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BOOK OF -ANIMALS, ,
AxKVlMTMT AND IlNTRIUCTIO
YOUMN PERIS 0S.
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natered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by
GEORGE 8. APPLETON,
In the ofe of the Clerk of the District Court of the United State l
md for the Emster District of FePm ylvam.
,) ,- *
IN offering the present volume to the public,
we are aware that we have been preceded by
many others who have written on the same sub-
ject; but we are not acquainted with any Work
of this kind, in which its author has made it
his principal aim to illustrate descriptions taea
from the best authorities, by AUTH mE c Amn
It has been our object, also, to introduce to
the notice of our young readers, first, the Ani-
mals they are accustomed to see. The appear-
ance and manners of these creature, it is true,
may be somewhat familiar to them, and for this
very reason we have spoken of them first; since
we are not aware of the propriety of making a
youth acquainted with the habits of the Lion
and the Elephant, before he has studied those of
the Dog and the Horse. Our plan, therefore,
as already observed, has been, first, to make our
young friends fully acquainted with the pecu-
liarities of Domestic Quadrupeds; and, after-
wards, those of the chief Foreign Animals,
bowing the order to which they belong.
In conclusion, we will merely add, that, as it
is our aim to amuse while we instruct, so it is
oAr hope that the effort may not, in either
respect, fail of success.
IT i not the intention of the Author of thi work, to
weary his readers with uninteresting speculation in
regard to the subdividsio of the Mime order of anik;
but to introduce to their notice throughout the bw.
ing pages, Ta PuatrCW NATmZ AND Foaw
It i evident that an domestic animal, a
now become familiar and object to man, wr a -
free, and wholly unretrained by his authority. "It
does not admit of a doubt," ays Buffo, "bUt tat
all animals which are now actually domesiated wirn,
forerly, wild;" nor an his oa fbr this muppi
e ghtly treated by thoee wo may dusMt em it;
"as they were all created without man's participating,
i it not reasonable," he asks, "that Nature enabled
them to exist and multiply without his aid?"
The same author avers, that in the whole known
part of the globe, there are not above two hundred
speis of Quadrupeds, including forty species of
Apes." He reprobates with severity the plan pursued
by some naturalists, of introducing an "unintelligible
jargon" of "intricate phrases," for the mere purpose
of forcing adenals into the same class, which Am not,
is fac, th IseUt approximation to each other, much
Sas the lion with the ferret, and man with the bat."
The elaborate work of Cuvier, however, has rendered
mh a claification of animals les extraordinary; since
that eminent naturalist classes the bat with the bear,
the hog with the elephant, We shall hereshow the
orders in which this great authority has classed the
*Aa wd r iths pwr edid m ofae da ; ame w, ribso.
5 msubl ou da of =vm a sina l em a iWlem, or Ais kled
of #itl. Thw Qqaraip a dea ofia i* ApoA is om
0or 4ABavrWPr .
Armdi s* or all saims whiok sckle their yol.
They are nine in number, and distinguished this:-
i. Bimwo, or two-handed, n MhA only.
n. QuadresmaO, or four-haded, a the nmodey
tribe, the four extremities of which are called hmd.
m. Canwoirat, or devourern of lesh, inevig the
lion, hedgehog, mole, walrus (or river-hore), ber,
IT. ?Marvpialia, or creatures provided with a beg
for the reception of their young, as the oposm'of
Amerio, and kangaroo of Australia (New Holaad).
v. ledaria, or the gnawing order, among whi are
generated the moue, squirrel, rabbit, beaver, ko.
rdr (eWoipring amry gS tribe ) of that dal ; di ae
dr i tkhd whic may dir CMh. dl thb ir In smroe el1 M
liiritryamiMa rEmlnuri meahCL o6., myb he l eui t
]* I or d i ti werid omI, a twea
t 'hre me t m, mr..im, md by Crvie, ber e me
Vi OP SWAbtUPZDM.
yL. E efo, or toothl, th pemgia, a.t
vn. Pachydermaes (from two Greek words, signi-
fying thick ain), or such animals as have coase hids,
hoofs, either cloven or in one solid piece, and whose
stemacs are not formed for chewing the cud, as the
hog, horse, elephant, hippopotamus, &c.
vIII. Ruminastia, all animals that ruminate, or chew
the cud, a the ox, camelopard, gat, &c.
x. Catacea, or fish that suckle their young, a the
Such is a brief outline of the clasificat of B&da
Cuvier. The priaiple on which it graded isOth
internal character of the animal; and,for all the pe -
posse ot sctific study, it i,-wirbot daobt the best
arngMsenmt of tiaimal kingdom that htwwer bem
derved. But, a thi general outward ok abits
of the animal are more easily seen and
than anatomical and physiological
pn-r, for the oast part, t group angIas teogbtr,
OF QWABBS3113d t
ar the amu popdu plan of a iduImlt ead K 06
sal, much as the tiger, leopard, and panther, d'"h
Cat kind;" the ss, zebra, and qurag, of u the BI re
kind ;" the wolf fox, and hyana, "the Dog kin,"
"The method of cling Qudrupe" G*oi tk
says, "should be taken from their maot strildg n
semblance; and, where thee do not offer, we shold
not force the similitude, but leave the animal to be
described as a solitary species" Adopting this a
principle, he considered that Quadrupeds might be
closed under foteen kinds; namely, the borne, th
cow, the sheep, the deer, the hog, the cat, the dog,
the weasel, the rabbit, the hedgehog,t tortoise the
otter, the ape and monkey, and the bat. Soo am
as do not rank in any of these h ither as it re.
guards their habits or appearances, are omidered each,
as forming a distinct peciees in itself; a the esphat,
rhinceros, camelopN a cam beer, an
We shall hre further observe that h&id ka(r
0 m-. X
X OF QUADoUPoED.
in opinion with Locke, that "a good drawing of an
animal taken from the life, is one of the best methods
of advancing natural history" and, agreeing with
them both, we have given such accurate graphic
delineations as will, at once, point out every external
symptom of the natural bearings of the Quadrupeds
which they represent.
TI . .
ml HBo .
THU WAPI . .
THI 10 .
TIE WO ..
TEX HWAMA .
TX JACAL .
TIM U21. .
TM JAZA .
THU OQm .
. . 74
. . 76
. .. so~
. .. 104
. . 104
YEM LYNX ...
TE 1A .
M LLAIUOQ ..
TEN AJPE ...
THR OHIEPANZE .
BOOK OF ANIMALS.
Or all domestic ammals which man has subjected to his
control, the Dog alone has become his fkithful compai
and fiend-whose services are ever at the command of his
toaster, and whose fidelity no change of circumstance an
estrange; nay, even when spurned and maltreated, it is his
generous nature ever to forgive; while his courage and
constancy prompt him to brave every hazard of his ow
life in defending the person or property of the individual to
whom he is most attached.
"Training of dogs," says Bufib, seems to have been
the first art invented by man; and the fruit of that art was
the conquest and peaceable possession of the eh By the
assistance of the Dog, man wa enabled to bout meh othe
animals as we necessary to preserve his own existeams
*8 TeH DOG.
and to destroy those which were noxious and the greatest
enemies of his race." By day, the Dog is the attendant
guardian of his flocks, the agent of his pleasures in the
chase% and the willing slave of his necessity, in drawing
burdens; while, at night, he is the incorruptible watch, to
whose care his master confides in safety; since to him no
bribe of the nightly robber would prove an inducement to
betray his trust.
The genera of the Dog are very numerous. Buffon
names thirty, and admits that there are many more; but he
considers the SnrnaDnn's Doe to have been the primitive,
or first breed of the race. Of the thirty kinds of Dogs he
speaks of, he states that there are "seventeen which may
be said to be owing to the influence of the climate," and
which he distinguishes thus: the SnnmanD's Doo, the
Wea Doe, the Srannm Doe, the Ios.-xn Doe, the
LA nwL Doe, the Isaui GnsTmomI, the Common Gmr.
sonw the MAsurr, the GaAT DANU, the Houno,
Humua the Tanmnu the SPArmu., the WATu DX
the bSXA.L Din, the Trnans Doe, and the Bur. Do.;
the other thirteen kinds he declares to be mongrel.
All creatures of the Dog kind have claws, but which they
cannot sheathe, or draw in, as can animals of the Cat kind.
The largest of the Dog genera is the Isu GamaYrowrn,
or WorL Doe, which has now become rare even in Ireland.
Goldsmith says that he has seen a doen of them, and was
shown one, as a curiosity, which was four fet high, or
T5S DOo. g
a tall as calf of a yar old." The sobl se seItm
wee formerly employed in clearing the oountry of wovsr ,
by which it was once infested.
The MarrT is chiefly a native of gland; while the
Buar Doe is considered to be wholly o, and would low
his spirit anywhere else; even in France, Buibn says, it is
difficult to preserve the breed entire. This Dog is chiedy
remarkable for his courage, and for his antipathy to the
BuDo, which he will attack and pinion to the ground by the
The Masnrr is a large noble animal, docile and itelli.
gent; he is used chiefly as a watch-dog, and well knows,
as he faithfully performs, the duties of the office assigned
We must not omit to particularize the NzwrovumLxo
Doo, so well known in this country for his pleasing colu
tenance, sagacity, and attachment to his master. He is a
fiamooking large creature, and is web-footed, which emanM
himno swim very expertly.
life of a Dog is about from twelve to fifteen yeas.
He becomes familiar with and assumes the manners of those
with whom he lives, towards strangers. In the amiliss of
the great, or where he is not accustomed to associate with
the humbler classes of society, he will Ay at a beggr who
may approach the door, and whom he appears to know by
his dress, voice, and gestures.
Although, in the forests of Asrio& ad other demt
M TD DO*.
plaes, these ae wild Dogs which hunt, in packs, tabar,
bull, and even the tiger, or lion, yet they are always to be
easily tamed, and will moon become attached to any one
who trats them with kindnem.
The attachment of the Dog to his muter becomes
a ruling passion, and, united with a retentive memory,
has led to some remarkable disclosures of crime. We
are told by Plutarch of a certain Roman slave in the
civil wars, whose head nobody durst cut off, for fear of
the Dog that guarded his body, and fought in his defence.
It happened that King Pyrrhus, travelling that way, ob.
served the animal watching over the body of the de-
eased; and hearing that he had been there three days
without meet or drink, yet would not forake his master,
ordered the body to be buried, and the Dog preerved and
brought to him. A few days afterward there was a mu
ter of the soldiers, so that every man was forced to muack
in order before the king. The Dog lay quietly by him fb1
some time; but when he saw the murderers of his "Isi
owner pas by, he flew upon them with extraordinary fury,
barking, and tearing their garments, and frequently tur-.
ing about to the king; which both excited the king's
Ssupicion, and the jealousy of all who tood about him.
The n we in consequee appehaded, ad though
thd eimtamms whoi appeared in eridMa agliMt mi
were very slight, they consded the crime,-ad warn
Fidelity to the interests of his master is one of the mest
pleasing traits in the character of the Dog, and could be
exemplified by so many anecdotes, that the diflty eon.
sists in making a proper selection. The following, however,
is worthy of ommemoration:-
A French merchant having some money due fom a cor.
respondent, set out on horseback, accompanied by his Dog,
on purpose to receive it. Having settled the builes to
his satisfactio, he tied the bag of money before him, md
began to return home. His faithful Dog, as if he satenm
into his master's feeling, frisked round the horse, baed,
and jumped, and seemed toparticipate in his joy.
The merchant, after riding some miles, alighted to repos
himself under a agreeable hade, and taking the bag e
money in his hand, laid it down by his side adr a hedge,
and on remounting, forgot it. The Dog pereived his lape
of recollection, and wishing to rectify it, ran to Ateh the
bag; but it was too heavy for him to drag aloaIg. lHe
ran to his maser, and by crying, barking, and being,
seemed to remind him of his mistake. The msermeat n.
dertood not his language; but the assiduous enatm
persevered in its eorts, and after trying to stop th hose
ia vain, at last began to bite hi heels.
The mercheast absorbed in some revery, w y ewe
lhked the real object of his affectionte attendant'
importunity, but entertained the alarming apprehension
that he was gone mad. -Full of this suspicion, in crossing
a brook, he turned back to look if the Dog would drink.
The mamal was too intent on his master' business to think
of itself; it continued to bark and bite with greater vio-
lence than before.
Mercy-" cried the afflicted merchant, it must be so;
my poor Dog is certainly mad: what must I do? I must
kill him, lest some greater misfortune befall me; but with
what regret I Oh could I find any one to perform this
cruel office for me I But there is no time to lose; I myself
may become the victim if I spare him."
With these words he drew a pistol from his pocket, and
with a trembling hand took aim at his faithful servant.
He turned away i agony as he fired; but his aim was
too sure. The poor animal fell wounded, and, weltering
in his blood, still endeavoured to crawl towards his master,
as if to tax him with ingratitude. The merchant could not
bear the sight; he spurred on his horse with a heart full
of sorrow, and lamented be had taken a journey which had
eat him so dear. Still, however, the money never entered
his mind he only thought of his poor Dog, and tried to
coaole himself with the rejection that he hqd prevented
a greater evil by despatching a mad animal, than he had
suffered a calamity by his loss. This opiat to his wounded
spirt, bewever, was insfctnal I am mot unfortunate"
said he to himself; "I ad almost rather have let my
money than my Dog." Saying ths, he stiehm d eot hi
hand to grasp his treasure. It was miming; no bag was
to be found. In an instant he opened his ey to hi eah.
ne and folly. "Wretch that I am I alone am to Mal
I could not comprehend the admonition which my inoaest
and moat faithful friend gave me, and I have acrifieed him
for his zeal. He only wished to inform me of my mistake,
and he has paid for his fidelity with his life."
Instantly he turned his hore, and went off at ftil lap
to the place where he had stopped. He saw with bt
averted eyes the scene where the tragedy was atsed; ha
perceived the traces of blood as he proceeded; he wan
oppressed and distracted; but in vain did he look hr ii
Dog; he was not to be een on the road. At lathe arrived
at the spa where he had alighted. But what wer e H
sensations! His heart was ready to bleed; he meernaed
himself in the madness of despair. The poor Dog, unaMi
to follow his dear but cruel master, had deitamiid to com.
secrete his last moment to his service. He had crawsd,
all bloody as he was, to the forgotten bag, and, i the
agonies of death, he lay watching beide it. When he saw
his mater, he till tetied his joy by the wagging of hi
tail. Heeoulddonomore; he tried to rise, bt hbi Mr h
wasgone. Thevitaltide was ebbing at; even the eas
of his maAter old not prolong his hat fo r a hw menis.
He irsted out is togue to lick the hbad tkat -m
fadling him in the gonies of regret, a if to seal frgive
ms of the deed that had deprived him of liif He then
eat a look of kindness on his master, and closed his eye
The late Dr. I Maculloch has related, of his own
knowledge, that a shepherd's Dog always eluded the in-
teations of the household regarding him, if aught was
whispered in his presence that did not coincide with his
wishes. Sir Walter Soott has told a number of anec-
dos of a Dog called Dandie, the property of a gentle.
man, which knew on most occasions what was said in his
preence. His master returning home one night rather
late, found all the family in bed, and not being able to fand
the boot-jack in its usual place, said to his Dog, "Dandie, I
cannot find my boot-jack; search for it." The Dog, quite
sesible of what had been said to him, scratched at the room
door, which his master opened, proceeded to a distant part
of the bouse, and soon returned, carrying in his mouth the
boot.jaok, which his master had left that morning under a
sofa. James Hogg, in his Shepherd's Calendar, declares
that Dogs know what is aid on subjects in which they feel
intersted. He mentions the case of a farmer, wha had
a bitch that for the space of three or four years, in the lat-
ter part of his life, met him always at the foot of his frm,
about a mile and a half from his hu, on his way ome.
If he ws half a day away, a wek, or a fortight, it w
el the same; she met him at that spot; and tem neer
3l DS.*** U
w ms im re seen d her goig to wait hhi alvm l
m a wrong day. Shi eould oady bw of oaming
hoem by bearing it nstiemed intbhe aly." The ema
writer speaks of a clever Sheep-Dog, named Hector, whibc
had a similar taot in picking up what was aid. -On day
he observed to his mother, "I am going to.monow to Bow.
erhope for a fortnight; but I will not take Hector with me,
for he is constantly quarrelling with the rat of the dop."
actor, who was present, and overheard the converstio,
war missing next morning, and when Hogg srahed. Bow.
erbope, there wa Hector sitting on a knoll, waiting hi
arrival. He had swum acre a flooded river to reac the
An Baglish officer, who was in Paris in 1815, msn.
tions the case of a Dog belonging to a shoo-black, which
brought customer to its m ter. This it did in a very
ingenious, and scarcely bonest manner. The oaer,
having occasion to cross one of the bridge over the Sie,
bad hi boots, which bad been priously polised, dirtied
by a Poodle-Dog rubbing against them. He, in coMnaques
went to a man who wa stationed on the bridge, &ad had
them cleaned. The same circuostance having cocr red
more than ones, his curiosity was excited, and be watched
the Dog. Heo nw him rolUbimself in the mud of the rir,
aad then watch Ir a peno with wlpolished boot,
against which he contrived to rub himmse Finding that
tbe dlmback was the owner of the Dog, he tame Jim
with the artifice; and, after a little hesitation, be oanltemd
that he bd taught the Dog the trick in order to procre
customers for himself. The officer being much struck with
the Dog's sagacity, purchased him at a high price, and
brought him to England. He kept him tied up in London
some time, and then released him. The Dog remained with
him a day or two, and then made his escape. A fortnight
afterwards, he was found with his former master, pursuing
his old trade of dirtying gentlemen's boots on the bridge.
An anecdote was related me of a Dog in the country,
whose natural sagacity had been highly cultivated in his
puppy days. Innumerable, almost, were the antics which
he could perform, to the great delight of all the children in
the neighbourhood, with whom he was an especial avourite.
As, however, these were rather the result of hard drilling
than sagacity, they are not worth relating. The early
training to which he had been subjected had, however, the
efet of expanding his powers, and giving a general en-
largement to his intelect. He acted often as though having
a perfect comprehension of language, and a showing the
exercise of a reasoning faculty. For instance; one morn-
ing I had occasion to borrow an article at a store in the
village, and calling at several other places on my way home,
I returned to my room. Some few hours afterward, wishing
to return the borrowed article, I placed it in "Hero's"
mouth, with the direction to take it to the store of Mr. IL
I gave the order as an experiment, not moh epsecting to
TIR DOG. W5
be suesefl, but he received the article readily, totted at
of the room and down the stet without eeitation, until he
entered the proper store, laid his charge upon the coner,
and returned to his master.
As was no more than natural, Hero seemed m h in.
terested in every butcher and butcher's cart which cae
into the neighbourhood of his master's house. By watching
attentively the butcher's proceedings, he arrived at the act
that meat could be obtained for money. In some of his
wanderings about the house, he found a cent in an exposed
situation, and appropriated it to his own use. The at
time that a butcher's cart came into the neighbourhood,
Hero made his appearance with his prize, and attracting
the butcher's notice, dropped the "copper" at his hat, aul
waited till he had received its value in meat. After thij
Hero was supplied very freely with money by the boys ad
others, all 6f which he expended in the same way. OoH
or twice he received a written order for his dinner, and thas
made another advance, in the knowledge of currency.
Finding paper as servicable as copper, he began to think of
a currency of his own, and hunting up pieces of white pap
ile streets, would carry them to his friend the butcher.
A rbw protem of his paper, however, drove him back to
the specie errency, *in Arvor of which he e ed
ab firmly t blihed. Hare, with a&t his mq l*e| d al
his good qL swas net without hi*Ailina- BHe wa
in arser .od, and hest by this lin ma a gd
thing which his wit had insured him. There is an old
proverb, that "those who know nothing, fear nothing."
Hro knew a great deal, and feared everything.
Near to my father's house there lived a retired sea cap
tain, in all the comfort which well earned wealth could afford.
He was a good old man, and had ever a kind word and a
pleasant smile for me, however often I might meet him. As
I think of him now, I cannot very well separate his image
in my mind from his little yellow Dog, Tiger, who was
always at his heels, excepting on Sunday. I am sorry to
my that my old friend was no church-goer, but then Tiger
With the females of the family he was always at church
an Sunday. When Tiger was well advanced in year and
idmy fied in his habits, his master's family changed
their place of worhip. To this arrangement the Dog would
aeer conform. Let others go where they might, old
associations were too strong with him to be easily dissolved.
Prom puppy days he had attended an Episcopal Church,
and in his old age he would not desert it. If Tiger was
bluamewrthy for anything, it was for his dogmatim in this
matar. When the family left the services of the church,
ha contiinud to attend them. Oten has he been sen of a
pleasant Sunday morning, making himself as comfortable
Spoasibe in the warm sa. The first bell would ring f
akoh, but Tiger was moved. The second would rin
atd sat Tier eared a.-it began toll, and t with
head and tail eect, and with a sober tret, he would satdoe
A short time since, the daily paper of Philadephia eoa
tainted the obituary of a remarkable Dog of the poodle
species, which, we think, will please those of our young
readers who have not had an opportunity of perming the
The mournful duty devolves upon us of recoding the
sudden and painful death of an old and valued member of
the Fire Department. CAssms is no moresl H whoe
name and fame were spread throughout this country nd
Europe, is now numbered with the dead. The event ha
filled the community with sorrow.
We have heard of many, wonderful tricks p1rfmid by
dogs, but Cash, as he was familiarly called, exceeded them
all in the extent and variety of his knowledge. L bad
attached himself to the Good Intent Hse, of which csp
ny he was a faithful member for a period of about eight
years. Hisear was singularly acute, as he cold hear m
alarm of fir-before any of the memhbet, of which he gave
instant warning by loud barking ad springing agast th
door of the hoae houe. As soon as the door was opened
he would seise the rope in his mouth, leading the y
towards the fire, pulling with might and main a til e- s
assa-s arirved, when hoe wold olinuish his b ald d
dash on ahead, anue returning to ernemo s the memiah
a loud bLrk ar two, mad then dah eia. i w
4 THR DOG.
always the uerring pioneer to the fiar, buying hmself
until it was subdued, when he would return with the car.
rage, carrying the director's bori in his mouth.
Cash had been taught to fall down and pretend to be
dead; nor could kicks or coaxing make him show a sign
of life. Generally a crowd would gather about his prostate
and apparently lifeless body, to express their grief at hid
demise, when some one of the members would give a tap
on the bell, at which signal Cash would spring suddenly
up, battering the people in dismay to the right and left.
SOn one occasion Cash had a very tough and long-con.
tested fight with a Dog that appeared to be his match in
every respect. In the midst of the contest, and when it
was doubtful which would prove the better Dog, a good.
fo1r.thing little cur ran up and bit Cash severely in one
of his hind legs. Satisfied with his valorous behaviousr
the little sneak went back to his quarters in his maser's
door, leaving the two combatants to fight it out. Cask bad
takes no notice of the bite, but went on with the fght until
be whipped his opponent to his satisfaction and coB-
pelled him to run of; he then walked deliberately over t
the door where the little cur was lying, and, picking him
up by the back of the neck, carried him leisurely to the
g r, where he gave him halfadom good shakes, and
saemd him indignatly into the middle of the street, as mume
s to sy, 'bak that, you cowardly real
"OnOa wea thrse we but w a at the roe nd it
wa moud impossible to urge the carriage along with any
thing like speed, Csh ran on to the side-walk, ad taking
a gentleman by the coat actually pulled him into the street,
at which the terrified man took hold of the rope, and worked
like a Hercules, for fear of another attack.
Only a few days before his death, two of the firemen
were endeavouring to turn the cylinder, in order to put Oa
the hose. Cash saw they were unequal to the task, o be
ran around the corner, and began to bark to wo other
members, thus to attract their attention and procure assist.
ance. Knowing the dog, they went around and helped to
finish the job.
He was kind and affectionate in disposition, and partieu-
larly good to children, with whom, as in truth with almost
every one, he was an especial favourite. To people of coler,
however, he bad a decided aversion, and would never s-or.
their approaches. Kind words and good bones were alway
on hand for Cash, and regret for his untimely end is wide
spread. It is not certainly known how his death cme
about, but many believe that he was poisoned by a a4
member of one of the rival companies. He died in the
midst of his usefulness, aged nine years.
Poor Cash-good ash-fn iul Cash-hnuman natue
is not always gifed with your intelligamdi; Th ruling
passion was strong in death. A few mianses hwrir
dissolution, and while writhing with paia the State oe
ball -ar-k for fire-weak and ahausiaas as h was, he
spng upon his feet, the intelligent eye lighted with its
wanted fie-he gave a feeble bark-staggered convulsively
towards the door-and fell dead I
The members of the Good Intent Hose are inconsolable
for his loss, and good reason have they so to be, as Cash
never missed a fire for eight years. They testified their
grief by putting the carriage in mourning, which badge was
worn for the usual period of thirty days. Cash has been
stuftd and preserved in a beautiful and expensive glass case."
F us-THE CAT.
Wzr or tame, at home or abroad, in the Cat are
always seen the same propensities to rapine and cruel-
ty. The slight and only difference between the wild and
the tame Cat, is, that the former is somewhat larger, with
longer fur. The wild Cat would have been domesticated if
bred in the house, and the house Cat would have been wild
if bred in the woods. Like the generality of its ferocious
kind-among which are classed the Lion, Tiger, Leopard,
Panther, &e., the Cat is treacherous and cruel; ever watch.
fal of an advantage to spring unexpectedly upon its prey,
rther than meet an antagonist irly upon equal terms.
The Cat, like the Dog, is too common amongst us to re.
qimr any particular desription of its form but it b anlik
that nobe animal, in wanting almond every Sge o, and
grateful feeling. The treachery of the Cat may be daily
witnemed, by the art which it practice in disguiing it
inlination to plunder. It will sit patiently watching sa
opportunity to effect its object; yet, while the cook is
moving about the kitchen, fear prevents the attempt. But
no sooner does she retire, although but for an instant, than
with all the artifice of a cowardly thief, the desired booty
is seized upon and borne off to some secret orner, wlme,
growling over it with innate rapacity, the elfish animal
devours it alone.
Neither is the cruelty of the Cat less conspicuous than
her treachery. The delight with which she worries a
mouse, before killing it, appears to be heightened by the
tortures bse inflicts. In the house, she is remarably
clean, and is much more attached to the place in whios
he is accustomed to dwell, than to the persons who habit
it; and although she will sometimes show a partiality to
individuals, y3t her attention-unlike the sincerity of the
Dog-ar essayed rather for her own plear than to
please; and whilt etted on the knee, if the playful pinch
be taken oensively, that instant she will un seathe he
talona and turn upon her friend.
Young ki s are musingly sportive, but their nateal
gambols a always with mtaod eid aws, as though y
were bout t destroy. A hall, pimee of pasn a, i
Mined upa, dashed &mte hm, and again spring sain
T A: OAT
the playfulness of mock conquest; but they soon turn fom
this playfulness to prying into every corner of the house.
They will smell round about whatever is near to them with
an air of suspicion; and may afterwards be seen watching
for hours by the side of a mouse-hole, or casting a wistful
eye at a bird-cage, since they prey upon anything that is
weaker than themselves and unable to resist; whether
birds, bats, moles, rats, mice, fowls, &c.--all that they
dare to attack they seize upon. They will eat Catmint,
Valerian, and some other plants.
Cats when domesticated are very susceptible of cold;
they are fond of lying upon warm cushions, of basking in
the sun, or before a fire, and cannot endure to wet their
feet. They have so little of that close personal attachment
which distinguishes the Dog, that they will be upon as good
terms with strangers who treat them kindly, as with those
with whom they had previously dwelt for a length of time.
The Cat usually lives to the age of ten years, and some.
times much longer. Her whiskers are of much use to her,
and all animals of her kind have them. These from point
to point, are the width of the body, and convey a sense of
touch or feeling by which they all know through what
space they can pass. If you touch the end of a Cat's whis.
her with your hand, she would feel it, although the whisker
itself is not sensitive, but incapable of feeling; yet in touch.
ia anything with her whisker as she passed along, sha
weld fel, in her upper lip, that she had doe so. In
Tax CAT. W
common with all sanil of her ki]d, se is also rmished
with claws, which she can sheathed at pleasure. Although,
when we care a favourite Cat, we show a partiality
towards a creature possessing the very nature and proper.
cities of the tiger, yet we must forget that Pus is no
more deserving of blame nor reproach for th, her natural
disposition, than for the colour of her skin.
It has pleased the Great and Wise Disposer of all things,
that those animals of the Cat kind which possess the meet
formidable powers of destruction, should be the least nu
merous, as lions, tiger, &c.; while those are the most
plentiful which can do the least harm, as the Cat heeat .
Besides, she is very useful in her station; and has bmees,
to a certain extent, a domestic dependent in every quarter
of the civilized world; whereas lions, and otr beasts of
prey, have long since been banished by man from the
neighbourhood of his habitations. The skin of the Cat is
prepared for use by the furrier.
ALTouoze Buffon only speaks of the male Cat devouring
young kittens, we must add that the female will sometimes
destroy her own young. In the house wherein we e now
writing, there is a Cat which has had several littab, ad
of which she has l ufred one kitten only tolive. Sbp'hl
off the tails, feet, &c., of her brood as soa as ahe hM tL
W TRZ OAT.
so unnatural is the creature's ferocity in this respect; she
is unsociable and cowardly in the extreme-even more so
than those of her race generally are-although she is a fa-
vourite with her mistress and well taken care of.
Goldsmith says that Cats in a domestic state have been
known to acquire a considerable degree of sagacity, so as
to learn to open doors, by pressing upon the latch:" a book-
binder, of London, has a Cat that, when he would go into
the kitchen and the door is shut, springs front the door to
the latch, upon which he places one paw, and presses it
down; while with the other he hangs upon the handle, from
which, as the door flies open, he then drops. To those in-
stances of "their strong attachment to man," to which the
above-named writer alludes, we cannot speak, never having
poen anything further than a comparatively slight degree of
preference evinced;-never, like the Dog, to show an anxi.
ety to quit the house with its master or mistress, nor to
express uneasiness at their absence from home.
In Waterloo Place, London, we have often seen a variety
of animals, which mostly live at variance with each other,
exhibited in one large cage by a man who shows them in
the open air, together. There are brown and white mice,
an owl, various small birds, a rabbit, fox, &c., besides which
there was a fine large Cat and a kitten, all appearing to
live together in the greatest harmony. We have actually
observed a sparrow perched upon the owl's head, while a
mouse was running over the back of the Ct. The latter
T CAT. 4
had certainly nothing to prevent her gratifying her natural
propensity to destroy, had she felt an inclination to do so;
her master withdrew her from the cage, while we examined
her mouth and claws, which she was at liberty to use, but
in so much as her education might have taught her, and
her fellow prisoners, to live together in peace; and certainly
the small birds and the mice appeared to fly and run about
as much at their ease as though neither fox, owl, nor Cat,
had been of their community.
It has been observed that Cats have generally a great
antipathy to wetting even their feet; but there were two
very large males, which were called garden Cats, as they
were kept out of doors in the summer season; and in the
garden (belonging to an Inn) where they ranged, was a ca.
nal, into which we were assured both would plunge after
prey, if they saw it swimming.
Cats may be taught some tricks, as jumping over a ham
held before them, which we have seen them do; bat ft
cruelty exercised upon them by those who seek to obtain a
livelihood, by showing their unnatural acquiremens, In
imitation of human vocations, deserves no other rewad
than reprobation and contempt.
Tb noblest conquest ever made by man over the brute
creation," says "Buon, is the reduction of this spirited
and haughty animal." His symmetry of form, strength,
swiftness, and docility are well known; yet, the slave of
man, his best energies are readily devoted to the service of
his master. In war he is courageous; and, trained to its
discordant clamour, the shrill blast of the trumpet and the
clah of arms inspire him with ardour to engage in the eight
He is a willing participator in the pleasures and ftigues of
the chae; and, as the domestic drudge, he toils with patient
perseerasnce to the very uttermost of hisstrength and ability.
s it t then shocking to see so noble a brute treated with
waom tyranny by brutes i human shape Cruelty i
any e evinces a callous 4"pvity of mind; but eeised
toward as animal so pops in its nature a the Hors,
t appears in the higher degree inhuman; nor can we be-
lie that he who de*s amy pleasure in ill-treating hin,
would not feel a simh gratification in torturing oe of bhi
own species, had he the power qf doing so with impunity.
Horses vary in mise according b their breed and codatry.
We have seen two of these animals exhibited at diqt
periods in London, the ene remarkable for its extreme height,
dth other no less s for its diminutiveness. The Irmer
eIghIte hands high, that is, six feet in height, fom the
withers (or top of the shoulders) to the hoof; the latter
scarcely eight hands, or thirty-two inches. It is abhua-
teristic of animal of the Hors kind to have their hoo in
one solid piece.
The wild Hone was known by the ancients to inhabit
the foretsof Europe, Asia, nd Afica. In America, indeed,
he was an entire stranger until introduced by the Spaniards;
where the natives at first believed that the Hone and his
rider were one animal only, and fed at the igt of so
terrific a monster.
Wild Hores, however, have disappeared wherever popO.
nation has become abundant. In Europe, therefore, they
are no longer to be found; but in Mexico and i the West.
ern State, the descendants of thoee introduced by heearly
settlers have become so numerous as to be am in beds of
several thousands. The natives take these animals by
stratagem as they require thn, by throwing a npe with a
noo (calld the lso) over them. Wile they ae elm .
ing or heding, one of the herd always asoe an sUrd and
gives notice of the approach of an eaemy by load sortings,
upon which they ly off at fhH speed.
Tbese, however, from their origin, can sarcely be ended
a wild bred of Horse. b t in the desertsof Afria and
Asia where the native wild Hore ranges -the ourageosm
barb-the beautibli Arabin, although it may prhap now
be truly aid, that in all the great varietyofthis oble order
of animals there is no a moe perfect model in the wo
than the RaemHorse.
To those who treat him with kindness, the Horse soon
becomes attached. He will stretch forth his neck for the
collar; and, however tired with the toils of the day, when
returning home he is aware that he is advancing towards
his resting-place, and exerts himself with persevering ener-
gy to reach it. The Bedouins, or Arabs of the desert, are
so attached to their Horses that they seem to consider them
as members of their family, allow them to inhabit the
same tents as themselves, and share their caresses with
their wives and children.
The Horse is said to live about twenty years; but
whatever may be the usual age, we think he would live
much longer, if kindly treated and not over-worked. We
have a neighbour who has a favourite mare, which he has
been in the habit of driving for the last thirty-two years;
although it is probable that had she been the property of
any one who had over-worked, or otherwise ill-treated her,
she would have died twenty years ago.
The age of a Horse is known by its teeth until seven
years old, but after that period there is no accurate method
of ascertaining it.
Before he is regularly employed, it is usual in all civil-
ized countries to break" him, as it is termed; that is, to
teach him to regulate his paces and direct his course
according to the will of his master, as indicated by the
W have already alluded to the method of taking the
wild Hore in the forests of South America, by throwing
a cord (called a lasso) over him, which is effected by men
mounted on domesticated Horses, that have been trained to
the business. Once made a prisoner, and kept for a
couple of days without food or drink, he soon becomes
tame and is broken-in; but if not closely watched, he will
escape to his friends of the forest, and yet he will after.
wards allow himself readily to be taken. Several instances
have been known of persons who have met with their tamed
runaways in the herd, which after a long absence have
come up to them, again to receive their caresses-and
have again become their willing slaves. By some travellers
it is asserted, that the wild herds endeavour by stratasm
to seduce tame horses to join their community.
We, some years since, saw the favourite charger of
Buonaparte; he was a handsome white barb, scarred with
many wounds, which the groom stated him to have received
in various battles; and who said also that, since he had
lost his master, he would not allow any stranger to mount
him; permitting only the groom himself the honour of
doing so, who always spoke to the animal in French, aad
whose commands were readily obeyed. He would bid him
to retire, to lie down, to rise, and show how be fought in
the service of Buonaparte; and how he shared his provi.
sons when they were scarce. Aftet obeying the previous
commands of the groom, he would, in obedience to the
last, show how he shared his food, by going to a pail of
water, in which there was a cleanly scraped carrot, and
taking the end of it in his mouth, he would bring it to the
groom, into whose mouth he placed the other end, and then
bit it in two, eating his own portion only.
Occasionally equine attachment exhibits itself in a light
as exalted and creditable as that of the human mind. Du-
ring the peninsular war, the trumpeter of a French cavalry
corps had a fine charger assigned to him, of which he
became passionately fond, and which, by gentleness of dis-
position and uniform docility, equally evinced its affection.
The sound of the trumpeter's voice, the sight of his uni-
form, or the twang of his trumpet, was sufficient to throw
this animal into a state of excitement; and he appeared to
be pleased and happy only when under the saddle of his
rider. Indeed he was unruly and useless to everybody
else; for once, on being removed to another part of the
ibrces, and consigned to a young officer, he resolutely re-
fused to perform his evolutions, and bolted straight to the
trumpeter's station, and there took his stand, jostling along.
side his former master. This animal, on being restored to
the trumpeter, carried him, during several of the peninsular
campaigns, through many difficulties and hair-breadth es.
capes. At last the corps to which he belonged was worsted,
nad in the confusion of retreat the trumplr w mortally
wounded. Dropping from his hore, his body'was found,
many days after the engagement, stretched on the sward,
with the faithful charger standing beside it. During the
long interval, it seems that he had never quitted the trum-
peter's side, but had stood sentinel over his corpse, scaring
away the birds of prey, and remaining totally heedless of
ais own privations. When found, he was in a sadly re-
Juced condition, partly from loss of blood through wounds,
but chiefly from want of food, of which, in the excess of his
grief, he could not be prevailed on to partake.
Though Providence seems to have implanted in the Horse
a benevolent disposition, with at the same time a certain
awe of the human race, yet there are instances on record
of his recollecting injuries, and fearfully revenging them.
A person near Boston (Mass.), was in the habit, when-
ever he wished to catch his Horse in the field, of taking a
quantity of corn in a measure by way of bait. On calling
to him, the Horse would come up and eat the corn, while
the bridle was put over his head. But the owner having
deceived the animal several times, by calling him when he
had no corn in the measure, the Horse at length began to
suspect the design; and coming up one day as usual, on
being called, looked into the measure, and seeing it empty,
turned round, reared on his hind legs, and killed his master
on the spot.
The attachments which the Horse will form, when sep-
rated from his own kind, are often curious and inexplicable,
showing how much the whole animal creation, from man
himself to the humblest insect, is under the influence of a
social nature. "Even greet disparity of kind," says
White, does not always prevent social advances and mu.
tual fellowship; for a very Intelligent and observant person
has assured me, that in the former part of his life, keeping
but one Horse, he happened also on a time to have but one
solitary hen. These two incongruous animals spent much
of their time together in a lonely orchard, where they saw
no creature but each other. By degrees an apparent regard
began to take place between these two sequestered indi-
viduals. The fowl would approach the quadruped with
notes of complacency, rubbing herself quietly against his
legs, while the Horse would look down with satisfaction,
and move with the greatest caution and circumspection,
est he should trample on his diminutive companion. Thus, .
by mutual good offices, each seemed to console the vacant
hours of the other; so that Milton, when he puts the
following sentiment in the mouth of Adam, seem somewhat
Much le can bird with bet, or fish with fowl
Ib well esavw, nor with the ox the pe."
The docility of the Hore is one of the most remarkable
of his natural gifts. Finished with acute sense, an ex.
e.ust memory, high inteligene, and gentle disposkion,
he son learns to know and obey his master's wi, and to
perform certain actions with astonishing accuracy ad pee
vision. The range of his performances, however, is limited
by his physical conformation: he has not a hand to grasp,
a proboscis to lift the minutest object, nor the advantages
of a light and agile frame; if he had, the monkey, the dog,
and the elephant, would in this respect be left far behind
It has been before remarked, that the Horse is inferior to
none of the brute creation in sagacity and general intelli-
gence. In a state of nature, he is cautious and watchful;
and the manner in which the wild herds conduct their
marches, station their scouts and leaders, shows how fully
they comprehend the necessity of obedience and order.
All their movements, indeed, seem to be the result of
reason, aided by a power of communicating their ideas far
superior to that of most other animals. The neighings by
which they communicate terror, alarm, recognition, the
discovery of water and pasture, &c., are all essentially
different, yet instantaneously comprehended by every mem.
her of the herd; nay, the various movements of the body,
the pawing of the ground, the motions of the ears, and the
expressions of the countenance, seem to be fully understood
by each other. In passing swampy ground, they test it
with the fore.foot, before trusting to it the full weight of
their bodies; they will strike asunder the meleo.co.tu to
obtain its sooculeot juice, with an address perfectly wonder.
fil; and will scoop out a hollow in the moist sand, in the
expectation of its filling with water. All this they do in
their wild state; and domestication, it seems, instead of
deteriorating, tends rather to strengthen and develop their
The Arabians try the speed of their Horses, by hunting
the ostrich-the bird endeavours to reach the mountains,
running along the sands with great rapidity, assisted in its
efforts by flapping its wings. A Horse, however, possessing
the highest quality of speed, is enabled to come up with it;
when the poor creature hides its head in a bush, or wher-
ever it can, and is quietly taken. By this criterion the
hunter rates his Horse; and as the animal evinces his speed
and perseverance in the chase, his master estimates his value.
The Arabs accustom their Horses to fatigue, and give them
milk which enables them to bear it.
The late Major Denham, in speaking of the regret he felt
at the loss of his favourite Horse, in the Desert of Central
Africa, says, The poor animal had been my support and
my comfort; nay, I may say my companion, through many
a dreary day and night; bad endured both hunger and
thirst in my service; and was so docile, that he would stand
still for hours is the desert while I slept between his legs,
his body affording me the only shelter that could be obtained
from the powerful influence of a noon-day sun; he was the
Aa&test of the Seat and ever foremost in the chase."
TR I AI.
THs animal is of the Hone tribe, although of a distinct
species. Unfortunately, instances are not rare of the Hose
being ill-treated; but his usual fate is much better than that
of the Ass, which is the most patient, frugal, forbearig,
and ill.used creature ever forced into the service of a tyrant
Of the Ass so little care is taken that, where he is re-
warded according to his merits, it is an exception, and not
the rule of his treatment. Unlike the Horse, no education
is bestowed upon him, to improve his naturally excellent
qualities. In certain diseases, Awes' milk is prescribed as
the most effective remedy; and then only is the Am per-
mitted to join the ranks of other quadrupeds of the ent,
from which at all other times his family an exeladed.
They are usually the unpitied servants of the most unfeeling
of masters;-who overload, almost starve, and cruelly beat
them, as though they deemed it a merit to inflict, with the
rigorous cruelty of despotic power, the full force of their
inhumanity upon these, their friendless and enduring slaves
It has been truly said that the As would be deemed one
of the most useful and. beautiful of domestic animals we
have, were the Hose not in existence. Yet, holding the
second rank, he is degraded by comparison with the rt;
and haoe the contempt with which the As is cosiderd,
because he is inferior to the Horse. Let it, however, be
remembered that, had the same art been bestowed upon the
former as upon the latter of these useful creatures, although
it would not have given him the swiftness and grace of the
Horse, it would have rendered him a far superior animal to
that which we now find him.
Humble in his appetite, he is content with a moderate
portion of food, and that portion of the coarsest kind, which
the Horse would reject. He prefers the clearest water, of
whbih he drinks sparingly. He likes to roll on the grass,
orin the road where it is dry; but he will avoid, where he
cn, wetting even his legs. His skin is hard and dry, owing
to which cause he is less troubled with vermin than other
hairy animals; but his voice is particularly harsh when he
brays. His sight is good, and his sense of smelling and of
hearing, also, are acute; and such is the attachment of the
mother to her foal, that, as Buffon, quoting Pliny, says,
when it is taken from her, she will pass through fire to re-
cover it. The Ass lives as long as the Horse, from about
twenty. to thirty years; and, where he is kindly treated,
sometimes to a still greater age. The skin of the Ass is
used for many purposes.
The Wild Ass is to be found in plentiful herds in Arabia,
Numidia, the Archipelago, and South Africa; and of these
some are most beautiful in form, and swifter than the
fleetest horse. By the Persians, &c., their flesh is primed
as a delieaecy; but the untameable disposition, however, of
these animals, seems flly borne out by many passage i
Holy Writ:-" A Wild Ass used to the wilderness, that
snuffeth up the wind at her pleasure."* "Who hath eot
out the Wild Ass free or who hath loosed the bands of
the Wild AMs He scorneth the multitude of the city,
neither regardeth he the cry of the driver. The range of
the mountains is his pasture, and he searcheth after every
THx Ass, when young, is vivacious and full of play; it
becomes attached even to an unkind master, but, of course.
still more so to any one by whom it is kindly treated. We
know a gentleman who had a pet Ass, and who assured us
it would always attend the dairy-maid to milk the cows
(one of which we shall have occasion particularly to P4 .e
hereafter), placing its head under her arm; and, if qa
one offered to interrupt them on their way, Mis J.Tesn
would give him a playful, but somewhat unceremonious
bite. The next morning we went to see the cows milked;
and, sure enough, saw Jenny canter after the milk.maid,
and thrust her head under the girl's arm, who, putting it
against her hip, formed a resting-place for the creature's
jaws. As they thus walked along the meadow, we odred
to pat Jenny on the head; but, snatching it .aside, she
tJob, nlsix. S
* Jeunih, .
mads a Sap at the pro&bd had, which was haily
withdramw, wbe the animal directly aumed its former
At Fakenham, many years ago, an old dame was
righteoed almost out of her wits by a young 'AM which
had lost itself, and trotted after her across a fot-path field,
in the hope of finding a protector. It was night; and the
good woman, alarmed at hearing something follow her,
without allowing herself to think what it might'be, thought
only that it sem be something very terrible. She frequent-
ly spped to liten to the footsteps he heard, which were
approabing nearer towards her; but when bhe halted, the
lite waderer stood still also; and the instant she moved,
apain it Mlowed her-pet, pt, until she reached her own
esitge, where she swooned from fear. The cause of her
alad waste however, soon discovered, and afterward be-
ems a frourite domestic of the family. This fact has
Anmad the subject of one of Bloomeld's Poems, entitled
the Pakmam Gbost."
'W e oe saw an Am that carried vegetables about the
street, which would follow its maer like a dog; and, when
lived of its accutomed burden, and at perfect liberty, it
uod fiquedn to do o. We have see it strive to enter
a hem after him; nor would it move from the door until
he ouLt. On quetmioag the man, he said, that when
the Am w fbeoing e the common, "it would rnml him
oa" If he a re s ar at had, and would allop after him
i-mediately, far he always treated him wel."
Te Ox has undoubtedly become the most usefl of al
domestic animal, inasmuch as any other codd be better
spared. The horse, independent of his uselames, cotri-
butes to the pleasure of the rich; but the cow i is ia-sdf
the poor man's treasure. Her milk afard the moat whole.
some nourishment, of which butter and obese an mode
her calves supply us with veal when they are killed yewg;
and with the finet beef when they are bred up to maturity.
The horns are manufactured into various utmIs sad
ornament, such as drinking-cupscombs, knife m
and her hide supplies us with leather; nor can w .
here to notice, that ths excellent creature yield th -sm
with which ibnts are inoculated, and by which pri
discovery (made by the late Dr. Jseaer), the dsis li
vags of themaUll-pox have basees totally oba.
.The boo oall animals of the Ox kind aus dtmI'
divided into two parts, instead of being solid Mlile
the horse. Their horns are holow, and they m ,A
them, u stag do; and another very rearka"e peuAlla
is, that they ruminate, or chew the cud.
The Bull i a fierce and haughty-lookn aimal, vrly
muscular, with a short thick neck and large d w.Ji ~g
ever ought to be placed ia a aedthisb wbich theml.a
*Tha kum 0N is pi edtefa trh sI4
public foot-path, since he is often capricious, and will then
attack any person whom he may happen to see. He poe.
sesses great strength, and when enraged is uncontrollable,
bellowing and tearing up the ground. The larger breeds
of English horned cattle stand nearly as high as an ordinary
horse, but are much stouter made, and are used for draught,
as they are patient and strong.
The Ox ruminates, or chews the cud, as already observed;
and perhaps some of our young readers have often been
surprised to see a creature chewing when it appeared to
have nothing to eat. But they are to understand, that
every animal which does so has four stomachs, of which
they fill the largest with the herbage they crop; and when
they have done this, you may see them, in the richest pas.
ture lie quietly down to chew the cud, by which means
they an enabled to pass their food from one stomach to
other, until it is properly digested.
There are also of the Cow tribe, the Urns (which runs
wild in the forests of Lithuania, and which varies the least,
although it grows to a very large size), the Bufalo, the
Zebu of India, and the Bison of North America. The
three latter have all humps upon their shoulders; but of
these the Builo and Zebu, although inhabitants of the
forest, are tameable, and are used both for draught and
carrying burdens. The Zeba is not so large as the ordinary
Cow; and, according to Goldsmith, partakes of some of
the sltribues of the o. The&r arn, however, two kinds
Tug O0. a
of this animal, one of which is much smaller than the
other. The Buffalo is about the size of the Ox, but of
more clumsy appearance, and has remarkably long horm,
which sometimes form a wide circle, while others staad
almost erect. We have seen a pair of these animals
which were used in drawing a hearse in India: they were
two of the largest that we ever saw, and were perhetly
white. In a wild state the Buffalo is a most frocious
enemy to contend with; when once excited e can run
fat, and is a good swimmer.
Of the Bison, another species of the mame family, we
shall speak hereafter, in a distinct notice of that animal.
O all the brutal exhibitions permitted to the thoughtless
and the cruel, that of torturing dumb animals is the mat
deaoralising and disgraeful. We were oooe peaing a
rocky eminence where an assemblage of idle people had
met for the purpose of baiting a Bull. The poor reatun
wu tied to a stake, and appeared to be perfectly tame and
quiet; when, jut as they were about to set a dog to weory
him, his master, probably to cause excitation, smtrk him
with a stick. The animal had, until that d ina, stoo
passively by his side; but then, regdless of the dog, hb
turned to the man, whom he caught upon his hbans, ad
tosed him sevel yard into the air. HL AM heavy mP
the ground, and looked the picture of death; but, wonder-
fal to say, he had received no further injury than a few
We can scarcely imagine that the calf of a Buffalo pos-
ssess more sagacity than the calf of one of our own Cows;
but in the Island of Java, we have seen a native followed,
in the cool of the evening, by a drove of tame Buffalo
calves, which we did not think to be more than six weeks
or two months old, into a fresh stream, and in which they,
each striving to be foremost, bowed their heads to him, most
significantly, that he might throw the water over and rub
The method of driving some of their draught Buffaloes
at Madras, appeared odd to Europeans; the Gentoo who
directed them, instead of walking by their sides, would
place himself between one of his beasts and the pole which
separated them, as though an English carter were to place
himself between one of his oxen and the pole of his wagon.
The tame Buffaloes which are yoked to carts in India,
frequently have a ring, or cord,, run through their noses, in
the same way as the Brahmin Bulls in the Zoological Gar-
dens, and appear to be very docile. We had a score of
wild ones brought on board a ship we were in, as food fbr
the sailors; but they became tame enough from the time
they felt themselves retrained and grew very thin. The
iukioes used in Italy, mingle with other cattle, and often
lowe trhe hup on thejr s~olda alSgher,
TaH external appearance of the Sheep, like that of other
common animals, is too well known to require a deserip.
tion. He is one of the most useful servants of man, sup-
plying him with nutritious food and warm clothing; and is
a domestic inhabitant almost everywhere.
The Sheep, and its kind, chew the cud, and those of
Africa have such an immense lump of fat growing on their
tails, that a board with wheels is sometimes made for it to
rest upon; they all have cloven feet.
The finest wool is that which is obtained from the Span-
ish Sheep; since, although the breeds have been greatly
improved in England, the wool is not so fine as that of the
Although the male will sometimes act upon the defensive
when attacked, and, perhaps, may occasionally display a
petulance of temper towards other object, still, of all quad.
rupeds the Sheep has the least resource in himself from in-
stinct. The noise of a child will scare a whole flock, which
would offer no resistance to any hostility he might evinee;
and when alarmed by an imaginary danger, they display
no instinctive caution in their efforts to avoid it, while sa
their movements are regulated by the Shepherd ad his
Dog. The age of the Sheep is about ten years.
It is, however, a grss error of naturalstsbo Syppos
from the timidity of the Sheep, that he is insensible to kind-
nem, or, rather formed for slavery than friendship." The
same kind of language is applied by every tyrant to the
slave he has made; and we must take leave to deny the
assertion of Goldsmith, that the pet Lamb shows itself in
every way unworthy of being singled out from the rest of
the flock." Art has reduced the Sheep from his natural
state, to an entire dependence on man; and the same wri-
ter admits, as the marks of human transformation are
more numerous, the animal becomes more helpless and stu-
The strongest instance of attachment we ever knew of in
a Sheep, or rather Lamb, was in one of several which we
bred by hand. They were all partial to those whom they
were aooustomed to see; would follow them anywhere, play
with the children, and stand bleating at the door when they
were denied admittance. One of these pets had followed
two boys of the family who tried to drive it back in vain;
it watched their motions, and still followed them, bleatig,
at a distae. The lads had to cross a stream to get ito
a meadow, which they could only accomplish by assisting
each other over some stakes or piles. No sooner, however,
had they crossed the stream, than the Lamb galloped to
the water's edge, bleating most piteously; and, despite of
the thatening getres of the boys on the other side, plung.
ed in ae thm. With much difculty they msuceeded in
getting hew out; but they were obliged to return and allow
her to folow them home.
TMa Goat is a vivacious and agile animal, handsome in
form, with horns and a flowing beard; of the size of the
sheep, but less bulky; ardent, vigorous, and of a capricious
temper. He is easily attached to man, but be is fund of.
choosing his own food; he prefers the barren heath and
cragged eminence to the richest lowland pasture; and as his
hoof is hollow, with a sharp edge, he is enabled to climb
the tops of rocks and precipices, where, in conscious scuri-
ty, he will stand upon the very brink of destruction.
Although not so much prized as the sheep, he is a most
useful animal, and in many countries Goats are tended in
flocks; since, though the expense of keeping them is very
small, their flesh is considered excellent by those who breed
them their milk is nourishing, of which butter and ehkse
are made; besides which it is used medicinaly and their
fat, hides, and hair, are valuable articles of commerce.
Although of the Sheep kind, the Goat is much more sa
gaciou ; he sees a threatened danger and avoids it, or de.
feeds himself to the utmost of his power.
Young kids are pretty playful creatures, and become na-
turally fond of man; in proof of which, Buffon relates the
following anecdote. In 1698, an English vessel touching
at Bonavista (one of the Cape de Verd Islads), two Ne.
groe ofeied the Captain as many Goaes a he sbou to
carry away. On his expressing surprise at this, they told
him there were (then) only twelve people on the Island,
and that the Goats were so numerous, and so troublesome,
there was no such thing as keeping them from following the
inhabitants whithersoever they went. It is of Goat-skin
that Morocco leather is manufactured.
Of Goats there are many varieties, among which is that
of Angora (a town of Natolia, in Asiatic Turkey), which
is beautifully white; the Mouffon, or wild Ram of Tartary;
the long.horned Ibex; the bounding elegant Chamois of the
ALImovex of a distinct race, the Hog is said to form
the link between the animals that live upon flesh, and those
which are sustained by the fruits of the earth only; living
upon animal or vegetable food, indifferently, as either may
come in his way.
The Hog varies in size according to his food and the
climate in which he is bred; and although the wild Boar
of the forests is, perhaps, smaller than some of his kind
which are reared by art, yet he is the original stock from
which our domestic breed has proceeded.
The wild Hog, though seee wham attacked by the dogs
of the hunter, is nevertheless disposed to live quietly and
lazily, if allowed to do so; nor will he even seek to attack
another beast as his prey, but content himself with root
and herbage, and such bodies of animals as he may find
dying and unable to offer resistance; or he will be satisfied
with any dead earcass;-however long it may have lain,
he cares not, as he is not so particular in the quality as in
the quantity of his food, preferring the rankest carrion to
the trouble of seeking his prey alive.
The sympathy of the Hog for those of his kind may be
every day witnessed in his responsive gruntings, and the
anxiety he shows at their distress. We once saw an instance
of this, where a Hog had been mortally injured and lay
gasping for breath, while its companion ran round it in the
greatest anxiety, squeaking aloud as though itself had been
hurt; and as the voice of its brother and fellow-iphabitant
of the same sty, ceased, the creature threw itself upon its
dead friend, and was obliged to be driven of
AmrnuA of the Deer kind are chiefly distinguished by.
large branching horns which, unlike those of the Cow or
Sheep, are not hollow, but solid, which they shed ey
ymr; their feet are loven, and they ehow the ou
The Stag is graceful and elegant.lookingcreature, of
about the size of a full.grown Ass; with a beautiful neck,
soft and sparkling eyes, and large round horns, from
which, after he is two years old, smaller ones sprout and
ar called enters, increasing in number every year for
many successive years, and by which his age is estimated.
His strength and speed are great; he feeds with the herd,
and lives to about forty years. He is, at six years old,
called a Hart; the female, which has no horns, is called a
Hind; and the young one a Calf. His appetite is delicate,
and he is fond of bathing in a cool stream.
The 8tag, in almost all ages and nations, has been a
general object of chase. In the time of the Saxons, in'
England, the pursuit was an exclusive privilege of royalty,
aad it was afterwards so restricted by vigorous laws in the
time of the Norman Kings; but the right was soon ex-
tsmded to the Barons, to the great prejudice of agriculture
ad property in general.
ArsTouoM the Stag is generally timid, and more par.
ticularly the female, yet, when she has young, she will
endeavour to defend them by force efom all weaker ene.
aies. When puamsd by the hauter, she misleads him from
the retreat she has aboen for them; and if she chance to
s es .she wil m ire t the with aemtio. She
eempeUed to hide her young oam even from the Stag bi.,
self, who would otherwise destroy them with his horn.
The Stag, when pursued, tries by every art to islead
hi enemies; as he become exhausted with running, he
seeks the herd and endeavours to mingle with it in the hope
of an escape,-but in vain; his unfeeling companions fius
trate all his attempts to join them; they now shun him in hi
distress, and will even turn upon and drive him from among
them if he persevere. Thus compelled again to fly, be
takes to a high-road, that the Dogs may not be able to
sent his footsteps (as in the gras), but growing still weak-
er, his mouth becomes parched, his tongue bangs oat, and
the tears actually run down his cheeks, as though he felt
that there was no hope for him of emeaping destruction; as
a last resource, he plunges into the first stream he en find;
but still pursued, he makes the only despairing eart in his
power, and turns upon his pursuers, whom he attacks with
both horn and hoof (should his horns have beea let to
him), and he sometimes strikes those within reach of them,
dead at his feet; but he is soon surrounded by the whole
pack, when the huntsmen wind what they call a strb mort
on their horns, which, though musical to themselves, is the
death-knell of the poor Stag.
We have seen the huntsmen oil a Deer, or catch hi,.
preparatory to the day appointed to turn him out for the
amusement of the gentry. He was chased by a fw web
trained Dogs from the hard, which, as usal, ifuaed to
acknowledge him; but seeing so few enemies, he soon
plunged into the water, where, without expressing alarm, he
deliberately stared at them; the Dogs, which were restrain-
ed by long cords, not being permitted to attack him in the
pond; and as they approached him he moved towards the
bank, when a rope was thrown across his horns, which,
after he was drawn out, were sawed off, and he was carried
from the field in a caravan.
The FALLOW Dmzn has palmated, or flat horns; but
with this exception he resembles the Stag more than all
others of their kind, although smaller; but between which
there appears to exist a strong animosity, frequent battles
for pasturage occurring between them, nor will they ever
herd together. The Fallow Deer is a kind of Domestic
ranger of the Parks; the male is called a Buck, the female
a Doe, and the young one a Fawn.
The Ronunci is about two feet high, and the smallest
of the Deer class known to our climate. It does not asso-
ciate in herds; the male, female, and their young ones
feeding and living in harmony together in distinct families;
the two former always remaining attached to each other.
The flesh of the Deer is called venison, and is esteemed
a delicacy; the horns and skins are articles of manu-
facture. Of the varieties of this kind we shall particular
im a few other.
TRZ -NOON39 ON -ZLK.
THI Moosn, O0 ,as.
Tais is the largest of the Deer tribe, varying in sisw
however, according to the climate in which he is produced;
since be is not only to be found in Germany and Russia in
Europe, but also in the high latitudes of North America
and Siberia-in the latter place he attains to his extreme
In America, &c., he is called the Moose Deer; in Europe,
the Elk. His usual height and bulk are equal to those of
an ordinary horse; varying, however, to the stupendous
.magnitude of double that size; or, as we are assured by
some travellers, to the height of ten or twelve feet. The
colour of the smaller kind is gray, and of the latter black;
their horns are flat and broad like those of the Fallow Deer,
and are sometimes of an enormous size. Goldsmith says
he saw some which had been dug up in Ireland that
measured ten feet nine inches from one tip to the other."
The animal must have been of a gigantic form to which
such horns belonged. Their tails are very short, and their
nostril remarkably wide.
The Moose feeds upon the tops of large plants and leaves
in the summer; and in the winter when the ground is co.
vered with snow, he contents himself with the bark of trees;
since it is necessity alone which can induce him to bring
his mouth to the ground, which must be a work of pain to
him, owing to the great length of his limbs and the extreme
hortnea of his neck. He is a good swimmer,and delights
in bathing; and in the hot weather he will sometimes re-
main in marshes to avoid the mosquitoes, as long as he can
get any kind of herbage in that situation. Dr. Richardson
ays that "he is the most shy and wary of all the Deer
species;" and that it selects a place of repose where "it
can hear the least noise made by any one that attempts to
It is in the winter season that the hunter most prides
himself in his skill in the chase; to which, and his perseve.
rance, the Moose falls a prey, when the sun melts the snow
by day, which freezes again at night. The Indiana pursue
the flying creature, which, sinking beneath the surface of
the snow, or thin ice, is thus impeded in his efforts to escape,
while his immense horns come in contact with the branches
of trees, which are, however, snapped off as he proceeds.
But though the chase last for a whole day, and sometimes
for three or four, the persevering Indians at length come
within reach of4im with their lances; when he is sre to
fall, and thus becomes a valuable prize to his captors, who
eat his flesh, and use his hide and horns for various bsel
Tmi animal is often, although very erroneously on-
founded with the Moose; but they are of distinct geera,
r d they ever minle together.
The WAPIm, or Canadian Stag, is a native of Canada;
and, in herds of six or seven, Dr. Richardson tells us they
feed on grass, on the young shoots of willows and poplars,
and are very fond of the hips of the rosa banda, which
forms much of the underwood of the districts which they
frequent." The height of the Wapiti is about from four
and a half to five feet at the shoulders, being of the sise of
an ordinary horse, although somewhat less bulky; his legs,
however, are more slender, his whole frame showing him
to possess great powers of strength and swiftnes; his horns
are of an immense size and weight, measuring from three
to four feet in length: he is of a dark fawn colour, with a
large round white mark on the hinder part. His flesh is
said to be somewhat hard, and not delicate eating; but his
skin makes excellent leather of great pliancy. He is gentle
and very docile; and is by the Indians used a a beast of
Some years ago we saw two of these creatures exhibited,
oe of which was harnessed to a chaise, and appeared to
be a obedient to the rein as a horse; the other wa saddled
for ladies to ride upon, and was, as might be imagined, as
gentle and obedient as his companion.
Or all Quadrupeds, none could be found to prove so m
l ua the Rein-deer to the Laplander. This aial
appears to have been sent by Providencefor his peculiar
service, and supplies him with food, milk (of which butter
and cheese are made), bedding, and clothes. Their sinews
and tendons yield him thread and strings for his bow; and
of their bones, hoofs, and horns, utensils, glue, and other
useful things are manufactured. Such is the utility of this
patient creature, which thrives only in the icy regions of
the North; and where, but for his aid, his master probably
could not exist. In sledges he conveys the hardy Lap-
lander over the dreary waste, covered with snow, at the rate
of one hundred miles in a day; and by his acute smell and
sagacity, knows the course he is to pursue. Thus is he
applied to the services of our three moat useful animals,
the horse, the cow, and the sheep; and is, in fact, the only
wealth of his master.
The rich Laplander sometimes possesses a herd of two
thousand of these valuable creatures, and the poorest of
them generally has a considerable number; all of which,
in whatsoever way they may be employed, follow the ex.
ample of an old male who leads them, and which the
herdsman directs with a whistle: this is offered as a
striking proof of their sagacity. Indeed, even in a wild
state, they follow a leader in every emergency.
The Mmus-Dm is about the size of the Roebuck, though
by no means of o graceful an apparane. Its hair is
la~g, oeaus and of a brownih white, or ira gmy colour,
which covers its very short tail. It has no horns, eswt
ears, and from its mouth two hooked tusks protrude.
The Musk-Deer, properly so called, (for of this genus
there are several species), is a native of Asia, chieflyfound
in the mountains of Thibet. Its most striking peculiarity
is that the male has a small bag or pouch under his belly,
scarcely larger than a pigeon's egg, which contains the
perfume called by the animal's name, mwak, which is not
only prized for its odour, but is used for medicinal purposes
also. That which is found upon the Musk-Deer of Thibet
is the most highly valued for its superior excellence.
Tars is a genus comprising many species of animals
between the Deer and the Goat kinds. They have hollow
horns, which, like the Goat, they never shed; while in
their speed and elegance of form, generally, they resemble
the Deer. Of these there are innumerable varieties, fhm
which we select the Gazelle and the Spring-bok.
The GAsmua is a native of both Asia and Africa, and
in size and form resembles the Roebuck, but exceeds almost
all other quadrupeds in swiftness. The speed of the Ante-
lope is referred to in the Holy Scriptures, wherein the Gad-
ites are, by similitude, spoken of as being swift as the An.
telopes upon the mountains;" and of these the Gaemle is
not oely one of the most elegant of the tribe, hat has a sm.
gularly beautild eye; and according to oriental taste, the
highest compliment that can be paid to a lady, is to com.
pare her eye to that of the Gazelle.
Neither its beauty nor its speed are, however, sufficient to
protect it from the arts and destruction of man. The Ara.
bians and Persians, unable to overtake it by dogs, train up
both birds and beasts of prey to assist them. The Chetah,
a small sort of Leopard, is thus trained, and accompanies
the hunter; and when the Gazelle is shown him, he de-
soaeds, creeps slily towards it until he thinks it within his
reach, when he springs upon his victim, and is allowed to
suck its blood. If he happens to miss his object, he does
not attempt pursuit; but, like a detected thief, crouches into
his place as though ashamed of his want of skill.
But it is from the Falcon that the beautiful Gazelle has
most to dread; since this bird of prey is taught, while
young, to fix upon its throat. The oriental hunters are al.
ways mounted on their fleetest horses, and as soon as they
observe the Gamele, they point the Falcon to the prey; the
bird darts off like an arrow shot from a bow, and, in an in-
stant, fies one of its talons in the cheek and the other in
the throat of the Gazelle; nor ever quits its hold until the
creature falls. The hunters then came up and share the
spoil wit the bird, which is permitted to feed upon its blood.
The SBmiraBoK is an inhabitant of Southern Africa; of
a larger si than the Gaelle, and altogether a beautiful
aiml. The upper part of hi body is a faw colour, with
AZ2&LLO@ 8. M
a white stripe along hi back; the under past is 96itoe aa
and is divided from the darker lie of his oet by a brMa
band of hair of j rich cbeeut colour, paying alang his
He is peculiar in his movements, by which be obtained
his name;-" springing, at least, six feet at every leap in
height," says Mr. Campbell, "and several yards in length.
However near a person may be to these animals, no motion
of their legs can be perceived; the instant they touch the
ground after one spring, they are again into the air, which
makes their motion resemble flying." They head togthr
in immense flocks; Mr. Burchell ays they oovd sew.
eral parts of the plain" to the number of two thouind.
Timid a they are in their native wilds, wi b i -dMy
supplied with herbage and water, it is r othrwie in a
smeon of drought; when every blade of grau witbmed
by a burning sun-when no iimniag drop of sam is
kiown to fall-when every spring h failed. The it is
that the Spriag-Baok descend upon the pladtair of the
colonial famse of the Cape, in myriad, destroying al b.
fore them. When, however, the rains visit their loly
haitation in the desert, inetint prompts tha to stern.
Captain Stokentroem (who was the principal ooe-ai
sioner at the Cape) ays, Instances have been known of
some of thee prodigious r d epa oing thkouv of
sheep, and numasr of the matter eanwd amy y the tasr
mt (of Apeing4t. h) bpg lst to the oam i tra
ag a piey to the wild beast." It is in vain that thousands
ot them ae killed, others still continue to. destroy, until
Sthe calling of the rains," when they, at once, retire to the
Tim Fox is a well known animal, and is frequently
bded for the amusement of his tormentors. The three
nom t varieties are the Greyhound Fox; the Mastiff
FoP ; sad the Cur Fox,-the latter, about the sie of a ter-
ris, but with a bush tail, is the smallest of thee, and most
emmmo. He s generally red; but, in the cold climates
of the north, Faes are black, white, blue, gray, &o.
bSrywhee, however, the Fox is a cunning robber, prey-
ig upon all he can catch.
Although of the Dogkind, as distinguished by naturalists,
between the Dog and himself thee appear, however, to be
no lehing of cordiality. Wherever the former saente him,
his li is in danger, and e seem to know it; sines it is
by. night he lurks about our hen.roosts, or watcbee his
eppartm i to steal a lamb. If he chance to get among
the poultry, he will not be satisled with miming a fowl and
baring it away, but mah a generIal m laghUtr a rti
with ams part of Ml booty he ca carry (which he will
iMl .t'm I ntsw @tiw ** s*pi to Mr d .ts e t
of his plunder, ding each load in a dienat .pe% MaEd
day-light and the voices of mn or dogs reader it imprudlat
for him to make another trip. He will afteard dig up
his bidden treasure a he requires it.
When presed by hunger, he will eat almost anything ;-
frogp, mice, fish, serpents; and if even thee are nt to be
had, he will then have reocurse to fruit ahd egetables He
is food of grapes, and will plunder even a beehive, in
despite of the sting of its inhabitants. He will tead bird
out of mnares in which they have been caught, and SMr
fhis to make great havoc among the game; stealg ylag
hares, rabbits, e and partridges while hwteli-la
short, whatever oome in his way, which art or impuas
an obtain. He relief upon hi cunning when puriuM I
it is by this he often etl e an escape when all d~* wM
Aul; but, if aught, he dies fighting to the lsht. f wtl
lire twelve or fourteen yeas.
Foxas, although generally pursued by dp, amy be bad
up to associate with them upon terms of mutual Imiaep.
Many yeam sine, we sw a tame Pon thas bred (withhd ),
which appeared to be quite as familiar with his mastr,
jumping mn his knee and making Is bai .
Ia the course of a Poz-chba in MAnrd (~ghls), t
s* w s -ddely at blrti (fa hid bi *sW eIt 4-
Jas), daar a log and jut weha thy we aWoot at
hi briL. ,very edt to smew the cham appeand hop
lea wh an -intimae fiend of the writer, in crmaing a
Ie, saw muter Reyi wd upon the top of a quicker hedge,
throg which he had crept afr having leaped ovr a wide
p, which had mailed the hounds. An edort wa now made
again to at him; but he aw the only chance of mving
hi lik, and cnningly proceeded along the top of the
hd, from which he -on plugged into the river, and got
a was-nme of the h-M to yong is very mat.
al us that a kh-PFox hpd bee unmbMae ed (or
r mu her utat), by the homnd of a gtdaarn
*A*&^ It appa tat the pow cresatum had
-feEq d tsW; and tho l d ly pal d by the dog,
ill^ tr e owm a t oauld aot irme her to samnl
18. a -nd it in br moth,and t-eairiaa it eral
mA, ae bn in bll cry aAr her; adtil, p|slg th h
a b yw*4 pmhe was sWke by a *wl a be Ares I
op th objet of her are, which wa picked up by the
r ne; ad, r a hard ra, che agpei.
44 lf mw n;a m a aa gas wOCP
* gi-tye mihtg mae;- do sef a hTbea -s, o
ray csrm-u. the pPOu u, w r e ed asomenl
luger than the matiff ; but, thw t~braua AimMe
rual, Ma still greater internal s-lw to the d&,
two saimas ca be mrn unlik is thuir IIW, r i600
tai a greater antipathy to ech other.
The Wolf is a ironMoas y Mnad la & Miw N I
Ball, ar quotin the amcom of P. Cawier, jitm ttt
strong aumlat bow towards hie, pi adm, t g A
pot Wol sy, Now, if o we Aeld t the m *edpos
of a ya g Wol tabm fom its pame* in U vU M
cmld s Ar cheam its amrsl dyM.. and ilwtk
&oad, giselliigsa tad a. w r a ls" am qp
not expect frm the ueeve tr easalimoerimpsw .
by th ashore anMd .tna of a wheib M r 4s 0 1
Whaeevr mit be mpeed frm s=c& ..ui. -
=&sk dook 6ee they wuAs dew k o ofr sed &OfI
Welt o the n .,., h.d m a4. ,^ of tT 1
imlid by the wshr quasi lmsaMthonogh Q Wt
po- of darnying, he jpo his Melow#S WOes 4
sneMely am*ek *sAiruwy a ye, i 4 vheH dw me owe e
wn spesis eisler daed ae wkukb bis kMe f
ae th, is bt emasm, he de rev it. Imd v*ia
amy of thm bapgi's he washed, aetem wi mkt
(b Wolfis arn boa *lj rthe -,
kv tr at <- *
is omtime used for clothing, every other prt of him
being ofnsive to man and beast.
ILLUSTRATIVE ANKODOT S.
AmLTsove the Wolf is not a creature of which man can
make a friend, we ought never to forget that, in the de.
atruction even of a living pest, it is cruel to torture uneces-
arily. As it regards the Wolf, man has a much better
excse for hunting it than the many timid and harmless
animals which he tortures to death. The Wolf, however,
acts accordingly as nature has endowed him with instinct,
appetites, and passions. Dr. Richardson, who aceompe.
nied Captain Franklin in his Polar expedition, was, in the
year 1821, passing down the Copper-mine River, on the
baks of which, he states, were herds of deer and mouk-
oxe, followed by bear and Wolves. Of the canning of
the later in insuring their prey, by forcing it over preci.
pioe, be thus speaks:-
u Whibt the deer are quietly graing, the Wolves asm.
ie in great numbers, ad, forming a present, creep slowly
twarda the herd, so as not to alam them much at first
bat when they perceive they have hemmed in the a us.
peating creatures, and ut of their retret acr the plain,
y r are more quickly, and with hideou yells terif their
*g aind force them to fight by the oly ope way, which
ia that wwair the psmip, appear to haow that wh
the brd s once at full speed, it is easily driven over tb
cliff, the rearmost urging on those that are bbehn; the
Wolves then descend at their leisure, and ast on the man.
Although Wolves appear to prefer human flesh to any
other, yet, when not urged by excessive hunger, they bar
to attack man. The author we have cited above, was it.
ting one evening near the edge of a precipice which
overhangs the Copper-mine River, upon which he waM
gazing; he heard a rustling noise, and on turning his head,
saw nine white Wolves closing upon him, as they are wo
to do upon the deer, in the form of a crescent. How the
Doctor must have felt, our young reader may image.
He had but one chance of escape; and, hastily getting tp,
he bravely proceeded towards them, when they gave way,
and he passed through the opening in afty.
Bouib tells us that he procured a young she.Wolf fti
the woods of about three months old, which he omatal
with a puppy of the same age, of the shepherd'dog bea.'
During the first year they played together &famiartj; in
the second, the Wolf would 'not let him come near tb
iNod given to them, although there was plenty tr both.
The dog was the strongest, bat he would not remsit I
companion, which would now not nply eat until she was
filled, but would carry the rest away and, at test,
dprtag upe the dog, whieb, in his d6w
upon Ids teasdd murdereas, aod killed heri Itul t
ua-lUy savage, however, had he becom by bb
socitoa o with her, that it became necessary to destroy
T s is a strong, ferocious creature, u large as the
Wolf; and though classed by naturalists with the dog kind,
the Hymn, in his wild state, shows no more affiity to the
deposition of the dog, than does the wolf himself, which he
esk resembles in the savagenes of his nature, possessing,
wever, far more courage. It is, notwithstanding, assert-
d that when taken he soon becomes senible of kindness.
His legs a longer than those of the wolf (the binder
m being longer than the fore), and his body shows much
egth. His back is watched, from the eeatr of which
preede long bristly hair. In India, Abyssinia, and Sis-
1, he is of an ash colour, with black stripe, or waves,
down his side; in Souther Africa he is of a reddish
browa, and spotted. Hs neck is thick, very short, an so
tiff that he must turn his body to look behind: his ars a
Gedm tMhs it pebkabls st, tea AM s i iad liud 0 f this Am*
sre apss o tishe U& it obtain it sam a abAw Wsag
O k, -d d-e a u, a A w." T i a pItl llodb a ie iN .
a .e ** v
straight and bare; e arris his bed low, im w b hi
eyes are me to glre brociously; and he is gnamByi
viewed but as a creature whose external appearance bu
evident proof of the implacability of his nature; nor is the
least of these the constant grin and display of hi teeth,
which accompany his retless movements in a sate ofa e.
finement, where education has not reclaimed him.
The Hyena is not only stronger, but, as already obtr-
ed, he possesses noe of the cowardly attributes of the wof;
on the contrary, he will defend himself when attacked **
by the lion, will engage with the panther, and is a viael.
one conqueror of the ounce. He joins his specie to et
in packed, like the wolf; but although rat number odf t
prowl together, still he is a solitary depredator, who mLs
his dn in the cleft of a rock or mountain; ura, dth
numerous as sheep, where prey i to be proceed, tbs ey
sally forth in search of it farless and aloes. Ift Hy f
meet with nothing else, he willdig up the dead bki a t
me or beats, which he seenot in the open fidd, bM e t
Asia and-Afiea, of which places he is a native. He h
been aid to be untameble however young he mWy I
caught or kindly treatd,--bot this assertion bCes aelf
,Haw mn mae tr Aquet the indtaMss aey be ot a'r
red.uan of na Hye am to msiNug lw ir umi
a8 TRE HBJET A.
(and natanees are not so rare they are said to be), still
he is by no means natural docile, although Barrow says,
there isa species of them in South Africa which are domes-
tieated: and Cuvier also remarks, that in this state it would,
" doubtless, render tq man services of the same kind and de-
gree as the canine species." The variety called the Spot.
ted Hymna is said to be the least ferocious. We have seen
the keepers of these animals, while remarking upon the gen-
erally received opinion upon this subject, prove that the rule
was not without its exceptions, by familiarly playing with
them, while they laid themselves down, when bidden, to be
caressed, of which they appeared to be quite sensible. To
our inquiries of a keeper, as to the means he had employed
to so far subdue the native ferocity of one of these creatures,
be stated, that the ordinary means of taming wild and sav-
age quadrupeds had been adopted; namely, stinting them
in food, and above all, breaking their rest. It is by a per.
serance in the latter means, which completely wears out
the animal, and reduces it to a state of comparative tame.
nsas. Buffou also says, that in the year 1771, he saw a
Hyaa perfectly gentle; for though the keeper made him
angry for the purpose of erecting hisamane, yet he seemed
to forget it in a few moments, and sufered himself to be
played with without any appearance of $like." The same
author speaks of a large Hyeas wiig" is found in Meroe
(a= isand of Ethiopia), whih wil bear- a man, and ear-
1y him a a without steppdig.
We once sw a Hyns that was qu bli4 i, -dap
to be very frocious in his manner. He had, hoomwr
been thought otherwise, and was sometimes truted to
loose upon the deck of the vessel which brought him to
Europe: until one day, as he was gnawing som bes, a
little black boy passed near him, upon whom the savage
brute sprang, instantly killed, and was about to devour;
but he received some heavy blows of an iron bar upon the
head, which not only made him quit his hbd, but deprived
him of sight also, and he was secured.
The JACKAL and the IsATxs are also genera of this
The JAcxA is about the size of the larger kind of fax,
and' somewhat resembling that animal in appear-ee.
ThT are found in Asia and Africa, and hunt in pwcs.
From being followed by the lion, which sizes the pey
which he has run down, he is sometimes called the UIme'
Provider." He is a ferocious little beast; and, like dL
will eat anything which has once poesmmd aa.
ami He is, however, to be tamed, when takes youa
The Iurzs is an inhabitant of the from regions of tib
North, in which alone e can thrive. He is also much like
Sa ib, excepting his head, which resembles the bead of a
dog. His colour um, being snometm brown, and
ether whMie; amd to add to the pecnalariti of this sp
ois, the is a blue kid, which always keep the ame
Ta a i not, perhaps, any well-known animal o much
misnrpM ed as the Lion. His mjestic appearance,
peat aength, and the etraordinarydocility to which he
my be redemd by the education, or training of man, has
prway gives rise to the error into which those writer
rew Ah a, who, having had but an imperct knowledge
of hik hbi in his natural sate, hae not only described
iMs om ge eeual to ie power but have attribel d to
Mr all the gmror attrib m of the Dog. We shall,
' .war, endeavour to sow hi real dipolmiom by our
* intive hs. The Lion s an inhbitam of the southern
ptc d i. and ranms at la ge over the burning dsmrt
f Afi, wihse he attaimns ai greatest eaim, srngth,
n MMbums. Wmherovr -m b not Ir eeOCbced Upon
is wide domain the Lion powls, sole marh of the -il.
d1mme, Is& Abysiins o th oed r ab omV f MIem
Ad, ni dWl Wet, mand flm MIHMua to CWsuh,
l weh ad Bou, brI t he die of d~Lmes efne a
fAkem s in J& appear a sfImag a the Usn of
W9r &. M
T2W 3. IW*
Mon Al-A in aNmb lr sad Ai m d. m idi m6
whihb is bed at a gter diae heme theb lIhhedam o
of amm. The foer "ar te o be ared away wi a
about," says Bua, ".and sldodi atack ay but the a
istig Socks and herds, which ee waoms and chihen
are ausiont to protect against them." But it is a the
torrid ands of Zar where the Lion stalk in the peaisei
of his power; and where no rival depredatr of tbhe feat
can successfully rest his terrific away. T h tsorie pP.
e of the unaubdued Lioa of the Desert esa soaeu ly
estimsted by a uany of the oe lied in a memeleg
which is but the mer dshdow of his gie t pai ieAr.
The form of this nobe-looking brute is diled and
imposing; sad at amos comveys an idea d his smmi
irea The larger of the spec s are oone eiL tso
fet log tom tshe aoe to the imdrtiea of the il, ad t
tel iUdlS (at the eadof whisk is a dteoft h sho
while the height of ahek as sala weaold be heOe
Aie fe@t, or about the ais of an On. thoh aaemanat
lowerma stu. hut ibe is by s- mm s i
fra r a; aOn t he ontmtry, bsi a e Mil
of agl ah ability. Hi fl et he is mteaeag Md
loh shwy sem, whisk dememls fem his sMk epmsM
obrad I hdes- aId f edW ebestd w i os, w~issIe
d, h set mnly eams, %but aiti byI a a, md
modss, whise sn n Iill me d of bbam 6s,0 mow #
m" 4f as ob, hmear-le embas nu
&nraIhiag a clap of thander,-and the lahing of hiB ta,
the rees of which would lay a man protrate on the earth,
show him to be an enemy requiring all the kill and firm.
as of man to contend with and to subdue.
The hinder quarters of the Lion are not so large a the
fre; but, like all the cat tribe, he is thinner towards the
loinr; yet, a already observed, his strength is prodigious.
He has no superfuous fat nor flesh, but appears to be
chiey formed of bone and muscle, and can, with apparent
ese, bear off a hone or a buffalo. His general colour is
a tawny yellow, but there are several varieties in this re
spet. Mango Park tells us of the large red Lion; and
th black Lion (o called from the hue of his mane, as
dernibd by Burhell, is ooe of the largest and mot for.
midable of the tribe. With the exception of his mane and
th to at the end of the tail, his hair short. His tongue
i mough, being covered with large plkhly substances, with
whih he liku edf th Sb of the more tender kinds of his
prey, although his poward jaws and strong teeth enabe
him to k the boes of whatever he kills, which with his
deadly Aa he tear asunder. He drinks often, lapping
Swater like a cat; and it ha been said that he requires
M m pound of meat every day, by all the eopyist of the
woer who Ane made the aertion; bat fsctas ow that he
i wlin to tak u a more when itl i his way. The
4 elam m of war e pal ot ta ptodes sial which he
Sps um to, aMt m ave, naring t to b a Cairl, math
was 149N. W
an OX they, in bortrepeat the rerr ad immoendmden
preceding writers, without appearing to hae made the lest
inquiry upon the msbject, of which our young msers will
be best qualied to judge hem th evidence of the bfa
which we shall adduce.
The eye of the Lion, like that of the Cat and other am.
mals of this tribe, is o formed that he can rse ojeot
distictly with very little light, which enable him to seek
his prey by night.
Notwithstanding the oft-repeated prjudic in fAvor of
the Lion, we have the best authority hr saying that he
usually obtain more by his curing than his emap
huner, however, will render him desperate; whem, esio
of his strength and regardless of danger, he will Matik
whatever oose in his way, whether man or best.
Like the Cat, he crouches and mises his puy wi a
bound; but when satfisd with his meal, h will met, li
the Cat, Tiger, and other relentless animals, kill fr th a
please of destrction; but lies coNtetdly dow in h
lair, which is generally some thicket nar the watr, whi
be may tbemore readily spring upon the n qsalig aM
mels that chl ce to come there to drink. Butstill "he
hbavr only in prportio to the soomse of his s **u a"
say Bufbq, whicb certainly not the derip~ t -o "Man
animor courage" posessed by many other .mea. o
the Dog fr inslance, though nch hi idror in l
stnrngt, and capability, boldly amanes to iahak NiW
- TRZ LIOH.
d dos not, as it has been repeatedly stat od, "rouch at
the foot of his master with terror on seeing a Lio."
The Lion will live to about twenty.flve year; but it is
when he grows old that he becomes the most troublesome
to man; since, while he is able to provide for his necessi-
ties in the forest, he seeks not elsewhere for food; but, as
the infirmities of age steal upon him and preclude him either
from contending with inferior animals which he was wont
to conquer, or from insuring the game he was accustomed
snoomMeflly to prey upon, then it is that he approaches the
damic focks and herds of the farmers; ravages alike
the fold and the pasture; nor ceases to pursue his course
of tmia until, in trn, pursued, he falls a victim to the
deisrinmd earts of the hunter.
The female i in ise about oe fourth less than the male,
r ha ahe anything of his noble appearance. She is en-
tiMly without ma, of a more slender form, and possesses
a mm focim diqMpiti; indeed, when she has young
ae dsh attacks whatever she meets with the most deter.
sm d i ersmey, tad would die fighting in their defence.
It has bee sidthat while she has cubs, th tament Lioness
ti become e vage and intractable; but this, like many
oldr t the repeated assertions to which we have al.
led, is deiedly er eous.
I has been too often proved, when man ha reduced a
naturally avage animal to obedience, that, not content wIb
merely commanding, he will sometimes indaot unneweary
chastisement where kindness alone would hate insemd a
ready acquis eence to his desires; fbrgetfl that Nature
not to be wholly extinguished by art. Persevering crnty
has occasioned even the most generous of all quadnzrp
the qpg himself, to turn upon his mater; and thbos w
are inclined in any way to ill.tret or tantalie am alsM
which are erocious in a natural tate, should reeoA t that
such a course is the surest means of calling into adhei their
most ungoernble propensities. We take this opera ity
of cautioning our young readers also, never to aetta t ny
familiarity with creatures which are of a savage st
when they attend an exhibition of them, howeva r hiis.
sie and friendly they may appear to their beeps, daf
from such imprudent conduct the meot serious sad tM
result have ooOrrsed
We now proceed to show the Lion redued to a stetdr
tameess and doeility, aad will aferwards show him s to
is to be faed in his native wild.
Laat tells us of a gentleman who had a Lion a y
tars ad gieole i ts deportmet, that be ed to allsi
to Mais hp own bed4. ha er. II ept a semve taM L
to it, with whom it was lo very familiar; but who,
not satisfed with the Lion's ubmission, was in the oostant
practice of beating him, which the creature bore for some
time with comparative patience. One morning the gentle-
man was awakened by an unusual noise, when, on undrawing
the curtains of his bed, he beheld a sight that chilled him
with horror-4he Lion was growling over the head of his
keeper, which he had actually torn from the body I Spring-
ing out of bed, he escaped from the room, and calling for
assistance, the creature was ultimately secured without do-
ing further mischief.
Like many other animals, the Lion becomes attached to
any creature with which he has been bred. We have sen
several, each of which was confined with a Dog; one with
a puppy of about two months old, that snapped at, bit and
tased him, all of which the noble brute bore with the ut.
mast good-humour and forbearance. We also saw a
second Lion with a full-sized rough terrier in his cage; and
a third with a very large female of tbe pointer breed which
had suckled him, between which and himself there appear-
ed to be a strong attachment. Although her nuraling
stoad in so need of her assistance, had there been any dan.
ge at hand, yet she placed herself before him and showed
trong symptom of anger if any one approached to near
the da; notwithstanding he appeared very idiferent
up the subject himself; but he rubbed his head against
hw, placig his lowe jaw upon her aouldas, and while e
't IS Lk* "91
opened is arMp moo~ h wide es h to bha swallowed her
up, she was playfty biting his uder lip.
We will now show the Lon in his native wilds; mind.
ing our readers that we have already told them they mat
not expect to find the ame degree of cool, determined cm-
rage in untamed Lions, as is possessed by an English bull
dog or mastiff. John Campbell, minister of Kinghald
Chapel, London, say, when travelling as a misionary'in
South Africa, his party fell in with many Lions. As they
were one day approaching a fountain, where they intended
to halt, two of the horsemen came galloping towards the
wagoes; they had een two Lions couching among the
reeds; and thirteen armed men (after the wagom had
been chained, for fear the sight or roaring of the Laom
should care off the oxen yoked to them) prepared to give
them battle. They fired into the lair and disabled the
male, so that she could not stir; when a second ife kfed
her, amidat the barking of the dogs which accompanied the
people. This was sadicient, one would have tought,to
hae roused an Aftican Lion to action; but, instead of at.
tacking his enemies, he ran up an ascending slope, in an
opposite direction, twiep looking back for his mate, and da.
appeared. In the evening, as the party sat at supper, he
convention turned pon Lion-boating; when is the mlds
of it, they beard a Lia roar at a tittle ditance behind their
tnt. We ha already said the roar of a Lion is tremsn.
d6s whi er& by the roeks ed mowat- s; sad the
9 TES LION.
mme so from his placing his ose ear the groud. Onthe
present occasion, his roar was succeeded by another, till
neas. This kind of savage serenading was enough to
spoil the supper of any party who were compelled to take it
a desert, and where the marauding musician might take a
*.iy to one or other of them for a supper for himself.
J iever, he caused them no further trouble that night, and
*ry likely he found the carcass of his mate, which had
Seen skinned; and which the Boors, or natives, declared
b he would eat if he discovered.
Mr. Pringle wa a settler on the frontier of the colony of
the Cape of Good Hope, and was one of a party engaged
in the sport of hunting the Lion, when his savage majesty
(a is often the cae) did not choose to be disturbed in his
seclusion. "At length," says Mr. Pringle, "after some
horse spent in beating about the bush, the Scottish blood
of some of my countrymen began to get impatient; and
there of them announced their deptrmination to muah in
and beud the Lion in his den. The Hottentots of the
party were to support them; but when the three had fied
and roused him, out he bounded, with a growl, from the
bush, and away few the Hottentots, leaving the Scotchmen
to make the best terms they could for themselves; who,
with their empty guns in their hands, were tumbling hel.
terkehler on over another, to get out of the anima's
reahb. In an instant, however, h had kaocked down q
of them (Mr. John Rlaie of East Lothima) with his paw,
TU, LIOt .
over wht heu seod is as the aWlitya ejeMs, pewr
while the others wtres rambling towards dtr ld
fat u they could, yet in uch a way as to prevent these
very fiends fhom ring, lee they sdhold hit o oe them..
There stood the eormou Lion, with hi foot upo em o.
their party, taring at the ret, who, with their guam ei
ed, were afaid to shoot, let they might w6uod'" h. -At
this, however, was the aflir of an instant; dnace the Lin,
in a fw seconds, bounded away over bushes and tieh
twelve or ften mfet high, as the selder observe, alS
cat over a fotetool," leaving hi protrte eammy with
ever bruise in his ribs from the tap of his paw in d& l
him down, and a few slight scratches on his bck. li
withltading the brod hint the Lio had just gives tm
they, however, now pursd him up a mountain, with 1m.
tehto' and hounds in fll cry, until they erm up wik
h*b, where he stood under a tree by the idd of a strs-
but tder was no volunteering toI beard him* thi tit
and while the dogs kept him at bay, the Hoteuota anaio .
ed the heights on one side, the gentlem copying a ms
position on the other; and both cracking away at him
with their gun, he dropped, covered with wounds.
He a of the pal or yell kind and from the tip of
the ose to the end of the tail, measured twelve et. A
a tohy of the victory ths obmiaed in the dmert, ad a a
btt0 of tspei to air Wrma Io*Mr, the hd6ln *Idb
~" L*. ** **
H T BS TIOG R.
of bth Lioa wem m arwIrd to him at Abbsted, wv
they am sil to be aee.
The PouA or Covoe.--He is ciey an imabitat of
8ath Amrica; but he is known also to the moantai of
aalime, Georgia, and Pennsylvania, and i sometime call.
ed eb "Americam Lon," and is about from four to fe
fat in length, with tout limbs, of a handsome fwneolour,
apd silery white underath: it has no mane, itm tail is
lsg, without a tA at te end, but is of early equal think.
ma I $ Mat of the wildcat, which thi animal closely
aiMt- i cowardice, cunning, and thirt of bood.
IRi w, hMweer, unlike the eat, swim ac m river aft i
p-M tld tree, ad oeim upon everything wMa it is
a 0i0 to as m ; and rom the tree it wll drop n the
4r or la pr pMey. Lik a mat, it may la-~ b
t d, but it is seamly sh to t~t it The la ator,
Kam, hi d am wih wh1 he i maid t hem beea vry
"Mas "heee meoufl etistu. a l heTlaI. meitob .
ohm,"& 40 bb q*
thate v hsw b 610s bad f~ o
mse rpMu, Wh heSwE am so iqwit htob ,
a sees dobpo4 and "u is ddow is ble#.
Thewis a bouudh no.o Iuh thuji
ydowish-red pound of his ski dhgoom- vium" SU
rqopu and )44Ara W" woomrr Y bb owlLk
dslimdy oceft~ by The ommy dY~ri~
sad beffy. He poueus the s ormos d hms awl it*
of the cat, with sI ber croel mdwbh, nl tiuib'
mosan of pand"1 thn. TWheupo MiW id
tiffi iladoodon, mn is called do a Wiveod
Wi" is sometims early Ave bet is Woe
Iihgt Of the ivn o this ul subw ses
nay be bund, wham wr n an ea. m tM
roodly bear o a hAe..s o a bwM throiwi to owpo
owmhbis shoud, and hlmudklg omuy with bb
gle; a" whe it it 1uidmd hw hr a ad vM qwo.*
p"MAiof her P Wrey, id be 7 is k E
ity of the TSrUch to his big presii
ireegthL The provmono of Angelm, mnar do m E
Games, is MTd wi* Mosrowsh atiod op
so as edimrwy bow Yajift M eds .s
Nelabar as@*, then siftninu J mb= : o ick*
IlAIO agIL AM. -f
0i TSB T2SIOB
Tig Tiger inabitig the Sundersbud (or labyrith e
woody lands i the Delta of the Gange), springs upon
his prey from his hidden retreat; while in Sumstra (where
the superstitious inhabitants will scarcely attempt his des
traction until their own villages ae attacked), he ravages
with impunity, depopulating whole district to a frightml
extent. Her is also to be found that variety of the specie
called the Tortoise-bell Tiger, which, as Sir Thomas Starm
ford Rades ays, is comparatively hanmess, and dreaded
by the natives on the sore of their poultry only. There
am also white and black varieties of the order; the former
to be met with in India, the latter in Southern Africa.
The Tiger is, perhaps, the only animal that contended
sucmsfully against the Lion. In general be is les
noaular, but more nimble and ferocios. Such is his
adour in the pursuit of hi prey, that he will fellow it in
the water, and sometimes attack a boat's crew,-who,
whee such an enemy may be expe ted, always pro-
vided with hatchet, with which thechop hi paw when
he place them on the gunwale, or ee, of their boat; froa
whence, as upon all other occaion, he is always inclined
to peMhr a blak man (owing perhaps to the mell of hi
kin) to a white m. He does not rar, but makes a
hidaeou ad ihtoil aom, soNwbaht of a violet howblia
cry, and always takes hi pny with a oaue; certainly
nmt poes- g t ead emage of a 4brsoug-Ied dog&
iv Wted dlh a mla e th -togh -a* lly
Lma other oracious beasts, nothing will deter the Tiger
from attempting to obtain his prey when hungry, however
apparent may be the danger he riks. A Scotchman, who
was a soldier in India, assured us, that while the army
was on its march, in broad day, an enormously large
Tiger sprang from a jungle which they were pas@li, -i
carried off one of the men in his mouth, with as muoh
ease "ua a cat would carry off a mouse,"--nd was out
of sight before any effort could be made 1br the recovery
of the poor man, so quick and unexpected was the'w-bo
occurrence. The Postmen of India, who ate cled
Dawks, and who travel on fbot, are &equently seimed'j
tbhee creature, as are those who eoort them; nor cam
anything be more dangerous than Or individual to na.
tour, ele in wellarmed bodies, whin their blodd4-areb
neighborhoods. In 1819, an Ofdal Report was p
Meted to the Indian Qovernment, in which it was ftt'
that sighty.fur penrso had been seid and carried
Tigers, from one district only, in the course of the pro.
ceding year. It may be supposed bow much the ps.
smiom of the Mst India Company mart have be'
halted wft theme depredaton, whm the amount of pqo.
mir toweaod po tho p ~sdw W so As w them bi '
year is Uae toA ik hr7 '
LihAs c me threlmates tha kin kt din*
to her young. -In the Orietal Field Spor, Cadtain
Williamson tells us that ome peasants in India bad fond
four cubs in the absence of their mother, and brought
him two, which he placed in a stable. After howling
for several nights, the Tigress approached and responded
to them; and it was deemed prudent to let them out, lest
their mamma should break in;-the next morning she
carried them of
The Tiger, like all animals when brought under the
control of man, will evince sign of partiality towards his
keeper, or others accustomed to treat him kindly. 8ill,
we tiak the fmiliarities of kepers are sometimes carried
too fr, as there are times when the natural instit of
savage brutes will reign paramount, in depit of their
training. The impropriety, however, of strangers at
tempting to take ny freedoms with uch creature, cannot be
too often nor too deeply impresed upon the mind* of our
nraders--iae, from inattention to it, how many fatal
socidnts have occurred I A schoolmaster went to see a
meagsi, where, admiring the beauty of the Tiger he
ePedr it an apple. The creature seized his and, drag-
ging it into the cag; and although by the eorts of the
kapar the brute was o pelled to let it go, yet it was so
dr-eadjly laserted tht ampuation beame cesary
and, i a few days awards, the poor amn was a oMpa.
To th partialkty thOie.d lish Ar witnersing the
osotib of wild ai-- have lightly allW edi; d
TBO TlSEw. -
will new giw ear mdr, at only an silismo thir
savage tadts, but also the invisible ourmags f third
fellow-beings, who ru the risk of a dedthl ath in ait
gratifcation. The statement from which w an about to
quote, is narrated by a gentleman who was invited by the
Rajah of Coorg to become a spectator of his crl ad
terrifo aummiummt Coorg is a principality of Hindoltan,
which our youthful readers will discover upon their maps,
situate in the Western Ghaut mountains of that vast
The Rajah, with true Aiatic vanity, prided himif
upon the number of vage beasts he posemed; having
it was Maid, many Liom and Tigrs which had ban
brMoght to perift subumion, beside others which weo
kept for combating.
On the appointed day of the exhibition in queti, the
Rajah with his coot, and other persnos, wor smaed in a
gallery, below which was an area of a huadred yada
square, where the sports commenced. After seam ea.
gagements of infrior animab had ended, a ma emied
the rena almot saked, having on a pair of trowels emly,
that just covered i hips, and reached sorely halfway
down his thigh. e was tall; and, though Wit, yet
amuaelar, treg, and ative. is body gliSe- I with the
oil with which I had been bbed to add to ote labilty
of his mu b; ad In is hai d be hbed w le oedul
coort.kwh, emeu a ns A lw Ithe e p gh w~b seri
two ot amg, three or bur id beso wid, ad tapering a
little towards the handle: it is hey, and irt swung
round the head by the person who uses it, by which mega
a blow is inflicted with a force that is truly wonderful
The Hindoo who now appeared, had volunteered to combat
with a Tiger; and, having brandished his weapon, "The
expremioo of his countenance," says the writer, "was
absolutely sublime when he gave the signal for the Tiger
to be let loose; it was the very concentration of moral
energy-the index of a single and settled resolution I"
Me, who were placed above, at his signal, raised the
ban of a cage fm which an immense Royal Tiger sprang
beaCs him with a half-stifed growl, and waving its tail,
up"e which it erected the hair a a eat doea when she is
angry. It looked at its antagonist, who met it with his eye,
an the at all around; but uneay at its novel situation, it
eped again into its age, from which the keepers ashe
nt being able again to force it, let fll the ban by which
it -- seemed.
Soa cracers were tied to the create's tal, whih pe.
jected through the barn; to these the man applied a liged
mseh that bad bpQ headed to him, asd the ka were
agin dmrwn p. The Tigr now bonded out of it den in
a rtats of leeto eiamrt, ui th eackers having ex-
plede ait aM eed gnarlt in a ear like a at when she
i aamed-~ h bas of s se had been let down d
h Wabvre M v, whhdl besa waeh"lg its =see s ewa
TS-T.. 9OS Ma
slowly and whol*or a idvn tsene it. Thes nd,
the hi f its body hbemm ass~, mad ite a (lik te tal
of an angry cat) twice its usual sie; yeta the man d-
ly advanced, it again retrated, keeping its frot toward its
brave opponent, who still advanced with the same slow nd
measured tep as before. Suddenly he stopped; and now
paced steadily backwards, his ey~ still fixed on his enemy,
which, as he thus retreated, raised itself to its extreme
height, lashed its tail, and arched its back, preparatory to
making a spring. The Hindoo still moved getly back.
wards, and when the Tiger could no longer as e a
*am of hi eye, it bounded toward him with a gMwL.
With the swiflast of light g, however, ine sprag
ne aide, whired his poadarous kni arowad his d, ad
when the animal's fet ached the ground, it hlk the ll
res of the irresistible blow d iged fbr it, jut a r e ih
joi of the binder leg, the boe of which it e..m, -
apped in two. The Hindoo retired a w pfm md
wounded beast, dibled fom making other qsrin sm,
ing with pain, rushed towards him upo its tew he (L
their hanging by dhe kin oly) in a state of ueb
aiment, while its courage a rtood calm ad ddu d,
awaiting the shok, poising hi usty weapon owe is
headand whichwheis easgsList bad getwitListis us4
he dsrk wih skh ra s in. hea skill, m seed it 6m
Si ,aro asd oa mcquemed -e n #A dlId at 3 E.
VA5! emity w ,..his ho"ag h aLIgue.b dis,