BOOK OF SPORTS.
BY APPROVED AUTIIORS.
No.l. MARY LEESON, by MAnR IIowITT. Illustrated
JoHN A BMOLOs.
No.2. TAKE CARE OF No. 1, or Good to AMe inclh
Good to Thee, by S. E. GoODRIca, Esq. (the origi
Peter Parley). Illustrated by GILBERT.
No. 3. HOW TO SPENI) A WEEK HAPPILY,
Engravings from designs by ABSOLON.
No.11. THE BOOK OF RIDDLES, ETC.
The V.lume3 of DARTON'S HOLIDAY LIBRARY which have reach
as, comprise a nmo.t Interesting Series of Books for Young People, written
some of our most Popular Authors, and all having a tendency towards tire f
action of correct principles and habits in the minds of the Young. They ble
BOOK OF SPORTS:
SHORT GAMES, RECREATIONS,
,fnr ogs auph irs.
AUTHrI (F FI"RE n F. PHILOSOPrr,Y" TII UOLIDAuT OOK," T .
DARTON AND CO., HOLBORN HILL.
PRINTED IT J. WERTUEIMUE ND CO., riIENCWT CIC.I.
. SHORT PLAYs, GAir:s, AND RECREATIONS 9
. CUaIxos TRICKS, rUT NO CONJURIN 33
L USEFUL A3iUSEMESTS 45
. THE SCIENTIFIC GAME OF CIE 61
. PIILOOPHICAL AMUSEMENTS 85.
L AcrTIO CHARADES .
L PUzzLES AND CONUNDRU 122
BOOK OF SPORTS.
FAIR PLAY is a jewel, my young friends. Foul
play is disgraceful. Rude play is dangerous.
Gentle play is amiable. In all our plays and
amusements, we should never forget, that we
ought to endeavour to please others as well as
ourselves. We should never do anything that
may hurt the bodies of our playmates, and, cer-
tainly, do nothing to hurt their feelings.
It is not to be forgotten, that we should give
and take. We must bear and forbear. Forget
sometimes necessary to go even further than this,
to give a kiss for a blow, especially if that blow
should be unintentional.
Children will find, that if they learn to govern
their tempers, and to exercise their better feelings
in their plays and sports, they will reap a great
advantage in so doing when they become men
and women. The play-ground is a little world,
and the passions and feelings that operate there,
are exactly of the same kind as those that will
continue to operate to the end of man's life in
Play then, my young friends, in love and unity.
Play merrily, kindly, and affectionately. Play
may then become a good teacher, and all your
playmates loving friends.
SHORT PLAYS, GAMES, AND
SHORT PLAYS, GAMES, AND
IN this game, the company stand two and two in a
circle, excepting in one place, where they stand three
deep. Thus: one stands outside of the circle, and is on
no account allowed to get within it. The object is, to
touch the hind one wherever she finds her: but when
AT A&M = A p Uw WrUAAMe
she attempts this, she darts into the circle, and takes
her place before some of the others. Then the third
one who stands behind her becomes the object; but
she likewise slips into the circle and takes her place
in front of another. The pursuer is thus led from
point to point in the circle; for she must always
run at one who forms the outside of a row of three.
Any one caught changes places with the pursuer. This
game affords excellent exercise. Sometimes they agree
that the pursuer may touch the hind one with her
handkerchief, which she is, of course more likely to
effect than by touching with her hand.
PUSS IN THE CORNER.
THis is a very common game, but is a very funny one.
It is played by five girls, who place themselves one at
each of the fmur corners of the room while the fifth
stands in the centre, who is called Puss." At the
words, Puss, puss, in the corner," they all start, and
ran to change corners, and, at the same time, the one in
the middle runs to take possession of the corner before
the others can reach it. If she succeed in getting to the
corner first, the one who is left is obliged to become
-- KUDD. AU -u-. .1-A 1v- -, -_J ----at
each other down, it is well to agree what direction to
run before the race begins.
CAT AND MOUSE
ALL the company stand ad-in-hand in a circle. One
is placed inside, called the "Mouse;" another outside,
called the Cat." The players begin by turning round
the circle rapidly,-raising their arms. The" Cat" springs
in at one side, and the "mouse" jumps out at the other.
They then suddenly lower their arms, so that the "Cat"
cannot escape. The "Cat" goes round, meanwhile
trying to get out; and as the circle is in motion all th
time, she will find a weak place to break through if she
is a sharp-sighted "Oat." As soon s she gets through,
she chases the Mouse," who tries to save herself by
getting within the circle again. For this purpose, they
raise their arms. If she gets in without being ibl-
lowed by the Cat," the Cat must pay a forfeit, and
try again. Then they name who shall succeed them,-
they fall into the circle, and the game goes on. It is
advisable that the Cat" should be one of the elder
of the party, and the Mouse," a little boy or girl.
16 THE BOOK OF SPORTS.
HUNT THE WHISTLE.
Tins game is something like Hunt the Slipper," bul
a great deal more funny. The players, all except one,
sit round in a circle. The one who sits in the centre
ought to be ignorant of the trick; and this makes the
fun of the game. Those who compose the circle keel
their hands in motion all the time, as if they were
passing the whistle, which may be a key; and, fre.
quently, some one whistles, to make the hunter think
it is passing through their hands at that instant. But,
in fact, some one, before the game begins, manages tc
fasten the string of the key, either with a pin or s
button, on the back of the hunter himself. It makes
HIS is an excellent and very amusing game for winter-
vening parties. It may be played by any number of
persons. The company being seated, one of the party,
iUed the Stock," is sent out of the room; and the
company then agree upon some word which will bear
iore than one meaning. When the "Stock" comes
ack, he or she asks each of the company in succesion,
How do you like it?" One answers, "I like it hot;"
another, "I like it cold;" another, "I like it old;"
another, "I like it new." He then asks the company in
succession, again," When do you like it ?" One says,
At all times; another, Very seldom;" a third,
SAt dinner;" a fourth, "On the water;" a fifth, On
he land,"-etc. Lastly, the "Stock" goes round, and
18 Tvr BOOK or ProRTe.
a fourth, "I would put it in a pudding." From thee
answers, a witty girl may guess the word chosen ; bi
should she be unable to do so, she has to pay a forfei
Many words might be chosen for the game, such as: -
Queen and queae. Rain and rein.
Plane and plain. Vice, a tool; and vice, a crim,
Key, of a door; and quay, a place for ships.
COOKING A GOOSE.
Tars is a very old and amusing game. It consists i
telling a story, at the same time making marks to illu
trate it. For instance, the story-teller may begin thim
" There was an old farmer, who lived in a small farn
which he cultivated to obtain a livelihood. It was siti
ated in a remote part of the country. The farm was
house somewhat circular, but rather inclining to i
oval. I will make a sketch of it 0 This litt
round house had a window in the middle, which I wi
make; thus S On one side there was a p
ejecting door nearly opposite to the window
and on the other side, a door leading to a long
w*s.0 _m,:, 1A 4 __ ,.. .- aT
i. GAMtS. AND ICMREAT
farmer's ducks and geese used to swim. Here is the
shape of the pond At one
end some sedges grew which I mak thus( t-
One night, some robbers came towards the pond, de-
termined to steal the fish. One stood f\-; and the
other ( They did not go quite to the pend at first;
but, at last, one went down a short path ; and then
the other went down a similar one close to it ; s
they jumped into the pond, and caught a
THB BOOK OF BPORTI.
To make alu
fection, it is
6 14 how to colou
Baskets to per-
ecessary to know
the crystals, so
" colour. To form the ornament
or basket required, it is first
l. Then ob
et this be d
nd the ornai
Should the colour required
tion muriate of iron. For bl
in sulphuric acid: for pale
and blue vitriol; for crimso
cochineal; for black, japan i
for green, equal parts of ali
few drops of muriate of iron ;
of alum should be held over a
be yellow, add to the solu-
le, add solution of indigo
blue, equal parts of alum
i, infusion of madder and
nk thickened with gum;
a and blue vitriol, with a
for milk-white, a crystal
glass containing ammonia.
M_. BAMAW. AMB UlMiRRA
CRIES OF PARIS.
[N this game, each of the party takes the post of some
of the Paris criers. One sells sprats; another, mackerel;
another, milk; another, oysters; another, brooms and
brushes; another, old clothes, etc. They walk round
the apartment; and the moment any one is called, he
or she must sing out the appropriate cry, as much in the
tone of the crier as he can. The one who called then
asks him for something in the way of his trade, to which
he must answer, I have not got any, ask such a one ;"
and the object being to exercise the players in French,
good pronunciation is to be expected.
Here are a few examples to illustrate how the game
is played:-The one chosen to begin one game calls
out, Marchande de poires." The pear merchant im-
mediately sings out her cry. If she sells baked pears,
she sings, Poires cuites au four" (Pears baked in an
oven). If they are not cooked, she viWgs, A d
liards les Anglais" (English pears, two for a halfpenay)s
The one who called her, then asks. "Avez-vous des
pommes (Have you any apples) ? The Marchande de
poires answers, "Non, demandez-en au porter d'eau"
(No, ask them of the water-bearer). As soon as the
water-bearer hears his name, he calls out, A l'eau, i
22 TU sooK or IsPORI.
1'ea (Water, water). The pear merchant then asks.
" Avez-vous de l'eau d'Arcueil" (Have you any water
from the fountain of Arcueil)? He answers, "Non,
demandez-en au marchand de parapluies" (No, ask an
umbrella merchant for some). The umbrella merchant
then sings," Parpluie, parapluie." The water-bearer then
asks the umbrella merchant, "Avez-vous des parasols?"
The one addressed answers, "Non, demandez-en i la
Marchande de cerises (No, ask the cherry merchant).
The cherrymerchant sings, "A la douce, cerises la douce,
quatre sons la livre" (Sweet cherries, four cents a pound).
The umbrella merchant asks, "Avez-vous des cerises
noires" (Have you black cherries)? He answers, "Non,
demandez-en i I1 marchande de bouquets" (No, ask
them of the fower merchant). The flower merchant,
hearing her name, begins to sing, "Des belles roses,
achetez done des roses" (Some beautiful roses, buy
some roses). The cherry merchant asks her, Avez-
vous des fillets (Have you pinks) ? She replies, "Non,
deinandes-en an marchand d'habits" (No, ask the old
clothes man). He begins to sing, "Vieux habits, vieux
gallons (Old clothes, old trimmings). The flower-girl
says, Avez-vous des bonnets" (Have you any caps) ?
He answers, "Non, demandez-en i Ia marchande de
mare (No, ask the ish-woman). She, hearing her
name, begins to sing, Ah I qu'il eat beau le marquereau"
I!M I wuhrat hkn*iAl manl ,r TIh 1 lLhoLmn aIre
replies, "Non, demandez-en au marchand de gAteaux"
:No, ask the cake-merchant). She then begins her cry,
SIls brulent! ils sont tout chaud" (They burn I they are
Il hot). The fish-woman asks, Aez vous des gateaux
le Nanterre (Have yom any Nanerre kes) ? Non,
lemandez-en h Is marchasdb de pois" (No, ask the pea-
These examples are intel&dto give a etion of the
pame. To make it mor mm td, they often ask
he pedlar for three or four different things; and he
refers you to as many other pedlars. Any pedlar who
brgets to utter the cry for which he is called, pays a
brfeit; and if a player asks a pedlar for anything not
belonging to his trade, or asks for the same thing twice,
he pays a forfeit.
The continued motion and strange tones of the players
Sford much amusement. It is a good plan to commit
Large number of cries to memory before beginning the
;ame, such as: Pois 6coseds" (Shelled peas); Mes
ros cerneaux" (Good walnuts); "Des bons fromages"
'Good cheeses); En voulez-vous de la salade' (Will
rou buy some salad) ? "Vieux chiffons (Old millinery);
' Les pommes de terre (Potatoes). The more there
ire engaged in the game, the better sport it is.
THE FLYING FEATHER.
A ciaCL. amuse themselves by blowing one to the
other, a feather. Each one takes care to blow it to hie
neighbour; because if it falls upon the floor, or upon
ipany, in this game, stand in a row, holdi
her's dresses; and are called "Lambs." One lit
the head is called the "Shepherdees." 0
upon herself the troublesome employment of the "Shep-
herdess." The "Wolf," likewise, loses her place, and
pays a forfeit The last "Lamb in one Me takes the
place of the Wolf."
TO MAKE AN EOLIAN HARP.
Tuss instrument may be easily constructed by boys who
can carpenter in the long winter evenings. It consists
of a long box of very thin deal, about four or six inches
deep, with a circle in the middle of the upper tide, of an
inch and a half in diameter, in which are to be drilled
small holes. On this side, seven, ten, or even more,
strings of very fine got are stretched over bridges at
each end, like the bridges of a fiddle, and screwed up or
relaxed with crew pins. The strings must be all toned
to one and the same note; and the instrument placed
in the space left by a window when partially opened, or
i any current of air where the wind can pass over its
strings with freedom. When the air blows upon these
strings with difbrent degrees of force, it will excite dif-
bret sounds. Sometimes the blast brings out all the
teuae in fullee onert; and sometimes sinks them to the
THE PUZZLE WALL.
SUPPOSE there was a pond, around
which four poor men had built ther .
Suppose Iur rich wicked men *.erwards built house
round the pmr people, thus:-
And wished to have all the
water of the pond to them-
selves. How could they
build a high wall so as to
shut out the poor people
try it oa your sate a gat o
while, aud not do it.
WI UnAw nAW &SAM
IN this game, one of the company goes out of the room;
and while she is absent, it is agreed what she shall be
required to do when she comes back. The person al
the piano begins to play as soon as she enters the room;
and the music is more and more lively the nearer she
approaches what she is destined to do; and as she
moves away from it, the sound becomes fainter and
fainter. Thus, if it has been agreed that the absent
person shall touch the right cheek of a certain individuJ
in the room, the nearer she approaches that person, thb
louder and more rapid is the music. If she raises he
fager it is still more lively; but if she touches the lef
guess exacuy wnaT ney win ner to ao, W pays a
THE FURNITURE CONCERT.
MUCH merriment may be produced by the performance
of this game. It may be played by any number of per-
formers not quite so numerous as those of Exeter Hall.
The performers form themselves into a circle; and each
agrees to imitate some instrument of music. One pw-
tends to play the violin, which he forms out of the
poker and tongs; another makes a horn of the hearth-
brush; a third drubs on the table as if playing the
piano; and the fourth takes a chain, which she thrums
as a guitar or lyre; another appears to be turning a
hand-organ; and another takes the music-stool for1
drum. In short, the players, if sufficiently numero
may imitate every instrument they have heard of.
Being thus arranged, each musician makes a noise
with his a her mouth in imitation of the instrument
she pretends to perform; as, rub-a-dub, goes the drum
twang, twang, goes the harp; tooteboo-te-too, goe
the horn; tweedle-dee, tweedle-dee, goes the fiddle
and so forth.
In the middle of the circle, stands one called th
Leader, whose business it is to beat time to the rest
which he or she does in the most ridiculous manne
possible, in order to make the others laugh. In th
midst of all this noise and fun, she suddenly stops, an
asks abruptly, "**Why don't you play better?" Th
one looked at must answer instantly in a manner suit
able to the nature of the instrument; that is, th
dmmuner must say, there is a hole in my drum; tb
hrper, that the strings are too loose; the fddler, thi
be has no rosin, and so on.
If any ot the performer hesitate for a moment, or
the answer is not such as is suitable to the instrument
or if they repeat an excuse that has been already mad
they must pay the forfeit. While one is answering, tl
others stop playing, and all begin again as soon as at
Ias replied. Then the leader looks at some other on
a=4 asks why she does not play better, and so on, t
4t pemrfomr have all been spoken to, or they a
tfid of the came.
SHORT PLAYS, GAMES, AND RECREATIONS. 31
THUS SAYS THE GRAND MUAI.
'his is a favourite game among young children. One
its in a chair, who is called the "Mufti," or the
'Grand Mufti." He makes whatever grimace or mo-
ion he pleases; such as putting his hand on his heart,
linking, sneezing, coughing, stretching out his arm,
miting his forehead, etc. At each movement, he says,
' Thus says the Grand Mufti," or So says the Grand
dufti." When he says, Thus says the Grand Mufti,"
very one must make just such a motion as he does; but
rhen he says, So says the Grand Mufti," every one
nust keep still. A forfeit for a mistake.
BUT NO CONJURING.
BUT NO CONJURING.
THE WONDERFUL. CROSS.
A LADT sent a diamond crow
to a jeweller to be repaired.
To provide against any of 0
her diamonds being stolen O
she had the precaution to CO 0 0 00
count the number of dia-
monds; which she did in 0
the following manner:-She
found the -es contained in 0
length from A. to B, nine 0
diamonds. Reckoning from
B to C, or hom B to D, she
a*o counted nbe. jhien the crs was etamned, hi.
found the number of diamonds thus counted precdely thi
BE BOOK OF 1PO0
8 p push through the ring a cr
stick of sufficient lengtl
ch it: He will very ddom succeed. A person
a eye would not experience the same difficulty, I
1 01 WINE WHI
OTHER XMPTT VESSELS; ONB, WHI3Q HOLDS FIVE
GALLONS; AND TEI OTHER, TRUEH. TUE QUESTION
IS, HOW THEY HALL EXACTLY DIVING THE WINE
BY THU HILr OF THESE THREE VEBSS.
To do this:-Firt, from the vessel which contains the
eight gallons, and is full of wine, let five gallons be poured
into the five gallon vessel; and from this vessel so filled,
let three be poured into the empty vessel which holds
three, so that there remain two gallons in the five gallon
vessel. Then let three gallons, which are in the vessel
of three, be poured into the vessel of eight, which will
now have six gallons within it. 'Iu done, let the two
gallos which ape in the vessel, of fiv be put into the
empty euseof three. Then o the six gaUona of wine
which are in the vessel of eight, ll again the five; a4n
from these five, pour one gallon into the vessel of three,
which wanted only one galoa to fill it So there will
reasi exactly four gallons with the vessel of filA, mnd
foburlpoas within the other two vessels. This question
may also be resolved in anote way,, which so*
" cute" person may attempt
The Chinese pretend to have discovered magical squares
and letters on the back of the tortoise. One of them
is a puzzle, viz., how to place the nine digits in such a
manner, that they will always make 15 whichever way
they are counted.
0 1 ,
:1 7 5 3
PROBLEM OF MONEY.
PLACE ten half-pence in a sow upon a table. Then
taking up any one of the aries, place it upon some
other, with this proviso,thst you pas over just one penny.
Repeat this till there is no single half-penny left.
S S ouoN.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 W0 hlf-pence.
Place 4 upon 1, 7 upon i, 6 a on 9, 2 upon 6, and
8 upon 10.
A OGNTLEMAN sent his servant with a present of nil
ducks in a box, upon which was the following dire
To ALDERMAN GOBBLE, WITH IX DUCKS.
The servant having more ingenuity than honest
stole three of the ducks, and contrived it so, that tl
number contained in the box corresponded with th
upon the direction. As he neither erased any word a
letter, nor substituted a new direction, how did he
alter it, as to correspond with the contents of the box
The servant merely placed the letter S before t]
Roman numerals IX. The direction then read-
To ALDERMAN GOBBLE, WITH SIX DUCKS.
____ __ _____
THE FOX PROBLEM.
A MAN had to cross a river in a small boat, having
charge of a Fox, a Goose, and a Basket of Corn. The
boat being very small, he could only take over one at
a time, and was very much perplexed how to take them
all over safely; knowing that if left together, the Fox
would eat the Goose, and that the Goose could not be
trusted alone with the Basket of Corn, which she would
certainly devour, if allowed to remain with it while the
man carried the Fox acmrs the river. If the Goose
was taken over first, it is true that the Fox would not
meddle with the Corn, but then, after being oeidI
across the water, and left with ti Goose.-.J. w.i
surely eat her while the man wenl back ftr ltI "
and if the Corn was tsien first. the Fox would Jo-ml '
4 THI3 BOOK OF SPORTS.
the Goose when left alone with her. How did the man
manage to convey the Fox and the Goose across the
river in safety.
First he takes the Goose a er dhe river, and leave
the Fox with the Corn. He fta turns for the Fox
which he lands, and takes badk the Goose. He goes
across again, md takes the C=~m: and lastly, he take:
the Goose over for the second nime. By this method
the Fox. is eer left with the Goose, nor the Goose
with the Caon.
A SHIP once had a hole in one of her planks of twelve
inches square; and the only piece of plank that could,
be had was sixteen inches long by nine inches broad
Required to know how the said piece was cut into fou
pieces, so as to repair the hole without waste.
Cutoff four inches from one end of the piece; an
di4ide the piece so out off into three equal pieces, b
cs in the shorted direction. When ranging their
theme pieces lengthwise on the top of the remainder,
To distribute among three persons twenty-one casks of
wine; seven of them full, seven empty, and seven of
them half full, so that each of them shall have the same
quantity of wine, and the same number of casks.
This Problem admits of two solutions, which may be
easily comprehended by means of the following table:-
FULL CASKS. EMPTY. HALF FULL.
lest. 2 2 8
I. 2nd. 2 2 3
3rd. 3 3 1
1st. 3 3 1
II. 2nd. 3 3 1
3rd. 1 1 5
CHooss some prettily-shaped vai or tumble of dear
glass;---colour an engraving as much like china as you
can;-place it on the vase cut to te shape;-bind the
glass and the paper at the top m'& gold paper-edging
and put a narrow binding of gilt at the bottom, so as
to conceal the glass effetually. Th paper will not ft
unless it be cut into two pieces; and whoI thiesa o
pieces join at the side, you must put a strip of gold
paper on the outside to conceal it. Some paint a little
device on the outside for this purpose; and ethms
prefer putting on delicatelyeoloued paper. Yosahould
be careA to get no paste on the paper before pan put
it on the vas. ox it will touch the glass~g 4W in
spete.. N pate i needed at the be~tom. V n of
whit. paper, a littW lapg than thebatta. detS vaahs.
Ct atethadedga. soa ato- b be t up.- ed. the idea,.
should be pu in at thi bottom., If pm touak tbh
edges of the vase with paste, it must be done very
lightly; for if the paste runs down between the glass
and the paper, it will spoil the effect. When these
kind of articles are finished, few could at first sight tell
them from real china.
CHINA JARS FOR THE DRAWING ROOM.
Tau art of making imita-
tion China Jars is both
interesting anduseful. Jars
of a great variety of shape
may be purchased at the
oil shop, or of the China-
man." If of the former,
the Jar to be ornamented
._,_ should befirstnicelyrbbed
< *down with brick or pumice-
--t stone, to render it smooth,
and then sent to the painter, who will paint the
"ground" of any colour that may be required. A
light and pure blue or green, and a handsome buff
a choc brown, are the best colours. When
the paint is perfectly hard and dry, the Jar is ready to
receive the ornaments. Pieces of chintz with Flowers
ca Chinese patterns should be procured, and nicely
v- r* -o ,nutui W %alv. lTTUU "ULU CWYMeW
the rims, edges, and any other portion of the Jar
should then be gilt. For this purpose, ome good
size should be procured, as also some leaf gold, which
may be procured in books. The size should be laid
over the parts intended to be gilt with a camel's-hair
pencil; and then the gold should be cut into small
slips and laid on the place, being pressed down by a
soft piece of cotton. When all is thus prepared, and
so far finished, the Jar has to be varnished. This
should be done with the best white hard varnish, which
may be purchased at the oil shop. It should be laid on
with a broad camel's hair brush, in a warm room. One
cost a day should be laid on for three successive days,
and the Jar will be completed. The brush used for the
varnish should be cleaned with a little spirits of wine,
and hung up to dry, when it will serve again. If not
so cleaned, the varnish remaining in it will become so
very hard, that the brush will be spoiled.
THis style of painting was at one time much in vogue,
and it has much to recommend it, as a great variety of
ornaments may be easily prepared by this process. The
principal things to attend to in it, are care and neatness;
. .. . . . W i
*JS WAU.4#4 JW, law -- Y W- W .- a ..
mendation. In commencing, the outline of whatever is
wished to be painted is drawn with the point of a needle
on transparent paper, and then cut out with sharp scis-
sors. No two parts of the bend or fower which touch
each other must be cut on the same piece of paper.
Thus, on one bit of transparent paper we may cut the
top and bottom petal of a rose; on another, we may
cut the leaves of the two opposite sides. Some care is
required in arranging them, so that no two parts touch-
ing each other shall be used at the same time. It is a
good plan to make a drawing on a piece of white paper,
and mark No. 1 upon all the leaves you can cut on this
first piece without having them meet at any point,-
No. 9 on all yen can cut in the same way on the second
piece, anl so on. After all the parts are in readiness,
lay your ct paper upon some drawing paper,-take a
stif bes of bristles, at like those used in velvet co-
louring,--fll it with the colour you want,-queeze it as
dry as you possibly can, and then move it round and
round in circles, gently, until your leaf is coloured as
deep as you wish. When you wish to shade, rub a
brush, filled with the dark colour you want, carefully
rowd and mmd the spot you wish to shde. Petal
der petal i done i thi way, until the pefet fower
is armed. No tal t fa drawing is nmsay i this
wk. fir th figu is taed em tamparm t paper.
__ ____ __ ______
then the colours are robbed over the holes in the same
manner as they paint canvass carpets. In the choice of
colours, you must be guided by the pattern you copy,
or your own taste. The' light colour which forms the
ground-work is put on first, and the darker colourm
shaded on after it is quite dry. Green leaves should Ie
first made bright yellow,-then done all over with bright
green,-then shaded with indigo. A very brilliant set
cf colours has been prepared for this kind of painting.
The colours must not be put on wet, or they will look
very bad. Above all, the tinter should be very careful
in the use of his colours, and by no means smear or
spill them about.
Tanzs make very pretty transparencies for lamps in
summer. There are China lamp shades that appear
perfectly white in the day, but by the china being
thicker in one part than the other, a beautiful effect of
light and shade is produced. This may be imitated by
paper landscapes. To make these, observe well the
shadows of the picture you wish to copy,-draw the
shape as accurately as yon can, and cut them out.
Paste these pieces on a sheet of paper in such places as
thev bclonw to in the landsenme. If the shan h1 nrhlw
52 THa BOOK OF IPORTI.
light, put on only one thickness of paper; if darker, two
thicknesses; and if the shadows are very thick and
heavy, three layers may be used; and in some cases,
five or six thicknesses may be necessary. When the
whole is hung up to the light, a very pretty effect of
light and shadow will be produced.
THEsE are very pretty and useful, and easily made.
The box should be made of some hard compact wood,
that will not warp; and it may be painted white cream
leaves in garlands or fanciful bouquets. They should be
of the most brilliant colours, such as those of the red
maple or vine. Before used, the stumps should be cut
off, and the leaves well pressed in books. Glue or isin-
glass dissolved in gin is the best for sticking them on
the wood. Sea moss pressed till it is very flat, and
then glued upon boxes, is very pretty. In both cases,
the box, after it is well dried, should be varnished five
or six times over, so as to make the surface as smooth
THIS is a very pretty art, and is easily accomplished.
The box to be ornamented should be of fine white wood,
and should be varnished, at least, three times in succes-
sion before it is used. While the last coat of varnish
is so damp that the finger will adhere to it, the en.
_._:__ _-4* ik- -14 __ 4-u- _:_U4 .:J_ -- a
table, with the picture downwards, and moistened all
over with a clean wet sponge. It must then be placed
between two leaves of blotting paper to dry it a little.
Before putting it on the box, take great care to have it
even, and to place it exactly where you wish it to be.
Lay one edge of the picture downwards upon the
varnish,-hold the other end suspended by the other
hand, and wipe successively over the back of the print,
in such a manner, as to drive out all the air, and pre-
vent the formation of blisters. Then touch all over
with a linen cloth, carefully, so as to be sure that every
part adheres to the varnish. Leave it until it is tho-
roughly dry. Then moisten the back of the engraving
with a clean sponge, and rub it lightly backwards and
forwards with the fingers, so as to remove the moistened
paper in small rolls. When the picture begins to ap.
pear, take great care lest you rub through, and take ofl
some of the impression. As soon as you perceive there
is a risk of this, leave it to dry. In drying, the en-
graving will almost disappear, because it is still covered
by a thin film of paper. It will look like a surface oi
mere white paper, but give it a coat of varnish, and the
paper will immediately become transparent, and the
Should you by any accident have removed any little
laces in the engraving, touch them with indian-ink
ad gum water, that no white specks may appear. But
whcn you put on the last coat of varnish, you must be
,ery careful not to smear the spots you have retouched.
The box should be varnished at least three times
ifter the engraving is on, and suffered to dry through
each time. The white alcoholic varnish, or white hard
s the best. After the last coat is thoroughly dry, sift
a little dry pulverised ?rotten-stone through a coarse
nuslin, and rub it on with linseed oil and a soft rag.
afterr being well rubbed, cleanse the box thoroughly
iith an old silk handkerchief or soft linen rag.
This process requires great patience and care; but
he effect is beautiful enough to pay for the trouble.
Very beautiful fans may be made with little trouble in
imitation of ivory fans. Cut a strip of stiff white card-
oard exactly in the shape of the parts of an ivory fan.
Make a slip about as deep as your nail in the middle of
each stick at the top. Though these slips pas coloured
tape, in the same manner as in ivory f&u. Glue the
tape on the left side of the dip in one trip,-pass it
through the slip in the next atrip,-fste it on the
right side, and cut it off. In this way, the strips will
all be joined in pairs. Then begin at the other end of
your fans, and join three couples altogether by the same
process. A careful examination of an ivory fan will be
of more assistance than the best description in the
world. Fasten the bottom with a part of a large pin,
which will serve as a rivet.
Now paint upon one side, just above or below the
ribbon, a wreath of flowers; on the other side, a group
of shells. Paint your ribbon in spots or stripes on one
side, and leave it plain on the other. The fan will then
have the remarkable property of showing four different
sides, according to the manner in which you unfurl it.
METHOD OF PRESERVING PLANTS.
A collection of dried plants is called a Hortus Siccus,
which, literally, means a dry garden. Those who wish
to prepare one, should provide-
1. A strong oak box of a flat shape.
2. A quantity of fine sifted sand sufficient to fill the
3. A considerable number of pieces of soft paper
from one to four inches square.
4. Some flat leaden weights.
5. A few bound books.
The plant, having first been cleared from the soil as
veil as the decayed leaves, is then laid on the inside of
me of the leaves of a sheet of common soft paper. The
ipper leaves and flowers are next to be covered, when
expanded, by pieces of prepared paper, and one or two
f the leaden weights placed on them. The remainder
If the plant is to be treated in the same manner.
The weights ought next to be gently removed, and
he other leaf of the sheet of paper folded over the
oppositee one, so as to contain the loose pieces of paper
Lnd plants between them. A book or two is now to
)e applied to the outside of the paper, till the intended
lumber of plants is thus prepared, when a box is to
be filled up with sand to the depth of an inch,-one of
:he plants put in and covered with sand sufficient to
prevent the form of the plant from varying.
The other plants are now to be placed in succession,
md likewise covered with a layer of sand, one inch
thick between each; after which, the whole is to be
gently pressed down in a greater or less degree, accord.
ng to the tenderness or firmness of the plants. The
box is next to be carefully placed before a fire,-one
side being occasionally a little raised, as may be most
:onvenient,-the sides being alternately presented to
the fire two or three times in the day, or the whole
nay be put into an oven gently heated. In the course
4 4A rr 4k-aA 1Bn +1_sn4< -!1 kn A-n +f:1 A-s
when the sand ought to be taken out and put into
another box. The plants should also be removed to a
sheet of writing paper.
METHOD OF PRESERVING SEA PLANTS.
Suca plants as grow on the rocks, from whence the
sea occasionally recedes are termed Fuci and A gga by
botanists, and sea-weeds by people in general; and
when dried and preserved are exceedingly beautiful.
The curious, therefore, and especially those who pro-
secute the study of botany, must be anxious to know
the best method of preserving them without destroying
their colour and beauty. To do this effectually, take a
sheet of stiff paper or paste-board, and cover it with
varnish on both sides; and, having rowed in a boat to
where the Fuci abound, plunge your varnished paper
into the water, and detaching the plant, receive it upon
the paper. Agitate the paper gently in the water, that
the plant may be properly spread over it, and lift them
gently out of the water. Then fix down with pins the
strong stalks, that they may not be displaced, and leave
the plant lying upon the varnished paper to dry in the
open air. When it is fully dry, the different parts will
retain their position, and the plant may be preserved
within the leaves of a book.
UBrIFUL AMU &MENAATM
HOW TO FORM BOTANICAL HAND-SCREENS.
THIs is an art few people know. Take any of the
dried flowers or weeds, as above prepared, and arrange
them tastefully and flatly on the screen to be ornamented
by means of paste. Then size them over with isinglass
size, at least three times after they are perfectly hard
and dry,-varnish them three times, according to the
plan laid down for varnishing jars and other matters.
They will make a very beautiful ornament for the draw-
ing room, and exhibit much taste and botanical know-
THE SCIENTIFIC GAME OF CHESS.
[HE SCIENTIFIC GAME OF CHESS.
a-- tml ~t,
1Tbr .l d CLs M ilke inlnm w
aws is, AN b ga m a" t a mae t a ersal
.ame I3 anH g am&. h omigin is beyond the
memory of history; and it has for numberless ages
)een the amusement of all the civilised nations of Asia,
-the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese. It has
been asserted, that it was first played at the siege of
Froy, and that it was invented by Palamedes. It is,
however, with greater probability, supposed to come to
13 from the Persians, through Arabia. We, have, how-
ever, no satisfactory proofs by whom it was invented,
)ut the inventor must have been a man of profound
thought Like the problems of Euclid, it has been
without a rival for centuries, and, like them, it is as
W vw f
much admired to day as it was a thousand years ago.
Europe has had it more than a thousand years, and the
Spaniards have spread it over their Iart of America.
It is so interesting in itself, as not to need the view of
gain to induce engaging in it, and hence it is rarely
played for money. Those, therefore, who have leisure
for such diversions, cannot find one that is more inno-
cent. The following piece, written with a view to
correct some little improprieties in the practice of it,
shows at the same time, that it may, in its effect on
the mind, be not merely innocent, but advantageous to
the vanquished as well as to the victor. The game of
chess is not merely an idle amusement,-several very
valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of
iuman life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it,
so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life
s a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to
gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with,
ind in which there is a vast variety of good and evil
events that are in some degree the effects of prudence,
or the want of it. By playing at Chess then we may
1st. FORESIGHT, which looks a little into futurity,
md considers the consequences that may attend an
action, for it is continually recurring to a player;-if I
nove this piece, what may be the advantage of my
iew situation ? What use can my adversary make of
t to annoy me! What other moves can I make to
support it, and defend myself from his attacks ?
2nd. CIRCUMSPzCTION. The word circumspection
neans to look all around; and thus the player surveys
;he whole Chess Board, or scene of action, the relations
f the several pieces and their situations, the dangers
;hey are respectively exposed to, the several possibilities
)f their aiding each other, the probabilities that their
adversaries will take this or that move, and attack this
or the other piece, and what different means can be
:aken to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences
3rd. CAUTON. The player must not make his
moves too hastily. This habit is best acquired by
observing strictly the laws of the game, such as-if yot
touch a piece, you must move it somewhere; if you sel
it down, you must let it stand; and it is therefore besi
that these rules should be observed, as the gamn
thereby becomes more the image of human life, anc
particularly of war, in which, if you have incautiously
put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, yo;
cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw youl
troops and place them more securely, but you rmus
abide all the consequences of your rashness.
Lastly, we learn by Chess the habit of not being dis
courage by present bad appearances in the state o
our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change
and that of persevering in the search for resources
The game is so full of events, there is such a variety c
turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden
vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contem
plation, discovers the means of extricating one's se
rom a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one i
encouraged to continue the contest to the last, in hope
of victory by our own skill, or, at least, of getting
stale-mate by the negligence of our adversary. Anc
whoever considers (of which in Chess he often see
instances) that particular species of success, are apt t
produce presumption and its consequent inattention, b
which the loss may be recovered, will learn not to l
too much discouraged by the present success of h
xversary, nor to despair of final good fortune upon
very little check he receive in the pursuit of it.
That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently
o choose this beantifli amusement in preference to
others which are not attended with the same advantages,
very circumstance which may increase the pleasure of
should be regarded, and every action or word that is
unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give un-
asiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate
attention of both the players, which is to pass tie time
'greeably. Therefore, first, if it is agreed to play ac-
ording to strict rules, then these rules are to be exactly
observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on
or one side, while deviated from by the other, for this
3 not equitable. Secondly, if it is agreed not to ob-
erve the rules exactly, but one party demands indul-
gences, he should then be as willing to allow them to
he other. Third, no fase move should ever be made
o extricate yourself out of dificulty, or to gain an
advantage; there an be no pleasure in playing with a
Person once deteded in ach unfair practices. Fourthly.
f your adversary is long in playing, you oaght not to
lurry him, or express any uneasiness at his delay. You
should not sing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch,
ior take up a book to read nor make a tapping with
rour feet on the flom, or with your finger on the table,
ior do anything to dithrb his attention ; for all these
displease, and they do not show your skill in playing
but your craftiness or rudeness. Fifthly, you ougl
not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary
by pretending to have made bad moves, and sayin
that you have now lost the game, in order to make hii
secure, and careless, and inattentive to your scheme
for this is fraud and deceit, and not skill in the gamn
Sixthly, you must not, when you have obtained a vi<
tory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, n(
show too much pleasure, but endeavour to console yot
adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himsc
by every kind of civil expression that may be used wit
truth, such as-You understand the game better the
I, but you are a little inattentive; or, You play too fas
or, You had the best of the game, but something hal
opened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in r
favor. Seventhly, if you are a spectator when othe:
play, observe the most perfect silence, for if you gil
advice, you may displease both parties;-him again
whomr you gave it, because it may cause the loss of h
game;-him in whose favour you gave it, because
though it be good and he follows it, he loses tl
pleasure he might have had if you had permitted hi
to think until it had occurred to him. Even after
move or moves, you must not, by replacing the piece
show how it might have been played better; for th
disdleaes. and mar occasion disputes and doubts abo
ir diverts their attention, and is therefore unpleasing;
ior should you give the least hint to either party by
my kind of noise or motion, if you do, you are unworthy
f a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or show
rour judgment, do it in playing your own game, where
rou have an opportunity, not in criticizing, or meddling
vith, or counselling the play of others. Lastly, if the
game is not played rigorously according to the rules,
hen moderate your desire of victory over your adversary,
mnd be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not
eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness
>r inattention, but point out to him kindly, that by such
a move, he places or leaves a piece in danger and un-
iupported;-that by another, he will put his king in a
perilous situation; and by this generous civility you
nay indeed happen to lose your game to your opponent,
mut you will win what is better, his esteem, his respect,
his affection, together with the silent approbation and
good will of impartial spectators.
THE DIFFERENT PIECES USED IN CHESS.
l3t llI las l nAW rA1
1 3 7
10 12 14 s
7 19 a 23
33 35 W 30
42 48 48
68 80 st S6
THE CHESS BOARD.
The Chess Board consists of sixty-four squares,
marked alternately black and white. It is so placed,
that each player has a white square at the right hand
corner. The Chess Men are black and white, or red
The white king must be upon the fourth, a black
squar( (marked 61) at one end of the board, reckoning
from the right; the black or red king upon the fifth
(5), a white square at the other end of the board, oppo-
site to each other. The white queen must be upon the
hfth (60), a white square, on the left of her king. The
black g~een upon the fourth (4) a black square, on the
right-liher king. The bishops must be placed on each
side of their king and queen ; 59 and 62 for the white,
the bishops; the white on 58 and 63, the black on 2
and 7. The rooks, in the two corners of the board,
next to the knights; 57 and 64 of the white, 1 and 8
of the black; and the eight pawns, or common men,
upon the eight squares of the second line: the white
on 49 to 56, and the black on 9 to 16 inclusive.
The pieces and pawns on the side of each king, take
their names from him, as those on the side of the queen
do from her, and are called the black or white king's
bishop (6 and 62), the king's knights (7 and 63), the
king's rooks (8 and 64), the king's pawns (13 and 53),
the king's bishop's pawns (14 and 54), the king's knight's
pawns (15 and 55), the king's rook's pawns (16 and 56),
the black or white queen's bishops (3 and 59), the
queen's knights (2 and 58), the queen's rooks (1 and
57), the queen's pawns (12 and 52). the queen's bishop's
pawns (11 and 51), the queen's knight's pawns (10 and
50), and the queen's rook's pawns (9 and 49). ThI
squares are named from the pieces; viz. where the king
stands, is called the square of the king; where his
pawn stands, is called the second square of the king;
that before the pawn, is called the third square of the
king; that beyond it, is called the fourth square of the
king; and so of all the rest.
The kings move every way, but only one square at a
time, and must always be at least one square distat
from each other. Suppose the king placed on No. 37
he may be moved from thence to 28, 29, 30, 36, 38
44, 45, or 46. The king may leap once in the game
either on his own aide, or on the side of his queen (viz
the rook is moved into the next square to the king, an
the king moves to the square on the other side of him
which is called castling); provided nevertheless n4
piece is between him and the rook, nor after the rool
has been played, nor after the king has been moved
nor when the king is in check, nor when the square
over which he means to leap is viewed by an adverse
man, who would check him in his passage.
The black king castles on his own side, by moving
from 5 to 7, and placing the rook (8) on 6; on hi
queen's side by moving to 3, and placing the rook (1
on 4. The white king castles on his own side, b;
moving from 61 to 63, and placing the rook (64) oi
62; on his queen's side by moving to 59, and placiun
the rook (57) on 60.
The queen originally possesses the moves and power
of the rook and bishop in a straight line, and also angu
lary. The queen may be moved from 37 to 1, 5, 16
33, 40, 58, 61, 64, or any intermediate squares in those
The bishops move only angularly, backward or forward
in the ame colour as each are at first placed, but cai
take at any distance when the road is open. As from
the bishop may be moved to 8, 9, 57, or 63, and fom
to 1, 16, 58, or 64, or any of the intervening squeMs.
ve knights move obliquely backward and forward,
on every third square, including that which they
aod on from black to white, and hom white to black,
er the heads of the men, which no other piece is al.
red to do. As from 36 a knight may move to 19,
, 26, 30, 42, 46, 51, 53, pawing over any pieces on:
1, 35, 87, or 44, and from 87 the knights can be
moved to 20, 22, 27, 81, 43, 47, 52, 54, pawing over
thing placed on 29, 36, 38, or 45.
The rooks, or castles, move in a right line, either
rewards, backwards, or sideway, through the whole
e, can stop at any square, and take at any distance,
hen no other piece intervenes. A rook placed on 87
sy be moved to 5, 338, 40, 61, or any intermediate
A pawn moves one square at a time, in a straight
e forward, and takes the enemy angularly. He may
e moved two squaes the first move, but never back.
rds, and is prohibited from quitting his own e, except
Scase of making a capture, when he is moved into the
lace of the captive, and afterwards advances forward
i that fle. If a white pawn is placed on 37, and a
lack on 28,'either of them could take the others -bat
oppose the white pswn'on 37, a black rook on 29, a
laok bishop on 28, and a bla knight on 0, the pawn
dt3 F A
then could not take terook, bt might take either t
bishop aor the knight.
If the square ver which any pawn leap i viewed I
any adverary, that mn may take the pawn, and the
mut be placed in the square over which the pawn har
leaped. A pawn getting to the head of the board upc
the brat line of the memy (styled going to queen) am
be hanged for any one of the piece lost i the coan
of te ga and the piece chsem mast be placed e
the equaie at which he pawn had mrived.
The men can take the advearies who stand in the
way, provided the road lie open; e tey may decli
it, and must be st down in the sme o e nqu f
h the seniary men ae taken. If the white qun
is on 60, and a lok knight on 46, the quee can tas
the kigt, oh then s to be moved off the boar
and the queen placed on 46; but if the knight is on 44
then the queen manot take him, though he mam tal
the queen, who the must be semem, and the knig
plMedam 410; r poMr a whit .eek m 61, and
Mhsk birop nI8,4 t eook m tanke the bishop, a
Lerrwemi to bepl-d onm 18.
When the adverse 'ingis in a itantion to b
tabm byymo yeam- t my "C'a" to'him; by whi
0 01 n him to-ltid inmd L aitiiry ah-ging b
- n, a tby wanvig i- lf l Mwih e of his own m
,r'w .tY4di e lwh e 4 sa lte i; if he mA 4
none of th sethoing he is Assbwa i iOl l the
game. The king ananot change his equra i he bl
to doing goes sato check; ad wh.he hass Wman to
play, and is not ia cheek. yet is m blocked that
he cannot move without going into heek. this poi-
tion is called a abk-.Mlt; ud in this ome, the lhi
who is stale-meted wi the game. Place the blbk
king on 33, with peaw on 30 and 89; the white king
on 44, a white bishop on 34, with pawn. on 38 an 47
if the white king is moved.to 85, black wins the gme
by a stale-mate, because the black king canot be moved
to 26 or 41, on acaovt of the white bisop; no to 26,
34, or 42, owing to the white king, ast i eiite that
the kings should alwse be at le asm qwMr distant
from each other; neither ca the black pmun be moved,
their progress being stopped by the white.
LAWS OF CHES8.
1. If you touch your man, you must play it esept
that would expose yor kig to cheek, in which cas
you are only, when possible, to move the king; and
so long as yoe keep hold, you may play the aid man
where you phase bet onoe having quitted, you then
cannot recall the move, though shield any men be
dbsplaed by accident, those re to be rested.
2. If you touch one of your adversary's men, he ma
insist upon your taking it; and when you cannot do w
then you re to move your king, provided that may t
elected without putting him in check.
3. If by mistake, or otherwise, you make a fah
move, the opponent can oblige you to move the king a
in 2nd article, but if he plays without noticing the sai
false move, neither of you can afterwards recall it.
4. If you misplace your men, and play two moves,
lies in your adversary's power whether he will perm
you to begin the game afesh.
5. When the adversary gives check without warning
you are not obliged to notice it until he does; but if c
his next move he warns you, each party must the
retract his last move, and the king be removed (
6. Should the opponent warn you of a check with
really giving it, and you have even moved your king,
pieces early m the game, you lose moves, as
adversary, by playing a pawn, can make them r
avoid also playing your queen till the game is
Avoid giving useless checks. Never crowd
game by having too many pieces together, so
prevent advancing or retreating.
Never attack your adversary's king without a
flcient force; if he attacks yours, and you c
retaliate, offer exchanges.
Play your men in guard of one another, so tl
any be taken, the enemy may be also captured. I
attack but when well prepared, for your adversary
bear a strong attack upon you. Never play till
have examined whether you are free from your a
gary's last move.
When your attack seems posperously going o
not suffer your adversary to tempt you by a bait;
- J J' -J -b --
bishop, might check your king if she were not there,
for you could hardly save, or perhaps, at best, must
sacrifce her for an inferior piece.
When the kings have castled on diarent sides of the
board, attack with the pawns you have on that side
where the adversary has been castled, advancing the
pieces, especially the knights, and queen, and rooks, to
Endeavour to have a mine in ambucade, that is,
place the queen, bishop, or rook, behind a pawn, in such
a manner a, upon playing that pawn or piece, you may
discover a cheek upon your adversary's king, and conse-
quently may often get a piece.
Let not your adversary's knight fork your king and
queen, or king and rook, or queen and rook, or your
two rooks, at the same time, for in the two first cases,
the king being frced to go out of check, the queen
r the rook must be lot, and in the two lat, a rook
must be lost fr a wore piece.
Take care that no guarded pawn of your adversary'i
fork two of your pieces rights and rooks are particu-
ouuer a mcU Eul u Mcoave y, a M uue-uIm.
Never guard a pawn, or inferior piece, with a better.
A pawn pushed on, sad well supported, often costs
the adversary a piece; but one separated from the
others, is seldom of any value; and whenever you have
gained a pawn or other advantage, and are not in
danger of losing the move, make as frequent exchanges
a you can.
Never cover a check with a piece that a pawn pushed
upon it may take, f fear of only getting that pawn
Do not crowd your adversary's king with yor pieces,
lest you, inadvertently, give a tale-mate.
Do not be afraid of losing a rook for an ihbrior piece,
although a rook is better than any other, except the
queen; but a it seldom comes into play, so a to
operate until the end of the game, it is in general better
to have a worse piece in play, than a superior out.
When you have moved a piece which your adverry
drives away with a pawn, that is a bad move, yer
enemy gaining a double advantage. At the game of
Chess, no move can be indifmrent.
Do not aim at exchange without reason, and oca.
ionally examine your gme and take measure ae soar
ingly; and when there is ebce you can take and
that cannot escape, do not hurry. See when yo eam
1. The plan of attack should be gradually formed
from the commencement of the game, and each move
should have a tendency to forward it, unless when it is
necessary to thwart your adversary. Your plan should
not only be concealed from your adversary, but you
must also discover, if possible, what your adversary can
do to counteract your moves. A plan may be most
effectually concealed by excluding the queens and rooks,
or by executing it through the agency of inferior pieces,
or pawns, or by masking the pieces which are designed
to effect it, behind men which are apparently indifferent.
The player should endeavour to conceal his purpose,
until it is out of his adversary's power to frustrate it.
2. When you play the open or close game, bring out
ll yor pieces into play before you begin the attack,
for if you do not, and your adversary does, you will
always attack, or be attacked at a great disadvantage.
This is so essential, that you had better forego an ad-
vantage than deviate from it, and no person can ever
play well who does not strictly practise this. In order
to bring out your pieces properly, push on your pawns
bit, and support them with your pieces, thereby your
defence, bring them out so as not to be driven back
8. When you have brought out all your pieces, which
au will have done well if you have your choice at which
le to castle, then consider thoroughly your own and
Lversary's game, and not only resolve where to castle
it likewise to attack where you appear strongest, and
our enemy weakest; by this it is probable you will
eak through your adversary's game, in which some
eces must be exchanged. Now pause,'dd again
rvey both games attentively, and do not let your im-
rtuosity hurry you in too far at this critical juncture
specially if you find your adversary pretty strong),-
Ily your men, and put them into good order for
second or third attack, still keeping your men close
id connected, so as to be of use to each other. For
ant of this method and a little coolness, an almost
are victory is often snatched out of a player's hands
id a total overthrow ensues.
At the last period of the game, observe where you
swns are strongest, best connected, and nearest to
aeen; likewise mind how your adversary's pawns ar
imposed, and compare these things together, and if
w can get to queen before him, proceed without
-- j _ _1 . ..
THU CONCLUUON 0 OOAMW.
1. A single pawn cannot win if the adversary's ki
is opposed to it; as, put the white king on 30, with
pawn on 22, and the black king on 14, either sm
having the move, it must- be a drawn game, or blai
wins by a stale-mate; but if its own king is place
before it, then the pawn may win; as, reverse tl
situation of the kings by putting white on 14, az
black on 30, black cannot hinder the white pawn ro
making a queen.
S. Two pawns against one must win in most oias
but the player possessing the two, should avoid changit
one of them Ar his adverary's pawn.
3. A paw with any piee, muqt win in every em
except with a bishop. When the pawn is on a r
2l, and the bishop does not command the "qul
whm the pawn mst go to queen, as, the white khi
on 39, with a bishop on 30; and the ble king on
back can prea the paw from pushing on to quee
which codd not be prevented if the white bishop w
7. A rook against either a knight or a bishop, makes
* drawn game; as also does a rook and a knight against
8. A rook with a bishop against a rook, may win.
9. A rook with either a bishop or a knight, may win.
10. A queen against a bishop or a knight, may win.
11. A queen against a rook with two pawns, makes
12. A rook against a bishop, or a knight with two
awnss, makes a drawn game, because the player pos-
lessing the rook cannot be prevented from exchanging
t for two pawns.
In order to determine what shall be a drawn game,
t is customary towards the conclusion to fix fifty more
noves on each side, as the number to ascertain that
OF CHEMICAL AFFINITY.
nHA partidc of all bodies have atmaction, rs ,eio,
nd afinity. The traction which mbsits betneem
he paeti.c of difmet bodies, is temed elemial
traction; whm the flames of this atrmtisa opas
between putides of the sme speci, it is adlt tli
traction of coheian. The particle of evry lsi
abertnce hae not o y an attrction am r t iB -
elves, but also fr msch other bataesm wik wich
hey have an afitg, aad when prese td ts to,
nd form a new compound chemieml ~atire whih
oly exit between particles of oppoite ad dtimat
EXAMPLE OF CHEMICAL AFFINITY.
1. Take a little common magnesia, and pour b
degrees diluted nitrous acid upon it, until the whole a
the earth be dissolved. This is an instance of simple
chemical affinity; but if a solution of potass be poured
upon the former mixture, the potass having a great
affinity for the acid, will take it from the magnesia, ani
the magnesia will again appear and be precipitated t
the bottom of the vessel, as a white powder.
2. Dissolve an ounce of sulphate of iron (green cop
peras) in water, and the solution will appear turbid;-
dip a skein of cotton thread in it, and it will be fount
to take up the whole of the iron, and the liquor will b
transparent. This is produced by the attracting t4
itself the particles of sulphate of iron.
8. Take a little tincture of galls, and a little of the
solution of green copperas, both colourles fluids.-pou
these together, and the mixture becomes black, fron
the afinity which gallic acid has for the oxide of iron ii
the copperas. This is common ink. Next, then pour a
little weak nitric acid (aquafortis), and the liquor wil
become transparent Th ais es from the metal leaving
the first acid to unite with the last, to which it has I
greater affinity; but if a solution of potass be no'
.AA.A *lU -"- ,: A *. -l -* :J|:, 'I. : --.I *A*
PHILOsOPHIAL AMUUVanNTB. OW
he alkali. Thus the iron being once more disengaged
vill again be caught by the gallic acid in the infusion,
nd once more produce a black colour.
TO PRODUCE A BLUB BY MIXING TWO COLOURLBIS
Add to a wine glass of the solution of sulphate of
ron, a few drops of the solution of prussiate of potass,
md a beautiful blue colour will be the result.
In this experiment, the sulphuric acid leaves the iron
to unite with the potass, and the prosaic acid leaves the
potass to unite with the iron, forming prussiate of iron
mnd sulphate of potass; the sulphate of potass remaining
in solution while the prussiate of iron is slowly precipi-
tated, falling to the bottom in the state of fine powder.
This is the prussian blue of the shops.
TO PRODUCT A BROWN FROM TWO COLOURLB8s FLUIDS.
Add to the solution of sulphate of copper a solution
of prussiate of potass, and a reddish brown will be
TO rnODUCS A TYLLOW FROM TWO COLOURLZSS VLUt
Pour a little of the solution of nitrate of bismuth ii
a glass, then add to it a small quantity of solution
prussiate of potass, and a yellow colour will be imn
In this experiment we have also a decompositii
nitrate of potash and prussiate of bismuth are form
the prussiste of bismuth giving it the yellow colour.
TO CBANOB A BLUZ LIQUID TO A SRusN.
Pour a little of the infusion of violets into a w
glass, and add to it a few drops of a solution of pots
or soda, when it will be changed to a beautiful green
TO CHANOB A BLUB LIQUID TO A RED.
Por a litte of the infusion of letter, or green a
bege, into a wine glass, and add to it a drop or two
kiCc, or sulphric acid, which will immeditsly cha
i toa red colour.
One of the characteristics of acid is, that it chbm
most of the vegetable colours to a red. This expe
TO CHANON A RED LIQUID INTO VARIOUS COLOURS.
Pour a little of the infsine of red cabbage into
three different glasses; to the irst, add a lite mnuiate
of nitric acid; to the second, a little of the solution of
potass; to the third, a little of the solution of salphate
of alum and potaae. The liquid in the emst glass will
be converted into a crimson; that in the second, to a
green; and that in the third, to a prple.
TO CHANOS COIUMA.
Prepare a little tincture of litmns,-its eolor wil
be a bright blue with a tinge of pue; pt a little of
it in a phial, and add a few deps of dilated marstis
acid,-its colur will change to a vivid red; add a little
solution of pe*te, the red will now diappear, and th
bhe will be retored. By theee means, the lquer ay
be changed alternately from a red to a blue, and bam a
ble to a red at please. An instance of the efbect
acids and alkalies in changing vegetable colors.
1. Write with a diluted solution of muriate, or nitrat
of cobalt, and the writing will be invisible, but upol
being held to the fire, it will appear perfectly distinct
and of a blue colour. If the cobalt should be mixe
with iron, the writing will be of a green colour. Whe
taken from the fire, the writing will disappear. Th
magic landscapes, so common a few months ago in th
shops, were made in this manner. If a landscape b
drawn and all finished with common colours except tb
leaves of the trees, the grass, and the sky, and th
two former with the mixed solution just mentioned, tb
drawing will seem to be finished and have a winter
appearance, but upon being held to the fire, the graw
and the trees will become green, the sky blue, and th
whole assume a rich and beautiful appearance.
2. Write with a weak solution of alum in lemo
juice, and the character will remain invisible until wette
with water, which renders them of a greyish colou
A letter written with a solution of alum alone, being
dried, and having a small quantity of water poured ovi
it, will appear of a whiter colour than the paper.
3. Write with a weak solution of sulphate of iron,-
wash the writing with a weak solution of tincture <
ntOPU~I .AL ATUSIUmUI Y
4. Write with diluted nitrate of silver, which, when
Iry, will be entirely invisible; hold the paper over a
vessel containing sulphate of ammonia, and the writing
will appear very distinct, and hine with the brilliancy
A solution of the salt to be crystallized, is to be
lowly evaporated over a fire to such a consistency, that
t shall crystallize upon cooling, which may be known
)y letting a drop of it fall upon a plate of glass. When
t is in this state, set it by, and pour into a flat-bot-
omed vessel the liquid part of the solution; when
,old, take off the mass of crystals which will be formed
it the bottom of it. After a few days, solitary crystals
vill be formed, which will gradually increase in size;
pick out the most regular of these, put them into another
at-bottomed vessel, and pour upon them a fresh solu-
:ion of the Ealt evaporated, till it crystallises in cooling.
After this, alter the position of every crystal once a day,
with a glass rod, so that all the faces of it may be
alternately exposed to the liquid, as the face on which
the crystal rests, never receives any movement; by this
process the crystals will gradually increase in size.
When they are so large that their forms can be easily
Tan --O OW *arWT.
ditinguished, tak te best of them and put cS mito i
resel, separately, and add a fesh solution of the salt, a
bdore directed, and turn every crystal several time
day; by this treatment you may obtain them almost c
ny size desired. It is necessary to pour off the liqui
from the crystals, and add fresh liquid in its place ver
frequently, as the solution, after depositing a certain
portion of its salts, becomes weakened, and then attack
the crystals, rounding off their angles in the first place
as an attentive observer may perceive, and infallibl
destroying them unless renewed. By a little dexterit
a regular crystal of alum, or of any salt, may be thu
CRYSTALLISATION UPON CINDERS.
Saturate water kept boiling, with alum, then set th
solution in a cool place, suspending in it, by a hair o
Rhe silk thread, a cinder; as the solution coals, a beat
tit crystallisation wil take place upon the einde
which will resemble a specimen of spar.
THE FOUR ELEMENTS.
Procure a glass tube about the thickness of a man
iager, and secuely seal one end of it; mash it all rou
*- r ,,u a i % AL UUI8U ME
rbonate of potase for the second division; whte
*andy to which a blue tint is imparted, for the third;
d turpentine coloured red for the fourth. After thaes
proportions are completed, dose up and seal the mouth
Sthe tube, and you then give a fanciful exhibition f
Iso and the bmur elements. Shake the tube, and yeo
ix all the contents together, and this mixture wll
present chaos. In a short time, if the tube be not
loved, all the ingredients will separate, and each go to
a allotted division, placing itself according to its specific
gravity in comparison with the others. The contests
I the upper division, which is red, will represent bfe;
re next, which is a blue tint, sir; the third, which is
lourless, water; and the lower one, earth.
THE MINERAL CHAMELEON.
Cham on mineral is composed by mixing and em-
ming to a strong bat in an open eruciaie, for a lit
ore than a quarter of am hour, three parts of nit
Spotaa, and one of deutoxide of miaganese, ba '
a finely-powdered state. The compound thus cb-
ined possesses the following properties:-If a fw
rains of this preparation be put into a glass, and cold
Own UnbhW 9% W Ranls
water be poured on it, the liquor will first turn green,
and then pas rapidly to purple, and finally, by beautiful
gradations, to red. If hot water be used instead of
cold, the liquor will asume a beautiful violet colour.
The colours will be more or lesu intense in proportion
to the quantity of oxide used for a more or less quantity
of water; ten grains in a very little water, will produce
a beautiful green colour, which will pas with rapidity to
a dark purple, and subsequently to a red. If ten grains
of the chameleon mineral be added to four ounces of
water, the colour will be a deep green; by the addition
of more water, it will turn rosy, and become colourless
in a few honors, giving in the process a yellowish pre-
cipitate. When the liquor changes slowly, it is easy to
discover other hues, which it takes in the following
order:--green, blue, violet, indigo, purple, and red.
It appears that the phenomena produced by the
chameleon mineral have attracted the attention of several
men of science; and it seems, from the result of their
experiments, that in those preparations of the chameleon
mineral in which there is a greater proportion of potass
than manganese, the more intense is the first colour, and
the quicker does the liquid acquire the other tints. The
effect of hot water is much more powerful than that of
Place a card on a wine glass
filled with water, th invert the
glass, and the water will not
escape; the pressure of the at-
mosphere on the outside of the
rd, being sufficient to support the water.
Dissolve an ounce of acetate of lead
in about a quart or more of water, and
filter the solution. If this be put into a
glass decanter, and a piece of zinc sus-
pended in it by means of a bram wire-
a decomposition of the salt will immedi-
ately commence, the lead will be set at
liberty, and will attach itself to the re,
mining zinc, forming a metallic tree.
Drop upon a clean plate of copper, a small quantity
'nitrate of silver. In a short time, as it were, a me-
Ilic vegetation will be perceptible, branching out in a
ay elegant and pleasing form.
T M ooK or sworn.
L.U Aar i OUAr.
Pour. little water into a phial containing about a
ounce of olive oil,--hake the phial, and i the content
be observed, we shall nd that no unim hasi-tki
place; but if some solution of caustic potass be added
and the phial be then shaken, an istims combination
of the materials will be formed by the disposing afnit
of the alkali, and a perfect soap be produced.
HEAT FROM THE MIXTURE OF COLD
Take a small phial about half full of cold watetm
and from another phial pour a little slphlic acid (el c
vitriol) very gradually into the water; a strong msad
of heat will immediately be perceived. this, by the e
tined action of the aid, may be increase to am
degrees beyond that of boiling water.
TO PRODUCE COLD.
TYke a oml phld in me btm emasinig sme pi
varied mite of ammonia, por a little water p i
and ihlb Qeuiatre; in W uhime s a smuma i
dd will immediately be feL.
DOme UCA. AMUSUUXTr
O MAKE WATER BOIL BY MEANS OF COLD.
Procure a bottle with a very long neck, fill it with
oiling water, and cork it close so as to exclude the air;
eon if it be put into a basin of cold water, the conden-
tion of the steam will produce a vacuum in the upper
art of the bottle, and the water within it will be seen
o recoimnoeoe its boiling with great violence, owing to
ie cork taking off the preaure of the atmosphere from
Imlsi f &dachms of muriate of ammonia, and
a AMm, at nitre, both finely powdered, in two
ma-- f r. A thermometer immersed in the
W&ih %A shew that the temperature is reduad
slow P. I a thermometer tabe fed with water be
ow suspended within, the water will be raozzN.
TO OBTAIN FLAME FROM WATER.
Pat about an oauce of iro filings into a phial with
boat three or four anaces of wate -por a blittp
TB1 BOOK Or sPORTS.
sulphuric acid upon the contents, and hydrogen gas will
be evolved, which may be burnt by placing a lighted
match to the mouth of the phial.
Pour a little pure water into a glass tumbler, and put
one or two small pieces of phosphuret of lime into it,
in a short time flashes of fire will dart from the surface
of the water, and terminate in ringlets of smoke, which
will ascend in regular succession.
Put a bit of phosphorus into a
small phial, then fill it one third
with boiling olive oil, and cork it
close; whenever the stopper is
taken out in the night, LIaHT
WILL BB xVOLVED sufficient to
show the hour upon a watch.
Dssolve three quarters of an ounce of Glauber's salt
in two ounces of boiling water, pour it while hot into a
phial and cork it cose. In this state it will not crys-