood and the
coal; and the heat must have been in them.
The fire only served to set it free, and let
it come out of the match, the wood, and the
Daughter. But, mother, how did the
heat get into the wood and coal ?
Mother. It is not known, my dear, how
the heat got into the wood and coal, any
more than how the fruit gets on to a tree.
We say that it grows on the tree; but
what growing is, and how it is caused, are
among the secrets of God.
Daughter. If the heat is in the wood and
the coal, mother, why do we not feel it in
them ? They both feel cold. I cannot
perceive any heat in them.
Mother. The heat is in the wood and the
coal, although you do not see it. Db.
see any smoke in the wood and the 60or,
my dear ?
Daughter. No, mother, I do not.


Mother. Did you never see a stick of
wood fall on the hearth from the kitchen
fire, and see the smoke coming from it?

Daughter. 0 yes, mother, very often;
and the smoke goes all over the room, and
into my eyes, and makes the tears come
into my eyes.
Mother. And can you see the smoke in
the wood before the wood is put on. the
fire ?
Daughter. No, mother, I am sure I
Mother. But you are sure that the smoke
comes from the wood, are you not ?
Daughter. 0 yes, mother; I see it com-
ing right out of the wood.
Mother. Then, my dear, I suppose you
know that if there is something in the wood


and coal, which you call smoke, although
you cannot see it until it comes out, you
can easily conceive how another thing,
which we call heat, can be in the wood and
coal, which we cannot perceive until it is
made to come out.
Daughter. 0 yes, mother; how wonder-
ful it is!
Mother. Yes, my dear, all the works of
God are wonderful; and what is very sur-
prising is, that many of his most wonderful
works are so common, so continually before
our eyes, that we do not deem them won-
derful until we have been made to think
much about them, by talking about them,
as you and I have talked about the rain,
and the clouds, and light,, and its colors.
Daughter. I have been thinking, mother,
about Alice and the fire. You told me
that the fire did not make the heat, any
more than I make the little mouse or the
bird when I open the cage door and let
them out. I see now how it is. Alice
brings the wood and the coal into the
kitchen fireplace, and the match lets the
heat out of the shavings, and the shavings
let it out of the wood and the coal, until we
get heat enough to make us warm.
Mother. Yes, my dear; and there is no
more heat in the room after the fire is made
than there was before, only, before the


fire was made, the heat was hid, and we
could not perceive it; but when the fire is
made, it makes the heat come out, and
makes it free, just as I make the little bird
free, by opening his cage door.

The Lark and her Young Ones. Altered
from Esop.
1. A LARK having built her nest in a
corn-field, the corn grew ripe before the
young ones were able to fly. Fearing that
the reapers would come to cut down the
corn before she had provided a safe place
for her little ones, she directed them every
day, when she went out to obtain their food,
to listen to what the farmers should say
about reaping the corn.
2. The little birds promised their mother
that they would listen very attentively, and
inform her of every word they should hear.
3. She then went abroad; and on her
return, the little birds said to their mother,
Mother, you must take us away from here;
for while you were gone we heard the
farmer tell his sons to go and ask some of
his neighbors to come to-morrow morning
early, and help them cut down the corn.
i ~ .------ -- -


4. Is that what he said ? asked their
mother. Yes, mother, said the little birds;
and we are very much afraid that you can-
not find a safe place for us before the
fanner and his neighbors begin to cut down
the corn.
5. Do not be afraid, my children, said
the lark; if the farmer depends on his neigh-
bors to do his work for him, we shall be
safe where we are. So lie down in the
nest, and give yourselves no uneasiness.
6. The next day, when the mother went
out for food, she directed the little ones
again to listen, and to tell her all that they
should hear.
7. In the evening, when she returned,
the little ones told her that the farmer's
neighbors did not come to assist him on
that day; and that the farmer had told his
sons to go and request his friends and rela-
tions to come and assist him to cut down
the corn, early in the next day morning.
8. I think, my children, said the lark,
we shall still be safe here; and we will,
therefore, feel no anxiety or concern to-
9. On the third day, the mother again
charged the young larks to give her a
faithful report of what was done and said,
while she was absent.
10. When the old lark returned that






evening, the little larks told her that the
farmer had been there, with his sons, early
in the morning; but, as his friends and
relations had not come to assist him, he had
directed his sons to bring some sharp sickles
early in the next morning, and that, with
their assistance, he should reap the corn
11. Ah said the mother, did he say so ?
Then it is time for us to prepare to be gone;
for when a man begins to think seriously
of doing his work himself, there is some
prospect that it will be done; but if he
depends on his friends, his neighbors, or his
relations, no one can tell when his work
will be done.
12. Now, this little story is called a
Fable. It cannot be true, because birds
do not and cannot speak.
13. But, although it is not true, it is a
very useful little story, because it teaches
us a valuable lesson: and that is, that it is
best to do our own work ourselves, rather
than to depend upon others to do it for us;
for, if we depend upon them, they may dis-
appoint us, but whatever we determine to
do for ourselves, we can easily accomplish,
if we go right to work about it.




1. I NEVER knew a little boy that was
not fond of a dog, and I have never seen
many dogs which were not fond of little
2. It is not safe for little children to
touch every strange dog that they see, be-
cause some dogs are naturally rather cross,
and may possibly bite any one who touches
them, when they do not know the persons.
3. But when a dog knows any one, and
Sees that his master is fond of that person,
he will let such a person play with him.
le is always pleased with any attentions
that his master's friends bestow on him.
4. Large dogs are generally more gentle
than small ones, and seldom bark so much
is the little ones do. They are also more
easily taught to carry bundles and baskets,
and draw little carriages for children to
ride in.
5. Some people are very much afraid of
dogs, because they sometimes run mad.
The bite of a mad dog produces a very
dreadful disease, called Hydropho'bia.
6. This is a long and hard word, and
means a fear of water. It is called by
that name because the person who has the


disease cannot bear to touch or to see
7. Dogs that are mad cannot bear to
see water. They run from it with dreadful
cries, and seem to be in very great dis-
8. Whenever, therefore, a dog will drink
water, it is a pretty sure sign that he is not
9. This dreadful disease very seldom
affects dogs that are properly supplied with
10. Dogs require a great deal of water.
They do not always want much at a time,
and it is' seldom that they drink much.
But whoever keeps a dog ought always to
keep water in such a place that the dog
may go to it to drink, whenever he re-
quires it.
11. A dog is a very affectionate animal,
and he will permit his master, and his
master's children and friends, to do a great
many things to him, which he would per-
haps bite others for doing.
12. There are many very interesting
stories told of dogs, which show their love
and fidelity to their masters, which you
cin read in a book called "Anecdotes of
13. But there are a few little stories
about dogs that I know, which I will tell


you, that are not contained in that book.
I know these stories to be true.
14. My son had a dog, whose name was
Guido. He was very fond of playing in
the street with the boys, early in the morn-
ing, before they went to school.
15. Guido was always very impatient
to get out into the street in the morning, to
join the boys in their sports; and all the
boys in the street were very fond of him.
16. He used to wake very early, and
go into the parlor, and seat himself in a
chair by the window, to look out for the
[boys; and as soon as he saw a boy in
the street, he would cry and whine until
the servant opened the door for him to
go out.
17. One very cold morning, when the
frost was on the glass, so that he could not
see out into the street, he applied his
warm tongue to the glass, and licking from
it the frost, attempted to look out.
18. But the spot which he had made
clear being only large enough to admit one
of his eyes, he immediately made another,
just like it, in the same manner, for the
other eye, by which he was enabled to
enjoy the sight as usual. In the next les-
son, I will tell you some other little stories
of Guido, and another dog, whose name was
Don, that belonged to my daughter.




The same subject, concluded.
1. ONE day I went to take a walk, with
a friend of mine, in the country; and Don,
the dog I mentioned in the last lesson, fol-
lowed us.
2. We walked to a little grove about a
mile from my house, to see the grave of a
beautiful little child, that was buried on the
summit of a little hill, covered with pines,
spruce and other evergreens.
3. While we were admiring the beauty
of the spot, Don was running about the
grove; and I completely lost sight of him,
and supposed that he had returned home.
4. But presently I saw him at a dis-
tance, barking up a tree at a squirrel that
had escaped from him.
5. As I turned to go home, I said to my
friend, You see Don is away, and does not
see me. I am going to drop my handker-
chief here, and send him after it.
6. We had got half way home, when
presently Don came bounding along, and
very shortly came up to us.
7. As soon as he came up to me, I
stopped, and feeling in my coat-pocket,
said to him, Don, I have lost my pocket-
handkerchief, go find it.


8. I had scarcely uttered the words
before he was off. He was gone only two
or three minutes, and then, returning with
my handkerchief in his mouth, he dropped
it at my feet.
9. Guido, the other dog, was very fond
of going into .the water himself; but he
never would allow any one else to go in.
10. The reason was this. My little son
George was one day looking over into the
water, to watch the eels that were gliding
through the water below, and losing his
balance, he fell into the water.
11. No one was near except Guido, and
he immediately jumped in after George,
and, with great labor, brought him on shore,
and saved him from drowning.
12. Ever since that time, Guido has
been very unwilling to let any one go near
the water. It seemed as if he had reasoned
about it, and said to himself, It is hard
work to drag a boy out of the water, but it
is much easier to keep him from going in.
13. Guido was not a very large dog.
He was of the breed, or kind, named
Spaniel; so called because that kind of
dog originally came from Hispaniola. He
had long ears, curling hair, a long bushy
tail, and webbed feet, like all dogs that are
fond of the water.
14. Webbed feet are those in which the


toes are not separated, but seem to be
joined together by a thin substance, like
thick skin, which enables them to swim
more easily.
15. Don was a very large dog, of the
Newfoundland species, a kind which is re-
markable for its beauty and intelligence.

Frogs and Toads.- BIGLAND.
1. FROGS and toads resemble one another
in figure, but custom and prejudice have
taught us to make a very different estimate
of their properties: the first is considered
as perfectly harmless, while the latter is
supposed to be poisonous.
2. In this respect, the toad has been
treated with great injustice : it is a torpid,
harmless animal, that passes the greatest
part of the winter in sleep.
3. Astonishing stories have been told of
toads found in the center of solid blocks
of stone, and other similar situations, with-
out the least trace of the way by which
they entered, and without any possibility
of their finding any kind of nutriment.
4. Toads, as well as frogs, are of a
variety of species ; and in the tropical cli-


mates they grow to an enormous size.
It is very probable that they contribute
to clear both the land and the water of
many noxious reptiles of a diminutive size,
which might prove exceedingly hurtful to
5. The toad, however, is one of the
most inoffensive of all animals. We have
even heard that it has sometimes been suc-
cessfully applied for the cure of the cancer,
the most dreadful, and one of the most
fatal, of human evils.
6. Mr. Pennant has related some inter-
esting particulars respecting a toad which
was perfectly domesticated, and continued
in the same spot for upwards of thirty-six
7. It frequented the steps before the
hall-door of a gentleman's house in Devon-
shire; and, from receiving a regular supply
of food, it became so tame as always to
crawl out of its hole in an evening, when
a candle was brought, and look up, as if
expecting to be carried into the house.
8. A reptile so generally detested being
taken into favor, excited the curiosity of
every visitant; and even ladies so far con-
quered their natural horror and disgust as
to request to see it fed. It seemed particu-
larly fond of flesh maggots, which were
kept for it in bran.


9. When these were laid upon a table,
it would follow them, and, at a certain dis-
tance, would fix its eyes and remain mo-
tionless for a little while, as if preparing
for the stroke, which was always instanta-
10. It threw out its tongue to a great
distance, when the insect stuck by the glu-
tinous matter to its lip, and was swallowed
with inconceivable quickness.
11. After living under the protection of
its benefactor upwards of thirty-six years,
it was one day attacked by a tame raven,
which wounded it so severely that it died
shortly afterward.
12. The erroneous opinion of toads con-
taining and ejecting poison has caused
many cruelties to be exercised upon this
harmless, and undoubtedly useful tribe.
Toads have been inhumanly treated, merely
because they are ugly; and frogs have
been abused, because they are like them.
13. But, we are to observe, that our
ideas of beauty and deformity, of which
some arise from natural antipathies im-
planted in us for wise and good purposes,
and others from custom and caprice, are of
a relative nature, and peculiar to ourselves.
14. None of these relative distinctions,
of great and small, beautiful or ugly, exist
in the all-comprising view of the Creator




of the universe: in his eyes, the toad is
as pleasing an object as the canary-bird, or
the bulfinch.


Maida, the

Scotch Greyhound. Altered

1. A HOUND is a dog with long; smooth,
hanging ears, and long limbs, that enable
him to run very swiftly. The greyhound
is not so called on account of his color, but
from a word which denotes his Grecian

-1 :~ .n------~----
---- -----------



2. The Scotch greyhound is a larger
and more powerful animal than the com-
mon greyhound; and its hair, instead of
being sleek and smooth, is long, stiff and
bristly. It can endure great fatigue.
3. It was this dog that the Highland
chieftains, in Scotland, used in former times,
in their grand hunting-parties.
4. Sir Walter Scott had a very fine dog
of this kind, which was given to him by
his friend Macdonnel of Glengarry, the
chief of one of the Highland clans. His
name was Maida.
5. He was one of the finest dogs of the
kind ever seen in Scotland, not only on ac-
count of his beauty and dignified appear-
ance, but also from his extraordinary size
and strength.
6. He was so remarkable in his appear-
ance, that whenever his master brought
him to the city of Edinburgh, great crowds
of people collected together to see him.
7. When Sir Walter happened to travel
through a strange town, Maida was usually
surrounded by crowds of people, whose curi-
osity he indulged with great patience, until
it began to be troublesome, and then he
gave a single short bark, as a signal that
they must trouble him no more.
8. Nothing could exceed the fidelity,
obedience and attachment, of this dog to


his master, whom he seldom quitted, and
on whom he was a constant attendant, when
9. Maida was a remarkably high-spir-
ited and beautiful dog, with long black
ears, cheeks, back, and sides. The tip of
his tail was white. His muzzle, neck,
throat, breast, belly and legs, were also
10. The hair on his whole body and
limbs was rough and shaggy, and particu-
larly so on the neck, throat, and breast:
that on the ridge of the neck he used to
raise, like a lion's mane, when excited to
11. His disposition was gentle and
peaceable, both to men and animals; but
he showed marked symptoms of anger to
ill-dressed or blackguard-looking people,
whom he always regarded with a suspicious
eye, and whose motions he watched with
the most scrupulous jealousy.
12. This fine dog. probably brought on
himself premature old age, by the excessive
fatigue and exercise to which his natural
ardor incited him; for he had the greatest
pleasure in accompanying the common
greyhounds; and although, from his great
size and strength, he was not at all adapted
for coursing, he not unfrequently turned
and even ran down hares.


13. Sir Walter used to give an amusing
account of an incident which befell Maida
in one of his chases. "I was once riding
over a field on which the reapers were at
work, the stocks, or bundles of grain, being
placed behind them, as is usual.
14. Maida, having found a hare, began
to chase her, to the great amusement of the
spectators, as the hare turned very often
and very swiftly among the stocks. At
length, being hard pressed, she fairly bolted
into one of them.
15. Maida went in headlong after her,
and the stook began to be much agitated
in various directions ; at length the sheaves
tumbled down, and the hare and the dog,
terrified alike at their overthrow, ran dif-
ferent ways, to the great amusement of the
16. Among several peculiarities which
Maida possessed, one was a strong aversion
to artists, arising from the frequent restraints
he was subjected to in having his portrait
taken, on account of his majestic appear-
17. The instant he saw a pencil and paper
produced, he prepared to beat a retreat;
and, if forced to remain, he exhibited the
strongest marks of displeasure.
18. Maida's bark was deep and hollow.
Sometimes he amused himself with howl-


ing in a very tiresome way. When he
was very fond of his friends, he used to
grin, tucking up his whole lips and show-
ing all his teeth; but this was only when he
was particularly disposed to recommend
19. Maida lies buried at the gate of Ab-
botsford, Sir Walter's country seat, which
he long protected; a grave-stone is placed
over him, on which is carved the figure of
a dog. It bears the following inscription,
as it was translated by Sir Walter:
"Beneath the sculptured form which late you wore,
Sleep soundly, Maida, at your master's door."

Gelert. BINGLEY, altered.
1. I HAVE one more story to tell you
about the Highland greyhound. It is an
old Welsh story, and shows how extremely
dangerous it is to indulge in anger and re-
2. In a village at the foot of Snowden,
a mountain in Wales, there is a tradition
that Llewellyn (pronounced Lewel'lin), son-
in-law to King John, had a res dence in
that neighborhood.




3. The king, it is said, had presented
him with one of the finest greyhounds in
England, named Gelert. In the year 1205,
L lewellyn, one day, on going out to hunt,
called all his dogs together; but his favor-
ite greyhound was missing, and nowhere to
be found.
4. He blew his horn as a signal for the
chase, and still Gelert came not. Llewel-
lyn was much disconcerted at the heedless-
ness of his favorite, but at length pursued
the chase without him. For want of Ge-
lert, the sport was limited; and getting
tired, Llewellyn returned home at an early
hour, when the first object that presented
itself to him, at his castle gate, was Gelert,
who bounded, with his usual transport, to
meet his master, having his lips besmeared
with blood.
5. Llewellyn gazed with surprise at the
unusual appearance of his dog. On going
into the apartment where he had left his
infant son and heir asleep, he found the
bed-clothes all in confusion, the cover rent,
md stained with blood.
6. He called on his child, but no answer
was made, from which he hastily concluded
that the dog must have devoured him ; and,
giving vent to his rage, plunged his sword
to the hilt in Gelert's side.
7. The noble animal fAll at his feet, ut-


tering a dying yell, which awoke the infant,
who was sleeping beneath a mingled heap
of the bed-clothes, while beneath the bed lay
a great wolf covered with gore, which the
faithful and gallant hound had destroyed.
8. Llewellyn, smitten with sorrow and
remorse for the rash and frantic deed which
had deprived him of so faithful an animal,
caused an elegant marble monument, with
an appropriate inscription, to be erected
over the spot where Gelert was buried, to
commemorate his fidelity and unhappy
fate. The place, to this day, is called
Beth-Gelert, or The Grave of the Grey-

1. I REMEMBER having been sent, when
I was a very little boy, with a message
from my father to a particular friend of his,
who resided in the suburbs of the town in
which my parents then lived.
2. This gentleman occupied an old-
fashioned house, the door of which was ap-
proached by a broad flight of stone steps of
a semi-circular form. The brass knocker
was an object of much interest to me, in


those days; for the whim of the maker had
led him to give it the shape of an elephant's
head, the trunk of the animal being the
movable portion.
3. Away, then, I scampered, in great
haste; and having reached the house, ran
up the stone steps as usual; and, seiz-
ing the elephant's trunk, made the house
reecho to my knocking. No answer was
4. At this my astonishment was consid-
erable, as the servants, in the times I write
of, were more alert and attentive than they
are at present. However, I knocked a
second time. Still no one came.
5. At this I was much more surprised.
I looked at the house. It presented no ap
pearance of a desertion. Some of the win-
dows were open to admit the fresh air, for
it was summer; others of them were closed.
But all had the aspect of an inhabited
6. I was greatly perplexed; and looked
around, to see if any one was near who could
advise me how to act. Immediately a ven-
erable old gentleman, whom I had never
seen before, came across the way, and,
looking kindly in my face, advised me to
knock again.
7. I did so without a moment's hesita-
tion, and presently the door was opened,


so that I had an opportunity of delivering
my message. I afterward learned that the
servants had been engaged in removing a
heavy piece of furniture from one part of
the house to the other; an operation which
required their united strength, and pre
vented them from opening the door.

The same subject, continued.
1. As I was tripping lightly homeward,
I passed the kind old gentleman, about half
way down the street. He took me gently
by the arm; and, retaining his hold, began
to address me thus, as we walked on
2. "The incident, my little friend,
which has just occurred, may be of some
use to you in after life, if it be suitably
improved. Young people are usually very
enthusiastic in all their undertakings, and
in the same proportion are very easily
3. Learn, then, from what has taken
place this morning, to persevere in the
business which you have commenced, pro-
vided it be laudable in itself; and, ten to
on you will succeed. If you do not at


first obtain what you aim at, knock again.
A door may be opened when you least
expect it.
4. "In entering on the practice of a
profession, engaging in trade, or what is
usually called settling in the world, young
people often meet with great disappoint-
ments. 6
5. "Friends, whom they naturally ex-
pected to employ them, not unfrequently
prefer others in the same line; and even
professors of religion do not seem to con-
sider it a duty to promote the temporal in-
terest Gf their brethren in the Lord.
6. Nevertheless, industry, sobriety, and
patience, are usually accompanied by the
Divine blessing. Should you therefore, my
little friend, ever experience disappoint-
ments of this kind, think of the brass
knocker; knock again; be sober, be dili-
gent, and your labors will be blessed.
7. "In the pursuit of philosophy many
difficulties are encountered. These the
student must expect to meet; but he must
not relinquish the investigation of truth,
because it seems to elude his search. He
may knock at the gate of science, and
apparently without being heard. But let
him knock again, and he will find an

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs