THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.
PUILISUID UmWDs Tr BIalcTION OF
Til CONMITTIZ OF1 ILBAL LITIBATURI AND I2gCATION,
A0PPOlTB ST T3 S8OCIETT fPO PROMOTIeG
rinwd r te
80CIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE;
SOLD AT Tl3 DP0osIrTOT,
6UT% QUUma RfaS, LINOOLM'8 InI rFIItL
AND 4, lOTAL XICH1AGI.
I. CLAY. PSINThN., azzAD srzsz? NILL.
THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.
CoIaTRIa TI0o I. RADIATz AxlrMAu.--4ponge .................. 7
I II.- Polyp .................................................. 1
II.-Infuory Animals ..................................
,, IV.-Se-Nettles .................... .................... 41
V.-ea Staus-Ba-Urchlns ...........................
VI. ATIICvLATr AII.AL,.-Worm5-L.ch.e U1
,, VII.-Milllpedes and Centilpdes ...................... 7
VIII.-InaetU in general ................ ........... 77
,, I sX. .In -St.-tright-wlnsd-Half.wlnged......
S .-X- t-wlaMDg-Mmbranous-winged ............ 10
XI.-Beday-wlned .......................................... 13
X II.-Two-wlaged-Wtlglem ............................ 141
XIII.-Splde .......................................... ... 151
S XIV.-Lobstes Crabs, e. ................................ 11
S XV. MOLLIscous AlIsuAsL.-6a11t, &e. ........ 174
S XVI.-Ctttle-Fish, be. ..................................... I
CoNvTiasATox XVII. VirTalS rrTD AuINAU.--PFih.... 100
,, XVIII.-ReptlkM ......................................... 1
XIX.-Blrds.-Web-footed.-Wads, kac....... tl
S XX.-Whales.-Rumlnants, kc.................. 248
S XXI.-Anlmals having Claws.- Gnawing-
Pouched--Carnlrorus .................. 26
FIRST STEPS IN GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.
hr a fftal anglim.
Sumuma had drawn to a close; the harvest fieds
were cleared of their riches almost to the lat
sheaf, and autumn fruits were rapidly maturing
in orchard and garden, when the three children,
Henry, Mary, and IP ert, accompanied their
papa and mamma to a retired spot on the south-
western coast, with the prospect of spending some
weeks by the sea-side.
* The younger children now had their first view
of the sea, and Henry was delighted to show his
superior knowledge by answering their questions,
and pointing out the different objects which a
8 maT 5r TnF GENIomru OWLuDGO.
former visit had made familiar to him. He moon
taught them to imitate his example in chasing the
waves on the shore, or in searching among pebbles
and sea-weed for specimens that might adorn the
cabinet at home. Not a day passed without adding
something to the store of the young travellers:
Mary learned the art of spreading out sea-weed to
the best advantage, and drying and arranging it
in beautiful forms, and Robert was daily finding
shells or star-fish, to excite his wonder and admi-
It is true that the specimens, such as they were,
could be procured only by diligent search. Indeed,
some other visitors at the same spot declared that
it was a dull and uninteresting part of the coast,
and that nothing pretty was to be found on the
beach. But when three pairs of sharp eyes and
busy hands were oonsrt y at work, exploring
sand and rook and shingle, with an industry to
which they had been early trained, it is not ur-
prising that, at the end of six weeks, the children
were ableto take home a very respectable collection
of specimens, some of which were even honoured
with a place in their father's large cabinet.
In the course of their search after curiosities,
ANIMAL NATU w orU-Io. 9
they were often surprised to ind that what seemed
a bit of dry leather, or a mere mass of jelly, was
in reality an animal substance. The firt time
Bobert msw a star-ish, he caught it up eagerly,
without any idea of its nature; but when the
creature began to contract its brown rays or
arms, the little boy threw it down in great sur-
prise, and could not be persuaded to touch it again
for some time afterwards. The children were
often bringing some object to their papa, with the
question, "Is this an animal or a vegetable?" aad
they now learned, for the first time, how very
nearly the animal and.vegetable kingdoms ap-
proach each other in their lowest tribes.
Robert felt almost angry, one morning, when
his brother told him that he was using an animal
substance to wash his face with, and a vegetable
one to dry it. He appealed to his papa whether
Henry war not very much mistaken in calling
sponge an animal substance.
SNot at all," said his father. "What you hold
in your hand is not indeed the living animal, but
a sort of frame-work or skeleton of the sponge."
"A skeleton, papa, and yet so soft!" exclaimed
10 any snuns a ozrua&L. KNowLzDao
"By calling it a skeleton, I merely mean a
support to the animal: naturalists call it the aiu,
or basis of the sponge. Although so soft and
yielding, it is somewhat of the nature of horn, and
smells like it when burnt."
"And how does the sponge look when it is
alive?" asked Mary.
The whole of this skeleton," said her father,
"is then clothed with a very soft kind of flesh,
which, through a microscope, looks like trans-
-prent jelly, and is so delicate, that a very slight
pressure of your fingers would tear it, and let out
all the fluid parts."
"I suppose that would hurt the poor sponge
"Certainly not, Mary; for this creature is so
low in the scale of animal existence, that it has
never yet shown any signs of feeling. It has been
pinchedrith forceps, torn in all directions, bored
S with hot irons, and attacked with different power-
ful chemical substances, and yet it has never
shrunk up, or shown the slightest appearance of
How very odd said Henry. Even a plant
will sometimes shrink up when it is touched; and
there are a great many flowers that open their
eyes when the sun shines, and shut them again at
night; but this dull unfeeling sponge seems to do
nothing at all."
The sensitive plant might, indeed, appear
more deserving of a place in the animal world
than the sponge, if we attended only to these
signs of feeling," replied his father; "but there
are other things to be considered. The peculiar
smell of sponge, when burning, shows its animal
nature; and more than this, the microscope h
lately shown a remarkable circulation in the body
of a sponge, by which the animal is doubtless
How do you mean, papa?" said Robert.
Observe the piece of sponge you hold in your
hand. The interior is composed of a vast number
of tubes opening into each other; and onj e out-
side you see a multitude of very smulPors or
holes, with some larger ones. When you dip the
sponge in water, it fills rapidly, and if the animal
were living, and you had a microscope, you
would see that while it thus drinks in water
at all the small pores, it sends it forth again in
powerful streams at the large ones, and that-in
12 irrT mn on oErXAL KOWLmEDG.
thee streams there are mall opaque masse, which
are strewed everywhere around. No doubt the
sponge finds nutriment from substances contained
in the water, and rejects such as are unsuitable to
(WiFh S CMrlwm, w Mre t s Mg M er-rue..)
Mary wished to know whether the sponge
moves about, like other animal, or is always
fixed to one place.
Have you not heard," said Henry, "that it
grows upon rocks in the sea, and that there are
caves and grottoes under water, quite lined with
it? Of course it never moveu"
"Do not be too certain," replied his father.
PSOPAGATION Of Sf01103.
" All fll-grown sponges are indeed ixed to the
rooks on which they grow, but they send forth
little buds, or young sponges, which are carried
away by the streams I have spoken of, sometimes
to a considerable distance from their parents,
where having found a proper resting-place, they
also settle down for life. These buds are egg-
shaped, and are at first provided with minute cilia,
or hairs, which move rapidly like tiny oars, and
thus help to urge them along in the water. When
the sponge becomes ixed, these hairs are no longer
wanted, and therefore disappear."
Then," aid Mary, "the little sponges go
away from their parents as soon as they are born,
and never come back any more. Unfeeling little
creatures Why cannot they stay on the same
rock, and grow up side by side with the old
If they did so, an immense mass of sponge
would be collected on one rock, while others,
perhaps, would be bare; for it is in calm and
tranquil spots that sponges are found, and they
are so rmly fixed that a quiet sea cannot carry
them from place to place. The wandering pro-
pensities of the young sponges are, therefore, of
14 raum rrn mr ozramaL KowLrum s.
great use in distributing this useful production
throughout the seas."
SaUitIs iPONOz. (mmuchemdbe Scuhi.a.)
"What is the reason of the difference in
sponges?" asked Henry. "The nursery sponge
is much coarser than the small one I have on my
slate; and the sponge the servants use in cleaning
the windows is coarser still, and very dark
There are many different varieties of sponge,
and these again differ according to the spots they
inhabit. Sponges grow to a large size within the
tropics, and become smaller and more dense as we
approach the polar regions. There is a sponge to
be found on our own shores that is much branched,
and almost tree-like in its form. There is also a
green-looking fresh-water sponge, not uncommon
in rivers and ponds, and this sometimes grows
nearly a foot high, and is divided into branches
like a leafless shrub."
Henry and Robert agreed that on their return
home they would have a search for river-sponge;
but they were disappointed to hear that it is so
soft as scarcely to be handled without tearing, and
that it has a most disagreeable smell, like that of
"You told us, papa, that sponges hold the very
lowest place among animals. I wish you would
describe the creatures that come next above them,
and then the next and the next, until you come to
the highest of all."
So spake Henry, soon after the foregoing con-
versation; and his father, though aware that the
task was a long and a difficult one, yet kindly
promised to attend to his request, and to endea-
vour to give him a general outline of the animal
Mary and Robert were as much pleased as their
brother at this promise, for they knew that their
father would show them many pictures of animals
and would find out something interesting to say
The class of animals, next in order to sponges,
is a very large class, formerly called Zoophytes,
but now more generally known as Polyps. They
rTH CO0MON TDIrA.
grow abundantly in the tropical sees, where they
are often seen in large mases attached to rocks."
"Then they are fixed to one place, like the
"Very many of them are so; but before I
speak of these, let me describe to you the simplest
form of polyp; one that is to be found in our own
rivers and ponds, and which is able to move in a
very curious manner."
And will you show it to us, some day, papa?"
"Certainly, if you will remind me of it when
we are near some slow-running river, or elear
pond. Among the weeds of such waters we shall
be very likely to meet with this little fresh-water
polyp, the name of which is Hydra."
"Is the hydra at all like a sponge?"
SNot in appearance. The sponge is a mass of
tubes and fibres, with innumerable openings: the
hydra is a single delicate tube, open at one end
and closed at the other, where there is a minute
sucker, which helps the animal in moving along."
"The hydra seems more simple than the
sponge," aid Henry. "I wonder it should be
placed higher up in the scale of animals."
18 FrlW STBPB Sn On NERAL NOWLEDOB.
"You will see that it deserves its position, before
I have finished its history. The young sponge,
you remember, has little hairs, which serve the pur-
pose of arms, and enable it to move in the water.
Now the hydra has a number of such arms placed
round the opening which we may
S call its mouth, and these do not
fall off, but remain, and spread
out or contract at the pleasure of
its prey, which consists of small
water-worms and other minute
^ creatures. In some species of
hydra these arms are short, in
others they are exceedingly long
rT and slender. Whenever an insect
Ttouches one of them it is imme-
r3 AT. POLYP. diately secured and conveyed to
Lr**.) the mouth. These arms are pro-
perly called tdtacula, or tentacles."
The children were here shown a picture of the
hydra, in its different attitudes, as it creeps along
the stems of aquatic plants. They saw that it first
stretches itself out as far as possible, then takes
hold with its arms and draws the body forward,
WOINDrUUL FACT U lracT=Go KYDU. 11
then ixes its sucker and stretches out again to
take another step. They were told that the animal
can greatly extend its skin, so as to swallow a
worm or other creature, larger, perhaps, than
itself. The body of the hydra is so transparent
that the food can be seen within it.
The hydra must be a voracious little crea-
ture," said Mary, "to swallow so much food at
once. Does it live entirely on insects and worms?"
In its natural state it does so; but you might
keep it for a short time on minced fish, beef,
mutton, or veal."
If we find some of these creatures," aid Mary,
I hope mamma will allow me to keep a few in a
glass of water, that I may watch their odd manner
of walking, and of feeding."
The most curious part of the hydra's history
is yet to come," said her father; "if the body of
one of these creatures is cut in half, each half
quickly becomes a perfect hydra; and if cut into
four, or eight, or even forty pieces, each piece con-
tinues alive, and becomes a new animal Even a
small bit cut off one of the tentacles, or arms, is
sufficient to produce another of these strange
20 FIRST STEP IN GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
The children were much surprised to hear this;
and Henry said he should not have believed it, if
any one else had said so.
I do not wonder at your surprise," said his
father. When this fact was discovered in 1744,
it occasioned the greatest astonishment. The
learned men of the day were continually making
experiments with these poor worms, and sending
them to one another from distant countries, as
very precious gifts; and it is said that even am-
bassadors interested themselves in forwarding the
earliest intelligence of the experiments to their
How odd that such little creatures should
make so much noise in the worldI" said Henry.
A picture was here shown of a species of
hydra, which has very long and slender arms, as
fine as a spider's web; but the children were
not encouraged to hope they should ever find
such a one, the animal being much less com-
mon than the short-armed kind. They were
told that the different species of hydra are mul-
tiplied by buds growing all over their bodies, and
these, when perfect, fall off and become distinct
How much they
seem like plants," said
Henry, "in having
buds, and in grow-
ing again after they
are made into a great
many cuttings. Per-
haps the water they
live in nourishes the
cuttings just as the
earth does the cut-
tings of plants, when
we put them into the
"You will find
something to remind
you of plants in all
these lower tribes of
animals," said hi fa-
ther. Some of )
them are so striking- i
ly like flowers that
they are known as '
plant like animals, \ .
and are often named
LOex-AIIRD rTDBA. (Hdrafa/ca.)
212 ns Tarmn In EonaLuRL KNOWLsDN.
after the flower they most resemble. But I must
now describe to you what are called compound
polype. Some of these have the appearance of a
great number of hydra collected into one body, and
therefore resemble sponge, except that the arms
of the animals, spreading out on all sides, remind
one of the slender petals of flowers."
When there are so many together," said Mary,
"it must be very awkward for them to move
about, especially if some wish to walk when the
others would rather stand still."
Or if they all want to go different ways,"
Neither of these uncomfortable circumstances
can happen," maid their father, for the animals,
like sponges, are fixed to one spot. Other com-
pound polyps have a solid axis or skeleton, with
innumerable cells on the surface. These are the
corals of which you have seen specimens in my
cabinet. When fixed by their solid base to the
rocks, the animals, which are often of most beau-
tiful colours, resemble thickly scattered flowers
on a glistening bank or silvery tree."
But the corals in your cabinet look like pieces
of stone," said Henry. "Where does that stony
substance come from, and what is it made
It is deposited by the animals themselves from
their own bodies; and wonderful as this may
appear to you, it is a fact with which you will
grow familiar as we proceed. The substance
itself is called carbonate of lime, and is produced
abundantly in a vast number of animals, helping
to form shell and bone."
I now remember that you told us something
about this, when you described the coral islands
of the South Seas," remarked Henry.
I did so; and the animals I then spoke of as
forming the reefs and lagoons, are some of the
compound polyps I am now describing. The
number of coral animals is so great that I cannot
attempt to give you the names of the several
families; but you have yourself witnessed some-
thing of the variety of their dwellings. You
cannot have forgotten the beautiful collection of
corals you saw in the British Museum last year."
"Oh no," said Henry, "I shall never forget
them, they are so very wonderful, especially that
large mass of red coral that is made up of thou-
sands of beautiful little pipes, all distinct from
24 mnaT STEPS m oERAL xNowmLEDE.
each other, and yet fastened together in such a
You mean the Tubipora mwica, resembling
organ-pipes: it is
indeed a most
Sample of industry
That each little
s. animal should
build up and in-
habit its own se-
Sparate tube, and
yet form a plate
to unite it with
iaz oam-,z,. (Trip ..mi..) all the rest, and
that the whole
should be so regular and uniform as it is, must
surely excite the greatest delight in all who see
and understand this noble specimen."
Mary and Robert, who had never been to the
British Museum, wished very much to see some
of this wonderful coral, and their papa showed
them a drawing made of a small portion of Tubi-
pora music, in which the living animals were
VAmTL Y Dm CORAL.
represented projecting from the tubes. He told
them that these animals are of a brilliant gras-
green colour, and the mouth is furnished with
"Do you remember, papa, the splendid Brain-
corals* we saw in the Museum?"
Perfectly. They are beautiful and curious
masses of coral, and in their natural state are
covered with a thin layer of a soft jelly-like sub-
stance, and with myriads of very small animals,
having short arms: when these arms are expanded
and in motion, it is said that the surface seems
alive with countless beings, all eager in acquiring
food or in extending their cells. The variety in
coral seems indeed endless: there are some with
the cells resembling clusters of cup-shaped flowers,t
others with star-like cells, the inhabitants of
which are very beautifully coloured, resembling
green flowers with a deep blue disk; others that'
are quite tree-like, having elevated cells all over
the branches, that give the appearance of foliage; I
others that are jointed, and wave to and fro in the
water, bearing their living investment of fleshy
S6 rPRT STnEP mD GOmUAL NOWLaDGr.
rind and cells; others that resemble bending
osiers or beautiful fans; t and others that look
not unlike the feather of a quill."
"And which of all these is the smooth red coral
that is made into necklaces ?" asked Mary.
The coral prized in commerce is not one of
those I have been speaking of, although it is tree-
like in its appearance and very beautiful. The
skeleton is of a fine deep red, and is not pierced
with holes, like many other species, but is covered
in every part with a whitish rind, in which the
animals make their cells Here is a drawing of a
piece of living red coral, with the rind and cells
partly removed, to show the smooth branches
beneath. There are numerous coral fisheries in
the Mediterranean Sea; but the coral is so slow
of growth, that the same spot is not dragged
oftener than about once in ten years."
How do they drag for it, papa?" asked Robert.
In a very rough way. They make a large
cross of wood, with a heavy weight in the centre,
and fasten nets securely to the arms of the cross.
This apparatus is then let down from a boat by a
LIVDO Ia COAL
strong rope, and the boat is rowed over the
coral beds. The heavy aro breaks off branches
of coral, and
some of these
fall into the
nets; but no
doubt a great
pityl said Ma-
ry. "I should
like to live on
the shore near
one of those co-
ral fisheries; for
I dare say there
would be plen- LI INO asa c.a. (C,,daUnIsmkrg.)
ty of beautiful
red branches washed up by the tide."
"Not red branches, Mary," said her elder
brother. The coral is covered with a whitish
"And this rind, on drying, becomes like chalk,"
continued their father. I must also tell you
28 IRaT BTEPS IN GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.
that when the coral is left in its native bed to
grow to the full size, and is becoming old, the
living rind gradually dies away, and leaves the
skeleton bare, which then becomes subject to the
attacks of minute boring animals, and is soon
destroyed. We will now turn from the corals to
the animals called fljey polype. These still more
closely resemble flowers, and are, many of them,
common on our own rocks and shores."
Then we shall be able, perhaps, to find some,
during our stay here," said Henry.
Doubtless. Meanwhile I will describe to you
the general appearance of the Sea Anemone,*
that you may know what to look for. Imagine,
then, a soft fleshy cylinder, fixed at one end to a
rock or stone, and fringed at the other with
several rows of tentacles, or arms, which spread
out like the petals of a flower, and are beauti-
fully coloured, so as to resemble the blossom of
an anemone. The top of the cylinder is closed
with a disk, which has an opening in the centre,
forming the mouth of the animal The numerous
arms are employed in catching prey and conveying
it to this mouth, which appears ever ready to
receive and swallow young crabs and other animals
of a kind which would seem beyond the powers of
a polyp to master."
"In that respect it is like its relation the
hydra," said Henry, "which is a voracious little
creature, and fond of attacking animals larger than
True," replied his father, "and this is not the
only thing in which they are alike, for the sea-
anemone, if cut in pieces, will become so many
distinct animals, in the same wonderful way as
the hydra, but not so rapidly. If the arms are all
cut off from the sea-anemone, it takes two months
before it gains another complete set."
"Poor creature! What does it do for food all
No doubt it gains much nourishment from
the water itself, in which there are multitudes of
animals, too small to be seen by our unassisted
eyes If Mary wishes to watch the habits of a
polyp, this sea-anemone would be more conve-
nient, from its size, than the hydra." L
But, papa," said Mary, "if they are fixed to
the rock, would it not be cruel to tear them off?
"They may be removed without the least
80 FmrT erSn In OI3NmAL KNOWLIDO.
injury, by the cautious use of a thin knife with a
broad blade, passed between the animal and the
surface to which it clings."
"Let us collect a great many while we are
here, and carry them home with us," said Robert.
That would be useless, unless you could get
sea-water to keep them in. They require change
of water every day, and will then live some time
without other food than they find in it. Between
the stomach of the sea-anemone and its outer skin,
there is a cavity which can be filled with water at
pleasure, through a small opening at the extremity
of each arm, at which it is drawn in. By closing
these orifices, and forcing the water from the body
into the arms, the creature is able to expand them
in search of prey; but it can also as quickly empty
them of water, and then the arms shrink and dis-
appear. It is very interesting to watch them
distending themselves with water, and spreading
out their richly-coloured arms, and, on the least
alarm, folding them up again, and contracting into
a firm fleshy mass."
"Are they always so timid?" said Mary, "or
is it only when they are taken away from their
They are at all times very sensitive of danger,
and also of changes in the weather: the passing
of a dark cloud over the sun is sufficient to make
them contract their arms, so that they are never
seen to perfection except in bright weather. The
purple sea-anemone of this coast looks very beau-
tiful on a sunny day, having tentacles of the finest
violet colour, often tinged with pink or yellow."
Oh, papa, how I long to see it 1" said Robert.
"We will all have a good search for it, when this
cloudy weather has passed away."
Henry wondered how these creatures could
bear the storms of winter, if they are so sensitive
of changes of weather. His father told him that
they loosen their hold of the rock in that season,
and while some commit themselves to the mercy
of the waves, others creep along at the bottom of
the water, making use of their tentacles a feat,
until they find a suitable spot to fix in, at a greater
depth, and where the cold is less severe.
THE next morning the children returned in high
spirits from a walk with their mamma on the
shore, for they had found among the rocks at low
tide, in a little hollow containing clear water,
several beautiful sea-anemones. The creatures
themselves were of an olive-green colour, but
their tentacles were purple, tinged with various
colours. Henry had succeeded in removing one
of them from the rock, and had brought it home
in a glass of sea-water. Remembering what his
father had said about the little animals which live
in water, he looked very earnestly at it through
a small microscope, hoping to discover some of
them; but in vain.
"Will you tell me, papa," he said, "what the
little creatures are that live in water, and why I
cannot see them through my microscope?"
Your microscope is not powerful enough; and
if it were so, you would not have so good an
AMIKAI IN A MOP OF WAM.
opportunity of seeing the animals in this water,
as in that of ditches and pond."
The creatures must have an odd taste to like
such disagreeable places," mid Mary.
"Before the discovery of the microscope" sid
her father, "it was little suspected tha every
drop of stagnant water warms with multitudes
of living creatures; but this can now be proved
by any one possessing a microscope of high power.
It is only to skim off the duck-weed from some
pond fully exposed to the sun's rays, and plenty
of these infusory animals (as they ae called) will
"Why are the animals called by that odd
name?" mid Henry.
"You have heard, perhaps, that a vegetable
substance steeped in water, makes an iMsI.m
A Daniuh naturalst, Sfing that all inution of
animal and vegetable substances whih had been
kept a sufficient time, swarmed with these rea-
tures, called them infusory animals. Chopped
hay, or traw, or the leaves of plants, if left ia
open vessels of water exposed to the air and sm,
will, in a few days, abound with very curious
forms of animal life."
34 ramt STUT n Ganrr L xKowLwaz.
"I hope there are none of these creatures in
the water we drink," said Mary, looking very
"Fresh water as well as salt abounds with
animal life," said her father; "but the pure water
of springs is much less likely than any other to
be filled with these creatures. Nevertheless, we
must unavoidably swallow many of them."
"I am so sorry I know it," aid the little girl,
for I shall not like to drink water now."
"You need not make yourself uncomfortable
about these invisible creatures, especially as the
gastric juice of the stomach instantly destroys them.
Depend upon it, there is nothing injurious in them,
or they would not be permitted to exist in the
common drink of man and beast."
"What do these creatures look like, when they
are seen through a microscope?" asked Robert.
"The smallest are mere points or globules, and
you will get some idea of their amazing minute-
ness, when I tell you, that a single drop of stag-
nant water contains about five hundred millions
"Dear papa, this is more wonderful than any
thing else you have toldus I" said Henry. All
UnWUVCUU 0 FIFUMDo ANuuI.
these creatures in one 'drop! and there must be
millions of drops to make up a pond, and hun-
dreds and thousands of ponds, I dare my, in
different parts of the world."
"It is, indeed, a subject of endless wonder, and
our ideas soon become confused when we dwell
upon it. It is almost impossible to realize that
one drop of water can contain a number of living
creatures nearly equal to that of all the human
beings on the surface of our globe; which must be
the case if these numbers are correct."
"I wonder you did not begin the animal king-
dom with these little specks of beings, instead of
with the sponges, papa," said Henry.
"You will be astonished to learn that by means
of the microscope the internal structure of these
minute animals has been discovered, and is found
to be exceedingly curious. While in the sponges
there is nothing that can be called a stomach, and
in the polyps only the very simplest form of
stomach, it appears that the infusory animals have
a digestive apparatus, consisting of a number of
tiny sacs or stomachs, so that in many books,
instead of being called by their old name, they
have the new title of Polyjarioa, which means,
86 rzasT eM Ur om aGtAL KOWLEDG.
'having many stomachs.' Therefore, s being
less simple in their structure than the tribes we
have been speaking of, they are rightly placed
higher in the scale of animal life."
But is it quite certain about these stomachs?"
said Henry. "Would it not be very easy to
make a mistake with such tiny creatures?"
"Very easy indeed. But we trust to the
patience and caution of a very eminent naturalist,
who fed these creature sometimes with pure
carmine, sometimes with indigo, which passing
into these little stomachs, made them distinctly
visible through the transparent skin. Other ob-
servers have doubted whether these objects are
real stomachs, or whether they are only little
grains, such a have been seen in the transparent
body of the hydra, and which are likewise subject
to be tinged with the colour of the food taken by
"Are the infueory animals all alike?" said
Mary, "and do they all look like transparent
"By no means. They are of various shpes,
and are divided into two groups, one having soft
bodies, the other having a covering of extremely
TVmam WMraT. 37
fne and delicate shell These letter assist in the
changes that are going on upon the surface of our
globe, for as they die in countless myriads, their
shells, mixed with other substances, help to form
oday, fint, chalk, &c. Thus, even creatures that
are quite invisible to us while floating in water, may
become deposited in vast multitudes, so as to be of
great importance in the earth. If Robert will fetch
my dressing-case, I will show you the remains of
a vast assemblage of these microscopic beings."
Robert ran upstairs in great haste, wondering,
as he went, how his papa came to put infusory
animal into his dresing-case.
When the dresing*case was brought down and
opened, the children were surprised to see their
father take out the hone on which he was ao-
customed to sharpen his raors. "Thi," he said,
"is called Turkish stone; but you will be s-
tonished to learn that it is in reality a mas of the
foil remains of these animals.
The children looked earnestly at the hone, and
each wished to handle and examine it; but they
could only express their wonder; for they were
not able to make out any thing that looked like
the shells of animals.
38 rM mT aw n mN mUL KNOWLUOL
"Ihave another strange thing to tell you about
these creatures. On the shores of a lake near
Urne, in Sweden, there is a great quantity of a
white powdery substance, which the inhabitants
call mosunain meal. This they collect and mix
with flour to form bread. It is said to be tolerably
nutritious; but, perhaps, the people who eat it
*are not aware that this meal is nothing more than
a mass of the shelly coverings of infusory animals.
They accumulate at the bottom of the lake,
and when the water retires from certain parts,
they dry and become mealy, so as to resemble
"Then these poor people not only drink the
animals in water, but eat them in bread; or at
least they eat their shells, which is nearly as
bad," said Henry. I wish," he added, "that we
could see some of these creatures alive and swim-
ming about in water."
His father told him that by searching in stag-
nant water, they might be able to find a large
species, which is visible to the naked eye,* but
they must be contented to wait for a sight of the
smaller kinds until they met with a powerful
Bomru trtestm l
mirosope, or until they went to London, and
saw the extraordinary magnifying powers of the
ozy-hydrogen microscope. He also showed them
a picture of some curious creatures, which were
formerly classed with infuory animals, but are
found to pomems a higher organization. These
are called wheel-bearer (Rokifwr), because their
cilia or hairs move so rapidly as to appear like
wheels turning round. Each animal is partly en-
closed in a transparent and delicate shell, shaped
like a goblet, and having a stem or tail, by which
40 nr sT uTn I oGxuNAL KXOWLUwo .
it attaches itself to aquatic plant. These curious
features are only to be seen through a microsooe,
but are exceedingly active; multitudes of them
performing rapid evolutions in a single drop of
water. % ow A
ZNNUGORT AVIMAL6 AS OBIRZlVSD BY 2MSA
"Loo, ppa, at this strange mam of jelly,"
said Henry, as they were taking their usual walk
on the shore,-"pray come and look at it, for I
think it seems to be melting away in the sun, just
as that did which I wanted to show you a few
His father examined it and told him that it waJ
what people call ser-jelly, or ses-blubber, or jelly-
fishe. As it now lies," he continued, "there are
no signs of motion, and very few traces of its
"Do you mean, papa, that it was ever alive?"
"Certainly; and this specimen before us p-
pear to me to have been so recently thrown up
by the wave, that I doubt not, were you to
handle it, you would have a disagreeble proof of
its being alive stilL"
"What would it do, then, paps?"
Thi loose edge or fringe which you see around
42 nm r t rs r GomnAL INOWLuDO.
it, would cause a stinging sensation in your hand.
In some other creatures of this family, the pain
caused by the sting is considerable, and is ao-
companied with inflammation. Hence there are
other common names given to these animals, as
sea-nettles, stingers, and stang-fshes. It is on
this account, also, that naturalists call the whole
class Iaepha, which signifies 'a nettle.'"
Are all the sea-nettles as ugly as this?" said
"I do not admit that this is ugly," replied her
father; "but there are many specimens that are
much prettier, especially those which give out
phosphorescent light. You have heard of the
msdwi, which light up the surface of the ocean
in warm countries."
Oh yes, papa," said Henry; "but those are
very little creatures, and I should not have guessed
that they belonged to the same family as this
large mass of jelly."
All the meduu are not equally small There
is one called the Girdle of Venus, which is like a
long flat piece of riband; and another, called
Beroe, which is quite round, and also of con-
siderable size. I remember reading a very
interesting amount of the pbophoresence of the
meduos, both large and smll, written by a
scientific gentleman, who had seen this beautiful
sight in the Mediterranean se. He described it
as not being a constant light, but given ot in
broad dashes that can be een for miles. These
flahes occur when a paying breeze sweeps over
the fae of the ocean, or where the ea i agitated
by the progress of the ship, in whose wake there
is a long track of splendour. The ors of a boat,
44 mnr sn nr GnUN AL KNOWLUMDO
when raised, re dripping u with living diamonds,
and a little of the water taken in the palm of
the hand and slightly agitated, appears full of
"Those must have been the tiny creatures I
read of," said Henry, "which can only be seen
through a microscope, and yet give out light.
What did he say about the large ones?"
"He described some Beroes that were vividly
phosphorescent, and said that the Girdle of Venus,
as it glides rapidly along, has the appearance of a
waving riband of flame, several feet in length;
while some others of the larger species shine with
such dazzling brightness, that they look like
cannon-balls, heated to whiteness, far down below
How very different all those creatures seem
to be from our sea-nettle I" said Robert.
You must not judge of this specimen by its
present appearance, for even while we have been
talking, it has dwindled away considerably. Its
natural form is not unlike that of a large mush-
room, the upper part being hemispherical, while
from the under side hangs a mas of wrinkled and
fringed organs, which probably serve the purpose
"U PYO0M3 NAN-CUO-WAR."
of tentacles or arms. These animals contract
ad open the disk with great regularity about
fifteen times in a minute. They are full of sea-
water; and when thrown ashore this escapes, and
leaves nothing behind but a delicate filmy sub-
stance, almost like cobweb."
Do not let us forget to look at this creature
again when we come back from our walk," mid
Mary, for I should like to keep the remains of
the poor sea-nettle."
"I have yet one more of these creatures to
describe to you," sid their father, and you will
be amused to hear that it is called the Portuguese
"What an odd-name for a sea-nettle I" aid
Henry. Is it so much larger and handsomer
than all the rest that it looks like a man-of-war
among little ships?"
"The name has been given to it because the
animal has the power of erecting a ail or crest, by
means of which it skims along upon the surface of
the water. I have a volume of 'Gouse's Zoology
in my pocket, and I am sure you will be pleased
with what I am going to read to you about the
Portuguese Man-of-war:-' In the tropical parts
46 nFarT TarsPs N oGNuIL KNowLaDB.
of the Atlantic,' srys Mr. Gose, 'this lovely
reature abounds, looking at a short distance ex-
eatly like a child's mimic ship, and attracts our
wonder and admiration to see so delicate and frail
a bark breasting the broad billows, as it seems
that the first breaking sea must inevitably over-
whelm and dash it to pieces. Yet, there it floats
and dances,-now on a curling crest, now in the
deep hollow, in spite of wind and wave. Often
when passing just under the lee of a vessel, the
sudden lull made by the interposition of so great
a body between it and the wind, will cause it
momentarily to lie flat on the water, but it in-
stantly resumes its upright position. We have
never made a voyage without seeing these crea-
tures in greater or less number, but nowhere in
such profusion as in the gulf of Mexico. In
rounding the Florida reef, we were once nearly a
whole day sailing through a fleet of them, which
studded the smooth sea as far as the eye could
reach. They were of all sizes, from an inch in
length to a foot or more. When examined closely,
the animal is seen to consist of an oblong tras-
parent bladder, pinched up at the upper part into
a kind of rumpled edge; this edge is of a delicate
winio 01 T3 @3-in3TTLjL
pink, but the lower part of the bladder u fine
blue, and both these colour are gradually soft.
ened into the clear membrane, the middle of which
is colourless. From one end of the bottom pro-
oeeds a large bunch of tentacles like strings, hang-
ing down in the water; these are of a brilliant
The children were delighted with this account,
and wished they could see a fleet ofthese beautiful
creatures. Their papa showed them a picture
which represented some of these animals sailing
on the ocean, but this, of course, showed their
form only, and not their lovely colours.
And what becomes of them in a storm?" asked
They have the power of diving suddenly to
the lower parts of the ocean, where they remain
until the storm that agitates the surface has passed
away, when they again appear, spreading out their
Pretty little creatures" said Mary. The
name of sea-nettle is really not good enough for
them, and I am glad they have a better name."
And yet they sting as sharply as any of their
hfily," remarked her father. A gentleman
48 ras rvm nFr eI nULL uNOWLnUD.
who took hold of one of the animal., found that
it raised its tentacles, and stung him severely on
the second and third fngers. At firt, the sensa-
tion was just that of being stung with a nettle;
but it increased to violent aching, and in a quarter
of an hour the whole hand and arm, and even the
shoulder and chest were affected: the breathing
also became difficult. These alarming symptoms
continued for half an hour, when they gradually
abated; but the arm was benumbed for some
The children were very much surprised, and
rather vexed, to hear that such an innocentlooking
little creature could sting so severely; but they
were better satisfied when their father told them
that this power is given to it not only as a means
of self-defene, but, in all probability, for the pur-
pose of benumbing the animals on which it feeds
While speaking of the beauty of the Portu-
gee Man-of-war, Mary had expressed a wish to
know what animals came next to the osenettles
in the ladder of animal life, which their papa was
leading them up.
f you talk of ladderr" said Henry, "I do not
know when we all reach the top. Let me see;
ponges, polyp infusory animal, see-ttule 'we
are only at the fourth round of the ladder yet."
And I will detain you there a minute or two,"
maid his father, to peak of some creatures, whose
history is too painful to dwell on long, although
they should properly occupy a separate 'round' in
your imaginary ladder of life."
"What are they called, papa?"
"Intestinal worms, or worms living in the
bowels of other animals."
"How shocking!" exclaimed Mary. Are there
many animals that have these creatures living in
All animals, from the meanest insect up to
man himself, are subject to the attacks of these
creatures; and they exist not only in the bowels,
but in various other parts of the body. One of
them, called the .f#r, inhabits the liver of sheep,
and of other animals; while the thread-worms and
tape-worms areonly too well known a inhbiting
the intestines of human beings."
The children thought this very dreadful, and
eagerly inquired whether everybody had these
creatures, or only some persons. Their father
told them that the larger species are only found in
60 rua mas ar GmIAL KNOWLuDOm .
unatthy animals, and may always be considered
a tokens of disease, but many microscope species
are common in healthy as well u unhealthy sub-
jects. He also warned them that children who
disorder their stomachs, by eating unripe fruits
and other unwholesome food, are very often at-
tacked by an intestinal worm, which grows to a
great length within the bowels, and causes a great
deal of pain.
One of the most remarkable of these animals,"
he continued, is a worm called the twin-worm,
which inhabits the gills of a fish (the common
Breamn This creature possesses two bodies,
joined together by a band, and having suckers at
the four extremities. Here is a drawing of it,
both magnised and of the natural rie."
The children looked at it, and remarked how
unlike it was to any worms they had ever seen.
Their father then told them, that all these crea-
tures, commonly called intestinal worms, are very
different in their structure from true worms, and
mast not be confounded with them; and that
the proper name of these creatures is Enu es,
from two words, signifying "within," and n
Tn TW m-WOL
Can you tell how these reatures get into the
body?" asked Henry.
I cannot," answered hi their. It is very
humbling to the pride of human reason, that we
have no means of knowing how thee creatures
are produced, or what purpose they serve in the
YVZE-WOIN. (D4,I.UM P~edsjg.)
ROBEaT was very glad to hear his father say
that the next class of animals he should describe
would be star-fishes. The children had met with
many of the common sea-star, or five-finger, on
the shore, some of which were living, while others
were mere dry skeletons. On taking up a living
one, they had always found that it gave a strange
creeping sensation to the hand, which they could
not account for, and which they now asked the
This is caused," said their father, by the
wonderful structure of the under part of the rays,
for these creatures have generally five rays,
spreading out from a centre, which is called the
Sdisk.' They are named asurias, or starfish,
from aster, a star, because they resemble the shape
we call star-like. If you have a living specimen
I will show you the curious apparatus in the
93 0050M MIfAR 128.
Henry brought one, which he had been keeping
Now let us examine this creature very closely.
What do we see on the upper side?"
A thick and rough skin," aid Henry, "some-
thing like leather; and so tough, that it would
not be very easy to pierce it. In some of the
larger ones, it is almost as hard as a shell."
"And what do we find on the under side?"
sid his father, turning the animal on its back.
A hollow place in each arm, with raised spots
in regular lines. They look very pretty, but I do
not know the use of them."
The hollow place or groove in each ray was
called by Linnaus the avenue, because it reminded
him of a walk between rows of trees, for each
groove contain four rows of small holes like pin-
holes, through every one of which rises a slender
fleshy tube, which serves as a foot or sucker."
"What a number of feet the animal must have!"
aid Mary. I think there must be a hundred in
this one ray."
The naturalist, Reaumur, counted three hun-
dred and four in each of the five rays, making
fifteen hundred and twenty in al. The structure
54 nuTr sars Im omKNX AL kxOWLarDO.
of these feet is not a little remarkable. Each foot
consists of a tube closed at the end, and eonneeted
with a sac or reservoir of fluid. When the animal
wishes to put forth its feet, it forces the fluid from
the sacs into the tubes, which accordingly appear
through these holes; but on withdrawing the fluid
again, the tubes contract and retire into their
respective holes, just as you see these at present."
That reminds me of the sea-anemone," said
Henry, which has the same odd way of filling
and emptying its rays or arms. But where is the
mouth of our star-fish?"
This opening in the centre is the mouth, and
is capable of being greatly enlarged to take in
small shell-fish, which are swallowed entire. The
rays fold over the prey and convey it to the
mouth, and the numerous feet or suckers hold
it fast. You will be again reminded of former
tribes, when I tell you that a star-fish losing
one of its rays is soon furnished with a new
one; and that in some other species, called Brittle-
stars, the animal actually throws off its rays on
the least alarm, and escapes with only the disk, so
that it is almost impossible to procure a perfect
specimen. Yet, after this frightful mutilation, the
disk will, in the course of time, put forth freh
rays, and appear as perfect as before. Speaking
of the brittle-tar, Professor Forbes ay, Touch
it, and it throws away an arm; hold it, and in
a moment not an arm remains attached to the
The variety and beauty of star-fihes are so great,
that separate works have been written on their
The children were much amused at the idea
of throwing off an arm by way of self-defence,
66 I Irr sTrE nmI GoaNL KNOWLM~B.
and they thought that all the animals their father
had yet described must have very little sense of
pain, or they oould not so eaily part with their
limbs, and bear the cuttings and divisions he had
You remember the curious creature we found
on the shore a few days ago, which I told you was
called a see-urchin."
Oh yes, pp," said Mary. It was like a
round box covered with bristles, or perhaps more
like a small hedgehog; but you told us that when
these bristles are removed, the shell is seen to be
very prettily marked."
"True: there are beautiful and regular grooves
passing down the
sides of the globe;
and having double
rows of small open-
ings with tubes like
those in the ray of
the sea-4tar. There
Share also double rows
of little knobe, ar-
*MiuiqiA c Ihi.
VA2I3TT O 2A-4TAX
ranged with perfect regularity, serving for the nsp-
port of the bristles, which have sockets at their
base, exactly fitting them. These ball-and-soet
joints allow free motion to the spines in every
direction, so that they act as levers, and,
together with the feet, assist the Nea-urchin to
move along smooth surfaces at the bottom of the
sea. To show you how beautifully the habits of
each animal are provided for, there is a family of
these creatures, called Bpatsrw which buries
itself in the sand, and in this case the bristles on
the back are much longer than those on the rest
of the body, so that when the animal is lying
buried, these long bristles prevent the and from
losing completely, and preserve a small round
hole for the admission of water to the mouth."
A picture was now shown to the children of
several kinds of sea-stars, as well as of the sea-
urchin deprived of its spines
That fourth specimen here represented," said
their father, is one of those se-stars in which
the rays are like the tails of serpents; hence their
name Opkiurw, from two Greek words, signifying
' serpent' and tail.' The fifth is called MAfdhw'
hard, and you see the five rays branch out into
68 r r mre oa eonuai uowimnO.
numerow u snaky looks; the sixth is Comnalu, or
the Hairy Se-star, so called from having the rays
covered with numberless short filaments like the
beards of a feather. The seventh specimen closely
resembles it, but is placed on a stem, the base of '
which is fixed to a rok. This lat is called the
Fig. I. IA-o-fl. L. s.aea-IlI. L. sA-AIs 4. 4s Ps'I sANe.
a. KUliA's sIAs. L. AIalT MA-WAe 1. sIT-W1 .
When the rays are long and thin, a. they
seem to be in some of these reatures," Mid Henry,
Sis there the same apparatus of hundreds of feet,
and of openings for them, as there is in my atar-
There is not," replied his father. "The feet
are then found only on the disk, or central part of
the body, which you see is very smalll"
Henry wondered how they were able to move
about, until his father told him that the long rays
themselves serve the purpose of legs or arms,
being much more flexible than those of the com-
The children were now told that they had
arrived at the end of one great division of the
Animal Kingdom. "I have only been able to speak
to you of the more striking families; but still we
have gathered some notion of the large oollo
tion of creatures called by naturalists Radi.a, or
radiate animals, from having their organs spread
ing out from a centre in a circular form."
"Are they all called o?" said Mary; "the star
fihes might have that name on account of their
rays, but why should the others have it ?"
60 n3r 3 r ss IN OBGIUL KIOWLZDn .
Consider a moment," sid her father, "and
you will se that all the creatures we have yet
talked about, have rays or tentacles or cilia, and
these spread outward in a star-like form."
Henry counted them over, and found that sea-
anemones, sea-nettles, wheel-bearers, hydra and
coral-animals, all have fringes or hairs or arms,
which may be called rays. But sponges, papa,"
he said, "have certainly no right to be called
"You forget that even these are possessed of
minute rays, if we may so call the little hairs
which encircle the infant sponge, and which are
only cast off when there is no further use for
Henry acknowledged that he had quite for-
gotten the little sponges, and was only thinking
of the large makes. His father went on to my,
that all radiate animal are nearly destitute of the
senses which are so remarkable in higher beings,
and seem to have little more than the sense of
touch. They have no heart, no circulation of
blood, and generally, no distinction of sex. "Yet,"
he said, "who will dare to despise these little
creatures, when they think of the vast coral reefs
AOUAta AxImAU. 61
of the Paciic Ocean, and remember that they re
the work of a very low order of radiate animals;
and when, again, they hear of great changes going
on upon the surface of our globe, in which the
microopic animals of this division bear an im-
portant part. To my mind alao," he continued,
" there is nothing in earth or sky, which shows in
a more astonishing manner the infinite working of
the Almighty hand, than a single drop of stag-
nant water, with its five hundred millions of per-
feet and wonderful inhabitants."
"Now you have finished telling us about the
radiate animals, papa, I hope we shall mount
another step of the ladder, to the animals next
above them," aid Henry. "What are they "
"A helpless and despised race," replied his
father; "but one that is not without important
uses to mankind. I mean worms."
The children wondered that their father should
call worms useful, for they had often heard the
gardener at home complain of the trouble they
caused him in the gravel paths, and on the lawn;
and when digging in what he called the worst
bits of ground, they had seen him turn up a great
quantity of worms.
"If you ask the uses of worms," said their
father, "I will answer you in the words of
Gilbert White:-' Earth-worms,* though in ap-
pearance a small and despicable link in the chain
of nature, yet, if lost, would make a lamentable
chasm. For to sy nothing of half the birds and
some quadrupeds which are almost entirely sup-
VSSn OF 3UYK-WOMUM
ported by them, worms rem to be great pro.
mothers of vegetation, which would proceed but
lamely without them, by boring, perforating, and
loosening the soil, and rendering it pervious to
rains and the fibes of plants; by drawing straws
and stalks of leaves, and twigs into it; and mot of
all, by throwing up such infinite numbers of lumps
of earth, called worm-casts, which being their ex-
crement, is a fine manure for grain and grass.'"
"Then why does the gardener dislike them "
"It is natural that he should do so, since they
throw up those little hillocks which disfigure his
paths; but in open pastures and clay soils, where
appearances are not so much studied as in gardens,
the existence of worms should be considered an
advantage, for they are great improvers of the
land, which without their aid would often be-
come cold and hard-bound."
"I have often wondered," sid Marf, "how
worms can move along as they do, without feet."
They have indeed no limbs properly so called,"
said her father; "but their bodies are composed
of a great number of ring, amounting to one
hundred and twenty; and on the under side of
64 rrar mr I omr uwAL WOWLDGB
thee are situated exceedingly small hairs or
bristles, four pair on every ring, which take hold
of the ground a the animal moves along."
The children were astonished to hear of these
bristles, and asked how it was they had never men
Because of their small size, and also because the
worm does not thrust them out until the moment
they are wanted. In moving along, it first stretches
out the head and foremost rings, and takes hold of
the ground with the bristles of these parts, then
draws forward the remaining parts of the body, and
in turn presses those bristles against the earth."
"And yet," said Henry, "when I take up a
large worm, it does not cling to the ground as if
it had feet."
"What do worms live upon ?" asked Mary.
SUpon decaying substances, both animal and
vegetable, mixed with a large portion of earth.
They hive no teeth nor eyes, but a thick fleshy
lip or margin to the mouth, with which they
draw in their food. They can lengthen their heads
to a fine point, and in this way, and by strongly
contracting their bodies, they are able to bore holes
in the ground as places of retreat and safety."
And they always choose damp places, do they
not ? asked Henry.
They certainly prefer moisture, and thus their
labours are directed just where they are most
wanted to drain and lighten the soil; but con-
tinual wetness destroys them, and where floods
are very frequent the worms are all drowned."
I wish I had known that before," said Mary
"for a poor worm once fell into the watering-pot
when we were gardening, and I allowed it to stay
there, thinking it would enjoy the water; but the
next time I used the watering-pot, I found the
worm at the bottom quite white and dead."
"The earth-worm is in this respect very dif-
ferent from its relation the leech,* which belongs
to the same class of animals," said her father.
"Do you mean the leech that people use in
"I do; and these animals, you know, live in
water, and swim about in it by waving their
bodies in a serpentine manner. You have seen
their movements through a glass vessel, and you
have heard me speak of the leech fisheries abroad,
where a man is seen walking about in pools,
allowing the animals to fasten on his naked legs."
6 a rur Tirs nG omaUmAL UNOWLsUO.
S "Oh yes, papa, and the poor man
always looks pale and ill, and he
sometimes throws bits of raw meat
into the water, and when the
leeches have gathered round it, he
catches them all, and puts them into
a vessel of water."
And afterwards" aid Henry, "he
stows them all away in a little bag
which he has on his shoulder; and
carriers take them about in wet sacks
on horseback, packed very closely to-
"It is enough to kill them, to be
all huddled together in a sack without
room to move," said Bobert.
The leech is not so easily killed,"
replied his father. It will bear very
hard usage, and even when froen is
sometimes thawed into life again."
S"I thought they were delicate
creatures," said Mary; "forthose we
had at home all died, though they had
fresh water every day."
SThose leeohes had been used to extract blood,
and were not likely to live long. Although
TM LO3N 01C NUMICUM
leehes in their natural tate feed on animal sub-
stanes, yet they have no opportunity of sucking
blood to the extent that they do when applied
to our bodies: it is therefore an extraordinary
and providential circumataoe, that these cream
tures possess, even to their own hurt, so great
a thirst for blood, and can be made so useful
in checking the progress of many kinds of dis-
Have leeches any little bristles, such as the
earth-worm has on its rings ?" inquired Robert.
No: the body of the leech is perfectly smooth
and beautifully marked, and has at each end a
fleshy disk which acts as a sucker, and which the
animal employs in moving along. The leech lays
its eggs in the mud of ponds, enclosed in a singular
case, or cooon, within which the young leeches
come to life."
coc0M @Or LUma.
trn .ome- oruag, Movzue
68 ~IrST ITsrN oNPENRUL UOWLUoI.
"It has teeth, I know," aid Mary: "for I
have heard people speak of its sharp bite r'
"The teeth are very curious, being
S saw-like, three in number, and arranged
in the form of a triangle. The mouth
is situated in the middle of the front
sucker, and near to it are eight or ten
eyes, so minute as only to be discovered
by the microscope. But I have other
worms to notice, and must not dwell too
long on these, important as they are."
"Oh, papa," said Robert; "I dare
say you can tell us what kind of worm
it was that we saw on the shore a few
days ago. It was of a brighter colour
than the common worm, and it had such
curious little crimson tufts on its sides."
"That was the sand-worm or lug-
worm, which fishermen use so much as
a bait. It bores tunnels in the sand,
and as it lives principally under water,
it has gills, or a breathing apparatus
somewhat like that of ishe, and these
BAN& wou, are the red tufts you speak oC It has
Also little organs, varying in ape,
which serve the purpose of feet."
S Ta aut-MOUrS. S.
di not expect to see any thing so pretty
on a worm, a those bright coloured gills," re-
"You would then be
very much surprised at
the sight of another kind
of worm, called the sea-
mouse. This animal is
only about five or six
inches long, and is much
more oval in shape than
other worms; but what
is so remarkable in its
appearance is, that it is
covered with a series of
glittering plates, and from
its sides project tufts of "*"""*,
bristles of a beautiful
golden colour, with blue and green reflections, equal
in brilliancy to the lustre of gems."
"What a lovely creature it must be said
Mary. Are its bristles of any use, or only for
"They are useful as a means of defence, being
pointed and barbed like an arrow. But the animal
70 Mar sTrs X o GRUL KxOWL Os.
has the means of drawing them in when not in
use, and at such times each little arrow becomes
enclosed in a horny sheath, so that it does no
injury to the skin of the animal This curious
mechanism can only be seen through a microscope;
but is highly illustrative of the wondrous care
bestowed ,on the construction of every living
Worms are much more curious and interesting
than I expected them to be," said Henry.
You will be ready to say the same of whatever
object in nature you begin to study," sid his
father. "We live in the midst of so many won-
ders and curiosities, that life is too short to make
us acquainted with half their excellence. Every
intelligent person is a learner during his whole
life; and at its close, however diligent he may have
been, he still feels himself to be merely on the
threshold of knowledge. It is one of the great
pleasures of life, that there is always something
new to learn."
Then we must make the most of our time,"
said Henry, "if there is so much to be learned."
Certainly; let us therefore hasten forward in
our sketch of animal life. There are yet other
wor nurumm 2TU3U
curious worms whose habit it is to form a tube
round their bodies, of and, or small tones and
Do you mean caddi-worm ?" asked Henry.
"No," replied his father, but animals that
have a very similar method of working. They
are ced Tubikod, or dwellers in tubes; and they
79 rzn srT s or OGNEMAL KXOWLDUe.
have the gills placed very near the head, so that
they project from the mouth of the tube."
How do they manage to make these tubes?"
A glutinous matter oozes from their skin, and
either becomes a horny covering, or attaches to
itself grains of sand and small shells. In some
species the worm is observed to collect the shells,
and fasten them in a sort of ring round its head,
using the glue to cement them together; then by
adding others it gradually lengthens the tube,
so as to form a covering. These worms, as
well as the others we have spoken of, (only ex-
cepting the earth-worm,) are inhabitants of the
waters; and all are raised above radiate animals,
by the possession of red blood which circulates in
a double system of arteries and veins. There is
also another striking difference. In radiate
animals it was impossible to speak of a right and
left side, or of a fore and hind part; but we can
do so in worms, and in all the animals above them.
You must also notice how much greater the
powers of motion are in worms than in any of the
mILLImnu Ain OczIflDm.
Do you remember the animals you called me
into your garden to look at, the day before we left
home, Robert?" asked his father.
"Oh yes, papa; they were wood-lice. I had
turned a flower-pot down over a little plant I
wanted to take care of, and when I lifted it up,
there were, I should think, twenty of them, some
rolled up like a ball, and some lying flat on the
ground. I never saw so many together before,
and I wanted you to look at them; but before
you came out, they had nearly all run away."
"You should have returned the flower-pot
gently to its place, and they would not have crept
away. It was the light that disturbed them; for
they belong to a clam of animals that lurk in
shady places by day, and come abroad at night to
seek their food."
Henry said, that he had sometimes seen a
smaller creature, very much like the wood-louse,
and rolling itself up in the ame kind of ball, but
74 ras Tm nr QaXm L KMowL.Um .
quite black and shining, instead of the dull
brown or earth-colour of the wood-louse.
That is the Pill Millipede," mid his father;
so called because it was formerly used in medi-
cine, especially on the continent."
Robert laughed to hear this, and said, the
creatures did indeed look very much like pills,
when they were rolled up; but he should be very
sorry to swallow one.
Is there any difference between millipedes and
centipedes ?" aid Henry.
"They closely resemble each other," said his
father, "in having a great number of legs; but
they may be known apart by their general shape:
millipedes being curved or half-cylindrical, while
centipedes are flat; millipedes having also the
habit of rolling themselves up in balls, which
centipedes have not. Millipedes are harmless
creatures, feeding on decaying vegetable sub-
stances, and crawling at a comparatively slow
rate; centipedes are active and voracious animal,
living on insects and worms, and moving with
"I think I know them apart, said Henry.
SThose flat creatures with hard, polished bodies,
IUmMIS AMD CMUNTIFNDD5
that move along so rapidly, must be centipedes.
I sometimes turn one up when I am digging in my
garden, and it is quite amusing to see how fast it
runs away upon its many feet."
"Some of the centipedes," said his father, "are
luminous, and one of them* may sometimes be
seen on the grass of lawns during the summer
evenings, winding its way like a silver thread.
Centipedes in this country are too small to attract
much notice, still less to become objects of dread;
but in warm climates, where they grow to a large
size, the case is very different"
"What harm do they do there ?" asked Mary.
"The actual harm is sometimes very serious;
but besides this, as they are more than a foot long,
they excite great disgust in Europeans, when they
are found lurking in corners of houses, or hiding
under furniture and in drawers, or even creeping
into their beds."
"How very disagreeable!" exclaimed Mary.
"It would be bad enough to have one of our little
centipedes running over one in the night; but
this great creature must be very much wore."
"These formidable animals have a mouth pro-
s .olopda i srie.
76 rnur aSTPS nr oGmRAL KNowLnDOE.
vided with horny jaws, and also with two sharp
fangs, which have a small opening near the tip,
through which the centipede is able to send a
poisonous fluid into the wound made by its bite.
This bite, though rarely fatal, is said to be more
severe than the sting of a scorpion."
"I do not wonder at people disliking and dread-
ing the creature," said Henry.
This class of animals," said his father, ap-
proaches very closely to insects, and is by some
writers included with them. Other persons find
so many disagreements between them as to give
them a separate place. Like insects, they pass
through several changes before they arrive at
their perfect state; but these changes are only an
increase in the number of the segments or
divisions of their bodies, and at the same time an
increase in the number of legs; for each division
has one pair, sometimes two pairs of legs attached
to it. These creatures have eight eyes, arranged
in a series of four on each side the head. They
breathe through small pores along the sides of
their bodies, called spiracles."
m3Un I QGENN
TaX children, while by the se-side, were very
anxious to have an opportunity of seeing the
beautiful worm their father had described to them,
called the sea-mouse; but they were unsuccessful.
It was, however, a frequent subject of conversation
with them, and Robert said that he thought it must
be something like a large hairy caterpillar, only
much more handsome. His father told him that
caterpillars come very near worms in the arrange-
ments made by naturalists.
They look something like them," said Henry,
"for their bodies are marked as if they had rings,
or were made up of several divisions, like the
centipedes; and they are often covered with
little tufts of hair, or bristles. But they are
better off than worms, for they have good strong
feet, which can hold tightly to anything. I have
often tried to take up a caterpillar, and found I
could not get it off the plant without injuring it."
Oh yes," said Mary, and my silk-worms are
just as bad: if I take hold of them they ling so
78 J T s GNr OIIUlAL KILOWLEUIM .
frmly 'their food that I bring up mulberry leaf
SYou should not fo eaterpilla from its
; 'l t it, yosu hold cut off the
or twig on which it is lodged;
and if you, Mary, wish to make
your silk-worms leave their old mul-
berry leaves, it is only to lay some
fresh ones over them, and they will
very quickly mount them of their
I have thought of another thing
in which caterpillars are superior
to worms," said Henry; many of
them are able to spin beautiful silk,
which worms can never do."
And I have thought of some-
CAI-PIL.LA s-.* thing else," aid Robert: "cater-
i... *n i pillars change into moths and but-
@" '" 'terflies, with all sorts of pretty
colours and marks upon their wings; but worms
Centipedes change," aid Mary; but they
never oomaPot with wings, and fly about in the air."
oanuM or aMscn. 9
"You have hit upon the grand
Robert," aid his father; and a mort woadeds
one it is. The changes wich inects pas through
are so extraordinary that I could sooreely hope to
make you understand them, ha~oa not watched
them for yourselves in the cas dFte Aflk-worm."
But do all caterpillars change into butterflies
and moths?" asked Mary.
They all change into some kind of winged
insect, and go through much the ame history as
your silk-worms: you can tell me what that is."
Oh yes, papa. First, they are little eggs no
IWi AND BILK-WORMI IN TI1 lU8T ADS.
bigger than poppy-seeds; then they come out tby
black worms; and these, when they have been fed
a long time on mulberry leaves, and have thrown
off their old skins several times, grow to be fne,
large, light-coloured caterpillars. The next thing
they do is to spin a very pretty little nest of yellow
80 n tmrr sTa or OERAL KIOWL GOQ.
silk, whidl they wind roundnd ad round their bodies
till you cannot see them any longer. What they
do next I cannot tell, for each one is wrapped up
in the midst of his ball of silk; but when the time
comes to wind the silk off, it is not a caterpillar
we find inside, but a chrysalis,-an odd-looking,
brown, shining creature, that
scarcely seems like a living
being at all. However, if
we cover this brown thing T
over with bran, and keep it a i r .
fw days, it breaks open its shining case, and comes
out a large white
moth. And this
is the end of it;
forwhen the moth
has laid its eggs,
pe o many different
shapes does it
appear in ?"
.MAL. BLIE.WO&M MOTE A =Ga. iThree, pap&.
First the caterpillar, then the chrysalis, then the
CATInI u.LA, CETrsAus, mor 81
"All ineeots, properly so called, go through tnan-
formations answering to these thre, ths-g not
always exactly like them. Caterpillars otwardly
resemble worms, yet there is this remarkable dier-
ence; that they have, concealed from view, in their
interior, all the organs of the perfect insect. The
caterpillar has a number of membranous coverings
which are thrown off one after another. These
coverings, hiding the form of the future animal,
have been compared to a mask, hiding the true
features; on this account the animal wearing this
disguise has been termed loa; which is the Latin
name for a mask."
I shall always think of that when I see a
caterpillar," sid Mary. "It hides its true face
under a mask."
And does not the chrysalis do the same?"
"We can scarcely call that a mask through
which the features can be traced," said his father;
"and in many cases, through the thin coating of the
chrysali we can clearly make out the wings, the an-
tenna, and the general form of the perfect insect."
"Then it is more like a veil than a mask,"
89 rMrr ABPs ma Omu AL KNOWULDOs.
A veil, covering a most curious and beautiful
form. Insects are indeed so surpassingly elegant,
so numerous, so varied, and so admirably formed,
that I am quite at a loss how to describe them to
you, and how to give you the most distant idea of
There must be a vast number of them," aid
Henry; for in the height of summer the air seems
full of them."
You will see how impossible it is that I should
do more than give the merest sketch of these
creatures, when I tell you that there are about one
hundred thousand species named and described;
and that these are found in countless hots, in all
the countries of the earth, from the equator to the
It seems strange that any one should be able
to find out how many species there are, among such
a great multitude," remarked Henry.
It is strange; and we are greatly indebted to
the patience and skill of those accomplished persons
who have devoted their lives to the studyof inects,
and thus have brought to light so many wonders
respecting this interesting part of the animal king-
dom. One very ingenious plan by which they
mOWYSOM Ima e.
simplifed the arrangement of insects, was by clai-
ing them together according to the structure of
their wings; for instance, a very large number
of insects have wing-case for the protection
of the true wings; these are called CoAoptsra, from
two words signifying shidl and wing. You are
well acquainted with many of these insects, for
they are what we call beetles."
Oh yes, paps," said Henry, I know them
very well; many a one have I caught for the sake
of seeing it burst open its hard wing-cases, spread
the delicate gauzy wings that are under them, and
Why, this is just what my dear little lady.
birds do," exclaimed Mary. "Do they belong to
Yes," replied her father; and so does another
great favourite of yours; I mean the glow-worm."
Mary was surprised to hear this, for when she
was staying with her aunt in the New Foresakbe
remembered eatohing one of these insects, as it
glittered beneath a little shrub on the lawn, and
keeping it till daylght, when she found it a poor
little, dull-looking insect, without any wings. Her
papa now told her that the female glow-worm has
84 rUmr Trn iN ousnUAL KrowLDDor.
no wings, but the male has wings and wing-cases,
like the rest of the beetles. "Other insects of
this kind are luminous," added he; among which
are the fire-flies of tropical America, some of which
greatly exceed in brilliancy our little glow worm."
Oh yes," aid Henry, that gentleman from
the West Indies, who called on you the other day,
told me that he has seen the ladies in Jamaica
with fire-flies shining brilliantly in their hair, or as
a trimming to their dresses."
I think the gentleman must have been joking,"
said Mary, for the fire-flies certainly would not
stay in one place just to
They cannot help it,"
replied Henry, for they
are shut up in little bags of
muslin or gauze."
There are other beetles,
which are very useful in
medicine. I mean the blis-
ter beetles, of which that
called the Spanish flyis used
to make blister ointment,
ornament the ladies'
having the property of irritating the skin enough
to produce blisters. There is a small beetle used
in Africa for the singular purpose of making soap,
the body of the insect abounding in
alkali, which, when mixed with some
fatty substance, forms soap. These
and numerous other species are found
among coleopterous insects."
OAP I T "Co-le-op-te-rous," said Henry,
trying to master the hard word.
"And this means with shields to their wings.'
I think I shall recollect it; and if I do not, I shall
be sure to remember that all the beetles have these
shields, because I have so often seen it. But I
thought, papa, that beetles mostly ran along the
ground, and did not fly about so much as other
"There is one family that scarcely ever leaves the
ground; they are called Ground-beetles,* and are
often of beautiful colours, such as golden green,
copper colour, or black with a purple gloss. There
are again others, of equally brilliant colours, that
run and fly by turns, and with exceeding swiftness,
and are so voracious in their attacks on other
insects that they are called Tiger-beetleLt These
Carbi. t Cicindela.
86 rIn T STEPS n OMNERAL ENOWLEDOL
have very long and slender legs, fat bodies, and
prominent eyes. There is also the Water-beetle,
common in pools, and subsisting on tadpoles and
other small animals; and
there are little beetles, called
weevil, one of which is very
injurious to plum trees."
"I should like to know
the name of an odd-looking
beetle I sometimes see in the
garden," said Henry; it is
quite black, and has a long
narrow body; and what is com,-,cowou w.zvT|,
very strange, when I disturb OR 1LUM oU0
it the creature directly bends the hinder part of the
body upwards, and opens its jaws, running along
in this position, and looking dreadfully angry. It
is quite ridiculous to see such a little animal put
on such a fierce look."
I have no doubt you mean the Rove-beetle,*
a disagreeable but useful creature, which feeds on
putrid substances, and has itself a most intolerable
odour. There are others called Burying-beetles,t
which have the same taste for decaying flesh, and
Btaphyllnua t SUpha
asemble in large numbers wherever anything of
this sort is to be found. If the substance is lg
they burrow holes in it, and make it, for the time,
their dwelling; if small, such m the care of a
little bird, they sooop away the earth beneath it
until the flesh is buried, then laying their eggs in
it, they leave it to decay, and thus to afford food
for their young."
"What horrid creatures said Henryj "and
yet I suppose we ought to be much obliged to
them for getting rid of things that would soon make
the whole air unpleasantiftheywere left unburied."
Another set of useful scavengers," said his
father, are beetles* that have the habit of burying
their eggs in small pellets of dung, and then rolling
these pellets a-
long with their
hind legs, and
into holes which
they have before
q bored in the
earth. Thisis a
very large tribe
88 rTer sarT N onr onn ,L ow Unoi.
ofbeetles, our own ommonCookhafer being awiL.
known example. It is very destructive to pastor
during its lara state, feeding on the roots of the
gra. Here also we find the Stag4ieetles, with jaws
something like stags' horns; the Hercules and
Goliath-beetles, so called on account of their large
size. There are many large and exceedingly beau-
tifulbeetles in the tropical forests, which feedontim-
ber, and burrow long galleries in it, so as greatly
to check the accumulation of fallen timber which
would otherwise take place. In this tribe we also
find the sacred beetle of the ancient Egyptians."
a Al *S, IMA or 0 oGrY. 81o
A saed beetle exclaimed Mary, in great
astonishment. What does that mean, ppap?"
You would scarcely believe it possible that
my people should choose the beetle a object
of worship; but so it was. The image of this
deity was carved not only in temples and on
obelisks, but on different kinds of stone; it was
fashioned into medallions of cornelian, engraved
upon split pearls, and made into necklaces, rings,
and seals. The image of the sacred beetle de-
scended with the Egyptians to the tomb, small
models of the insect being placed in their coffins.
Some of these models have been found in the
mummies, or embalmed bodies of Egyptians lately
opened in this country. They were placed close
to the person of the mummy, and wrapped up
under many folds of bandages."
Poor unhappy Egyptians I" said Mary; they
were satisfied with a very mean creature for their
god. And yet, papa, they were not ignorant, like
some heathens; at least they were not when Moses
was living amongst them, for the Bible says that
Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyp-
tians. Do you think they were so foolish as to
worship this beetle when he was there?"
I have no doubt of it; for besides that we
90 moa WMPs DI GwENmAL NOWLmr GE.
have 'sculptures of the sacred beetle which are
considered to be upwards of three thousand years
old, and must therefore have been carved not very
long after the departure of the Israelites from
Egypt, there are also frequent allusions to the wor-
ship of creeping things in such passages of the Bible
as that in Deuteronomy iv. 18, where the children
of Israel are strictly forbidden to make a graven
image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness
of male or female; the likeness of any beast that
is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl
that flieth in the air; the likeness of any thing
dtat orswpt on te groeud, the likeness of any fish
that is in the water beneath the earth.'"
Henry said he should very much like to know
what made the Egyptians choose such a strange
object of worship. His father informed him that
the subject has been explained in several ways,
but the most pleasing to dwell upon is, that the
people saw in it a type of the resurrection. This
beetle was observed to appear in great numbers
immediately after the great inundations of the
Nile, so that the popular notion was that it rose
from the mud left by the river. Such a pheno-
menon might seem to the Egyptians a significant
emblem of a future existence. But other accounts
COLUAL MUaM ON SMLL
say that this beetle was consecrated to the deity of
the sun, because of its habit of rolling along a ball
with its hind legs, which ball the fanciful Egyp.
tians considered to represent the earth, while the
beetle itself, looking in the opposite direction, was
regarded as an emblem of the sun, which appear
to proceed through the heavens in a contrary
course. If this was really the cause of the reve-
rence paid to this insect, it is a singular instance
of the power of superstition, which could turn the
simple circumstance of an insect taking care of its
eggs into a subject of religious belief and worship
for a whole nation."
I wish we could see some of those models of
the beetle that have been found wrapped up with
the mummies," said Robert.
When I take you to the British Museum,"
replied his father, I will show you not only
those small representations, but a colossal figure
of one of these beetles, hewn out of black granite."
"What is a colossal figure ?" asked the little boy.
"A figure much larger than life: thus the
Egyptians made the figure of this beetle so much
larger than life, that a man can scarcely sit com-
fortably astride upon its back."
92 r eru STrs nr oGMnAL KNOWLDGL.
The children again expressed their pity for the
ignorant Egyptians; but their father told them
that they must reserve some of their pity for a
great number of our fellow-Christians in this
country, who make the noise produced by a small
beetle the object of superstitious dread. "They
believe that the ticking -sound it
makes is sent as a token or warn-
ing of approaching death; hence
they call it the death-watch."
Nurse told mamma that she
heard the death-watch several
times before aunt died," said
AT..-wATcR Mary; "and when mamma ex-
""" plained to her that the noise
was made by a little insect, she seemed quite
The ticking is indeed very much like that of a
watch, and has a singular effect in the dead of the
night, when all other sounds are hushed. I re-
member being once so much deceived by it as to
remove some of the chimney ornaments, under
the idea that a watch must have been inadvert-
ently left behind them. But the insect has actually
been seen at its work, tapping the wood-work of
TRE DNATH-WATCE ZUNYLE.
house with it hard jaws, and eatin its way
through it. Therefore let no one persuade you
that the ordinary labours of this little cremtre
are an omen sent from God. Here is a picture
of one of these insects, called the 'obstinate
death-watch,' because when taken it remains
motionless as if dead, and cannot be made to
move. One kind of death-watch frequently infests
stores of ship-biscuit, and does them much mis-
chief; and others have been known to feed and
multiply in a bottle of cayenne pepper, until it
became a mass of insects in their several stages.
Mr. Curtis, who has written a valuable work on
insects, tells us this extraordinary fact from his
WUTU UULR?, Uauaanu,1 gas Racmai AIDIC.
TaE same day, as Henry was carrying a dish
of filberts to his mamma, there crept out from
among them a large earwig.* He immediately
thought, Is this a beetle?" and, as he could not
see any wing-cases, he concluded it was not,
although the shining, horny appearance of the
creature reminded him of the beetles. On asking
his papa, he found that earwigs were formerly
considered to be beetles, but are now, by many
naturalists, placed in another order, called Orto-
praw, or "straight-winged;" from orttA, straight,
and ptro, a wing.
"But I do not see any wings at all," said
They are folded up in a very small space,
and, in this stage of the insect's life, not being
used, both wings and wing-covers are pressed
down closely to the back. After the last moult,
OnTROPIr oUs IluCm
they are spread out, and are mid to be very beau-
tiful objects; but I have never been so fortunate as
to see them fully expanded.
Earwigs are so fondof hiding
in dark places, that their
habits are not very easily
studied. They are known,
however, to be great vege-
table feeders, and to spoil the
beauty of numerous flowers.
They are particularly fond of
feeding on the blossoms of
the dahlia." ZA'" W "o "" WIN.
Is it true," asked Robert, "that they creep
into people's ears, and so get into their heads?"
"Certainly not. The poor insect has been
named after this foolish notion; but it would
avoid rather than choose such a place, on account
of the bitter wax with which the ear is pro-
tected; and if one ever did enter the ear, it
must have been quite by accident, as any other
insect might happen to crawl into the ear of a
sleeping person; and even then it could go no
further, the structure of the ear being such as to
make it quite impossible it should ever enter into the
96 Irmr Tx IO N GW OWNM L KNOWLEDGoL
brain. Earwigs differ from most other insects in
the care they take of their young. In most cases,
insect die as soon a they have laid their eggs;
but the earwig lives to take care of her brood.
She site patiently on her eggs and hatches them,
after which she watches affectionately over her
young ones, assembling them under her body,
and keeping them there for hours together."
Poor little creature I" said Mary, looking at
the earwig, which was running across the table;
since you are such a kind mother I will not kill
you, but will take you out into the garden, where
you may perhaps find some of your relations or
Another insect of this order is, perhaps, not
very well known to you, but is a great pest in
kitchens, especially in large towns. It is the cock-
roach,* a large, oval-shaped insect, a very rapid
runner, and having the whole body of a fine glossy
black, or of a very dark chestnut colour."
"I think I have seen it," said Henry; "for,
when we were staying in London, I one day saw
the cook with a curious box in her hand; it had
sloping sides, and a hole at the top, with a glass