Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Back Cover

Group Title: The World's Fair, or, Childrens' prize gift book of the Great Exhibition of 1851 : describing the beautiful inventions and manufactures exhibited therein; with pretty stories about the people who have made and sent them; and how they live when at home.
Title: The World's Fair, or, Childrens' prize gift book of the Great Exhibition of 1851
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001813/00001
 Material Information
Title: The World's Fair, or, Childrens' prize gift book of the Great Exhibition of 1851 describing the beautiful inventions and manufactures exhibited therein; with pretty stories about the people who have made and sent them; and how they live when at home
Alternate Title: Childrens' prize gift book of the Great Exhibition of 1851
Physical Description: 106, 21 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dean & Son ( Publisher )
Ackerman & Co ( Publisher )
Ackerman Brothers ( Publisher )
Publisher: Thomas Dean & Son :
Ackermann and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: [1851]
Subject: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: Gumuchian,
Citation/Reference: Osborne Coll.,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
General Note: Date from Osborne cited below.
General Note: Added engraved t.p. and color frontispiece.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements: 21 p. at end.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001813
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002240061
oclc - 13434640
notis - ALJ0604
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
        Front cover 3
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Advertising page 1
        Advertising page 2
        Advertising page 3
        Advertising page 4
        Advertising page 5
        Advertising page 6
        Advertising page 7
        Advertising page 8
        Advertising page 9
        Advertising page 10
        Advertising page 11
        Advertising page 12
        Advertising page 13
        Advertising page 14
        Advertising page 15
        Advertising page 16
        Advertising page 17
        Advertising page 18
        Advertising page 19
        Advertising page 20
        Advertising page 21
    Back Cover
        Back cover 1
        Back cover 2
Full Text





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HAT a pretty picture we have in
the first title page, of the Great
Exhibition in Hyde Park! This
gigantic structure is built of iroN
glass, and wood; but as, at a dis$ .
tance, it seems to be made entirely of glass, it is
called the "Crystal Palace." Does it not look
like one of those magnificent palaces we read
about in fairy tales ?
The Great Exhibition is intended to receive and
exhibit the most beautiful and most ingenious
things from every country in the world, in order
that everybody may become better known to each
other than they have been, and be joined together
in love and trade, like one great family; so that
we may have no more wicked, terrible battles, such
as there used to be long ago, when nobody cared


who else was miserable, so that they themselves
were comfortable. Only look at the thousands of
people who crowd the Park,-all so different look-
ing, and so curiously dressed. Grave Turks,-
swarthy Spaniards and Italians,-East Indian
Princes, glistening with gold and jewels,--clever
French and German workmen, in blue cotton
blouses,-Chinese gentlemen,-Tartars, Russians,
energetic Americans, and many more. I wonder
what they all think of us, whose habits in many
things are so different from their own?
And what charming things there are in the
Exhibition itself! Fine porcelain wares, mirrors,
books, statues, perfumes, and many more articles
from various parts of the world,-beautiful fans,
books, bronzes, and an infinity of other matters,
from France in particular. Here is a model in
miniature of the Crystal Palace itself, in glass.
Ah! talking of glass, what think you of an enor-
mous French decanter, in which three persons,
having gotten inside by a ladder, can sit and dine
off a table a yard in circumference ? This is quite
an exhibition in itself, I think. In another part of
the building, we have a looking-glass, from Ger-
many, which is the largest that ever was made,
and is encased in a splendid frame of Dresden
china. But here is a darling little English steam-
engine, so small that you could, after wrapping it


up in paper, lay it very comfortably inside an o .
dinary-sized walnut-shell, while the plate on
which it stands is not bigger than a sixpence!
In the very centre of the building, a gigantic
crystal fountain diffuses a delicious coolness a-
round, its bright clear waters sparkling, leaping,
and playing, as if in delight and astonishment at
the splendid and wonderful articles surrounding it.
And there are two immense statues just beside it,
looking mightily pleased with the agreeable cool-
ness of the water. But here are two large bronze
lions;-how terrible they look: they seem almost
as if they'were going to jump at us. There are
animals of various kinds in different parts of the
Exhibition; stags, horses, foxes, birds, cats, and
even a ferocious-looking tiger.
There is a bundle of nails so diminutive you can
hardly see them-another bundle of three thou-
sand nails, one thousand gold, another silver, and
the third iron; so light that the whole weighs only
three grains,-a French watch, smaller than a
fourpenny piece,-Hindoo stuffs, so thin you can
scarcely feel them, yet are made from rejected
cotton-husks,-a highly-finished model of a pa-
lace, from Italy; and a handsome carriage, from
But among the curious articles we must notice
this imitation of a camelia japonica tree in china,


with buds, leaves, and blossoms, all perfect, which
came from Germany;-and that painted oil-cloth
from Manchester, covered with the most extraor-
dinary mathematical ornaments, and which took
eleven years to complete, and is worth 500 guineas.
And that table, made of 38,000 pieces of wood,
of twenty-eight different colours, looking like
mosaic, which was sent from Switzerland. Nor
must we forget to look at this piece of gold, on
which is engraved "The Lord's Prayer," and is
yet so small that a common pin-head covers it:
that came from Portsmouth. And here is a
German bed, which being wound up, like a clock,
to a certain hour, throws the sleeper out on the
ground, when the time comes; no lazy lie-a-beds
with that, I fancy!
But here is an odd contribution, also from
Germany; it is-what do you think ?-a piece
of lace, darned, and a fine table napkin, also
darned! however, don't laugh, until I explain
to you the reason why it has been mended in this
way: an ingenious young lady, wishing to show
industrious lasses that torn clothes may be made
to look as if they had not been injured in that
manner at all, got a piece of cloth, tore it for
the purpose, and taking up the stitches neatly,
worked thread after thread till she had darned it


in such a way that nobody could tell where it had
been torn; she then thought of sending a speci-
men of her industry to the World's Fair.
Here are snuff-boxes made of coal, which have
been sent from Woolwich; and a beautiful little
cannon of agate, from Germany; and two.violins,
worth a great deal of money, which have been
contributed from America.

KNOW that the productions of India
will delight you by their beauty
and ingenuity: the costumes the
natives have sent are even prettier
than those of Turkey, Spain, or Persia, and their
gold, silver, and mother-of-pearl ornaments, are
enchanting; what splendid veils, dresses, shawls,
carved ivory, and curiosities !
I would have you look very attentively at the
contributions from India, they are so gorgeous;
such superb muslins, baskets, and fans; with silks,
cotton, cocoa-nuts, roots, woods, and such tempting
fruits. I always like to see Indian articles, they
are so magnificent. The persons who have sent
these things must have worked very hard, to make
so many beautiful specimens; but then the poorer
people of India are exceedingly industrious; they
live very simply, eating rice, boiled with milk


and spices, as their principal food, for it is against
their religion to touch meat of any kind. They
would lead rather a sorry life, were it not that
their tastes were so extremely simple, and their
wants so few. A Hindoo village looks more like a
gipsy encampment, than anything else, and bears
a very strange appearance to a European, at first.

However, although the poor people live in this
way, the princes and nobles lead a far different
life; an eastern grandee could formerly do any-
thing he chose, even to killing of his wives and
slaves, and, only I do not wish to frighten you, I
could tell you many stories about the cruelty of


the Indian nobles. They live in great state, and
are always surrounded by a throng of slaves, and
attendants, who wait on them as they recline la-
zily on a pile of the softest cushions, which are
covered with the skins of beasts, and with silks,
velvets, and satins. When they go abroad they are
carried in what is called a palanquin, borne on the
shoulders -of servants, if they do not choose to
ride on a horse or an elephant.

Their houses are adorned with the utmost
magnificence, while the gardens or approaches to
them are delightfully cool and refreshing, being
shaded by fragrant trees, and shrubs, perfumed
by the most beautiful flowers, and cooled by
fountains, playing in marble basins. The Indian
machinery is very clumsy indeed, and the mills
are the funniest-looking things imaginable: I must
show you an oil-mill.


A very cruel custom prevails in many parts of
India, which I know will shock you very much:
when a Hindoo of rank dies, his widow is laid by
his side on a pile of faggots, which being set fire to,
the poor creature is suffocated, or else burnt alive,
and they pretend that she likes to be so destroyed.
The ceremony is called a "Suttee," and is con-
ducted with great pomp, all the relations of the
woman and her dead husband being present, in
addition to an immense crowd; before getting on
the pile, the widow divides all her jewels and or-
naments amongst her friends. Here is a picture of
a widow about to bathe in a consecrated river,
before going to be burnt.
Here are lovely specimens of the manufacture
of gold, silver, silk, jewellery, and Lebanon horns,
from Syria, with seeds, fruits, oils, and woods;


and even ornaments and marble from Jerusalem!
Little did the Crusaders of old think, when they
were fighting in Jerusalem, and the Holy Land,
that the Infidels, as they very incorrectly called
them, would be sending in such a friendly way to
What splendid caps, slippers, veils, and per-
fumes, with such picturesque guns and swords,
from Turkey! The Turks are a fine, handsome race
of people, and very grave and sensible, except
when they are angry, when they grow raging and
furious; they are fond of ease; and the chief de-
light of those who can afford it is to sit cross-



legged on a low couch, drinking coffee, and smoke-
ing a long curled pipe, called a hookah. They
often sit by the side of a canal for a whole day,
looking at children flying kites. Instead of sitting

at a table to dine, they put the dishes on a carpet
of Turkey leather, and sit round it on the floor,
eating, with wooden spoons, meat and rice stewed
together, called pilau. They are not allowed to
drink wine, or eat pork. A favourite diversion
with them is playing on a kind of lute, and some-
times they amuse themselves with chess, draughts,
and other games; but their principal amusement,
like some of my little friends, is to sit and listen


to stories, told by men who earn their livelihood
by relating entertaining tales and romances.
The Turks do not undress and go to bed at any
time, but being seated on a sofa, they smoke till
they are sleepy, then laying themselves down,
their slaves cover them over for the night. The
poor people of the cities carry water, cakes, loaves,
and other things, through the streets for a living,
or act as buffoons, musicians, tumblers and wrest-
lers, at the Sultan's and other of the rich people's
They cannot use wheel carriages in Turkey, the
streets are so narrow, and the pavements in many
parts so bad; everything is therefore carried by
men, horses, mules, and donkeys, which is very
inconvenient, as the mules and donkeys very often
tumble down, and throw their burdens right in
everybody's way; as for a horse, when heavily
laden, it takes up the entire road; and when two
loaded horses meet, the bawling and confusion is
The markets in Turkey are called "bazaars,"
and there you can buy almost anything you want;
and every trade keeps together in knots of shops,
different from us, in particular quarters, so that
you are not obliged to walk all over the bazaar in
search of a hat or a pair of shoes. In these bazaars,


it is customary for a dealer to ask much more
than he means to take, and for a buyer to offer in-
finitely less than he means to give; it is, therefore,
rather difficult to strike a bargain, and sometimes
several days are occupied chaffering about a price.
The Turkish houses, above the ground floors,
are usually built of thin laths, painted of different
gay colours, and the roofs made of tiles, so that
every few months a terrible fire takes place, and
several thousand dwellings are burnt down; but
the people are so accustomed to this that they do
not mind it, and look on very contentedly while
the fire rages, smoking their pipes, and drinking
The Turks are exceedingly charitable, and not
only give alms to the sick and poor, but even to
travellers and strangers; and some of them have
exercised their benevolence so far that they have
left a sum of money for digging wells, and for the
support of several cats and dogs. A very great
trade is carried on from many parts of the world
with them, as their country is famous for its rich
brocades, thick soft carpets, mattings, baskets,
curiously-wrought gold and silver embroidery,
and balsams. It is also remarkable for its attar
of roses, spices, figs, and coffee; all very good
things, I dare say, you will think.



OME things have been sent from China
to our Exhibition; but the Chinese
people do not seem to care much
about it. Indeed, I wonder they
sent at all, for they consider themselves as the
only civilized nation in the world, and call China
the "Celestial Empire," while they imagine that
the Emperor is an intimate relation of the Sun,
Moon, and Stars! They are a very industrious
nation, however, and the Emperor encourages

them by his example. The poor work in every
way they can; and one of their occupations is
carrying about water for sale, as they have not
water brought by pipes into the houses, as we


have here. Here is the picture of a Chinese
water carrier.
They also make the most elaborately carved
ornaments, in wood and ivory; their toys and
lanterns are celebrated for their ingenuity and
workmanship. Their fireworks are superior to all
those of other nations; and they excel in tricks
and amusing entertainments. The cultivation of
tea is universal, and agriculture-which, you
know is the art of tilling the earth-is held in high
esteem; the principal products being rice, wheat,
yams, potatoes, turnips, and cabbages. The dwell-
ings of the
peasantry too,
are not in vil-
lages, as in old
England, but
are scattered
through the
country; and
they have no
fences, gates,
or anything to
guard against
wild beasts, or
robbers. The
females raise silk-worms, spin cotton, manufacture


woollen stuffs, and are the only weavers in the
empire. The art of printing, though done in what
I must confess is rather a clumsy manner, is much
exercised amongst them, and gives employment to
many people.
Ido not think we should like to dine with a Chinese
gentleman, or Mandarin, as he would treat us to
strange dainties, as-a roast dog, a dish of stewed
worms, a rat pie; or, perhaps, a bird's-nest. But
the bird's-nest would be the best of the list, for it is
not like the kind of bird's-nests which you have
seen, but is made, I believe, of the spawn of fish,
and looks something like isinglass. It is the nest of
a sort of swallow, is about the size of a goose's
egg, and is found in caverns along the sea shores;
so it is not so bad as it seems at first. And
the rats are as large and fat as some of our
rabbits, being fed on fruits and grain, purposely
for eating; as also are their dogs, for eating.
The people of the Celestial Empire are cele-
brated for their fondness for making beautiful gar-
dens; but their houses and gardens are quite
different from ours.
What a pretty scene! what a delicious cool
walk is formed by the grove of trees leading to
the porcelain tower. And those ladies walking
towards the boat,-or hobbling, more likely; for



the Chinese ladies have feet not much larger than
your papa's thumb, which is there considered a
great beauty.
The common women cannot afford to have
little feet, as the feet of the rich girls are bandaged
up in iron shoes, when they are two or three
years old, to prevent their growing larger. These
small feet are called Golden Lilies;" but I am
glad no such barbarous custom prevails in our own
dear country. The Chinese ladies, however, are
extremely accomplished, and can play on many
musical instruments, paint, and embroider. The
merchants of China are not at all remarkable for


their honesty, though a few of them are very
scrupulous Many of them amass great fortunes.
The Chinese have sent in embroidered shawls,
table-covers, teas, curious and intricate toys, and
specimens of handicraft.

HY, we have even specimens of
Russian industry, in the Great
Exhibition;. and very good spe-
cimens they are, too. Russia is
not such a pleasant country, in
sone respects, as any of those I have been tell-

ing you of; for in the winter the frost is so severe
that many of the poor Russians die from cold..



The rich wrap themselves up in warm furs, and
ride in fur-lined sledges, instead of the usual
carriages; but the poor people are forced to con-
tinue working out of doors at their various em-
ployments, being very careful, however, to cover
their legs, hands, and head with fur, lest they
should be bitten with the frost, which sometimes
seizes those parts and turns them white. Though
many of the poor women stand for hours to-
gether, washing their linen in holes cut in the
ice, without getting frozen, yet it often happens
that coachmen and other servants have been fro-
zen to death in the streets at night, while waiting
for their masters.
At the end of every year, the Russians keep a
long fast, and as soon as it is over, lay in their
store of winter's provisions, at a market held once
a-year on the river Neva, which is then frozen
over. I should like you to see this market, it is so
full of gaiety and singularity, while the high piles
of frozen provisions look so picturesque along the
ice. The Russians are remarkable for their cheer-
fulness and contentment, and are so fond of sing-
ing, that they are always enjoying a song when
at work. Russian songs are very different from
ours, and sound rather odd to us.
The food of the common people is black rye


bread, sometimes, by way of treat, stuffed with
onions, carrots, or green corn, and seasoned with
sweet oil. They use eggs, salt fish, bacon, and
mushrooms, of which last they have a great plenty.
The men are ordinarily dressed in loose trousers;
short coats of sheep-skin, tied with a sash round
their waists, and folds of flannel, fastened round
with pack-thread, on their legs, for stockings.
The women are dressed just as oddly, in short
gowns, and with their hair plaited and hanging
down their backs, if they are unmarried; or a cap
and cotton kerchief round their heads, if they
are married. The peasants' houses are built of
wood, and have one or two rooms only; they are
miserably furnished, with no beds, as the family
sleep on benches in summer, while nearly one-
fourth of the principal apartment is filled by an
enormous stove, or rather oven, upon which they
sleep in winter; for the smoke of which, there
is no chimney beyond a hole in the wall. I don't
think you or I would much like to spend a winter
in Russia.

ANY useful things, you may observe,
have come from Spain-cheeses, ho-
ney, dried fruits, salt, lime, wool, oil,
flax, and cotton; with guns, swords, and also



beautiful ornaments; with some precious stones,
diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. The Spaniards
are not either a very active or a very cleanly
people, but they are exceedingly proud, honest,
and hospitable; they are skilful workers in wool-
len and silk stuffs, and manufacture sword-blades
of a very fine kind; while their leather is cele-
brated for its superiority. They also work beau-
tifully in gold and silver; and trade in immense
quantities of those oranges you like so well, lemons,
citrons, grapes, raisins, olives, nuts, and wines.
The chief amusement of both high and low is one
which neither you nor I would be pleased with,
I hope, for it is bull-fighting; which cruel enter-
tainment they learned from the Moors, who once
had possession of Spain, and built all the beautiful
castles and palaces that are in it. The manners
of the rich people are merely like those of our own
gentry, but the common people are very peculiar;
and all classes delight in playing on the guitar,
and singing, both of which they perform charm-
ingly. They have also two favourite dances,
called a fandango, and a bolero, both extremely
lively and graceful. The mode of conveyance in
Spain is by mules, and these beasts are surprisingly
obedient to their masters, and answer to their own
names just like our own pet dogs. The tails of


the mules are oddly decorated, by cutting the hair
into stars, flowers, and other fanciful designs.

S HE villages are mostly mean,
and the roads narrow; but
Madrid, the capital of Spain,
Sis a large city, with long,
straight streets, many of
them cooled by noble foun-
tains. The houses in Ma-
J 4 drid are built of brick, and even
the grandest of them have only
lattices, instead of glass windows, most
of which have, however, handsome balconies, sup-
ported on columns. In the churches, there are
neither pews, benches, nor chairs; the ground is
covered with matting, on which every one kneels
together, from the grandee to the beggar. In the
suburbs there are many woods of evergreen oak,
vineyards, olive plantations, and orchards of mul-
berry, plum, and almond trees; and the flocks
of black sheep and goats, grazing in the country
meadows, have a pretty effect.
I don't think you would find the Spanish cook-
ery much to your taste; for the Spaniards are very
fond of rancid butter in their meals, and of oil
that has a very strong smell and flavour; indeed,



when they are going to cook anything that requires
fat, they lift down the lamp from the ceiling, and
take out what oil they want. Bread, steeped in
oil, and occasionally seasoned with vinegar, is the
common food of the country people. Their fa-
vourite wine is that which has a strong taste of
the leather bottles or casks, in which they keep
it; and they will hardly eat any thing that has
not saffron, pimento, or garlic, in it. They have,
however, even amongst the poorest, such fine
grapes, ripe melons, and tempting oranges, as my
little readers, I know, have seldom tasted. In
summer, they use a quantity of ice, which is sold
in glasses, in the streets, for a trifling sum. In


place of candles, the poor people have a piece
of cane, cut with holes through it, which is fixed
to the ceiling, and from one of the holes a lamp
is hung by a hook.
The dress of the lower orders is very pretty
indeed, and they themselves are mostly tall and
handsome, with black hair and eyes, and dark
sun-burnt complexions. The climate is so warm
and balmy, that they can grow their fruits in the
open air.

OME pretty articles have been sent from
Portugal, a country which is near Spain,
and very like it in all respects. It is a
very fine country, famous for wine, and oil; and
the sheep are much prized for their superior wool.
The ladies of rank still spin flax from a distaff, to
show their industry. The peasantry are not very
well off; their only luxury is tobacco, and their
usual fare is bread, made of Indian corn, with a
salted pilchard, or a head of garlic, to give it a
relish. They are polite and hospitable; but the
people of the towns have not the least scruple in
stabbing any body that offends them; so that it
is a dangerous thing to affront them.
What elegant tables, pictures, vases, marbles,
statues, shells, woods, and perfumes, have been


contributed to the Exhibition from Italy. Here
is a table of a most beautiful material, called
pietra dura, which took one hundred and twenty
years to finish, and came from Naples.

TALY has al-
ways been ce-
lebrated for
the beauty of
the articles
-, there; and the
things it has sent us now are cer-
tainly worthy of its fame. It is
one of the loveliest countries in
the world, in the spring and autumn, and is orna-
mented with the richest foliage; vines, mulberry,
olive, and orange trees; and with high hills and
deep dales, towns, villas, and villages. The soil
is extremely fertile, and produces abundance of
grain, the finest fruits and vegetables, with flax,


saffron, and manna. The climate is delightful,
except in summer, when the weather is dreadfully
hot, and the winters are so mild, that ice and
snow are quite rarities, except in the mountains;
I wonder what my little-boy friends would do
there, for a skate on the ice, or a merry game of
snow-balls ?
Rome, the capital of Italy, is a splendid city,
full of the remains of ancient temples, pillars,
arches, and fountains; but many of them sadly
ruinous and decayed. There are a great many
Jews in it, who are forced to live in a particular
part, called the ghetto, which means a place for
Jews. The city of Rome and the surrounding
country are very unwholesome during summer, in
consequence of the land not being properly drained,
as it used to be in the times of the ancient Ro-
mans, so that it is dangerous to dwell near them
at that season of the year. The numerous vine-
yards in Italy, are not divided by hedges, but by
rows of rather fine trees, the vines clinging in
graceful festoons from one bough to another. In
some parts of the country, there are various pic-
turesque corn fields and meadows, bordered by
olive trees.
The Italians are not a very industrious people,
but they make silk stockings, soap, snuff-boxes of


the lava of Mount Vesuvius, tables of marble, and
ornaments of shells, besides gloves and caps of
the filaments of a kind of muscle, which they get
off the rocks, where it fixes itself by spinning a web
from its own body, like the silk-worm or spider.
These caps and gloves are actually warmer than
those made of wool, and are of a fine glossy green
There are a great many beggars, I am sorry to
S say, in fair Italy,
who are called
Lazzaroni, and
they live on
whatever they
Scan get, sleeping
under porticos,
piazzas, or any
/ place they can
find, and are, as
& you may guess,
excessively idle,
like all other beggars.

HERE are also hordes of thieves,
S who are called Banditti, and
who rob people in the most daring manner, for
there are very few police. But there are also


numerous persons who are quite well-behaved,
and do all they can to earn their bread
honestly. Among these is a set of men called
Improvisatori, who tell stories, or repeat verses in
the streets, and get a good deal of money from
those who stop to listen to them. It must be
Very pleasant,
S gon a cool sum-
a mer evening,
Sto sit under
some magnifi-
e cent old por-
tico, listening
to some inter-
esting poem,
or hearing a
pretty story related.

HROUGHOUT Italy, one of
the remarkable customs, is
keeping of a grand festival, which begins some
weeks before Lent, and is called the Carnival;"
on this occasion, every place is brilliantly adorned,
and the people go about singing, dancing, joking,
and masquerading. The most splendid Carnival
is kept at Venice, a remarkable city of Italy,



built upon a several islands, the sea, which runs
every where among them, serving the inhabitants
for streets.
The Italians are very handsome, and have jet
black hair, dark roguish eyes, and fine figures.
The dress of the lower orders is even prettier than
the pretty Spanish costume. The men wear high-
crowned hats, such as you may sometimes have
seen on the organ-grinders in the streets of Lon-
don, velveteen jackets, gaiters, and open shirt-
collars, loosely fastened by a silk ribbon; while
the women have short scarlet petticoats, and
jackets of a darker colour, with exceedingly short
sleeves, tied with bright ribbon, and their long
black hair decorated with coloured bows of rib-
bon, and confined by a silk lace net, which falls
partly over their shoulders. Instead of sending
thieves to prison in Italy, they are sent on board
the galleys, a large kind of rowing vessels, where
they are chained to the decks, and obliged to en-
dure every species of hardship.

HAT a number of things the Germans
S have contributed! Bracelets, articles of
straw, beautiful household furniture, toys, wire,
and many other manufactures. Here is a splendid
tray of polished amber, with a little carriage, made


according to a proper model, and a large chandelier
of amber, capable of holding several thousand
lights. There is a beautiful cabinet made of a
collection of pieces of unpolished amber, intended
to show the different kinds of that mineral, its
various forms, its peculiarities, and its varieties.
Here is a bedstead, worth it is said ten thousand
pounds; and the most elegant furniture ever seen.
And here is a piece of white silk embroidered
with portraits of our Queen and the Prince of
Wales, done in a thin kind of thread, called "hair
You know a good deal about Germany itself, I
dare say, already; but I must tell you something
about the Germans themselves. They are grave
and" thoughtful, but highly romantic and full of
enthusiasm. Their love for their country is most
remarkable. All classes in Germany are well-
educated, and many painters, poets, and musicians,
have been born among them. The art of printing
was first practiced in. that country, and at present
the number of books printed there is immense;
while every year a book-fair is held at the city of
Leipzig. The produce and manufactures of Ger-
many are exceedingly numerous, and you see they
are of great variety, such as clocks, watches, wool-
lens, linens, toys, wines, ornamental work in iron
and steel, worsteds, and silks. In the public walks


and gardens, on Sundays, the people assemble in
... Tn great crowds,
e cbvdressed out in
.... ,n ay oe f u their holiday
o clothes, while
Ladies and gen-
Stlemen walk
Slabout without
the least re-
straint among
the working
HE chase is a favourite amuse-
ment with the nobles and
gentlemen, and is a sport in
which they are lustily joined
by the peasantry. The immense forests with which
the country abounds gives shelter to wild boars,
wolves, and many other ferocious animals. On grand
occasions there is held what is called a battle, when
a number of deer are driven into an enclourse, and
shot at bythe sportsmen. The habits of the peasants
are extremely simple, but the people are indus-
trious and ingenious. The villages and cottages
are neat and comfortable. The peasants make
many pretty toys and ornaments, and bring pro-
visions to market from a great distance, in light
roomy wheel-barrows, made for the purpose. The


,German people are in general fair, with blue
eyes, flaxen hair, and full figures; but they do
not wear any very peculiar dress.

NN models of ships, in
i rosewood furniture,
Sin silver embroidery,
and silver cups,-
besides linens, cali-
coes, and glass beau-
T tifully painted for
v windows; many con-
tributions have been sent in by the Dutch. There
are also soft thick blankets with scarlet borders;
which make one warm merely to look at them.
The Dutch people are industrious, and cleanly.
The women are the most active and nicest house-
wives in the v-orld; they scour and brighten, and
rub not only the furniture and inside of their
houses, but the outside as well; the houses in
Holland, by-the-bye, look like painted baby-
houses, and are roofed with glossy delft tiles,
and the rooms are lined with smooth square tiles
of delft, and the floors paved with marble. The
people are never idle in Holland, but are always
working at a great variety of manufactures,
among which are leather, woollen, and linen



articles,-also, paper, wax, starch, pottery, and
tiles. Large quantities of gin are likewise made,
and this liquor is in England called ("Hollands"
for that reason. Carts are not much used by the
Dutch; their goods are carried on sledges, very
light waggons, and boats. The reason of this is,
that they are afraid lest the wheels of vehicles
should injure the foundations of their cities, which
are generally built on piles of huge trees, driven
like stakes into the bog beneath. The common
people are very humane to their cattle; they rub
down the cows and oxen, and keep them as clean

and sleek as our English horses. Canals run
through the principal streets, and in winter they



are frozen over for two or three months, when
the whole country is like a fair; booths are erected
upon the ice, with fires in them. The country
people skate to market, with milk and vegetables;
and every kind of sport is seen on the frozen ca-
nals. Sledges fly from one street to another,
gaily decorated, and numberless skaters glide
about with astonishing swiftness and dexterity.
No people skate so well as the Dutch.
Holland was once a quagmire, almost covered
with water; but by making canals higher than
the land, and pumping the water out of the fields
into them, the land was drained. The bogs are
numerous, and supply so much turf that little
else is burned. There are no beggars; and the
people are in general pretty warmly clothed, and
comfortable looking, with ruddy faces. The towns-
people are dressed almost like the Londoners, or
Parisians; but the costume of the country folks
is rather funny. A farmer's wife, when out for a
holiday, wears a large kind of gipsy hat, like a
small umbrella, lined with damask; a close jacket
with long flaps; and full short thick coloured
petticoats. Her slippers are yellow, her stockings
blue, and her cap is without a border, being made
to fit her head exactly, and gaily ornamented with
gold filagree clasps; while her costume is finished


by a pair of earrings and a necklace. The farmer
himself wears a hat without a rim, and huge silver
buttons on his coat; and keeps whiffing away at
his pipe, which he is seldom without. The Dutch
are most excellent gardeners, though they some-
times ruin themselves by their love for flowers.

l- MONG the articles that
have been sent
here from Swit-
zerland, are se-
,j veral well worth
looking at, they
are so wonder-
b fully ingenious.
Of this kind are
two boxes, one
s u of white wood, and the
other of brown; the white has
a lovely Alpine rose, with gar-
lands of flowers upon the sides,
4 the rose and lid being cut out
of one piece of wood, and so
beautifully made to imitate nature, that the
slightest touch with the point of a knife or a
needle, makes the leaves move and quiver without



spoiling the flower. This was made by a Swiss
peasant. The people of Switzerland are very re-
markatble for their industry, contentment, and
Among the villagers, their chief occupations are
the management of dairies, and the breeding of
cattle; and many of the peasantry make a living
by hunting the chamois, as the wild goat is called.
This is rather a dangerous employment, yet the
chamois-hunters delight in it; they carry a long
hook pointed with an iron spike, and with the
help of this, they leap from rock to rock, over
frightful chasms and precipices; yet such is their
surprising activity, that they are never killed.
Other peasants earn a livelihood by fattening and
preparing snails for market; for these creatures
are considered a great delicacy in many parts of
Switzerland. In another part of the country the
inhabitants almost exclusively follow the trade of
watch-making, and polishing the crystals and
pebbles that are found in the mountains, Geneva,
a city of Switzerland, is celebrated for the watches
that are made there.
The women are extremely domestic, delighting
in their children; and all the Swiss are remarkable
for their passionate love of home. In every vil-
lage there is a school, established by the Govern-



ment for the instruction of poor children. The
Swiss are the most graceful of all peasants, and
wear very smart costumes. The men wear large
hats, and their dress is generally a brown cloth
jacket without sleeves, and puffed breeches of
ticking. The women have short blue petticoats,
a cherry-coloured boddice, full white sleeves fast-
ened above the elbow, and a muslin kerchief
thrown round their necks; while their hair is
plaited, and twisted about their heads. They
also wear pretty flat straw hats, ornamented with
bows of ribbon.

HE scenery of Switzerland is of the
most charming and romantic description;
there are towering mountains, craggy
rocks, steep precipices, with foaming tor-
rents dashing down their sides, and dizzy
heights, which I should be sorry any of
my little friends were looking down. But
these are delightfully intermixed with beautiful
valleys, adorned with groves of fir, beech, and
chestnut trees; clear lakes, rapid rivers, cataracts,
and bridges of one arch reaching an immense
distance from rock to rock. Portions of the
mountains are covered with villages and scat-
tered cottages; and the inside of the dwellings


are so neat and look so comfortable, that you
could almost wish to live in one of them, if you
were not told that there is a perpetual danger of
their being buried under one of the enormous
masses of snow that frequently roll from the tops
of the mountains, and destroy everything in their
way. These masses are called Avalanches.
Between the summits of the highestof the moun-
tains are valleys of ice, frozen into many fantastic
shapes, formed by one crust of ice growing hard
over another; but what is more extraordinary, is
that the borders of these glaciers, as they are
called, are fertile: strawberries, wild cherries,
nuts, barberries, and mulberries, grow there; and
goats browse on the most inaccessible parts of the
rocks, and bound with the most surprising agility
from one cliff to another.



EVERAL contributions have been
sent by the Prussians and Aus-
trians; woollens, minerals, linens,
china, and other things.
*y The Prussians are a very polite
and well-educated people, and nowhere are there
more schools than in their country.
Prussia itself is an extremely pleasant place,
and the towns are fine, with wide, regular streets,
and high antique-looking houses; the streets are
mostly lined with trees, which look pretty enough
while their leaves are green, but rather prevent
the free circulation of air. The Prussian ladies
delight in fine clothes, and would be much vexed
if they were obliged to go out without them. The
gentry speak French, but the common people talk
German. The beautiful Dresden china we see at
the Exhibition, cames from the town of Dresden.
Austria is a very fine country, and contains a
great variety of people. The principal artizans
are tanners, furriers, boot makers, lace workers,
and cabinet makers. There are also workers in
iron, copper, alum, saltpetre, besides many others.
The general habits of the Austrians are like those
of the Germans, so I do not think I need tell you
anything about them.


HE Poles and Hungarians have also
sent their industrial productions to
the Great Exhibition; cloth, lace,
furniture, brooms, linens, woollens,
and other articles. I dare say you have heard a
good deal lately about the Hungarians, when they
were fighting against the Austrians and Russians.
The Hungarian peasants are very hard-working;
indeed, they cannot help being so, for as the nobi-
lity and gentry are not taxed, the poor people are
forced to pay all the taxes, besides being obliged
to give money and provisions to their masters,
the Lords of the Manor, who, I am sorry to say,
are excessively tyrannical. They are also com-
pelled to pay tithes to the clergy, the magistrates,
and the soldiers, and to work for nothing on the
public works; against which bad laws they fought.
Agriculture, and the breeding of cattle, are carried
on to a considerable extent.
Hungary is occupied by a variety of people,
with entirely different habits; it contains French-
men, Sclavonians, Turks, Jews, Spaniards, Gipsies,
Germans, and Greeks. The Magyar language,
the original Hungarian tongue, is spoken by the
peasants; but in the cities the people mostly use
German and French.



HE Poles live in a cold, flat,
marshy country, in the north
S of Europe. The peasantry are
i' n a miserable state, very dirty,
and frequently drunken; and
their land is in a wretched condition.
The Swedish and Danish people have made
many things to be exhibited in the World's Fair.
Sweden is in the north of Europe, and the climate
is very disagreeable, for it is extremely cold in
winter, and intolerably hot in summer. The
people do not live very luxuriantly; their bread
is not only black and coarse, but so hard that
they are sometimes obliged to break it with a
hatchet; and this, with dried fish, and salt meat,
forms the chief part of their food. Yet they are
very hardy and contented. At Michaelmas, they
kill their cattle and salt them, for the winter and
spring. Their favourite drink is beer, and they
delight in malt spirits; some of them have tea
and coffee. Their houses are generally built of
wood, and their cottages are made of rough logs;
the roofs are covered with turf, on which the
goats browse. The Swedish women do everything
that men are employed to do in other countries;
they plough, sow, and thresh, and work with the
bricklayers; the country women, as well as the



ladies, wear veils to shade their faces from the
glare of the snow in winter, and from the scorch-
ing rays of the sun reflected from the barren
rocks in summer.
The iron mines of
Sweden are exceed-
ingly useful; they
furnish great quan.
titles of metal, to be
exported to Eng-
land, for the use of
our steel manufacto-
ries. The extensive
forests supply nu-
merous pine trees,
which are cut down
and sent to foreign
countries, for ship
and house building;
while pitch and tar
are made from the sap,-a preparation which
gives employment to many of the inhabitants.
The Swedes contrive to make things from ma-
terials we should throw away as good for nothing;
they twist rope from hogs'-bristles, horses' manes,
and the bark of trees; and form bridles of eel-
skins. The coarse cloth they wear they make



themselves, for the women are continually busy
spinning or weaving. Sweden is the birth-place
of the famous botanist, Linnaeus, and the charm-
ing singer, Jenny Lind.
Norway is united to Sweden, but it is still
colder in winter and hotter in summer. The
people live very simply, mostly on milk, cheese,
and dried fish; and sometimes they have slices of
meat, sprinkled with salt and dried in the wind.
In some parts of the country, the people make
bread of the bark of the pine tree; and in winter,
for want of hay, they are obliged to feed their
cattle on dried fish. The houses are built of wood,
and many of the roads are made of the same ma-
terial; while wooden fences are used instead of
hedges. The Norwegians send metals, minerals,
salt, butter, dried fish, and furs, to other countries.
Denmark is a very fine country, perfectly level,
except a single ridge of mountains. Its chief pro-
ducts are grain, tobacco, flax, madder, and hops.
There are a great many mines, but few manu-
factures carried on; though the Danish gloves are
much esteemed. The climate is generally rather
warm, but very wet. The Danes are mostly well-
educated; they are like the Swedes in their man-
ners and customs. They have sent many speci-
mens of their industry to the Great Exhibition,



SHY, who would
have thought
of seeing Per-
sian and Egyp-
Stian contribu-
Te Options at the
S Exhibition ?
And such
splendid arti-
cles as they
are t Persia,
you know, is a rich and fertile
country, near Russia, in Asia;
but although it has many beau-
.. tiful flowers and fruits, yet is
there very little timber; owing
to which they have no shipping.
The Persians delight in fine clothes on which
they lavish the greater part of their money, and
they are fonder of scarlet, or crimson, than of any
other colour. They are very skilful in dyeing,
in making silks, shagreen, morocco, gold and
silver ornaments; and they form excellent swords
and weapons. Their commerce with Turkey,
China, Arabia, and other places, is carried on by
means of what they call caravans," which are



large companies of merchants, who travel together
for the sake of security from thieves, by whom
however, they are often robbed; these companies
have frequently more than a thousand camels, to
carry their luggage and their goods; and in con-
sequence of the excessive heat, they are obliged
to journey mostly in the early morning, and rest
during the day. The Persians live chiefly on rice,
fruit, and coffee, and eat very little meat; they
luxuriate in baths, aud the poorest amongst them
endeavour to have a horse. They use the Turkish
language, and are nearly all Mahometans; they
used to worship the sun and fire, though very few
continue to do so still. The Persian ladies never
appear in the streets or any other public place,
without having long veils, in order to conceal
their faces, as the Turkish ladies do. The Per-
sians are very like the Turks in their manners and
customs, wlich I described to you before.

GYPT was, formerly, a mighty empire,
and had rich and haughty kings, who
adorned it with magnificent temples
and palaces. I dare say you re-
member what you have read of it in the history
of Joseph and his brethren, and in that of Moses.
It was here that Solomon built his magnificent



and gorgeous Temple. It is now, however, an
exceedingly mean country, and is governed by a
Turkish Pacha, whose grandfather contrived to
make himself master of Egypt, as well as of Syria
and Palestine. The climate of Egypt is excessively
hot,-in fact, the nights in spring are the only
pleasant part of the year. The nights in autumn
are also very fine,-even delicious; and the rays
of the moon are so bright that the natives, who
sleep in the open air, cover their eyes to prevent
their being injured by the brilliancy. The greater
portion of the land is covered with burning sands;
but wherever the waters of the river Nile have
been conducted by canals, and allowed to flow
over the country, the earth becomes fertile, and
fruits thrive luxuriantly. There are but few gar-
den flowers, but roses are extensively cultivated,
the attar of roses forming an article of commerce.
There are many valuable minerals found in the
earth; and beautiful marble, alabaster, salt, alum,
and other useful things. The wobds, marshes,
plains, and rivers supply a variety of animals, most
of them wild and ferocious. It was in Egypt that
the Hippopotamus was found. The people devote
themselves to agriculture, the rearing of bees, and
poultry; they also carry on an important trade
with other countries. Most of the Egyptians



are strong, of a tawny complexion, and of a
gay disposition. They luxuriate in water; and
esteem it the height of enjoyment to sit by a foun-
tain, smoking their pipes; they are excessively fond
of bathing. Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is a large
city, with irregular unpaved streets, and brick
houses, with flat roofs. There are a good many
small manufactories; and some schools, a printing-
office, and a large library. There are numerous
magnificent fountains in the city, which are in-
dispensable on account of the intense heat; and
more than a thousand shops for selling cups of
coffee, of which the Egyptians are very fond;
these coffee shops are called rahwehs. All along
the river Nile the banks show signs of industry;
cotton, tobacco, and other produce being grown
down to the water's edge. The Pyramids of Egypt,
the time of the building of which is not known,
are considered one of the wonders of the world.

HE Greeks have sent some fine stuffs;
their silk manufactures are really
beautiful, and their sculptures and
feather-fans are splendid. Greece
was a famous country long, long ago, in ancient
history, but it has undergone many sad changes,
and was for a long time ruled by the Turks. The



English, French, and Russians rid it from Turkish
hands; but its present government is weak and
imperfect, for the numerous petty chiefs pursue
a wicked system of robbery, fighting, and tyranny.
Indeed, many of these chiefs have fitted out ves-
sels as pirate ships, in order to seize and plunder
any other vessels weaker than their own with
which they may fall in. There are, however,
many wealthy Greek merchants; and a number of
rich Jews live in various parts of Greece. The
Greek people are beautiful and graceful. The
women have fine oval faces, their eyes are large
and dark, their eyebrows and hair are of deep
shining black, and their complexions are mostly
pale. They are very splendid in their dresses;
the costume of the men is extremely like that of
the Turks. From having been so long subject,
however, to their Turkish rulers, the Greeks
have become artful and cunning.
The rich ladies and nobles of Greece have
fine young slaves to wait upon them, and amuse
them by singing or dancing. These slaves are
bought from the Tartars, who steal them from
Russia, Circassia, or Georgia, and are taken great
care of, being taught to embroider, sing, dance,
and deport themselves with elegance and grace.
Their masters or mistresses scarcely ever sell



them, but when they are tired of them, either
give them to a friend, or set them free. When
they do sell them, it is as a punishment for some
crime, or for being useless.
There are numerous brigands, or thieves, in
Greece, who are divided into bands, and rob
with the utmost impunity. They manage to
hide themselves very artfully in the roads where
they expect to meet travellers, doubling their
bodies up behind stones and bushes, or else lying
flat on their faces on the ground, when they
suddenly all start up and surround any unfor-
tunate individual who may happen to pass that
way. There are also honest, industrious people
in Greece; and among them are the guides, men
who show strangers over the curious portions of
the cities for a trifling sum of money; and there
are the cabmen of Athens, who are usually very
intelligent and well-informed; there are a number
of cabs in Athens.
The Greek houses have only one story; but there
are generally large gardens, carefully tended, at-
tached to them. The climate is generally mild,
but not so much so as formerly, on account of the
cutting down of the forests. The spring and
autumn are delightful; but the summer is too
hot, and the winter is almost a succession of



storm and rain. The earth is extremely fertile,
and produces corn, wine, and fruits, besides the
honey and figs you like so much. The people
manufacture silks and cottons, and export quanti-
ties of small raisins, which grow very luxuriantly
in and about the city of Corinth. Corinth is one
of the most charming places that you can fancy to
yourself, and is surrounded by beautiful views
and the remains of ancient temples, columns, and
statues; groves of fine olive trees border the city,
and the waters of two bays meet near the entrance.
The ruins of the ancient temples and buildings in
Athens, the capital of Greece, are still to be seen;
but so little do the ignorant and foolish people,
who have lived in the city in modern times, value
these great works, that they have for hundreds of
years used the greater part of the
splendid marbles to build their houses,
which are only ordinary
ia ; -- and common-looking.

HE inhabitants of Ba-
Svaria and Belgium
have sent almost numberless articles of industry
to the Exhibition; furs, lace, machinery, corn,
books, furniture, and metals.



Belgium was formerly called Flanders, and the
people produced superior cloth, hats, cutlery, and
other useful things, a very great many years before
the English could make any thing better than the
most common sort of goods. The Belgians are still
celebrated for their ingenuity in making toys, lace,
cloth, silk, satin, velvet, and other useful articles.
They are also famous for the culture of flowers, in
which they excel even the Dutch. Every house has
a garden attached, which is frequently surrounded
by a moat. The country is small, but every part
of the land is made fertile by the industry of the
farmers, of whom there are a great number; many
of them grow flax, which is woven into linen by
the women. There is a weekly market for linen,
held at Ghent, whither the peasantry carry their
products for sale, and both men and women may
be seen standing in two long lines, with benches
before them.
The farms in Belgium are cultivated with great
care and attention, and much resemble the market
gardens round London; they all have gardens,
and grow an ample supply of fruit and vegetables.
The food of the peasants, is rye-bread and milk,
for breakfast and supper; potatoes and onions,
with bacon and beer, for dinner; they eat off pew-
ter; and although their fare is simple, it is good



and plentiful. Their dress is somewhat coarse,
but it is neat and clean, the men wear blue linen
frocks; and the women have printed cotton gowns,
linen caps, and woollen pettiocats.
The towns and villages of Belgium are nume-
rous, and thickly peopled. Brussels, the capital,
is a fine city, and is celebrated for its manufac-
tures, particularly for lace, camlet, and carpets.
Ten thousand people are employed there in mak-
ing lace. It is also famous for its pottery and
porcelain. The other articles made there, are
cotton and woollen stuffs, silk stockings, and earth-
enware. The carriages built there, are superior
to even those of London or Paris; there is a spe-
cimen of Belgian carriages at the Exhibition.
There are numerous silk manufactories in
Brussels; and the beautiful linen, called damask,
is exported in great quantities. There are in-
numerable breweries, too; for no people in the
world are so fond of drinking beer as the Belgians.
The people carry on a considerable trade with
foreign countries, by means of the various canals,
on which a vast number of steam-boats are con-
stantly passing and re-passing.
The upper part of Brussels is magnificent, and
has a splendid park laid out with shaded walks,
and surrounded by the palaces, private houses,



and public offices; but in the lower part, the
streets are narrow and crowded, though the mar-
ket-place is very beautiful. There are twenty
superb fountains in the city, ornamented with
sculpture. The Belgians delight in music, and
they hold musical festivals every year. In the
Horticultural Gardens at Ghent, during summer,
there are several concerts performed in the open
air; and even among the labouring people, the
songs and pieces of music sung together by groups
of peasants and working people are often delight-
ful to hear; for in Belgium, as in Holland, Prus-
sia, and over a great part of Germany, even the
poorest children are freely taught to sing in
harmony at school. There are several railways
in Belgium, which is a very great convenience to
travellers. The climate is good; and, in winter,
snow does not fall deeply.
Bavaria is in Germany also, and is celebrated
for its manufactures of iron, glass, paper, hard-
ware, clocks, linen, woollen, and fire-arms. The
people are industrious and careful, excepting in
smoking tobacco, of which they are very wasteful.
Industry is encouraged; and several schools have
been established for teaching young men agricul-
ture and gardening, with the usual branches of



WE must not forget to see
\a. what has come from Ame-
rica. Our Great Exhibi-
tion has been almost as
much talked of there, as it
has been at home, and an
Immense number of con-
,/d tributions has been sent
from that country. Ma-
chinery, sculptures, stuffs,
carriages, minerals, boots and shoes, iron-work,
and wines, have been dispatched over to the
America was formerly inhabited by numerous
tribes of Red Indians,-a wild, warlike race,-of
whom but few now remain, and those not at all
civilized; but the greater number of the white



people of America are' the same in their dress,
manners, and language, as ourselves.
A large portion of America is called the United
States, which is a Republic; that is, it is governed
by the people themselves, without a king, queen,
and a royal family; they appoint a President
every four years. Long ago, the United States
belonged to the English, but the natives gradually
grew more powerful than they had been, and threw
off all foreign control.
America produces every kind of grain and fruit,
as well as spices, dye-woods, and balsams. The
people export quantities of natural productions to
Europe, but their manufacturers are not as yet
able to compete with those of what are called the
old countries. The principal manufactures are of
cotton, woollen, iron, and leather; which they
exchange with the Red Indians for prepared bark,
skins, and birds' feathers. Mines abound, parti-
cularly for gold and silver; and there is abund-
ance of precious stones. The farmers are a very
industrious and intelligent class, and display much
taste and neatness in their management.
The finest timber for ship-building is abundant,
and easily obtained; and there are many excellent
harbours. Numerous fishing stations are situated
along the coasts, and are very valuable; for fishing



is there a very good employment, and engages
many of the natives of the Northern States. As
these fishermen
get accustomed
to a sea-faring
life, and inured
to fatigue, they
soon become ex-
cellent sailors,
and furnish men
for the navy.

p HE whale fishery is also a valua-
ble pursuit, but it requires un-
common bravery and skill.-In
the United States there are
numerous schools and academies, wherein the
children are educated free.
The rich people in America are free from
haughtiness, awkwardness, or formality, but they
do not display the elegance and refinement of the
higher classes in England or France. As for the
common people, they are serious, shrewd, and
industrious; but often seem rude and uncourtly
to strangers, for they wish to show their inde-
pendance by an annoying surliness of behaviour.
A great number of turnpike roads, railways, canals,



and bridges, have been formed, and improve the
country very much, as you may imagine.
The Americans make works in iron and wood,
articles of machinery and of husbandry, tanned
leather, and dressed skins. They are famous for

ERU, which is in South
__ America, is a very fine
Country, arid produces ma-
ny useful things, such as
Si tobacco, pepper, jalap, Pe-
B ruvian bark, and indigo.
There are numerous
valuable gold and silver
mines, which make the inhabitants
so rich, that at one time, long since, they paved
several streets with ingots of silver, in proof of
their wealth. There are whale fisheries on the
coasts. Only one specimen of industry has been
sent from Peru!



MrEXICO is another por-
Stion of South America.
{' 1 Its products are numerous,
I .'i but the country suffers
i' much for want of water,
though the dew falls hea-
l vily every night. The soil
is rich, and well cultivated,
although not so carefully
as with us. Indian corn is
the principal food of the natives, and is cultivated
so generally, that when the crop fails, there is a
year of famine. A drink is also made from it,
called chicha. Sweet potatoes, yams, and quan-
tities of red pepper, together with vegetables,
and fruits, and tobacco, are grown. A kind of
plant, called a cacao, is so highly prized that the
grains are used for money.
For want of streams, of which the country is
sadly deficient, the mills are mostly worked by
animals, and are very inferior; and the machin-
ery is so bad, that the cotton is separated from
the seed by the hands of workpeople. The prin-
cipal manufactures are cigars, cottons, soap, tan-
ned leather, gunpowder, pottery, and hats.
The rich people use a number of silver vessels,
and a quantity of plate, on account of the want of



manufactures of china and glass, so that the trade
of a silversmith is rather good. Boots, saddles,
and coaches, are well made: but the furniture,
which is mostly of pine and cedar, is coarsely and
clumsily put together.
The streets of Mexico are rather wide and
well paved; the houses are ornamental, and the
churches and public buildings are magnificent.-
The rich people pass the greater part of the day on
their sofas, in darkened rooms; but in the even-
ing, they appear arrayed in the most elegant cos-
tume, for they are particularly partial to parties
and brilliant assemblies.

There are numerous beggars, called Leperos,
who are very drunken and dishonest; but lively,
voluble, and extremely civil; though they will pick
any body's pocket. There are also innumerable
Indians, who make earthen pots very neatly, and
use them instead of iron or copper vessels.



( OU have heard of Canada, which is a
l part of North America, and all that
now remains to England of her vast
American colonies.-Well, we have
an enormous canoe from Canada!-I wonder who
can have sent that? A canoe, as you know, is a
kind of boat, which uncivilized people, who live
near rivers, use. The canoes of Canada are of a
very thin material, and so light, that the boat-
men, in passing overland from one river to ano-
ther, generally carry them on their heads. The
canoes are mostly covered with bark, the pieces
of which are sewed together with a particular
kind of grass; the bark being usually not more
than a quarter of an inch in thickness.
The people of Canada, who are called Cana-
dians, are rather industrious; they make very
fine fans, they hunt, fish, and collect sugar from
a tree-called the Sugar maple. Their houses are
built of stone, and are plastered, but seldom are
higher than one story, except in the towns, and
are made very warm by means of stoves. The
furniture is usually made by the Canadians
themselves, and is exceedingly simple.
The chief article of food is peas soup, with a
small piece of pork boiled in it, and a dish of
thick sour milk. The women and children



scarcely ever drink other than milk and water,
but the men are particularly fond of rum.
Winter lasts six months, during which time
the greater part of the day is devoted to amuse-
ment, principally dancing. Most of the women
can read and write, but the men can hardly do
either; and the manners of both are very gay
and light. There are a few lead mines in Canada,
in which silver is also found. Their exports are
timber, furs, potash, grain, and pearl-ash.

4 USTRALIA has also sent
her contributions to the
Exhibition. Among them
are specimens of the skins of animals, dried plants,
fine woods, and other things.
In Australia, there are scarcely any extensive
manufactures, but the natives make some useful
things, from the various and curious trees which
abound. For instance, they form the most dura-
ble furniture and weapons from the casuarina or
club tree; they make cloth from the finest bark
of the paper-mulberry tree, and cord from a



peculiar kind of flax. There are sago and cocoa
trees, which grow to the height of one hundred
and fifty feet, and are thirty feet round. Figs,
lemons, oranges, sugar-canes, gum-trees, bread-
fruit, and a kind of pepper, from which a drink,
called ava, is made, are very useful to the natives.
There are mines of a very rich quality, but they
are as yet scarcely attended to. The original
natives are very idle, and not very well off; those
who live near the sea shore, catch fish; and those
in the woods, eat such animals as they can get;
or climb up trees, for honey, squirrels, and

The settlers, who are the people who have gone
out from England and other countries, to dwell
there, live in a very comfortable manner; they
have large farms, with flocks of sheep and herds
cattle, fields of waving corn, rice, and wheat;
pretty huts, or shanties, as they are called, and a
profusion of the most beautiful plants and creepers.



In some parts of the country there are thriving
towns, with good streets, elegant shops, and fine
houses, such as there are in London.

2ROM the West Indies, spe-
S cimens of industry have
also come. Rice, fruits, su-
gar, metals, and plants, are among
S the contributions.
S The West Indians send us sugar,
rice, currants, raisins, cloves, nut-
megs, cinnamon, allspice, and mace, for
puddings; nice nuts, for our little boys
and girls; coffee, cocoa, and chocolate,
for our breakfast and tea; and fine silk,
and cotton, for our dresses.
Under the name of the West Indies, there are
many countries :-Cuba, Jamaica, Hayti, Porto
Rico, Barbadoes, and others. In Cuba, are found
mines of gold, copper, and different other metals;
there is a quantity of sugar grown there; and
the tobacco is finer than that of most other
islands. The trees are principally ebony, cedar,
and mahogany, which are hewed down, and sent
to foreign countries, to be made into furniture of
various sorts. Cedar wood is also used to scent
Clothes and papers, on account of its sweet per-


fume. The Cubans are fond of bull-fighting, and
of cock-fighting, I am sorry to say. Balls and
parties are also a favourite and more innocent
In Jamaica, the principal exercise of industryy
is in growing sugar, indigo, coffee, and ginger.
These are cultivated in what are called planta-
tions, which are attended to by negroes, who
used to be slaves, and used to be lashed on to
work unnaturally hard with whips; but they are
now free in all the British colonies, as I hope
they will be every where, long before any of my
little friends, who read this book, may die. For
not only were men and women kept in a state of
slavery, but all their dear innocent little children,
both little boys and little girls were treated as slaves.
The bread-fruit tree is one of the most useful
productions of the country, it not only supplies
food, but other necessaries. Of the inner bark is
formed a kind of cloth; the wood, which is soft,
smooth, and of a yellowish colour, serves for the
building of boats and houses; the leaves are used
for wrapping up food; some parts of the flowers
are good tinder; and the juice, when boiled with
cocoa-nut oil, is employed for making bird-lime,
and as a cement for mending earthenware vessels.
So you may guess how useful it is to the people



of Jamaica, and yet it is not a native of the West
Indies, but was first brought there by English
people, within the last seventy or eighty years.
Hayti is now a much more flourishing island
than it was; the Emperor, Faustin Soulouque,
does every thing in his power to render it a
civilized and polite country. He encourages all
the arts and industrial sciences; and, in his
court is kept up the grandeur of a great and power-
ful state; though the Haytians are black people,
and were for the greater part negro slaves.
Barbadoes is an exceedingly warm country, and
is unfortunately liable to dreadful hurricanes,
which sometimes overthrow whole towns and vil-
lages. The products are sugar, cotton, ginger,
and rum. The tall sugar-canes, which grow as
high as five or six feet, are set in plantations and
tended by negroes; and the cotton plants are
also taken care of by the negroes, who are almost
the only persons who can work in the open air,
on account of the heat. The houses of the plan-
ters are numerous all over the country; and,
with the green hills, and the luxuriance of the
vegetation, make an extremely picturesque scene.
Since slavery has been abolished in our West
India islands, schools for the children, and chapels
for religious worship, have been erected at the ex-



pense of the negroes; numbers of whom have also
become small landowners.

S e HAT a number of
Specimens have
St p been despatched
to the Exhibition
from Algeria, Tu-
nis, and the Cape
Sof Good Hope:
one, a model of
a winged head,
moulded in fine
yellow clay, is
i really pretty; and the preserved
fruits have quite a tempting look.
.. And here are some boxes, made
of most brilliant fancy woods;
a few knives, soaps, cigars, herbs,
and specimens of various woods, in blocks and in
polished pieces. Here is also opium, paper made
from the palm-tree, articles manufactured from
native woods, with essences, perfumes, and splen-
did veils, slippers, caps, guns, and swords.
Algeria now belongs to France; it was for-
merly one of the Barbary States, in the north
of Africa, and many very useful plants and



trees flourish there; oranges, melons, cucumbers,
cabbages, lettuces, and artichokes, grow in great
luxuriance. The sugar-cane is cultivated with
success; and everywhere may be seen quantities
of white roses, from which a sweet essence is ex-
tracted. The stems of the vines, which the peo-
ple tend, are sometimes so thick, that a man can
hardly put his arms round them; and the bunches
of grapes are a foot and a-half long. Only think of
bunches of grapes half a yard long! they must be
something like those which we read of in the Bible,
that were brought to Joshua, to show him what
a fertile country was the land of Canaan.
Acacia and cork trees grow in the woods of
Algeria; the natives obtain gum from the acacia.
There are many mines, but the Algerines make no
use of them. The people themselves are strong
in body, and of a tawny complexion.
Tunis is another of the Barbary States, and
contains a great number of people, Moors,
Turks, Arabs, Jews, and Christians, merchants
and slaves. All these carry on a large trade in
Morocco leather, linens, gold-dust, oil, woollen
cloth, lead, ostrich feathers, horses, and soap.
There are the same variety of vegetable produc-
tions that there are in Algeria.



HE Cape of Good
SHope is in the
S south of Africa;
it produces fine
I fruits and flow-
ers, grapes, le-
mons, oranges,
SI and figs, but no
5 nuts. The aloe
and myrtle grow
to a great size, and the
almond and wild chestnut
are very plentiful. There
are scarcely any manu-
factures, but the farmers
keep immense flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle;
and there is a vast quantity of fine wool sent every
year to England; and ships provisions, such as
beef, pork, and butter, are supplied to the vessels
sailing to India, Australia, and many other parts of
the world; their other chief export is Cape wine.
In some parts of this country are large herds of
zebras, antelopes, and giraffes, which are usually
preyed upon by lions, obliging the shepherds to
watch their flocks, and the farmers to ride about
with loaded guns. A strange mode, my little read-
ers will think, of being shepherds.



S HERE have been no scarcity
of French contributions; rich
silks, velvets, satins, linens,
fruits, woods, herbs, statues,
machinery, furniture, iron-
work, glass, plate, and a heap
more of industrial products;
and such splendid carpets.
In the "Arabian Nights'
Entertainments" we read
S about the Palaces of Fairies and
S Genii, with the floors covered with
the richest carpets, and divans and
cushions ot gorgeous tapestry, and we long to
see these carpets in reality; and so we shall at
the Exhibition, for there are some so magnifi-
cent, that I do not think the Princess Badroul-
boudour, or the Fairy Queen Pari Banou, ever sat
on finer. And charming little models of ships;
and such beautiful fans. Do you know how many
persons it takes to make a fan ? Fifteen; and
although those fans at the Exhibition are each
worth several guineas, yet, in France, tens of
thousands are sold at not more than a halfpenny
a-piece. The French fan-makers get two shil-
lings and six-pence a-day each, for their labour.



The people of France are our next-door neigh-
bours, almost; and from being our bitterest ene-
mies they have now become our most intimate
friends, and exchange visits constantly with us;
steam vessels and railways having made the
journey one of only a few hours.
Paris is the capital of France, and it is the
gayest city in the world; there are theatres,
balls, processions, feast-days, fairs, and more
amusements than I can remember. But there
are also numbers of very poor people, who almost
live in the streets, and get food and clothing
as they best can. Some, who are called cheffo-
niers, go about with a fork and a basket, to pick
up pieces of iron, rags, bones, or any stray valua-
bles, if they can find them, from holes and
corners in the streets, and from the dust heaps;
others look for the ends of cigars, and sell them
to be made into pieces of tobacco for the common
people; and a number, I am very sorry to say,
either beg or steal.
Among the peasantry there is a great deal of
industry displayed. As they are all desirous of
having a cottage and some land of their own, lads
of fifteen or sixteen years of age, hire themselves
as labourers to the farmers, and receive wages,
out of which, and their mode of living, they save



enough money in a few years, to buy a piece of land.
If the land is fit for it, they plant it with vines;
for the vineyards of France yield an abundant
harvest, and well repay the labour bestowed on
them. The French wines are among the finest
and most expensive in the world.
The cottages of the peasantry are not remark-
able for comfort, being very rude buildings, fre-
quently having merely a hole in the roof for a
chimney. They are mostly, however, extremely
picturesque, completely covered with vines. The
wines, called Bourdeaux, Burgundy, and Cham-
pagne come from France. From the fruit of the
olive-trees, which grow in vast quantities, a fine



clear oil is obtained, and this forms a large part
of the commerce of the country. The rearing of
poultry is carried on to a great extent; and most
of the eggs sold in London, which are used by
us at breakfast, for sauces, and for puddings,
come from France. Most of the cottagers keep
one or two small hardy cows, which their boys or
girls, or old people, are usually leading about by
a halter, to eat the rank grass in paths or road-
ways between the fields. Their milk and butter
form a good part of the people's food.
In Tours and Lyons, there are numerous manu-
factories for the most superb silks and damasks;
some years ago, there were fifteen hundred pairs
of silk stockings finished each day at Lyons.
The plate-glass of Paris is now much better
than that of Venice, which was formerly the
finest in the world, the plates being of an im-
mense size and extraordinary clearness. Their
tapestry is beautiful; the tapestry of the Gobelin
in particular, for it is just like splendid painting.
Indeed, some of the designs, copied from pictures,
surpass the originals, in point of beauty and bril-
liancy. There are many specimens of this ta-
pestry at the Exhibition, both in draperies, and
fitted to pieces of furniture.
The porcelain made at Sevres is exquisitely



beautiful, and is used for numerous ornamental
purposes; vases, tea services, chimney ornaments,
figures, and other articles. The painted papers,
which represent various ornaments in painting,
sculpture, and architecture, serve to employ a
great number of people. Watches, cutlery, shoes,
dresses, bonnets, and jewellery, are also a good
source of employment among numerous families.
All these beautiful things we shall see at the
The forests, in France, are very extensive; and
as wood is the general fuel used, great attention
is paid to the growth of the trees. Cattle and
domestic animals are rather scarce, and the sheep
are ill-managed; in winter, they are fed on straw
and hay, instead of green food, so that the
French meat is not so good as the English; but
they have a nice way of dressing it. The coun-
try people are very simple in their habits and
manners, and very frugal in their way of living;
they live for the most part on black bread, garlic,
fruit, and milk. The costumes of some of the
peasants are exceedingly pretty.



HAT a many thousand
contributions have come
From foreign countries,
-i yet even a greater
number have been
sent in from all parts
S of our own dear is-
j lands, England, Ire-
land, and Scotland.
Here is a silver tea-
Skettle, manufactured
from a fourpenny-
piece, by a working man. I think that would
grace the diminitive tea-table of the Emperor
of the Lilliputians. And a pair of boat-sculls,
made of white ash, and only the size of writing-
pens, which I dare say, the oars of the King of
Blefuscan's barge resembled; these, with a mag-
nificent oar, thirty-six feet long, are intended as
presents for His Royal Highness the Prince of
Here is a scarf, containing twelve miles and a-
half of thread, three millions four hundred and
seventy-five stitches, is nine feet ten inches long,
three feet wide, and weighs only five ounces and
a-quarter;-that came from Ireland, Look, too,



at that beautifully embroidered dress; it came
from Ireland, and is worth seventy-five guineas.
There are many little models of different build-
ings; and there is a colossal horse and dog; and
two gigantic statues; and there is a nicely carved
oak chair, made by an English ship-carpenter;
and here are cotton stockings, manufactured so
fine, that they look exactly like silk. There are
also models of carriages, ships, and machinery;
a magnificent epergne of glass, with some large
pearls, from Ireland. A beautiful piece of sculp-
ture, representing the Scottish games, is the most
remarkable contribution which has come from
The English people are celebrated for their in-
dustry and perseverance; they manufacture nu-
merous things, and carry on a large commerce
with other countries. The industry of the pea-
sants have made the soil produce wheat, barley,
rye, oats, beans, potatoes, turnips, hops, hemp, and
flax. Nearly every variety of vegetables, and a
great number of fruits, are also grown. There is
abundance of timber, which is used for many pur-
poses; the oak-tree is chiefly employed for
building ships. The ships of war are called the
" wooden walls of England."
The domestic animals are taken great care of;




sheep and hogs, when killed, are made into mut-
ton, pork, bacon, and ham. The English cheese
and butter is superior to any other. There are
abundance of mineral treasures'found in various
parts of the kingdom; indeed, the English people
are greatly indebted to the well-worked mines
for their wealth. At the Exhibition, are several
specimens of ores.
In addition to the rich mines, and the vegetable
productions, the English are celebrated for their
superior manufactures, which fame they are ena-
bled to enjoy by means of the most ingenious
machinery, rail roads, and canals, by which they
can easily and rapidly send their goods, and
travel from one part of the country to another.
Cottons, woollens, linens, silks, iron, jewellery,
leather, glass, earthenware, paper, and hats, are
manufactured in great quantities.
I dare say you would be much amused by a
visit to Manchester, in Lancashire, where the art
of spinning cotton is carried to a high perfection.
There are more than a hundred and forty cotton
factories in that city, where men, women, and
children, are continually at work, minding the
machines, which are about twenty thousand in
number. When you first go into one of these
factories, you hear a terrible noise of whirling


and whizzing, and see an immense number of
wheels flying round and round.
Halifax and Leeds, in Yorkshire, are the chief
places for woollen cloth, the manufacture of which
employs the greater part of the inhabitants. A
weekly market is held in Halifax for the sale of
woollens, in a spacious building called the Piece
Hall; but in Leeds, the markets are held two
days in the week, in the two Cloth Halls.
Staffordshire is famous for earthenware; the
reason of this is, that there is such an enormous
quantity of yellow clay suitable for that manu-
facture, found there. Indeed, there are several
towns and villages formed into a district called
"The Potteries;" and in consequence of the in-
numerable furnaces, which are always blazing,
the place looks at night as if was on fire. Gloves,
lace, and stockings, are mostly made in Notting-
ham, where there are several thousand machines
for the manufacture of these things.
From Kidderminster, in Worcester, we have
very fine carpets; from Gloucester, we have
cheese and pins; Northampton is celebrated for
leather; Shrewsbury, for flannel. The great
mines are in Cumberland, Cornwall, Northum-
berland, Durham, and Derbyshire. However, if I
were to tell you of all the places in England, that


are famed for different manufactures, I am afraid
I should both exceed our space, and wear out your
patience, which I should be sorry to do. So I
will now tell you something about London.

London, which you know is the capital of our
own dear native land, is the greatest commercial
city in the world; it has been reckoned that the
value of the property shipped and unshipped on
the river Thames, every year, is more than one
hundred million pounds. An enormous quantity
of property is laid in the London Docks, at Wap-
ping; indeed, the warehouse for tobacco alone




covers a space of nearly five acres, while the
vaults underneath the ground are more than
eighteen acres in extent.
More coaches, omnibusses, waggons, vans, and
other conveyances, crowd the streets of London
than any other city in the world. You will, per-
haps, be a little surprised when I tell you that in
one principal street, seven thousand vehicles pass
to and fro every day. Almost every kind of
manufacture is carried on in London; silk goods,
jewellery, clocks, watches, ear-rings, hats, furni-
ture, instruments of every kind, porter and ale,
with many more that I cannot now remember.
However, you must not think, from all this, there
are no poor people in London; for, unfortunately,
there are thousands. Some beg, others steal, and
those who are honest and able to labour, work.
But those who cannot obtain work are very badly
off; and persons die from starvation.

...HE industrial manufactures of
Scotland are like those of
England; the exports are li-
Snens, muslins, woollen stuffs,
Scottons, iron, lead, glass,
earthenware, leather, and
other articles. The chief


manufacture is linen: but manufactures of
stoves, and grates, and many other things, from
their immense iron works, particularly from those
of Carron, are also a principal part of the in-
dustrial products.

The Scotch people are remarkable for their
thrift and prudence; the lower orders are in
general well-educated, and it is the height of
ambition in a Scottish mechanic, to appear with
his family in neat, clean dresses, on Sundays and
other holidays.
The costume of the Highlanders is very pic-
turesque; the plaid is made of woollen stuff, of



various colours, with a jacket, and a short petti-
coat called a kilt, which leaves the knees bare;
the stockings are also a plaid, generally red and
white, and do not reach up to the knees, but are
tied round the legs with scarlet garters. The
head-dress is a flat blue bonnet, as it is called,
ornamented round with scarlet and white plaid,
and frequently adorned with eagle's feathers.
The Highland women go without shoes or stockings,
and wear short petticoats, a plaid jacket, and a
plaid scarf.
Most of the Scotch people are intelligent, and
so far advanced in education, that even the miners
in: the south have a library, where they read, and
improve their minds; and yet these poor miners
were little better than in a state of slavery two
hundred years since. The favourite musical in-
strument, with the Scotch, is the bag-pipe; which
does not, however, sound quite so well to our
English ears, as it does to theirs. Their national
dances are the Highland reel, and fling, which
they perform with great agility and grace. The
sheep and cattle are rather small, but give ex-
ceedingly good meat; and the sheep, in particular,
are valued for their fleece, which is almost as fine
as the best Spanish wool.
Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is, in the



new parts of it, a fine clean city; the houses in
the old town are excessively high, and the streets
inconvenient; but the streets of the new town are
very broad, and almost all in straight lines; some
of them are a mile long. Most of the houses are
built of white stone, which sparkles as if it was
inlaid with diamonds when the sun shines on it.
The manufactures carried on in the city, are
mostly cabinet-work, furniture, carriages, musical
instruments, linens, shawls, silks, glass, marble,
brass, and iron work. There are also many brew-
eries, for Edinburgh has long been celebrated for
its ale, large quantities of which are sent to London,
and other parts of the kingdom, Glasgow, which
is the principal manufacturing and trading town,
contains extensive cotton factories.
In many parts of the Highlands, the natives
are employed in feeding sheep and cattle, for the
markets; and in the valleys, and other sheltered
places, hemp, barley, flax, and potatoes, are cul-
tivated, though unfortunately most of the barley
is made into whiskey. In the more northernly
parts the general employment is fishing.

RELAND is a much warmer and more fertile
island; it is celebrated, in point of industry,
for its wool, butter, beef, hides, tallow, cows,



horses, pigs, sheep, potatoes, wheat, barley, oats,
and linen. Linen is the chief manufacture.
There are numerous mines, from which are ob-
tained gold, silver, iron, copper, and lead; all
very useful metals, I think.
There are also quarries of marble, slate, and
freestone; and in various parts are found coal
and turf. In Ireland, turf is the principal fuel
used. The brewing of stout, and a strong battered
beer, for exportation; and the distilling of whiskey,
another strong but spirituous drink, are other
branches of Irish industry.
Fishing is an important occupation with those
peasants who live on the sea-shore, and near the
rivers or lakes. The making of roads, draining
bogs, and improving the land, now employ thou-
sands of poor labourers, who formerly used to be
without any occupation.
The Irish dairies are well-managed and are
generally extensive; many counties in the south
part of the island are occupied almost entirely by
dairy farms. As many as thirty or forty cows are
kept on some of them, for butter is the chief pro-
duce, and this is sent into England, Portugal, and
the East and West Indies. Some of the nice but-
ter you eat on your bread and rolls comes from
Ireland. Sheep and cattle are fed in great quan-



titles on large pieces of land devoted to the pur-
pose; the sheep are large, and have fine wool.
The mud cabin of the Irish peasant is the most
miserable cottage you can imagine; the walls are
formed of clay, which hardens in the sunshine, the
roof is made of sticks and straw, and the floor is
the mere damp earth. It has frequently neither
door, nor chimney, and consists of only one room;
the furniture is rarely more than a stump bedstead,
two or three stools, an iron pot, to boil the pota-
toes in, and a table to eat them from. Generally,
there is a small piece of land attached to the dwell-
ing, and in this potatoes are grown; the peasants
of Ireland hardly ever eat anything besides pota-
toes. When they have enough of them to eat, and
a little whiskey to drink, the poor people are ex-
ceedingly jovial and merry; they laugh, sing, and
joke; and go to weddings, fairs, dances, and what
are called in Ireland "wakes," which, among the
poor, is a kind of laying in state before fune-
rals;-but sometimes the crops of potatoes fail,
and then the unfortunate peasants die by hun-
dreds from hunger. The favourite dance of the
common people is called a jig.
Dublin, which, I dare say, you know is the
capital of Ireland, is an elegant city, with fine
houses and good streets. The churches, the


castle, the linen hall, exchange, bank, custom-
house, and post-office, are all very noble buildings.
There are also parks, gardens, theatres, canals,
and other ornamental places throughout the city.
From Dublin have been sent models of carriages,
specimens of metals, slates, and linens, and a model
of a house made in granite.

HAVE now told
.you, my dear
Sa, little friends, a
great many sto-
_.__ -ries about the
S. industry of all
i nations, and we have gone through
the World's Show together. We
have seen nearly all the useful
a nd splendid things sent to the
---Great Exhibition from all parts
of the world. I have told you
about Europe, and Asia, Africa, and America;
and I must soon leave you. But before I go, we
must have another look at the Exhibition, and one



more glance at those few things which we have
not as yet seen.
We forgot to examine this magnificent chess-
board, worth one thousand two hundred guineas.
You will doubtless wonder why it is such a dear
board, but your surprise will cease when you
observe that the "checks," as they are called,
are of mother-of-pearl and tortoiseshell, while
the rim is of beautifully burnished gold, and the
chessmen are of gold and silver, elaborately
wrought, and ornamented with the portraits of
celebrated historical characters; one of them
represents the Emperor, Charles the Fifth. I
dare say you would like to play a game with me
on this chess-board. As a companion to this
beautiful chess-board, is a very elegant colour box,
fit for the Queen, or the most noble young lady
in the land, to use for painting with. And here
is a model of the town of Liverpool, with several
thousand little people in the streets; and these
figures are so exceedingly small, that a thousand
of them would fit into an ordinary sized pill box.
In contrast to this specimen of a great town in
a minute space, we have in front of the transept
a wonderful clock, which is kept in motion by a
set of powerful electro magnets, eight in number,
on which is wound a length of twenty-five thou-


sand feet of copper wire. This gigantic time-
keeper sets in motion the immense hands on the
principal dial, which is twenty-four feet in di-
ameter, besides two smaller ones which are fixed
in front of the galleries, at the east and west ends
of the building. I am afraid that it would tire
you, were I to attempt to tell you exactly what
electricity is, and must therefore satisfy your
curiosity, for the present, by letting you know
that it is caused by the coming in contact of dif-
ferent substances possessing peculiar properties,
which cause them to vibrate, when they touch.
There is another very curious clock in the Ex-
hibition, which will go for a hundred years before
requiring to be wound up again; and there is one
wheel in it which is said would take ten thousand
years to go round once.
Next there is a case of stuffed birds, which
came from Scotland, and which we cannot help
admiring. There are in this case specimens of
all the various kinds of birds which are peculiar
to Scotland, neatly and carefully stuffed; and
really they almost look as if they were alive.
Ah, ah! Mister Eagle, you are not so much to be
feared now, I think, as you were when you lived
in your lofty home in the Highland mountains.
And here is another case in which are all the



different sorts of mother-of-pearl buttons that can
be imagined; there is every variety of ornament
on the buttons, which look exceedingly brilliant.
This immense block of granite, from Scotland,
is not quite so pretty, though it is, perhaps, more
useful; it is twenty feet long, and is a piece of
the finest kind and colour that could be found.
Another very useful thing, also from Scotland, is
a large lighthouse bell, managed so as to ring
very loud, to warn any ship that is going too near
a dangerous rock or shoal, near the lighthouse
where the bell may be.
Among the more beautiful specimens of indus-
try, there are several elegant vases made of silver,
and of a delicate material called Parian, which is
an imitation of Parian marble; some of them are
ornamented with blue and gold, and others are
ornamented with silver. There is also a splendid
tea-service, adorned with charming pictures of
the dear old fables we all know so well,-the
" Lion and the Mouse," the Wolf and the Lamb,"
the "Dog and the Shadow," and others.
Near the very middle of the building, close by
the crystal fountain, there are the splendid iron
gates from Coalbrookdale, which look very mag-
nificent. I fancy Samson would find it rather a
difficult matter trying to bear off these gates on


his back, strong as he was. Close by these gates
there is a gigantic statue of our good Queen, on.
horseback, which towers high over our heads; and
she sits smiling at us as if she could see us looking
so delighted.
There are several gigantic things at the Exhi-
bition. Here, for one, is a monster cake, covered
with the most superb ornaments; it is four feet
high, and weighs about two-hundred and twenty-
five pounds. Yonder is another monster contri-
bution, an immense map of the busy city of Man-
chester; and there is a huge railway carriage;
and still further on, there is an iron wire, one mile
long. At a little distance stands a magnificent
bed and bedstead, fit for the Queen to sleep in.
It came from Edinburgh, and is made mostly of
materials which can be produced in Scotland.
And in this direction, we can see a set of beau-
tiful mantelpieces and fenders, from Sheffield,
all decorated in the most elegant manner. The
first mantelpiece we must look at is made of cast-
iron; the mouldings of the cornice are richly
ornamented, and supported by little pillars co-
vered with graceful wreaths of oak-leaves, while
the freize is adorned with a cluster of rich fruit.
The next mantelpiece is painted white and gold,
and has a burnished steel grate; while the third


is painted blue and gold, and has a stove made on
a new plan, for it is managed so that its own
brightness shall help to throw out the heat of the
fire in an equal and agreeable manner. The
fourth and last mantelpiece is painted black, and
ornamented with ormolu; it contains a polished
steel stove. Three ormolu fenders, and five
bright ones are placed together with the mantel-
pieces; and they certainly make a goodly show.
But we must now leave them, and go on to see
some other wonders.
Here are several most beautiful loo-tables in-
laid, and they seem to attract a good deal of
attention from more than us. You look a little
puzzled at the word inlaid; I think I must ex-
plain it to you, by telling you that it means
pieces of different material let into a piece of
furniture to ornament it.
There are numerous models of various build-
ings in the Crystal Palace; those of York Cathe-
dral, and Chance's Lighthouse, are particularly
well made. There is also a model of the Britan-
nia Tubular Bridge; and there are models of many
of the fine public works of London.
Here is a pair of scissors made in Sheffield, and
ornamented in the most beautiful way, with a
crown for a handle; and yonder are a pair of




cotton stockings from Ireland, spun so fine that
they look exactly like silk, and indeed you would
be likely to mistake them for silk, if you were
not told they were merely cotton.
How brilliant this collection of gems looks;
how the stones sparkle! they have been sent as
specimens of the jewels which Ireland produces.
But here are some pretty English agates; and a
huge mass of Irish rock crystal, which is very
bright and clear. In a compartment, at a little
distance, we may see a book, bound according to
a new method, by which the leaves are so firmly
placed together, that they would not loosen in
ten years' time, no matter how the book was
tossed about, unless they were purposely taken
We must now have a look at the machinery
department. Firstly, there is the great steam-
engine that works all the other steam-engines in
the Exhibition, though, of course, you cannot
understand it by looking at it; neither can I,
although I know so much more than you do.
Near it is a model of a new agricultural machine
for cutting, turning up, and making into light
mould, the clay of fields, so as to make it ready
to receive the seeds to be set, without the farmers
being obliged to plough the earth. There is



a machine for making bricks and tiles, so that
people may, if they like, form those materials
for building houses cheaper and better than in
the usual way. But here is a useful machine.
It is a measuring machine, by which you could
measure to the smallest size, even to the hun-
dred-thousandth part of an inch!
Here is a very pretty contribution; it is a
model of the house of the great play-writer,
Shakspeare,-of whom, perhaps, you may have
heard,-and it is surrounded by figures repre-
senting different beautiful scenes from Shak-
speare's plays. It was made by a workman in his
leisure time: and it certainly does him credit.
It is called the Shakspeare Jubilee.
Yonder is another piece of ingenious industry;
it is a group of figures showing all the various
Scotch games; there is one figure dancing the
Highland fling, another throwing the beam, and
all the others engaged in similar sports. That
came from Scotland, of course.
Let us now go on to look at that splendid de-
sign embroidered in gold, and intended for a
communion cloth. Oh! here it is; does it not look
beautiful? But here are several lovely speci-
mens of china, and earthenware, which would
grace the sideboards of the richest house in the



land, I think. Here is a fine marble font, made
of Devonshire marble, which is very nicely carved,
as well as I can judge. Further on, we have
some less showy, but more solidly useful articles.
Various kinds of iron, copper, zinc, lead, silver,
and gold ores are displayed, with oils, quartz,
stones, coal, &c. There are lanterns on a new plan,
microscopes, barometers, optical and philosophical
instruments, farming implements, machines for
melting metals;-besides hundreds of other ar-
ticles which we cannot stop to notice more parti-
cularly. There are two or three very interesting
models of mines, with mining machinery, and
plans for improving the air of the mines, so as to
make the poor miners more comfortable. And
there are other models of ships, printing presses,
looms, and machines for making gas, which de-
serve some degree of attention. There is also a
new machine for printing cotton on both sides,
which will be very useful, as the cotton printed
with it will be as ornamental on one side as the
There are four splendid and very powerful or-
gans, and several beautiful piano fortes, in the
Exhibition; and there is an accurate model of
Plymouth Breakwater, with a very very little
ship attached to it, and all complete, even to the

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