Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Spain - Sicily
 Germany - Britain
 Sarmatia - Scythia, etc.
 Other countries and tribes...
 Lydia - Persia
 Sacred history
 General view
 Back Cover

Group Title: third book of history
Title: The third book of history
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001810/00001
 Material Information
Title: The third book of history containing ancient history in connection with ancient geography : designed as a sequel to the First and Second books of history
Alternate Title: Parley's Third book of history
Physical Description: 189 p., 8 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), maps ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Jenks, Hickling, and Swan ( Publisher )
Carter, Hendee & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Jenks, Hickling, & Swan
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1851, c1849
Copyright Date: 1849
Edition: Improved ed., with new engravings
Subject: History, Ancient -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1851   ( local )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: by the author of Peter Parley's tales.
General Note: Some ill. hand-colored.
General Note: Maps copyrighted by Carter, Hendee & Co., Mass.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on p. 4 of cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001810
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002235711
oclc - 45635266
notis - ALH6174
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
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        Page 73
        Page 74
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        Page 77
        Page 78
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        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Spain - Sicily
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Germany - Britain
        Page 127
    Sarmatia - Scythia, etc.
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Other countries and tribes of Africa
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Lydia - Persia
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Sacred history
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    General view
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text








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CHAP. 1.--Extent of ancient Greece. Early history.
Sicyon. Argos. Mycenae. Thebes. Corinth
Sparta. Troy. Story of the Trojan war. 9
CHAP. 2.-Heraclida and Pelopida. Foundation of
Athens. Amphictyon. Bacchus. Codrus. End
of tIe regal government and establishment of the
archona Division of Greece into republics.
Athens and Sparta. Lycurgus. Form of govern-
ment established by him. Life and manners of
the Spartans. Death of Lycurgus. Messenian
war. 11
CHAr. 3.-Athenians dissatisfied with their archons.
Solon. Divisions and government of the Atheni-
ans. Factions. Conduct of Pisistratus. Death of
Solon. Hippias and Hipparchus. Their ultimate
tyranny and defeat. Darius fits out an expedition,
which is unsuccessful. Reception of his heralds by
the Athenians and Spartans. Battle of Marathon.
Fate of Miltiades. Ostracism of Aristides. 13
CHAP. 4.-Xerxes succeeds to the throne of Persia.
Destruction of the bridge over the Hellespont.
Numbers of the Persians. Athenians and Lacedemo-
nians. Leonidas and the battle of Thermopyle.
Persians enter Athens and set fire to it. Battle of
Salamis and Plataea, and triumph of the Greeks. 16
CHAr. 5.-Walls of Athens rebuilt. Expedition to
Asia Minor. Treachery and death of Pausanias.
Banishment of Themistocles. His reception at the
Persian court. Magnanimity and death. Admin-
istration of Aristides. Victories of Cimon and in-
gratitude of his countrymen. The age of Pericles.
Recal and death of Cimon. State of the fine arts
at Athens. 17
CHAP. 6.-Peloponnesian war. Attack on Platae.
General rising throughout Greece. Departure of
Pericles. Eclipse of the sun. Pestilence at Athens.
Death of Pericles. Revolt of Lesbos. Nicias and
Alcibiades. Their characters. Departure of the
fleet upon the expedition against Syracuse.. 19
CHAP. 7.-Accusation and flight of Alcibiades. Con-
duct of Nicias. Siege of Syracuse. Spartans as-
sist the Syracusans and attack the territories of
Athens. Defeat of the Athenians under Demos-
thenes. Return of Alcibiades to Athens. 20
CHAP. 8.-Defeat of the Athenians by Lysander.
Athens besieged by the Spartans. Peace granted
upon humiliating conditions. Entrance of Lysan-
der into Athens. The Thirty Tyrants. Decline
of Grecian glory. Death of Iheramenes. Of Al-
cibiades. The Athenians rise and are headed by
Thrasybulus. Restoration of the popular govern-
ment. Retreat of the Ten Thousand under Xeno-
phon. Death of Socrates. 22
CHAP. 9.-War with Persia. Peace of Antalcidas.
Theban war. Epaminondas and Pelopidas. Ba-
nishment of the latter with four hundred Thebans.
Success of their conspiracy. Battle of Leuctra.
Of Mantinea. Death of Epaminondas. 24
CHAP. 10.-Decline of Athenian glory. Fame and
power of the Macedonians. Philip'and his Mace-
donian phalanx. Demosthenes. Birth of Alexan-
der the Great. The Sacred war. Proceedings of
Philip Battle of Cheronea. Assassination of
Philip. 26

CHAP. 11.-Alexander the Great. Early ambition.
Bucephalus. Confederacy of the Grecian states.
Success of Alexander. His visit to Diogenes
Asiatic campaign B. C. 334. Illness at Tarsus
Magnanimity. Fidelity of the physician Philip. 97
CHAP. 12.-Battle of Issus. Generosity of the ca-
quetor. Victorious progress of Alexander. Recep-
tion at Jerusalem. Foundation of Alexandria.
Oracle of Jupiter. Battle of Arbela. Babylon.
Persepolis. Destruction of the royal palace. Con-
spiracy of Bessus. Assassination of Darius. 29
CHAP. 13.-Alexander's progress through northern
Asia. Return to Bactriana. Death of Parmenio.
Of Bessus. Alexander slays Clitus. Marries
Roxana. Indian campaign. Extravagance of the
conqueror. Death of Hepheestion. Death of Alex-
ander at Babylon. '.1
CHAP. 14.-Division of the Empire. Death of De-
mosthenes. Of Phocion. The Achaan leape.
Efforts of Aratus. Character of the Spartan.
Agis and Agesilaus. Death of the former. Cleo-
menes defeats the Achaians. Success of Antigonsm. 31
CHAP. 15.-Earthquake at Rhodes. The Etolians
defeat Aratus. Philip of Macedonia. Philopomen,
the last of the Greeks." The Romans defeat
Philip in Thessaly, and Nabis. Death, of Philo-
pcemen. Mummius defeats the Achaians and de-
stroys Corinth. Greece reduced to a Roman pro-
vince, under the name of Achaia. 33
CHAP. 16.-Beauty of natural scenery. Athens.
Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth. Grecian architec-
ture and sculpture. Venus. The Laocoon. Paint-
ing. Zeuxis and Parrhasius. 35
CHAP. 17.-Classes of Athenians. The Mjgistracy.
Government. Popular assemblies. The Areopagus.
Ostracism. Spartans. The Amphictyonic council.
Grecian armies and their equipment. Punish-
ment of cowards. Naval affairs. 36
CHAP. 18.-Oracles. Public games. Literature
Oratory. Dress. Modes of life. Marriage. Greek
women. Children. Burial of the dead. 38
CHAP. 19.-Early history. ABneas. Numitor. Usur-
pation of Amulius. Birth of Romulus and Remus.
Their exposure on the Tiber. Education. Ama-
lius dethroned. Building of Rome. Death of
Remus. Government and divisions of the people
Religion. Various regulations. Rape of the Sa-
bines. Tatius enters Rome. Perfidy and punish-
ment of Tarpeia. Hostilities terminated by the
interference of the women. Death of Romulus.
Divine honors paid him.
CHAP. 20.-Reign of Numa Pompilius. Temples
and orders of priests. Death of Numa. Interreg-
num. Tullus Hostilius. War with the Albans.
Combat of the Horatii and Curiatii. Cruel conduct
of the victor. Death of Tullui. 43
CHAP. 21.-Election of Ancus Martius. His victo-
ries. Death. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus elected
king. He defeats the Latins and Sabines. The
Soothsayers. Tarquinius slain by order of the
sons of Ancus. 45
CHAP. 22.-Servius Tullius. Early years of his
reign. Murdered by Lucius, his son-in-law. Con-
duct of Tullia. 46



CHAP. 23.-Tarquin the Proud. Violation ofLucre-
tia by Sextus Tarquin. Death of Lucretia. The
oath of Brutus. Revolt of the Romans. Abo-
lition of the regal power. 47
CHAP. 24.-The consulate. Conspiracy against the
state. Guilt and condemnation of the sons of Bru-
tus. Battle between the royalists and republicans.
Death of Brutus. Porsenna, king of Etruria, be-
sieges Rome. Heroism of Horatius Codes. For-
titude of Mutius. Escape of Clelia. 49
CHAP. 25.-Intestine difficulties. The Dictatorship.
Secession of the Plebeians. Menenius Agrippa.
Effect of his fable. Creation of tribunes of the
people. Return of the Plebeians to Rome. 51
CHAP. 26.-Famine. Arrival of Corn. Conduct-of
Coriolanus. His banishment. The Volscians make
war upon the Romans. Roman territories invaded
by Tullus and Coriolanus. Coriolanus determines
to lay siege to Rome. Gives up the project at the
prayers of his mother. Death and funeral of Co-
riolanus. 52
CHAP. 27.-Crimes and condemnation of Spurius
Cassius. Trial of Fabius and Manlius. Quintus
Cincinnatus chosen dictator. Tranquillity restored
on- the delay of the Agrarian law. Incursion of
the AEqui and Volscians. Cincinnatus again chosen
Dictator. The JEqui defeated and compelled to
pass beneath'the yoke. Revival of the tumults
respecting the Agrarian law. Claims of Dentatus.
The law again deferred. 53
CHAP. 28.-Deoemviry and laws of the twelve tables.
Oppression of the magistrates. The JEqui and
Volscians again take the field. Romans defeated.
Fate of Dentatus. Story of Virginia. Revenge
of Virginius. End of the decemvirate. 55
CHAP. 29.-Turbulence and rapacity of the people
and their tribunes. Military tribunes. Consuls
and censors. Famine. Spurius Malius. Forma-
tion of a conspiracy. Cincinnatus again chosen
dictator. Death of Malius. Anger of the people.
Veii taken after a siege often years. Triumph of
Comilus. Falerii taken. Treachery of a school-
master. Charges brought against Camillus by the
tribunes. Departure for Ardea. 57
CHAP. 30.-Invasion of the Gauls under Brennus.
Their reception of the Roman ambassadors. The
Gauls appear before the gates of Rome. They
enter the city Slaughter of the Senate. Defence
of the capitol. Exploit of Manlius. Opportune
appearance ofCamillus. Rout of the Gauls. Rome
rebuilt. Criminal conduct of Manlius. Condem-
nation and death. Devotion of Quintus Curtius. 60
CHAnP. 31.-Samnite war. Its triumphant conclusion.
War between the Romans and Latins. Combat
between Metius and Titus Manlius. Condemna-
tion of Titus by his father. Devotion of Decius.
Triumph of the Romans. 62
CHAP 32.--Samnites compelled the Romans to pass
beneath the yoke. The Romans retrieve their
character under the conduct of Papirius Censor
and Fabius Maximus. Pyrrhus, king of Epirus,
joins the Samnites. Romans under Laavinus de-
feated by Pyrrhus. Mission of Cineas. Firmness
of Fabricius. Battle bf Asculum. Success of Den-
tatus. Termination of the Pyrrhic war. 63
CHAP. 33.-Origin of the Carthaginian war. Na-
val power and wealth of Carthage. First Ro-
man fleet. Carthaginians defeated. Regulus and
Manlius defeat their opponents. Clypea taken.
Success of Regulus. Xantippus chosen to lead the
Carthaginians. Defeat of the Romans. Regulus
made prisoner. Severity of his treatment, and fate. 65

CHAP. 34.-Renewal of hostilities between the Ro-
mans and Carthaginians. Success of the Ro-
mans. Peace. Punishment of the Illyrians. In-
vasion of the Gauls. They are repelled. The
second Punie war. Hannibal. Entrance into Italy,
and retreat of Publius Scipio. Battle of Trebia.
Battle of lake Thrasymenus. Fabius Maximus
chosen to command the Romans. Hannibal's army
surrounded. Saved by a skilful retreat. Teren-
tius Varro and JEmilius Paulus. Their characters. 67
CHAP. 35.-Battle of Canne. Defeat of the Romans.
Death of XEmilius. Losses of Hannibal at Nola
and Capua. Asdrubal sent to assist him. His
death. Syracuse taken. Scipio Africanus Defeat
of Hanno. Hannibal recalled to Rome Defeat
of the Carthaginians. End of the second Punic
war. 69
CHAP. 36.-Philip, king of Macedonia, defeated by
the Romans. War with Antiochus. Success
of the Romans. Peace. Persecution and death of
Hannibal. Second Macedonian War. The Romans
resolve to destroy Carthage. Its desperate defence.
Complete destruction of Carthage. Successes of
Mummius in Greece, and Scipio in Spain. 71
CHAP. 37.-Agitations caused by the Licinian law.
Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. Death of Tiberius.
Caius Gracchus made tribune of the people. His
rival Drusus. Factious conflicts. Gracchus leads
his followers to mount Aventine. Destruction of
the people on the mount. Death of Flaccus. Flight
and death of Gracchus. 72
CHAP. 38.-Jugurthine war. War of the allied
states. Civil wars. Marius and Sylla. Death of
the former. Dictatorship of Sylla. General pro-
scription. Resignation of Sylla's authority.
Death. 73
CHAP. 39.-Jealousy of Pompey and Crassus. Con-
spiracy of Catiline. Discovery of the plot. Cati-
line joins his army. It is defeated. Description
of the battle. 74
CHAP. 40.-Return of Pompey. Julius Casar. First
triumvirate. Division of the lands and provinces
Campaign and conquest of Cesar. His return.
Casar declared a foe to the commonwealth. Pas-
sage of the Rubicon and conquest of Arminium. 75
CHAP. 41.-Caesar secures the treasury. Conquest
of Spain. Operations of the armies in Greece.
Temporary reverses of Casar. He makes himself
master of Thessaly. Repairs to Pharsalia. 77
CHAP. 42.-Battle of Pharsalia. 79
CHAP. 43.-Flight of Pompey. Meeting with Cor-
nelia. Sails for Egypt. Assassination of Pompey.
His funeral. 81
CHAP. 44.--Cesar's pursuit of Pompey. Egypt sub-
jected to the Roman arms. Revolt in the Asiatic
provinces quelled by Caesar. Defeat of Scipio.
Suicide of Cato. Caesar's triumph at Rome. His
great popularity. 82
CHAP. 45.-War in Spain. Defeat of the sons of
Pompey. Activity of Casar. Conspiracy formed
against him at Rome. Assassination of Caesar in
the senate house. 84
CHAP. 46.-Mark Anthony, Octavius and Lepidus,
the second triumvirate. Flight of the conspirators.
Brutus and Cassius raise armies. Subjection o
the Rhodians, and destruction of Xanthus. Quar-
rel between Brutus and Cassius. The evil genius
of Brutus. 88
CHAP. 47.-Battle of Philippi. Death of Brutus ard
Cassius. Proscription by the triumviri. Progress of
Antony. Visit of Cleopatra. Settlement of the
veterans in Italy. 87


CHAP. 48.-Rupture between Augustus and Anto.
ny. Reconciliation. Marriage of Antony and
Octavia. New division of the empire. Defeat
and death of Sextus Pompey. Ruin of Antony.
Battle ofActium. Death of Cleopatra and Antony. 89
CHAP. 49.-Clemency of Augustus. Honors bestow-
ed ulon him. Character of his administration.
Refinement of manners. Treatment of Cornelius
Cinna. Private life. Exile ofTiberius. Death
of Drusus. Conduct of Julia. Tiberius associated
with Augustus in the government. Death of Au-
gustus. 90
CHAP. 50.--Grief for the late emperor. Reign of
Tiberius. Death of Germanicus. Retirement of
the emperor to Capreae. Conduct of Sejanus.
Death of Nero and Drusus. Other executions.
Fall of Sejanus. Tyranny of Tiberius. He choos-
es a successor. Death of the emperor. Crucifix-
ion of Christ. 92
CHAP. 51.-Caligula's brief good conduct. Impiety
and extravagance. The horse Incitatus. Inhu-
man cruelties. Expedition to Gaul. Conspiracy
of Charea. Death of the tyrant. Seneca's opin-
ion of him. 93
CHAP. 52.-Claudius made emperor. Just actions.
Expedition to Britain. Wars with the Britons.
Caractacus brought to Rome. Pardoned by Clau-
dius. Cruelties of Claudius. The emperor poi-
soned by Agrippina. 95
CHAP. 53.-Nero ascends the throne. Murder of
Agrippina. Burningof Rome. Persecution of the
Christians. Conspiracy of Piso. Deaths of Sene-
ca, Lucan and Petronius. Soranus, Thrasea, Ther-
mos and others put to death. Galba's march on
Rome. Flight of the tyrant. Death of Nero. 96
CHAP. 54.-Galba's reign. His death. Otho made
emperor. He is defeated by his opponents. Vi-
tellius made emperor. Gluttony. Vespasian's
successes. Burning of the capitol. Vitellius beat-
en to death. 98
CHAP. 55.-Vespasian declared emperor. His clem.
ency and generosity. Jerusalem taken by Titus.
Triumph of Titus and Vespasian. Death of the
latter. 99
CHAP. 56.-Titus ascends the throne. His justice.
Sacrifice. Clemency Eruption of Vesuvius.
Conquest of Agricola. Death of Titus. 100
CHAP 57.-Domitian's reign. His low ambition.
Public ostentation and private meanness. Treat-
ment of Agricola. Pretended successes over the
Germans. Death of Agricola. Eruption of the
Sarmatians. The Romans defeated by the Da-
cians. Contemptible conduct of the emperor.
Revolt of Antonius. Cruelties of Domitian. Hy-
pocrisy, conspiracy and death of the tyrant. 102
CHAP. 58.-Nerva. His justice and wisdom. Insur-
rection of the praetorian bands. Death of Nerva.
Trajan made emperor. Election of Trajan. Ex-
pedition against the Dacians. Triumph of Trajan.
Renewal of hostilities. Complete subjugation of
the Dacians. Persecution of the Christians. Jew-
ish rebellion. Death of Trajan. 103
CHAP. 59.-Adrian. Incursions of Northern bar-
barians. Adrian's tour. Jewish insurrection.
Jews banished from their country. The barbari-
ans pacified by bribes. Death o the emperor. 105
CHAP. 60.-Titus Antonius. Patronage of learning.
Marcus Aurelius. Death ofAntonius. Aurelius
associates Lucius Verus with him in the govern-
ment. Defeat of the Catti and Britons. Irruption
of the Parthians. Their subjugation. Excesses
of Venis. Ravages of the barbarians in Italy. Per-

section of Christians. Defeat of the barbarias
Death of Verus. Another invasion of barbarians.
Death of Aurelius at Vienna. 106
CHAP. 61.-Commnodus. Licentiousness and folly.
Cruelty. The tyrant strangled. Pertinax chosen
emperor. Assassinated. Didius buys the impe-
rial dignity. Severus proclaimed emperor and
Didius assassinated. Military successes of eve-
rus. He dies in Britain. Caracalla and Geta.
Murder of the latter. Enormities ofCaracalla. His
death. Macrinus and Diadumenianus. Flight and
death of both. 107
CHAP. 62.-Heliogabalus. Degraded character of his
reign. Death. Alexander succeeds to the throne.
His reign and death. Reign of the giant Maximin.
His death. Reign of Pupienus and Balbitfus.
Gordian's brief reign and death. 109
CHAP. 63.-Philip made emperor. Revolt of the
army and death of Philip. Decius. Gallus.
Goths bribed. AEmilianus slays the emperor. Va-
lerian recognized as emperor. The emperor taken
prisoner by the Persians. His sufferings and
death. Gallienus chosen emperor. Assassinated.
Flavius Claudius succeeds him. Death. The
emperor Aurelian. Zenobia taken prisoner. Se-
verities and assassination of Aurelian. 110
CHAP. 64.-Reign and death of Tacitus. Probus.
Carus. Carenus and Numerian. Death of Cars.
Grief of Numerian. He is assassinated. Dioele-
tian and Maximin. Resignation of the emperor.
Chlorus and Galerius. Death of the two emperors.
Constantine. Conversion of Constantine. He de-
feats the usurper Maxentius. Defeat of Maximia.
Rupture between Constantine and Liciiius.
Death of the latter. Execution of Crispus and
Fausta. Seat of empire transferred to Byzan.
tium. Defeat of the Goths. Division of the em-
pire. Baptism and death of Constantine. 111
CHAP. 65.-Decline of the Roman empire. Constaa-
tius. Julian the Apostate. Jovian and Valentin-
ian. The Huns defeat and rout the Goths. Valens
and his army defeated by the Goths. Theodosius.
Invasion of Alaric. Storm and sack of Rome.
Excesses of Vandals. Western emperors. Hono
rius. Ruin of the empire. 113
CHAP. 66.-City of Rome. Remains. Divisions of
the Roman people. Dress and privileges of the
senators. Badges and attendance of the kings. 115
CHAP. 67.-Rights of citizenship. Foreigners. Pub-
lic assemblies. 116
CHAP. 68.-Laws and judicial proceedings. Punish.
ments. Augurs. Hfaruspices. Worship of the
gods. Festivals. 117
CHAP. 69.-Roman games. Gladiatorial and other
shows. Military and naval affairs of the Romans. 118
CHAP. 70.-Dress. Modes of Life. Marriage. Fu-
nerals. Names. Literature and the fine arts. 119
CHAP. 71.-Jupiter. Juno. Iris. Minerva. Vesta.
Ceres. Neptune. Venus. Cupid. Vulcan. Mars.
Bellona. Mercury. Apollo. Diana. Saturn. Janus.
Rhea. Pluto. Bacchus. Hercules. Castor and
Pollux. Pan. AEsculapius. The Fauni. Ver-
tumnus. Pomona. Flora. Terminus. Pales.
The Muses. 190
CHAP. 72.-Discovery of Spain. Its divisions.
Wealth of the mines. Sicily. The Siculi. Greeks
and Phoenicians settle in Sicily. Romans gain pos-
session of it. History of Syracuse. 195
CHAP. 73.-Character and habits of the OGals.
Priests, magistrates, sacrifices &c. Luteti#. Con-
quests of the Franks. Early kings of the Freich. 19I
CHAP. 74.-Boundaries of German. Character,


habits and institutions of the Germans Respect
paid to women. Different tribes. Patriotism and
bravery. The Celts. Dress and warlike appear-
ance of the Britons. Their worship. The Angles.
Roman conquests in Britain. The Roman wall.
London in the reign of Nero. Caledonia. 127
CHAP. 75.-Character and habits of the Sarma-
tians. Food. Chariots. Their warlike charac-
ter. The Scythians. Conquest of Asia Minor.
Form of government. Loyalty. Dacians. Illyr-
ians. Scandinavian nations Habits and mode of
life. Mythology. War. The pleasures of Val-
halla. High reputation of the Female Goths. Gov-
ernment and military affairs. Customs of the
Heruli. The Huns. 128
CHAP. 76.-Origin of the Egyptian empire. Menes.
The shepherd kings. Athotes I. Tosorthros. Ni-
tocris. Sesostris. His character and conquests.
Death. 130
CHAP. 77.-Pheron. Joseph. Pharaoh. Mceris.
Hermes Trismegistus. Amosis. Actisanes. Ce-
tes, or Proteus. Shishak. Rhameses. Amno-
phis IV. His statue. Thuoris, &c. 132
CHAP. 78.-Invasion and subjugation of Egypt by
Sabbacon. Tharaca. Pharaoh Necho. Psam-
menitus. Invasion of Cambyses, king of Persia.
Amyrtaeus restores the independence of Egypt.
The succeeding eight kings. Egypt again subject-
ed to Persia by Oclus. Conquered by Alexander
the Great. Ptolemy Lagus founds the dynasty of
the Lagida. His character. Public improvements
of his reign. The tower of Pharos. Anecdote
of Sostratus, the builder. The museum. The
Alexandrian library. Literary notoriety of Ptol-
emy Lagus. His death. 134
CHAP. 79.-Ptolemy Philadelphus. Alliance with
the Romans. Marriage of Antiochus and Bere-
nice. Proposed monument to the memory of Ar-
sinoe. Dinocrates. Anecdote illustrative of his
genius. Learned men in the reign of Philadel-
phus. Riches and commercial prosperity of Egypt.
Ptolemy Evergetes. His successes against Anti-
ocius. His love of literature. Ptolemy Philo-
pater. His licentiousness. Conduct towards the
Jews. Death. 135
CHAP. 80.-Ptolemy Epiphanes. His minority. Ex-
cellent conduct of Aristomenes. Its reward.
Death of Epiphanes. Ptolemy Philometor. His
captivity in Syria. His brother Physcon made
king. Physcon dethroned. Philometor regains
the throne. Division of the Egyptian territories
between Physcon and Philometor. Death of the
latter. 137
CHAP. 81.-Physcon. His marriage with Cleopatra.
Murder of her infant son. Flight to Cyprus. Cleo-
patra mounts the throne of Egypt. Dethroned and
repudiated by Physcon. Lathyrus. Ptolemy.
Alexander I. Cruelty of Lathyrus to the Jews.
Death of Alexander. Lathyrus again ascends the
throne. Death. Marriage of his daughter Cleopa-
tra with the second Alexander, who murders her.
Autetes. Berenice. Ptolemy and Cleopatra.
Death of Ptolemy. Cleopatra poisons her younger
brother after marrying him. Mark Antony en-
slaved by her charms. Anecdote of her extrava-
gance. Death. 138
CHAP. 82.-Egypt becomes a Roman province.
iEgyptian antiquities. Thebes. Alexandria. Pom-
pey's pillar. Cleopatra's needles. The city of
the dead. Mode of embalming bodies. The pyra-
mids. Government of the Egyptians, and division
of lands. Mythology. The gods. Apis. Effects of

superstition. Education. Food and drink. Em-
ployments of the men and women. Singular cus-
toms. Strange observance at Festivals. Litera-
ture and the arts. Commerce. 140
CHAP. 83;-Libya. Cyrenaica and Marmarica. Tem-
ple of Jupiter. Ammon. Fabulous fount in its
vicinity. Cyrene. Ethiopia. The Blemmyes,
Troglodites and Pigmies. Mauritania. Tineis.
Story of Antaus. The Getulians. The Garaman-
tes. The Fortunate Islands. Sertorius. 142
CHAP. 84.-Dido. Extent and possessions of Car-
thage at the height of its glory. The Punic wars.
Hamilcar. Hannibal. Asdrubal, the son in-law
of Hamilcar. Hannibal's Italian expedition. View
of his life. Fall of Carthage. Customs, manners,
and character of the Carthaginians. 1I1
CHAP. 85.-Numidia. Masinissa. His fidelity to
the Romans. Story of Sophonisba. Syphix. Char-
acter of Masinissa. His sons. Jugurtha. Juba
the elder and Juba the younger. Character of the
latter. Respect in which he was held, &c. 147
CHAP. 86.-Remarks dn early Asiatic history. Bab-
ylonia and Assyria. Nimrod and Aslur. Union
of the two kingdoms. Babylon. Semiramis. Her
character. Ninias. Pul. The preaching of Jo-
nah. 148
CHAP. 87.-Sardanapalus. His character and death,
after the destruction of the kingdom. Nineveh,
Babylon, and the kingdom of the Medes. Senna-
cherib. Nebuchadnezzar. Belshazzar. Dejoces.
Cyaxares. The Scythians. Description of Nine-
veh. Description of Babylon. Its famous hanging
gardens. Government of the East. Military and
civil officers. Singular customs. Marriage. Pun-
ishments. The Chaldeans. Superstitions. Belus.
His golden statue. Haman. Sacrifices. The fes-
tival called Sacca. Sciences. Arts. Architec-
ture. Dress, &c. 150
CHAP. 88.-Lydia. The Atyde. The Heraclide.
The Mermnadse. The lonians. Candaules. Gy-
gcs. Sadyates. Alyattes. Cresus Anecdote
ofSolon. Crasus and Cyrus. Lydia falls into the
hands of the Persians. 154
CHAP. 89.-Cyrus the Great. Education and abil-
ities. Anecdote of his temperance. Stratagem
by which Babylon was taken. Story of Tomyris.
Cambyses. Manner of his death. The god
Apis. Anecdote of the severity of Cambyses.
Darius. Stratagem by which he was made king.
Ill success in his wars with the Greeks. Xerxes.
His character. Assassination. Anecdotes re-
specting him. 154
CH P. 90.-Artaxerxes. Xerxes II. Sogdianus.
Darius Nothus. Ochus, the successor of Mne-
mon. Cruelty to the conquered Egyptians. Da-
rius Codomannus. The condition of the army
which was defeated by Alexander. Seleucus Ni-
canor. Artaxcrxes. The Sassanidw. Saporeg I.
Hormisdas II. Sapores II. Persecution of the
Christians. Government, education, customs,
manners, punishments, military affairs, and reli-
gion of the Persians. 156
CHAP. 91.-Early kings of Syria. The Seleucida.
Tigranes. Defeated by Lucullus. The last An-
tiochus. Pompey makes Syria a Roman province.
Antiochaphe.Daphne. Seleucia. Palmyra. Religion.
Language. 159
CHAP. 92.-Arsaces. Character of the Parthians
Mithridates. Phraates II. Orodes Phraates IV.
The second branch of the Arsacida. Parthian
mode of fighting. Religion. 161
CHAP. 93.-Character of the Phenicians. Tyro.


Sidon. Hiram. Arts and sciences. Manufactures
and inventions. Religion. 162
CHAP. 94.-The first seven dynasties of the Chinese
emperors. Yao. Chun. Fohi. Yu Ta. Kya.
Ching-Tang. Tayvre. Vuthing. His dream.
Chans. Ching. Lion-pang, or Kao-Tsou. Vuti.
His singular delusion. Chinese government.
Arts and sciences. Silk. Religion. 163
CHaP 95.-The creation of the world. Adam and
Eve. Their disobedience. Cain and Abel. The first
murder. The descendants of Seth and of Cain. 165
CHAP. 96.-The descendants of Cain. Of Seth. Me-
thuselah. Burial place of Adam. The giants.
The deluge. God's covenant with Noah. Noah's
tomb. Abraham. Isaac. Jacob. Joseph. 167
CHAP. 97.-The Canaanites. Their ill success. De-
struction of the four cities in the vale of Siddim.
Present appearance of the Dead sea. Lot's wife.
Moses. The quails and manna in the wilderness.
Death of Moses. Land of promise. Joshua. Char-
acter of the judges. Destruction of Benjamin. Ex-
ploit of Shamgar. Gideon's triumph over the
Midianites. 169
CHAT. 98.-Jephthah's vow. Samson. His mar-
riage with a Philistine woman. His riddle. His
exploit at Gaza. Betrayed by Delilah. Death.
Samuel. Corruption of the sons of Eli. The Phi-
listines victorious. The ark taken. Grief at the
occurrence. The ark returned by its captors. 171
CHAP. 99.-Samuel's administration. His sons. Be-
ginning of the sway of the kings. Saul. Exploit
of Jonathan at Gibeah. David. Goliath of Gath.
Crime of David. Death of Absalom. Jerusalem. 173
CHAP. 100.-Death of David. Solomon. His admin-
istration. Consumption of Solomon's household.
Foreign alliances. Building of the temple. Num-
ber of workmen employed. Dimensions of the
temple. Palaces of Solomon. Idolatrous worship.
Death. 175
CHAP. 101.-Rehoboam, the son of Solomon. His
injustice. Consequent revolt of the ten tribes.
Separate kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Jerobo-
am. Rehoboam. Abijah. Great defeat of Je-
roboam. Asa. Unsuccessful invasion of Zerah.
Kings of Israel. Nadab. Baasha. Era. Zimri.
Omri. Ahab. The prophets. Elijah. The worship
of Baal ended in consequence ofa miracle. 176


CHAP. 102.- Ahab. Murder of Naboth. Kingdom1
of Judah. Asa. Marriage of Jehoram vith Atha-
liah. Death of Ahab. Jehosaphat. Ahaziah. Je-
horam king of Israel,and Jehoram king of Judah.
Jehu. Athaliah. Joash. [78
CHAP. 103.-Amaziah. Jehoahaz. Jehoash. Uzziah
or Azariah. Jotham. Jeroboam. Zachariah. Shal-
lum. Pul, king of Assyria. Menahem. Peka-
hiah. Pekah. Ahaz. The prophets. Isaiah. War
between the ten tribes and Judah. 179
CHAP. 104.-Ahaz. His idolatry and submission to
Tiglath Pileser. Assassination of Pekah. Hoshea.
Shalmanezer. Captivity of the ten tribes, and fall
of Samaria. The kingdom of Judah. Hezekiah's
virtuous reign. The tyrant Manasseh. Martyrdom
of Isaiah. Josiah. Jehoahaz. Jehoiachin. Seventy
years' captivity. Cyrus. Return of the Jews. Re-
building of the temple. Darius. Artaxerxes.
Queen Esther. Re-establishment of the Theoc-
racy. 181
CHAP. 105.-Rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem.
Reformation of abuses by Nehemiah and Joiada.
Alexander the Great treats the Jews with favor.
The Egyptians and Syrians invade Judea. Antio-
chus Epiphanes. The Jews regain their indepen-
dence under Judas Maccabeus. Jonathan. John
Hyrcanus. Simon Maccabeus. Aristobulus. Pom-
pey. Hyrcanus 2d. Herod. His cruelties. Mas-
sacre of the Innocents. Death. 182
CHAP. 106.-The birth of Jesus Christ. Remarks
upon the character of the apostles and the Chris-
tian religion. The tetrarchies. Archelaus. Herod
Antipas. Herod the Great. Agrippa Minor. 184
CHAP. 107.-The siege and capture of Jerusalem by
Titus. Desperate resistance of the Jews. The
centurion Julian. The famishing mother. Partial
rebuilding and final destruction of Jerusalem.
Dispersion of the Jews. Their present number
and condition. 185
CHAP. 108.-Jewish Antiquities. Jacob's well. The
pools of Solomon. Jerusalem. Gaza. Ascalon.
Present condition of Jerusalem. Burial place of
Abraham Judaism. Government of the Jews. So-
ciety. Festivals. Mourning for the dead, and rites
of sepulture. Learning. Arts. Commerce. The Ca-
naanites. Theioccupations, religion, character. 186
CHAP. 109 --General view. 188

IN the two preceding volumes, questions were introduced, with
a view to facilitate the examination of pupils. In the present
volume, no questions are added, it being conceived that those
who study it will be sufficiently practised to render the examina-
tion easy to the teacher and profitable to themselves, without the
aid of printed interrogations.
As the maps at the end of the volume are deemed important,
it is recommended that the pupils should be required to study
them in connection with the text; and it is suggested to the
teacher, that in the examination, the pupil be required to describe
rivers, boundaries, cities, &c. Geographical notes are added at
the foot of the pages, which should be studied in connection with
the passages to whiok they refer





1. ANCIENT GREECE comprehended that
country which recently formed the south-
ern part of Turkey, in Europe. It was
bounded on the east by the JEgean sea,
now called the Archipelago; on the west
by the Ionian sea, or Adriatic gulf; and on
the north by Illyria and Thrace. Its length
from north to south was about three hun-
dred and fifty miles; and its breadth about
two hundred and fifty miles.
2. The history of the first ages of Greece
is involved in obscurity. Their first histo-
rians were their poets, whose writings are
so mingled with fiction, as to render the
real occurrences which they relate, nearly
unintelligible. Greece* was at first divided
1856 ears B. C. a small Phoenician colony ar-
rived in Greece. The Phoenicians were enterpris-
ing navigators, and became early acquainted with
the shores of the Mediterranean sea. Inachus,
their leader, founded a city which he called Argos,
at a distance of about twenty miles from the pre-
sent town of Napoli. Upon this early period of
Grecian history, the fancy of the poets of that nation
has luxuriated. According to their accounts, the
primitive Grecians wandered lawless in the woods,
clothed in the skins of the beasts on which they
fed, and occasionally eating the flesh of the pri-
soners they took in war.
The fabulous histories state that Uranus came
to Greece from Egypt or Phoenicia. He became
king, and had a family of giants called Titans,
who rebelled against their father, dethroned him
and their brother Saturn, and reigned in their
stead. Jupiter, who was saved and brought up
at Crete, finally conquered the Titans and divided
his dominions with his brothers Pluto and Neptune.
His palace was at mount Olympus.

into seven small principalities or kingdoms
Sicyon, Argos, Mycena, Thebes, Corinth,
Sparta, and Athens.
3. Sicyon, founded in the year before
Christ 2101, took its name from Sicyon, a

Inachus was firmly established in Greece, and
his successors retained the government for more
than three hundred years. The other inhabitants
of Greece remained in a barbarous state until
Cecrops, an Egyptian, who founded Athens 1556
years B. C., improved their condition. He brought
a colony of his countrymen, and built eleven villa-
ges besides Athens. He gave laws to the wild
nations of Greece, whom he divided into twelve
tribes, and among whom he introduced the institu-
tion of marriage.
Thence the history of Greece may be relied upon,
although few facts have been handed down to us.
Sparta, or Lacedaemon, was founded by Lelex an
Egyptian, in the year 15~2. He was king, and his
family furnished monarchs to the kingdom for ma-
ny years. Lscedaemon, from whom the country
took its name, was the fourth king. Corinth ap
pears to have been founded in 150. It was sub-
ject to Argos, but was seized upon and ruled in
1514 by Sisyphus, a cruel and rapacious man.
Thebes was founded by Cadmus in the year 1500
B. C. His story, as told by the poets, is, that
having gone in pursuit of Europa, his sister, who
was carried off by Jupiter, he remained in Greece,
fearing to return without her to his father. He ar-
rived there in 1419. Theseus, after the celebrated
Argonautic expedition to Colchis, visited Athens,
the inhabitants of which were then groaning under
the weight of a tribute of seven girls and seven
youths who were annually sent to Minos, king of
Crete, to become his slaves. Theseus, on present-
ing himself to Minos, obtained a release from the
cruel tribute, and the hand of Ariadne, the king's
daughter, in marriage.


town situated near the isthmus of Corinth,
and supposed by some to be the most
ancient city of Greece. Argos* surpassed
Sicyon in wealth and power. Phoroneus,
one of the kings of Argos, reduced the
Peloponnese under his dominion. Pelops,
the son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia, after-
wards became master of the Peloponnese,
and his descendants, who were distinguish-
ed by the name of the Pelopidae, were
famous in the history of Greece.
4. Perseus, one of the kings of Argos,
transferred his throne to Mycenae,t and
established his new kingdom on a firm
foundation. One of his successors, Eu-
rystheus, imposed upon Hercules the twelve
labors so greatly celebrated in fiction. It
ma be concluded that the Nemean lion,
and the seven-headed hydra, said to have
been destroyed by Hercules, were robbers
or murderers extirpated by him. The de-
scendants of Hercules were known by the
name of the Heraclidi.

The poets have disguised this story, represent-
ing the Athenian captives as having been devoured
by a monster, the Minotaur, who dwelt in a laby-
rinth, the clue to which Ariadne gave to Theseus,
who slew the monster, and returned in safety. He
ascended the throne of Athens, and, in the year
1257, united the twelve cities of Attica, and gave
them a common constitution.
Argos, the capital of Argolis, was situated
about two miles from the sea, in that portion of
Greece called the Peloponnesus. The Pelopon-
nesus was a celebrated peninsula comprehending
the southern parts of Greece. It derived its name
from Pelops, as the word indicaus, meaning the
island of Pelops. It has been called Argia,
Pelasgia, and Argolis, and has been Vhought to re-
semble in its form the leaf of the plant tree. Its
present name, the Morea, is derived from the
Greek word, signifying a mulberry tree, which is
found there in great abundance. It was early
one hundred miles in length, one hundred and
forty in breadth, and about five hundred and sixty-
eight in circumference. Separated from Greece
only by the narrow isthmus of Corinth, which is
only five miles broad, it appeared practicable to
cut through the isthmus and open a communica-
tion between the bay of Corinth and the Saronic
gulf. But Caesar, Nero and Demetrius attempted
it in vain.
t Mycenae, a town of Argolis in the Peloponne-
sus, was situated on a small river east of the Ina-
cbus. about fifty stadia from Argos. Its name was
given from Myccne, a nymph of Laconia.

5. The first king of Thebes* is supposed
to have been Cadmus, a native of Egypt.
The introduction of the Phenician alphabet
into Greece is attributed to him. Xanthus
is thought to have been the last king of
Thebes, the government on his death hav-
ing become republican.
6. Corinth, situated upon the narrow
neck of land which joins the Peloponnese
to the continent, was surnamed the eye of
Greece. With respect to the kings of Co-
rinth, little is known. One of them, named
Bacchis, left a numerous posterity, sur-
named the Bacchides, who afterwards en-
grossed the whole power of the state, and
rendered the government aristocratical.
7. Eurotas was the founder of the city
of Sparta,f so called after his daughter, the
wife of Lacedeemon, who gave his name to
the country, as his wife had given hers to
the city. Tyndarus, one of the successors
of Eurotas, married Leda, who became
mother of the two famous heroes, Castor
and Pollux, and of the no less celebrated
daughters, Clytemnestra, the wife of Aga-
memnon, and Helen, who gave occasion to
the Trojan war.
8. The city of Troy stood on a small
eminence near mount Ida and the pro-
montory of Sigaeum, about four miles from
the seashore. The Trojans were believed
to have been originally a Greek colony.
Their first king was Dardanus, a native of
Arcadia4 who built the city and called it

Thebes, the capital of Boeotia, was situated on
the banks of the river Ismenus.
t This noted city of the Peloponnesus, and the
capital of Laconia, was situated on the river Euro-
tas. about thirty miles from its mouth.
t Arctadia, a country of the Peloponnesus, begirt
on every side by land, was situated between Acha-
ia, Messenia, Elis, and Argolis. It took its name
from Areas, the son'of Jupiter, was anciently cal-
ed Drymotis, on account of the abundance of
the oak tree, and afterward Lycaonia and Pelas-
ia. This country has been much celebrated by
tie poets from the beauty and tranquillity of its
rural life it was also famous for its mountains.
The inhabitants were principally shepherds, who
were skilful warriors and sweet musicians. They
fed upon acorns, and their instrument of music
was the reed or pipe. The fabled Prp, gud of
shepherds, is said to have dwelt in Arcadia


Dardania. From Tros, one of his succes-
sors, it received the name of Troy, and
from Ilus, that of Ilion.
9. Priam, its last king, had arrived at a
very high pitch of wealth and power. The
Trojan war was undertaken by the Greeks,
to recover Helen, the wife of Menelaus,
king of Sparta, who was carried off by
Paris, the son of Priam. This war has
been celebrated in the poems of Homer
and Virgil, and is the most famous in an-
cient history.
10 Agamemnon, the brother of Mene-
laus, was appointed general of all the Gre-
cian forces; but the princes and kings of
Greece were admitted among his coun-
sellors. Among the most celebrated of
these were Achilles, Ajax, Menelaus, Ulys-
ses, Diomedes, Patroclus, &c. Aulis* was
the general rendezvous of the Grecian for-
ces ; and their army, when assembled there,
amounted to one hundred thousand men.
11. When the Greeks landed on the
plains of Troy, they sent Menelaus and
Ulysses to demand the restitution of Helen;
and on the refusal of Priam to deliver up
the princess, both parties prepared for
12. The Trojan war lasted ten years,
with various success. The most valiant of
the Trojan generals was Hector, the son
of Priam and Hecuba. On one occasion,
he beat the enemy from the field, forced the
entrenchments, and set fire to their ships.
But he was slain in a personal combat with
Achilles, who afterwards fell by the hand
of Paris; and he in like manner was slain
by Philoctetus.
13. The Trojans, having lost their best
commanders, reposed their last hope on the
famous Palladium, a statue of Minerva,
supposed to have dropped from heaven, and
which was said to render Troy impregnable,
so long as it remained within the walls.
At length, however, some of the Trojans
betrayed the city into the hands of the ene-
my, and Troy was reduced to ashes. Pri-
am and his faMrily were put to death. The
taking of Troy is the most celebrated epoch

A seaport town of Boeotia, near Chalcis.

in the history of the Greeks; and the Tro-
jan war was the first public display of Gre.

cian valor. This event happened about
eleven hundred and eighty-four years be-
fore the Christian era.

1. The Heraclidae, having laid claim to
the Peloponnese, as theirs by hereditary
right, annihilated the power of the Pelo-
pidae. They also obliged the Achaans,to
remove to Asia Minor, where they occupied
that part of the continent formerly called
1Eolia,and founded Smyrna, besides other
2. The lonians also retired before the
power of the Heraclidae to Asia Minor,
where they took possession of the country
called after them lonia.
3. The four principal tribes of Greece,
thelEolians, Achaeans, lonians, and Dorians,
were perfectly independent of one another,
and hence arose the four principal Greek
dialects; the Ionic, the Doric, the Attic,
and the )Eolic.
4. For nine hundred years, the Heraclidsa
and Pelopidae furnished kings to Sparta;
but nothing worthy of notice occurs in their
history, until the reformation of their gov-
ernment by the celebrated Lycurgus.
5. In the year B. C. 1556, Cecrops, a
native of Egypt, led a colony of his coun-

wr "'' nlm7 --q--I


trymen into Greece, settled in Attica,* and
founded the kingdom of Athens. He di-
vided the country into twelve districts, and
assumed the name of king. The city was
built on a hill in the midst of an extensive

v lew 01 AneiLn..
plain, and the citadel on the rock in which
the hill terminated. He introduced the
worship of Jupiter and Minerva, and insti-
tuted the Areopagus, or senate, who held
their deliberations upon a hill near the
6. Amphictyon, one of the successors of
Cecrops, instituted the famous assembly
called after his name, B. C. 1497. It was
composed of deputies from twelve of the
neighboring states. These deputies, chos-
en from among the wisest and most virtuous
men of Greece, had the power of determin-
ing all controversies between those states,
and of imposing high fines on the party
who was found in the wrong.
7. In the reign of Amphictyon, Bacchus,
known also by the name of Dionysius,
came from the east, and instructed the
Greeks in many useful arts, particularly in
the culture of the vine. On his death, he
was revered as a god, and altars were rear-
ed to his memory.
A country of Achaia, or Hellas, in the south
of Boeotia, west of the Egean sea, north of the Sa-
raoic gulf, (Saronicus sinus) and east of Megark.
It took its name from Atthis, the daughter of Cra-
naus. From the lonians, it was originally called
lonia, then Acte, which means shore, and also Ce-
cropia from its first king. It was famous for its
gomi and silver mines, the principal sources of the
public revenues.

8. Codrus was the last king of Athens,
for at his death the government became re
publican, by the establishment of archons
an office little inferior in point of power to
that of royalty itself.
9. Thus the government in all the Gre-
cian states was originally monarchical;
until the tyranny of their different princes
aroused within the minds of the Greeks
that ardent desire of liberty which ever af-
terwards characterized them, and divided
them into so many separate republics.
10. Of these, Athens and Sparta were
the most distinguished, both in wisdom and
merit; and between them a spirit of rivalry
existed, which afterwards broke out in dis-
sension and open contest.
11. Lycurgus was the brother of Poly-
dectes, king of Sparta, and might himself
have ascended the throne, had he not hon-
orably preferred the claims of his infant
nephew, Charilaus, the son of the deceased
monarch. Perceiving that the laws were
entirely disregarded in Sparta, he meditat-
ed a reformation in the government. For
this purpose, he travelled into foreign coun-
tries, visited Crete, Asia, and Egypt, com-
pared their customs and institutions, and
having acquired a vast fund of knowledge,
returned to his native country.
12. There he found every thing in a state
of anarchy and confusion. Before proceed-
ing to promulgate his laws, he went to Del-
phos and consulted the oracle. The priest-
ess received him with every mark of honor,
his intentions were approved by the divini-
ty, and he was pronounced to be the friend
of gods, and himself rather god than man.
After this response, Lycurgus found little
difficulty in reforming the abuses of the
13. During the remainder of his life, his
time was wholly employed in perfecting
and enforcing his laws. The public gov-
ernment was managed by two kings, a
senate, the people, and the ephori. The
kings enjoyed little authority, except in
time of war, when they commanded the
army in the quality of generals. The
senate was composed of thirty members,
including the two kings. To it was en-
trusted the whole legislative power, and


this institution was intended by Lycurgus
to balance on one hand the power of the
kings; and on the other, that of the peo-
14. The power of the people was limited,
and their chief privilege was that of choos-
ing the members of the senate. The
ephori were not created till one hundred
and, thirty years after the death of Lycur-
gus, and were intended to curb the power
of the senate. They were five in number,
were chosen by the people obt of thair own
number, and continued only one year in
15. The whole territory of Laconia was
divided by Lycurgus into thirty-nine thousand
shares, and the land equally distributed
among the inhabitants. The liberties of
Sparta were in like manner divided into
nine thousand shares, and allotted to the
inhabitants of the city. The use of gold
and silver was prohibited, and iron poney
alone was permitted to be used.
16. Thus luxury was banished, and riches
held in contempt. All public shows, and
all superfluous arts were also forbidden in
Sparta, and the only lawful amusements
were hunting and bodily exercises.
17. The rich and the poor were obliged
to eat of the same diet, at public tables, ap-
pointed for that purpose. Their ordinary
and most esteemed fare was a sort of black
broth. Even the young women were ac-
customed from childhood to a course of
hardy exercises, such as wrestling, running,
and throwing the javelin. The most inhu-
man regulation of Lycurgus was in regard
to the infant children, who, if considered
sickly and delicate, were put to death.
18. The love of their country was the
chief sentiment of the Spartans, and the
science of war was their only study. Thus
they became a nation of hardy and unfeel-
ing warriors, and acquired a pre-eminence,
over all Greece.
19. Lycurgus having finished his work,
and seen his institutions firmly established,
declared his intention of again consulting
the oracle; and obtained the solemn pro-
mise of his countrymen to observe them
till his return. On arriving at Delphos, he
was assured by the oracle, that while Spar-

ta kept his laws, she should be the most
illustrious and happy city in the world.
Lycurgus having transmitted this response
to Sparta, died a voluntary death, by ab-
staining from all food.
20. In the year B. C. 685, the Messeni.
ans, who had endured the Spartan yoke for
thirty years, resolved to attempt the reco-
very of their liberty. After repeated en-
gagements with the Lacedemonians, they
were entirely overpowered, and Artto-
menes, tJ~iWast and brave general, was
slain i then retired to Sicily, where
they the city of Messina.


1. In the year B. C. 643, the Athenians,
finding that the ambition and turbulence
of their archons was the cause of constant
dissension in the state, pitched on the famous
Solon, a native of Salamis, to restore tran-
quillity in their city. They created him
archon extraordinary, and granted him un-
limited power.
2. Solon applied himself to discharge the
trust reposed in him, with great diligence
and caution. The Athenians were divided
into different ranks; citizens, strangers,
servants, and slaves. Solon devised a form
of government purely popular, yet with
every precaution against the dangers inci-
dent to that system. He first procured an
acquittal of all debts then subsisting among
the citizens, and then divided them into
four classes, in proportion to the wealth of
3. The first three included the richer
citizens, who alone were to hold offices of
trust or dignity. The fourth class contain
ed the poorer citizens, who, though exclud-
ed from office, had the privilege of voting
in the public assemblies.
4. These assemblies were composed of
the whole collective body of the citizens,
and in them was vested the whole power
of the commonwealth. As some restraint
on these popular meetings, Solon instituted
the senate, composed of four hundred men,


one hundred being chosen out of each tribe.
He also instituted the court of the areopa-
gus, which was celebrated for the justice and
integrity of its judges.
5. The Athenians were equally brave
and warlike with the Spartans, though
educated in a less hardy manner. Various
honors and rewards were bestowed at
Athens on those who performed any extra-
ordinary feats of valor. Such as fell in
the service of their country had monuments
erected to their memory; while their chil-
dren were maintained and educated at the
public expense.
6. Solon, having bound the citizens by
oath to maintain his laws, left Athens for
ten years, and during his absence various
factions disturbed the peace of the com-
monwealth. The most popular leader
of these factions was Pisistratus, who
covered his ambitious designs under an
appearance of mildness and liberality.
His ambition was soon made manifest; for
having, by the assistance of his confede-
rates, seized upon the citadel, he soon after
made himself master of the whole city.
7. Solon, overwhelmed with grief, re-
tired to the island of Cyprus, where he
died, B. C. 560. Pisistratus transmitted his
usurped sovereignty to his two sons, Hip-
parchus and Hippias. Their reign was
happy and prosperous; they shared the
Kingdom between them, and lived in per-
fect harmony. They encouraged sciences
and learned men. Anacreon and Simon-
ides were invited to court, and according to
Plato this period of Athenian history re-
vived the idea of the golden age.
8. However, after some time, Hippias
became cruel and despotic. The Athe-
nians revolted, and formed a conspiracy
against the brothers. Hipparchus was
slain, and Hippias was soon after forced to
resign the sovereignty, B. C. 510.
9. The Lacedemonians becoming en-
vious of the flourishing condition of
Athens, began to deliberate about restor-
ing tyranny among them, and setting Hip-
pias again on the throne. They therefore
invited him to Sparta, where the question
was debated at a public assembly. But

they were soon persuaded of the injustice
of such a proceeding, and Hippias, thus
disappointed, retired to the court of Arta-
phernes, the Persian governor of Sardis,*
and implored his assistance.
10. The satrap, delighted at such an oppor-
tunity being opened to his master Darius,
of conquering Greece, received Hippias
favorably, and persuaded Darius to com-
mand the Athenians to replace him on the
throne. The Athenians refused to comply
with the mandate of the Persian king,
and thus was laid the first foundation of
the wars between Greece and Persia.
11. Darius, being resolved to gratify his
ambition, gave orders to fit 6ut a fleet of
three hundred ships, and to raise a power
ful land army. The command of the
forces was given to his son-in-law Mar-
donius. This first expedition was unsuc-
cessful. A violent tempest destroyed many
of the ships, while the troops, in passing
through Thrace, were attacked and routed
by the Thracians, during the night.
12. The Athenians, meanwhile, enjoyed
their freedom, and many citizens of extra-
ordinary wisdorq and valor flourished in
Athens at this period. Of these, the chief
were Miltiades,Aristides, and Themistocles.
Sparta, still adhering to the wise laws of
Lycurgus, produced a whole nation of the
bravest soldiers.
13. Darius, in order to sound the inzli-
nations of the different states, sent heralds
through Greece, to demand earth and
water; a symbol which denoted submis-
sion and dependence from those who gave,
to him who demanded it.
14. The Athenians and Spartans, pro-
voked by the arrogance of these demands,
seized the heralds, and throwing one into
a well, and another into a deep ditch, told

Sardis, or Sardes now Sart, a town of Asia
Minor, was the capital of Lydia, and situated at
the foot of the noted mount Tmolus, on the banks
of the Pactolus, a river which is fabled to have
flowed over golden sands. It was destroyed by an
earthquake during the reign of Tiberius, w .ho
ordered it to be rebuilt. It was captured by
Cyrus, B. C. 548, and burnt by the Athenians,
B. C. 504.


them to take from thence as much earth
and water as they pleased.

Reception of Messengers of Darius.
15. Darius now doubled his warlike
p reparations, and increased his armament
to five hundred thousand men, and five
hundred ships. Datis and Artaphernes
were the commanders, and Hippias acted
as their guide. The Persian army entered
Attica, and encamped at Marathon, a small
town on the sea-coast. The Athenians
could only collect ten thousand men. The
chief command of this small army was
given to Miltiades.
16. The Athenians then, ten thousand
in number, marched forth against an army
of one hundred thousand foot and ten
thousand horse. To prevent them from
being surrounded by the Persians, Miltiades
drew up his forces with a mountain in the
rear; and caused a number of trees to be
cut down, to prevent the enemy from
charging them in the flank.
17. The signal for attack being given,
the Athenians rushed forward upon the
Persians like so many furious lions, opened
a passage through the enemy, and threw
them into irretrievable confusion. Six
thousand Persians, together with the traitor
IIippias, were slain on the spot.
18. The rest fled, abandoning to the
victors all the riches and luxuries of their
camp. The chief glory of this memorable
day was due to Miltiades; though every
individual soldier was animated by the
most ardent love for his country.
19 We are told that one of these brave
men, all covered with the blood of the
enemy, ran to announce the victory at

Athens, and after calling out,' Rejoice
are conquerors,' fell dead in the prese
of his fellow citizens. -


nee i
*[ e

** --a uuvcus et nu uu i n %e v victory.
20. The Athenians soon after. gave a
striking proof of their ingratitude and
caprice. Miltiades, being sent out with a
fleet to chastise the islands which had
assisted the Persians, was unsuccessful at
Paros.* He was accused as a traitor, and
the fickle multitude, forgetful of his past
services, condemned him to death. he
sentence was afterwards commuted to a
fine, which Miltiades was unable to pay.
He was thrown into prison, where he soon
after died.
21. Aristided, surnamed "the just," soon
after fell a victim to the popular ingrati-
tude. He was banished from the oity by
the sentence of ostracism. This was a
punishment whereby the people might sat-
isfy their jealousy against any citizen who
had become obnoxious to them, by banish-
ing him from the city for ten years. Its
name was derived from a Greek word, sig-
nifying a particular kind of shell, on which
each citizen inscribed his vote.
An island belonging to the group in the AEgean
sea which surround Delos in a circle, and thence
called Cyclades. Paros is distant about seven
miles from Naxos, and twenty-eight from Delos.
According to Pliny, it is about thirty-six or
thirty-seven miles in circumference; but some of
the moderns have extended it to fifty and even
eighty miles. It has been called at different
periods, Pactia, Minoa, Hiroa, Demetrias, Zacyn-
thus, Cabarnis, and Hyleassa. The island, among
other productions, was famous for its beautiful
white marble, which was used by the best sculp-





1. Darius, king of Persia, beig cut off
by death in the midst of preparing for his
third expedition into Greece, was succeed-
ed by his son Xerxes, B. C. 484. This
prince resolved to prosecute the war, and
in the fifth year of his reign, departed from
Susa* for Sardis, the rendezvous of his
army. He ordered his fleet to sail towards
the Hellespontt and commanded that a
passage should be cut for it through mount
2. To transport his troops from Asia to
Europe, he ordered a bridge to be thrown
over that part of the Hellespont now called
Gallipoli. A storm having destroyed this
bridge, Xerxes was so enraged at the ac-
cident, that, according to Herodotus, he
ordered three hundred lashes to be given
to the sea; and chains to be thrown over
It as if to bind it.
3. When the Persian army arrived in
Thrace, Xerxes ordered it to be drawn up

------- --- -,.T -6 .. a.V...
in the neighboring plains, and ascended an
eminence whence he might view the
The chief town of Susiana, and the capital of
the Persian empire. It was the winter residence
of the Persian kings, and the depot of their
treasures. It has been called Memnonia, or the
palace of Memnon, because that prince reigned
t Now the Dardanelles, a narrow strait between
Asia and Europe. It took its name from Helle,
who was drowned there on her voyage to Colchis.
t A mountain of Macedonia, very lofty and
fifty miles in circumference, projecting into the

mighty host. It is said that the tyrant
wept, when he reflected that in one hun-
dred years, not one of so vast a multitude
would remain.
4. His land forces amounted to about
two millions of men. His fleet consisted
of one thousand two hundred and seven
galleys, each carrying two hundred men;
besides one hundred and twenty vessels,
furnished by the European states, and three
thousand transports.
5. The Bsotians, Thessalians,&e. tern-
Sfled at the impending danger, submitted to
the Persians; and thus the whole burden
of the war fell upon the Athenians and
Lacedemonians. The states of Platma and
Thespia alone took part with them. The-
mistocles was appointed commander-in-
chief of the Atheman forces, and Aristides
was recalled from banishment to assist'in
the emergency. Eurybiades, a Lacedamo-
nian, was appointed commander-in-chief
of the united forces of both states.
6. The first step taken by the allies was
to dispatch Leonidas, one of the reigning
kings of Sparta, at the head often thousand,
or, according to some historians, of four
thousand men, to defend the pass of Ther-
mopylte, situated at the foot of mount
(Eta, between Thessaly and Phocis, the
only passage by which Xerxes could pene-
trate into Achaia.
7. Xerxes, after marching through
Thrace and Macedonia, arrived at the pass
of Thermopyle, and found it guarded by
Leonidas and his small army of brave Spar-
tans. The Persian monarch sent a mes-
senger to Leonidas, commanding him to
send him his arms. 'Let your king come
and take them,' said Leonidas.
8. The Medes first advanced against the
Greeks, but were forced to retreat. Then
the troop of Persians, called the Immortal,
charged the troops of Leonidas. The pass
became choked up with dead bodies, when
a treacherous Spartan, having discovered
to the Persians a secret path which led to
an eminence commanding the pass, a large

IEgean sea like a promontory. From its great
height it casts a shadow upon the island of Lemnos,
87 miles distant. It is now called Monte




body of Persian troops were sent to take
possession of it.
9. When Leonidas heard that the rocks
were covered with armed men, he entreated
the greater part of his army to retire, and
reserve themselves for a future opportunity
of serving Greece. They obeyed his de-
sire; and Leonidas, with three hundred
Spartans and a few Thespians, resolved to
maintain the pass to the last. 'Come, my
friends,' said he, 'let us dine cheerfully,
in the hope of supping together in another
10. In the dead of night, this small band
of heroes advanced to the Persian camp,
and spread consternation among the ene-
my. Daylight at length discovered the
smallness of their numbers. They were

immediately surrounded and slaughtered,
leaving an example of intrepidity perhaps
unparalleled in history.
11. A superb monument was erected to
their memory, with this inscription: Go,
passenger, and tell at Sparta, that we died
here in obedience to her laws."
12. The Greeks, now seeing themselves,
notwithstanding these heroic struggles, on
the eve of being crushed by the Persian
power, abandoned their city, by the advice
of Themistocles, and having conveyed their
women, children, and infirm persons to
Trcezene,* betook themselves to their ships.
L3. The Persians, on arriving at Athens,
found nothing but silence and desolation
within its walls. They attacked the cita-
A town of Argolis, on the Saronic Gulf.

del, where were a few infirm old man, who
from their age, could not be removed to
Trcezene. These they put to the sword,
after meeting with a brave resistance from
the feeble garrison. The city itself was
set on fire.
14. In the mean time, the Greeks prepar-
ed to give battle to the Persians in the
straits of Salamis.* Their fleet consisted
of three hundred and eighty sail. Xerxes
ordered a superb throne to be erected on a
neighboring eminence, from whence lie
might view the battle.
15. The Greeks were entirely victorious,
and this engagement, one of the most mem-
orable in ancient history, acquired them
immortal fame both for wisdom and cour-
age. Xerxes took flight, and he, whose
mighty fleet had but lately covered the sea,
was forced to recross the Hellespont in a
poor fishing bark.
16. The Persians, commanded by Mar-
donius, were again defeated by the Greeks
at Platea,t B. C. 479, and Greece was at
length delivered from the innumerable
swarms of barbarians, who for two years
had laid waste and consumed her fertile


1. The Athenians having now recovered
perfect tranquillity,brought back their wives
and children to Athens, rebuilt the walls,
and increased the extent of the city. The-
mistocles, in order to strengthen the power
of the republic, fortified Pircus,the harbor
of Athens. The Athenians soon after fitted
out a fleet for the purpose of freeing seve-
ral cities in Asia Minor from the Persian
yoke, and gave the command to Pausanias,
Aristides, and Cimon the son of Miltiades.
Salamis, Salamins, or Salamina, now Colouri,
is an island in the Saronic Gulf, on the southern
coast of Attica. It is opposite Eleusis, and about
a league distant from it. Its circumference is
about fifty miles. The island was originally call-
ed Cychres, or Ceuchria, and its bay the gulf of
t A town of Boeotia on the confines of Megaris
and Attica, and near Mount Cithaeron.





2. The expedition was successful; but
the arrogance of Pausanias having disgust-
ed the troops, the chief command of the
fleet was given to Aristides and Cimon.
Soon after, Pausanias was discovered in
carrying on a treacherous correspondence
with Xerxes. The traitor fled for safety to
the temple of Minerva. The ephori, un-
willing to violate the sanctity of the tem-
ple, yet desiring to punish the criminal,
ordered the entry to be shut up, in order
that he might be starved to death; which
took place accordingly. "
3. Soon after, Themistocles having of-
fended the Athenians by his ardent thirst
for power, was banished from Athens. His
enemies took advantage of his absence to
accuse him of having maintained a secret
understanding with Pausanias; and The-
mistocles, fearing for his safety, took refuge
at the court of Admetus, king of the Mo-
lossi. The Athenians required that prince
to deliver him up, and the illustrious exile,
to retire still farther from these cruel per-
secutions, escaped from the court of Adme-
tus, and threw himself on the protection of
Artaxerxes, the reigning monarch of Persia.
4. Artaxerxes, astonished at his intre-
pidity in thus throwing himself into the
power of the mortal enemy of Greece, re-
solved to act a generous part, and to bind
Themistocles in his interests, by loading
him with favors. The revenues of three
cities were assigned him as a fund of sub-
sistence. He married a Persian lady of the
highest birth; and became the chosen com-
panion of the Persian king, who on all oc-
casions testified the highest esteem and
friendship for him.
5. At length, however,Artaxerxes having
resolved to send a powerful army into At-
tica, offered the command to Themistocles.
Unable to choose between his duty to his
country, and his gratitude to his protector,
Themistocles assembled his friends, and
having bade them a solemn farewell, he
swallowed poison, and expired in the sixty-
sixth year of his age, B. C. 466.
6. Aristides meanwhile being at the head
of public affairs in Greece, presented in all
respects the perfect model of a good citizen.
The leading men who succeeded him,

adorned Athens with beautiful temples,
statues, and porticos; but according to Plu-
tarch, Aristides adorned it with virtue.
He despised riches, and died in such pover-
ty as not to leave sufficient funds to bury
him. The republic charged itself with this
last duty; and his children were considered
as under the protection of the state.
7. Cimon, the son of Miltiades, was one
of the most illustrious men of this age
As a commander, he rivalled his father in
valor; he equalled Themistocles in acute-
ness and prudence, and Aristides in integ-
rity and virtue. After delivering the Greek
colonies from the Persian yoke, he continu-
ed his conquests in Asia, and reduced many
of the enemy's cities. He then attacked
the Persian fleet near Cyprus,* and after a
desperate engagement, sunk some of their
ships, and put the rest to flight.
8. He crowned his victories by the cap-
ture of the Phoenician fleet, which was
coming to the assistance of the Persians,
and thus gave a fatal blow to the Persian
naval power. Yet, like most of the illus-
trious men of the republic, his services
were rewarded with ingratitude, and he
was banished for ten years from his native
9. During the absence of Cimon, the
celebrated Pericles rose to absolute power
in Athens. He embraced the party of the
people, and obtained their admiration by
the striking dignity of his manner, his
splendid oratory, graceful person, and noble
deportment. The boldness of his eloquence
procured him the appellation of the Olym-
pian; being compared by the people to the
thunder of Jupiter.
10. He introduced luxury and idleness
into Athens, and lavished the public mo-
ney in a profuse and ostentatious manner
About this time, the spirit of discord broke
out in Greece, not only between the Spar-
tans and Athenians, but between all the
other states.

An island in the Mediterranean sea, south of
Cilicia, and west of Syria i according to Pliny,
formerly united to the continent near Syria. It
has borne the different names of Acamantis, Ama.
thusia, Apelia, Cerastis, Colonia or Colinia, Ma
caria, and Spechio.



11. The Athenians, at lengtn beconmng
sensible of their injustice to Cimon, recalled
him from banishment, and soon after his re-
turn, he brought about a peace between his
countrymen and the Lacedemonians.
12. Being appointed to carry on the war
against the Persians in Egypt and Cyprus,
he laid siege to Citium, a town in that
island, and died during the course of the
siege, B. C. 449.
13. Athens, under the administration of
Pericles, assumed a new appearance.
Pomp and magnificence usurped the place
of simplicity. The city became adorned
with the master-pieces of the greatest ar-
tists. Those works of Grecian skill, which
have attracted the admiration of succeeding
ages, whether in painting, sculpture, or
architecture, may be considered as chiefly
owing to the liberal encouragement which
Pericles bestowed upon all men of talent
and genius.

1. A war now broke out in Greece, known
by the name of the Peloponnesian war.
It lasted twenty-seven years, and was at-
tended with immense expense, and a great
effusion of blood. Its immediate cause
was the jealousy conceived by the other
states of Greece of the exorbitant power
of the Athenians.
2. All the states within the Peloponnese,
except the Argives, joined the Lacedemo-
nians. They were also assisted by the Lo-
crians, Boeotians, and Megarians. The
Athenians were supported by the inhabit-
ants of Chios* and Lesbos,t by the city of
Platea, and all their tributary countries,
such as lonia, the Hellespont, the cities of
Thrace, &c.
SNow Scio, an island in the Egean sea, between
Lesbos and Samos. Its name, by some, is supposed
to have been taken from the Greek word signifying
snow, which was there frequent.
t A large island in the Aigean sea, one hundred
and fifty miles in circumference. It has been also
called, severally, -Egira, Lasia, tEthiepe,Pelasgia,
and Macaria. It was the birth-place of Sappho,
the celebrated poetess.

3. B. C. 431, hostilities were begun by
the Thebans, who attacked the city of Pla-
tea. Immediately, all Greece rose in
arms. The Lacedaemonians entered Atti-
ca, while the Athenian fleet made a descent
upon Laconia, and laid waste the coasts of
the Peloponnese.
4. As Pericles went on board his galley
on the setting out of this expedition, a total
eclipse of the sun spread consternation
among the superstitious Athenians. Upon
seeing their terror, Pericles threw hiS
cloak over the face of the pilot, and asked
him if he saw. The pilot having replied
that he could not, Pericles exclaimed to
those around him, that the body of the
moon, being in a similar manner interposed
between their eyes and the sun, prevented
them from seeing its light.
5. In the first campaign, the Athenians
obtained several advantages, and the Spar-
tans were forced to retire from Attica.
Pericles pronounced the funeral oration
upon those who had fallen in this war. Its
lofty expression and beautiful sentiments
are equally admired.
6. The following year was remarkable
for a pestilence which raged in Athens, and
which destroyed the greatest part of the
inhabitants. The public calamity was
heightened by the approach of the Pelo-
ponnese army on the borders of Attica, and
by an unsuccessful expedition of the Athe-
nians against Epidaurus and in Thrace.
7. This year, B. C. 429, was also render-
ed memorable by the death of Pericles,
who for forty years had been at the head of
the administration. As he was expiring,
his friends surrounded his bed, and expati-
ated on the victories he had won, and the
glorious actions he had achieved. He inter-
rupted them by observing, that they over-
looked a circumstance far more truly glori-
ous than his victories. It is,' said he, that
not a citizen in Athens has ever been oblig-
ed to put on mourning on my account.'
8. The following years did not give rise
to any decisive events; but the revolt of
Lesbos from the alliance of Athens was
productive of fresh troubles. Mytilene, the
capital of the island, was recovered, and the
inhabitants treated with the utmost cruelty.



9. Both parties by turns obtained the su-
periority; and all those who obstructed
their views, were massacred with the most
unfeeling barbarity. At length, a peace
was agreed on for the space of fifty years
between the two republics; but before one
year had expired, the intrigues of the Co-
rinthians occasioned fresh discord, and hos-
tilities recommended with greater fury
than before.
10. Nicias and Alcibiades were now at
the head of public affairs in Athens, and
each were supported by a rival faction.
The former had shown himself a skilful
general and a virtuous citizen. The latter
was ambitious, and addicted to pleasure;
of a daring genius; yet capable, in the
pursuance of his designs, of adapting him-
self to the humor of every person whom it
was his interest to please.
11. He was remarkable for his eloquence
-his dexterity in war-for the beauty of
his person, and the grace of his manner.
His descent was illustrious, his riches im-
mense; and by his magnificence and pro-
fusion, especially in the splendid feasts with
which he entertained the people, he obtain-
ed their love and admiration, and caused
his haughtiness and extravagance to be
12. While war was carried on with va.
rious success throughout Greece, the Athe-
nians engaged in a new expedition, and
sent a powerful fleet to assist the Sicilian
states against the tyrannical power of Syra-
cuse, a celebrated city of Sicily. Nicias
warmly opposed this measure; but the elo-
quence and flattery of Alcibiades prevailed
over the advice of his more cautious rival.
The view of the fleet under sail attracted
the admiration of the multitude; for so
magnificent an armament had never before
been displayed by any city in the western



to bring various accusations against him,
and a vessel was despatched to bring him
before the Athenian people to stand his
trial. Alcibiades disobeyed the summons
and fled to Sparta, where he was received
with the highest marks of esteem; and in
a short while, by adapting himself to the
rigid austerity and temperance which dis.
tinguished the Spartans, he rendered him
Self universally popular among them.
2. Meanwhile, the sole command of the I
war having devolved upon Nicias, he car-
ried it on in the slow and irresolute manner
that was natural to him, and which formed
the chief defect in his character. At last,
he retired to Catana,* without performing
any exploit worthy of notice.
3. Meanwhile, the Syracusans made vig-
orous preparations for their defence, and
Nicias, roused by the reproaches which
were heaped upon him for his supineness,
resolved to attack Syracuse by sea and land.
The siege of Syracuse is one of the most
remarkable in history. The city was ori-
ginally founded by Archias, a Corinthian,
and one of the Heraclidae, about seven hun-
dred and thirty-two years before the Chris-
tian era.
4. It was one of the most beautiful and
powerful cities possessed by the Greeks,
and was divided into three parts: 1st The
island, called Ortygia, separated by a nar-
row arm of the sea from the main land.
The second division, called .Icradina, stood
on the main land, and communicated with
Ortygia by means of a bridge. This form-
ed the main division of the city. The third
division was called Tyche, and adjoined
Acradina on the land side. The fortifica-
tion, named Hexapolis, commanded the
access to Tyche; and when to this was
added the large suburb of Epipolis, it form-
ed one of the most extensive cit es then in
the world.
5. The Syracusans were thrown into
consternation by the arrival of the Atheni-
ans, and applied to Corinth and Sparta for
assistance. Alcibiades, to revenge himself
for the ingratitude of his countrymen, per.

1. The enemies of Alcibiades took ad- A town of Sicily, situated at the foot of Mount
vantage of his absence, on this expedition, A Etna.


euaded the Lacedaemomans to send Gylip-
pus to Sicily as general, and also to attack
the Athenians in Attica.
6. The arrival of assistance from Sparta
changed the fortune of the war, which till
then had been favorable to the Athenians.
Nicias, finding that every day the number
of his troops diminished, wrote a pressing
letter to his countrymen, describing in
mournful terms the destruction of his gal-
leys, and the loss of his soldiers and sailors.
He also entreated them to send another
commander in his room, as his infirmities
rendered him incapable of discharging his
7. The Athenians were in the utmost
distress at this intelligence, and their dejec-
tionwas heightened by the successful incur-
sions which the Spartans were making in
their territories. They sent two officers,
Menander and Enthydemus, to assist Ni-
cias; and other two, Eurymedon and De-
mosthenes, to supply the place of Lama-
chus, who was killed during the siege.
8. When the Athenian fleet, commanded
by Demosthenes, richly ornamented, con-
sisting of seventy-three galleys, advanced
towards Syracuse in triumph, the citizens
were seized with consternation. Demos-
thenes, against the advice of Nicias, resolv-
ed to take advantage of this alarm, by at-
tacking Epipolis. He led his troops thither
by night, attacked the entrenchments, re-
pulsed the Syracusans, and for some time
bore down every thing before them.
9. But their career was stopped by the
Boeotian troops, who attacked them unex-
pectedly. The Athenians, seized with a
panic, retreated in disorder. Many, in the
darkness of the night, fell from the rocks,
and were dashed in pieces. Their loss
amounted to two thousand men.
10. After this defeat, the Athenians re-
solved to raise the siege and depart. The
Syracusans, in order to frustrate their in-
tention, shut up the mouth of the harbor
with iron chains. Thus blocked up, the
Athenians hazarded another sea fight. The
engagement proved extremely bloody. The
galleys were crowded together at the mouth
of the harbor, and the battle raged furi-
ously. Nothing was seen but the ruins


of ships, and multitudes of dead and wound-
ed. Amidst the noise and confusion, the
commanders in vain issued their orders.
The Athenian fleet was driven on shore,
and the Syracusans were completely victo
11. The unfortunate Athenians then en-
deavored to retreat by night, but were pur-
sued and attacked by their enemies. Ni-
cias, to end the slaughter, surrendered to
Gylippus; and, together with the remains
of his army, was conducted back in triumph
to Syracuse. There he was condemned to
death, together with Demosthenes. The
prisoners were thrown into miserable dun-
geons, where many of them perished.
Those who survived were afterwards sold
as slaves.
12. Meanwhile, Alcibiades having by his
power and popularity in Sparta excited the
jealousy of Agis, the Spartan king, had fled
to the court of Tissaphernes, the Persian go-
vernor of Ionia and Lydia. The Athenians,
repenting of their former ingratitude, now
turned towards Alcibiades for assistance.
He made it known to them, that if they
would abolish the popular government and
establish aristocracy, he would return to
Athens, and would persuade Tissaphernes
to assist them. The Athenians, finding
themselves on the brink of ruin, were forced
to consent, and Alcibiades again put him-
self at the head of the Athenian forces.
13. Success once more attended the Athe-
nian arms, and Alcibiades, having by his

naval victories rendered his countrymen
masters of the Hellespont, returned trium-



phantly to his native city. All the people
of Athens went out to meet him as his fleet
entered the Piraeus, laden with the spoils of
the vanquished; and this day was the most
glorious of his life. He landed amidst
shouts and acclamations; a crown of gold
was decreed him; and but for the opposi-
tion of some of the principal citizens, the
populace would have raised him to the
sovereign authority.



1. The Spartans appointed Lysander, a
brave but ambitious and artful man, as the
chief commander of their fleet. Cyrus,
the youngest son of Darius, king of Persia,
was appointed by his father as governor of
Sardis, and resolved to support the Lace-
demonians in opposition to the Athenians.
Alcibiades, who commanded the Athenian
fleet, having departed for lonia in order to
raise money, left the charge of the fleet to
Antiochus; and during his absence, owing
to the imprudence of Antiochus, the Athe-
nians were defeated by Lysander.
2. The enemies of Alcibiades took ad-
vantage of this misfortune to ruin his credit
in Athens. The people suspected him of
treachery; and to screen himself from their
resentment, the former idol of the populace
was forced to seek safety by a voluntary
exile in a district of the Chersonese.
3. At length, the fate of the Peloponne-
sian war was determined, after a contest of
twenty-seven years. The Athenian fleet
was totally defeated by Lysander at XEgos
Potamos ;* three thousand of their number
were made prisoners, condemned to death
by the Peloponnesian council, and murder-
ed in cold blood.
4. Lysander visited all the. seaport towns,
changed their government from democracy
to aristocracy, and commanded all the Athe-
nians, upon pain of death, to retire to
Athens. In that city, the inhabitants were

That is, the Goat's river, a town on a river in
the Thracian Chersonesus.

overwhelmed with despair. They labored
under the miseries of famine; they were
besieged by the Spartan kings, Agis and
Pausanias, by land; and the Piraeus wan
blocked up by the fleet of Lysander.
5. In this extremity, they were obliged
to sue for peace, which was granted under
the most humiliating conditions. Then
Lysander, entering the Pyreus amidst the
sound of trumpets, and other musical in-
struments, ordered the fortifications to be
demolished. After which, he advanced in-
to the city, abolished democracy, and estab-
lished thirty archons, known in history by
the name of the Thirty Tyrants.
6. The Peloponnesian war had thus ren-
dered the Spartans the leading people of
Greece. But Grecian glory now began to
decline. Their mutual dissensions weak-
ened their force; and their Asiatic con-
quests, by increasing their wealth, caused
them to degenerate from their former virtue
and simplicity.
7. The thirty ,archons ruled in Athens
with a tyrannical sway. They obtained an
armed guard from Lysander, and the most
virtuous and influential citizens were the
first victims of their cruelty. Athens be-
came a scene of murder and rapine. One
alone of their number, Theramenes, ven-
tured to oppose the decreesofhis colleagues.
The tyrants, to revenge themselves upon
Theramenes, caused him to be arrested and
tried for his life. He was accused of dis-
turbing the public quiet, and by the influ-
ence of Critias, the most unjust and cruel
of the thirty, he was condemned to death.
8. He received and drank the poison, by
which his judges condemned him to die,
with perfect calmness and fortitude. He
then poured out the last drops upon the
ground, as was practised in libations to the
gods, with these words: 'This for the vir-
tuous Critias.'
9. The Athenians turned their eyes fqi
deliverance upon Alcibiades, who was liv-
ing in retirement at the court of Pharna-
bazus. The tyrants, hearing of their in-
tentions, signified to Lysander the necessity
of getting Alcibiades into his power, in
order to prevent any disturbance which he
might create. Lysander accordingly de-


, ,


handed the person of the exile from Phar-
nabazus; and he was base enough to give
orders for the apprehension of the illustri-
ous Greek.
10. The guards who were sent to execute
this order, not daring to enter his house,
set it on fire. Alcibiades rushed through
the flames sword in hand; and the guards

as they fled from before him, discharged a
shower of darts which killed him on the
11. The Athenian tyrants no longer kept
any measures. Every day was marked
with a murder. The Athenians deserted
their native city; but no state would grant
them an asylum. The cities alone of Me-
gara and Thebes were generous enough to
protect the fugitives.
12. At length, by the advice of Thrasy-
bulus, the Athenians took up arms against
the tyrants, and after a fierce conflict, their
power was destroyed; they themselves were
massacred; the popular government was
restored, and with it, tranquillity and peace.
13. In the year B. C. 401 occurred the
celebrated retreat of the ten thousand
Greeks, under Xenophon, from Babylon to
the banks of the Euxine. The Greeks had
assisted Cyrus in an attempt to dethrone
his elder brother, Artaxerxes, king of Per-
sia. Cyrus failed in the attempt, and in a
battle which took place near Babylon, lost
his life.
14. The Greeks found themselves reduc-
ed to the necessity of submitting to the
barbarians, or of making good their retreat.
They were obliged to traverse a hostile

country of sixteen hundred miles in extent,
exposed to dreadful hardships and incredi-
ble dangers. Their general, Clearchus,
deserted them, and in this exigency, they
chose as their commander Xenophon, a
young Athenian.
15. Under his command they preserved
the most perfect order and discipline. They
were pursued by the enemy, exposed to in-
tense cold, sometimes obliged to march
through snow from five to six feet deep.
They crossed the mountains of the Cardp-
chi, after suffering repeated attacks from
the inhabitants. Many of their number
perished from cold and fatigue. They ford-
ed great rivers, and fought their passage
over the mountains of Colchis, and at
length reached the banks of the Euxine.
The account of this celebrated retreat was
written by Xenophon himself.
16. In this year took place the death of
Socrates, the wisest and most virtuous of
the Athenian philosophers. Socrates was
the first who acknowledged the universe to
be the work of one Supreme Being, whose
attributes were infinitely superior to those
of the pagan deities.
17. He drew upon himself the fury of a
presumptuous and boastful sect of philoso-
phers denominate d sophists, byexposingthe
fallacy of their doctrines, and the vices of
their conduct. For forty years, Socrates
devoted his life to the instruction of youth,
and though he kept no fixed public school,
he took every opportunity, whether in the
public assemblies, walks, or feasts, of in
clcating his precepts. The most illusHi-
ous of the young Athenians would quit
their pleasures to listen to his eloquent in-
structions, and to his sweet and impressive
18. Melitus, one of the sophists, at length
brought a formal accusation against him.
He was accused of despising the heathen
gods, and of corrupting the Athenian youth.
Socrates appeared before his judges with
modest confidence, and pleaded his cause
with a magnanimity worthy 9f the great-
ness of his soul. Yet he was declared
guilty, and condemned to die by drinking
the juice of hemlock. Thirty days inter-
vened between the sentence and its execu-


tion; and this period he employed in con-
versing calmly with his friends.
19. An opportunity of escape was set
before him by his most intimate friend Cri-
to ; but the philosopher steadily refused to
take advantage of it. On the morning of
his death, he discoursed with his friends
upon the immortality of the soul, and upon
the rewards or punishments that await man
after death. Having taken leave of his

children, he received the cup of poison, and
drank it off without the smallest emotion.
Then gently reproving his friends for their
excessive grief, he lay down on a couch,
and in a few moments expired.



1. The Greek cities of Asia had taken
part in the enterprise of the Greeks which
terminated in the retreat of the ten thou-
sand; and Sparta, being engaged to defend
her countrymen, became involved in a war
with Persia.
2. The disunion of the Grecian states,
but above all, the hostility between the two
chief republics, Athens and Sparta, render-
ed the war disastrous to the latter, who at
length sued for peace, which was granted
them under the condition of their resigning
.to the Persians all their colonies in Asia.
This was termed the peace of Antalcidas,
and took place three hundred and eighty-
seven years before Christ.

3. During the latter part of this period
of Grecian history, Thebes had become
particularly distinguished. The Spartans,
who were now at the height of prosperity,
endeavored to suppress the growing great-
ness of the Thebans, and taking advantage
of a dissension which had arisen amongst
them, took possession of their citadel.
This was the cause of war between Thebes
and Sparta.
4. At first, Athens united with Thebes;
but at length, Thebes stood single in her
own defence, not only against Sparta, but
against the whole league of Greece. The
Theban leaders were Epaminondas and
Pelopidas, the most illustrious men of the
age. Pelopidas, whose fortune was large,
employed his wealth in charitable purposes,
and devoted his time to the use of arms,
and to bodily exercises.
5. Epaminondas was poor, but contented
in his poverty. In his private life, he was
a virtuous man, and a true philosopher;
and in the discharge of his public functions,
he was brave, skilful, and indefatigable.
Between these two great men, the most in-
timate friendship subsisted. Incapable of
jealousy, their sole aim was to increase the
happiness and prosperity of their country.
6. The Spartans having banished Pelo-
pidas, together with four hundred The-
bans, from their native city, he exhorted
them to take up arms for the recovery of
their liberty. A plan was accordingly con-
certed by them, and communicated to their
friends at Thebes. Twelve of the ban-
ished men, headed by Pejopidas, entered
the city at night in the disguise of hunters,
and met at the house of Charon, a distin-
guished Theban.
7. A feast was held that day at the house
of Philidas, secretary to the chief magis-
trates, who were all invited to the entertain-
ment, in order to prevent them from get-
ting notice of the plot. In the midst of
their festivity, a messenger arrived from
Athens, with a packet containing an ac-
count ofthe conspiracy. Archias, the chief
Spartan, being elevated with wine, on re-
ceiving the packet, cried out, Serious af-
fairs for to-morrow,' and put it unopened
under his pillow.



8. Soon after, a band of the conspirators
rushed into the hall and seized the magis-
trates; then breaking open the prisons,
proclaimed liberty. They were joined by
Epaminondas at the head of a numerous
band of the Theban youth. Assistance
soon after arrived from the towns of Boeo-
tia. The citadel was attacked, and the
Spartan garrison were forced to capitulate.
9. The battle of Leuctra* took place
m the year B. C. 371. It was fought be-
tween the Spartans and the Thebans, the
former amounting to twenty-four thousand,
and the latter to six thousand men. The
skill of Epaminondas and the bravery of
the Thebans supplied the deficiency in
their numbers. The Spartans were totally
defeated, and four thousand of their num-
ber killed.
10. When the news was brought to
Sparta, the parents of those who were slain
congratulated each other on the bravery of
their children, while those who expected
the return of their sons or husbands, dis-
covered the deepest dejection. Such were
the feelings of these extraordinary people,
among whom humanity itself was sacri-
ficed to patriotism.
11. Eight years afterwards, the rival
states came to a general engagement at
Mantinea.4 The Thebans, comprehending
their allies, the Arcadians and Argives,
amounted to thirty thousand foot, and three
thousand horse. The Lacedaemonians,
joined with the Athenians and their other
allies, amounted t9 twenty thousand foot,
and two thousand horse. The Thebans
were commanded by Epaminondas; the
Spartans by their king Agesilaus, one of
the most remarkable men and skilful gene-
rals of his time.
12. Though deformed, lame, and small
of stature, his bravery and greatness of
soul commanded universal respect. He
preserved on the throne the ancient Spar-
tan simplicity and austerity of life, and
was as fond of sobriety as of military
discipline. The Greeks had never, until

A village of Boeotia, between Platsea and
t A town of Arcadia.


the battle of Mantinea, fought against
each other with such numerous armies, nor
had they ever been commanded by abler
13. The trumpets having sounded, the
armies advanced to the encounter with
loud shouts. For some time the result of
the engagement was doubtful. The earth
was drenched with the blood of the wound-
ed, and Epaminondas resolved to make
a desperate effort to decide the contest. At
the head of a choice band of the bravest&
Thebans, he rushed impetuously into the
midst of the enemy, cutting down all that
opposed his progress. The centre of the'
Lacedaemonians began to stagger and fall
back. The Thebans pursued the fugitives,
and at length Epaninondas found himself
almost the last of his brave troop, and sur-
rounded by the enemy. He defended him-
self valiantly, when an officer plunged his
lance into his breast.
14. The Theban general fell, and the
fury of the Thebans redoubling at the
sight, they fought with such desperate
valor, that the Lacedemonians at last gave
way, and fled in confusion. Epaminondas
was carried to the camp, and it was found
that his wound was mortal.
15. On hearing this, he called for his
armour-bearer, and asked whether his
shield was safe. He was told that it was,
and upon receiving it, he took hold of it
with a smile of joy, and embraced it.
Whilst all his friends surrounded him, and

Death of Epaminondas.
wept, one of them lamented that he left no
children behind him, who might be some


consolattA for his loss-' You are mis-
taken,' said Epaminondas; 'I leave be-
hind me two immortal daughters; the
victory of Leuctra, and that of Mantinea.'
The iron being then drawn from his wound,
he expired with a smile of satisfaction
diffused over his countenance. A peace
very honorable to the Thebans, was soon
afterwards concluded, in which all the
states joined, excepting Sparta.


1. The Athenians, being now in the en-
joyment of security and leisure, gave them-
selves up to pleasure and diversion. The
imaginations of the people were delighted
by the representation of the pieces of the
most celebrated dramatic authors; they
became fond of them even to extravagance.
All their attention was lavished on poets
and comedians. The public money was
given to buffoons and singers; and to their
theatrical taste they sacrificed the glory and
interests of their country.
2. The Macedonians, until this period
an obscure nation, resolved to profit by the
lethargy and effeminacy into which the
Athenians had sunk. Philip, king of Mace-
don, who afterwards became so celebrated,
was now about twenty-four years of age.
He had restored military discipline through-
out his dominions, and instituted the
famous Macedonian phalanx. This was a
battalion in the form of a long square,
having one thousand men in front, with
sixteen in depth. These were all armed
with spears, twenty-three feet in length,
and presented a formidable and impenetra-
ble rampart.
3. Demosthenes, the celebrated Athenian
orator, was the contemporary of Philip of
Macedon. The fame of his eloquence was
so great that people flocked from all parts
of Greece to hear him. For some time,
the weakness of his lungs and a stammer-
ing articulation had impded his rising ta-
lents. To remove the stammering in his
speech, he used to speak with pebbles in his

mouth; and to strengthen his voice, he
was in the habit of declaiming when climb-
ing up steep and uneven hills, or on the
seashore when 'the 'waves were agitated
by a tempest. Thus by application he
conquered his natural defects, and raised
himself to the highest pitch of eminence.
4. In the year B. C. 356, Alexander,
surnamed the Great, the son of Philip, was
born. Philip instantly wrote to Aristotle,
a famous philosopher of Stagira,* in these
terms: 'I give you notice that I have
gotten a son. I thank the gods not so much
for bestowing this son upon me, as for
having bestowed him in your time; for
I have reason to flatter myself, that you
will form for me a successor worthy of
5. About this time happened the war of
the Phocians, or as it is commonly called,
the sacred war. The Phocians had tilled
a piece of ground belonging to the temple
of Apollo at Delphos. This was consid
ered sacrilege; and the Phocians were
summoned before the Amphictyons, and
sentenced to pay a heavy fine. They re-
fused to comply with the decree, and ap-
plied for assistance to the Spartans, who
privately sent them succors.
6; The Amphictyons assembled, and it
was decreed that war should be made on
the Phocians. The Thebans, Thessalians
and Locrians took part against the Pho-
cians. The Athenians and Spartans joined
the Phocians. Philip of Macedon resolved
to take advantage of these internal dissen-
sions, and to attempt the conquest of all
Greece. The Thebans having implored
his assistance, he seized this pretext for
procuring a firm footing in Greece.
7. He was equally ambitious and artful,
and he is said to have given it as his opin-
ion that no town was impregnable which
could admit a mule laden with gold. On
this account, the gold of Philip is said to
have conquered Greece. He had already
extended his conquests on the side of
Thrace, and reduced most of the cities on
the coast of the Hellespont. He then laid
A town on the outskirts of Macedonia, neat
the bay into which the river Strymon empties itself,
at the south of Amphipolis.




siege' to Alynthus,* a city posseses.by an
Aenian colony. They implored the as-
sistance of the Athenians, and Demos-
thenes endeavored to arouse his country-
men to the danger.which threatened the
liberties of Greece.
8. His admonitions were neglected, and
Philip entered the country of Phocis,f and
forced the Phocians to sue for peace. He
then by bribery contrived to have them ex-
pelled from the Amphictyonic council, and
to be himself chosen in their place. He
next proceeded to subdue the Athenian
colonies in Thrace, and resolved to subdue
the Chersonese, a very rich and fertile
peninsula, belonging to the Athenians.
9. The Spartans sent an embassy to
Athens with offers of peace, and proposing
a joint alliance against the king of Mace-
don. Demosthenes again endeavored to
awaken the Athenians to a sense of their
danger. His celebrated orations obtained
the name of Philippics. At length a gene-
ral engagement took place at Chaeronea.t
Philip commanded the right wing of the
Macedonian army, and his son Alexander
the left.
10. The engagement was long and
bloody, but victory declared in favor of
Philip. Transported with joy, he erected
a trophy, and sacrificed to the gods. He
so far forgot himself with joy, that during
a great entertainment given next day in
honor of the victory, he ran to the field of
battle, and inhumanly insulted the slain.
In the midst of his extravagance, he was
reproved by an Athenian captive. Far from
being offended, he was struck with remorse,
and set the prisoners at liberty.
11. From the battle of Chaeronea may be
dated the decline of Grecian liberty. Philip
was soon after nominated general of the

A celebrated town and republic of Macedonia,
situated on the isthmus of the peninsula of Pal-
t A country bounded on the east by Boeotia, and
by Locris on the west. Its original extent was
from the bay of Corinth to the sea of Euboea,
reaching on the north as far as Thermopylae. Its
boundaries were afterwards greatly contracted.
t A city of Boeotia on the Cephisus, anciently
called Arne.


Greeks against the Persians. t he was
stopped in the midst of his warlike prepa.
rations. He fell by the hand of an assas-
sin, as he was entering the theatre, at the
celebration of the nuptials of his daughter
Cleopatra, B. C. 336.
12. The news of his death spread uni-
versaljoy throughout Greece, and especially
at Athens, where even Demosthenes him-
self appeared in public with a garland of
flowers, and exhorted the people to return
thanks to the gods for so auspicious as
event. Philip perished at the age of forty-
seven, having reigned twenty-three years.


1. Alexander mounted the throne of Ma-
cedonia at the age of twenty; and Darius
Codomannus ascended that of Persia in the
same year. From his earliest years, Alex-
ander gave proofs of a lofty mind, and of
an inordinate ambition. When the news
of his father's success was brought him, he
would exclaim with a melancholy air, 'My
friends, my father will accomplish every
thing, and will leave nothing for me to do.'
2. His preceptor, Aristotle,was the great-
est philosopher of that age, and the royal
pupil had made astonishing progress in
learning. He was so charmed with the
poetry of Homer, that he slept with the
volumes of the Iliad under his pillow. On
one occasion, a noble war-horse, named
Bucephalus, was sent from Thessaly to
Philip; but it was so fiery and unmanagea-
ble that no one ventured to mount it. Alex-
ander alone had the courage to make the
attempt, and in the presence of the king
and his courtiers, he mounted Bucephalus,
and tamed the fiery animal.
3. As he returned from finishing the
course in which he had subdued this ungo-
vernable horse, Philip exclaimed with rap-
ture, 'Seek, my son, another kingdom;
Macedonia is not worthy to contain you.'
We are told that Bucephalus would after
this never suffer any one but Alexander to
mount him. He would kneel down to re-


ceive him on his back. In battle, after
being mortally wounded, he saved the life
of the hero, by carrying him through a

Alexander taming Bucephalas.
crowd of enemies, and then expired. His
death was mourned with tears by his mas-
ter, who even built a city in his memory,
on the banks of the Hydaspes, which lhe
named after him, Bucephaha.
4. The states of Greece formed a con-
federacy against the new king of Macedon.
The Thebans revolted, and slew the Mace-
donian garrison. Alexander advanced at
the head of his troops to the pass of Ther-
mopyle, entered Boeotia, took the city of
Thebes, and treated the inhabitants with
the utmost rigor of war. More than thirty
thousand were sold for slaves; and none
permitted to escape but the priests and the
descendants of the poet Pindar.
5. Every thing now. gave way before the
conqueror; and even the Athenians, with
Demosthenes himself, sent a deputation to
implore mercy. He forgave them, and hav-
ing assembled all the states at Corinth, he
was solemnly elected commander-in-chief
of the Greeks against Persia. It was at
this time that Alexander, surprised at not
being visited by Diogenes, the famous cynic
philosopher, went himself to pay him a
visit. He found this singular man sitting
in a tub, which served as his house, and
dressed in the extreme of poverty. Alex-
ander asked Iiogenes whether he wanted
any thing. 'Yes,' said the cynic,' I want
you to remove from between me and the
sunbeams.' Alexander, struck by so in-
dependent a spirit, turned to his courtiers

and exclaimed, 'Were I not Alexander, I
should wish to be Diogenes.'
6. Alexander set out for Asia in the be-
ginning of spring, in the year B. C. 334,
His army amounted to thirty thousand foot,
and five thousand horse. Parmenio com-
manded the foot, and Philotas part of the
horse. At Ilium, he celebrated public games
to the memory of Achilles, and caused them
to be performed round the tomb of the hero.
Arrived at the Granicus,* they found the
Persian army drawn up on the opposite
side, amounting to one hundred thousand
foot, and ten thousand horse, and command-
ed by Memnon the Rhodian.
7. A battle was fought, in which the
Persians were totally routed, and lost twen-
ty thousand of their foot, and two thous-
and five hundred horse. Alexander lost
only two hundred men, and sent to the
Athenians three hundred Persian bucklers
in tok.n of his victory. Sardis and Ephe-
sust now opened their gates to the con-
queror, and many princes of Asia Minor,
among whom was Mithridates, king of
Pontus,4 submitted to him.
8. Alexander, having subdued Cappado-
cia, advanced towards the higher Asia,
and arrived at Tarsus.l] Struck with the
clearness of the water of the river Cydnus,
which flows by that city, he resolved to
bathe in it. He had hardly entered the
water when he was seized with an extreme
chillness, and was conveyed to his tent in
a state of insensibility. A violent illness
ensued; his life was despaired of, and the
physicians, knowing that Darius had offered
one'thousand talents to any one who would
take the life of Alexander, dreaded to take

A river of Bithynia.
SA city of Ionia, famous for its temple of Diana,
which was burned on the night that Alexander
was born.
t A kingdom of Asia Minor, bounded on the east
by Colchis, west by Halys, north by the Euxine
sea, and south by part of Armenia.
t A country of Asia Minor, between the Halys,
the Euphrates, and the Euxine. It receives its
name from the river Cappadox, 'which divides it
from Galatia.
11 Now Taressa, or Tersoos, a town of Cilicia.


the responsibility of giving him any reme-
9. In this emergency his confidential
physician, Philip, offered to give him a
draught which should quickly relieve him;
but in the mean time, Alexander was thrown
into the greatest perplexity by the receipt
of a letter informing him that Philip was
bribed by Darius to destroy him. After
some consideration he took the draught, and
steadfastly regarding Philip, drank it off.
His recovery was speedy, and the joy of
his soldiers proportionable to their previous


1. Meanwhile, Darius with his immense
army advanced to meet Alexander, and the
two armies came in sight of each other near
the river Issus,* between the mountains and
the sea. The march of the Persian mo-
narch resembled a royal procession. We
are told that the Persian troops called the
Immortal, and ten thousand in number, were
dressed in cloth of gold; that the chariot of
Jupiter was drawn by white horses, and
accompanied by three hundred and sixty-
five young boys, clothed in purple: and that
the king himself, mounted on his lofty cha-
riot, was radiant with gold and jewels.
His wives and children, also sumptuously
appointed, accompanied the army.
2. Alexander rode through the ranks,
encouraging his men, reminding them of
their recent victories, and assuring them
that one victory would make them masters
of Persia. He reminded them of Mara-
thon, Thermopyl:e, and Salamis; and as he
spoke, the whole army called aloud to be
led on to the engagement.
3. The right wing of the Macedonians,
commanded by Alexander, plunged into the
river Issus, and advanced to the charge.
The horses that drew the chariot of Darius
being wounded, reared, and broke loose
from the yoke. Darius sprung from his
SOn the confines of Syria.

chariot, mounted another, fled, and was
followed by the whole right wing of his
army. After a bloody engagement, the
Persians took flight in all directions, aLd
the Macedonians took possession of the
camp of Darius, in which were his mother
and his wife, together with his infant child-
4. The young conqueror, after visiting
the wounded, and commending the valor of
his troops, went to pay a visit to the Persian
princesses in their tent, accompanied by his
favorite, Hephaestion. The ladies, mistak-
ing the favorite for the king himself, threw
themselves at his feet. Sisigambis. the
mother of Darius, on being informed of her
mistake, was beginning to excuse herself;
on which Alexander raised her from the
ground, exclaiming, My dear mother, you
are not mistaken, for he is likewise Alex-
5. Nothing could exceed the generous
treatment of Alexander towards the prin-
cesses. To alleviate their misfortunes, he
studied to bestow upon them every mark
of respect and kindness; and taking the
infant son of Darius in his arms, he em-
braced him with fondness. Darius fled till
he arrived at Thapsacus,* from which he
despatched a haughty letter to Alexander,
who returned one in the same strain.
6. Alexander, having arrived at Phoenicia,
the Sidonians paid homage to him; and the
city of Tyref alone refused to admit him as
their master. Tyre was then the most
flourishing city in the world,, the centre of
commerce, and the mistress of the East.
Alexander resolved to lay siege to Tyre.
After seven months of incredible labor, the
city was taken and destroyed. The con-
queror cruelly ordered two thousand of the
inhabitants to be crucified along, the sea-
shore, and the rest to be sold for slaves.
7. He then continued his victorious pro-
gress through Palestine, where all the towns
A city on the Euphrates.
t Built on a small island at the south of Sidon,
about two hundred stadia from the shore. There
were properly two places of that name, the old Ty-
ros, called Palcetyros, on the seashore, and the
island. It was about nineteen miles in circumfer.
ence including Palaetyros ; without it, but four.


excepting Gaza* surrendered. It shared
the fate of Tyre. Having marched against
Jerusalem, he was surprised to meet a sol-
emn procession, headed by Jaddus the
high priest, clothed in his pontifical vest-
ments, advancing to receive him. Alexander
saluted the high priest with respect, and
having entered Jerusalem, proceeded to the
temple, where the high priest pointed out
to him those passages in Daniel's prophe-
cies which related to him.
8. In Egypt, Alexander was received
with joy ; and here he founded Alexandria,
whioh afterwards became one of the most
flourishing cities in the world. He then
passed through the burning deserts of Lyb-
la, on a visit to the temple of Jupiter Am-
mon. The chief priest hailed him as the
son of Jupiter; and Alexander hencefor-
ward had the extravagance to assume the
title of son of Jupiter Ammon.
9. The next battle which took place be-
tween Alexander and Darius was fought at
Arbela,t in Assyria. The victory, notwith-
standing the superior numbers of the Per-
sian army, soon decided in favor of Alex-
ander; and Darius once more took to flight,
abandoning every thing to the victor. B.
C. 331.
10. Having taken possession of Arbela,
Alexander proceeded to Babylon,: and en-
tered triumphantly at the head of his army.
The walls were thronged with spectators;
the roads were strewed with flowers; and
exquisite perfumes burned on numerous
11. At Persepolis, the fountain of eastern
luxury, he found in the royal treasury six-
teen millions of pounds sterling. During
his stay there, he gave a grand entertain-
ment. In the height of their festivity, an
Athenian, named Thais, having declared
that she would consider it a great happiness
to set fire herself to the palace of Xerxes,
the whole company, with Alexander at their
head, seized burning torches, rushed out,

A city of Philistia, near the Mediterranean
t Situated on the river Lycus.
$ On the banks of the Euphrates.

and reduced to ashes one of the most splen-
did buildings in the world.

A U al mourning railCe.
12. A conspiracy was formed against
Darius by Bessus, satrap of Bactriana, and
Darius was taken prisoner. Alexander in-
stantly marched to his relief, upon which
Bessus caused the Persian monarch to be
assassinated. The advanced guaid of Alex-

ander's army, found Darius lying in his
chariot, in a retired spot, alone, and mor-
tally wounded. The unfortunate monarch
had strength left to ask for water, which
having been brought him, he begged the
Macedonians to assure Alexander of his
gratitude for his kindness to his mother,
Sis wife, and children; and having prayed to
the gods to bless with victory so generous a
conqueror, he expired. When Alexander
saw the dead body of Darius, he was moved
to tears; and having caused it to be embalm-
ed, he sent the body to Sisigambis, that it


might be interred with the usual honors
paid to the deceased kings of Persia.


1 Alexander then marched through the
north of Asia, and reached the Caspian sea.
He then returned to Bactriana, where he
assumed the dress and manners of the Per-
sians. About this time, he cruelly caused
his general Parmenio, who had grown
gray in his service, to be assassinated, on
suspicion of a pretended conspiracy.
2. He soon after seized the traitor Bes-
sus, and caused him to be sent to Ecbata-
na,* where he was put to death. At Ma-
racanda, he killed his favorite Clitus in a
fit of passion, being exasperated by the re-
proaches of Clitus, who accused him of
having become a tyrant, and reproached
him for having slain Parmenio. The re-
morse of Alexander for this action was so
great, that he remained for days stretched
on the floor in an agony of grief, weeping,
and refusing all sustenance.
3. In the country of the Sacae,Alexander
married Roxana, daughter of their king
Oxiartes. She was a lady of singular
beauty and talent; but the marriage gave
much offence to the Macedonians. Giddy
with conquest, the ambition of Alexander
now knew no bounds. He penetrated into
India, which was accounted the richest
country in the world. He passed the Indus,
and advanced to the Hydaspes, the passage
of which was disputed by one of the kings
named Porus.
4. Alexander conquered and took him
prisoner; but afterwards, struck with admi-
ration by his undaunted magnanimity, he
restored him his kingdom. Still resolved
to push forward, he prepared to pass the
Hypnasis, when the murmurs of his troops
obliged him to return. Arrived at the
confines of Persia, he affected to imitate
Bacchus, and made a triumphal progress

through Carmania,* mounted on a chariot,
and feasting sumptuously.
5. The whole country resounded with
music and bacchanalian songs, and large
casks of wine were placed along the road,
of which the soldiers and people drank in
profusion. At Ecbatana, he continued to
celebrate feasts and games, and abandoned
himself to pleasures and excess. Here his
favorite Hephastion died, and was mourned
by Alexander as a brother. He celebrated
his funeral obsequies at Babylon with a,
magnificence almost incredible, and then
offered sacrifices to him as a god.
6. He proceeded to beautify Babylon,
and proposed making it the seat of empire,
when the hand of death put a stop to all
his vast projects. After a feast where he
had drank to excess, he was seized with a
fever, which terminated mortally. When
at the point of dissolution, he was asked to
whom he left his empire. 'To the most
worthy,' said he, and expired. He was
then thirty-two years of age, and had reign-
ed twelve years: B. C. 323. He died
equally regretted by the Macedonians and
Persians. His empire extended from the
Indus to Lybia, and from the Adriaticto the


1. Upon the death of Alexander, his con
quests were divided among thirty-thred of
his principal generals; but at length, four.of
these officers obtained the whole. Egypt,
Lybia, Palestine, and Arabia were assigned
to Ptolemy; whose successors, named the
Ptolemies, reigned there for two centuries.
Cassander became king of Macedonia and
Greece; Lysimachus, of Thrace and Bi-
thynia; and the remaining territories, in-
cluding the kingdom of Syria and the re-
gion extending from it to the Indus, were
given to Seleucus. The kings of Syria are
known in history as the Seleucide.
2. On hearing of the death cf Alexander

11 A country between Persia and India.

Now Hamadan, the capital of Media, and pal-
ace of Deioces, king of Media.


Demosthenes made one more effort to re-
store freedom in his country. He endea-
vored by his eloquence to rouse his coun-
trymen to shake off the Macedonian yoke,
but in vain. The ancient spirit which an-
imated the Greeks, was now nearly extinct,
and they listened to the councils of Pho-
cion, which were for pacific measures.
3. 'Antipater, who for some time after
the death of Ale xander governed Greece,
demanded that Demosthenes should be de-
livered into his hands. On hearing of this,
Demosthenes put an end to his life by poi-
son: B. C. 3,2.
4. Phocion, one of the most virtuous and
eminent men of Greece, had been chosen
general of the Athenian armies forty-five
times. Yet, upon some vague and ill-
founded suspicion, his ungrateful country-
men condemned him to death.
5. When about to swallow the dose of
poison by which he was sentenced to die,
one of his friends begged to know what
message he should convey to his son. 'Tell
him,' said Phocion,' to pardon the injustice
of the Athenians.' This virtuous man was
upwards of eighty years old when he died.
The Athenians, afterwards struck with a
sense of their injustice, erected a statue of
brass to his memory.
6. From the death of Alexander until
their subjugation by the Romans, the his-
tory of the Grecian states presents nothing
but a series of uninteresting revolutions.
The last effort of liberty in Greece was the
Achaean league, by which the smaller
states, with Achaia at their head, united
together for their mutual protection: B.
C. 281.
7. For a period of forty years, during
which this league subsisted, it served in
some measure as a barrier against the Ma-
cedonian power. It did not, however, ef-
fect much, until Aratus, by his wise coun-
sels, gave greater force to its operations.
Aratus was the son of Nicias, one of the
principal citizens of Sicyon, and when only
twenty years of age, effected the freedom
of his country, which had long groaned
under the tyranny of Nicocles.
8. He persuaded the Sicyonians to accede
to the Achaan league, and being chosen

general of the Achaans, recovered from
Antigonus the citadel of Corinth, of which
that prince had taken possession. It was
about this period that the Roman name be-
gan to become celebrated, even in Greece.
9. Aratus, having taken Acro-Corinth
and Megara from the Macedonians, united
them to the Achaeans. He also persuaded
the cities of Megalopolis, Epidaurus, and
Trezene, to unite with them. His great ob-
ject was to unite the whole ofPeloponnesus
in one republic, and for that purpose he next
directed his efforts towards Lacedaemon.
10. A great change had taken place in
Sparta since the period when Lycurgus
had established his laws there. Avarice
and luxury had obtained a footing amongst
them, and the Spartan character had greatly
degenerated from its former severe simpli-
city. Agis, king of Sparta, a prince of a
mild and irresolute character, endeavored
to reform the abuses which had gradually
crept into the state, and to restore the laws
of Lycurgus. Agesilaus, one of the prin-
cipal citizens, opposed his views, and Leo-
nidas, the other king, endeavored to accom-
plish the ruin of Agis. He was brought
to trial, and condemned to death as a traitor
to his country, B. C. 244.
11. Upon the death of Leonidas, his son,
Cleomenes, ascended the throne. He also
attempted a reform in the government, and
having, by several successful expeditions
against the Acheans, greatly advanced his
authority at Sparta, ne no longer hesitated
in taking bolder measures. He diminished
the power of the ephori, applied himself to
restore the laws of Lycurgus, and by the
simplicity and frugality of his own way of
life, gained the confidence and esteem of
the citizens.
12. Having gained an important victory
over the Achaeans, he compelled them to
sue for peace, and consented to grant it,
only on condition of his being chosen corn
mander-in-chief of the forces of the league
Aratus, affronted by this proposal, applied
for assistance to Antigonus, who rejoiced
at the opportunity thus afforded him of ex
tending his authority in Greece.
13. He advanced with a large army to
the assistance of the Achaeans, and defeat-



ed Cleomenes in the neighborhood of Sa-
lasia. He owed his victory, in a great
measure, to the courage of Philopcemen,
yet a very young man, who fought at the
head of the Achaian cavalry. Cleomenes,
unable to endure the sight of his country's
misfortune, set sail for Egypt Antigonus,
arriving at Sparta, took possession of it as
a conqueror. He treated the inhabitants
with kindness, but overturned every thing
done by Cleomenes for reviving the institu-
tions of.Lycurgus.


1. About this time, a dreadful earthquake
happened at Rhodes,* which did immense

damage, and threw down the famous bra-
zen Colossus. The Rhodians, finding them-
selves reduced to ruin by this disaster, im-
plored assistance of the neighboring princes.
Large sums of money were sent them by
the kings of Sicily and Egypt, as well as
by Antigonus, Seleucus, and Mithridates.
2. The lEtolians, the most hardy and un-
polished people of Greece, taking advan-
tage of the exhausted condition of the
A celebrated island in the Carpathian sea, one
hundred and twenty miles in circumference, at the
south of Caria, from which it is twenty miles dis-
tant. It has been known by the several names of
Ophiusa, Stadia, Telchinis, Corymbia, Trinriaa,
dEthria, Asteria, Poessa, Atabyra, Oloessa, Mar-
cia, and Pelasgia.

Peloponnesus, carried their arms into the
territory of Messene, and committed great
ravages thete. Upon this, Aratus marched
against them, but being defeated, he appli-
ed for assistance to Philip, king of Mace-
donia, who had ascended the throne on the
death of his father Antigonus.
3. Philip immediately made preparations
for attacking the AEtolians. Success attend-
ed his arms, and growing haughty by re-
peated conquests, he began to treat his allies
with insupportable pride. Aratus, having
remonstrated with him upon his conduct,
was basely poisoned by his command.
4. The most remarkable character of
this period was Philopoemen. He obtained
the glorious appellation of the 'last of the
Greeks.' He was a native of Megalopolis
in Arcadia. He was at once a philosopher
and a warrior, and while he took Epami-
nondas for his model, he devoted his private
hours to the study of Homer. Being ap-
pointed general of the Achaans, he eq-
deavored to restore discipline among the
troops, and to check the growing taste for
luxury and magnificence observable in
Athens. Finding a complete reform in this
particular impossible, he endeavored at least
to direct their expensive taste to waril~
objects-to the purchase of fine horses,
superb arms, lofty plumes, and embroidered
coats of mail; while in his own appearance
he observed a remarkable simplicity.
5. He defeated the Lacedaemonians, and
with his own hand killed their king, Ma-
chanidas. A statue of brass was erected
in honor of Philopoemen in consequence of
this victory. Having entered the theatre
during the celebration of the Nemean
games, just as the musician Pylades was
saying the following line to his lyre,
SThe palm of liberty for Greece I won.'
the whole audience rose up, and with shouts
of applause turned towards Philopoemen.
6. Sparta at this time was governed by
the tyrant Nabis, who,prompted by insatia-
ble avarice, banished the rich citizens, or put
them to the torture, in order to obtain their
wealth. The Athenians, finding their trr n-
quillity disturbed by the ambitious and tur-
bulent spirit of king Philip, sent deputies ta



Rome complaining of his conduct The
Romans declared war against Philip, and
were joined by the Etolians.
7. King Philip and Quintius, surnamed
Flaminius, came to an engagement in
Thessaly. Here the Romans gained a
complete victory over Philip, who was
forced to sue for peace. Ten commission-
ers were named by the Roman senate for
settling the conditions of the treaty. These
were, that all the Greek cities, whether in
Europe or Asia, should be declared free;
that Philip should withdraw his garrisons
-should deliver up to the Romans his
prisoners and deserters-should pay them
one thousand talents-and should send his
son Demetrius to Rome as an hostage.
8. This decree, being read aloud by a
herald at the celebration of the Isthmian
games, was followed by deafening shouts
of applause from the assembled multitude.
The whole assembly were vehement in
their thanks to Quintius, the Roman gene-
ral, whom they regarded as their deliverer.
Some knelt and kissed his hands, and
others crowned him with garlands of flow-
ers, while all were loud in extolling the
glory of the Roman name.
9. Soon after, the Roman general defeat-
ed the tyrant Nabis, and forced him to sue
for peace. The Messenians, having re-
nounced the Achaean league, resolved to
take possession of Corona. Philopoemev,
though seventy years of age, took the field
against them. His troops were defeated,

and he himself was taken prisoner, con-
dicted to Messene in chains, and condemn-

ed to die by poison. The last of the
Greeks' submitted without complaint to
his sentence, and having drank off the poi-
son, expired without a murmur: B. C. 183.
10. The power and credit of the Achaean
league began to excite the jealousy of the
Roman senate. In order to weaken their
influence, they endeavored to foment divi-
sions amongst its members; while the
Achaeans became careless of the Roman
friendship, and by their want of prudence,
hurried to their irretrievable ruin.,
11. The Romans determined to make
war against the Achaeans, and sent Mum-
mius against them at the head of a con-
siderable army. Mummius advanced to
Corinth, gave battle to the Achaeans in the
isthmus, overpowered and put them to
flight. Then Mummius entering the city,
gave it up to be pillaged, put the men to
the sword, and sold the women and chil-
dren for slaves. He then gave orders for
the removal of the statues and paintings,
set fire to the houses, and reduced the city
to ashes, B. C. 146.
12. Among the pictures found in Corinth,
was one of Bacchus, executed by the cele-
brated Aristides, and valued at three thou-
sand two hundred pounds sterling. This was
sent to Rome, and placed in the temple of
Ceres. We are told that the Roman gene-
ral, in order to impress the necessity of
carefulness upon the minds of those per-
sons employed in transporting to Rome
the Corinthian statues and paintings,
assured them, that if any of them were
spoiled or missing, they should be oblig-
ed to furnish new ones at their own ex-
13. The history of Greece now drew
rapidly to a close. Commissioners were
sent from Rome. to abolish the popular
form of government, and to create magis-
trates dependent on the Roman common-
wealth. For some time, the Greeks were
left in the full enjoyment of their liberty
and laws.
14. But at last, Greece was reduced to a
Roman province, and was governed by a
prator, sent from Rome, and elected annu-
ally. Thenceforth, it bore the name of
the province of Achaia. Greece, though



stripped of her power, still retained her
empire in the sciences and arts. Thither
the most illustrious of her conquerors re-
paired for instruction. Athens remained
the school of learning, the standard of
taste and refinement, and the central point
in the republic of letters. The emperors
invited the Grecian. philosophers to their
court, and even when Rome herself had
fallen from her greatness, Greece still pre-
served her intellectual sovereignty.


1. Greece was a region of extreme
beauty; its lakes, rivers, and majestic
mountains, each endeared by a thousand
associations, itshaunted woods and groves,
its thousand fairy isles, marked it as a
fit dwelling place for taste and intellectual
greatness. Considering the intimate con-
nection between nature and art, we are not
surprised that in this lovely country, archi-
tecture, painting, music, sculpture and
poetry should have arrived at such a pitch
of perfection.
2. The city of Athens has already been
briefly described; but a more minute de-
scription may not be wholly uninteresting.
It was situated about five miles from the
sea, in a large plain, from the centre of
which rose a hill named the Acropolis, an
upper city. There was also a lower city,
and both divisions contained four hundred
and forty thousand inhabitants, of whom
a large majority were slaves. The city,
S at the zenith of its prosperity, was twenty-
five miles in circumference.
3. The upper city, sixteen miles in cir-
cumference, was girted by a strong wall
pierced by nine gates. The main entrance
was reached by means of a white marble
staircase. The lower city, containing the
buildings encompassing the citadel, was
protected by strong walls. The temple of
Neptune, and the beautiful temple of Mi-
nerva, called the Parthenon, both remain
to the present day, and the latter is esteem-
ed as the most perfect specimen extant of

the finest and purest style of Grecian
architecture. It is two hundred and
twenty-nine feet long, one hundred and
one broad, and sixty-nine high. Athens
contained some of the most splendid wolks
ever produced by art.
4. Sparta, Thebes, and Corinti were
noted for architectural beauty. The Spar-
tans, averse to ornament and ostentation
in private life, yet decorated their forum,
or great central square, with statues and
beautiful edifices. Corinth, the capital of
Achaia, produced the beautiful column
called the Corinthian pillar, whos#orna-
mental style is justly admired.
5. The age of Pericles, about four hun-
dred and thirty years B. C. may be consid-
ered as that in which architecture, painting
and sculpture flourished most. The archi-
tecture of the Greeks consisted of -three
orders,--the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
The Doric was characterized by plainness,
but at the same time its effect was sublime.
The Ionic was extremely graceful and ele-
gant. The Corinthian, uniting the beauties
of the other orders, was rich, magnificent,
and highly ornamental.
6. The ancient Greek statues which have
fortunately descended to us, will ever re-
main models to the artists, and imperishable
sources of admiration to the man of taste.
From the beauty of the mere casts, those
who have never seen the originals of the'
Venus, the dying Gladiator, and the Lao-
coon, may form some idea of their wonder-
ful excellence.
7. The Venus is a statue presenting in
the unshrouded form of the goddess of
love, an union of all the traits of female
loveliness. Its beauty is more than mor-
tal; the eye gazes unwearied on the face
and figure, and the mind hardly realizes
that it is of stone. The dying Gladiator
depicts a strong man on the eve of death,
rousing his waning strength to support
himself. The sinking of the muscular
system may be observed.
8. The group of Laocoon and his sons
is highly grand and beautiful. The story
which it illustrates is this: Laocoon, high-
priest of Apollo, having incurred the dis-
pleasure of the gods, was attacked and


strangled while preparing to offer sacri-
fice, by two enormous serpents, which
issued from the sea. The sculptor has
represented Laocoon and his two sons
struggling in the crushing embraces of the
enormous reptiles. The immense strength
of the high-priest contrasts finely with the
yielding and weak forms of the two lovely
9. No specimens of the painting of the
Greeks have reached us. Ancient writers,
however, described it as in nothing inferior
to thir sculpture, and we have every rea-
son l believe that they excelled in that,
as in other departments of the fine arts.
Zeuxis, Apelles, and Parrhasius have been
particularly praised.
10. Zeuxis and Parrhasius were good-
humored rivals, and used frequently to
enter into contests with each other to de-
cide the superiority of one. Zeuxis painted
a basket full of grapes with such truth to
nature, that the birds flew to the painting
and endeavored to eat the fruit. Parrha-
sius painted a linen cloth hanging in natu-
ral folds, and so successfully did he achieve
the work, that Zeuxis, on being taken be-
fore it, requested the artist to remove the
cloth and show him his picture. On being
made aware of the deception, he exclaimed,
'You have conquered, Parrhasius,-I misled
birds, but you have deceived an artist.'



1. The Athenians were divided into three
classes: citizens, foreigners or sojourners,
and slaves. The citizens were the most
privileged class. They alone were eligible
to office, and the right of citizenship was
only conferred by an assembly of the peo-
ple, although it was inherited by children
from parents who had been citizens. The
citizens w nre divided into ten tribes, whose
residence was not limited to Athens. The
surrounding boroughs of Attica contained
some tribes. Each tribe bore the name of
some ancient hero, and was divided into

three parts; each of these parts being again
subdivided into thirty famihes.
2. Persons coming from foreign countries
to reside in Attica were termed sojourners
They were under the protection of the law,
and permitted to pursue their business in
Athens; but except in case of rendering
important services to the state, they were
not admitted to the right of voting, or made
eligible to any office by participating in
the rights of citizenship.
3. The slaves were of two sorts. The
first were freeborn citizens, on whom po-
verty had imposed the necessity of serving
masters for wages. These people gained
their liberty on acquiring the means of pro-
curing subsistence. The second class were
entirely at the disposal of their masters, and
generally had no hope of redeeming them-
selves, or of procuring freedom, for their
children. Sometimes by fighting for the
state or by their savings, slaves were ena-
bled to purchase their freedom.
4. The Athenian magistrates were of
three kinds, distinguished by the manner
of their election. 1st. The Ciirotoneti, who
were chosen in a lawful assembly by the
people, who expressed their votes on these
occasions by holding up their hands. 2d.
The Cleroti, who after receiving the ap-
proval of the people, were selected by lot.
3d. The Ereti, who were officers appointed
by particular tribes, and invested with pe-
culiar authority to transact any business.
5. Poorer citizens were eligible to office,
but men of distinguished rank only were
appointed. Some few exceptions occur.
Every candidate was obliged to appear in
the forum and give an account of his past
life. While in office, any magistrate could
be brought to trial for a neglect of the
duties of his office, and at the expiration of
his term of service, was made to give an
account of his conduct. Thirty days were
allowed for accusation, and during this
period any man could bring a charge of
mal-administration against a magistrate.
6. The government of Athens was usu-
ally administered by the archons, nine in
number, the senate of five hundred, and
the assemblies of the people. The archon;
having the executive power, were elected



annually by lot. They wore wreaths of
myrtle, their persons were held inviolable,
and they were also exempted from the pay-
ment of some taxes. The first was called
archon by way of distinction. His duty
was to decide on cases between married
persons, also on matters of divorce, inhe-
ritance, and other important concerns. He
was the general guardian of orphans.
7. The second archon wore a crown,
and was called basileus, or king. The
third archon was styled polemarch; the
remaining six, thesmbthete. They had
the general direction of the republic and
the execution of the laws in their hands.
Minor police regulations were committed
to subordinate officers. The senate of five
hundred, who were annually chosen by lot
from the different tribes, had great power.
They examined proposals which were to be
submitted to the people, and took care that
nothing unimportant or improper should
come before them. They discussed mea-
sures of public importance. To them were
submitted the accounts of the magistrates.
The direction of the fleet was in the hands
of the senate, as well as the punishment
of offences not noticed by the laws.
8. Assemblies of the people were for the
purpose of discussing measures for the
Welfare of the commonwealth. All Athe-
nian freemen had a right to attend; but
strangers, slaves, women, and those who
had received an infamous punishment, were
excluded. The assemblies were regularly
held every thirty-five days, and also con-
vened in any great emergency.
9. No fewer than six thousand citizens
could legally compose ah assembly. They
decided upon peace or war, gave audience
to ambassadors, confirmed or repealed laws,
&c. In these assemblies, the orators of
Athens exercised their influence.
10. The court called Areopagus was an
assembly which took an active part in the
government. It was called Areopagus or
Mars hill, from the spot on which it was
held. The members behaved with the
greatest solemnity and power. The court
took cognizance of all crimes in religion or
government, and also examined the state
of the laws and of public manners..

11. Much mention being made of ostra-
cism in ancient history, it may be well to
explain it here. An assembly.of the peo.
ple being held, each one wrote the name
of the person most obnoxious to him on a
sell (ostrakon) and deposited it in a por-
tion of the market-place provided for the
purpose. If the shells amounted to six
thousand, the ostracism was effective; if
not, void. The archons laid together the
shells containing the name of one indivi.
dual, and the citizen whose name occurred
most frequently was banished for ten years,
with leave to enjoy his estate. Thus many
excellent citizens, without even a specified
offence, were sacrificed to the capricious
spleen of the Athenians.
12. There were two classes of Spartan
citizens, the Homoii and the Hypomiones.
The former were eligible to office; but the
latter, being composed of poor citizens,
the freedmen and their sons, were merely
permitted the right of voting at elections.
The Helots, or slaves, far outnumbered
the citizens. Their duties did not great-
ly differ from those imposed on servants
in other parts of Greece, but were less
13. The two Spartan kings every month
took an oath to keep the laws. To one
was committed the command of the army,
while the other usually remained at home
with civil authority. The kings, as first
citizens, presided in the senate, but their
peculiar province was to regulate the ob-
servances of religion. The senate was
composed of twenty-eight members, inclu-
sive of the kings. They were above sixty
years of age, were elected for ife ind on
account of their virtue. They examined
all subjects connected with peace and war
and had the direction of the most impor-
tant public concerns.
14. The Ephori were annual magistrates,
five in number, chosen by the people, and
whose duty it was to examine into the state
of education and the administration of
justice. Of the two assemblies of the
people to decide on matters submitted te
them by the senate, the first, called the
general assembly, was attended by all the
freemen of Laconia; the second, or lesser



assembly, only by Spartans over thirty
years of age.
15. The -other states of Greece were
principally governed by a republican form.
The Amphictyonic council was an assem-
bly composed at first of deputies from a
few northern states of Greece, but after-
wards, of delegates from twelve. They
decided upon all questions connected with
differences between cities, and they tried
all offences committed in violation of the
rights of nations. Each state sent two
deputies. The assemblies were semi-
annual. The vernal assembly was held at
Delphi, the autumnal at Thermopylme.
16. The Grecian armies were composed
of citizens whom the law obliged, in obe-
dience to the summons of a magistrate, to
appear prepared to do military duty, at a
certain age. The largest division of army
consisted of infantry; there were also
horsemen, soldiers in chariots, and on ele-
phants. The arms were at first brazen,
the boots and some other portions being of
tin. Iron was afterwards the predominant
17. The defensive armor consisted of a
helmet and breast-plate, a back-piece,
greaves to defend the legs, guards to pro-
tect the hands, a kind of belt to cover the
front part of the body, and a shield. The
offensive weapons were the spear, the
sword, the pole-axe, an iron or wooden club,
bows and arrows, darts, javelins and slings.
The severest punishments were inflicted
upon cowards. In Lacedwemon, they for-
feited the rights of citizenship; it was a dis-
grace to intermarry with them, they might
be beaten like slaves without being per-
mitted to return a blow, and they were
forced to wear a distinguishing dress. Ar-
chilochus the poet was banished from Spar-
ta, for having facetiously related the loss
of his shield in an epigram.
18. The Greek vessels were of three
sorts: ships of passage, ships of war, and
ships of burthen. Ships of passage were
transports; ships of burthen were used as
tenders, and were generally of a round form;
ships of war were filled with troops and
weapons by which naval engagements
were carried on. They differ from each

other in the various number of their banks
of oars. These were not ranged vertically
over each other, but ascending like stairs
back of each other. The war-galleys had
high, carved beaks or rostrums.
19. The mythology of the Greeks, which
varied but little from that of the Romans,
will be comprehended in a general view
of ancient mythology at the end of that
portion of this history devoted to Rome.


1. The answers of oracles exercised the
greatest influence upon the conduct of the
Greeks, since the most implicit belief was
placed in them. The presiding priests and
priestesses pretended to divine inspiration;
filled with a frenzied spirit, they uttered
ravings which were regarded as the words
of a deity. By making use of words and
phrases which admitted of a double mean-
ing, the priests always managed to keep
up a show of truth in their answers. The
oracles of Apollo at Delphi and Delos, the
oracle of Jupiter at Dodona, ana of Trebo-
nius, were the most celebrated.
2. The public games of Greece, in which,
besides contests in athletic sports and ex-
ercises, musicians, poets, artists and phi-
losophers struggled for victory were very
celebrated. They were four in number,-
the Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian and Ne-
3. Hercules instituted the Olympic games
in honor of Jupiter Olympus, twelve hun-
dred and twenty-two years B. C. They
were discontinued for a long period, and
renewed by Lycurgus eight hundred and
eighty-four years B. C., and then by Corce
bus seven hundred and seventy-six years
B. C. The last date is the era of the first
Olympiad. An Olympiad is the space (of
four years) between one celebration of the
Olympic games and another; this was the
method in which the Greek computation
of time was made. The reward of the
victors was a crown of laurel.
4. The Pythian games were celebrated



every fifth year at Delphi, in honor of.
Apollo, who killed the serpent Python, arid
was thence called Pythian. The Nemean
games were celebrated every third year at
Nemea. They were instituted by Her-
cules. The victor's crown was of par-
sley. Near the isthmus of Connth, the
Isthmiangames occurred, first every third,
finally every fifth year. The victors at
these games were presented with garlands
of pine-leaves.
5. In literature the Greeks have sur-
passed all ancient and modern nations.
The alphabet was brought into Greece by
Cadmus, fifteen hundred and nineteen years
B. C. Poetry was cultivated in Greece
before the invention of letters, and Greece
has produced poets whose writings will ne-
ver be forgotten. How many bright names
congregate on that page of Grecian history
which records the triumphs of her poetry!
6. Here we behold Homer, the master
of epic poetry, and Hesiod, the moral Ana-
creon, whose music is immortal; Sappho
the poetess, whose songs and whose love
are on the lips and in the minds of all;
Pindar, fanciful and striking, have made
the world echo the praises of their lyrics.
Among the Greek dramatists, AEschylus is
wild and terrific, Euripides touches the
strings of tenderness and affection, Sopho-
cles is pure, grand and impressive, and
Menander elegant. The pastorals of The-
ocritus are models of that kind of poetry.
7. Greece also produced the most elo-
quent orators. Thucydides, Isocrates and
Demosthenes will forever live in the annals
of oratory, as the most distinguished. In
the department of history, Herodotus and
Xenophon were eminent.
8. The philosophers of Greece arose
from the rhapsodists or reciters of the po-
ems of Homer and others at the public
games; they established schools of philo-
sophy which afterwards multiplied amaz-
ingly, and were much frequented. The
sects were distinguished by peculiarities
of belief. Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle,
Zeno, Epicurus, and Socrates, among oth-
ers, were noted philosophers. The doc-
trines of Aristotle reigned in the schools
for sixteen hundred years.

9. The Greek men wore an under gar.
ment called tunic, over which they cast a
mantle; their sandals were secured to the
soles of their feet by thongs or ropes laced
round them. The women wore a long
tunic flowing from the waist (to which it
was confined tightly by a sash) to the feet.
Over this they wore a short robe bordered
at the bottom with colored stripes, and con-
fined at the waist by a ribbon. They
sometimes threw a robe over this, which
they wore gathered into folds.
10. The early Grecians wore no cover-
ing upon their heads; but, in after-times,
they had hats which tied beneath the chin.
The females always had their heads cover-
ed. The Athenians wore in their hair
grasshoppers made of gold, as emblems of
the antiquity of their nation, boasting that
they sprang from the earth. The Spartan
kings and magistrates were little distin-
guished by dress. The military garments
were scarlet. The Greeks valued scarlet
much, and purple still more.
11. The Greeks had four meals; they
breakfasted at sunrise, dined at noon, in
the afternoon made another repast, and
finished with supper, which was the prin-
cipal meal of the day, being taken after
their business was over.
12. Convivial entertainments were at
first given as acts of public devotion, but
were afterwards used in private life. Some-
times a city, tribe, or families met together
at a political feast. The Greeks drank
water and wine. Spiced wines were com-
mon at the tables of rich people. Hot
bathing, anointing the body and changing
of clothes, were the usual preludes to a
feast. Men and women were never invited
together. At first, guests sat erect at table,
but couches, for a recumbent posture, were
introduced as luxury advanced.
13. It was necessary for parties wishing
to marry to obtain the consent of parents,
without which they were unlawful. Loss
of esteem, and sometimes punishment, ac-
companied a refusal to enter into the con-
nubial state. Polygamy was permitted m
times of great calamity, such as an exter-
minating war, or pestilence. Socrates, on
this account, took a second wife.


14. The Grecian women rarely appear-
Sed in strange company ; they were confined
in remote parts of the house, and permitted
no male visitors. Abroad, their faces were
.studiously concealed by veils, and to be
abroad much was considered a disgrace.
15. Children were exposed for defor-
mity or weakness in some parts of Greece.
All children were obliged to maintain their
parents, except those children whose pa-
rents had not brought them up to some
useful employment.
16. The solemnities attending the burial
of the dead were many, and considered of
the utmost importance. The most dreadful
imprecation, in the view of a Greek, was
to wish that a person might not receive the
honors of a funeral.

1. Little is accurately known concerning
the origin of the Roman empire; and the
various accounts of its early history which
have been transmitted us are evidently
fictitious. The Romans, in order to conceal
the meanness and obscurity in which the
birth of their nation is involved, have
claimed the honor of being descended from
the gods. Although no reliance is to be
placed upon their accounts of the first ages
of the empire, they are worthy of observa-
tion and curiosity.
2. 4Eneas, a Trojan prince, said to have
been the son of Anclises and Venus, after
escaping from the horrors of the destruc-
tion of Troy, and after having, in a long
course of wandering, gone through many
vicissitudes and adventures, landed at the
jnouth of the Tiber, in Italy, and presented
himself to Latinus, king of the country.
By him he was kindly received, and pro-
mised the hand of his daughter Lavinia in
marriage. She, however, had previously,
with the sanction of her mother Amata,
been betrothed to Turnus, king of the Rutu-
li, and he was accordingly incensed against
the stranger who came to bear away his

S3. To prevent the proposed marriage of
AEneas with Lavinia, Turnus made war
against him, and after several severe battles
was killed, in single combat, by his rival.
AEneas immediately married Lavinia, in
whose honor he built the town of Lavinium.
He succeeded his father-in-law on the
throne. His death took place, after a reign
of a few years, in a battle with the Etru-
4. Numitor, (the fifteenth king in a di-
rect line from Eneas,) took possession of
the throne, pursuant to the will of his fa-
ther; while to his brother Amulius were
left all the treasures which had been brought
to Italy from Troy. Amulius, however,
confiding in the influence of his wealth,
dethroned his brother and usurped the royal
authority. With the jealousy of guilt, he
feared the future fortunes of the sons of
Numitor, whom he put to death, that he
might enjoy his ill-gotten power in security.
5. Having disposed of his unfortunate
nephews, he determined to prevent the pos-
sibility of having rivals in the descendants
of his brother's only daughter, Rhea Silvia,
whom he compelled to become a vestal vir-
gin. She, however, became the mother of
Romulus and Remus. As soon as their
birth was discovered, the mother was con-
demned to be burned alive; and the infants,
I_______________ -r ___________________

in a wicker basket, were exposed to the
mercy of the swollen waters of the Tiber.
6. The children were saved by this cir-
cumstance: the Tiber having at this time
inundated its banks, and flowed far upon
the land, the water into which the basket


had been cast, proved too shallow to drown
them, and on the water subsiding, they
were taken up by the king's herdsman,
Faustulus, and carried to his wife, Acca
Laurentia, by whom they were brought up
as her own children.
7. Romulus and Remus, as they grew
up among the simple shepherds, soon gave
proof of desires and talents which did not
belong to the condition of their associates.
They developed an ambition and daring
which were calculated to surprise those
who did not know the royal blood that
flowed within their veins. The amuse-
ments of the chase soon displeased them
by their monotony, and as an image of war,
they were forced to content themselves
with petty skirmishes with the robbers that
infested the neighborhood.
8. In one of their adventures, Remus,
having been captured by Numitor's herds-
men, was taken before the king and ac-
cused of being a robber. Meanwhile,
Romulus, gaining information from Faus-
tulus of his high birth, and the rank to
which it entitled him, called together the
hardy shepherds of the neighborhood, in-
fused into their minds some of his own
fiery daring and enthusiasm, and, putting
himself at their head, attacked the guards
and dwelling of the usurper. Wholly
taken by surprise, and cowardly by nature,
he was easily overcome, and the throne
restored to Numitor, who, by the prowess
of his grandson, whom he recognized,
found himself again invested with the au-
thority of which he had been deprived
forty-two years before.
9. Having seen Numitor quietly re-es-
tablished on his throne, his adventurous
grandsons resolved to found a new city.
Its location, they determined, should be
upon those hills where they had formerly
tended their flocks and herds. They in-
vited all who were willing to court fortune
and desirous of novelty to join them.
10. That they might proceed in their un-
dertaking with proper solemnity, they coin-
cided with the opinions oftheir grandfather,
that they should, according to custom, take
an omen from the flight of birds. They
therefore stationed themselves upon diffe-

rent hills, and anxiously awaited the result
To Remus there first appeared six vultures,
but to Romulus twice that number; and
the latter omen being the most complete,
Romulus thought himself victorious. His
pretensions, however, were warmly con-
tested by his brother Remus, and occasion-
ed a vehement quarrel between them. The
location of the walls of Rome was marked
by a slight trench, and on Romulus com-
manding his brother to respect the bounda-
ry, the latter laughing scornfully, passed it
at a leap. Romulus immediately struck
him a fatal blow, and exclaimed, So perish
all, who would deride the walls of Rome!'
11. Romulus, now eighteen years of age,
steadily pursued the plan he had proposed.
HIe commenced the building of the city in
the year B. C. 752. It was called Roma,
(Rome,) from its founder, was built upon
the Palatine hill, where the fortunate omen
had occurred, in the form of a square, and
contained, shortly after the date of its com-
mencement, nearly a thousand houses. It
was about a mile in circumference, and
possessed a territory surrounding the walls
of about twenty-five miles in circuit. Cir-
cumscribed, however, as its limits were, at
first it was thinly inhabited, and it was not
until the new and daring legislator had in-
vited thither outlaws, robbers, the greatest
criminals, and all who were desirous of
change, that he was enabled to number
multitudes within the gates of Rome.
12. No sooner had the walls of the city
begun to appear above their foundations,
than the inhabitants began to think of pro-
viding some form for their constitution.
Romulus generously left them to choose
their own head, and they unanimously
elected him their king. He was, besides,
acknowledged the head of their religion,
their chief magistrate, and the commander-
in-chief in their army. They appointed
him a body guard, and to impress the peo-
ple with an idea of his authority, they also
instituted a body, consisting of twelve men,
who bore bundles of rods tied around axes,
and who were always to precede him.
These were to execute the sentences of
the laws; they were called lictors, and
their implements faces.



13. The senate consisted of one hundred
of the principal citizens, men who had ac-
quired a natural ascendancy over the minds
of their fellows by age, wisdom, or valor.
-The first senator was appointed by the
king, and to him was delegated the author-
ity of governor at home, during the ab-
sence of the king in war.
14. The plebeians, the third branch of
the legislature, authorized the laws intro-
duced by the king or the senate. By the
votes of their assembly, all civil and mili-
tary affairs, the appointment of a magis-
trate, even the choice of a king, were con-
15. Romulus, among his first cares, di-
rected his attention to regulating the reli-
gious ceremonies, and enforcing their ob-
servance. The precise form of the religion
of the period is unknown to us ; it consisted
principally in a very vague belief, and was
mainly in the hands of the augurs or sooth-
sayers, who, by the flight of birds, the
appearance of the entrails of the beasts
slain at sacrifices, and the observance of
trivial occurrences, pretended to penetrate
the secrets of the future, and assume the
direction of the present. No enterprise,
therefore, was permitted to be undertaken
without first consulting them.
16. Wives were forbidden to separate
from their husbands upon any pretext what-
ever, although the men had perfect liberty
to repudiate them on the slightest pretence.
The laws with regard to parental authority
were still more oppressive. A father had
a tyrannical power over his children's lives
and fortune, and could imprison or sell
them, regardless of age, sex, or condition.
17. Romulus next proceeded to number
the inhabitants of Rome: he found they
amounted only to three thousand foot, and
a bout three hundred horsemen able to bear
arms. These he divided into three tribes,
assigning to each tribe a separate portion
of the city. These tribes were each again
subdivided into ten curise, or companies, of
one hundred men each, commanded by a
centurion; a priest, termed curio, to per-
form the sacrifices, and two magistrates,
called decemviri, to administer justice.
Multitudes now thronged to the new and

well regulated city, and they only needed
women to complete its prosperity.
18. Romulus, by means of deputies dis-
patched to the neighboring Sabines, invit-
ed them to form an alliance, and showed
them the advantages which would accrue
to them from an intimate connection with
the Romans. The Sabines, a proud people,
and then celebrated as the most warlike
of the Italians, rejected these proposals
with the utmost disdain; and Romulus, in-
censed at their contempt, resolved to gain
his purpose, and humble the pride of his
neighbors at the same time.
19. He issued through the neighboring
villages a proclamation for the celebration
of a feast in honor of Neptune, and his
extensive preparations heralded a brilliant
spectacle. These entertainments, preced-
ed by august sacrifices, ended in exhibitions
of wrestlers, gladiators, and chariot races.
True to his hopes and anticipations, the
Sabines came foremost of the spectators,
and brought with them their fair wives and
daughters to participate in the pleasures of
the festival. While intent upon the games,
a band of Roman youths, with drawn
swords, sprang in among the spectators,
and seizing the youngest and most lovely
women, they bore them off in rapid tri-


umph. In vain did the guests represent
the enormity of this violation of the rights
of hospitality, in vain did the young Sabine
women oppose the caresses of their rude
lovers ; the first could obtain no redress by
remonstrances, and the fears of the latter
soon changed to feelings of affection.


20. What the tardy Sabines were oo
dilatory to attempt, the inhabitants of Ce-
nina,* Antemna,t and Crustuminumt were
resolved to do, revenge the common cause
in arms. But being so imprudent as to
make separate incursions on the Romans,
they were at different times defeated by
Romulus. Prudence, mildness, and mode-
ration characterized his treatment of the
vanquished. Instead of putting the sub-
dued warriors to the swoid, and burning
their towns, he placed in them colonies of
Romans, thereby securing an outward de-
fence in case of any future attack upon
Rome. /
21. The last and most redoubtable ene-
my who undertook to revenge the abduc-
tion of the Sabine women was Tatius, king
of Cures, a city of the Sabines. He march-
ed upon Rome at the head of twenty-five
thousand men, and having the good fortune
to meet with Tarpeia, the daughter of the
commandant at the Capitoline hill, she
engaged, for a reward which she named,
to lead the troops within the city. She
had asked for what the soldiers bore upon
their arms, meaning their bracelets; but
when they had entered the city gates, as a
punislnment for her perfidy, they flung
their weighty bucklers upon her, and
crushed her" to death.
2%. The Sabines, having the advanta-
geous position of the Capitoline hill, gave
battle to the Romans, and the contest was
carried on for three days. An unexpected
circumstance terminated the last battle
which was fought in the valley between
the Capitoline and Quirinal hills." During
the heat of the conflict, the Sabine women,
with dishevelled hair, and destitute of or-
nament, rushed in between the contending
parties, and regardless of their deadly

A town of Latium.
tA city between Rome and the Anio. Hence
the derivation of the word ante amnem--(before
the river.)
t A town of Etruria, near Veii.
The Capitoline hill, after the death of Tarpeia,
was called the Tarpeian hill, (Tarpeius mons,)
from the circumstance of her being buried there.
In after-times, the Romans used to throw con-
denmned criminals down its steep declivity.

weapons, with tears in their eyes, suppli-
cated their husbandsand children to desist.
The hostile armies, impelled by a mutual
feeling, threw down their weapons.
23. Terms of accommodation were a-
greed upon, in which it was stipulated that
Tatius and Romulus should reign'conjoint-
ly in Rome, with equal power and privi-
leges; that one hundred Sabines should
be admitted into the senate ; that, although
the city should retain its name, the inhab-
itants should be called Quirites, from Cures,
the principal town of the Sabines; and
that those Sabines who preferred it, should
be permitted to reside in Rome, and have
all the privileges and immunities of Ro-
-man citizens. Tatius was soon afterwards
slain by the Lavinians for protecting some
of his servants who had robbed and mur-
dered the Lavinian ambassador.
24. Romulus, on finding himself again
sole monarch of Rome, was unable to re-
press the extravagant pride he felt. His
haughtiness and presumption disgusted the.
senate, who found their advice and autho-
rity disregarded, and themselves mere in-
struments in the hands of an arbitrary ru-
ler. The king was then put to death; in
what manner it is uncertain. Some assert
that his body was torn in pieces in the
senate house; others, that he disappeared
during a review of his troops. His body
was carefully concealed, and the people,
persuaded that he was taken up to heaven,
conferred upon him divine honors. They
were content to worship as a god him whom
they would not obey as a king. Romulus
reigned thirty-seven years. After his death,
the Romans dedicated a temple to him un-
der the name of Quirinus.


1. The choice of a successor to Romulus
was productive of great division. Both
Romans and Sabines claimed the honor
of having the new king chosen trom their
respective nations. Finally, the senate
agreed to take the royal authority into theil


hands, each senator enjoying the honors
and power of a king for five days. The
plebeians, however, were not long in discov-
ering the disadvantages of this method,
which gave them a multitude of masters
of different habits and ideas, and the king-
ly power rested with the senate for the
space of one year only.
2. Numa Pompilius was chosen king in
the year B. C. 715. He was about forty
years old; mild, learned, and talented; and
possessed of that kind of influence which
the kingdom at that time so much needed.
Rome, being then of so recent formation,
and containing within its society such dis-
cordant elements and principles, so many
wild and ill-regulated minds, required gen-
tleness to soften, as well as authority to
command, and talent to direct.
3. It was not without reluctance that
Numa, who, until the period of his becom-
ing king, had lived in tranquil and pleasant
retirement at Cures, accepted the dignified
office which was offered him. Universal joy
prevailed on the occasion. The new mon-
arch began at once to impress his subjects
with the importance of piety, the duties of
religion and social virtues. To gain
greater influence over their minds, he feign-
ed divine inspiration, and a frequent inter-
course with the goddess Egeria.
4. He built numerous temples, instituted
new.orders of priests and feasts in honor
of the goddess. He built the temple of
Janus, the gates of which were open in
war, but shut in time of peace. He estab-
lished the vestal virgins, four in number,
in their duties and prerogatives. He divid-
ed the Roman calendar, and set apart the
days for work, which he called fasti, and
those for worship, called nefasti. Agri-
culture, as a sacred duty, was allowed on
the last. He abolished the distinction
which existed between the Romans and
Sabines, by dividing the people into trades,
and making the members of each trade
work and live together.
5. After a reign of forty-three years,
which was distinguished, not by bloodshed
and by brilliant successes in arms, but by a
time of uninterrupted peaceful prosperity
and order, Numa Pompilius died at the age

of fourscore. He directed his body, con.
trary to usage, to be buried in a stone coffin,
and his twenty-four books of ceremomes,
twelve in Latin, and the same number in
Greek, to be interred in another by his side.
6. After the death of Numa, there again
occurred an interregnum, during which the
senate resumed the royal authority. At
length, the people and the senate concurred
in the election of Tullus Hostilius, a war-
like and adventurous man, whose grand-
father, a noble Roman, had signalized him-
self by his prowess in the battles with the
Sabines. The new king of Rome burned
to lead his forces forth to battle. He did
not long wish for war in vain. The Albans
soon gave him an opportunity for the dis-
play of his valor and military talents. The
hostile armies drew up confronting each
other on a plain about five miles from
7. When the parties were standing in
suspense, the Alban general proposed the
decision of the controversy by single com-
bat, adding that the nation of the vanquish-
ed champion should submit to that of the
victorious. The proposal was received
with acclamation by the Roman king and
by the warriors of both armies.
8. In the Roman camp were three twin-
brothers, the Horatii, in the Alban other
three, the Curiatii. These were chosen
unanimously by their respective nations to
decide the contest. Equally armed, and
apparently equally matched, they advanced

ioratii and Curiatii.
to the combat. In the furious onset which
took place, victory appeared to decide in


favor of the Albans, for two of the H atii
lay dead upon the field, and the surviving
brother took to flight.
9. Soon, however, the Curiatii observed
that the flight was feigned. The last of
the Horatii was unhurt, and, awaiting the
respective arrivals of his antagonists, who,
by reason of their wounds, were unable to
eone up with him at the same time, he
glew them one by one, and thus victory
rested with the Roman arms.
10. This event was, ofcourse, productive
of the greatest joy on their return to Rome.
But the victor had not yet had his fill of
death, and, ere night fell, his hands were
dipped in the blood of his sister, whom,
because amidst the general joy, he found
her weeping for her slain lover, one of the
Curiatii, he killed upon the spot.
11. Even the stern spirit of a Roman
senate could permit a few tears to a woman
in her circumstances, and, detesting the
brutality of the murderer, they condemned
him to suffer punishment. He was par-
doned on an appeal to the people.
12. Tullus Hostilius died after a reign
of thirty-two years, some assert by light-
ning, but most probably from treason.

1. An interregnum ensued on the death
of Tullus Hostilius, which was terminated
by the election of Ancus Martius, a grand-
son of Numa Pompilius, who. inherited all
the piety, talent, and virtue of that mon-
arch. He was also a brave warrior. He
ascended the throne, 640 years B. C. He
appointed sacred ceremonies which were
to precede the declaration of war, and he
endeavored to dissuade his subjects from
military ambition, and impressed upon
them the superior importance of the culti-
vation of the arts of peace and agricul-
2. His prudence was mistaken for cow-
ardice among the neighboring nations, and
the Latins, in consequence, made an incur-
sion on his territories, in which they were

completely defeated by king Ancus, who
conquered them, carried them to Rome, and
annexed part of their possessions to the
Roman empire.
3. He subdued also an insurrection of
the Veii, of the Fidenates, and the Volsci-
ans, and gained a second triumph over the
Sabines. But he did the greatest service
to his people by his direction of their civil
affairs. He built temples, and a prison for
malefactors, erected fortifications to pro-
tect the city, and by building a seaport,"
called Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber,
he secured to the Romans the trade of
that river and the adjacent salt-pits. He
died after a glorious reign of twenty-four
4. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, who was
originally named Lucumon, was appointed
guardian to the sons of the late king. His
father was a Corinthian who had obtained
his wealth by trade. Having married a
woman of family in Tarquinii,* and find-
ing himself held in little regard, Lucumon,
at the instigation of his wife, removed to
Rome, where she told him merit was suf-
ficient to obtain respect and fortune.
5. On the road, an eagle descended over
the chariot, and, hovering for some time,
stooped, took off his hat, circled above him,
and then replaced it. Tanaquil, his wife,
who was skilled in augury, told him the
omen meant that he should one day wear
the crown.
6. This circumstance first fired his am-
bition. Being of popular manners, arid
lavish in the expenditure of his money, he
gained the favor of the people. When the
government, on the death of Ancus, de-
volved, as usual, upon the senate, Tarquin
endeavored to have the king's children set.
aside, and himself elected in their stead.
He sent them out of the city on the day of
election, and presenting himself to the peo-
ple, addressed them with persuasive elo-
quence. He told of the friendship that he
bore to the Roman people, of the sums
he had expended in their city, of his plans
and resolutions for the future, and he was
unanimously elected, 616 years B. C.
*Now Turchina, a town of Etruria.





7. Although the manner of his acquiring
the sovereign authority was blameable, he
proved an equitable and valiant king. In
the commencement of his reign, he admit-
ted one hundred additional members into
the senate, thus making the whole number
amount to three hundred. But he had
hardly begun his peaceful duties, when an
incursion of the Latins compelled him to
take arms. These turbulent invaders he
conquered and obliged to beg for peace, and
then turned his victorious arms against the
Sabines, who had again risen and crossed
the river Tiber. They sustained an over-
whelming defeat. Many who survived the
battle were drowned in attempting to cross
the stream, which, as it bore to Rome
the armor and corpses of the slain, became
the first messenger of welcome victory.
8. After having returned from war,
graced with triumph, Tarquin undertook
many public works, both useful and orna-
mental to the city.
9. At this time the soothsayers were in
very great repute at Rome, and wonder-
ful stories were related of their divine wis-
dom and skill. Tanaquil, the wife of the
monarch, was a pretender to the art; but
its greatest master was Accius Nevius,
the justice of whose pretensions the king
was determined to decide. He presented
himself to the soothsayer, and asked if
what he was then thinking of, could be
accomplished. The soothsayer boldly an-
swered, 'Yes.' 'I was thinking,' said the
king, 'if it were possible for me to cut
through this whetstone with a razor.'
'Cut boldly,' said the other, 'you can do it.'
The king made the attempt and succeeded.
Thenceforth no one ventured to attempt
anything without first consulting the
10. Tarquin could not content himself
with the kingdom without the splendid
insignia of royalty. He had a golden dia-
dem, a throne of ivory, robes of purple,
and a sceptre surmounted by an eagle.
These badges of the regal dignity are
thought to have first inflamed the minds
of the sons of Ancus, who had patiently
submitted to his reign for more than
thirty-seven years. His avowed intention

oidopting Servius Tullius, his son-in-law,
for a successor, still further exasperated
their minds against him. They hired two
ruffians, who penetrated to the royal pres-
ence and slew the sovereign with an axe.
The murderers were seized by the lictors,

and afterwards put to death; but the sons
of Ancus escaped. Thus miserably per-
ished, at the age of eighty years, Lucius
Ta-qumius. His surname of Priscus dis-
tinguishes him from a later king of the
same name. His reign, which was one of
great prosperity, public and private, lasted
thirty-eight years.

1. Tanaquil, wife of the late king,
aware of what danger she should incur,
if the death of the king became known,
and the conspirators succeeded, resolved to
conceal her sorrows and the melancholy
event from the people. She assured them
from a window of the palace, that the king,
although wounded and stunned by the
blow, yet, fortunately, survived, and while
incapacitated from discharging his duties,
had commissioned his son-in-law, Servius
Tullius, to act in his stead.
2. Accordingly, Servius issued from the
palace, preceded by the lictors, and possess-
ed of the insignia of royalty. He went to
transact some public business, which he
did as he affirmed, by order of Tarquin.



The death of that monarch was concealed
until Servius Tullius had formed a party
among the nobles, when he was elected
king by the suffrages of the senate, with-
out the vote of the people, 578 years
3. Servius was the son of a bondwo-
man ; but while an infant, a crown of flame
played around his brow, which was ac-
Scepted by Tarquin as an augury of future
greatness. His exertions, when intrusted
with the crown, were directed towards in-
creasing the power of the senate, and
weakening that of the people.
4. That he might obtain an accurate
knowledge of the wealth and number of
his subjects, he appointed a lustrum to be
held every five years in the Campus Mar-
tius, where the citizens were commanded
to assemble in armor, and give an exact
account of their families and fortunes.
5. After having passed many years of
his reign in tranquillity, Servius thought to
end his days in peace. He wished to se-
cure the fortunes of Rome, and, erecting it
into a republic, to retire from office with
honor and respect. But he was not per-
mitted to carry his generous designs into
effect. He had married his two daughters
to the two grandsons of Tarquin, and
knowing that the women, as well as their
husbands, were of different dispositions, he
thought to curb the temper of the haughty
by uniting them to the meek.
6. Lucius, his haughty son-in-law, soon
grew tired of his mild consort, and became
enamored of Tullia, his brother's wife.
A mutual passion inflamed the minds of
these kindred spirits, and murdering, the
one her husband, the other his bride, Lucius
and Tullia were united. They then began
to foment dissensions, and raise a party
against the king; Lucius, alleging the ille-
gality of his title to the crown, claimed it
for himself as heir of Tarquin.
7. Finding the senate prepared to sanc-
tion his attempts, he entered the senate-
house, clothed in royal robes, and from the
throne harangued the assembly upon the
obscurity of the king's origin, and the
manifest defect in his title. During his
speech, the king entered with a few atten-


dants, and, finding his throne occupied, at-
tempted to remove the usurper But the
fiery Lucius hurled him down the steps,
and, while feebly attempting to retire to
his palace, he was followed by the adhe-
rents of the usurper, killed, and his mangled
and bleeding body cast into the public
8. Tullia, burning with impatience for the
result, commanded her charioteer to drive
her to the senate-house, that she might
be the first to salute her husband king.
As they approached the place where the
appalling spectacle of the bloody corpse of
her father was presented to full view, the
charioteer prepared to turn away; but this
female monster, angry and impatient,
hurled the footstool at his head, and bade
him drive over the dead body. Then, with
her chariot-wheels and horses' hoofs reek-
ing with her father's blood, she rushed to
meet her husband. Thus ended Servius
Tullius, after a reign of forty-four years,
which was distinguished by prosperity,
justice and moderation.


1. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, or Tar-
quin the Proud, ascended the throne,
534 years B. C. As he was viewed with
general horror and detestation, he deter-
mined to act upon his own authority with-
out consulting the legislative bodies. He
surrounded himself with guards, and put
to death all those whom he suspected of
having been warmly attached to Servius.
His policy was to keep the people employ-
ed in war and public works, to divert their
minds from the consideration of his ty-
2. Having been successful in arms, and
conquered many of the neighboring states,
he was mortified by the determined and
powerful resistance of the people of Gabii*

A city of the Volscians, built by the kings of
Alba, but now no more.


whom he determined to subdue. He
effected the conquest by stratagem. He
directed his son Sextus to fly for protection
to the Gabians, complaining severely of the
'harsh treatment he had experienced from
his own people. The Gabians received him
hospitably, and soon made him general of
their armies. Being successful in two or
three inconsiderable engagements, he was
firmly possessed of their confidence. He
sent to his father to receive his advice
upon his future conduct.
3. Tarquin received the messenger in
his garden, and for his only reply, walked
about among the flowers and struck off the
heads of the taller poppies with his stick.
When the messenger, in astonishment,
related this conduct to Sextus, the latter at
once comprehended the course of policy
which his father wished him to pursue. He
found means to remove or destroy the most
influential of the Gabians who were ob-
noxious to his interest, taking care to di-
vide their property among the people, who,
thus blinded by self-interest and avarice,
gradually and without a struggle fell under
the dominion of Tarquin.
4 After Tarquin had reigned some
years, and the people were worn out by
his tyranny, a circumstance occurred, which
raised their indignation against him to the
highest pitch. In a military expedition,
the young officers, kinsmen of the king,
fell into a discussion over their wine on the
merits of their respective wives. One
proposed that, instead of wasting the time
in words, they should mount their horses
and ride to Rome, judging of their beauty
and industry by taking them unaware in
their homes. The proposition was accept-
ed. All the ladies of rank and beauty
were engaged in frivolity and feasting,
with the exception of Lucretia, the wife of
Collatinus, who was found employed in
discharging domestic avocations, surround-
ed by her handmaids. The preference was
given to this faultless matron.
5. Sextus Tarquin came away from this
scene with a mind inflamed with a guilty
passion for the Roman matron. A few
nights after, he returned to her residence,
penetrated to 1 er apartment, and avowed

his fiery love. He was heard with abhor-
rence and scorn. Sextus then told her that
if she repulsed him, he would slay her,
drag to her presence the slave whom he'
had killed for opposing his progress, and
inform her husband that he had surprised
them together, and punished them by
death. By this shameful menace, the son
of Tarquin prevailed, and rejoined the
camp before daylight.
6. On the morrow, Lucretia sent for her
husband and kinsmen. They found her
sitting in ashes, with dishevelled hair, and
a countenance pale and furrowed with
sorrow, shame and pain. After disclosing
her misfortune, and declaring that she
would never survive her disgrace, she
drew forth a dagger which she had con-
cealed, and sheathed it in her heart.
7. The first person who aroused from the
stupor occasioned by this act, was Lucius
Junius, surnamed Brutus, or the brute
from his supposed idiocy. His mother was
the sister of Tarquin, and to escape the
fate of his father and brother, who had been
put to death by order of the tyrant, he pre-
tended to be a simpleton. Drawing the
dagger from the bosom of Lucretia, reek-
ing with her blood, he held it aloft and
exclaimed, 'By this sacred blood, which,
but for the foul crime of a tyrant's off-
spring, had never crimsoned this steel, I
swear to avenge the injuries of this chaste
Roman matron and her countrymen. Be

witness, ye immortal gods, to the oath of
enmity and revenge, which I hereby take
against the race of Tarquin. With fire



and sword will I pursue them, until their
very name shall be no more.'
8. In order to present the consequence
of Sextus Tarquin's crime in the strongest
light, Brutus caused the body to be borne
to the forum, whence he harangued the
citizens with all the eloquence inspired
by just indignation and a virtuous cause.
The lips which had so long been schooled
to utter the unmeaning phrases of a soul-
less idiot, now gave vent to language ener-
getic and effective, and the form of the
orator dilated with the expression of his
sentiments. iHe infused into his hearers
no small portion of his own feeling, and
the hatred long felt in silence against Tar-
quin, now broke out in open tumult and
9. The city and the camp declared them-
selves against Tarquin at nearly the same
time. The tyrant hastened to the city to
quell the insurrection; but he found the
gates closed against him. He turned back
to the camp, to assemble the soldiers and
lead them on against the citizens; but he
was warned not to enter. Brutus obtained
a decree of the senate, forever banishing
Tarquin and his family from Rome, and
making it a capital crime for any person
to plead for his return or assist him in pro-
curing it. He retired to Cira, a small city
in Etruria, and thus, in the two hundred
and forty-fourth year from the building of
Rome, royalty perished, and a republican
government was declared.

I As soon as the kingly power had been
abolished, a republican form of government
was decided upon. The senate retained
the greatest share of power. The centu-
ries of the people made an annual elec-
tion of two senators, who were called con-
suls, and were invested with a power equal
to that of the former kings. Lucius Junius
Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus,
the husband of Lucretia, were the first

2. No sooner, however, had the new
government been organized, than a con.
spiracy was formed among the young no-
bles ofRome, which threatened its destruc-
tion. The number of conspirators rapidly
increased, and the sons of Brutus and the
Aquilii, nephews of Collatinus, ranked
with the malcontents. Tarquin, learning
these events, sent messengers-from Etru-
ria# to Rome under pretence of reclaiming
the crown, but in secret to foment the in-
testine dissensions.
3. The plot was discovered by a slave,
who concealed himself in the apartment
where the conspirators held their meetings.
They were brought to trial, and accused
before the consuls. Silent and horror-
struck, they could offer no defence. Dread-
ful was the situation of Brutus, compelled ;
to decide upon the guilt and fate of his
own children, yet he alone appeared un-
moved and tearless.
4. Three times did he demand with a
clear, loud and unfaltering voice, if they
could urge aught in their defence: three
times did their dreadful silence declare the
hopelessness of their condition. Receiv-
ing no answer. Brutus turned to the exe-
cutioner: You,' said he, 'must perform
the rest.' He witnessed the scourging and
decapitation of his sons with a calm coun-
tenance, himself an object of the pity,
veneration and admiration of the crowd.
5. The failure of the conspiracy having
ruined Taruin's hopes of success by inter-
nal treason, he determined to make an
open attempt to regain his throne. Having
obtained the assistance of the Veians,t he
Etruria was a very noted country of Italy, at
the west of the Tiber. It originally contained
twelve different nations, each having their respect-
ive king, called Lucumon. The names, of these
nations were the Veientes, Clusini, Perusini Corto-
nenses, Arretini, Vetulonii, Volaterrani, Rusellani,
Volscinii, Tarquinii, Falisci and Caeretani. The
inhabitants were famous for their superstition and
firm belief in auguries, dreams, &c. They were
resolute and daring enemies of the Romans, by
whom they were subjugated only after an immense
effusion of blood.
t Veii, the city of the Veians, belonged to Etru-
ria, and was twOlve miles distat from Rome.
It sustained many wars against the Romans, andl



took up arms against the Romans 508
years B. C.
6. At the head of a large army he ad-
vanced upon Rome, whence the consuls
issued to oppose his progress; Valerius*
commanding the foot, and Brutus leading
on the cavalry. When Aruns, the son of
Tarquin, commander of the hostile horse,
perceived Brutus, he determined to decide
the fortune of the field by an encounter
with him. Brutus, seeing Aruns spurring
forward his charger, advanced with equal
alacrity and fire to attack him. They met,
and fought with fury for a short time, when
both fell from their horses dead upon the
7. In the bloody conflict which ensued,
the slaughter upon both sides was equal;
but the Romans, remaining upon the field,
claimed the victory. Tarquin, however,
whose resolute spirit was untamed by his
misfortunes, soon prevailed upon Porsenna,
an Etrurian king, to aid him. This val-
iant prince laid siege to Rome. He was
firmly opposed by the consuls, who were
carried off the field woufided, while the
Romans were driven to the bridge over the
Tiber, by which victors and vanquished
were to enter the city.
8. An act of heroism now occurred,
which deserves never to be forgotten. Ho-
ratius Cocles,f a Roman sentinel, threw
himself before the enemy and successfully
was finally taken and destroyed by jamillus. At
the time of its destruction it was actually larger
and more splendid than the 'eternal city' herself.
Its situation was so eligible that, after the burning
of the city by the Gau s, the Romans were, for a
long time, inclined to forsake their home for it, and
would have done so if unrestrained by the elo-
quence of Camillus.
Valerius was surnamed Publicola. Hle was a
true patriot, warmly opposed to Tarquin the Proud,
and the first to swear fealty to the republic. He
at first refused office, but loved his countrymen so
much that when they observed tnat his house over-
towered its fellows and eclipsed the surrounding
buildings by its magnificence, he levelled it with
the ground. When chosen consul, he was several
times re-elected, and gained universal approbation
by his courage, equity and wisdom.
b Coles, the one-eyed, because he had the use of
but one eye. Publicola erected a brazen statue in
honor of him in the temple of Vulcan.

opposed their onset, until the bridge was
broken down behind him, and the commu
nication on which the enemy relied thus
cut off. He then paused a moment on the
brink of the river, and exclaimed, '01
father Tiber, take, I pray thee, a soldier
and his arms, in thy propitious waves.'
He then leaped into the stream and swam
safely over, amidst the applauding shouts
of his fellow warriors.
9. Porsenna maintained his position hi
spite of the impetuosity and courage with
which the sallies of the besieged were con-
ducted. He determined by a blockade to
reduce the city through famine, and the
wretched inhabitants were soon subjected
to the most painful sufferings. Nothing,
however, could tame their undaunted spirit,
and an heroic act of one of their noble
youth put an end to their distresses.
10. Mutius, a young Roman, in the dis-
guise of a peasant, penetrated to the tent
of the Etrurian monarch, resolved to die
or slay him. But mistaking the secretary
of the king for Porsenna, he killed him,
and was then arrested and led to the royal
presence, which he entered without fear.
Porsenna demanded the reason for his
guilty act, and Mutius declared his inten-
tion, adding, 'think not I fear the most
severe punishment you can inflict upon
me.' So saying, he thrust his right hind
into the fire, and saw it burn unmoved.
'Tremble, king, for thy life,' continued
Mutius. 'Not I alone, but thirty Roman
youth have sworn to take thy life: prepare
to die.'
11. Struck with this gallant conduct,
Porsenna offered terms of peace to the
Romans, which were joyfully accepted.
The hardest of the conditions was that
which stipulated that twenty Roman hos-
tages, ten young men and the same num-
ber of young maidens, of the first families,
should be delivered up to him.
12. The heroic spirit of the age and
country shone forth conspicuously even tn
the gentle sex. Cloelia, one of the hostages,
escaped from her guards, and, pointing out
the way to her companions, swam her
horse across the Tiber, while the Etrurian
darts and javelins kept up an iron rain



around her. The consul, to whom she pre-
sented herself, fearing to detain her, sent
her back to Porsenna, who, resolving not

y-r-- -- -,--..'
to be surpassed in generosity, freed her, and
gave her permission to select such of the
hostages of the other sex as she judged
proper to accompany her bacJ to Rome.
With the graceful modesty of a Roman
virgin, she chose those under fourteen, say-
ing that their tender age unfitted them to
bear the rigors of captivity. Her courage
was rewarded by an equestrian statue in
the Via* Sacra.

1. Tarquin, through Manilius, his son-in-
law, stirred up the Latins to espouse his
cause, and cunningly chose a time for his
design when the plebeians were at variance
with the senate on the subject of the pay-
Sment of their debts. They refused to go
to war unless a discharge from their obli-
gations was guaranteed upon their return
from doing military duty.
2. In this emergency, the consuls, find-
ing their authority inadequate to the crisis,
proposed to the plebeians the creation of a

This was the street in which the treaty of
peace was concluded between Romulus and Ta-
tius. It led from the amphitheatre to the capitol
by the temple of the goddess of peace, and that
of Caesar. The triumphal processions passed
through it to the capitol.

dictator, a temporary magistrate, whose
power should be absolute, and extend, not
only over all ranks of the people, but even
over the laws themselves. The plebeians
consented to relinquish their own power
for the pleasure of seeing that of their
superiors diminished, and Lartius was ac-
cordingly chosen dictator in the year 498,
3. Lartius commenced his administra-
tion, surrounded by the actors and all the
imposing marks of royalty. In the man-
ner of the ancient kings, he levied his
troops, displayed his standards, and, after a
victorious campaign, marched back tri-
umphantly to Rome. It is admitted that
Lartius exercised his dangerous authority
with the greatest equity and moderation:
he even resigned his dictatorship before
the term of the office, six months, had
4. The turbulent plebeians, determined
to free themselves from the domination of
their masters, under the guidance of Licu-
rius, one of their order, left Rome, and
formed a new establishment at Mons Sacer,
on the banks of the river Anio,* about three
miles from the city.
5. All ranks partook of the consterna-
tion which this proceeding excited, and a
deputation was sent, inviting, nay, entreat-
ing their return to Rome. This having
no effect, ten commissioners, men of popu-
lar manners, and in favor with the people,
were empowered to treat with them.
These ambassadors met with a favorable
reception from the soldiers.
6. Lartius and Valerius, the heads of the
deputation, employed all their polished and
persuasive oratory, while Lucius Junius
and Licurius, the spokesmen of the sol-
diers, answered with a rude and natural
eloquence, inspired by their distresses. At
length, Menenius Agrippa, who had been
a plebeian, and knew what style of speech
suited them best, related the following
fable, which has been finely told by Livy:
4 Now Teverone, an Italian river flowing through
the country of Tiber, and falling into the Tiber
five miles above Rome. It is supposed to derive
its name from Anius, an Etrurian king, who
drowned himself in its stream.



7. 'In old times, when the different
members of the body were endowed with
speech, the limbs determined to revolt
against the belly, which, they said, lay at
its ease in the midst of them, who were
obliged to toil for it from morning to night.
The feet refused to carry it, the hands would
no longer feed it, and the teeth ceased to
masticate food. But, instead of mortifying
the belly, they found they were injuring
themselves, and dooming themselves to
languor and pains, and they discovered too
late that it was to the belly they owed
their strength to work and the courage to
8. Agrippa was heard with applause, and
the people declared that he should lead
them back to the city. Lucius Junius re-
strained their ardor, and told them that,
however well-disposed the senate might
then be, it was necessary to provide some
safeguard for the future, in an annual elec-
tion of magistrates from their body, who
should have power to redress their injuries,
and plead their cause.
9. The commissioners, whose power did
not extend far enough to authorize grant-
ing their requests, returned to Rome and
laid the matter before the senate. The
senators, harassed by these divisions, and
willing to attain union by any sacrifice,
consented to the creation of new officers,
called tribunes of the people. Appius alone
dissented from this opinion.
10. The tribunes were at first five in
number: they were afterwards increased
to ten. They were elected annually by the
people, and generally chosen from their
body. They, at first, had their seats at
the door of the senate house, and were
called in to examine decrees, which they
annulled by the word Veto, I forbid it, or
confirmed by signing the letter T, the first
of their name, and this made the laws valid.
11. Sicinius Bellanus, Lucius Junius,
Caius Licinius, Albinus, and Icilius Ruga,
were the first tribunes. The senate having
made a law for the abolition of the debts
of the plebeians, and adjusted their grievan-
ces, the latter, after a sacrifice to the gods
of the sacred mountain, returned trium-
phantly to Rome.


1. The famine incidental to the neglect
of tillage, occasioned by the late disturb-
ances, once more exasperated the unrea-
sonable plebeians against the senators, who
were doing all in their power to alleviate
the calamity. The people asserted, that
the patricians had become purchasers of
immense quantities of corn, by the sale of
which they intended to indemnify them-
selves for the loss occasioned by the abo-
lition of debts. The arrival of a fleet from
Sicily, laden with corn, quelled their tu-
mults for a moment.
2. Coriolanus, a brave and noble Roman,
who had done his country the greatest
service, incurred the resentment of the
plebeians, by insisting that the grievances
of the senate should be redressed before
the distribution of corn took place. For
this, the tribunes summoned him to trial
before the people. Neither the intrepidity
with which he appeared, pursuant to the
summons, nor the cries of those whom he
had saved from destruction, could influence
his judges, and, confounded by a new
charge, that of embezzling the spoils of
Antium,* he was condemned to a perpet-
ual exile.
3. After taking an affecting leave of
his mother Veturia, and recommending his
wife and children to the care of the gods,
accompanied by Tullus Attius, a man of
great power among the Volscians, he left
Rome, followed by the regrets and lamen-
tations of its most respectable citizens,
Tullus Attius offered him an asylum among
his people, and it was immediately re-
solved, upon some pretext, to declare war
against the Romans.

A maritime town of Italy, built upon a prom-
ontory thirty-two miles from Ostium. It was the
capital of the Volscans. Camillus took it, and
carried the beaks of all the ships to Rome, where
he decorated a tribunal in the forum with these
trophies. The tribunal was thence called the
rostrum. Antium was dedicated to the goddess
of fortune, whose statues nodded arnd gave other
signs to the inquiries of votaries. It was the birth-
place of Nero.



4. An opportunity was afforded by the
occurrence of games at Rome, to which
Tullus sent some of his people, previously
informing the senate that the strangers
intended to set fire to the city. This pro-
duced an order for their exclusion, which
Tullus represented to the Volscians as an
infraction of the treaty, and procured an
embassy to Rome, complaining of the
breach of faith, demanding a restoration of
the territories originally possessed by the
Volscians, and declaring war in case of a
refusal. This message was received by
the senate with contempt.
5. On a mutual declaration of war inx
the year 485 B. C., Coriolanus and Tullus,
at the head of a powerful force, entered
the Roman territories. Coriolanus ravaged
the lands of the plebeians, but spared those
of the senators. The levies at Rome went
on but slowly. The consuls had been re-
elected, but apparently feared to meet so
renowned a general as Coriolanus.
6. Coriolanus was universally successful,
and so popular with the Volscians, that
they forsook everything to follow him to
the field. Even the soldiers of his col-
league's army rushed to the Roman's stan-
dard, and would acknowledge no other
leader. Thus finding himself in the field,
at the head of an overwhelming and un-
opposed force, Coriolanus determined to
lay siege to Rome. It was then that the
senate and people sent him a deputation,
offering to make the restorations demand-
ed at first, if he would withdraw. Their
-offers were sternly refused.
7. A second embassy conjuring him to
ask nothing which a Roman could not
honorably grant, met with a similar recep-
tion; he still persisted in his demands, and
gave them three days for consideration. A
third deputation of the pontiffs, priests, and
augurs, attired in their official raiment,
proceeded slowly and solemnly to the camp
of the warrior, but, like their predecessors,
found him stern and inflexible.
8. Veturia, the mother of Coriolanus,
accompanied by his wife and two chil-
dren, at the earnest request of the senate,
went to try the effect of their persuasive
power and relationship upon the majestic

conqueror. He had called his officers.
around him to witness the triumph of his
firmness. Perhaps he might have with-
stood the tears and caresses of his wife, and
the sight of his children; but his mother's
agony, as she fell a suppliant at his feet,
proved too much for him. He hastened to
raise her, and exclaimed, 'Oh! my mother,
thou hast indeed saved Rome, but hast
destroyed thy son.'
9. He withdrew his forces, assuring his
soldiers that the city was impregnable.
But this did not serve to subdue the discon-
tent of the Volscians; rising against him,
they slew him. Soon, however, feeling
remorse for the deed, with tardy and inef-
fective repentance, they graced the funeral
of the brave Roman with all the honors of
a soldier's obsequies.

1. The rejoicing at Rome for the with
drawal of the Volscian army was great; but
the public joy was soon disturbed by the
intrigues of Spurius Cassius, a designing
man, who thought to acquire a despotic
power for himself by means of the people.
Being found guilty of several crimes tend-
ing to the same point, he was hurled from
the Tarpeian rock by the plebeians.
2. The following year, the tribunes of
the people summoned before them Fabius
and Manlius, the consuls of the preceding
year, who were to stand their trial on the
charge of opposing the progress of the
Agrarian law, which had been proposed for
admitting all the people to an equal divi-
sion of the conquered lands. This was a
measure to which the senate would not
agree, and they had from time to time de-
ferred its adjustment; but finally, finding
the plebeians persevering, they had re-
course to the dictatorship, and fixed upon
Quintus Cincinnatus to fill that important
3. Cincinnatus had retired to the tran-
quillity of his little farm, and the ambassa-
dors of the senate found him in the simple


garb of a husbandman, holding the stilts
of his plough. He was little elevated with
the splendid dress and the ceremony which

he received, and on taking leave of his
family, and departing for Rome, he said to
his wife, 'My Attila, our little field must
lie fallow for this year.' He assumed the
office, 456 years B. C.
4. Determined to favor neither of the
parties, whom he saw violently inflamed
against each other, by an evident desire of
justice, by a strict attention to the interests
of all, he gained the entire confidence and
esteem of the tribunes and the people,
whom he persuaded to defer the settlement
of the Agrarian law. Having seen tran-
quillity restored, he resigned his office, and
retired to his farm and the bosom of his
5. He was not long permitted to enjoy
the life he loved best. A fresh emergency
recalled him to the aid of Rome. The
JEqui* and Volscians had made a fresh
incursion on the Roman territories. Mi-
nutius, one of the consuls, who had been
sent against them, from timidity and irres-
olution, suffered his army to be driven into
a defile between two mountains, whence
escape was impossible, and where submis-
sion to the foe, starvation, or immediate
death, awaited them. This news, brought
by some Roman knights who had escaped
privately through the hostile camp, threw
the city into consternation. The senate at
first thought of sending out the other con-
sul; but having had no experience of his
A people of Latium, near Tiber.

abilities, they determined to have recourse
to Cincinnatus, who had before served
them, and who was in the confidence of
the people. A second time they chose him
6. Cincinnatus was a second time found
at his plough. If the emergency were
great, his resources were no less so. In-
vested with absolute power, he chose for
his master of horse Tarquitius, a poor and
honest man, who, like himself, despised
wealth. He assumed a cheerful and con-
fident air, and ordered all capable of bear-
ing arms to appear before sunset on the
Campus Martius, equipped and prepared
with provisions for five days.
7. Putting himself at their head, he
marched forth in order, and on coming near
the enemy, directed his troops to utter loud
shouts, that their comrades under Minutius
might be apprised of the welcome succor.
The XEqui, to their horror and surprise,
found themselves unexpectedly inclosed
between two armies, and still more were
they startled when they saw Cincinnatus
making intrenchments, 'and preparing to
cut off all possibility of their retreat. A
combat which ensued convinced the _Equi
of the hopelessness of their condition, and
they asked a cessation of arms.
8. This was granted on the terms of the
dictator. Ile gave them their lives, but
forced them, in token of servitude, to pass
beneath the yoke, which was made by two
upright spears with one laid horizontally
across the heads, in the form of a gallows
The general and officers were reserved to
grace his triumph. After a dictatorship of
fourteen days, in which lie had rescued a
Roman army, conquered the enemy, cap-
tured and fortified their city, and enriched
the Romans with their spoils, Cincinnatis,
refusing the emolument offered by the
senate, retired to his farm, satisfied with
fame, temperance and domestic enjoy-
9. No sooner were the dangers which
threatened Rome from without ended, than
intestine commotions began anew. The
question of the Agrarian law was agitated
still more fiercely, when an instance of
popular suffering was shown in the person


of Sicinius Dentatus, a plebeian, an old
soldier, whose form time had not bowed,
and whose spirit it had failed to quell.
10. He boasted that he had served his
country in war forty years, thirty of which
he had passed as an officer. He was first
a centurion, afterwards, a tribune. He
had fought in one hundred and twenty
battles, in which he had destroyed* and
saved a multitude of lives; he had gained
fourteen civic,* three mural, and eight
golden crowns; besides eighty-three chains,
sixty bracelets, eighteen gilt spears, and
twenty-three horse-trappings, of which
nine were for killing the enemy in single
combat. He had received all his wounds,
forty-five in number, in front.
11. These were his honors, and yet oth-
ers raped the harvest where he had sown
the seed. He had lived to see others enjoy
the lands which his arm had helped to win
from the enemy. The multitude, affected
by the hardship of the case, unanimously
and loudly demanded that the Agrarian
law should pass, and Dentatus receive the
reward which he so manifestly merited.
Some of the senators arose to speak against
it; but, before preferring a single argument,
the tumultuous cries of the multitude
drowned their voices. It was in vain to
hope for the empire of reason over such a
scene, and, in its stead, passion prevailed.
The young patricians rushed into the
throng, seized and destroyed the balloting
urns, and again put off the Agrarian law.

1. For nearly sixty years, the different
orders of the commonwealth had been en-
gaged in contentions with each other, and
to prevent, as well as punish wrongs, it
was thought advisable to obtain a certain
set of laws which should regulate the con-
The civic crown, a chaplet of oak leaves, was
given to the soldier who saved a comrade's life in
battle. The mural crown was bestowed upon him
who first mounted the rampart of a hostile town.
The golden crown rewarded an act of distinguished

duct of the people and the decisions of the
magistracy. The wisdom of the Athenian
laws and legislators being at that time
much commended, three senators, Posthu-
mius, Sulpicius, and Manlius, were appoint-
ed to visit Athens and the Greek cities of
Italy, to bring home their most useful and
equitable laws.
2. During their absence, a dreadful
plague depopulated the city; but in about
a year they returned, bringing with them
the laws, which were divided into ten ta-
bles, and afterwards, with the addition of
two more, called the laws of the twelve
tables. To superintend and digest their
new laws into a convenient form, the
tribunes required the election of ten men
who were to be chosen annually from the
senate, and invested with the authority of
the former kings and consuls.
3. The new magistrates, or decemviri,
as they were named, entered upon office,
451 years B. C. Being invested with ab-
solute power, they agreed to govern by
rotation, each ruling for a day. In one
year they completed their work; but, up-
on pretence of supplying a deficiency m
the laws still existing, they obtained from
the senate an extension of their decemvir-
4. They soon, however, threw off the
mask, and appeared in undisguised defor-
mity. Their oppression was the theme
of constant complaint, yet they were pro-
tected not only by their lictors, but by a
multitude of dependants, clients, and even
patricians, whom their vices had attracted.
Profiting by this state of things, the .Equi
and Volscians again assumed the field in
5. The whole military as well as the
civil power, being in the hands of the de-
cemviri, they divided the troops into three
portions. One, under the command of
Appius, remained in the city, while his two
colleagues, with the two remaining divis- ,
ions, marched, the one against the XEqui,
and the other against the Sabines. The
Romans basely abandoned their camp on
the enemy's approach.
6. The news of the defeat was joyfully
received at Rome. Some cried out for new


generals, some for a dictator to lead the
troops to battle,-all attributed the failure
to the commanders. Sicinius Dentatus,
with the freedom and skill of an old veter-
an, loudly arraigned the conduct 6f the
generals, and exposed the folly, cowardice,
and errors of their conduct in the camp
and field.
7. Appius speedily observed the disposi-
tion of the people, and marked Dentatus
as an object of revenge. Under pretence
of doing him honor, he sent him, as legate,
with the supplies to reinforce the army.
The office of legate, as uniting the author-
ity of general with the reverence due to a
priest, was held sacred by the Romans.
Dentatus, suspecting and fearing nothing,
went with alacrity.
8. Arrived at the camp, the generals re-
ceived him with apparent respect, and lis-
tened to his advice with attention. As he
told them that the present situation of their
camp was defective, they proposed to him
to seek a more commodious location, and
gave him a guard of one hundred men,
who were, in reality, the ministers of the
vengeance of the decemviri.
9. These assassins decoyed him into a
retired mountain, and then attacked him
from behind. Although the old soldier per-
ceived the treachery too late, he resolved to
sell his life dearly, and placing himself
against a rock, he bore the onset like the
stone on which he leaned. His sinews,
stiffened by age, yet obeyed their master.


Fifteen traitors fell, and thirty more bled
beneath his arm. But his assailants mount-

ed the heights above him, and plied the old
veteran with rocks till he fell crushed to
death. The decemviri pretended to mourn
his death, and his funeral was conducted
with imposing military honors.
10. Appius, to whom the city was in-
trusted during the absence of his colleagues
at the wars, sat each day in the forum as
judge. Virginia, a young Roman girl of
exquisite loveliness, passed through the fo-
rum attended by her nurse ; on her soft
cheek sat the glow of youth and modesty,
and Appius marked her for h:s victim.
She was betrothed to Icilius, a young trib-
une of the people, and, of course, spurned
the advances of the licentious decemvir.
11. Appius first attempted to corrupt
Virginia's nurse; but her innocence had
inspired her attendants with the tenderest
love and fidelity. A dire scheme now en-
tered his mind-he proposed that Clau-
dius, a vile dependant of his, should claim
her, asserting that she belonged to him,
being the daughter of his female slave.
Claudius attempted to seize her and drag
her from the midst of her playmates; but
the shrieks of her companions deterred him
12. The next day, Claudius led her be-
fore the judge, and preferred his complaint.
She was, he said, the daughter of a female
slave, who had sold her to the wife of Vir-
ginius, who was childless. His statement
could be proved by numerous creditable
witnesses; but, until the trial could take
place, it was reasonable that the slave
should be delivered up to the master.
13. Appius pretended to be greatly struck
with the justice of his claim, and the equi-
ty of his demand. He observed, that had
the reputed father been present, Virginia
should have remained with him; but as
the case stood, it was no m)re than just
that Claudius should take her home. Ici-
lius, her lover, defended her fiercely, while
Claudius took refuge under the tribunal of
the decemvir, and the women surrounded
the weeping and gentle Virginia, to com-
fort and protect her.
14. Virginius, the father of the maiden,
was absent at the camp, and Appius sent
orders to the generals to confine him there,
lest his arrival at Rome should stir the


people to sedition. But the friends of the
centurion intercepted these letters, and
sent him a full account of the plot which
threatened the destruction of his daughter's
15. Virginius hastened to Rome, and on
the ensuing morning, to the astonishment
of Appius, led his daughter before the de-
cemviral tribunal, both clothed in the deep-
est mourning. He denied the claim of
Claudius. His wife had borne many chil-
dren, he said, whose births could be well
attested. Had he ever entertained an in-
tention of adopting a child, it would have
been a boy, and not a girl; and it was sin-
gular that after lying dormant for fifteen
years, the claim should now, for the first
time, be revived. As he spoke this in a
stern tone, with an air of calm decision, he
impressed his auditors with a conviction
of the truth of his words.
16. Appius now interfered as a witness
for the vile minister of his pleasures. 'My
conscience,' said he, 'reproaches me for
having so long neglected the interests of
this young man, (Claudius,) to whom, as
most of the assembly know, I was left
guardian. I was aware of his claims upon
this female slave; but the duties of the
state prevented my attending to them. It
is not, however, too late to do justice. I
adjudge this girl to Claudius, as his pro-
perty. Lictors, disperse the throng, and
assist the master to regain his slave.
17. During this speech, Virginia clung
to her father's hand; her tears and trem-
bling innocence moving all whose hearts
were not entirely corrupted. As the lic-
tors advanced to seize her, Virginius wav-
ed his hand and addressed the decemvir.
'I only ask,' said,he, 'one more caress-
one parting word, ere I return to do my
duty in the camp.' The decemvir con-
sented on condition that they should part
in his presence.
18. For a few minutes, Virginius per-
mitted his daughter's head to rest upon his
breast, and wiped away the frequent tears
that rolled down her innocent and lovely
face. Then, snatching a knife from the
shambles, Virginia!' exclaimed he, 'Vir-
ginia! my own-my beautiful-my lost

Virginia! there is but one way to save your
maiden purity.' As he ended these words,
he plunged the knife into her young heart;
then, drawing it forth, and holding it, drop
ping blood, before the startled decemvir,
' Appius!' cried he, 'by the blood of my
child, I devote thee to the gods of hell!'
19. Rushing through the gates of Rome
to the camp, with the bloody knife in his
hand, he showed himself to his fellow sol-
diers, and by his tears, his wrongs, and de-
spair, won every heart. They swore to
avenge him. The decemviri were deposed,
Appius killed himself in prison, as did Op-
pius; the remaining eight of the decemviri
went into voluntary exile, and the infamous
Claudius was driven after them. Thus
ended the decemvirate, 449 years B. C.


1. The intestine tumults we have related
produced weakness in the state, and confi-
dence on the part of the enemy. The JEqui
and Volscians grew so daring as to push
their incursions to the very gates of Rome.
At this period, the cities of Ardea* and Ari-
cia,t having a dispute about some lands
which both claimed, referred the decision

Ardea, formerly Ardua, a town of Latium, was
the capital of the Rutuli. Some soldiers set it on
fire, and the inhabitants reported that their city had
been changed into a bird called by the Latins Ar-
dea. It was rebuilt, and became a magnificent
city, famous for its enmity to Rome. Tarquin was
besieging this place when his son violated Lucretia.
A road, called the Ardeatina, parted from the Ap-
pian road to Ardea.
t Fabled to have been built by Hippolytus, the
son of Theseus, after he had been raised from the
dead by .Esculapius, and transported into Italy by
Diana. In a grove in the neighborhood, Theseus
built a temple to Diana, the rites of which were
similar to those in her temple at Tauris. No
horses would enter the celebrated Arician forest,
called nemorensis, or nemoralis sylva because
Hippolytus had been killed by them. Egeria, the
protectress and favorite nymph of Numa Pompi-
liusmade this grove her frequent retreat. The
grove was on the Appian way, beyond mount Al-




to the Roman people and senate. The lat-
ter refused, from a sense of justice, to de-
cide; but one Scaptius, an aged man, de-
claring that the lands belonged originally
'to the Romans, the people claimed to be
the legal possessors, and the litigants de-
parted, vexed at their own folly, and indig-
nant at the flagrant injustice of the Romans.
2. The turbulence of the tribunes in-
creased, and the demands of the people
were frequent and loud. They asked for
the decree of two laws, one sanctioning the
intermarriage of plebeians with patricians;
another, making plebeians eligible to the
consulship. The senators opposed this for
a long time; but, at length, finding that
the people only grew more obstinate, they
granted the law respecting marriage. This,
however, only mitigated their demands for
a time, and they had recourse to their old
custom of not enlisting on the appearance
of an enemy.
3. Genetus proposed the election of six
governors, three to be chosen from the peo-
ple, and three from the senate. They were
to be invested with consular authority.
This proposition pleased the lower classes
much; yet so fickle were they that, al-
though many of the plebeians stood as can-
didates, the choice fell wholly upon patri-
cians. The new magistrates were called
military'tribunes. Their number, at first
three, was finally increased to six. The
first that were elected, 445 years B. C., only
continued in office three months, the au-
gurs having discovered something amiss in
the electoral ceremonies.
4. On the removal of the military tri-
bunes, the consuls again came into office,
assisted by two new officers, called cen-
sors, who were chosen every fifth year, and
whose first election took place 437 years
B. C. They made an estimate of the num-
bers and property of the citizens, and di-
vided them into classes; they degraded
senators and knights for misconduct, and
reduced plebeians to inferior tribes in
punishment of offences. This new office,
and its successful operation, together with
a triumph over the Volscians, gained by
Gaganius, the consul, served to tranquil-
lize and please the public for some time.

The first censors were Papirius and Semn
5. The general content was not of long
duration. A famine, bearing hardly on
the poor, produced their usual complaints
against the rich. As these were unheed-
ed, the populace loudly accused the con-
suls of having neglected to lay in a suffi-
cient quantity of corn; but they, conscious
of doing their duty, disregarded the rdite-
rated murmurs of the people, and content-
ed themselves with striving to relieve their
6. Spurius Melius, a rich knight, pur-
chased all the corn in Tuscany, and outdid
the magistracy in the prodigality with
which he distributed it. He was seized
with a selfish desire of profiting by the
distresses and dissensions of the state, and
his house soon became the rendezvous of
all who preferred a life of guilty indolence
to one of honest, hard-earned indepen-
7. After acquiring a large body of par-
tisans, and after having filled his house
secretly with arms, he formed a conspira-
cy, by which, with the aid of some of the
tribunes whom he had bribed to act in con
cert with him, he hoped to subvert the
liberties of Rome, and gain the supreme
power for himself. The senate, on the
discovery of the plot by Minucius, at once
itsolved to create a dictator, without an
appeal to the people, for the purpose of
quelling the conspiracy.
8. Cincinnatus, now eighty years of age,
was again induced to accept the arduous
office. His first procedure was to sum-
mon Mselius before him. Hie refused to
obey, and Ahala, the dictator's master of
horse, meeting him in the forum, after hav-
ing vainly employed words of persuasion,
killed him on the spot. The dictator ap-
plauding this resolute act of justice, order-
ed the sale of the conspirator's g6ods, the
demolition of his house, and the distribu-
tion of his stores among the people.
9. The tribunes of the people, enraged
at the death of Melius, whose conspiracy
they favored, at the next election, in order
to perplex and punish the senate, insisted
upon restoring the military tribunes. On



the ensuing year, however, the government
returned to its old channels.
10. The Veians having, for many years,
been the determined enemies of Rome, it
was resolved by the Romans that Veii
should be conquered. The siege, by which
it was finally taken, lasted, like that of
Troy, ten years; and thence the immense
strength of the city may be inferred. In
summer only, operations were carried on.
by the besiegers; in winter, they slept un-,
der tents made of the skins of beasts. The
features of the siege varied greatly, and the
Roman losses of men and equipment were
11. Indeed, so bloody was the siege that
it threatened the depopulation of Rome,
and a law was made compelling the single
men to marry the widows of the soldiers
who were slain before Veii. To Furius
Camillus, a man of great energy and mili-
tary talents, was intrusted the sole power
of conducting this tedious war. He rose
to power without intrigue or solicitation,
and as censor, and afterwards as military
tribune, his conduct was successful.
12. His courage and abilities, needed at
the crisis, inspired others with ambition
and confidence, and immense numbers
flocked to his standard. With vast labor,
he wrought a mine of ample size, which
was finally completed, and opened in the
midst of the citadel. He then sent to the
senate, desiring those who wished to share
in the plunder of Veii to repair to the army.

13. Giving his men necessary directions
for entering the breach, at a signal the cita-


demand the city were thronged with his
legions. Transported at his success, he
had a triumph in the style of the Roman
kings. His chariot was drawn by milk-
white horses, which, being generally de-
voted to doing honors to the gods, did not
fail to disgust most of the spectators.
14. In another expedition against the
Falisci, Camillus took their capital city
Falerii,* which at first seemed to promise
a long resistance. At this siege, a circum-
stance occurred which reflects great honor
on the Roman general. A school-master,
having found means to decoy his pupils,
the children of the principal men of the
city, into the Roman camp, offered them to
Camillus as the means of compelling the
citizens to surrender.
15. Camillus rejected the treacherous
proposal with horror, and, after having ex-
patiated on the blackness of the crime and
the insult offered to noble warriors in sup-
posing them capable of warring with inno-
cent children, or making use of their agen-
cy, he delivered the traitor, with his hands
tied behind him, to the boys, to be, by
them, lashed back into the city.
16. This noble conduct of Camillus pow-
erfully affected the inhabitants. They at
once submitted to the senate, leaving the
terms of the capitulation to the Roman
general, who fined them a small sum to
satisfy the soldiers, and then admitted them
to the protection and alliance of the Ro-
17. The turbulent tribunes, instead of
being awed by the distinguished virtues of
Camillus, which had procured for him the
love and veneration even of the enemies he
warred against, daily brought new accusa-
tions against him. To the charge of op-
posing emigration to Veii, they added that
of having concealed part of the plunder of
that city, particularly two brazen gates, for
himself, and summoned him to appear be-
fore them.
18. Finding the populace exasperated
Or Palernium-now Fatari, a town of Etruria.
of which the inhabitants were named Falisci. Some
of the Roman laws had here their origin. It was
famous for its pastures, and for a peculiar kind of


against him upon many accounts, and de-
spairing of justice, Camillus determined to
leave Rome. He took a tender leave of
his wife and family, and advanced with a
heavy heart to one of the gates, without a
friend to accompany or pity his departure.
Then, unable to repress his indignation, he
raised his eyes to the capitol, and his hands
to heaven, and praying the gods that his
countrymen might one day be sensible of
tleir injustice, he departed for Ardea, a
few miles from Rome, where he trusted to
find an asylum.


1. The tribunes, who congratulated
themselves on the success of their persecu-
tions of Camillus, had not long reason to
rejoice, since an enemy soon appeared of
so formidable an aspect, as to require the
opposing presence of a skilful and bold
warrior, like the man they had expelled
from his home.
2. The Gauls,* a race of men of a stat-
ure superior to that of the Italians, fierce,
hardy, barbarous, and prone to emigration,
had, invited by the soft serenity of the cli-
mate, and the richness of its wines, entered
Italy, in the northern part of which they
settled, and were now, under the conduct
of a Brennus, besieging Clusium,t an Etru-
rian city, the inhabitants of which, fearing
the numbers and ferocity of their enemies,
entreated the interference of the Roman
3. The senate were willing to send
ambassadors to the Gauls, to offer remon-
*Gallia, the country of the Gauls, was called
Galatia by the Greeks. The inhabitants were
called Galli,Celtiberi, and Celtoscythe ; by them-
selves, Celte; by the Greeks, Galatme. Ancient
Gaul was divided by the Romans into four parts,
called Gallia Belgica, Narbonensis,Aquitania, and
Celtica. Bran, in Latin, Brennus, means 'a leader.'
t Now Chiusi, a town of Etruria, in which Por-
senna was buried. In its northern section lay a
lake, Clusina lacus, which, extending northward
as far as Arretium, was connected with the Ar-
nus, which falls into the sea at Pisae.

strance, and dissuade them from their pro-
jects. For this purpose, three young men
of the family of the Fabii were chosen.
They were received with a complaisance of
which they had believed Brennus incapable,
and, when he inquired the reason of their
coming, they answered, that to make war
without a reason was a custom not much
in vogue in Italy, and demanded to be in-
formed in what the inhabitants of Clusium
had offended him.
4. Brennus answered, sternly, that the
rights of gallant warriors lay in their arms,
that the Romans themselves had no just
title to many cities which they had con-
quered and claimed, and that the inhabit-
ants of Clusium had deeply offended him by
refusing to give up lands which they had
not hands to till, or men to inhabit
5. The Roman ambassadors were un-
used to hear the language of a conqueror
spoken towards their nation. They went
into the besieged city, and took a personal
part in a sally, in which Fabius Ambustus
killed a Gaul, and was discovered in the
act of despoiling him of his armor. Bren-
nus, having represented this unworthy vio-
lation of the sacred character of ambassa-
dors, by means of a herald whom he dis-
patched to Rome, and obtaining no redress,
broke up the siege of Clusium, and march-
ed to the capital.
6. In their progress the Gauls committed
no outrages, but, breathing vengeance
against the Romans, hastened their march.
A terrible battle took place, in which the
Romans were defeated with the loss of
nearly forty thousand men. Panic now
seized the people. Many fled to conceal
themselves in the neighboring towns, some
resolved to perish with their city, and the
ancient senators and priests, filled with
religious enthusiasm, vowed to devote their
lives to atone for the sins of their people.
7. The Gauls gave vent to their exulta-
tion at the victory, and remained two days
on the field of battle, feasting while sur-
rounded by their slaughtered foes. On the
tl'rd day, Brennus presented himself at the
gates of Rome. He was surprised to find
them open. On the defenceless walls no
spears bristled, and no trumpet rang. Con-



ceiving this to be the result of stratagem,
adopting all possible precaution, he march-
ed into the city.
8. In the forum they found the senators
and priests sitting silently in order. Their
venerable looks, their noble forms, their
splendid and imposing dresses, awed the
Gauls, and they offered them homage as the
tutelar deities of the city. At length, a
barbarian put forth his hand to stroke the
beard of Papirius. The noble old Roman,
fired by the insult, lifted his heavy ivory
sceptre, and struck the brute to the ground.
This was the signal for a commencement
of that indiscriminate slaughter which
spared neither sex nor age for three days,
during which, if the Gauls ever ceased to
murder, it was when they pillaged and set
fire to the buildings of Rome, all of which
were reduced to ashes.
9. The capitol still held out, although the
garrison was in extreme distress, and the
army of Brennus, hemming it in, cut off
all hopes of communication with any ex-
ternal friends. Brennus hoped to reduce
them by famine; but, to prove the futility
of his expectations, the Romans, although
in extreme want, threw some loaves into
the enemy's camp.
10. At length, a Gaul informed his leader
that he had discovered some footsteps up
the rock by which they might gain the
citadel. The Gauls ascended in the -night,
and would have succeeded, had not the
garrison been awaked by the screams of
some geese which, as sacred to Juno, had
been kept in the temple of that goddess.
Manlius,* a brave patrician, was the first
to start forth. Exerting all his strength,
he flung two Gauls over the precipice, and,
assistance coming, the attack was re-
11. It was soon agreed by the leaders
on both sides,that the Gauls should imme-
diately quit Rome on receiving a thousand
pounds weight in gold. On the confirma-
tion of the agreement by oath, the gold
was produced; but in the weighing, the
Gauls kicked the beam. On the Romans
complaining, Brennus insultingly threw
Marcus was his surname. The exploit related
in the text gained him the epithet of Capitolinus.

his heavy sword and belt into the scale,
and said the portion of the vanquished wan
12. While deliberating on the payment,
Camillus appeared at the head of a large
army with which he had hastened to the
succor of his countrymen. On learning
the cause of the contest, 'Take back,'
said he, 'the gold to the capitol; it is the
custom of the Romans to ransom them-
selves with-iron, not with gold. As-dicta-
tor, the stipulation of price lies with me,
and I will purchase emancipation with my
sword.' In the battle which ensued, the
Romans were victorious, and the Gauls
completely routed.
13. So great was the destruction caused
by the Gauls, that of all Rome, which now
lay in ashes, there remained but the capitol.
Many of the inhabitants had sought refuge
in Veii, and thither the tribunes urgea the
removal of the remainder. But Camillus
persuaded the people to go resolutely to
work, and Rome began to raise her head
anew. For the bravery of Manlius, they
built him a house near the scene of
hi exploit, and allowed him a fund for
his support. Manlius was ambitious not
only of equalling Camillus, but of being
sovereign of Rome.
14. The senate, aware of the designs
of Manlius, created Cornelius Cossus dic-
tator, as a curb upon the other. Cossus,
having finished an expedition against the
VoIscians by a speedy triumph over them,
returned to summon Manlius to an account
of his conduct. Manlius, however, had
too firm a told upon the affections of the
people to be at all affected by Cossus, and
the latter was obliged to surrender his
office. Manlius fomented the seditions of
the people, the very dregs of which he
mustered beneath him, insinuating that
there should be a new order of things, and
no distinctions in the state.
15. At this crisis, Camillus, being chosen
one of the military tribunes, appointed a
day for Manlius to answer for his life.
When the charges of sedition and of aspir-
ing to the sovereignty were fixed upon
him, he lifted his eyes and pointed to the
capitol. In the sight of this. the people


would not condemn him; but when removed
to the Peteline grove, he was found guilty,
and thrown from the Tarpeian rock. His
family were forbidden to assume the name
.of Marcus, and his house was ordered to
be razed to the ground.
16. Thus the Romans continued to go
forward, their internal peace frequently
disturbed by tumults and' seditions, and
their enterprises without the walls gene-
rally successful. Great emergencies always
called forth great men from among them,
and, guided by a blind superstition, they
would, at the instigation of their priests,
perform the bravest actions. Thus it is
related, that when a gulf had opened in the
forum, which the augurs affirmed would
never close'until the most precious things
of Rome were cast within it, Quintus
Curtius leaped into the pit, clad in armor
and mounted on his horse, exclaiming that
nothing was more precious than patriotism
and military virtue. It is said that the
gulf closed over him immediately, and
Quintus Curtius was seen no more.

1. The Romans, having triumphed over
the Sabines, the Etrurians, the Latins, the
Hernici, the JEqui and the Voiscians, were
bent upon the subjugation of the Sanmites,
a powerful people descended from the S.-
bines. Their country was about one hun-
dred miles from Rome, ahd forms part of
the present kingdom of Naples. The
charge of this important warfare fell upon
the two consuls, Valerius Corvus and Cor-
2. Valerius was a commander of distin-
guished military talents. He was sur-
named Corvus, from a remarkable combat
in which he killed a ferocious Gaul of
gigantic stature, assisted by a crow. While
he marched to the relief of Capua, the
capital of Campania,* his colleague led an
Campania, of which Capua was the capital,
was bounded by Latium, Samnium, Picenum, and
part of the Mediterranean sea. It is noted for its

army against Samnium,* the chief city of
the enemy. Hardened by their reverses,
and inspired by the hopes of retrieving
their fortunes, the Roman soldiers were
now invincible.
3. Although the Samnites were the bray.
est foes the Romans ever met, their defeat
was complete. They fled from the fierce
looks and gallant daring of their opponents
The other consul, Cornelius, was not, at
first, as successful as his colleague: he had
unwarily led his army into a defile, but
was saved by Decius, a tribune of the ar-
my, who gained possession of a hill, in con-
sequence of which the enemy were defeat-
ed with a loss of thirty thousand slain.
The triumph over the Samnites took place,
343 years B. C.
4. A war soon broke out between the
Romans and the Latins, and Manlius'Tor-
quatus, the consul, feeling that the parties
were liable to confusion in battle from
having the same language and manners,
determined to insure success by preserving
the strictest discipline. Prior to joining
battle with the enemy, he issued an order
forbidding any soldier, upon pain of death,
to issue from his ranks.
.5. When both armies were prepared to
join battle, Metius, the leader of the Latin
cavalry, rode forward to the Roman lines,
and challenged any knight to combat.
Titus Manlius, the consul's son, was the
only one who dared to disobey orders. He
rode forth, and encountering Metius, un-
horsed him, and slew him as he supported
himself upon his shield.
6. With the arms of the vanquished, he
presented himself in the tent of his father,
anticipating a favorable reception. The
consul, however, turned away and ordered
him to be led into the presence of the
army. He there addressed him with a

fertility and beautiful scenery. Capua is supposed
to have been founded by Capys, the companion of
Anchises. This splendid, luxurious, and opulent
city, was termed altera Roma, another Rome.
Here it was that the soldiers of Hannibal, after the
battle of Cannae, became enervated by luxury.
Samnium was a seaport town. The country
of the Samnites was situated between Picenuwz
Campania, Apulia, and the ancient Latium.



stern voice, but tearful eyes: 'Titus Man-
hus,' said he,' regarding neither the autho-
rity of the consulship, nor the commands
of a father, thou hast set an example both
of public and of private disobedience. Thy
conduct forces me to make a sacrifice
either of my son or of my country. May
the gods forbid that I should hesitate which
to prefer. Go, lictor, bind the prisoner, and
let his death be our future warning.'
7. When the Roman army saw the
blood of their brave young champion stain-
ing the axe, they broke into groans and
execrations. His body was carried forth
and buried with all military honor, adorned
with the spoils of the vanquished. The
battle, which in the mean time joined,
raged with fury.
8. The issue of the conflict was for
some time doubtful. The augurs having
declared that the salvation of the Romans
depended upon the sacrifice of the leader
of that part of the army which should find
itself worsted, Decius, seeing his own divi-
sion fail, determined to devote himself.
9. By the direction of Manlius, who was
chief pontiff, he devoted himself with the
proper words and ceremony. First, with
his head covered, and with outstretched
arms, clad in a long robe, and standing on
a javelin, he gave himself up to the infer-
nal and celestial gods, for Rome: then,
arming and springing on his horse, he
rushed among the enemy, carrying slaugh-
ter into their ranks, and finally fell, cov-
ered with wounds.
10. The Roman army, taking his death
for an assurance of success, fought with
prodigious valor, and the Latins were en-
tirely defeated. This battle pretty mucn
decided their fate, and two years after,
Psedrum. their strongest city, being taken,
they submitted entirely to the Romans.


1. Pontius, general of the Samnites,
took advantage of the refusal of the senate
to grant them peace, by forming a strata-

gem to regain what force had compelled
them to lose. He led his army into a defile
close by Caudium, and guarding all its out-
lets, sent a few private soldiers in the drew
of shepherds, with directions to meet the
Romans, seemingly by chance.
2. The Roman consul, meeting these
men, and not, penetrating their disguise,
was told, in answer to his inquiry respect-
ing the route of the Samnites' march, that
they had gone to Luceria, a town of
Apulia,* which they were then besieging.
The Roman general at once hastened in
the direction of that place, and was not
aware of the stratagem until he found
himself completely encircled by enemies.
3. The Roman army, divested of their
armor and weapons, were compelled to
pass under the yoke, to agree to leave the
Samnite territories, and subscribe to the
terms of the former confederacy. On their
arrival at Rome, grief and resentment pre-
vailed throughout the city, which was put
in mourning for the humiliating and unfor-
tunate event. This took place, 332 years
B. C.
4. This unfortunate occurrence was but
a slight cloud on the fiery glory of the Ro-
mans, and their success against the Sam-
nites soon retrieved their fame. Under the
command of Papirius Censor and of Fabius
Maximus, they triumphed, and, forty years
after the death of Decius, his son sacrificed
himself in the same manner for his coun-
5. The Samnites, despairing of the suc-
cess of their own arms unaided, now sent
for assistance to Pyrrhus, king of Epirus,t

Apulia, now Puglia, was situated between
Daunia and Calabria. It formed part of the an-
cient Magna Graecia, and was commonly divided
into Apulia Daunia, and Apulia Peucetia. It was
noted for its superior wools. It is conjectured
that its name was derived from Apulus, an ancient
king who ruled the country before the Trojan war.
Luceria was the Apulian town which furnished
the finest wool.
tA country situated between Macedonia, Acha-
ia, and the Ionian sea; at first governed by kings,
of whom Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, was one
of the first. Afterwards it was united to Mace-
donia, and finally a part of the Roman empire.
It is now called Larta.


..ionarch of ability, power and ambition,
who warmly desired to follow, in all things,
the example of his predecessor, Alexander.
He at once sent the Samnites a body of
three thousand men, under the command
of Cineas, a distinguished soldier and a
pupil of Demosthenes, and himself soon
after put to sea with three thousand horse,
twenty thousand foot and twenty elephants.
6. Upon arriving at Tarentum,* and
finding the inhabitants devoted to luxury
and pleasure, he taught them to imitate the
self-denial of true warriors, and closed t. e
places of public amusement, that his con-
templated reform might be uninterrupted
by temptations. The Romans were like-
wise on the alert, and taking the necessary
steps to insure security and success, dis-
patched the consul Levinus with a large
army to intercept the advance of Pyrrhus.
7. Levinus was a courageous, but im-
petuous and hasty man. To an ambassa-
dor whom Pyrrhus sent to negotiate be-
tween the Samnites and Romans, Lmevinus
replied that he neither recognized him as
a mediator, nor feared him as an enemy.
The two armies encamped on opposite
sides of the river Siris, over which Levinus
hastily threw his cavalry, which was in-
stantly charged as it mounted the bank, by
Pyrrhus with his chosen horse.
8. The Roman legions crossed the stream
with difficulty, but fought with fury on their
arrival at the scene of conflict. In the
heat of the engagement, Pyrrhus sent in
his famous elephants, whose enormous size
Tarentum, Tarentus, or Taras, a town of Cala-
bria, situated on a bay of the same name, near the
mouth of the river Galesus. It was founded or
rather repaired by a Lacedaemonian colony under
Phalanthus, 707 years B. C. It for a long time
maintained its superiority over thirteen tribu-
tary cities. The people were luxurious and in-
dolent, ana tneir sensual cravings being sup-
plied oy the products of Greece, the delights
of Tarentum became proverbial. Tarentum
was for some time the residence of Pythagoras,
whose mild precepts gave the citizens a superi-
ority over others in private life as well as in the
field. The harbor of Tarentum was a theme of
praise with the ancient historians. Its present
name is Taranto,and the present inhabitants have
not degenerated from the character of their ances-
tors, eing idle and effeminate. They live princi-
pally by fishing.

and tower-crowned backs startled even the
brave warriors on whom they rushed. Pyr-
rhus then made a bloody charge with his
fine Thessalian cavalry, which completed
his victory.
9. The Romans had fifteen thousand
slain and eighteen hundred taken prisoners.
But the victory was dearly purchased by a
wound of Pyrrhus, and a loss of thirteen
thousand of his men. The conqueror
affirmed that one more such victory would
ruin them. He expressed great admiration
on seeing the slaughtered Romans, repos-
ing with their feet to the foe, and their
mortal wounds all in front. 'Such men,'
he said,' I would engage to lead victorious
throughout the world.'
10. After the victory, he sent his friend
Cineas, who was famous for his eloquence,
to treat with the humbled enemy; but the
orator found that neither honeyed words
nor bribes could beguile submission from
the Romans. He returned to Pyrrhus,
saying that the senators were demi-gods
and the city their fit temple.
11. At the head of an embassy from
Rome, sent to negotiate concerning the
ransom and exchange of prisoners, came
Fabricius, an ancient senator, whose pover-
ty, contentment, and integrity had gained
him the favorable regard of his country-
men. Pyrrhus received him with marked
kindness, and was resolved to try how far
he had been justly spoken of by fame.
12. He offered him on a certain day rich
presents, which were refused; and, on the

following, willing to try the temper of his
soul, he made a sign, and a curtain sud-



delyy rising, disclosed to view an enormous
elephant, an animal which the Roman had
never seen. Fabricius smiled, and said to
the king,' Your elephant of to-day has no
more influence over my mind than your
gold of yesterday.'
13. Pyrrhus released him the Roman
prisoners, intrusting them to Fabricius
alone, upon his promise that, should the
senate remain bent on continuing the war,
he should have the privilege of reclaiming
them. About 280 years B. C.,when the Ro-
mans had recovered from a defeat, and the
consuls Sulpicius and Decius were placed
at their head, the war was renewed with
the adventurous and formidable Pyrrhus.
14. The campaign was finished by a
battle fought near Asculum,* in which, as
the panic created by the elephants had
worn off, and the armies were about
matched in point of number, the contest
might be considered equal. But again did
the charge of the elephants and the skill
of the Greeks prevail. The Romans re-
treated with the loss of six thousand men;
but they left the impress of their valor
with the army of Pyrrhus, who lost four
thousand warriors.
15. After an interval of two years, Pyr-
rhus; whose army had been increased by
fresh levies, sent one division to oppose
Lentulus, the Roman consul, while he him-
self, at the head of the second, marched to
attack Dentatus, the other consul. Pyr-
rhus, intending to surprise the Romans by
night, struck into the woods from which
he could extricate his troops only at day-
light, which showed them the army of Den-
tatus in battle array. The contest between
the hostile vanguards was decided in favor
of the Romans.
16. In the general engagement which
followed, Pyrrhus vainly employed his ele-
phants. The Romans, now acquainted
with their nature, drove them back with
fire-balls made of flax and rosin. The
soldiers of Pyrrhus were trodden down by
their terrified brute auxiliaries, and the
camp of the king fell into the enemy's

SNow Ascoli, a town of Picenum


hands. The Grecian monarch had twenty-
three thousand of his soldiers slain.
17. Pyrrhus, finding formidable enemig
and faithless friends in Italy, resolved
leave it. Informing the Tarentines that
he was promised speedy assistance from
Greece, and leaving a small garrison in
Tarentum to save appearances, he regained
his country undisturbed, bearing thither the
shattered remains of his forces. Thus the
Pyrrhic var ended after six years' duration.
18. Two hundred and sixty-six years
B. C. the Romans first coined silver, and
the following year the number of inhabi-
tants was discovered to amount to two
hundred and ninety-two thousand two hun-
dred and twenty-four.

1. The Romans, seeing themselves suc-
cessful at home, longed to push their con-
quests beyond the natural limits of their
empire, and gladly took hold of a pretext
for declaring war against the Carthaginians.
This people possessed a large share of
Sicily, and only waited for internal dissen-
sions, to seize upon the whole island,
Hiero, king of Syracuse, which was yet
unconquered, entreated their aid against
the Maniertines,* a little people of the
same country, and they sent him supplies.
2. The Mamertines, to avoid destruc-
tion, on finding themselves threatened by
so formidable a power, applied for protec-
tion to the Romans, who, rejecting them

The Mamertini were mercenary soldiers, who,
at the request of Agathocles, came from Campania.
to Sicily. They were in the pay of Agathocles,
and claimed the right of voting at the election of
magistrates. This being opposed, they had re.
course to arms, and for their sedition were ordered
to quit Sicily. On their way to the coast, they
were kindly received by the inhabitants of Mes-
sana. whose hospitality they repaid by murdering
the males and marrying their wives and daughters.
They then called the town Mamertina, a provi-
cial word meaning martial, and themselves, Ma.


as too feeble allies, at once made war upon
Carthage, and the first Punic war, as it
was called, began 264 years B. C.
S3. Carthage,* founded by a Phoenician
colony, stood near that part of the African
coast now occupied by Tunis. It was
founded about one hundred and thirty-seven
years before Rome. Strong in its fleets,
which held undisputed sway upon the seas,
obtaining immense riches by its commerce,
it had gradually extended its dominions
over a long range of coast.
4. The Caithaginians were possessed of
wealth, while the Romans, poor and needy,
were distinguished by their patriotism and
courage. Although having no fleet, while
the ships of the Carthaginians were cele-
brated, they resolved that this deficiency
should be remedied. A Carthaginian ves-
sel being stranded on the Italian coast, the
consul Duilius, commending this as a mo-
del, commanded the construction of an ar-
5. Duilius was the first Roman who went
forth with a fleet; but, in an engagement
with the enemy, he was completely victo-
rious, the Carthaginians losing fifty of their
ships, and their claim to the sovereignty of
the seas.
6. Sicily was to be conquered only by
humbling Carthage, and Regulus and Man-
lius put to sea with a fleet of three hundred
sail, carrying forty thousand men, with the
intention of making an invasion. They
were met by as powerful a fleet, in the
management of which the Carthaginians
displayed a superior skill. But though
successful at a distance, when the Romans
grappled, victory was theirs. The enemy's
fleet was dispersed, and fifty-four ships
taken. An immediate descent upon the
coast of Africa, the capture of the city

SCarthage was long the capital of Africa, and
the mistress of Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia. The
Carthaginians were governed as a republic, and
had two magistrates, chosen annually, invested with
regal authority. They were very superstitious, and
so unnatural as to offer human victims to the gods.
They bore the character of being faithless and
treacherous, and the proverb,Punicafides, alluding
to the little reliance to be placed on Carthaginian
6delity, is well known.

Clupea* and of twenty thousand men,
were the fruits of this brilliant and distin-
guished victory.
7. In consequence of this signal suc-
cess, the senate recalled Manlius to Italy,
to superintend the Sicilian war, while
Regulus, following up his' good fortune,
gave battle to the Carthaginians, and once
more defeated them. In despair, more
than eighty of their towns surrendered.
In this emergency, the Carthaginiaps sent
to Lacedaemon, and engaged Xantippus, a
brave warrior and experienced general, t6
conduct them.
8. After a prolonged resistance, the
Romans were completely defeated, and
Regulus himself made prisoner. They
met also with other distresses, in the loss
of their fleet during a tempest, and in the
taking of Agrigentum,f their principal Si-
cilian town, captured by Karthalo, the
leader of the Carthaginians. A new fleet
shared the fate of the former. The inexpe-
rienced mariners ran it on the quicksands,
and shortly after the greater part went
down in a storm.
9. The Carthaginians, thinking to pro-
cure peace on better terms than those for-
merly proposed by the victorious Regulus,
led their noble prisoner from his dungeon,
and sent him to his countrymen to treat
with them for peace. They thought that
his long confinement would make him ready
to persuade the Romans to acquiesce in
the proposed discontinuance of hostilities,
which event would give him freedom.
They therefore exacted a promise that, if
he proved unsuccessful, he should return to
the dungeon in which he had already passed
four years.
10. The old general, on his approach to
ClMpca, or Clypea, now Aklibia, a town of
Africa Propria, twenty-two miles east of Carthage.
Its exact resemblance to a shield, clypeus, pro.
cured its name.
t Now Girgenti, a town of Sicily, situated on
mount Agragas. Some assert that it was founded
by a Rhodian, and others, by an Ionian colony.
The inhabitants were famous for their hospitality
and luxury. The government was first monarchical.
and afterwards democratical. Agrigentum still
possesses more antique remains than any others
Sicilian town. ;.
''-* :



Rome, was surrounded by his friends, who
urged him to enter the city and revisit his
little dwelling. But the old man was
sternly resolute; he was, he said, but the
slave of the Carthaginians, and as their
ambassador he must wait without the gates
to be received there by the senate, as was
11. Regulus, on the arrival of the senate,
opened his mission as directed by the Car-
thaginian council, and their ambassadors
seconded him. The senate, weary of the
long-continued war,were inclined to peace;
but when it remained only for Regulus to
give his opinion, his voice was for war.
12. Astonishment and admiration seized
his auditors, when they heard the venerable
general argue so ably againslhe measure
which was to free him. He believed their
embarrassment (for they could not decide
on the course he recommended,) by break-
ing off the treaty, and rising to return to
his confinemexit, which he did without em-
bracing his wife Marcia, and his dear chil-
dren, who filled the city with their lamen-
13. Furious and disappointed at learning
the course pursued by Regulus, the Cartha-
ginians determined to punish him by every
torture. They first cut off his eyelids, and
a few days afterwards brought him forth
and exposed him to the burning sun. At
length, when wearied with devising arts to
give him agony, they threw him into a
barrel stuck through with sharp spikes,
pierced by which the unfortunate and noble
Roman died, 251 years B. C.

1. The minds of both parties were exas-
perated. The Romans were furious at the
treatment of Regulus, and the Carthagi-
nians at the refusal of the terms of peace
which they demanded. Hostilities were
renewed with redoubled ardor; but the
eCourage and perseverance of the Romans

2. Fabius Buteo, the consul, gained a
victory over a large squadron of the enemy
but Latutius Catulus obtained a triumph
yet more complete, in which he vanquished
a greater number of the Carthaginians, and
the naval power of that people seemed to
end with the destruction of one hundred
and twenty ships.
3. Another heavy loss competed the
Carthaginians to treat for peace, which was
granted by the Romans on precisely the
same conditions which were demanded by
Regulus, when victorious at the gates of
Carthage. 1. Carthage was to pay a thou-
sand talents of silver to defray the expenses
of the war, and one thousand two hundred
more in the course of ten years. 2. The
Carthaginians were to quit Sicily and give
up all claim to such islands as they pos-
sessed in its vicinity. 3. They were never
more to war against the allies of the Ro-
mans, or enter the Roman territories with
a ship of war. Lastly, all prisoners and
deserters were to be given up without ran-
som. On these terms ended the first Punic
war, 240 years B. C., which had lasted
twenty-four years.
4. The war being ended, an undisturbed
peace ensued, and in six years the temple
of Janus was shut for the second time since
the building of Rome. The people culti-
vated a taste for poetry ; but while fostering
the arts of peace, they were by no means
forgetful that their natural disposition was
warlike, and they should make prepara-
tions for taking the field.
5. The Illyrians* having for a long time
plundered the merchants of the Mediterra-
nean, had the ill luck to commit depreda-
tions on some of the subjects of Rome, and
a war ensued, which terminated in the sur-
render of almost all the Illyrian towns, and
the payment of a yearly tribute for the re-
6. The Gauls, thinking a time of peace
seasonable for an invasion, invited some
allies from beyond the Alps, and wasted
the country with fire and sword, 225
years B. C. When they came within
Illyricum, Illyris, and Illyria, a country border-
ing on the Adriatic sea, opposite Italy. It now
forms part of Croatia, Bosnia, and Sclavonia.



three days' march of Rome, a praetor and
consul, skilled in the arts of war, went out
against them, and were enabled to sur-
round and almost annihilate them. Forty
thousand were slain, and ten thousand
taken prisoners.
7 After this victory, Marcellus gained
another battle, in which he slew the Gallic
king, Viridomarus, and gained royal spoils
a third time for Rome. It must be borne
in mind, however, that the Gauls were
destitute of military science, and had noth-
ing but their naked bodies to oppose to the
shock of well-armed men. The Romans,
having compensated their former ill-suc-.
cess, looked around for some enemy worthy
of their arms.
8. The Carthaginians having besieged
Saguntum,* a city of Spain,which had been
in alliance with Rome, an embassy was
sent to Carthage by the Romans, demand-
ing the surrender of Hannibal, the Cartha-
ginian general, who had advised the mea-
sure. As this demand was refused, both
parties prepared for the second Punic war.
9. Hannibal, who was now intrusted
with the direction of the Carthaginian
operations, in his youth was brought by his
father to the altar, and induced to take an
oath of eternal enmity against the Romans,
swearing to oppose them until he, or they,
should cease to exist.
10. Having overrun Spain, leaving his
conquests in that country to be guarded by
Hanno, he levied a large army, composed of
different nations, and having crossed the
Pyreneant mountains into Gaul, he tra-
SOr Saguntus, 3 town of Hispania Tarraconen-
sis, at the west of Iberus, about one mile from the
seashore, now called Morriedro. It was founded
by a colony cf Zacynthians, and by some of the
Rutuli of Ardea. Saguntum was noted for the clay
of its neighborhood, from which pocula Saguntina,
the Saguntine cups, were made.
t The Pyrenei, a ridge of high mountains ex-
tending from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean
sea, and separating Gaul from Spain. It received
its name, as was supposed, from Pyrene, a daughter
of Bebrycins, or frolp the fire, (rnvu--phir) which
raged there, kiudled by shepherds, but increasing
to such an extent that the silver mines of the
mountains melted, and the shining metal poured
down in rivers. Strabo deems this a fabulous ac-

versed that hostile and wild country rapidly
and in ten days came to the foot of the
Alps, over which he was to find a passage
into Italy.
11. Undismayed by the appearance of
the snow-clad mountains, (for it was now
mid-winter) or by the wild and ferocious
inhabitants who were dressed in skins, in
fifteen days Hannibal made the passage,
with the loss of half his army, and com-
pelled Publius Scipio, who had been sent
by the Roman senate to oppose him, to
12. The second battle, fought upon the
river Trebia,* was equally unfortunate in
its result to the Romans, twenty-six thou-
sand of whom were either killed by the foe
or drownedMn the pfbage of the stream.
The Romans sustained a third defeat at
lake Thrasymenus,f where Flaminius and
fifteen thousand men were slain, and six
thousand surrendered to the enemy.
13. On the news of the last defeat, the
senate made Fabius Maximus, a man of
courage and caution, commander, with
absolute authority. He determined to con-
quer the Carthaginians by harassing them,
and managed to surround the army of
Hannibal among the mountains, where it
was impossible for them to pass the win-
ter, and whence they were equally unable
to extricate themselves.
14. Hannibal, by stratagem, accomplish-
ed a retreat. He caused burning faggots
and torches to be tied to the horns of two
thousand oxen, and these rushing in vari-
ous directions, made Fabius believe that
the whole army was preparing for attack,
while, profiting by the success of his scheme,
Hannibal retreated, with considerable loss,
however, in his rear.
15. When Fabius laid down his office,
Terentius Varro and JEmilius Paulus were
chosen his successors. Varro was a man
sprung from the lowest class of the people,
with nothing but wealth and Vanity to
recommend him. XEmilius was a gallant
A river t,! Cisalpine Gaul, rising in thl* Appe-
nine, and falling into the Po, at the west of Plao
SA lake near Perusium, and no called the lau
of Perugia.



leader, possessed ofcaution and experience,
and imbued with a thorough contempt for
the pretensions of his plebeian colleague.

1. At the village of Cannae,* Hannibal,
with forty thousand foot, and half that
number of horse, awaited the approach of
th'Joman consuls, who led on an army of
ninety thousand men. The generals agreed
to share -the authority, one of them com-
manding on one day, and the other on the
next. A milius being commander on the
first day of their tiival, appeasd unwilling
to engage, but the ensuing day, Varro gave
the signal for a general battle.
2. The Romans attacked the centre of
the Gauls and Spaniards; but Hannibal,
ordering these men to fall back, surrounded
the devoted assailants with his chosen Afri-
cans, and their destruction was insured.
The vain boastings of Varro ceased, and
XEmihus, severely wounded, spurred his
horse to the charge so long as he could
keep his seat; but weakness finally obliged
him to dismount.
3. Lentulus, a tribune of the army, as
he fled from the carnage, found JEmilius,

Lentulus and JEmiliua.
covered with blood, sitting on a stone,
awaiting the arrival of the pursuers.
: A small village of Apulia. The spot on which
SHannibal defeated the Roman consuls, is called (lie
Seld of blood.


'/Emilius,' cried the noble tribune, 'you
are guiltless of this bloody work. Take
my horse and fly.' 'I thank thee, Lentu-
lus,' replied the wounded man,. 'there is
but one thing left for me, to die upon
the field. Go to the senate, tell them to
fortify Rome against the conqueror-tell
Fabius that .Emilius living, approved his
advice, and dying, sanctioned it. Farewell.'
4. Before Lentulus was out of view, he
saw the gallant Roman fall before multi-
tudes of enemies. The Roman loss in
slain amounted to fifty thousand, and Han-
nibal is said to have sent to Carthage three
bushels of gold rings taken from the fingers
of dead Roman knights.
5. After the consternation which this
event created at Rome had subsided, the
senate created a dictator. Varro, who
abandoned the remains of his army, and
came to the city, was received with respect
Fabius and Marcellus were appointed to
lead the armies against Hannibal, and
refused the peace he offered, unless upon
the condition of his leaving Italy. That
conqueror determined to winter at Capua.
6. At the siege of Nola,* Hannibal nmt
with the first loss he had experienced in
Italy, Marcellus, the praetor, making a
successful sally. Afterwards, in attempt-
ing to raise the siege of Capua, he was
repelled with considerable loss, by the
Romans in their trenches. When he made
a pretence of besieging Rome, he found an
overwhelming force waiting to receive him,
and retired, 209 years B. C.
7. 'the Carthaginian senate deputed hi.
*-An ancient town of Campania, founded by .
Tuscan, or, according to some, an Euboean colon v.
Some curious anecdotes are connected with Nofi.
It is said that Virgil had introduced the name in
his Georgics; but being refused a glass of water by
the inhabitants, he blotted out the word and sub-
stituted Ora, in the 225th line, 2d book, of Geor-
gics. Augustus died there on his return from
Neapolis to Rome. In the beginning of the filth
century, St. Paulinus, a bishop of the place, wiho
died A. D. 431, invented bells, whence they were
called Nolmc and Campanaian Latin. Some ima-
gine bells to have been a previous invention, and
merely introduced into the churches of Nola by
Paulinus. Prior to his time, congregations were
called together by large wooden rattles, called
sac a ligna.


brother Asdrubal to go to his assistance'
with a large body of Spaniards; but being
betrayed by his guides into the hands of the
consuls, Nero and Livius, who were on the
alert, his whole army was cut to pieces.
On the very night on which Hannibal
expected the succors, by order of Nero, the
head of Asdrubal was thrown into his
brother's camp. This seemed an omen of
further ill-fortune.
8. The Roman arms in other quarters
were successful. Marcellus took the Sici-
lian city of Syracuse, although defended by
the fires and machines of the noted Archim-
edes, who was slain at his studies, much
to the grief of the Roman general, who
ordered him to be honorably interred, and
erected a tomb to his memory.
9. In Spain, although two Scipio's were
killed, the hopes of the Romans reviv-
ed under the conduct of Scipio Afri-
canus, who, though but twenty-four years
old, was almost the equal of Hannibal
in military science, and greatly his su-
perior in the arts of war. Having lost
his father in Spain, he seemed to have
a natural claim to war against that coun-
10. Returning victor from Spain, he be-
came consul at the age of twenty-nine.
Instead of attacking Hannibal in Italy, he
resolved to threaten the capital of the Car-
thaginians, while their bravest defenders
were away. Hanno, who opposed the
young warrior in Africa, was defeated and
slain. Syphax, who led up an army
against him, was kept at bay until Scipio
found an opportunity to fire his camp,
when, attacking the enemy in the confusion
occasioned by the conflagration, the Ro-
mans killed forty thousand men, and cap-
tured six thousand.
11. Terrified at the success of Scipio,
and fearing everything from his future for-
tune, the Carthaginians sent an order to
recall Hannibal to his country, in order to
oppose the Roman general, who threatened
now to besiege Carthage. Hannibal took
tearful leave of Italy, of the most fertile
parts of which he had kept possession for
over fifteen years.

12. Arrived at Loptis,* in Africa, he
thence marched to Adrumetum,f and at
length approached Zama,t which was
within five days' journey of Carthage.
Scipio, now joined by six thousand horse,
under the command of Masinissa, advanc-
ed to meet his rival, sending back Hanni-
bal's spies to him, with leave to tell all they
had seen in the camp through which they
had been conducted.
13. Hannibal attempted to put an end to
the war by negotiation; but from a confer-
ence, the two generals retired to prepare
for the arbitration of the sword. In the
great battle which followed, Hannibal made
a more skilful disposition of his forces than
he had ever done before. But part of his
calculations were defeated by the conduct
of his elephants, which, wounded by the
slingers and bowmen, turned upon their
drivers, fell upon the wings which were
composed of cavalry, and disabled and dis-
ordered them.
14. The heavy infantry of both sides
joined, but the superior weight and force of
the Romans compelled the Carthaginians
to give way, and Masinissa, returning
from pursuing the cavalry, completed their
destruction. Twenty thousand men were
killed, and as many taken prisoners.
15. After having done all that lay in
his power, as a brave and skilful man, to
avert defeat, Hannibal retired to Adrume-
tum with a small squadron of cavalry. By
the treaty of peace which this victory pro-
duced, the Carthaginians stipulated to pay
ten thousand talents in fifty years, to give
hostages for the delivery of their ships and
elephants, to restore all the territories to
Masinissa, which had been taken from him,
and only to make war in Africa with the
permission of the Romans. Thus, seven-
SThere were two cities of this name in Africa i
one, called Major, now Lebida, built by a Tyrian
or Sidonian colony, th other, called inor, now
Lemta, about eighteen Roman miles from Adru-
metum. It paid every day a talent, by way of
tribute, to Carthage.
t A town of Africa on the Mediterranean, built
by the Phoenicians.
t Or Zagma, a town of Numidia, three hundred
miles from Carthage.



teen years after its commencement, ended
the second Punic war, 149 years B. C.


1. The military operations of the Ro-
mans were very extensive, for while at war
with Hannibal, they were carrying on hos-
tilities against Philip, king of Macedonia.
The inhabitants of Rhodes, and Attalus,
king of Pergamus,* joined against him.
He attempted to take possession of Ther-
mopyla, but was driven thence by Quintus
Flaminius, experiencing a heavy loss. He
was admitted to make peace after being
defeated in Thessaly, whither he had fled
for refuge, by paying five hundred talents
immediately, and five hundred in the course
of ten years. The Romans then restored
the liberty of Greece.
%. Five years after the fortunate termi-
nation of the Macedonian war, another was
declared against Antiochus, king of Syria.
To obtain peace, he too late offered to quit
all his European places, and such of the
Asiatic as professed an alliance with Rome.
He was forced, however, to defend himself.
3. Scipio, conscious that his own men
were as superior in courage and discipline,
as they were inferior in numbers to the
enemy, saw, with satisfaction, Antiochus
range his army, which consisted of seventy
thousand foot and twenty thousand horse.
The havoc made among these was dreadful,
A kingdom founded by Philmterus, an eunuch,
to whom Lysimachus intrusted his treasures after
the battle of Ipsus. The capital was famous for a
library of two hundred thousand volumes, a noble
collection made by different monarchs. It was
transported by Cleopatra, with the permission of
Anthony, to Egypt, where it enriched the Alexan-
drian library, most fatally destroyed by the Sara-
cens. Parchment was first invented and used at
Pergamus, because Ptolemy, king of Egypt, had
forbidden the exportation of the papyrus from his
kingdom, in order to prevent Eumenes, one of the
kings of Pergamus, from making as choice a libra-
ry as that of Alexandria. Hence parchment has
been called charta Pergamena. Galen, the phy-
sician, and Apollodorus, the mythologist were born

and great loss was occasioned by the cha*
riot of the king, armed with scythes, which
was driven back upon his own men.
4. Antiochus gladly procured peace of
the Romans on their own terms. lie agreed
to give up his European possessions, all in
Asia on that side of mount Taurus,* and to
deliver up Hannibal, who had taken refuge
at the Syrian court, where he was at first
received kindly, and made admiral of their
5. Having taken refuge at the court of
Prusias, king of Bithynia, he was demanded
by AEmilius, a Roman general; and Prusias,
willing to conciliate the Romans by a fla-
grant violation of the rites of hospitality,
placed a guard over Hannibal, intendig to
deliver him up.
6. The poor old general, sooner than fall
into the hands of his abhorred enemies,
finding all means of safety denied, deter-
mined to escape from his foes and life to-
gether, and, taking poison, expired, as he
had lived, with the most determined bravery.
His death is said to have taken place 187
years B. C.
7. A second Macedonian war was declar-
ed against Perseus the son of Philip, who
had secured his accession to the throne by
the murder of his brother Demetrius, and
pleased with fancying triumphs, declared
war against Rome. In the three years' war,
the unskilfulness of Perseus prevented his
taking advantage of the many opportuni-
ties which offered of cutting off the Roman
8. iEmilius at length gave him a con-
clusive defeat near the river Enipeus.t
Perseus attempted to escape into Crete,
but, abandoned by all, unwillingly surrender-
ed himself, and was forced, as a captive, to
grace the splendid triumph of the Roman
9. Masinissa, the Numidian, made some
incursions upon the territories of Carthage,
which were repelled by the Carthaginians;

SIn point of extent, the largest mountain in
Asia. One of its extremities is in Caria, and it
reaches not only as far as the most eastern extre-
mities of Asia, but it alsb branches into several
parts, and runs far into the north.
t A river of Thessaly, flowing through Pharsalia


this was considered as an infraction of the
treaty by the Romans, who sent an ambas-
sador to make a complaint. Finding the
city in a flourishing condition, he reported
that there was an absolute necessity for war,
and the consul set out with a determination
of destroying Carthage.
10. In vain did the Carthaginians offer a
complete submission to their hard-hearted
victors; they were ordered to leave their
city that it might be levelled with the
ground. Finding the consuls unyielding,
they prepared to fight and die for the pre-
servation of their home.
11. Their luxurious vessels of gold and
silver were now converted into arms, the
women parted with all their ornaments, and
even with their hair, which was used in
making strings for the bows. Asdrubal,
who had been imprisoned for opposing the
Romans, was led forth to head the army,
which proved successful in many engage-
ments without the walls, disheartening their
enemies, and finally making them doubtful
of success.
12. Even Scipio XEmilius, the adopted
son of Africanus, would have failed of suc-
cess, had he not found means to corrupt
Pharneas, the Carthaginian master of horse,
who came over to his side. When the city
was entered, and the forum taken, a most
shocking spectacle was presented to the
eyes of the victors. Houses were falling,
feeble and mangled forms emerging from
the carnage, and dying wretches bewailing
their own ruin, and the destruction of their
13. Thus perished, in the year 147 B. C.,
one of the most renowned cities in the
world for arts, opulence, and extent, having,
at one time, the superiority over Rome. In
the same year, Corinth was destroyed by
the consul Mummius; and not long after,
the inhabitants of Numantia,* one of the
strongest cities in Spain, to avoid falling
into the hands of Scipio, fired their city,
and perished in the conflagration to a man.
Spain, then a province of Rome, was thence-
forth governed by two pretors, chosen an-
A town of Spain, near the sources of the river



1. The spoils of the immense territories
subjected to the Romans, introduced among
them a taste for luxury and corruption.
The first who called the public attention to
this subject were Tiberius and Caius Grac-
chus, who proposed a renewal of the Lici-
nian law, which enacted that no person
should possess more than five hundred acres
of land.
2. This law found determined enemies
among the rich, and they resolved to inter-
rupt the course of proceedings as much as
possible, although the law finally passed.
While Gracchus was addressing the citi-
zens in the capitol, a tumult arose, and on
raising his hand to his head to signify that
his life was in danger, the partizans of the
senate gave out that he wanted a crown,
and while attempting to save his life by
flight, Saturgius, one of his colleagues in
the tribuneship, killed him with the frag-
ment of a seat. Three hundred of his
hearers shared his fate, being killed in the
3. Caius Gracchus, the brother of Tibe-
rius, was at this time living in retirement,
and while appearing to avoid popularity,
was employing his time in the cultivation
of eloquence; and when he thought him-
self qualified to serve his country, he ob-
tained the quwestorship of the Sardiniap
4. A king of Numidia sent a present of
corn to the Roman people, saying that it
was wholly a tribute to the virtues of Caius
Gracchus. The senate treated this mes-
sage with the utmost scorn, and ordered
the ambassadors who brought it to return,
as they came, like ignorant barbarians.
Young Gracchus, informed of this circum-
stance, returned from the army, complained
of the injustice which had been done him,
and, contrary to the wishes of the senate,
was made a tribune of the people.
5. He procured an edict bestowing free-
dom upon the inhabitants of Latium, and
soon afterwards upon all the people on that
side of the Alps; he fixed the price of corn



at a certain moderate rate, and obtained a
monthly distribution of it among the peo-
ple. He then proceeded to a fearless exam-
ination of the charges brought against the
senate, and the whole body being convicted
of bribery, extortion, and traffic in public
offices, Gracchus obtained a law appointing
the knights judges of corrupt magistrates,
instead of the senate.
6. The senate hated Gracchus for his
power and popularity, and set up in oppo-
sition to him one Drusus, who gradually
estranged the minds and hearts of the peo-
ple from the former leader. Gracchus
found them faithless friends. In vain did
he revive the Licinian law, and in vain did
he bring up inhabitants from different towns
to support him; the senate ordered them all
away from Rome, and went to the extrem-
ity of imprisoning one whom Gracchus
had invited to live with him.
7. The consul Opimius, confiding in his
guard, and in the superior numbers of his
party, took occasion to insult Gracchus
whenever he passed him, and endeavored
to bring about some retaliation which
should serve as an excuse for dispatching
him. Gracchus, however, refused even to
carry arms, and refrained from all recrimi-
8. Flaccus, his friend, a zealous tribune,
determined to oppose party to party, and
on one occasion, a lictor could not help ex-
claiming to the party of Fulvius, 'Ye fac-
tious citizens, make way for honest men!'
These words so enraged the persons to
whom they were directed, that they slew
the lictor on the spot, and Gracchus, re-
proving the unbridled zeal of his partisans,
led them to mount Aventine.
9. Here he learned that a proclamation
had been issued, offering for his head and
that of Flaccus their weight in gold. He
endeavored to negotiate with the senate,
and sent to them the youngest son of Flac-
cus, then a child, but with no avail; they
were bent on his destruction, and offered
pardon to all who would leave him.
10. This produced the wished-for effect;
his followers gradually fell away, and left
him with a very inadequate force. Opi-
mius, thirsting for slaughter, fell upon the

party at mount Aventine, and three thou.
sand citizens were slain. Flaccus sought
refuge in a ruinous hut, in which he was
found, and killed with his eldest son.
11. Gracchus, retiring to the temple of
Diana, resolved to die there by his own
hand; but his dear and faithful friends,
Pomponius and Lucinius, forced him to fly.
Coming from the temple with his two gene-
rous friends and a Greek slave, the party
attempted to cross a bridge leading from
the city; but the pursuit of their enemies
compelled them to turn and face the dan-
12. Pomponius and Lucinius were soon
slain in the defence of Gracchus, who
sought refuge with his slave in a grove be-
yond the Tiber. Here the slave, urged by
his unfortunate master, killed him, and then
sacrificed himself on the body.
13. When the corpse was found, the
head was cut off, and elevated on a spear-
head as a trophy. One Septimuleius ex-
tracted the brains, and filling the cavity
with lead, procured from the consul, as its
weight, seventeen pounds of gold. Thus
perished Caius Gracchus. The Gracchi
appear to have been unjustly accused of
fomenting sedition. They were apparently
true patriots, who preferred death to yield-
ing up the interests of those whose cause
they had espoused.

1. The circumstances attending the Ju-
gurthine\ war prove beyond a doubt the
enormous corruption which the Roman
manners had undergone. Jugurtha, the
grandson of Masinissa, finding that Hiemp-
sal and Adherbal, the sons of the late king,
stood between him and the throne of Nu-
midia,* murdered the elder of these bro-
Numidia now forms the kingdom of Algiers
and Bildulgerid. It was bounded on the north by
the Mediterranean sea, south by Getulia, west by
Mauritania, and east by a part of Lybia, called
Africa proper. The inhabitants were called No-



2. The younger applied to the Roman
senate for protection; but Jugurtha corrupt-
ed this body with gold, and they declared
him innocent, and decreed to him the right
of ruling half the kingdom. Jugurtha then
put the surviving brother to death, and to
avert war, went in person to Rome, and,
having again bribed the senate, was again
declared guiltless.
3. A pursuance of this course, however,
drew down upon his head the fearful ven-
geance of thd Romans. Betrayed into their
hands by his father-in-law, he was dragged
in chains to Rome, where, having graced
the triumph of Marius, the consul, he was
confined in a dungeon, and there starved to
4. After the Jugurthine war, occurred that
of the allied states of Italy, entered into to
procure the rights of citizenship, which
were finally granted to such confederates as
promised to return tranquilly to their alle-
giance. This was followed by the civil
wars, when Marius and Sylla, rivals, and
enemies, were at the head of the republic.
5. Sylla, while engaged in carrying on
the war against Mithridates in Asia, receiv-
ed an order for his return, which he refused
to obey, and found his soldiers ready to
support his conduct. They clamored to be
led against Rome to avenge the cause of
6. Sylla led the soldiers on, and entered
Rome sword in hand. Marius and his par-
tisans escaped with precipitation, and Sylla
and his faction triumphed for a while. But
during the absence of Sylla at the Mithri-
datic war, Marius returned, and uniting his
forces with those of his warm partisan
Cinna, laid siege to Rome.
7. After a massacre of all who were op-
posed to them, Marius and Cinna proclaim-
ed themselves consuls without even the
show of an election. Marius, in a fit of
intoxication, died soon after. Returning to
Italy after a glorious campaign of victory in
Asia, Sylla, aided by Cethegus, Verres, and
made, nid afterwards Numidce. The Numidians
were excellent warriors, and generally sought to
engage in the night. They rode their horses with-
out saddle or bridle: hence their epithet, infrani,

young Pompey, defeated his enemies m
battle, and was created dictator.
8. Sylla's entry into Rome was accom-
panied by a massacre of the most frightful
description, and a proscription which was
intended to exterminate every enemy that
Sylla had in Italy. Invested with an abso-
lute authority, the duration of which was
unlimited, he now found himself without a
rival to oppose him.
9. However, he enacted many excellent
laws, and passed many wise regulations;
he organized rules with regard to the elec-
tions of all the principal officers of state,
and endeavored to provide safeguards
against the oppressive abuse of power. He
voluntarily resigned his authority, and re-
tired to private life, dying soon after his
resignation, about 78 years B. C.


1. The mutual jealousy of Pompey and
Crassus excited new disturbances in the
state after the death of Sylla, and finally re-
sulted in the famous conspiracy of Catiline.
The first jealousy was perceptible in the
disbanding of their victorious troops. Nei-
ther was willing to commence: Crassus
was the first, stifling his resentment, to give
up his command, and Pompey, soon after,
followed his example.
2. They strove which should obtain the
greatest popularity with the people. On
the one hand, Crassus, with unrivalled pro-
digality, entertained the populace at a thou.
sand tables, and, for the space of nearly
three months, supported them: while, on
the other, Pompey labored incessantly to
abolish all the laws which had been made
to contract the power of the people. He
revived the decree which gave to the Ro-
man knights the right ofjudgment, and
restored to the tribunes all their former
3. Pompey, by the extermination of the
pirates who had for a long time infested
the Mediterranean, gained great renown
for his country and himself; but while



abroad victorious, an event took place at
home by which Rome was placed in the
greatest danger, and her fame and fortunes
threatened. This was the conspiracy of
4. Lucius Sergius Catilina, (familiarly
called Catiline,) belonged to a noble family,
which he disgraced by his crimes. He was
accused not only of dishonoring a vestal
virgin, but of murdering his own brother;
and for the latter crime he would have been
brought to trial, had not the enormity of
his treason absorbed all consideration of his
other offences.
5. Catiline collected around him a throng
of debauched, unprincipled, and factious
nobles, with men of other classes; his
house became the scene of their revels, and
they had soon compromised their safety
in his interests. The plan agreed upon
was, that a general insurrection should be
raised simultaneously in all parts of Italy;
that they should set fire to Rome, into
which, in the midst of the chaos, Catiline,
with a powerful army, should march from
Etruria and massacre the senators.
6. To render their oaths more inviolable,
the conspirators drank the blood of human
victims slain for the purpose. Lentulus
was to preside at the councils, Cethegus
at their murders; while Cicero, from whose
mind and activity they feared the greatest
opposition to their designs, was to be mur-
dered in his bed. He, however, induced a
woman named Fulvia, to obtain the secret
from her lover, one of the conspirators;
and, with this information, hastened to
warn the senate, and prepare for the de-
fence of the city.
7. They first offered a large reward for
further discoveries and then prepared for
public defence. Catiline boldly presented
himself to the senate, and declared his in-
nocence; but he was unable to bear up
against the withering eloquence of Cicero,
and left Rome by night for Etruria, where
Manlius was raising an army for him.
8. Cethegus and Lentulus, who remained
in Rome, were seized and executed. Cati-
line, on learning the apprehension and
death of his fellow conspirators, attempted
to escape into Gaul, but finding himself

completely encircled by determined oppo-
nents, he resolved to throw his army of
twelve thousand men into battle, and make
a last desperate effort for success and life.
His troops fought with bravery worthy of
a just cause ; butthey were completely de-
stroyed and routed by Petreius, the lieu-
tenant of the consul Antonius, he being at
the time sick. In this action Catiline died,
the year B. C. 63.
9. Of the battle, Sallust, who has writ-
ten an elegant and forcible account of the
conspiracy, remarks : On the termination
of the conflict, you might justly estimate
the recklessness and bravery which pre-
vailed throughout the ranks of Catiline.
The body of each soldier occupied in death
the spot which he had chosen during the
combat A few whom the pretorian cohort
had charged, lay more dispersed, but yet
with all their wounds in front.'

1. Pompey, crowned with laurels which
he had acquired in the East, ere the lustre
of his European and African fame was
dimmed, returned to Rome, where the vari-
ances between him and Crassus appeared
to threaten protracted revolutions and dis-
turbances. At this juncture, after an ab-
sence passed in prosperity, Julius Caesar
returned to Rome.
2. This extraordinary man was possess-
ed of great talents, both for military and
civil life. In Spain he had been quiestor,
a~dile, grand pontiff, and prietor. He re-
solved to profit by the existing state of
things. Professing a warm interest in the
welfare of the people, he first offered his
services to Pompey, and was kindly receiv-
ed by him; Crassus, already on favorable
terms with him, was disposed to become
yet more his friend. Representing the
uselessness and folly of their rivalry, he
procured a meeting and a reconciliation,
and the three, uniting their authority, the
triumvirate, as it was called, began.
3. Casar, upon entering the triumvirate,



at once commenced the furtherance of his
projects for empire. He obtained a legal
division of the public lands among the citi-
zens. He next shared the foreign pro-
vinces with his confederates. Pompey
chose Spain; Crassus, Syria; but Casar
selected Gaul, which was then filled with
fierce and warlike people.
4. Numerous were the battles which
Casar fought during the process of subju-
gating states in his various expeditions,
which lasted eight years. He first con-
quered the Helvetians,* slaying twenty
thousand of them, but sending back the
survivors to their native forests. The
Germanst lost thirty thousand men, and
their princes escaped with life in a boat
across the river Rhine.t
5. Such was the slaughter of the Belge,
that marshes and streams were rendered
passable by their slain. From the Nervi-
ans,[I however, who fell upon the Romans
with great fury, their army stood in dan-
ger of defeat, till Cesar, catching up a
buckler, rushed through his troops, plunged
amidst the enemy, and caused them to be
cut off.

The Helvetii were an ancient nation of Gaul,
whose country is the modern Switzerland.
t The Germans, Germani, inhabited Germania
a large country at the east of Gaul. They were
fierce, warlike, uncivilized and superstitious.
They erected no temples to their gods. They paid
the greatest respect to women, whom they consid-
ered as possessed of a spirit more than human.
Their warriors and heroes were regarded and re-
membered with veneration.
I The Rhine, anciently called the Rhenus, one
of the largest rivers of Europe, divided Germany
froul Gaul. It rises in the Rhoetian Alps, and
falls into the German ocean. It was considered
as a barrier between the Romans and Germans,
and bore upon its banks a long range of castles.
C~esar was the first to cross it. The Rhine was
held sacred by the Germans. They used to throw
their children into its stream, to brace their nerves
or to prove their worth. If the child sank, it was
considered as a degenerate scion, but if it swam,
acquired their confidence and affection.
b A warlike people of ancient Gaul, separated
by tie rivers Matrona and Sequana, from the
11 The Nervians were a warlike people of Belgic
Gaul. Their country now forms Hainault.


6. The Celtic* Gauls, a naval nation,
were next brought into subjection. Having
overcome the Suevi,t Menapii,4 and all
nations from the Mediterranean to the
British sea, Cesar passed into Britain
The inhabitants, terrified, sued for peace,
which he granted upon the delivery of some
7. His fleet, however, having been partly
destroyed by a storm, they took advantage
of this disaster to renew hostilities, but
were again conquered, and again begged
peace, which was granted as before. Cesar
then returned to the continent, having in
nine years conquered all the country be-
tween the North sea and the Mediterra-
nean, besides subjugating Britain.
8. Cesar, aware of the jealousies of
Pompey, by way of trying his temper, and
that of the senate, solicited the consulship,
and prolongation of his government m
Gaul. The senate were now devoted
wholly to the interests of Pompey, and they
recalled the two legions of Cesar's army,
which belonged to Pompey, home. But
Julius, although he knew this was done
with i~e intention of diminishing his
power, having attached the officers by be-
nefits, and the soldiers by donations, per
mitted their return.
9. The term of Cesar's government hav-
ing nearly expired, the senate ordered him
home, and directed him to resign the com-
mand of his army. Curio, Caesar's friend,
proposed that Pompey should first set the
example. A rumor circulating, that Caesar
was beyond the Alps, marching on the city
Nation that inhabited the country between
the ocean and the Palus Maeotis. Though the
name of Celtae was anciently applied to the in-
habitants of Germany and Gaul, it was given more
particularly to the inhabitants of Gallia Celtica,
which was situated between the rivers Sequana
and Garumna, now the Seine and Garonne.
t A people of Germany between the Elbe and
the Vistula.
$ A people of Belgic Gaul near the Mosa.
A Britain was discovered to be an island by
Agricola, who circumnavigated it. It was a Ro-
man province till the four hundred and forty-
eighth year of the Christian era. The inhabitants,
in the time of Caesar, used, after the manner of
our Indians, to paint their bodies, to render them
more terrible in the eyes of their enemies.



with his whole force, the consul went to
the house of Pompey, presented him with
a sword, and commanded him to oppose
Caesar, as the enemy of the commonwealth.
Pompey expressed his readiness to obey.
10. Caesar, who was still in Gaul, was
willing to cover his proceedings with the
show of justice. Favoring the manage-
ment of his friends at Rome, he declared
that he was ready to lay down his com-
Inand as soon as Pompey. The senate
indignantly rejected this proposal. Caesar
still delayed an open breach. From Ra-
venna,* a city of Cisalpine Gaul, whither
he marched from the Alps, with his third
legion, he sent a letter to the consuls, de-
claring anew his readiness to resign all
power, if Pompey would do the same. The
senate decreed Caesar, in case of his refu-
sal unconditionally to surrender his gov-
ernment, an enemy of the commonwealth.
11. The self-possession of Caesar was
eminently conspicuous the night before his
expedition into Italy. Sitting at his table,
he cheerfully conversed upon various sub-
jects of literature and philosophy, for which
he had a taste. A portion of his army had
been dispatched to a place near Arminium,
a city on the confines of Italy, whither he
went in his chariot by night.
12. He joined his army, five thousand
strong, in the vicinity of the Rubicon, a
little river which separates Italy from
Gaul, and which was considered by the
Romans as the sacred boundary of their
domestic empire. Aware of the conse-
quences of the step he was about to take,
Casar paused for a long while upon the
banks of the river, absorbed in deep and
melancholy consideration, and preserving
Situated on the Adriatic, and celebrated under
the Roman emperors for its capacious harbor,
capable of containing two hundred and fifty ships;
and for some time being the seat of the western
empire. It stood on a small peninsula, and, as
Martial tells us, was so ill supplied with water,
that the element sold at a higher price than wine.
It was founded by a colony of Thessalians, or, as
some imagine, Sabines. It is now a wretched
town, four miles from the sea, surrounded by
marshes. By Cisalpine Gaul, the Romans under-
stood that part of Gaul which lay in Italy, and by
Transalpine, that beyond the Alps, in regard only
to the inhabitants of Rome.

total silence. Ambition was now contend-
ing with patriotism, public with private
feelings; but the struggles of his mind
were not permitted to betray themselves
upon his countenance.
13. Calling to him one of his generals,
he said, If I pass this river, I shall bring
misery upon my country. If I pause,
am undone myself." He then plunged
into the river, calling on his soldiers to
follow him. They obeyed. The die was
cast. Csesar passed the Rubicon and made
,himself master of Arminium. The news
of this event spread consternation, all im-
agining that he came to lay the city in the
dust, and, like an unrighteous spirit, to
exult amid the conflagration, the ashes and
the ruins of Rome.


1. Pompey left the whole of Italy in thf
power of his formidable rival, without a
town or army to oppose his victorious pro-
gress. Cesar, finding that his own want of
ships prevented him from pursuing Pom-
pey, went back to Rome to secure the pub-
lic treasure, which had been unguardedly
left in his way.
2. The door of the treasury was guarded
by Metellus, a tribune, who, upon Caesar's
presenting himself, refused him entrance.

Caesar, placing his hand upon his sword-
hilt, threatened to kill him, adding, 'it is

" '~;



easier, young man, to do than to say this.'
The tribune, influenced by the threat, re-
tired, and Casar took from the treasury
three thousand pounds of gold, and a vast
quantity of silver.
3. Having the necessary funds for the
prosecution of the war, he marched upon
ompey's lieutenants, Afranius and Pe-
treius, who had been a long time in Spain,
commanding an army composed of tried
veterans, who had been victorious under
all their leaders. At first, he was unsuc-
cessful, but by hunger and drought, he
reduced them to the necessity of yielding.
He returned to Rome, after having, in
forty days, made himself master of the
whole of Spain. He was created by the
citizens dictator and consul, but resigned
the first office in eleven days.
4. Pompey, meanwhile, was in Epirus
and Greece, making formidable prepara-
tions for opposing Casar. All the eastern
monarchs declared themselves in his favor.
He possessed in Italy nine effective le-
gions; he had a well-equipped fleet of five
hundred sail under Bibulus, an active and
experienced commander, and was supplied
with provisions, and all the other neces-
saries of an army, by the tributary prov-
5. Numbers flocked daily to him from
Rome. At one time, two hundred senators
were witll him, and among others, Cato
and Cicero, themselves a host, who gave
ids cause great weight, by their earnest
approval. lie had beaten Antony and
Dolabella, the former of whom he compelled
to fly, and the latter, took prisoner. Thus
fortune, at first, declared in his favor, but
his fate depended upon the issue of the
hostile meeting between him and Caesar.
6. The armies first came in sight of
each other on the opposite banks of the
Issues Pompey was unwilling to hazard
a battle, and Cesar, although urged to con-
flict by the impatience and confidence of
his soldiers, resolved to await the arrival
of his reinforcements. They at length
landed amidst the congratulations of the

A river of Macedonia, falling into the Ionian
sea between Dyrrachium and Apollouia.

army, and Caesar found himself enabled
to put his troops in motion.
7. Pompey found himself compelled to
retreat, and accordingly fell back upon
Asparagus,* where his fleets which coasted
Epirus could bring them the necessary
supplies in abundance. Cesar's army were
employed in works calculated to straiten
and confine their foes, while Pompey's men
made every endeavor to enlarge and
strengthen their position. Possessing the
superiority of numbers, they annoyed
Casar's army by means of their arrows and
8. Cesar, however, was incessantly en-
gaged in providing means of defence. He
erected blinds or mantles, made of the
skins of wild beasts, under cover of which
his men were able to work safely; and he
also prevented the enemy from getting
supplies of water, or forage for the horses
of their cavalry. Thus circumstanced,
Pompey determined to break through his
9. Ordering his choicest infantry, his
best slingers and bowmen, on board his
ships, he gave them directions to attack
the enemy's camp by sea, where it was
least defensible. Caesar seeing his design
of blocking up the enemy frustrated, re-
solved, at every hazard, to force Pompey in-
to an engagement. The battle commenced
by an attempt to cut off a legion posted in
a patch of wood, and a general engage-
ment soon followed.
10. The contest was fierce and animated,
but the troops of Cesar, entangled in the
old lines of intrenchment, and pressed
into the ditches and against the mounds,
gave way in helpless disorder. Pompey,
seeing his advantage, pushed them hard.
Numbers perished in the trenches and on
the banks of the river, and the victorious
general pursued the routed forces as far as
the camp of Caesar.
11. That commander, whose defeat was
by no means ruinous, marched immedi-
ately to Gomphi,t a Thessalonian town,
the inhabitants of which had promised him
A town near Dyrrachium.
t Near the sources of the Peneus.



obedience, but who, on learning his mis-
chance at Dyrrachium,# shut their gates
upon him. He was not, however, discour-
aged, but resolved to punish their perfidy;
and firing his soldiers by a description of
thq wealth of the place, he captured it in
a few hours. Making no pause, however,
he went onward to Metropolis, which yield-
ed without contest, and in a short time be-
came master of all Thessaly, with the ex-
ception of Larissa.
12. Larissa was garrisoned by a legion
under the command of Scipio, who held
the place for Pompey. The latter, contin-
ually assailed by the importunities of his
officers to give battle to the enemy, at
length resolved, against the dictates of his
better judgment, to comply with their
wishes. He marched, a few days after the
surrender of Gomphi, into the plains of
Pharsalia,f where, on being joined by
Scipio, he resolved to decide the fate of the
empire by a single engagement with Cesar,
whose arrival he awaited.


1. Cmsar, having previously ascertained
that his soldiers were confident and willing
to engage again with Pompey's troops, led
them into the plains of Pharsalia. The
two armies, though differently situated
and influenced, arrived at the same conclu-
sion. The soldiers of Pompey, confident
m their numbers, thought only of the en-
joyment of the victory; those of Caesar
considered the means of gaining it. On
the one hand, there was a reliance on the
combined skill of several leaders; on the
other, a confidence in the resources and
abilities of a single commander. The men
of Pompey put faith in the justice of their
cause; those of Cesar alleged their many
Now Durazzo, a large city of Macedonia, bor-
dering on the Adriatic, and founded by a colony
from Corcyra, B. C. 623 : anciently called Epl-
t Ih the neighborhood of Pharsalus, a town of

overtures for peace. Thus the reasons and
the views of both parties were different;
but their animosity and ambition were the
2. Caesar, ever active and alert, led out
his troops in battle array; but Pompey,
either placing little reliance in his men, or
fearing an unfortunate result, kept back
within his well-chosen position. Some-
times, indeed, he drew out of his camp,
but always remained under his trenches,
and near the hill which overhung his post.
Caesar, aware that he was better able to
bear fatigue than his enemy, resolved to
harass and wear out the forces of Pompey,
and therefore gave orders to decamp.
3. When the tents were struck, word
was brought that Pompey's army had drawn
out farther from their entrenchments than
they had done before, and were posted in
an advantageous position for attack. Ce-
sar then ordered a halt, and, with a coun-
tenance beaming joy, advanced to his sol-
diers, and informed them that the joyful
moment had at length arrived, which was
to terminate the fatigues of the previous
campaign, with a victory which would open
to them a most brilliant future.
4. In point of numbers, the armies were
far from being equally matched. Pompey
had forty-five thousand foot, and seven
thousand horse; Caesar, not more than
twenty-two thousand foot, and one thou-
sand horse. The deficiency of his cavalry
had indeed filled him with anxiety, but he
had remedied it, by training some of his
nimblest and bravest foot-soldiers to fight
between the ranks of horse ; they had been
victorious in a skirmish some ays previ-
ous, and, in fact, Caesar's one thousand
equalled his adversary's seven thousand
5. Pompey's hopes of success principal-
ly rested on his powerful and numerous
cavalry, which he thought would outflank
and surround the enemy. Labienus ap-
proved the plans of Pompey, and still fur-
ther to animate and assure hip soldiers, he'
swore not to return to the camp unless tri-
umphant. Under so favorable an aspect
did this distinguished general lead out his
troops to combat.




6. His order of battle was extremely
good. Upon his two flanks, and in his
centre, he posted his trusty and valiant
veteran troops; the fresh levies he placed
between the main body and the wing;
Scipio, commanding the Syrian troops,
held the centre; Domitius JEnobarbus
headed the Spaniards on the right; the
two legions which Caesar had restored, were
upon the left, and led by Pompey himself;
because, with them he intended to make
the decisive attack-hence, in this quarter
he assembled his horse, slingers, and
archers, of which the right wing did not
stand in need, being covered by the river
7. Domitius Calvinus commanded Cme-
sar's centre, Mark Antony his left; while
he himself led on the right wing which
was to oppose Pompey's left. Pompey
showed the reliance he placed in the disci-
pline of Casar by putting himself at the
head of the two legions trained by him,
while Casar commanded his own tenth
legion, whose military fame was owing to
his own instructions.
8. As soon as Cmsar perceived where
the enemy's horse had congregated, and
upon what point of his own army they pro-
posed to act, he made a draught of six co-
horts from his rear line, and hiding them
behind his right wing, commander them,
on the approach of the hostile cavalry, not
to fling their javelins in the customary
manner, but to push them directly in the
faces of the horsemen, who, being mostly
young Roman nobles, priding themselves
upon their beauty, would endure anything
to avoid an injury of their features. He
lastly ordered the cavalry to cover the
tenth legion, and the third line to await his
signal for advancing.
9. As the armies made ready for battle,
the two generals went about among their
troops to encourage and inspire them with
confidence and bravery. Pompey addressed
his troops, with firmness and eloquence.
'It is not,' he said, 'without reason, that I
anticipate a victory. You are possessed
of every advantage of numbers and vigor,
desides having been successful within a
Vew days. These advantages will secure

you an easy triumph over men whose age
enfeebles them, whose fatigues have worn
them down, whose numbers are few, com-
pared with yours, and who have recently
sustained a dispiriting defeat. Besides all
these considerations, you have a just cause.
Supported by your greatest patriots, the
world looks upon you with enthusiasm,
wishing you success; while he against
whom you contend, is an adventurer and
an enemy to the liberties of his country,
who, almost overwhelmed with crime and
despair, will fall a speedy sacrifice.'
10. Casar, in his addresses to his army,
possessed a serene countenance and a calm
voice. He spoke frequently of his desire
for peace, deplored the deaths of the many
brave men that he knew must fall upon
both sides, and lamented the wounds which
his country must sustain whatever the
event of the battle might be. His soldiers
listened to him with admiration, and burn-
ed for the signal of attack. As there was
just a sufficient space for fighting between
the armies, Pompey ordered his men to
sustain the first attack without giving
11. The word upon Pompey's side was
Hercules the Invincible; upon Caesar's,
Venus Victrix, or Victorious. The troops
of Cmsar advanced impetuously; but per-
ceiving their enemies to stand motionless,
they halted for a short time in their fiery
career. The iron-breasted legions gazed
upon each other with terror and severity,
but without quailing. Again arose the cry
of Venus the Victorious, and, discharging
their javelins, Ctesar's troops drew their
swords and rushed to the attack.
12. Pompey's soldiers followed the same
course, and sustained themselves with
bravery and vigor. Now Pompey ordered
his vast multitude of horsemen, slingers,
and archers to charge, and the troops of
his enemy gave way directly. It was then
that Cesar brought forward the six cohorts
of reserve, with their javelins levelled at
the hostile horse. 'To their faces!'
shouted Cmesar sternly.
13. The cohorts plunged their javelins
as directed, and the cavalry were checked
immediately. The young nobles, terrified



at the hideous wounds inflicted by this new
mode of fighting, thought only how they.
might save their faces. The cavalry fled
with the greatest precipitation and disorder
to the neighboring mountains, and the
archers and slingers, left to their fate, were
speedily cut to pieces.
14. Pompey's troops sustained bravely
* the charge of Cesar in the flank, until he
brought up his third line. Pompe's in-
fantry, thus assailed by fresh troops in
front, and furiously attacked in the rear by
the victorious cohorts, could keep up the
battle no longer, and fled to their camp.
Caesar, when assured of victory, generously
called out to spare the Romans, but pursue
the strangers; the former accordingly laid
down their weapons, and their safety was
15i The auxiliaries fled to the camp for
shelter, and there the greatest carnage took
place. The battle had lasted from break
of day till noon, and, following up their
victory, they routed the cohorts who were
left to guard the camp, and who soon fled
to the mountains. Caesar, on seeing the
field covered with the corpses of his coun-
trymen, was deeply affected, and exclaimed
mournfully, 'They would have it so.'
16. The camp was found to contain a
profusion of articles of luxury, and seemed
to give no evidence that a preparation for
a battle had been made. Cesar's loss was
two hundred in slain; Pompey's, fifteen
thousand Romans and auxiliaries. Twen-
ty-four thousand surrendered prisoners, and
the greater' part entered Cmsar's army.
His clemency in the use of his victory was
great. To those Roman knights and sena-
tors who fell into his hands, he gave per-
mission to retire whither they chose. Some
letters to Pompey from persons who wish-
ed to be thought neutral, being found in
the camp, Casar burned them unread.
Sending for the legions which had passed
the night in the camp to relieve the pursu-
ing squadrons, he arrived the same day in
Larissa. The battle of Pharsalia, so im-
portant in its influences and results, was
fought in the year 48 B. C.

1. During the battle of Pharsalia, when
the promising cavalry on which he placed
his entire confidence was routed, Pompey
lost his reason. Without thinking of mak-
ing an attempt to remedy the disorder, he
returned to his camp, which was soon at-
tacked. On learning this, he exclaimed,
What! are we pursued to our very in-
trenchments Then, perceiving that his
heavy armor was unsuited to his circum-
stances, he changed it for a light dress, and
mounting a fleet horse, fled away to La-
2. Passing through the vale of Tempe,*
he followed the river Peneus, and passed the
night in a fisherman's hut. Thence, leav-
ing the shore in a bark, he soon described a
ship of some size preparing to sail. Get-
ting on board this vessel, he was treated by
the master with all the respect due his late
rank. Finding his affairs at Amphipolis
desperate, he sailed thence for Lesbos to
take in his wife Cornelia, whom he had
left there at a distance from the seat of
3. Cornelia had for a long time indulged
herself in picturing the safety and triumph
of her husband. The news of his reverse,
conveyed by the tears rather than the words
of Pompey's messenger, overwhelmed her
with agony. When the man told her that
she must haste if she would see her hus-
band, that he had but one vessel, and that
not his own, the force of her disappoint-
ment was so great that she fainted, and lay
for some time inanimate.
4. On recovering her senses, she sprang
to her feet and fled fleetly through the city
to the sea. Pompey clasped her in his
arms in silent despair, and the vessel bore
away to the south-east, stopping only to
take in provisions at the ports by which it
lay its course. Pompey determined to ap-
A valley in Thessaly, between mount Olympus
and Ossa, through which the river Peneus flows
into the JEgean. So celebrated was it for its
beauty, that all pleasant valleys are termed Ten-
pe by the poets.



ply to Ptolemy, king of Egypt, a young I
man whose father he had befriended.
5. Ptolemy being a minor, the govern-
ment ivas in the hands of Photinus, an
eunuch, and Theodotus, a rhetorician, who
determined that Pompey should be invited
on shore, and slain at landing. Achillas,
commander of the forces, and Septimius,
formerly a centurion in Pompey's army,
were deputed to receive him. Accompa-
nied by some others, they rowed off in a
small bark to Pompey's ship, which lay
about a mile from shore.
6. Cornelia wept bitterly as she took
leave of Pompey. Repeating a couplet of
Sophocles, signifying that whoever trusts
in a tyrant becomes a slave, he gave his
hand to Achillas and stepped into the boat,
accompanied by two attendants. As they
preserved a strict silence, he was willing
to commence the conversation, and observ-
ed to Septimius, whose countenance he re-
cognised, 'My friend, methinks we have
been fellow-soldiers once.' Septimius an-
swered only by a nod, and Pompey, taking
out the sketch of a speech to the king
which he had prepared, occupied himself in
reading it until they landed.
7. Cornelia watched the progress of her
husband with intense anxiety. As she saw
the people crowding to the shore, she hoped
he would meet with a favorable reception;
but her hope was of brief duration. As he
rose, supported by the arm of his freedman
Philip, Septimius stabbed him in the back,
and Achillas seconded him.
8. Pompey, seeing no hope of escape,
resolved to die with decency. He covered
his face with his robe, and resigned himself
with a sigh to fate. At this distressing
spectacle, Cornelia shrieked so loudly as to
be heard on shore. The mariners did what
was best in her distressing situation; the
lana-wind coming off strong, they raised
their sails, and fortunately eluded the pur-
suit of the swift Egyptian galleys.
9. Pompey's murderers cut off.his head,
in order to embalm it, and preserve it as
a present for Cesar; but the body they left
naked on the sea-shore, exposed to the view
of all whom curiosity led thither. Philip,
the freedman, hovered near the dishonored

but loved remains of his brave but unfor.
tunate master.
10. When the crowd was dispersed, the
faithful freedman washed the body care-
fully in the sea, and then sought materials
for a funeral pile. These he met with in
the rotten remains of an old fishing-boat.
As he was building a pile, he was address-
ed by an old Roman soldier, who had serv-
ed under Pompey in his youth.
11. 'Who art thou,' said the veteran,
'that art making these humble preparations
for the funeral of Pompey ?' One of his
freedmen,' was the reply. 'Permit me,'
said the soldier, 'to share the honor of this
melancholy office. In my unhappy exile,

fouPra: of Pompey.
it will be a last sad comfort to think that 1
have been able to aid in the funeral of my
old commander, and to touch the corpse
,of the bravest Roman general that ever
12. The last rites were shared between
them: the ashes, carefully collected, they
placed under a little heap of earth, scraped
together with their hands. Over this last
sad resting-place was afterwards erected a
tomb, with the following inscription: He
whose merits deserve a temple, can now scarce-
lifind a tomb.' He died B. C. 48.


1. Caesar pursued Pompey to Alexan-
dria in Egypt, where he landed with about



four thousand men.. He soon heard of the
assassination of Pompey, and when his
head was presented to him, he turned away,
with horror, and poured forth a flood of
tears. He caused a tomb to be erected to
the memory of his unfortunate rival, and
near the place of his death, a temple to
SNemesis, the goddess who punished those
who were cruel to unfortunate men.
2. Photinus, it is said, attempted the life
of Cesar, who dissembled his indignation
until his army was reinforced, and mixed
in the banquets and amusements of the
city. The sovereignty of Egypt was then
a subject of contest between Ptolemy and
Cleopatra, his sister, who, according to an
impious law of the country, was his wife.
She shared the power with him, but sighed
for the entire command.
3. Cleopatra and Arsinoe, her younger
sister, had been banished to Syria; but the
former came to Alexandria to plead her
cause. The brilliancy of her mind and the
beauty of her person first struck Casar:
her unlimited caresses completed his capti-
vation. He made war upon Ptolemy, who
was killed, and Egypt subjected to the Ro-
man arms.
, 4. Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates,
raised a revolt in the Asiatic provinces, and
Casar was forced to march thither to sub-
due it, which he did with the greatest alac-
rity. This expedition was described by
Caesar to the Roman senate in three words,
Veni, vidi, vici-I came, I saw, I.conquered.
Italy being yet disturbed by the partisans
of Pompey, Ciesar returned home.
5. During the absence of Caesar he had
been created dictator for one year, consul
for five years, and tribune of the people for
life. His friend, Mark Antony, during his
absence, had be6n very imprudent; the city
was a scene of debauchery and confusion,
and the presence of Caesar was absolutely
6. By his prudence and mildness, he soon
restored tranquillity. Having restored his
authority at Rome, he went with a small
party to Africa, where Scipio and Cato had
rallied the remains of Pompey's partisans
and troops, assisted by Juba, king of Mau-
ritaia. Cesar, being joined by the re-

mainder of his army, soon took the field
against them.
7. Scipio shortly after received a deci-
sive defeat, which was obtained by the vic-
tor with little or no loss. His generals,
Juba and Petreius, killed each other in de-
spair. Scipio, attempting to escape by sea
into Spain, fell in with the enemy and was
slain. Cato, of all the leaders,alone re-
8. This extraordinary man, who bore
prosperity and adversity with equal stoi-
cism, after the defeat of Pharsalia, travers-
ed burning deserts with the remains of
Pompey's army. He was now in Utica,*
where, with a love even for the show ot
Roman liberty, he had assembled the chief
citizens into a senate, and resolved to de-
fend the town.
9. His friends, however, did not continue
to feel that ardent love of liberty which
inspired his breast. He therefore advised
some of them to seek safety by the sea;
others, to trust to the clemency of Caesar.
Having supped with his friends, he retired
to his apartment, where he behaved to his
son and intimates with his ordinary tender-
10. On finding himself alone, he lay
down, and taking up Plato's dialogue on
the immortality of the soul, he read it


attentively for some time. Casting his
eyes upon his bed, he found that his sword
Now Sateor, a noted city of Africa, on the coast
of the Mediterranean, on the same bay as Carthage.
Founded by a Tynan colony two hundred ana
eighty-seven years before Carthage.



had been removed. He called his domes-
tics, and insisted upon their restoring it.
His son, with tears in his eyes, besought
him to change his determination, but, meet-
ing wi Ji a stern reproof, was silent. When
he received his sword, he observed that he
was master of himself; and on being again
alone, stabbed himself through the heart.
11. Upon the death of Cato, and the ter-
mination of the African war, Ctsar return-
ed to Rome, where the splendor of his tri-
umph eclipsed all which had preceded it.
It lasted four days; the first of which was
for Gaul, the second for Egypt, the third
for his Asiatic victories, and the fourth for
his success over Juba in Africa. His vete-
ran soldiers, with scarred bosoms and
crowned with laurel, followed their general
to the capitol.
12. On each of his veterans, Caesar be-
stowed a sum equivalent to five hundred
dollars of our money; to his centurions he
gave twice, and to his officers four times
that amount. The citizens also were en-
tertained at twenty thousand tables. In-
toxicated with pleasure, they sought what
new titles and honors they should bestow
upon the victor.
13. IHe was created magister morum, or
master of the morals of the empire; was
styled its emperor and father; and, in short,
upon him alone were heaped all honors and
rewards, while his person was held sacred.
He used his power for the public good. He
created laws to restrain the prodigal luxu-
ries of the rich; he secured the right of ju--
dicature to the knights and senate alone;
he gave rewards to such as had many chil-
drer, and took the most prudent methods to
re-people the city, which the late commo-
tions and wars had almost depopulated.


1. By the activity and perseverance of
Caesar, tranquillity was secured to the citi-
zens, and this being accomplished, he found
himself obliged to set out for Spain to op-
pose Sextus and Cneius, the sons of Pom-

pey, who, with Labienus, his former gene.
ral, had raised an army. Proceeding with
wonderful celerity, he appeared before the
enemy even while they thought him still in
2. The sons of Pompey resolved, after
the manner of their father, to protract t he
war. After taking a number of cities
Casar forced them to do battle upon the
plains of Munda. The shock of the con-
flict was dreadful, and the soldiers of Cesar
were beginning to yield, when he rushed
forward, exclaiming, 'What! are you goinm
to sacrifice your general, grown gray wit5
fighting at your head, to a parcel of boys '
The tenth legion, animated by this address
charged furiously, and obtained the victory.
3. In this battle fell thirty thousand men
of the side of the two Pompeys, among
them Labienus, whose funeral was con-
ducted with the last honors paid a general.
Cneius Pompey escaped to the seaside with
a handful of horsemen, bit finding his re-
treat cut off by Caesar's lieutenant, hid him-
self in a cave, where he was taken, and
suffered the loss of his life. His head was
cut off and borne to the victor. Sextus
concealed himself so successfully as to
avoid pursuit, and afterwards became ,a
very noted piratical leader.
4. The last victory in Spain terminated
the struggles of his avowed enemies, and
on his return to Rome, Caesar occupied
himself with vast projects for the benefit
of the state. He sent colonies to Carthage
and Corinth, which he rebuilt; he under-
took to level some mountains in Italy; to
drain the Pontine marshes, and to cut
through the isthmus of the Peloponnesus.
5. His active mind could not content
itself with a state of inactivity. He plan-
ned an expedition against the Parthians*
Inhabitants ofParthia, a celebrated country of
Asia, bounded on the west by Media, south by
Carmania, north by Hlyrcania, and east ty Aria,
&c.-containing, according to Ptolemy, twenty-five
large cities, the most capital of which was called
Hecatompylos, from its hundred gates. The Par-
thians were, according to some, Scythians by ori-
gin. Their peculiar mode of fighting, in which they
were very expert, was to discharge their arrows
while retiring at full speed. They were very in-
temperate and luxurious.



to avenge the death of Crassus, who, hav-
ing penetrated too far into the country, was
taken prisoner, and, as a punishment for his
avarice, put to death by molten gold poured
down his throat.
6. Thence the conqueror intended to
pass through Hyrcania* and enter Scyth-
ia,f marching along the banks of the Cas-
piant sea, then to open a passage into Gaul
through the vast forests of Germany, and
in this way return to Rome. The exertion
of a few individuals prevented the execu-
tion of these vast projects.
7. It began to be rumored that Caesar
was going to assume the title of king, and
the people, although knowing that it would
invest him with no more power than he
already possessed, yet abhorred the name.
Casar, when told of the various jealousies
of many who envied his power, was heard
to say that he had rather die at once by trea-
son, than live in the continual fear of it.
When told to beware of Brutus, he disclos-
ed his bosom covered with scars, and said,
' Do you think Brutus cares for such poor
pillage as this ?'
8. Sixty senators, at the head of whom
were Brutus and Cassius, whose lives had
been spared by Caesar, conspired against
his life. The conspirators put off the exe-
cution of their projects until the ides of
March, the day on which the crown was to
A large country of Asia at the north of Parthia,
and at the west of Media.
t A large country situated on the most northern
parts of Europe and Asia. and hence called Europe-
an and Asiatic. Scythia comprehended the modern
kingdoms of Tartary, Russia in Asia, Siberia, Mus-
covy, the Crimea, Poland, part of Hungary, Lithu-
ania, the northern parts of Germany, Sweden,
Norway, &c.
t Caspium mare, or Hyrcanum, a large sea in
the form of a lake, which lies between the Caspi-
an and Hyrcanian mountains at the north of Par-
thia. The eastern parts are more particularly
called the Hyrcanian sea, the western, the Cas-
The Romans divided their months into three
parts by kalends, nones, and ides. The first day
of every month was called the kalends; the fifth
day was called the nones; and the thirteenth day,
the ides; except in the months of March, May, July,
and October, in which the nones fell upon the
seventh day, and the ides on the fifteenth.

be offered to eesar. This day the augurs
had foretold would be fatal to him, and on
the day preceding, hearing his wife Cal-
phurnia lamenting in her sleep, he woke
her, and she confessed that she had dream-
ed he was assassinated in her arms.
9. These omens finally shook the con-
fidence of Caesar. On that day he had
nearly determined not to go to the senate,
when a conspirator coming in, represented
to him the ridicule which would attach itself
to his staying at home until his wife had
lucky dreams, and the preparations which
had been made for his reception: he then
determined to go.
10. On the way, a slave, who had infor-
mation of the plot, endeavored to get near
him, but in vain. One Artemidorus, a
Greek philosopher, who had discovered the
whole plot, gave him a memorial contain-
ing all the particulars, which Cesar, with-
out reading, handed to his secretary.
11. On entering the senate-house, he
encountered Spurina, the augur who had
prophesied his peril. Well, Spurina,' said
he, smiling, 'the ides of March are come.'
'Ay, but not gone,' was the reply of the
augur. As soon as he had taken his seat,
the conspirators approached under pre-
tence of saluting him. Cimber, assuming
a suppliant attitude, took hold of the bot-
tom of his robe to prevent his rising.
12. This was the proposed signal. Cas
ca struck him from behind. Caesar turned
and wounded the assassin in the arm with
the steel with which he wrote upon his
tablet. The conspirators encircled, him.
After a second wound from an unknown
hand, Cassius stabbed him in the face.
Caesar yet bravely defended himself, rush-
ing forward, and throwing down all who
opposed him, until he saw Brutus advance
from the crowd of conspirators.
13. Brutus struck him in the thigh.
From that time Cmsar thought no more of
defence. Fixing his gaze mournfully on
the conspirator, he uttered that memorable
exclamation, 'Et tu Brute T' And thou,
too, Brutus?' Covering his head, and
spreading his mantle before him, that he
might die with decency, he fell at the foot
of Pompey's statue, having received from



the hands of those whom, until a moment
before, he imagined faithful friends, twen-

ty-three wounds. Cesar died in the fifty-
sixth year of his age, fourteen years after
he began the conquest of the world.

1. The conspirators having accomplish-
ed their object, retired to the capitol, the
avenues to which were closely guarded by
a body of gladiators, whom Brutus had in
pay. Finding the Roman people filled
with horror at the murder, Mark Antony
and Lepidus conceived the idea of paving
the way to power by revenging his death.
2. Ctesar had made the Romans his heirs,
bequeathing to them a large portion of his
fortune, and their gratitude disposed them
to hear with peculiar favor an eulogy upon
him. Antony had the bleeding body ex-
posed in the forum, and delivered over it a
funeral oration, which stirred up the people
to such a pitch of indignation, that had not
the conspirators escaped, they would have
been sacrificed.
3. Mark Antony now found himself in
a fair way to rise to a height equal to that
which had been attained by Caesar, when he
found a very powerful rival in Octavius, af-
terwards called Augustus. The latter was
the grand nephew and adopted son of Cm-

sar, who at this critical moment arrived at
4. From his relationship to the late ruler,
and his titles to regard, he easily won the
senate to his interests, and the people were
not disposed to view him unfavorably.
Antony and Octavius now found it wisest
to unite their interests, and, receiving into
their confederacy Lepidus, whose power as
governor of Gaul, and whose inexhausti-
ble wealth gave him no insignificant au-
thority, they commenced the second trium-
5. The effects of the second triumvirate
were incalculably dreadful to the public
welfare. The triumviri divided the prov-
inces among themselves, and to make
their union indissoluble, each sacrificed his
best friends to the vengeance of his asso-
ciates. Thus Antony doomed his uncle
Lucius to death; Lepidus sacrificed his
brother Paulus; Octavius betrayed his
guardian Toranus, and his friend Cicero.
By this proscription perished three hundred
senators and three thousand knights.
6. The Roman students at Athens were
induced to declare in favor of liberty by
Brutus and Cassius, who went thither from
Rome. After procuring this declaration
they separated; the one going into Mace-
donia, where he raised a powerful army,
the other into Syria, where he became mas-
ter of twelve legions, and reduced his op-
ponent, Dolabella, to such a state that he
killed himself.
7. When the two armies united at Smyr-
na, the generals, between whom a mis-
understanding had existed, now united
more warmly; and they who quitted Italy
as fugitives, found themselves, not without
some exultation, at the head of powerful
and efficient forces. Brutus and Cassius
now resolved to go against Cleopatra, who
was making extensive preparations to as-
sist their enemies.
8. Learning that Augustus and Antony,
with forty legions, were on their way to'
attack the conspirators, the plan of the
Egyptian expedition was surrendered. Bru-
tus wished to pass at once into Greece and
Macedonia to await the enemy; but Cassius



obtained an agreement to his proposition
of reducing the Rhodians and Lycians.*
9. In the speedy operations which fol-
lowed, the most extraordinary exactions
were made, the Rhodians having scarcely
any thing but life left, the Lycians not even
that They, shutting themselves up in the
city of Xanthus,f defended the place
against Brutus with desperation, and nei-
ther entreaties nor force could induce a sur-
10. The town took fire in an attempt to
burn the Roman works; and Brutus, to his
horror, saw that the inhabitants were in-
tent on destroying themselves in the flames.
He rode about the fortifications, stretched
out his hands to the Xanthians, implored
them to have mercy on themselves and
spare their city, but in vain. They rushed
into the flames, and the inhabitants, as well
as their dwellings, were reduced to heaps
of ashes. A reward for every living Ly-
cian, which was proclaimed by Brutus, only
procured one hundred and fifty of them.
11. Brutus and Cassius again met at Sar-
dis. They resolved to have a private con-
ference, and shutting themselves up in a
house, gave orders to their servants to pre-
vent any visit. Brutus began by accusing
Cassius of selling offices for gold which
should be parted with to merit only, and
'with having overtaxed the tributary states.
12. Cassius replied to this charge, which
he felt to be groundless, with great bitter-
ness. The dispute waxed warm, words
rose to a high pitch, and finally they burst
into tears. Their friends, who waited with-
out, hearing their voices raised, feared the
most dreadful consequences; but Tavonius,
who prided himself upon his ready boldness,
broke into the room with a jest, and re-
stored the disputants to good humor.
13. Cassius and Brutus spent the evening
in entertaining their friends, and when Bru-

Lycia was a country of Asia Minor, bounded
by the Mediterranean on the south, Caria on the
west, Pamphylia on the east, and Phrygia on the
north. It was originally called Milyas and Tre-
nmil,from the Milye or Solymi, a people of Crete
who came to settle there.
+ A town of Lycia, on a river of the same name,
about fifteen miles from the sea-shore.

tus returned to his tent, the following cir-
cumstance is said to have occurred to him.
Brutus saw an appearance, such as often
results from a disordered mind,--or which
might have been one of those tricks which
designing persons have often played. He
thought that an enormous figure, with a

frightful aspect, was gazing on him with
steady severity.
14. 'Who art thou ?' said Brutus to the
spectre, a demon or a man ?' 'Thy evil
spirit, Brutus,' answered the phantom.
'Well then,' rejoined Brutus, 'we shall
meet again.' 'Yes, at Philippi;'* and the
phantom vanished. Brutus questioned his
attendants, but they had seen nothing, ,no
one. He resumed his studies.
15. On the morrow, struck with the sin-
gularity of so horrible an occurrence, he
mentioned the apparition to Cassius,who,be-
ing an epicurean, explained it by saying that
it arose from too great vigilance and anxiety.
This solution satisfied the mind of Brutus.


1. When Brutus and Cassius had advanc-
ed to Philippi, where the forces of Antony
and Augustus were posted to receive them,
the world regarded the approaching conflict
A town of Macedonia, called after Philip, king
of Macedon, anciently called Datos, situated at the
east of the Strymon, on a rising ground abounding
with springs and water.



witl. terror and suspense. The repubhcan
army consisted of eighty thousand foot and
twenty thousand horse; that of the trium-
viri amounted to one hundred thousand foot
and thirteen thousand horse, a great supe-
2. Brutus declared his intention of com-
mitting suicide in case the battle went
against him: the generals embraced each
othr and advanced to the attack. The
army of.the triumviri was commanded by
Antony, Augustus being sick. Brutus pen-
etrated to their camp; but the lines of
Cassius were broken, and that unfortunate
leader, after vainly attempting to rally his
soldiers, finding all hope lost, caused him-
self to be slain by one of his freedmen.
3. Brutus, although saddened by the news
of the death of Cassius, summoned all his
energy for the emergency, collected the
scattered bands of Cassius, and, to compen-
sate for the plunder of their camp, promis-
ed them two thousand denarii each.
4. Brutus, at the expiration of twenty
days, at the solicitations of his army, tried
his fortune in another battle, and was com-
pletely unsuccessful. The son of Cato and
the brother of Cassius were killed at his
aide, and he was forced to flee. The two
triumviri were intent upon the capture of
Brutus, and a body of Thracian horse, who
pursued him, fell in with his friend Luci-
lius. 'Take me to Mark Antony,' said this
generous man, resolved to save his friend,
' I am Brutus.' By the delay thus occa-
sioned, Brutus escaped. Mark Antony,
struck with the fidelity of Lucilius, par-
doned him, and loaded him with benefits.
These battles occurred in the year 42 B. C.
5. Brutus killed liimself in the following
manner: having exclaimed, 'O virtue!
I have pursued thee as a substance, and
found thee but a shado !' he expressed
a wish to die, and called for a slave to as-
sist him in accomplishing it: but Strato,
his tutor, cried, 'Never be it said that the
noble Brutus, in his last moments, stood in
need of a slave for want of a friend.
Averting his head, he held the point of his
sword to Brutus, who threw himself upon
it and expired.
G. The triumviri still carried on the

work of proscription. In fact, but two
were possessed of the authority, Lepidus
having little influence with the army or
the people. The scenes which were pre-
sented daily at Rome were of the most
shocking description. The most distin-
guished men were either sacrificed or slew
themselves. A senator and son being
allowed to cast lots for their lives, refused;
the father giving himself up to the execu-
tioner, and the son stabbing himself before
his face.
7. To another, begging for a grave, Au-
gustus answered that he should find one
in the vultures which should devour him.
The head of Brutus was brought to, Rome,
and cast at the feet of Caesar's statue. His
ashes were delivered to his wife Porcia,
who resolved, after the example of her hus-
band and father, to terminate her existence.
Her friends removing all weapons from her,
she swallowed coals of fire and expired.
No one concerned in the death of Caesar
came to a natural end.
8. The triumviri, having accomplished
their aggrandizement by the ruin of the re-
public, determined to enjoy the pleasures
their success placed before them. Antony
went to Athens, where he received the adu-
lation of the Greeks, then to Asia, where the
eastern monarchs paid him homage, and
finally to Egypt. In the course of the pro-
gress, he established Herod on the throne of
Judea,* and Sisenes in the kingdom of Cap-
9. Cleopatra, possessed of wit and beauty
by nature, her charms heightened by art,
determined to lead captive the conqueror.
Finding that he was at Tarsus, a city of
Cilicia,f she determined to pay a visit to
his court. Her galley was covered with
beaten gold, and had sails of purple silk,
while its silver oars beat the waters of the
Cydnus, down which she sailed, to the soft
harmony of flutes, and the clank of golden
Judea, a famous country of Syria, bounded
by Arabia, Eg'pt, Phoenicia, the Mediterranean
sea, and part of Syria.
t Cilicia, a country of Asia Minor, on the sea.
coast, at the north of Cyprus, the south of mounm
Taurus, and the west of the Euphrates.


10. She herself, attired like Venus, sur-
rounded by boys dressed as Cupids, and
young women as nymphs, reclined upon a
spangled couch on deck. Beautiful young

.. r .... .....I .....
girls, in the character of river-nymphs,
swam around the galley in its gliding
course. Exquisite perfumes were burning
on the shores of the stream. Antony fol-
lowed the syren into Egypt, and indulged
in the luxurious and vicious ease to which
his heart was prone.
11. During the absence of Antony, Au-
gustus settled the veteran troops in Italy,
and for this purpose dispossessed numbers
of husbandmen and shepherds. Among
many who made applications to retain their
patrimony, was the poet Virgil, whose re-
quest was granted. The people now felt
the greatest distress, for Sextus Pompey,
being master of the seas, cut off the usual
supplies of corn.

1. Fulvia, the wife of Antony, enraged
at his connection with Cleopatra, was re-
solved to break it off by means of a rup-
ture between her husband and Augustus ;
and her brother-in-law, the consul Lucius,
enabled her to sow the seeds of dissension.
The pretext was, that Antony should have
a share in the distribution of lands. Au-
gustus offered to make the veterans um-
pires. Lucius refused, and having six

legions at his disposal, hoped to compel
Augustus to yield. He was conquered and
pardoned, together with his followers.
2. Antony, hearing that his wife was
forced to leave Italy, and that his brother
was defeated, determined to fight Augustus
with all the power he could muster. He
had an interview with Fulvia at Athens,
reproached her with the disorders she had
occasioned, and expressed the utmost con-
tempt for her person. Leaving her on her
death-bed at Sicyoi, he went to meet Au-
gustus, with whom he had an interview at
Brundusium,# in which a reconciliation
was effected.
3. Antony married Octavia, the sister of
Augustus: a new division of the empire
was made between them, Augustus having
the west, Antony the east, and Lepidus the
African provinces. Sextus Pompey, one
great obstacle in the way of the ambition
of Augustus, was finally, after various suce
cesses at sea, which gave him the name of
the son of Neptune, defeated on his own
element, and flying to Antony, was slain
by his lieutenant, about 35 years B. C.
4. Augustus,Lepidus having been banish-
ed for his imprudent conduct, plainly per-
ceived that the empire of the world would
be his, if he could annihilate Antony.
Luxury, and love for the Egyptian queen,
had subdued the mind and manhood of
Mark Antony. In a sea-fight with the
Romans, he gave up all hopes of victory
because Cleopatra fled from the action in
her galley. In the fatal fight of Actium,t
B. C. 31, the hopes of Antony were forever
gone, and his defeat decisive.
5. Augustus pursued Cleopatra and An-
tony to Egypt, where the base queen pre-
ferred terms of accommodation to the con-
queror, offering to surrender her kingdom
and abandon her lover; but the victor deter-

Now Brindisi, a city of Calabria, on the Adri-
atic sea, where the Appian road terminated. It
was founded by Diomedes after the Trojan war,
or, according to Strabo, by a Cretan colony under
Theseus. It was the usual place of embarkation
for Greece. It was noted for the birth of Pacuvius,
the death of Virgil, and also for its excellent har-
t Now Ario, a town and promontory of Epirus.



mined that she and her children should
walk beside his ,chariot-wheels in hns tn-
umph at Rome. The inhabitants of Alex-
andria were treated with clemency.
6. Cleopatra shut herself up with a few
female attendants in a tomb, into which
Antony, who was dying of a wound he had
given himself on a false report that Cleo-
patra was no more, was drawn up through
the windows. He expired at the feet of
the beautiful queen for whom he had lost
the world. She vowed to die also. After
having dispatched a letter to Augustus, en-
treating him to bury her in the same tomb
with Antony, she received the asp, by which
she killed herself, in a basket of flowers.
7. The messengers of Augustus, dis-
patched to save her life, found her dead,
reclining on a gilded couch, dressed in her

regal robes. Iras, a female attendant, had
expired at her feet Charmion, who was
dying, was placing the diadem upon the
brows ofher mistress. Alas! was this well
done, Charmion?' asked one of the mes-
sengers. 'Yes,' replied she, 'it is well
done: a death like this becomes a noble
queen descended from a glorious ancestry.'
As she pronounced these words, she expired
on the body of her noble mistress.

1. Augustus, finding himself in undis-
turbed possession of the empire, resolved

to retain by the exercise of clemency what
he had acquired by bloodshed. On his re-
turn to Rome, his triumphant festivals, his
sumptuous entertainments, and his shows,
withdrew the public mind from the con-
templation of his past cruelty. He had
acquired his empire by his troops; he re-
solved to govern it by the senate. With
the advice and instruction of Maecenas, his
minister, he became gentle and affable, and
renowned for his patronage of men of talent
and learning.
2. Being assured of the attachment of
all ranks, lie made a show of resigning that
authority which he had acquired, and which
the senate had confirmed. New honors,
however, were lavished upon him; he was
then first called Augustus, a name by which
he is usually distinguished in history; a
laurel was planted at his gate; he was styled
the father of his country, and his person
was declared sacred.
3. When Augustus entered upon 'his
tenth consulship, the senate placed him
above the reach of the laws. They offered
to swear to all the laws which he had
made and should make in future, and it
was determined that no man should suffer
capital punishment on the days on which
the emperor entered the city. In a time
of great famine, the people in a body en-
treated him to accept the dictatorship; but
although he readily became procurator of
provisions, he would not take the title of
dictator, which had been abolished by a
law made during the consulship of Antony.
4. The multiplication of his occupations
did not prevent him from faithfully dis-
charging the duties of each. He caused
the promulgation of many edicts tending
to suppress the corruption of the senate,
and the licentiousness of the people. He
ordered that no exhibition of gladiators
should take place without an order from
the senate, and even with this sanction
only twice a year. This law had become
necessary from the previous custom of sac-
rificing multitudes of these unhappy men,
who were brought upon the stage in whole
armies, and paired to fight until one half
was 'annihilated.
5. It was now customary for kmghts



and ladies of distinction to dance m public
at the theatre; but Augustus ordered that
not only they, but their children and grand-
children should be restricted from such ex-
ercises. Those who refused to marry at a
certain age, were fined severely, while pa-
rents, who had many children, were reward-
ed. The senate were ordered to be held
always in reverence. New laws were enr
acted with regard to the manumissionn of
6. He subjected the lives of players to a
very severe scrutiny, and punished the
least licentiousness and indecency of ac-
tion. He was a patron and friend of ath-
letic sports and exercises; but he thought
it unbecoming the modesty of women to
witness them, and accordingly prohibited
their attendance as spectators.
7. The character of a Roman citizen
under the laws and example of Augustus
became polished and refined. He was
affable and easily accessible. Giving the
laws their proper course, he sometimes
personally pleaded for those whom he de-
sired to protect. In a certain cause, one of
his veteran soldiers desired his protection;
but Augustus requested him to apply to an
advocate. Ah!' replied the old veteran,
'it was not by proxy that I served you in
the battle of Actium.' This reply pleased
Augustus; he pleaded the cause in person,
and gained it.
8. The complete change which had taken
place in his disposition was in nothing
more conspicuous than in his treatment of
Cornelius Cinna, the grandson of Pompey,
who had formed a plot against his life,
which was discovered just as it was ripe
for execution. Resolved to mortify the
conspirator by his clemency and generosi-
ty, he thus addressed him: 'I have twice
given you your life, sir-first as an enemy,
now as a conspirator: I now present you
with the consulship, and let the future show
whether my confidence or your fidelity
shall be victorious.'
9. In his private life, Augustus was un-
happy. He had married Livia, the wife
of Tiberius Nero, by permission of her
husband, and was controlled by her impe-
rious temper. Livia, by her first husband,

had two children, Tiberius, her favorite
and eldest son, and Drusus, born after her
marriage with the emperor. Augustus
was forced to exile Tiberius to Rhodes, for
five years, for although a serviceable gen-
eral in foreign wars, he was an unquiet
spirit in 'ime of peace.
10. The death of Drusus, on his return
from his German expedition, filled Augus-
tus with grief; but he was yet more unfor-
tunate in the conduct of Julia, the daughter
of his former wife, Scribonia. After di-
vorcing her, he married her to one of his
generals, Agrippa, and after his death to
Tiberius. By Agrippa she had two chil-
dren of great promise, Caius and Lucius;
but they died young.
11. Augustus, in theseventy-fourth year
of his age, began to think of retiring from
the fatigues of government, or at least of
permitting a portion of them to devolve
upon his son-in-law Tiberius. He desired
the senate not to take it amiss that he could
no longer give them audience as formerly.
Thenceforth Tiberius was united with him.
Yet he still took a share in public affairs,
and finding it impossible to come to the
senate by reason of his infirmity, a privy
council of one hundred members was as-
signed him for a year, and their resolves
had the force of law. He also delivered
his will to the vestal virgins, sensible of
his approaching end.
12. He then solemnized the census by
which the number of inhabitants was found
to be four million one hundred and thirty-
seven thousand. During the performance
of the ceremonies by an immense congre-
gation of the people, in the Campus Mar-
tius, an eagle is said to have flown several
times round the head of the emperor, and
then perched over the name of Agrippa
in a neighboring temple; this, the augurs
thought, foretold the death of the emperor.
13. Augustus, soon after this, having ac-
companied Tiberius in his march to Illyria
as far as Beneventum,* began to feel him-
A town of the Hirpini, twenty-eight miles from
Capua, founded by Diomedes. Its original name
of Maleventum, changed to the more auspicious
one of Beneventum when the Romans settled



self seriously ill. On his return, he stop-
ped at Nola, and sent for his friends and
acquaintances. Calling for a mirror, he
ordered his hair to be arranged with unu-
sual solicitude.
14. He then asked his friends if he had
played his part in life properly; and re-
ceiving a reply in the affirmative, he cried
with his final breath, Then give me your
applause ;' and thus, in the seventy-sixth
year of his age, after a reign of forty-four
years, he expired in the arms of Livia,
bidding her farewell, and entreating her to
remember their marriage. His death took
place, A. D. 14.

1. The death of the emperor Augustus
was productive of the greatest grief. It
was rumored that his wife had some agency
in it, in order to procure the speedy succes-
sion of her son Tiberius. She kept his
death concealed for some time, and finally
declared it publicly, as well as the adoption
of Tiberius to the empire. The funeral
was conducted with great pomp and mag-
nificence. Tiberius addressed the senators
in a consolatory oration; but, as if inter-
rupted by overwhelming sorrow, he gave
his notes to his son Tiberius, who read the
speech to the senate.
2. One of the late emperor's freedmen
produced and read his will in the senate
house. By this he had left Tiberius and
Livia his heirs, and honored the latter with
th', name of Augusta. Four other writings
of the emperor were produced. The first
contained directions for his funeral; the
second, an account of his various exploits;
the third comprised an enumeration of
the provinces, forces, and revenues of the
empire ; and the fourth, a schedule of
directions to Tiberius, for governing it.
From these it was found that he was of
opinion that it was unsafe to trust a man
with too much power, lest he should be-
come a tyrant, and that it was also impoli-

tic to attempt enlarging the empire, the
size of which made it already difficult to
3. It was decreed that the women of
Rome should mourn a year for Augustus.
Stately temples were erected, and divine
honors allotted to his memory. A certain
senator, Numerius Atticus, willing to profit
by the adulation of the day, received a very
large sum of money for swearing that he
saw the late emperor ascend to heaven.
This his apotheosis was certified by a cre-
dible witness, and there remained no doubt
of his being a divinity.
4. Tiberius assumed the reins of go-
vernment in his fifty-sixth year, A. D. 15.
He was naturally of a cruel and base dis-
position, but, preserving for a short time
the profound dissimulation which he had
practised under Augustus, the commence-
ment of his reign showed only clemency,
generosity and justice. The successes of
his nephew Germanicus, among the Ger-
mans, first roused his temper, and he con-
sulted Piso on the best means of removing
him. Piso was despatched on every occa-
sion to Germanicus, and directed to pro-
cure his removal from life by any means
that offered. Soon after Germanicus died,
it was thought, by poison.
5. Soon, dreading no rival, he threw off
the mask. Sejanus, a Roman knight, by
cunning arts, overmatched his master in
duplicity, and gained his entire confidence.
In the twelfth year of his reign, Sejanus
persuaded the emperor to follow the natural
bent of his indolent and luxurious disposi-
tion, and Tiberius, by no means with reluc-
tance, retired to Capreae, delightful island,
three miles from Naples, where, in unhal-
lowed delights, he remained, regardless of
the miseries of his subjects.
6. While here, he became'more and more
cruel, and Sejanus continually struggled to
increase his distrusts. In this he so well
succeeded, that Nero and Drusus, the chil-
dren of Germanicus, were declared inimi-
cal to the state, and perished by hunger in
confinement; Agrippina, their mother, be-
ing sent into banishment. Sabinus, Asi-
nius Gallus, and Syriacus, on very slight
pretences, were condemned and executed,



and thus Sejanus, removing daily some one
who stood between him and the empire,
increased in power with the senate, and in
confidence with the emperor.
7. Rapidly however as he rose, he fell
with still greater celerity. Satirus Secun-
dus had the hardihood to accuse him of
treason; Antonia, the mother of German-
icus, seconded the charge, and the senate,
exceeding the orders of Tiberius, sent him
to execution, and not to prison. As he
passed, he was loaded with curses and
scoffs, his statues were cast down, and him-
self strangled by the executioner.
8. The next order of Tiberius was that
all the accused should be executed without
examination. The city was filled with
mourning at the number of deaths. Tibe-
rius, hearing that a certain prisoner had
killed himself to avoid the torture, exclaim-
ed, 'Oh! how that man has been able to
-escape me!'
9. Tiberius, when he found his end ap-
proaching, in the twenty-second year of
his reign, chose Caligula for his successor,
thinking the enormity of Caligula's con-
,duct would blot out the recollection of his
own. At a house formerly belonging to
Lucullus, on the promontory of Misenum,
Tiberius fell into fainting fits, which were
believed fatal. Caligula, supposing him
dead, caused himself to be proclaimed em-
peror by the praetorian bands, and went
forth amidst the applause of the multi-
10. He returned to find Tiberius alive.
Caligula was thunderstruck, expecting in-
stant death; but Macro, who was hardened
in crime, ordered the dying emperor to be
smothered with the pillows of his bed. In
this way perished Tiberius, A. D. 39, in
the seventy-eighth year of his age, after a
reign of twenty-two years. During the
eighteenth year of his reign, our Savior
was crucified.

1. For eight months after the succession
of Caligula to the supreme authority, his

furious passions, his cruelty, his extrava.
gant wickedness, were concealed; but at
the expiration of that time, they burst forth
unrestrained. He first assumed the title
of Ruler, which was only granted to kings,
and he would have seized upon the regal
crown and diadem, had he not been per-
suaded that he was superior to all the mon-
archs of the world.
2. He claimed divine honors, and assum-
ed the name of those divinities whose na-
ture, he thought, most resembled his. He
caused the heads of Jupiter and some other
divinities, to be taken off, and his own busts
to be erected in their places. He would
change his divinity with his dress: some-
times he was a Mars, and sometimes a Ve-
nus; at one time, he imitated Jupiter and
his thunder; at another, he stepped forth as
Diana, the huntress.
3. He even erected a temple to himself,
in which his golden statue was dressed in
robes similar to those he wore. His priests
were numerous, the most opulent men of
the city claiming the honor. He was ab-
surd enough to be his own priest, and com-
pleted his extravagant folly, by admitting
his horse Incitatus, and his wife, to divine
honors. With imitations of thunder, he
used to dare Jupiter, exclaiming in a speech
from Homer, Subdue me, or I will conquer
4. In his sauces he frequently had pearls
and very precious gems dissolved, and often
his guests were presented with dishes filled
with gold instead of meat. He used to
bathe in perfumes. He built a magnificent
stable of marble, with a manger of ivory,
for his horse Incitatus, and on the night
preceding the day on which the animal was
to run, he posted sentinels about his stable,
that his slumbers might not be disturbed.
Incitatus had a house, furniture, and a
kitchen, that he might be able to treat his
guests with respect.
5. Often he' invited his horse to dine
with him, and on these occasions the em-
peror presented him with git oats and wine
in a golden cup. He frequently swore by
the safety of his horse, and had not his
death intervened, he would have appointed
him to the consulship He slew numbers



of the senate, and thetl cited them to ap-

Caligula giving Wineto his Horse.
6. Many decrepit old men, and infirm
house-keepers, he gave to be devoured by
wild beasts, affirming that Rome had no
need of such useless citizens. Every tenth
day, he sent off those he had condemned,
to be given as food to his wild animals,
and this, he facetiously termed, clearing his
accounts. One of these unfortunate men
declaring that he was innocent, the tyrant
ordered his tongue to be cut out, and then
thrown into the amphitheatre. He took a
real pleasure in seeing men expire by slow
torture, and valued himself on his unre-
lenting severity during an execution. It
was this man, who, incensed with his sub-
jects, wished that the Roman people had
but one neck, which he might sever at a
7. It is not to be supposed that a love of
liberty was yet entirely extinct in Rome.
Many secret conspiracies were formed
against Caligula, which were deferred on
account of his proposed expedition to Brit-
an and Gaul, which was undertaken A. D.
41, the third of his reign.
8. The levies which the emperor made
in all parts of the empire, and the deter-
mination with which he spoke of his pro-
posed exploits, induced the opinion that he
would be everywhere successful. But the
subjection of Britain ended in his granting
protection and an asylum to a fugitive
British prince; and with regard to Ger-
many, he merely marched his troops to
the sea-shore of Batavia, where he drew up

his engines and arranged Lis men with
great solemnity.
9. Going on board his galley, and coast-
ing along, he gave orders for the trumpeter
to sound a blast, as if for an engagement,
when the soldiers, who had received pre-
vious instructions, began at the signal to
gather shells, with which they filled their
helmets, calling them spoils of the captive
ocean, and worthy to adorn the capitol.
10. There was one man, Cassius Chaerea,
a tribune of the praetorian bands, who re-
solved to become the instrument of freeing
his country from the tyrant. Besides
graver reasons for animosity, he hated
Caligula for the disrespect with which he
treated him. Whenever Chserea demanded
the watchword from the emperor, the latter
would give him Venus or Adonis, or some
other word implying softness and effem-
inacy, for he accused the tribune of cow-
ardice, merely from the gentleness of his
11. Chierea acquainted some senators,
whom he knew the tyrant had wronged,
with his design, and while they were con-
sidering upon the surest and speediest
method of execution, a circumstance which
was unlocked for, gave new nerve to the
12. An informer accused Pompedius,
a senator of distinction, of having spoken
disrespectfully of the emperor. The charge
was denied, and Quintilia, an actress, was
summoned to bear witness against the de-
fendant. She resolutely denied the fact,
and still persisted in the truth, through the
horrors of the rack by which her limbs
were dislocated.
13. It was resolved to attack Caligula
during the celebration of the Palatine
games, which were of four days' duration.
Chaerea anxiously sought an opportunity
during those of the three first days, but
none offered until the fourth, when Caligula
was to pass through a private gallery to
his bath.
14. While Chwerea was waiting in ex-
treme anxiety, Asprenus, a conspirator,
found means to persuade the tyrant to
take refreshment in the bath. On his as-
senting to the proposal, the conspirators



kept off the throng and entered the gallery,
surrounding Caligula, whom Cherea was
the first to strike to the ground, crying out,
'Think upon this, tyrant !'
15. The other conspirators rushed upon
him, and while he continued to resist and
exclaim that he was not yet dead, they
pierced him with thirty wounds. This was
the deserved reward of the crimes of Caius
Caligula, who died after a three years'
reign, at the age of twenty-nine. Seneca
says of him, that nature seemed to have
brought him forth to show what was pos-
sible to be produced from the greatest vice,
supported by the greatest power.

1. The city was thrown into a state of
the greatest disorder by the news of the
death of Caligula. The conspirators, who
had, only thought of killing an emperor,
not of providing one, hid themselves away
in various quarters. Some soldiers chanced
to discover Claudius, Caligula's uncle, hid
den in a secret part of the palace. This
person, hitherto overlooked for his imbecil-
ity, they resolved to create emperor, and
the senate sanctioned their choice.
2. Claudius was fifty years old when he
began to reign, which he did with all the
fair promise of the former bad emperors.
He passed an act of oblivion for all former
words and deeds, and annulled the cruel
edicts of his predecessor. He was solici-
tous for the welfare not only of Italy, but
of the provinces.
3. As Caligula had taken the province of
Judma from Herod Antipater, who had put
John the Baptist to death, Claudius restor-
ed it to Herod Agrippa, nephew of Antipa-
ter, whom he banished. Claudius restored
all princes who had been unjustly dispos-
sessed of their dominions ; but he enslaved
the Lycians and Rhodians, who had cruci-
fied some citizens of Rome.
4. The people were clamorous for for-
eign conquests, and the Britons, seeking
the mediation of the Romans to quell their

intestine troubles, Claudius determined to
extend the Roman victories in that quarter.
Bericus, a Briton, who wished to subject
his native island to Rome, persuaded the
emperor to make a descent upon it. Plau-
tius, the prmtor, having marched through
Gaul, and persuaded his soldiers, who were
at first averse, to embark, gained several
victories over the Britons.
5. Claudius, under pretence that some
of that nation were yet seditious, and had
not surrendered some Roman deserters,
went over to Britain, where he remained
sixteen days, which were spent rather in
receiving homage than in extending his
victories. On his return, a splendid tri-
umph was decreed hin, triumphal arches
were erected, and annual games estab-
lished to commemorate his successes.
6. Plautius, with the aid of his lieutenant
Vespasian, vigorously prosecuted the war.
The latter, according to Suetonius, in thirty
engagements with the enemy, succeeded in
annexing a part of Britain to Rome, as a
province, A. D. 51. But under Ostorius,
the successor of Plautius, hostilities began
anew. The Britons either despised the
want of experience in the new commander,
or hoped to intimidate and defeat one just
come over to the island.
7. The resistance offered by the Iceni*
and Brigantes,t was powerful, but ineffec-
tual, while the Silures, or men of South
Wales, under the command of their brave
king, Caractacus, presented the most for-
midable opposition which the Romans had
yet encountered. This gallant barbarian,
with great skill, removed the seat of war
to the inaccessible and impregnable for-
tresses of the country, and for nine years
kept the enemy in a state of lively appre-
8. When he found himself forced into
an engagement by Ostorius, he addressed
his people resolutely, and told them that
their liberty or bondage depended on the
event of the battle. Having animated his

The Iceni inhabited the counties of Suffolk,
Norfolk, Cambridge, &c.
t The Brigantes belonged to the northern part
of Britain.



troops, they performed all which undisci-
plined bravery could accomplish against
the matchless conduct of the Roman le-
gions. The Britons were defeated, and
the wife and daughter of Caractacus taken,
while he himself, having sought refuge
with Cartismandua, queen of the Brigantes,
was treacherously surrendered to the
9. At Rome, Caractacus, the object of
universal curiosity, from the fame of his
bravery, and his long resistance of the
Roman arms, betrayed no timidity or base
subjection. On observing the splendor of
the buildings, he cried, How in it possible
that a nation, possessing so many palaces,
could envy Caractacps an humble cottage !'
10. Before the emperor, he was intrepid
and upright. 'If I had yielded to you
immediately,' said he, I should not have
gained glory, and your victories would have
ceased. If you now spare my life, I shall
continue an example of your clemency.'
Claudius pardoned him.
11. Although, in the beginning of his
reign, he had given hopes of something
better, he soon began to appear less inter-
ested in the affairs of the public, and gave
their management into the hands of his
favorites. Having been from infancy in
leading-strings, this imbecile emperor was
now unable to act without the help of
others. Under the guidance of his wife
Messalina Valeria, whose name has become
a common title for abandoned women, he
committed many cruelties, until her de-
baucheries were discovered, and she and
her paramour, Caius Sitius, suffered capital
12. The second wife of Claudius was
Agrippina, the daughter of his brother
Germmnicus, a woman of a haughty spirit
and cruel disposition. She thought of
nothing but procuring the succession of
Nero, her son by a former marriage. She
treated her husband with great haughti-
ness, and he declared, while flushed with
wine, that he was forced to suffer the dis-
orders of his wives, and to be at once their
husband and their executioner. Hearing
this, Agrippina determined to poison him.
13. Having consulted Locusta, a person

infamous for her skill and practice in
poisoning, she mixed the fatal substance
with a dish of mushrooms, of which Clau-
dius was particularly fond. As soon as he
had finished eating, he fell insensible. This
caused no consternation, for it was cus-
tomary with him to eat until he had com-
pletely stupefied himself, when he was
obliged to be borne off to bed. His strong
constitution appearing to struggle success-
fully with the poison, Agrippina procured
a physician to thrust a poisoned feather
down his throat, under pretence of procur-
ing a vomit, and thus they despatched him.


1. Nero, at the age of seventeen, com-
menced his reign, A. D. 55. In the begin-
ning, he was affable, liberal, and just.
When they brought him a warrant for the
execution of a criminal, which he was to
sign, he exclaimed, Would to Heaven I
had never learned to write!'
2. All hopes, however, founded on his
early conduct, proved fallacious. With his
increase of years, came a proportionate
increase of crime. The murder of his
mother Agrippina was the first horrible
proof of his inherent cruelty. Failing in
procuring her death at sea by drowning, he
ordered her to be killed in his palace, and,
surveying her dead body, declared that he
never knew his mother was so fine a
3. A part of the city was consumed by a
fire, of which he, as most historians be-
lieve, was the author. Certain it is, that
he surveyed the conflagration from a high
tower with delight, and he set on foot no
active measures to suppress the flames.
He accused the Christians of being the
incendiaries, and this was a sufficient ex-
cuse for putting them to death by the most
cruel tortures. He sometimes caused them
to be clothed in the skins of wild beasts,
and thus hunted to death by dogs.
4. Some were crucified, and some burnt
alive. 'When the day was not sufficient



for their tortures,' says Tacitus, the flames
in which they perished served to illumi-
nate the night' Among others who died
during this persecution, were St. Paul, who
was beheaded, and St Peter, who was
crucified with his head downward, this
method being chosen by himself, as a death
more dishonorable than that suffered by his
5. Nero's abominable cruelties raised a
conspiracy against him, headed by Piso,
an excellent and powerful man; but the plot
being prematurely disclosed, only served
to involve many noble families in ruin.
Among the sufferers whose deaths were
reriiarkable, were Seneca, the philosopher,
and Lucan, the poet.
6. Seneca calmly received the tribune
sent him by the emperor, to inform him
that he was suspected of being an accom-
plice. 'Tell your master,' said he, 'that
my welfare depends upon no man; that
not having heretofore accustomed myself
to indulge the errors of the emperor, I shall
not do so now.' Wheh the tribune de-
scribed the scene to his master, Nero find-
ing that Seneca displayed no fear of death,
said, 'Go to him again, and tell him he
must die.'
7. The philosopher was far from being
discomposed at the second message. His
wife Paulina being resolved to die with
him, the veins of both their arms were
opened, that they might bleed to death.
The blood of Seneca, who was enfeebled
by age, and the austere rigors of his life,
flowed slowly, and he called for poison to
terminate his agonies. This and the warm
bath proving ineffectual, he was placed in
a dry stove, the vapor of which soon killed
him. The arms of Paulina were bandaged
by her domestics, and she survived her
husband some years, unforgetful of her
8. Lucan opened the veins of his arms.
Finding them and his legs dead, while the
vital parts were yet vigorous, he repeated
a beautiful passage from his Pharsalia,
describing a person perishing under similar
circumstances, and died during the reci-
9. Petronius, an Epicurean, the author

of a book entitled Satyricon, perished in
a remarkable manner, A. D. 66. He was
committed to prison on a charge of being
accessory to the conspiracy of Piso. Un-
able to endure suspense, he opened his
veins. He sometimes closed and then re-
opened them, not only firmly, but even
cheerfully. In neither conversation nor
behavior, did he seem a dying man.
10. The execution of Barea Soranus and
Pmetus Thrasea, Tacitus terms an attack
upon virtue herself. Thrasea died, encir-
cled by his friends and intimates, con-
versing on the nature of the soul. Ner-
micius Thermos was put to death, as well
as Corbulo, a valiant man who had gained
for Nero many victories over the Paihi-
ans. The death of the empress Poppaea
followed next.
11. The world seemed now resolved to
remove the monster of cruelty, who had so
fully disgraced human nature. Sergius
Galba, a brave and wise man, then gover-
nor of Spain, who had avoided war for
sometime, at this crisis accepted the invi-
tation of Vindex, and marched on Rome
with a resolute and formidable army.
12. Nero was at supper when the news
of Galba's approach was brought him. He
was completely beside himself, and in de-
spair cried out that he was undone. Call-
ing on Locusta, who furnished him with
poison, he retired to the Servilian gardens,
resolving to retreat into Egypt The re-
volt becoming general, he was prevented
from accomplishing his plans; all doors
were shut against him, and, in despair, he
called upon his favorite gladiator to dis-
patch him. On the man's refusal, Ne:o
cried,' Have I neither friend nor foe ?'
13. He rushed to plunge into the Tiber,
but his courage failed; and accepting the
offer of his country-house from Pharon,
one of his freedmen, he mounted a horse,
and hiding his face, departed. His brief
journey of four miles was crowded with
adventures. The lightning flamed in his
face; round him he heard the voices of
the soldiery imprecating vengeance on his
head. He met a man who asked him if
he had heard any news of Nero; and was
told that horsemen were in p' suit of him



Ins horse at a distance, he entered
L and crent through brambles and

briars to a door at the back part of Pharon's
14. The praetorian bands having declared
themselves in favor of Galba, the senate
confirmed their choice,'making him empe-
ror, and condemning Nero to death 'more
majorum,' in the manner of the ancient
laws. This punishment, the messenger
of the senate explained to Nero, as being
the scourging to death of the criminal,
whose head was fixed in the pillory, and
whose body was stripped naked.
15. Nero, terrified at this, resolved to
die, and yet wished some of his attendants
to set him the example. Ashamed of this
cowardice, he yet was hesitating, when the
approaching tramp of the horses of his
pursuers determined him. With the as-
sistance of his freedman Epaphroditus, he
set a dagger to his throat, and gave him-
self a mortal wound. The centurion who
entered found him yet alive, and pretending
he came to assist him, endeavored to stop
the bleeding with his cloak. 'You come
too late,' said the dying tyrant; 'is this
your fidelity ? With eyes glaring and
starting from their sockets, he died a
frightful spectacle. His reign lasted thir-
teen years, and he died at the age of thirty-

1 Galba was seventy-two years old when
he was made emperor, A. D. 69. At

that time he was absent from Rome, and
with his legions in Spain. He was fond
of private life, and found his ascension to
the throne the beginning of trouble and
inquietude. Conscious that his age and
want of an heir created disrespect, he de-
termined to appoint a successor.
2. His favorites resolved to choose an
heir themselves, and Otho made applica-
tion for himself; but Galba, determined to
consult the public good, made choice of
Piso Lucinianus, who was every way wor-
thy of the honor. Otho, who was disap-
pointed severely, corrupted the fidelity of
the soldiers, whom he assembled secretly,
and harangued on the cruelties and avarice
of the emperor.
3. The seditious troops heard him with
approbation ; elevating Otho on their shoul-
ders, and encircling him with naked wea-
pons, they carried him into the camp,
declaring him emperor. Galba, upon their
approach, called up his fortitude, bent his
head, and desired the murderers to strike
it off. They did so, and Otho ordered it
to be paraded upon the point of a lance,
while the body lay exposed in the streets,
until a slave performed the rites of se-
pulture. Galba died in his seventy-third
year, A. D. 69, after a reign of seven
months, distinguished by his own virtues,
and the vices of his favorites.
4. Otho, elected emperor, began his reign
by pardoning Marius Celsus, a man who
had been favored by Galba, and he advanced
him to high honors, declaring that fidelity
deserved the highest reward. The egions
,in lower Germany, bribed by the gifts, and
inflamed by the promises of their general
Vitellius, declared him emperor in spite
of the senate, alleging an equal right with
the Roman cohorts, to choose a ruler.
5. Otho departed from Rome to meet
Vitellius m battle. The army of the latter,
who had retired into Gaul to lead up the
remaining troops, was seventy thousand
strong, and commanded by Valens and
Cecinna. Such was the impatience of both
parties, that in three days, as many battles
were fought, and decided in favor of Otho.
Valens and Cecinna finally uniting their
forces, defeated Otho in a general engage-


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